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Sample records for object relative clauses

  1. The Syntax of Zero in African American Relative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sistrunk, Walter

    2012-01-01

    African American relative clauses are distinct from Standard English relative clauses in allowing zero subject relatives and zero appositive relatives. Pesetsky and Torrego's (2003) (P&T) analysis of the subject-nonsubject asymmetry in relative clauses accounts for zero object relatives while restricting zero subject relatives. P&T…

  2. A Typology of Koine Relative Clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culy, Martin M.

    A concise typology of Koine Greek relative clauses is presented, drawing on data from the Greek New Testament. The analysis begins by pointing out that Koine uses the strategy of relative pronouns in all relative clauses. The other ways in which relative pronouns are used, in addition to introducing the relative clause, are then described. The…

  3. Processing Chinese Relative Clauses: Evidence for the Subject-Relative Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Vasishth, Shravan; Chen, Zhong; Li, Qiang; Guo, Gueilan

    2013-01-01

    A general fact about language is that subject relative clauses are easier to process than object relative clauses. Recently, several self-paced reading studies have presented surprising evidence that object relatives in Chinese are easier to process than subject relatives. We carried out three self-paced reading experiments that attempted to replicate these results. Two of our three studies found a subject-relative preference, and the third study found an object-relative advantage. Using a ra...

  4. Semantic Bias in the Acquisition of Relative Clauses in Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Hiromi; Shirai, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the acquisition of relative clauses in Japanese to determine the semantic and functional characteristics of children's relative clauses in spontaneous speech. Longitudinal data from five Japanese children are analyzed and compared with English data (Diessel & Tomasello, 2000). The results show that the relative clauses produced…

  5. The Acquisition of Relative Clauses by Tamil Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmanan, Usha

    2000-01-01

    Reports the findings of a cross-sectional study that investigated the acquisition of relative clauses by 27 Tamil-speaking children who ranged in age from 2 years and 11 months to 6 years and 6 months. A picture-cued production task was used to elicit relative clauses from the child subjects. (Author/VWL)

  6. Processing Chinese relative clauses: evidence for the subject-relative advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasishth, Shravan; Chen, Zhong; Li, Qiang; Guo, Gueilan

    2013-01-01

    A general fact about language is that subject relative clauses are easier to process than object relative clauses. Recently, several self-paced reading studies have presented surprising evidence that object relatives in Chinese are easier to process than subject relatives. We carried out three self-paced reading experiments that attempted to replicate these results. Two of our three studies found a subject-relative preference, and the third study found an object-relative advantage. Using a random effects bayesian meta-analysis of fifteen studies (including our own), we show that the overall current evidence for the subject-relative advantage is quite strong (approximate posterior probability of a subject-relative advantage given the data: 78-80%). We argue that retrieval/integration based accounts would have difficulty explaining all three experimental results. These findings are important because they narrow the theoretical space by limiting the role of an important class of explanation-retrieval/integration cost-at least for relative clause processing in Chinese. PMID:24098575

  7. Grammatical feature dissimilarities make relative clauses easier: A comprehension study with Italian children

    OpenAIRE

    Adani, Flavia; Lely, Heather K. J.; Forgiarini, Matteo; Guasti, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The Relativized Minimality approach to A?-dependencies (Friedmann et al., 2009) predicts that headed object relative clauses (RCs) and which—questions are the most difficult, due to the presence of a lexical restriction on both the subject and the object DP which creates intervention. We investigated comprehension of center-embedded headed object RCs with Italian children, where Number and Gender feature values on subject and object DPs are manipulated. We found that, Number conditions ar...

  8. Annoying Danish Relatives : Comprehension and production of relative clauses by children with and without SLI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen de López, Kristine M.; Sundahl Olsen, Lone

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI and to compare errors with those produced by TD children. Eighteen children with SLI, eighteen TD age-matched (AM) and nine TD language-matched (LM) Danish-speaking children participated in a comprehension and in a production task. All children performed better on the comprehension compared with the production task, as well as on SRCs compared to ORCs and produced various avoidance strategies. In the ORC context, children with SLI produced more reversal errors than the AM children, who opted for passive ORCs. These results are discussed within current theories of SLI and indicate a deficiency with the assignment of thematic roles rather than with the structural make-up of RCs.

  9. Parsing with Focus Particles in Context: Eye Movements during the Processing of Relative Clause Ambiguities

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    Filik, Ruth; Paterson, Kevin B.; Liversedge, Simon P.

    2005-01-01

    Sedivy (2002) proposed that using "only" and prior referential context to specify contrastive focus can guide the parsing of relative clause ambiguities. We report two studies investigating this hypothesis, using sentences that either temporarily allowed or disallowed a transitive main clause interpretation. Sentence completions demonstrated that…

  10. Šalutiniai pažyminio sakiniai: kod?l vaikams sunku juos suprasti? | Relative clauses: why children have difficulties to comprehend them?

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    Ineta Dabašinskien?

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to describe and interpret the results of testing the speech of Lithuanian children in order to find out whether language-specific features of Lithuanian as a highly inflected language help children grasp the complex syntactic relations between the subject and the object in relative clauses. The investigation has been aimed to test the hypothesis to the effect that depending on the language type, object relative clauses are more difficult to acquire than subject relative clauses (Guasti, Cardinaletti 2003; Utzeri 2007; Brandt, Diessel, Tomasello 2008; O’Grady, Kim, Lee et al. 2011; Ben?ea 2012. The findings of the research support the hypothesis that relative clauses as objects (the OO type are more difficult to grasp than those that function as subjects (OS. This claim has been statistically confirmed in the group of 3 – 4.5 year-olds, which had a big difficulty in perceiving the difference between relative clauses functioning as subjects or objects. These findings are in line with claims related to other languages, which demonstrate that children in early childhood, distinguishing between OS or OO, misinterpret the OO type more often (Guasti, Stavrakaki, Arosio 2008. However, when an unusual, strange situation is described, or an unfamiliar verb is used, children tend to assign the same syntactic function to the head noun and the relative pronoun; in such cases the OS clause is interpreted as the OO type. This tendency also supports the parallel-function hypothesis advanced by Tavakolian (1981. In later years children already perceive the difference between the OS and OO type relative clauses, but in a pre-school period misinterpretations of the OO type are quite numerous. Children of schooling age, on the other hand, have no difficulty in interpreting this difference correctly. The results of the present study confirm the assertion that older children grasp the functions of relative clauses and interpret complex structures more easily: they gradually realize that there are two different propositions conveyed in the main and the subordinate clause. It is assumed that children understand and start using relative clauses when their language processing skills have improved, and this happens while they are getting older. In addition to language processing skills, it is important to pay due attention to the frequency of usage principle. Our research findings show that subject relative clauses are more frequent in child-directed speech, and they also appear earlier in a spontaneous child language than object clauses; this is exactly what influences an easier perception of subject relative clauses. Semantic and pragmatic factors have to be mentioned as well: while acquiring a language, children master those grammatical structures where a particular form correlates with a particular meaning more easily (Diessel, Tomassello 2000. It might be assumed that an inflectional system of Lithuanian enables children to easier interpret the syntactic relationship between the main and the relative clause (see, e.g. Arnon 2010; however, the findings of this study allow us to claim that the structure of relative clauses is complex and multilayered, encompassing not only morphological but also semantic and pragmatic factors, which should be investigated more thoroughly in the future. It has also to be stressed that while researching child language it is important to evaluate the influence of adult language, which provides the necessary environment for the child to hear and to understand syntactic constructions of different complexity. Moreover, the assumption that a rich morphological system of a language makes it easier to grasp the complex syntactic functions of sentence elements is corroborated only in part – the findings of the study show that it takes time for Lithuanian children to master correct usage of relative clauses.

  11. The Acquisition of Relative Clauses in Cypriot Greek: Production and Comprehension

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eleni, Theodorou; Kleanthes K., Grohmann.

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the development of relative clauses in Cypriot Greek (CG) - in particular, young children’s comprehension and production of subject relatives (SRs) and object relatives (ORs). A total of thirty-three monolingual children aged between 5 and 9 years acquiring CG as their native [...] language (variety) participated in this study. Two different tasks were used to examine the acquisition of restrictive relative clauses: (i) a Picture Pointing Task, modified from Friedmann and Novogrodsky (2004), was used to investigate the auditory comprehension of SRs and ORs, and (ii) a Preference Task, modified from Novogrodsky and Friedmann (2006), was employed to examine the production of SRs and ORs. Crosslinguistic research provides evidence that children experience difficulties in the acquisition of ORs, whereas this does not seem to be the case for SRs (McKee and McDaniel, 2001; Stathopoulou, 2007). The on-going study on the acquisition of SRs and ORs in CG, the first in the literature for this language variety, so far appears to confirm the difficulty attested for other languages that children display in the acquisition of ORs.

  12. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... false Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free...environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and...

  13. Impact of explicit instruction on EFL learners’ implicit and explicit knowledge: A case of English relative clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Nezakat-Alhossaini, Marzieh; Youhanaee, Manijeh; Moinzadeh, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The present study sought to investigate the effect of explicit instruction (direct proactive explicit instruction) on the acquisition of English passive objective relative clauses. Two groups of participants were involved in the study; a group of advanced EFL learners (n = 16) and a group of intermediate EFL learners (n = 37) who were randomly divided to two groups of experimental (n = 22) and control (n = 15). The experimental group received 4 sessions of explicit instruction on the target s...

  14. Effects of age, speed of processing, and working memory on comprehension of sentences with relative clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, David; Dede, Gayle; Waters, Gloria; Michaud, Jennifer; Tripodis, Yorghos

    2011-06-01

    Two hundred participants, 50 in each of four age ranges (19-29, 30-49, 50-69, 70-90) were tested for working memory, speed of processing, and the processing of sentences with relative clauses. In Experiment 1, participants read four sentence types (cleft subject, cleft object, subject-subject, subject-object) in a word-by-word, non-cumulative, self-paced reading task and made speeded plausibility judgments about them. In Experiment 2, participants read two types of sentences, one of which contained a doubly center embedded relative clause. Older participants' comprehension was less accurate and there was age-related slowing of online processing times in all but the simplest sentences, which increased in syntactically complex sentences in Experiment 1. This pattern suggests an age-related decrease in the efficiency of parsing and interpretation. Slower speed of processing and lower working memory were associated with longer online processing times only in Experiment 2, suggesting that task-related operations are related to general speed of processing and working memory. Lower working memory was not associated with longer reading times in more complex sentences, consistent with the view that general working memory is not critically involved in online syntactic processing. Longer online processing at the most demanding point in the most demanding sentence was associated with better comprehension, indicating that it reflects effective processing under some certain circumstances. However, the poorer comprehension performance of older individuals indicates that their slower online processing reflects inefficient processing even at these points. PMID:21480714

  15. La duplicació pronominal en les relatives locatives en català [Pronominal doubling in locative relative clauses in Catalan

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    Albareda, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the use of the pronoun "hi" in locative relative clauses in Catalan, which is considered a case of clitic doubling. How it behaves depends on whether it is a defining or non-defining relative clause.The nature of focus of the non-defining clause justifies the presence of the pronoun which acts as a topic’s resumptive pronoun, whereas the pronoun appears in a defining relative clause when the sentence is characterised by specificity. On the other hand, there are two relevant syntactic factors in the appearance of the pronoun "hi": the first is the aim to avoid confusions with the pronoun "hi" with syntactic function – not only in non-defining but also in defining relative clauses – and the second is the fact that the explicit presence of verbal arguments contributes specificity to the defining relative clause. These two factors are also relevant with regard to the acceptability of combinations of the pronoun "hi" with other pronouns.

  16. Cláusulas relativas em Gavião de Rondônia / Relative clauses in Gavião of Rondônia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Denny, Moore.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A língua dos Gavião de Rondônia constrói cláusulas relativas por meio de nominalização sintática, usando uma de duas partículas, mát 'nominalização concreta' ou méne 'nominalização abstrata', que são derivadas diacronicamente de pronomes de discurso. As cláusulas nominais assim construídas podem ou [...] não ter um núcleo interno, que, se ocorre, não é marcado como tal, criando uma certa ambigüidade. A cláusula nominalizada pode modificar um radical nominal seguinte, que funciona como núcleo externo. Cláusulas relativas e cláusulas complementos não são construções distintas nesta língua. A significação tipológica destas construções é discutida. Abstract in english The language of the Gavião of Rondônia constructs relative clauses by syntactic nominalization, using either of two particles, mát 'concrete nominalization' or méne 'abstract nominalization', which are derived diachronically from discourse pronouns. The resulting nominal clause may or may not have a [...] n internal head, which, if it occurs, is not marked, leading to a certain degree of ambiguity. The nominalized clause can modify a following noun stem, which serves as an external head. Relative clauses and complement clauses are not distinct constructions in this language. The typological significance of these constructions is discussed.

  17. Factors Affecting the Processing of Japanese Relative Clauses by L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Kazue

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a crosslinguistic comparative study of the processing of Japanese relative clauses (RCs) by Chinese-, Sinhalese-, Vietnamese-, Thai-, and Indonesian-speaking second language (L2) learners. A robust finding in studies on the acquisition of RCs in L2 English and other European languages is that subject-gap RCs are easier than…

  18. Portuguese spoken in Almoxarife, Sao Tome: relative clauses with “ku” and “com” [with

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    Carlos Filipe Guimarães Figueiredo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relative clauses with “ku” [substrate relativizer] and “com” [with] in the Portuguese of Almoxarife, spoken by the community of Almoxarife, São Tome island, aiming to uncover what the motivations are that trigger the use of those relativizers.

  19. Object relations couple therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, J S; Scharff, D E

    1997-01-01

    The authors describe Fairbairn's view of the personality as a system of parts of self and object in dynamic relation, formed in the context of dependent early relationships and replayed in the intensely intimate and physical relationship of marriage. Through Klein's concept of projective identification, a spouse finds lost parts of the self in the partner, where they may flourish and be reintegrated into the self or they may be held hostage. Marriage is an opportunity for reworking the dynamic relation of parts of the self as they are modified through mutual unconscious interaction with the spouse, but it may become a closed system that inhibits growth of the individual partners. Object relations couple therapy aims to breach the closed system of the unhappy marriage, and offers an enlarged space for understanding that encourages the spouses to provide a better holding environment for each other. Not directive, didactic or symptom-focused, object relations therapy values affect, silence, body language, fantasy, dreams, and transference phenomena as necessary for reaching the unconscious in order to achieve insight. The object relations therapist interprets defenses against anxieties that underlie repetitive patterns of unhelpful behavior, and works toward understanding. As the clinical vignettes show, therapists use countertransference to understand the couple's shared transference from inside their experience. The engine of therapeutic change in this model is the therapist's self. The process of therapy improves the couple's capacity for containing each other's projections instead of refusing to resonate with them or being overtaken by them to the detriment of the self. A cycle of regression and progression in the couple's ability for containment is found as therapy proceeds. The goal of therapy is to enable the projective and introjective identificatory system of the marriage to function with greater concern for the other and respect for the self. PMID:9196784

  20. Effects of Form-Focused Instruction on the Learning of Relative Clauses

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    Seyed Jalal Abdolmanafi (Rokni

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Relativization is an important grammatical sub-system for second language learners. This study intended to explore the effects of different types of L2 instruction on the learning of English relative clauses by Persian learners.Purpose: The differential effects of the three types of treatment (i.e., Focus on FormS, Focus on Meaning, Focus on Form on the learning of English relativization was investigated.Methods: Intact university classes of English learners were divided into three groups receiving different forms of instruction. Accuracy of the target form was measured by two distinct tasks of sentence combining test and grammaticality judgment test.Findings and Results: The results of the two tests show improvement of all three groups, the focus on form treatment group outperformed the other two on both tests, however. This study also suggests that learners’ attention to detailed analysis of form facilitates the learning of relative clauses in this context.

  1. Effects of Form-Focused Instruction on the Learning of Relative Clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Jalal Abdolmanafi (Rokni)

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: Relativization is an important grammatical sub-system for second language learners. This study intended to explore the effects of different types of L2 instruction on the learning of English relative clauses by Persian learners.Purpose: The differential effects of the three types of treatment (i.e., Focus on FormS, Focus on Meaning, Focus on Form) on the learning of English relativization was investigated.Methods: Intact university classes of English learners were divided i...

  2. The function of Spanish and English relative clauses in discourse and their segmentation in Centering Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Wiesemann, Loreley Marie

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the processing of English and Spanish relative clauses (RCs) in discourse. The main goal is to understand how RCs contribute to the textuality of a text and, on the basis of this understanding, to propose the most adequate method for their segmentation in Centering Theory. Centering Theory is a theory of discourse structure that models textual cohesion from one “utterance” to the next. The definition of “utterance” is thus instrumental to the application of the Cen...

  3. On Relative Clauses and Prosodic Phrasing in Ciwandya

    OpenAIRE

    Mtenje, Al

    2011-01-01

    The interaction between Syntax and Phonology has been one area of interesting empirical research and theoretical debate in recent years, particularly the question of the extent to which syntactic structure influences phonological phrasing. It has generally been observed that the edges of the major syntactic constituents (XPs) tend to coincide with prosodic phrase boundaries thus resulting in XPs like subject NPs, object NPs, Topic NPs, VPs etc. forming separate phonological phrases. Within Op...

  4. Comprehension and production of relative clauses: a comparison between Swedish impaired and unimpaired children

    OpenAIRE

    Ha?kansson, Gisela; Hansson, Kristina

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between language comprehension and language production in Swedish children. This was done longitudinally with 10 children with specific language impairment (SLI), aged 4;0 to 6;3 at Time I, and 10 children with unimpaired language development, aged 3;1 to 3;7 at Time I. The target structure was subordination, more precisely relative clauses. The children's comprehension was tested with picture pointing, act-out and oral respo...

  5. Comprehension of reversible relative clauses in specifically language impaired and normally developing Greek children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakaki, S

    2001-06-01

    This paper aims to investigate the syntactic comprehension of reversible relative clauses in a group of eight Greek children with specific language impairment (SLI) and two control groups of normally developing children matched on chronological and language age, respectively. An experiment using an acting out procedure was undertaken. Group analysis revealed that SLI children's performance is qualitatively different than that of both control groups. Interpreting the data, processes involved in syntactic comprehension are taken into consideration. It is claimed that processing demands impede SLI children's performance due to a deficit in their competence grammar. PMID:11386707

  6. Comprehension and production of relative clauses: a comparison between Swedish impaired and unimpaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, G; Hansson, K

    2000-06-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the relationship between language comprehension and language production in Swedish children. This was done longitudinally with 10 children with specific language impairment (SLI), aged 4;0 to 6;3 at Time I, and 10 children with unimpaired language development, aged 3;1 to 3;7 at Time I. The target structure was subordination, more precisely relative clauses. The children's comprehension was tested with picture pointing, act-out and oral response tests. Their production was tested with elicited imitation and sentence completion tests. Data were collected twice, with an interval of six months. The results from the unimpaired children at Time I showed a difference between comprehension and production. At Time II these children scored higher on production than on comprehension. The children with SLI scored significantly higher on comprehension than on production at Time I. In half of the SLI group there was a clear development between the two data collection sessions, diminishing the dissociation. On neither testing did the children with SLI differ significantly from the unimpaired children in comprehension. At both testings, however, the children with SLI had significantly more responses where they did not insert the complementizer in relative clauses. The results indicate that the relationship between comprehension and production is different at different stages in development. They also show that structures involving dependency relations are particularly difficult to produce for children with SLI. PMID:10967890

  7. Early object relations into new objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    Two strands of change are suggested by this review, one maturational, the other therapeutic or developmental (Hartmann and Kris, 1945). By "maturational" I mean to suggest energies that infuse the individual from earliest life in a manner that includes object relations, but for the healthy exercise of which object relations per se need not be of central and crucial importance. Within wide limits such energies may be delayed until growth conditions prevail without significant distortion of certain of the organism's ego functions. Therapeutic change is analogous to developmental change in that both involve the crucial presence of another to release energies. In therapeutic change these are energies that have been repressed beyond the reach of developmental dynamics. In everyday development crisis and synthesis alternate in conjunction with new and emerging objects to add to the psychological structures brought to the fore by maturation. In many instances, as we see with John, over time and in a less focussed manner, developmental changes can approximate therapeutic change and visa versa. Freud-Dann in their "experiment" pursued one line, in which the equipmental delay brought on by extremely adverse living circumstances was redressed by providing an interpersonally enriching, loving, developmentally facilitating milieu. The sketches of individual children and John's subsequent story provide a perspective into what becomes the stuff of growth and what remains the stuff of neurosis. The developmental reserves and ego resilience of these children were impressive but probably not extraordinary. Usual growth ensued as soon as they were provided with the rich soil of Bulldogs Bank instead of the desert sand of the Tereszin concentration camp. However, no one can escape such adverse circumstances without having taken in the stuff of neurosis. Affects and percepts that were not assimilatable or even available to consciousness at the time remain buried in the unconscious. Pain deprived of meaning is buried as neurosis. As we see in John's story, experience that cannot be integrated at the time is locked away from whatever developmental progression has occurred. Intolerable affects and ideas require particular circumstances of object relation and verbalization such as are found in the context of psychoanalysis and arrived at through psychoanalytic interpretation. Or, as in John's case, they may give way only slowly and irregularly over long stretches of time, when subjected to life experiences in the company of new object relations. Broadly stated, the Freud-Dann paper helps us to appreciate that there are several pathways of protection and growth in the ego that involve the discovery or construction of new objects. Family-romance fantasies are a common manifestation of new-object phenomena. Transitional object phenomena are also related. For some individuals at a particular time or over a span of time, providing the right circumstances for the resumption of maturational and developmental growth is all it takes to make them whole. Changes in the adaptive ego are sufficient to alleviate the conflicts stemming from the neurotic ego. For others, depending upon the degree of their neurotic impairment, or for the same individual under other circumstances, therapeutic change in the deepest sense demands the relatively unconditional presence of the interactive and interpreting other. Children of the storm who come in for shelter and warmth may thrive, but they also require a means of getting at the storm in their core that has been internalized as part of the ego's survival mechanism. What can be extracted from the poignant story of the Bulldogs Bank children about current child-analytic technique? The psychoanalytic piano now may be more formally conceptualized as having white as well as black keys. Most analyses, adult and child, have been conducted as though the "black keys"--pressure to mastery through repetition and its subsequent interpretation in relation to the transference--were the sole agents of the

  8. Avoidance in Processing English Non-restrictive Relative Clauses in Thai EFL Learners’ Interlanguage

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    Sonthaya Rattanasak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the acquisition of English non-restrictive relative clauses (NRCs by L1 Thai learners, focusing on avoidance strategies applied in the learners’ interlanguage. The theoretical frameworks of the Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy (NPAH and the Perceptual Difficulty Hypothesis (PDH were the main hypotheses predicting avoidance behavior employed by the learners. The research participants were 80 Thai EFL high school students of high and low proficiency levels. The data were elicited through a sentence combination task and a Thai-English translation task. The findings, overall, suggested that Thai EFL learners, by and large, avoided using the more marked NRC types in the NPAH. The learners’ avoidance was evident in the tasks from the shifting of more marked types to less marked ones. The findings also showed that the more advanced learners tended to employ more avoidance behavior with regard to the NPAH, which may be attributed to their greater exposure to the L2 rules and more knowledge of the differences between the L1 and L2 structures; this resulted in the use of alternative ways to complete the given tasks more easily. The center-embedded NRCs, more precisely, were found to be problematic for learners, which supports the prediction of the PDH that clauses embedded after the subject positions may interrupt the processing of a complex structure of RCs. The learners, therefore, avoided center embedding and changed it to right embedding with little awareness of the ungrammaticality of the NRC sentences.

  9. On L2 Grammar and Processing: The Case of Oblique Relative Clauses and the Null-Prep Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpinan-Hinarejos, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the acquisition of oblique relative clauses in L2 Spanish by English and Moroccan Arabic speakers in order to understand the role of previous linguistic knowledge and its interaction with Universal Grammar on the one hand, and the relationship between grammatical knowledge and its use in real-time, on the other hand.…

  10. A Reading-Time Study of the Main Verb versus Reduced Relative Clause Ambiguity Resolution by English Learners in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pi-Lan; Shih, Su-Chin

    2013-01-01

    Using a self-paced reading task, the study aimed to investigate (a) whether English learners in Taiwan immediately resolve main verb versus reduced relative clause ambiguities in a similar way as native English speakers and (b) whether the learners at various English proficiency levels show diverse profiles. With analyses and syntheses of reading…

  11. Review of Hendery (2012), Relative Clauses in Time and Space: A Case Study in the Methods of Diachronic Typology

    OpenAIRE

    Pat-el, Na Ama The University Of Texas

    2013-01-01

    Review of Hendery, Rachel. 2012. Relative Clauses in Time and Space: A case study in the methods of diachronic typology. (Typological Studies in Language.) Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 281 pp. Hardbound: ISBN 978 90 272 0682 4 | €95.00 / $143.00 | e-Book: ISBN 978 90 272 7368 0 | €95.00 / $143.00

  12. Moulding Interpersonal Relations through Conditional Clauses: Consensus-Building Strategies in Written Academic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warchal, Krystyna

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the interpersonal potential of the conditional clause as a rhetorical device for establishing a dialogue between the author and the reader of an academic text in search for shared understanding and consensus. It presents a corpus-based analysis of functions conditional clauses play in linguistics research articles in an…

  13. The performance of relational and object-relational SQL queries when using Oracle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Moreno Arboleda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a study in which the performance of several queries involving GROUP BY clause, sub-queries (using IN and EXISTS clauses and loins are measured and compared by means of specific queries. The behaviour of relational and oblect-relational models is also shown.

  14. Relações retóricas estabelecidas por orações gerundiais adverbiais / Rhetorical relations held by adverbial gerund clauses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliano Desiderato, Antonio.

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é propor critérios para identificação das relações implícitas estabelecidas por orações gerundiais adverbiais em um corpus formado por elocuções formais (aulas) e entrevistas. Para isso, tomam-se como fundamento teórico da pesquisa duas teorias funcionalistas, a Teoria da E [...] strutura Retórica do Texto (RST) e a Gramática Discursivo-Funcional (GDF). Na visão da RST, além do conteúdo explícito veiculado pelas orações de um texto, há proposições implícitas que surgem das relações que se estabelecem entre partes do texto. Foram utilizados os parâmetros da GDF, factualidade, pressuposição, e as camadas dos níveis representacional e interpessoal em que ocorrem as orações para a identificação das relações retóricas estabelecidas pelas orações gerundiais adverbiais. Foram encontradas relações de meio, de resultado, de condição e de propósito, o que não significa que não se reconheça, neste trabalho, que outras relações como tempo (anterioridade, posterioridade, simultaneidade), concessão, causa, dentre outras, podem ser estabelecidas por orações gerundiais adverbiais. Os parâmetros da GDF demonstraram ser eficientes na identificação das relações. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to set up criteria to identify the implicit relations held by adverbial gerund clauses in formal speeches (university lectures) and oral interviews in Brazilian Portuguese. The theoretical framework consists of two functional linguistic theories: Rhetorical Structure Theory [...] (RST) and Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG). According to RST, besides the explicit content conveyed by text sentences, there are implicit relations that connect text segments. In this study, the identification of such relations was based on the FDG parameters of factuality and presupposition, and the layers of the representational and interpersonal levels. Means, result, condition, and purpose rhetorical relations were attested in the corpus. Other rhetorical relations such circumstance (anteriority, posteriority, simultaneity), concession, and cause may also be attested in further research. FDG parameters have shown to be efficient for the identification of rhetorical relations.

  15. As relativas que são fáceis na aquisição do português brasileiro / The acquisition of relative clauses in Brazilian portuguese

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Cecília, PERRONI.

    Full Text Available A aquisição das orações relativas por duas crianças brasileiras (entre os 2;0 e os 5;0 de idade) aprendendo o Português Brasileiro como primeira língua é discutida, com o objetivo de descrever e explicar as primeiras relativas produzidas pelos sujeitos de estudos naturalistas, observacionais, à luz [...] da teoria da sintaxe gerativa. Os resultados mostram que ao redor dos 3;0: a) a criança começa a construir as relativas como modificadoras do N; b) as clivadas antecedem a aquisição das relativas, e c) as primeiras relativas ilustram a estratégia vernacular de relativização do Português Brasileiro já identificada por outros estudos com dados de adultos. Abstract in english The acquisition of Portuguese by two Brazilian children (aged 2;0 -5;0) is discussed in an attempt to describe and explain the first relative clauses produced in naturalistic, observational studies, according to the framework of generative syntax theory. The results show that at around 3;0: a) the c [...] hild starts to deal with relative clauses as modifiers of N; b) cleft sentences appear before relative clauses, and c) the first relatives confirm the prevalence of the vernacular strategy of relativization in Brazilian Portuguese identified by other studies based on adult data.

  16. Visualizing abstract objects and relations

    CERN Document Server

    Kamada, Tomihisa

    1989-01-01

    Pictorial representations are very useful for humans to understand complicated relations or structures. This is the reason that the user interface of information systems is strongly required to visualize many kinds of information in a wide variety of graphical forms. At present, however, only some very specialized visualization techniques have been developed probably because the generality in the visualization has not been appreciated correctly. This book presents a visualization framework for translating abstract objects and relations, typically represented in textual forms, into pictorial re

  17. Object relations in Harry Potter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Suzanne

    2003-01-01

    Good fiction helps children address their emotional dilemmas by evoking repressed content, and offering strategies and meaningful values that help them work towards resolutions. Because certain fundamental conflicts continue to be revisited and reworked throughout adulthood, it follows that masterful children's literature might enthrall adults as well. Given the extraordinary, worldwide success of the Harry Potter stories with both children and adults, it might be inferred that they, indeed, are among such literature. Common object relations themes, as well as other intrapsychic processes, are presented in such an imaginative and resonant way that the unconscious is readily engaged. The character of Harry Potter, specifically, embodies such universal (repressed) torments as the agony of destroying and losing the mother; the ominous perception of good and bad objects at war within the self; and the earnest reparative efforts offered to save the self from eternal separation from the beloved other. PMID:14535615

  18. Some modifications of temporal relation in the sentence with the temporal clause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni? Ivana N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is the modification of temporal relation in the complex sentence with the temporal clause. At the functional different Serbian language corpus the author notices the next types of modified temporality: excepted locational simultaneity complete or partial, and excepted locationalorientational posteriority formalized by the structure V SAMO/JEDINO/OSIM/SEM/IZUZEV(ONDA KAD VSub, and excepted locational simultaneity/excepted terminativity formalized by the structure V SAMO DOK (Neg VSub; sutuational locational simultaneity complete or partial formalized by the structure V U SITUACIJI / U SLU?AJU KAD VSub, with the posibility to be exceptivly modified in the structure V IZUZEV U SITUACIJI / U SLU?AJU KAD VSub; situational-concessive locational simultaneity complete or partial formalized by the structure V (?AK I (ONDA KAD VSub; situational-conditional locational-orientational posteriority formalized by the structure V TEK (ONDA KAD VSub, and situational-conditional orientational posteriority formalized by the structure V TEK POŠTO VSub or V TEK NAKON ŠTO VSub and situational-conditional orientational quantified posteriority formalized by the structure V Quant TEK POŠTO VSub, and finaly situational-conditional terminativity formalized by the structure (Neg V SVE DOK Neg VSub. It can ocure sporadically supstitutiv temporality formalized by the structure V DetTemp (UMESTO KAD VSub, and consecutive-adversative temporality formalized by the structure KAD VSub A (ONDA V. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178004: Sintaksi?ka, semanti?ka i pragmati?ka istraživanja standardnog srpskog jezika

  19. Bulk oil clauses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute Bulk Oil Clauses produced by the London market and the American SP-13c Clauses are examined in detail in this article. The duration and perils covered are discussed, and exclusions, adjustment clause 15 of the Institute Bulk Oil Clauses, Institute War Clauses (Cargo), and Institute Strikes Clauses (Bulk Oil) are outlined. (UK)

  20. Patents on inventions related to human embryonic stem cells: the morality clause after Brüstle v. Greenpeace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panis, Sarah

    2013-09-01

    This paper analyses the meaning of Article 6, para. 2, sub c of the Biotechnology Directive prohibiting patents on inventions using human embryos for industrial or commercial purposes. It first examines the evolution ofthe Court of Justice ofthe EU's interpretation of this provision (which is part of the morality clause) and focuses on its most recent decision, Brüstle v. Greenpeace. This is considered a landmark case for three reasons: firstly, because it defines for the first time the term "embryo" in patent law; secondly, because it is the Court of Justice (and not EPO) that ruled on patent law; the third reason is its very broad interpretation of the morality exclusion. The exclusion is no longer limited to embryos but is extended to (even banked) embryonic stem cells and all downstream products made with them. It then looks into the consequences for the patentability of inventions using cells derived from human embryonic stem cells, such as Brüstle's invention. The recent decision by Germany's Federal Court of Justice on the validity of Brüstle's patent emphasises the limited influence on the patentability of those inventions. After that, the paper addresses possible cuts in funding stem cell research and even legislative bans of this type of research. This is followed by an evaluation of the existence and content of the morality exclusion. After a comparative analysis with the US, which is lacking in such morality exclusion, the paper concludes that the morality clause as a whole paid its dues but the provision on the use of human embryos is questionable as there is no European consensus against the use of human embryos for industrial or commercial purposes. PMID:24340486

  1. WH-extractions and relative clauses in Brazilian Portuguese / Extrações-WH e orações relativas no português brasileiro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Esmeralda Vailati, NEGRÃO.

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo descrever e buscar uma explicação para o comportamento de extrações de sintagmas QU-- do português brasileiro (PB) para fora de contextos que ficaram conhecidos pelo nome de ilhas, utilizando os princípios da Teoria Gerativa que explicam as propriedades dessas construçõe [...] s nesta e em outras línguas. Argumenta-se que o PB utiliza uma versão da estratégia de concordância em CP, estabelecida por meio de uma relação de predicação, para a extração de sintagmas QU-- a partir da posição de sujeito. A análise proposta para essas extrações evidenciou a existência de dois processos sintáticos diferenciados na construção das orações relativas. Um em que que é um operador que transforma sentenças em predicados, ocupa a posição de núcleo de CP em cujo especificador pode-se encontrar o sintagma que funciona como sujeito da predicação. Outro em que que é um elemento QU--, o que tradicionalmente poderia ser caracterizado como um pronome, que ocupa a posição de especificador de um sintagma quantificado, e introduz as relativas tal como tradicionalmente descritas. Abstract in english This paper aims to describe and explain WH-extraction patterns out of island contexts in Brazilian Portuguese (BP), by means of the principles established by Generative Theory. I claim that BP uses a strategy for the extraction of subjects which involves a special case of Agreement. Extractions out [...] of relative islands are possible when the extracted WH-phrase ends up in the specifier position of the higher CP and from there it behaves as the subject of the predication. The subject-predicate relationship established under agreement makes Comp a proper governor for traces in subject position under its scope. The analysis proposed makes a distinction between two processes of relative clause formation. One in which que is an operator that transforms sentences into predicates and sits in the Comp position of a CP whose specifier can be occupied by a QP functioning as the subject of the predication. The other, in which que is a WH-word, traditionally treated as a pronoun, occupying the specifier position of a QP and introducing relative clauses as we know them.

  2. To Comma or Not to Comma: The Mathematics of the Relative Clause, All Types, via Boole and Venn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Depuydt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is part of a large scale project in Intelligence Science. The nearterm aim of this project is the increased digitalization of the analysis of human intelligence in as far as intelligence is rational. The ultimate aim is to draw up a complete and definitive map of the totality of rational human intelligence or rational thought and language. As far as the mathematical component of this project is concerned, two contributions have appeared so far, the following: 1 “The Monty Hall Problem and beyond: Digital-Mathematical and Cognitive Analysis in Boole’s Algebra, Including an Extension and Generalization to Related Cases”, in Advances in Pure Mathematics (www.scirp.org/journal/apm, Vol. 1, No. 4 (July 2011, pp. 136-154; 2 “Higher Variations of the Monty Hall Problem (3.0, 4.0 and Empirical Definition of the Phenomenon of Mathematics, in Boole’s Footsteps, as Something the Brain Does”, in Advances in Pure Mathematics (www.scirp.org/journal/apm, Vol. 2, No. 4 (July 2012, pp. 243-273, including an appendix by Richard D. Gill. The present paper pertains to the linguistics branch of the project. It is concerned with linguistic cognition. The focus of this paper is on a single phenomenon, the relative clause and all its possible types. The method of analyzing the structure of rational thought and language that is advanced in this paper and applied to the relative clause claims validity on the following three grounds. First, it is mathematical and digital in the strictest possible sense. Second, the empirical data to which this mathematical method is applied are fully accessible in language. After all, all that is essential to that structure must be exteriorized in sounds or written symbols for the structure to be transported from one brain to another and understood. The structure must somehow be encoded in its entirety in the airwaves or light beams that travel to a hearer’s ear or a reader’s eye. And these airwaves and light beams are accessible to observation. Third, general inspiration and encouragement can be drawn from the fact that it has already been long established that the brain teems with digital activity, including in the prefrontal cortex. In sum, there is every incentive for dissecting language in search of the digital structure of rational thought and its expression in language. The design of the present paper is to demonstrate that the structure can be found.

  3. Desempeño de consultas SQL relacionales y objeto-relacionales en Oracle / The performance of relational and object-relational SQL queries when using Oracle

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco Javier, Moreno; Guillermo, Ospina Romero; Rafael, Larios Restrepo.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se muestra por medio de consultas específicas el comportamiento del modelo relacional y objeto-relacional, y se presenta así un estudio en el que se mide y a la vez se compara la eficiencia (tiempo, uso de recursos del sistema) de operaciones que involucran cláusulas GROUP BY, subco [...] nsultas (con las cláusulas IN y EXISTS), y reuniones (joins). Abstract in english This article presents a study in which the performance of several queries involving GROUP BY clause, sub-queries (using IN and EXISTS clauses) and joins are measured and compared by means of specific queries. The behaviour of relational and object-relational models is also shown. [...

  4. Saving clauses in international contracts concerning the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper concerns saving clauses in international contracts relating to the fuel cycle. It deals in particular with economic upheavals affecting those contracts and the usual clauses to protect the financial interests of the co-contractors. The paper also examines such economic upheavals in the context of clauses intended to preserve the contracts. (NEA)

  5. Cláusulas relativas, nominalización y constituyentes en pemón (Caribe) / Relative clauses, nominalization, and constituency in Pemón (Cariban)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José, Álvarez.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo describe las cláusulas relativas (CRs) en pemón, lengua caribe de Venezuela. Como es difícil caracterizar universalmente las CRs basándose exclusivamente en propiedades sintácticas, se requiere una definición semántica. Usando tal definición, Keenan & Comrie (1977) postulan que la relat [...] ivización siempre accede a un segmento continuo dentro de la jerarquía: Sujeto > Objeto Directo > Objeto Indirecto > Oblicuo > Poseedor > Objeto de Comparación. En pemón son relativizables todas las posiciones de la jerarquía usando básicamente estrategias de nominalización deverbal y de pronominal resuntivo, pero abunda la discontinuidad entre antecedente y cláusula relativa. Exploramos si el constituyente [FN [CR

  6. Relating microbiological criteria to food safety objectives and performance objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Van Schothorst, M.; Zwietering, M. H.; Ross, T.; Buchanan, R. L.; Cole, M. B.

    2009-01-01

    Microbiological criteria, food safety objectives and performance objectives, and the relationship between them are discussed and described in the context of risk-based food safety management. A modified method to quantify the sensitivity of attributes sampling plans is presented to show how sampling plans can be designed to assess a microbiological criterion. Examples presented show that testing of processed foods for confirmation of safety is often not a practical option, because too many sa...

  7. Determinación del patrón prosódico de las oraciones ambiguas con adjunción alta de la cláusula de relativo (Prosodic pattern of ambiguous sentences with high attachment of the relative clause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasna Pereira Reyes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La estructura prosódica y la sintáctica corresponden a distintos planos de análisis en una lengua; no obstante, existe una relación entre ambas que constituye una herramienta potente a la hora de enfrentar oraciones sintácticamente ambiguas (Price et al. 1991:1. Existe evidencia robusta respecto a la preferencia de adjunción alta en oraciones ambiguas con cláusula relativa en el español. La mayor parte de la investigación respecto a la ambigüedad en español se centra en el estudio de la lectura en silencio con tareas on-line y off-line, observando el funcionamiento de la memoria operativa en este contexto. Pocos autores han incorporado el estudio de patrones melódicos subyacentes a este tipo de oraciones. El presente trabajo describe el patrón prosódico que subyace a las oraciones ambiguas con adjunción alta de la cláusula de relativo (CR producidas por hablantes del español de Concepción. Los enunciados fueron etiquetados con sistema ToBI y sometidos a una evaluación perceptual para confirmar el patrón melódico descrito de la adjunción alta de la CR como soporte fonético-fonológico que acompaña a dicha adjunción. (Prosodic and syntactic structures correspond to different levels of analysis of language; however, there is a relation between them that constitutes a powerful tool when facing syntactically ambiguous sentences (Price et al. 1991:1. Robustevidence has been found in Spanish of the preference for high-attachment of the relative clause in syntactically ambiguous sentences. Most of the research concerning the topic has focused on finding out how people disambiguates these sentences when reading in silence with on-line or off-line tasks and how the working memory operates in doing so. Few researchers have incorporated the study of the underlying melody patterns in this type of sentences. The presentresearch describes the underlying prosodic pattern of ambiguous sentences with high attachment of relative clause produced by native speakers of Spanish from Concepcion. The recorded utterances were labelled with ToBI system and submitted to perceptual judgement to confirm the prosodic pattern of high-attachment preference of the relative clause as the phonetic-phonologic support that aids listeners to disambiguate this type of sentences.

  8. Learning in Organizations - an Object Relations Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Siig

    Learning in organizations – an object relations perspective As a researcher with a primary interest in the study of learning environments in organizations I have conducted a number of empirical research projects primarily concerning work places in the state sector. The aim of the research has been to qualify the understanding of learning conditions in working life and to develop a multifaceted theoretical and methodological basis for the analysis focussing on action- and behaviour, symbolic interaction and discourse (Andersen & Andersen 2007; Andersen & Trojaborg 2007). The aim of this paper is to supplement this analytical basis with an analysis based on psychoanalytical theory. I shall present and clarify some theoretical and methodological ideas about the discovery and understanding of psychodynamic defence mechanisms in organizations. My intention is to achieve a better understanding of organizations as learning environments for the employees. Theoretically I draw on object relations theory. Within this tradition the theoretical point of departure is twofold: the study of work conditions in hospitals carried out by Menzies (1975) and Hinschelwood & Skogstad (2000). With regard to the first mentioned, Menzies combines two types of analysis. In the first type she understands the development of work organizations as the development of psycho-social defence systems. Psycho-social defence systems are composed of many specific defence techniques that are developed by the staff during a long period of time as institutionalized work practices. In the second type of analysis she reflects on the different defence techniques from a psychoanalytical theoretical point of view: Which kind of unconscious ‘rationality’ do they possess, which consequences do they have for the quality of work and which positive and negative impact do they have with respect to the staff itself? With regard to Hinschelwood & Skogstad (2000) they are introduced to further develop and contrast Menzies’ theoretical ideas. Instead of only emphasizing the connection between the work organization and the defence techniques applied unconsciously by the staff, Hinschelwood & Skogstad also emphasize the need to understand how the organizational culture is co-produced by psychodynamic defence mechanisms, how the defence techniques are underpinned by defensive myths and how the defence mechanisms contribute to the creation of specific atmospheres in organizations. In the empirical part of the paper I shall combine my inspiration from Menzies (defence systems and defence techniques) with my inspiration from Hinschelwood & Skogstad (defensive myths and specific atmospheres) to demonstrate different aspects of psycho-social defence that may be elicited by applying different perspectives of understanding and different empirical methods. The case for the empirical analyses will be the learning environment amongst teachers at HTX, a general and technical degree for students in their last three years of high school. The case study aims to uncover the social learning environment in an organization marked by extensive organizational and pedagogical transformation processes. I conclude the paper by discussing some advantages and disadvantages of the psychoanalytical organizational research tradition focussing on the empirical analysis of learning environments in contrast to other theoretical and methodological paradigms. References Andersen, A. S. & Andersen, V. (2007): Learning Environments for Academic Employees: Possibilities and Hurdles. Human Ressource Development Review (HRDR). Andersen, A. S. & Trojaborg, R. S. (2007). Life History and Learning in Working Life. In West, L.; Alheit, P.; Andersen, A. S. & Merrill, B. (eds.), Using Biographical and Life History Approaches in the Study of Adult and Lifelong Learning: European Perspectives. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang – Europäischer Verlag der Wissenschaften. Hinshelwood, R. D. & Skogstad, W. (2000),Observing Organisations – Anxiety, defence and culture in health care. Great Britain: Routledge. Menzies, I.

  9. Yiddish WH-Clauses, Subject-Postponing, and Topicalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Ellen F.

    An analysis of two different WH-clause types (relative clauses and free relatives/indirect questions) in Yiddish investigates the acceptability of a gap in the first position. A model is presented that accounts for the differences between the two by positing three constraints on their formation. It is then argued that either these constraints…

  10. TRANSFORMING OBJECT ORIENTED DATA MODEL TO RELATIONAL DATA MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Khalid Awang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The object oriented and relational technologies are originated in distinct paradigms. The object-oriented technology is universally accepted approach for the development of business applications since it offers more appropriate methods and facilities for modelling of the real world objects. Meanwhile, relational database is still used to preserve the persistence of enterprise data. Connecting these two paradigms is not a straightforward task and necessitates a systematic mapping from one to another. Mapping from object model to relational database demands special attention because it would yield an object-relational impedance mismatch. One of the essential concepts in object technology is the idea of inheritance, and unfortunately relational database does not support this notion. This paper seeks to address various approaches in mapping from inheritance to tables and demonstrates how object-relational tool could be used to help software developers.

  11. O-ODM Framework for Object-Relational Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Rombaldo Jr

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Object-Relational Databases introduce new features which allow manipulating objects in databases. At present, many DBMS offer resources to manipulate objects in database, but most application developers just map class to relations tables, failing to exploit the O-R model strength. The lack of tools that aid the database project contributes to this situation. This work presents O-ODM (Object-Object Database Mapping, a persistent framework that maps objects from OO applications to database objects. Persistent Frameworks have been used to aid developers, managing all access to DBMS. This kind of tool allows developers to persist objects without solid knowledge about DBMSs and specific languages, improving the developers’ productivity, mainly when a different DBMS is used. The results of some experiments using O-ODM are shown.

  12. Object Description Based on Spatial Relations between Level-Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Garnier, Mickae?l; Hurtut, Thomas; Wendling, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Object recognition methods usually rely on either structural or statistical description. These methods aim at describing different types of information such as the outer contour, the inner structure or texture effects. Comparing two objects then comes down to averaging different data representations which may be a tricky issue. In this paper, we introduce an object descriptor based on the spatial relations that structures object content. This descriptor integrates in a single homogeneous repr...

  13. TRANSFORMING OBJECT ORIENTED DATA MODEL TO RELATIONAL DATA MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Khalid Awang; Nur Lian Labadu

    2012-01-01

    The object oriented and relational technologies are originated in distinct paradigms. The object-oriented technology is universally accepted approach for the development of business applications since it offers more appropriate methods and facilities for modelling of the real world objects. Meanwhile, relational database is still used to preserve the persistence of enterprise data. Connecting these two paradigms is not a straightforward task and necessitates a systematic mapping from one to a...

  14. Organic Bill Conscience Clause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Riofrío Martínez-Villalba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available By the close relationship between the right to life of the unborn child and the right to act in conscience of doctors, nurses and others at one time can be commanded to kill an unborn, we quote an interesting project of law about Conscience Clause.

  15. Universals in Relative Clause Acquisition: Evidence from Child and Adult L1 and L2 Learners of Hindi-Urdu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Lynne

    1986-01-01

    The performance of native and nonnative Hindi-Urdu speaking children (N=131) and adults (N=30) in the comprehension of the Hindi-Urdu correlative constructions was analyzed. Results indicated that Hindi-Urdu correlative constructs are acquired relatively late by both native and nonnative speakers, suggesting that language universals are available…

  16. 48 CFR 2132.617 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 true Contract clause. 2132.617 Section 2132.617 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE...REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Debts 2132.617 Contract clause. The clause at FAR...

  17. The effects of relative performance objectives on financial markets

    OpenAIRE

    Igan, Deniz; Pinheiro, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the implications of linking the compensation of fund managers to the return of their portfolio relative to that of a benchmark. In the presence of such relative-performance-based objectives, investors have reduced expected utility but markets are typically more informative and deeper. Furthermore, in a multiple asset/market framework we show that (i) relative performance concerns lead to an increase in the correlation between markets (financial contagion); (ii) benchmark inclusi...

  18. Learning Spatial Relations between Objects From 3D Scenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fichtl, Severin; Alexander, John

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing cognitive development during the first years of human life may be the result of a set of developmental mechanisms which are in continuous operation [1]. One such mechanism identified is the ability of the developing child to learn effective preconditions for their behaviours. It has been suggested [2] that through the application of behaviours involving more than one object, infants begin to learn about the relations between objects.

  19. Contrast source inversion method applied to relatively high contrast objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a contrast source inversion method for microwave tomography with improved performance with respect to the popular multiplicative regularized contrast source inversion (MR-CSI) method when the contrast of the object under study is relatively high. More precisely, some shortcomings of MR-CSI which may prevent it from performing adequately on higher contrast objects are outlined. The proposed method does not suffer from such shortcomings, but necessitates the tuning of parameters. However, a unique set of parameters can be used in a wide variety of experimental conditions related to a given application. Simple guidelines to determine their values are provided

  20. Visual appearance of wireframe objects in special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The visual appearance of a moving object in special relativity can be constructed in a straightforward manner when representing the surface of the object, or at least a wire frame model of it, as a point cloud. The apparent position of each individual point is then found by intersecting its worldline with the observer's backward light cone. In this paper, we present a complete derivation of the apparent position of a point and some more complex geometric objects for general parameter settings (configurations). We implemented our results in python and asymptote and used these tools to generate scripts that create the figures in this paper. These scripts are directly applicable in an undergraduate course to special relativity and can also serve as the basis for student projects with the aim to study more complex sceneries. (paper)

  1. Golden Era of Cataclysmic Variables and Related Objects: concluding remarks.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 83, ?. 2 (2012), s. 883-890. ISSN 0037-8720. [Workshop on the golden age of cataclysmic variables and related objects. Palermo, 12.09.2011-17.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA205/08/1207 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : stars * variable stars * cataclysmic variables Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  2. Modeling Spatial Data within Object Relational-Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana BOTHA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial data can refer to elements that help place a certain object in a certain area. These elements are latitude, longitude, points, geometric figures represented by points, etc. However, when translating these elements into data that can be stored in a computer, it all comes down to numbers. The interesting part that requires attention is how to memorize them in order to obtain fast and various spatial queries. This part is where the DBMS (Data Base Management System that contains the database acts in. In this paper, we analyzed and compared two object-relational DBMS that work with spatial data: Oracle and PostgreSQL.

  3. Corporate Human Rights Obligations Under Stabilization Clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Letnar Cernic, Jernej

    2010-01-01

    Lawyers, economists and social scientists alike have for a number of years agreed that foreign investment has the potential to act as a catalyst for the enjoyment of an individual's fundamental human rights, particularly in developing countries. This article discusses and critically analyses corporate human rights obligations and the lack thereof under stabilization clauses in foreign investment contracts. The balance of this article is devoted to exploring three main issues relating to corpo...

  4. Nasazení Object Relation Mapping nástroj? nad legacy datovým modelem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ond?ej Berger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When modernizing an information system it is necesssary to deal with problems and questions modernization brings. The new system is inovated by new technologies and must preserve data which controls. It happends very often that old system cannot be shutdown and replaced by new system in single step. Then it’s necessary to share one database among various systems and transfer responsibilities to the new system continually. This solution brings problematic situations which are discussed in this paper. Transactional access using object relation mapping is presented together with non-transactional relation/procedural access with shared database objects. Other presented restriction is that number of database changes should be as small as possible.

  5. The role of action representations in thematic object relations

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos Tsagkaridis; Steven Andrew Jax

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have explored the role of associative/event-based (thematic) and categorical (taxonomic) relations in the organization of object representations. Recent evidence suggests that thematic information may be particularly important in determining relationships between manipulable artifacts. However, although sensorimotor information is on many accounts an important component of manipulable artifact representations, little is known about the role that action may play during the ...

  6. A universal charge-radius relation for spherical objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Pair creation in supercritical electric fields limits the net charge of any static, spherical object from subatomic to astrophysical scales. The maximal charge of a sphere is proportional to radius for radii below 104 fm and to radius squared for larger radii. The physics behind the universal charge-radius relation will be described and possible consequences of relevance for the workshop discussed. (author)

  7. Normalization of Linear Horn Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlitza, Thomas Martin; Seidl, Helmut; Verma, Kumar Neeraj

    Nielson et al. [12] exhibit a rich class of Horn clauses which they call {\\cal H}_1. Least models of finite sets of {\\cal H}_1 Horn clauses are regular tree languages. Nielson et al. [12] describe a normalization procedure for computing least models of finite sets of {\\cal H}_1 Horn clauses in the form of tree automata. In the present paper, we simplify and extend this normalization procedure to a semi-procedure that deals with finite sets of linear Horn clauses. The extended semi-procedure does not terminate in general but does so on useful subclasses of finite sets of linear Horn clauses. The extension in particular coincides with the normalization procedure of Nielson et al. [12] for sets of {\\cal H}_1 Horn clauses. In order to demonstrate the usefulness of the extension, we show how backward reachability analysis for constrained dynamic pushdown networks (see Bouajjani et al. [3]) can be encoded into a class of finite sets of linear Horn clauses for which our normalization procedure terminates after at most exponentially many steps.

  8. Iterative Specialisation of Horn Clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Nielson, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    We present a generic algorithm for solving Horn clauses through iterative specialisation. The algorithm is generic in the sense that it can be instantiated with any decidable fragment of Horn clauses, resulting in a solution scheme for general Horn clauses that guarantees soundness and termination, and furthermore, it presents sufficient criteria for completeness. We then demonstrate the use of the framework, by creating an instance of it, based on the decidable class ${\\mathcal{H}_1}$, capable of solving a non-trivial protocol analysis problem based on the Yahalom protocol.

  9. Fundamentals for the Automation of Object-Relational Database Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Golobisky

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the market there is a wide amount of CASE tools for the design of relational databases. Object-relational database management system (ORDBMS emerged at the end of the 90s to incorporate the object technology into the relational databases, allowing the treatment of more complex data and relationships than its predecessor. The design for this database model is not straightforward. Most of the works proposed in the literature fail because they do not provide consistent transformation formalization such that the mappings from the conceptual model to the logical schema can be automated to generate an ORDB design toolkit. This is one of the goals of this paper. For this purpose, UML class diagram metamodel for the conceptual design and SQL:2003 standard metamodel for logical schemas are considered. A characterization of the components involved in the ORDB design is made in order to propose mapping rules that can be further automated. The architecture of a CASE tool prototype is presented. Model Driven Architecture for software design and XML for the model definitions and transformations are employed.

  10. ‘De Regenkoning’ van Hugo Claus

    OpenAIRE

    S. W. van Zuydam

    1986-01-01

    The investigation in this article comprises the analysis of a poem by the Flemish author Hugo Claus, namely "De regenkoning". It is one of the poems in a sequence entitled "De ingewijde" (The initiated) which forms part of his volume of poetry "De Oostakkerse Gedichten” (1955). These poems are extremely esoteric and an attempt is made here to “decode” the "hidden mysteries” in this particular poem. Claus’ method of using a kind of secret language corresponds to a basic feature of (universal) ...

  11. Chemical Compositions of RV Tauri Stars and Related Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, S Sumangala

    2013-01-01

    We have undertaken a comprehensive abundance analysis for a sample of relatively unexplored RV Tauri and RV Tauri like stars to further our understanding of post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB) evolution. From our study based on high resolution spectra and grid of model atmospheres, we find indications of mild s-processing for V820 Cen and IRAS 06165+3158. On the other hand, SU Gem and BT Lac exhibit the effects of mild dust-gas winnowing. We have also compiled the existing abundance data on RV Tauri objects and find that a large fraction of them are afflicted by dust-gas winnowing and now added by the present work, we find a small group of two RV Tauris showing mild s-process enhancement in our Galaxy. With two out of three reported s-process enhanced objects belonging to RV Tauri spectroscopic class C, these intrinsically metal-poor objects appear to be promising candidates to analyse the possible s-processing in RV Tauri stars.

  12. 48 CFR 2009.570-5 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...period of any restriction. These clauses include but are not limited to: (1) Hardware exclusion clauses which prohibit the acceptance...contractor; (2) Software exclusion clauses; (3) Clauses which...

  13. The role of action representations in thematic object relations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Tsagkaridis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies assessing the role of associative/event-based (thematic and categorical (taxonomic relations in the organization of object representations suggest that thematic relationships may influence the perceived similarity of manipulable artifacts. At the same time, evidence suggests that action knowledge is an important component of manipulable artifact representations. However, the role that action plays in processing thematic relationships between objects is unclear. In this study, we assessed healthy and left hemisphere stroke participants to explore three questions: 1. Do participants favor thematic relations involving action (Th+A, e.g., wine bottle – corkscrew, thematic relationships without action (Th-A, e.g., wine bottle – cheese, or taxonomic relationships (Tax, e.g., wine bottle – water bottle when choosing between them in an association judgment task? 2. Do the underlying constructs of event, action, and categorical relatedness implicitly determine the choices that participants make? 3. Does degraded action knowledge and/or damage to temporo-parietal cortex (a region of the brain associated with action representations reduce the influence of action on the choice task? Experiment 1 showed that explicit ratings of event, action, and categorical relatedness differentially predicted healthy participants’ choices, with action relatedness determining choices between Th+A and Th-A associations above and beyond event and categorical ratings. Experiment 2 focused more specifically on these Th+A vs. Th-A choices and demonstrated that participants with left temporo-parietal lesions, a brain region known to be involved in sensorimotor processing, were less likely than controls, and tended to be less likely than patients with lesions sparing that region, to implicitly use action knowledge in determining their choices. We conclude that action knowledge plays a critical role in processing of thematic relations for manipulable artifacts.

  14. An Analysis of Cohesion Achieved by Imperative Clause in English Netvertising

    OpenAIRE

    Junhua Ren

    2011-01-01

    The present study finds that imperative clause, which is ubiquitous in English netvertising, aids to make the discourse of a net ad cohesive in two ways: non-structure and structure. The former consists of reference, ellipsis and lexical cohesion. The latter refers to the chain of imperative clauses that forms a relation of co-classification.

  15. An Analysis of Cohesion Achieved by Imperative Clause in English Netvertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Ren

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study finds that imperative clause, which is ubiquitous in English netvertising, aids to make the discourse of a net ad cohesive in two ways: non-structure and structure. The former consists of reference, ellipsis and lexical cohesion. The latter refers to the chain of imperative clauses that forms a relation of co-classification.

  16. The role of action representations in thematic object relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagkaridis, Konstantinos; Watson, Christine E; Jax, Steven A; Buxbaum, Laurel J

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have explored the role of associative/event-based (thematic) and categorical (taxonomic) relations in the organization of object representations. Recent evidence suggests that thematic information may be particularly important in determining relationships between manipulable artifacts. However, although sensorimotor information is on many accounts an important component of manipulable artifact representations, little is known about the role that action may play during the processing of semantic relationships (particularly thematic relationships) between multiple objects. In this study, we assessed healthy and left hemisphere stroke participants to explore three questions relevant to object relationship processing. First, we assessed whether participants tended to favor thematic relations including action (Th+A, e.g., wine bottle-corkscrew), thematic relationships without action (Th-A, e.g., wine bottle-cheese), or taxonomic relationships (Tax, e.g., wine bottle-water bottle) when choosing between them in an association judgment task with manipulable artifacts. Second, we assessed whether the underlying constructs of event relatedness, action relatedness, and categorical relatedness determined the choices that participants made. Third, we assessed the hypothesis that degraded action knowledge and/or damage to temporo-parietal cortex, a region of the brain associated with the representation of action knowledge, would reduce the influence of action on the choice task. Experiment 1 showed that explicit ratings of event, action, and categorical relatedness were differentially predictive of healthy participants' choices, with action relatedness determining choices between Th+A and Th-A associations above and beyond event and categorical ratings. Experiment 2 focused more specifically on these Th+A vs. Th-A choices and demonstrated that participants with left temporo-parietal lesions, a brain region known to be involved in sensorimotor processing, were less likely than controls and tended to be less likely than patients with lesions sparing that region to use action relatedness in determining their choices. These data indicate that action knowledge plays a critical role in processing of thematic relations for manipulable artifacts. PMID:24672461

  17. La influencia del contexto referencial en la resolución de ambigüedades oración completiva/oración de relativo: Evidencia en español The influence of referential context in solving ambiguities in complete sentences/relative clause: Evidence from Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Alonso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza la resolución de ambigüedades sintácticas en español. De manera más específica, compara el procesamiento de oraciones con ambigüedad estructural (parsing entre oración de relativo y oración completiva, con y sin contexto referencial, utilizando una metodología de tiempos de lectura autoadministrada. El objetivo era comprobar si los resultados encontrados en lectores de habla inglesa se obtenían también en español. Los tiempos de lectura para las frases que contenían tanto oraciones completivas como oraciones de relativo fueron significativamente menores cuando iban precedidas de un contexto referencial. Estos resultados aportan evidencia congruente con los modelos referenciales (Crain & Steedman, 1985; Altmann & Steedman, 1988, que apuestan por un procesamiento basado en el uso de múltiples fuentes de información a la hora de resolver ambigüedades, y no solo en información de tipo estructural, tal y como sugieren los modelos modulares (Frazier, 1987; Mitchell, 1994; Mitchell, Cuetos, Corley & Brysbaert, 1995; Cuetos, Mitchell & Corley, 1996; Frazier & Clifton, 1996; Carreiras & Meseguer, 1999.This paper analyzes the resolution of syntactic ambiguities in Spanish. Specifically, it compares the processing of sentences with structural ambiguity between relative clause and complete sentences, with and without referential context, using different methods of self-administered reading times. The aim was to check whether the results found in English-speaking readers is also obtained in Spanish. The reading times for sentences containing both complete sentences and relative clauses were significantly smaller when they were preceded by a referential context. These results provide evidence consistent with referential models (Crain & Steedman, 1985; Altmann & Steedman, 1988 supporting a process based on the use of multiple sources of information when solving ambiguities, and not just on structural information as suggested by modular models (Frazier, 1987; Mitchell, 1994; Mitchell, Cuetos, Corley & Brysbaert, 1995; Cuetos, Mitchell & Corley, 1996; Frazier & Clifton, 1996; Carreiras & Meseguer, 1999.

  18. La influencia del contexto referencial en la resolución de ambigüedades oración completiva/oración de relativo: Evidencia en español / The influence of referential context in solving ambiguities in complete sentences/relative clause: Evidence from Spanish

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura, Alonso; José, Antonio León.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza la resolución de ambigüedades sintácticas en español. De manera más específica, compara el procesamiento de oraciones con ambigüedad estructural (parsing) entre oración de relativo y oración completiva, con y sin contexto referencial, utilizando una metodología de tiempos [...] de lectura autoadministrada. El objetivo era comprobar si los resultados encontrados en lectores de habla inglesa se obtenían también en español. Los tiempos de lectura para las frases que contenían tanto oraciones completivas como oraciones de relativo fueron significativamente menores cuando iban precedidas de un contexto referencial. Estos resultados aportan evidencia congruente con los modelos referenciales (Crain & Steedman, 1985; Altmann & Steedman, 1988), que apuestan por un procesamiento basado en el uso de múltiples fuentes de información a la hora de resolver ambigüedades, y no solo en información de tipo estructural, tal y como sugieren los modelos modulares (Frazier, 1987; Mitchell, 1994; Mitchell, Cuetos, Corley & Brysbaert, 1995; Cuetos, Mitchell & Corley, 1996; Frazier & Clifton, 1996; Carreiras & Meseguer, 1999). Abstract in english This paper analyzes the resolution of syntactic ambiguities in Spanish. Specifically, it compares the processing of sentences with structural ambiguity between relative clause and complete sentences, with and without referential context, using different methods of self-administered reading times. Th [...] e aim was to check whether the results found in English-speaking readers is also obtained in Spanish. The reading times for sentences containing both complete sentences and relative clauses were significantly smaller when they were preceded by a referential context. These results provide evidence consistent with referential models (Crain & Steedman, 1985; Altmann & Steedman, 1988) supporting a process based on the use of multiple sources of information when solving ambiguities, and not just on structural information as suggested by modular models (Frazier, 1987; Mitchell, 1994; Mitchell, Cuetos, Corley & Brysbaert, 1995; Cuetos, Mitchell & Corley, 1996; Frazier & Clifton, 1996; Carreiras & Meseguer, 1999).

  19. Object-Relational Management of Multiply Represented Geographic Entities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Christensen, Anders; Jensen, Christian SØndergaard

    2003-01-01

    Multiple representation occurs when information about the same geographic entity is represented electronically more than once. This occurs frequently in practice, and it invariably results in the occurrence of inconsistencies among the different representations. We propose to resolve this situation by introducing a multiple representation management system (MRMS), the schema of which includes rules that specify how to identify representations of the same entity, rules that specify consistency requirements, and rules used to restore consistency when necessary. In this paper, we demonstrate by means of a prototype and a realworld case study that it is possible to implement a multiple representation schema language on top of an object-relational database management system. Specifically, it is demonstrated how it is possible to map the constructs of the language used for specifying the multiple representation schema to functionality available in Oracle. Though some limitations exist, Oracle has proven to be a suitable platform for implementing an MRMS.

  20. 48 CFR 11.304 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Acceptable Material 11.304 Contract clause. Insert the clause at 52.211-5, Material Requirements, in solicitations and contracts for...

  1. 48 CFR 370.602 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...SPECIAL PROGRAMS AFFECTING ACQUISITION Conference Funding and Sponsorship 370.602 Contract clause. To ensure that a contractor...Officer shall include the clause in 352.270-7, Conference Sponsorship Request and Conference Materials Disclaimer, in...

  2. 48 CFR 232.617 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 232.617 Section 232.617 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE...REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Debts 232.617 Contract clause. (a) The Director of...

  3. Chemical compositions of RV tauri stars and related objects

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S., Sumangala Rao; Sunetra, Giridhar.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemos emprendido un análisis de las abundancias químicas para una muestra de estrellas RV Tauri poco estudiadas, para mejorar nuestro entendimiento de la evolución estelar post-secuencia asintótica de las gigantes (post-AGB).Nuestro estudio se basa en espectros de alta resolución y en una malla de m [...] odelos atmosféricos. Encontramos indicaciones de un leve proceso-s para V820 Cen y IRAS 06165+3158. Por otra parte, SU Gem y BT Lac muestran los efectos de una ligera separación polvo-gas. Hemos reunido los datos existentes sobre las abundancias de objetos RV Tauri, y encontramos que una gran parte de ellos muestra efectos de separación polvo-gas. En nuestro estudio encontramos un pequeño grupo de estrellas RV Tauri galácticas con evidencia del proceso-s ligeramente aumentado. Dos de tres objetos con evidencia de proceso-s aumentado pertenecen a la clase C de objetos RV Tauri. Estos objetos, pobres en metales, son candidatos prometedores para el estudio del proceso-s en las estrellas RV Tauri. Abstract in english We have undertaken a comprehensive abundance analysis for a sample of relatively unexplored RV Tauri and RV Tauri like stars to further our understanding of post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB) evolution. From our study based on high resolution spectra and a grid of model atmospheres, we find ind [...] ications of mild s-processing for V820 Cen and IRAS 06165+3158. On the other hand, SU Gem and BT Lac exhibit the effects of mild dust-gas winnowing. We have also compiled the existing abundance data on RV Tauri objects and find that a large fraction of them are afflicted by dust-gas winnowing and aided by the present work, we find a small group of two RV Tauris showing mild s-process enhancement in our Galaxy. With two out of three reported s-process enhanced objects belonging to RV Tauri spectroscopic class C, these intrinsically metal-poor objects appear to be promising candidates to analyse the possible s-processing in RV Tauri stars.

  4. 48 CFR 22.1803 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 22.1803 Section...Verification 22.1803 Contract clause. Insert the clause...in all solicitations and contracts that exceed the simplified acquisition...would be COTS items, but for minor modifications (as defined...

  5. ‘De Regenkoning’ van Hugo Claus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. van Zuydam

    1986-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation in this article comprises the analysis of a poem by the Flemish author Hugo Claus, namely "De regenkoning". It is one of the poems in a sequence entitled "De ingewijde" (The initiated which forms part of his volume of poetry "De Oostakkerse Gedichten” (1955. These poems are extremely esoteric and an attempt is made here to “decode” the "hidden mysteries” in this particular poem. Claus’ method of using a kind of secret language corresponds to a basic feature of (universal initiation ceremonies, namely that everything that takes place is shrouded in secrecy. It was found that the nucleus of traditional initiations, namely sexual and mental maturation, likewise form a fundamental characteristic in Claus’ poem. Yet his "neophyte” is not (reborn into a "new” (sacred world, but initiated into the broken (profane realities of modern society.

  6. Penalty Clauses and the CISG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Graves

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Commercial agreements often provide for “fixed sums” payable upon a specified breach. Such agreements are generally enforced in civil law jurisdictions. In contrast, the common law distinguishes between “liquidated damages” and “penalty” clauses, enforcing the former, while invalidating the latter as a penalty. The UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG does not directly address the payment of “fixed sums” as damages, and the validity of “penalty” clauses has, traditionally, been relegated to otherwise applicable domestic national law under CISG Article 4. This traditional orthodoxy has recently been challenged—suggesting that the fate of a penalty clause should be determined by reference to the general principles of the CISG and that such a clause should generally be enforced. The validity of fixed sums, as penalties, is currently under consideration by the CISG Advisory Council, so further exploration of the issue would seem particularly timely. This article examines the basis for the traditional view, along with two distinct challenges to that view—ultimately concluding that these challenges fail to support their respective solutions to the issue and suggesting the continuing vitality of the traditional view.

  7. Implementation of object-oriented GIS data model with topological relations between spatial objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Youliang; Wang, Zhaoru; Chen, Zhicheng

    2013-03-01

    Traditional GIS (Geographical Information System) data models are focused on the description of the data organizational structure and constraints from single aspect, which are the absence or little relevance of the hierarchy and connotation of data objects. These data models do not match the natural concept of humans about geographical spatial data and also failed to fully consider the spatial relationships and arithmetic operations with the relationship between geographic objects. Object-oriented technology mimics the human way of thinking as much as possible, it appears to overcome the shortcomings of traditional software design methods and improve the stability and reusability of the software systems. Based on the existing GIS data model, this paper introduces the basic idea of object-oriented GIS data model combined the object-oriented methods and the vectorial expression of spatial entities, and describes the definition and implementation of the object-oriented GIS data model. Furthermore, the topological operations between spatial objects have been defined in the paper for the importance of topological relationships among spatial relationships. The topological operations are directly defined in geometry classes by means of methods, and they include Touch, Disjoint, Cross, Contains, Overlaps, and Intersects and so on.

  8. Clause Boundary Identification using Classifier and Clause Markers in Urdu Language

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daraksha, Parveen; Ratna, Sanyal; Afreen, Ansari.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the identification of clause boundary for the Urdu language. We have used Conditional Random Field as the classification method and the clause markers. The clause markers play the role to detect the type of subordinate clause, which is with or within the main clause. If there is [...] any misclassification after testing with different sentences then more rules are identified to get high recall and precision. Obtained results show that this approach efficiently determines the type of sub-ordinate clause and its boundary.

  9. Modeling and optimization of a modified claus process as part of an integrted gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2011-01-01

    The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Due to these criteria, modifications are often required to the conventional process, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO2 capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant such as rapid change in the feed flowrates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus furnace, a four-stage method was devised so as to determine which set of linearly independent reactions would best describe the product distributions from available plant data. Various approaches are taken to derive the kinetic rate expressions which are either missing in the open literature or found to be inconsistent. A set of plant data is used for optimal estimation of the kinetic parameters. The final model agrees well with the published plant data. Using the developed kinetics models of the Claus reaction furnace, WHB, and catalytic stages, two optimization studies are carried out. The first study shows that there exists an optimal steam pressure generated in the WHB that balances hydrogen yield, oxygen demand, and power generation. In the second study, it is shown that an optimal H2S/SO2 ratio exists that balances single-pass conversion, hydrogen yield, oxygen demand, and power generation. In addition, an operability study has been carried out to examine the operating envelope in which both H2S/SO2 ratio and adiabatic flame temperature can be controlled in the face of disturbances typical for the operation of an IGCC power plant with CO2 capture. Impact of CO2 capture on the Claus process has also been discussed.

  10. Rigorous Kinetic Modeling, Optimization, and Operability Studies of a Modified Claus Unit for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant with CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Dustin; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Turton, Richard; Zitney, Stephen E

    2011-12-15

    The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and the ability to recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Because of these criteria, modifications to the conventional process are often required, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO{sub 2} capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant, such as rapid change in the feed flow rates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but they are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified, and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus furnace, a four-stage method was devised so as to determine which set of linearly independent reactions would best describe the product distributions from available plant data. Various approaches are taken to derive the kinetic rate expressions, which are either missing in the open literature or found to be inconsistent. A set of plant data is used for optimal estimation of the kinetic parameters. The final model agrees well with the published plant data. Using the developed kinetics models of the Claus reaction furnace, WHB, and catalytic stages, two optimization studies are carried out. The first study shows that there exists an optimal steam pressure generated in the WHB that balances hydrogen yield, oxygen demand, and power generation. In the second study, it is shown that an optimal H{sub 2}S/SO{sub 2} ratio exists that balances single-pass conversion, hydrogen yield, oxygen demand, and power generation. In addition, an operability study has been carried out to examine the operating envelope in which both the H{sub 2}S/SO{sub 2} ratio and the adiabatic flame temperature can be controlled in the face of disturbances typical for the operation of an IGCC power plant with CO{sub 2} capture. Impact of CO{sub 2} capture on the Claus process has also been discussed.

  11. Rigorous Kinetic Modeling and Optimization Study of a Modified Claus Unit for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant with CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Dustin; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Turton, Richard; Zitney, Stephen E.

    2012-02-08

    The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and the ability to recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Because of these criteria, modifications to the conventional process are often required, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO{sub 2} capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant, such as rapid change in the feed flow rates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but they are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified, and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus furnace, a four-stage method was devised so as to determine which set of linearly independent reactions would best describe the product distributions from available plant data. Various approaches are taken to derive the kinetic rate expressions, which are either missing in the open literature or found to be inconsistent. A set of plant data is used for optimal estimation of the kinetic parameters. The final model agrees well with the published plant data. Using the developed kinetics models of the Claus reaction furnace, WHB, and catalytic stages, two optimization studies are carried out. The first study shows that there exists an optimal steam pressure generated in the WHB that balances hydrogen yield, oxygen demand, and power generation. In the second study, it is shown that an optimal H{sub 2}S/SO{sub 2} ratio exists that balances single-pass conversion, hydrogen yield, oxygen demand, and power generation. In addition, an operability study has been carried out to examine the operating envelope in which both the H{sub 2}S/SO{sub 2} ratio and the adiabatic flame temperature can be controlled in the face of disturbances typical for the operation of an IGCC power plant with CO{sub 2} capture. Impact of CO{sub 2} capture on the Claus process has also been discussed.

  12. Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the safeguard clause notified by Greece on genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request of the European Commission, the European Food Safety Authority’s Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (EFSA GMO Panel evaluated the documentation submitted by Greece in support of its request for the prohibition of the placing on the market of the genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC. The EFSA GMO Panel notes that the majority of the publications referred to by Greece were already addressed by the EFSA GMO Panel in previous scientific outputs on maize MON 810 or other related insect-resistant genetically modified maize transformation events. In the remaining evidence provided by Greece, the EFSA GMO Panel could not identify any new data subject to scientific scrutiny or scientific information that would invalidate its previous risk assessments of maize MON 810. With regard to issues related to management and monitoring of maize MON 810, the EFSA GMO Panel refers to its recent recommendations for management and monitoring measures of maize MON 810. In conclusion, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that, based on the documentation submitted by Greece, there is no specific scientific evidence, in terms of risk to human and animal health or the environment, that would support the notification of a safeguard clause under Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC and that would invalidate the GMO Panel’s previous risk assessments of maize MON 810.

  13. Material Adverse Effect Clause – Proper Legal Work or Contribution to False Sense of Security?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Regardless of whether you are a buyer or a seller, and regardless what the object of the contract is, it is essentially important that you seek to protect your rights through various clauses that must aim to provide clearness to contractual obligations, defini- tions of breach, and consequences thereof. The article addresses a number of interest- protective legal mechanisms and necessity of their explicit incorporation in the contract. With emphasis on Material Adverse Effect clause the paper focuses on its exigency and applicability.

  14. 78 FR 73475 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ...overarching prescription for the research and development-related clause with an alternate...O. 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs...CFR chapter 1. PART 235--RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 0 2....

  15. Proposed Framework which Uses Object Oriented Principles in Relational Systems: Structure and Formating (Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin STRIMBEI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Our approach tries to overcome the limitations of so called “flat nature” of relational systems, in the actual context of actual relational database theories, database systems technologies and object oriented methodologies by proposing an MDA framework to map an object oriented (UML formalized model to object-relational structures of today’s database systems.

  16. Modeling Spatial Data within Object Relational-Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Iuliana BOTHA; Anda VELICANU; Adela BARA

    2011-01-01

    Spatial data can refer to elements that help place a certain object in a certain area. These elements are latitude, longitude, points, geometric figures represented by points, etc. However, when translating these elements into data that can be stored in a computer, it all comes down to numbers. The interesting part that requires attention is how to memorize them in order to obtain fast and various spatial queries. This part is where the DBMS (Data Base Management System) that contains the dat...

  17. Constraint Specialisation in Horn Clause Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query-answer transformation of a given set of clauses and a goal. The effect is to propagate the constraints from the goal top-down and propagate answer constraints bottom-up. Our approach does not unfold the clauses at all; we use the constraints from the model to compute a specialised version of each clause in the program. The approach is independent of the abstract domain and the constraints theory underlying the clauses. Experimental results on verification problems show that this is an effective transformation, both in our own verification tools (convex polyhedra analyser) and as a pre-processor to other Horn clause verification tools.

  18. 48 CFR 3027.409 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. Alternate IV of the (FAR) 48 CFR clause 52.227-14 shall be included...and contracts containing the basic clause unless the HCA approves an exclusion. Additional non-conflicting...

  19. 41 CFR 60-741.5 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equal opportunity clause. 60-741.5 Section 60-741...WITH DISABILITIES Preliminary Matters, Equal Opportunity Clause § 60-741.5 Equal opportunity clause. (a) Government...

  20. 41 CFR 60-250.5 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equal opportunity clause. 60-250.5 Section 60-250...PROTECTED VETERANS Preliminary Matters, Equal Opportunity Clause § 60-250.5 Equal opportunity clause. (a) Government...

  1. 76 FR 25657 - Cross-Waiver of Liability Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ...1852 RIN 2700-AD55 Cross-Waiver of Liability Clauses AGENCY: National Aeronautics...currently-existing cross-waiver of liability clauses. The changes include consolidation...ISS) activities cross-waiver of liability clause is revised and its...

  2. Revisiting the Learned Clauses Database Reduction Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbour, Said; Lonlac, Jerry; Sais, Lakhdar; Salhi, Yakoub

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we revisit an important issue of CDCL-based SAT solvers, namely the learned clauses database management policies. Our motivation takes its source from a simple observation on the remarkable performances of both random and size-bounded reduction strategies. We first derive a simple reduction strategy, called Size-Bounded Randomized strategy (in short SBR), that combines maintaing short clauses (of size bounded by k), while deleting randomly clauses of size grea...

  3. Translating Circumstantial Clause of Arabic into Malay

    OpenAIRE

    Azman Che Mat; Ahmad Marzuki Nazuki Yaakub; Nurhafizah Ahmad Tajuddin

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the function of circumstantial clause of Arabic for its translation into Malay. Circumstantial clause is among functional syntax in Arabic sentence structure. It is formed from the words or phrase in the sentence. This pattern does not seem to exist in the Malay grammar. In such circumstances, there is the difficulty to understand the meaning contained in a sentence correctly. Descriptive approach was used to analyze the circumstantial clause in Arabic. Comparative ...

  4. Bulimia and object relations: MMPI and Rorschach variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmer, J C

    1991-04-01

    Rorschach and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) responses from persons vomiting to manage body weight and fat phobia were compared to those from a matched control group to determine the levels of personality structure. These responses were also contrasted with those of representative groups from normal and personality disordered populations. Findings were that the bulimic group's test protocols differed significantly from those of the control group, displaying evidence of serious cognitive slippage and dramatic, emotional and erratic personality structures arrested at the differentiation subphase of ego development. The clinical importance of timely developmental diagnosis and interventions designed to promote object constancy was discussed in light of these findings. PMID:2056421

  5. 79 FR 17447 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-28

    ...alternate clause and includes the full text of the alternate clause. DATES...contract clause and to include the full text of the alternate clause. The public...format of the clause alternates in full text contained in contracts issued...

  6. 48 CFR 227.303 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Contracts 227.303 Contract clauses. ...solicitations and contracts containing the...solicitations and contracts for experimental, developmental, or research work if— ...concern or nonprofit organization; and...

  7. TPP - An interactive database of cataclysmic variables and related objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kube, J.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Hoffmann, B.

    2002-01-01

    We introduce our interactive online catalogue of cataclysmic variables, historically dubbed TPP. Similar to the Downes et al. catalogue, we include all systems which have been -- even remotely -- mentioned as a cataclysmic variable. However, TPP is intended to include all the available published information on the listed systems, such as, e.g. orbital period, inclination, distance, primary and secondary masses, magnetic field strength, etc. A major difference to the established catalogues is that every member of the community can contribute information to the database. Technically speaking, the catalogue is contained in a MySQL database and accessed through a Perl script running on our web server. Hence, the user interface is displayed in the client's web browser. On July 30, 2001, our data base contained 1167 single objects with 4071 pieces of information drawn from 1958 different literature sources. Literature references are directly linked to the ADS abstract system, the arXive preprint server and the VSNET mail archive. You find TPP in the World Wide Web at TPP, where we also provide a complete user manual. TPP was made possible by using the free scripting language Perl and the free data base MySQL. A big ``thank you'' to the developers of these powerful tools and to the whole GNU community!

  8. 37 CFR 11.61 - Savings clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Savings clause. 11.61 Section 11...Proceedings § 11.61 Savings clause. (a) A disciplinary...continue to justify suspension or exclusion under the provisions of this...which an order of suspension or exclusion is entered or resignation...

  9. Stock loan model with Automatic termination clause

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Zongxia; Jiang, Shuqing

    2010-01-01

    This paper works out fair values of stock loan model with automatic termination clause. This stock loan is treated as a generalized perpetual American option with an automatic termination clause and possibly negative interest rate. Since it helps a bank to control the risk, banks should charge less service fees compared to stock loans without automatic termination clauses. The automatic termination clause is in fact a stop order set by the bank. We aim at establishing explicitly the value of such a loan and ranges of fair values of key parameters : this loan size, interest rate, fee for providing such a service and quantity of this automatic termination clause and relationships among these parameters as well as the optimal terminable stopping times.

  10. 77 FR 59339 - Cross Waivers of Liability Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ...1852 RIN 2700-AD55 Cross Waivers of Liability Clauses AGENCY: National Aeronautics...changes to three existing cross-waiver of liability contract clauses, and to more closely...NASA's three existing cross-waiver of liability clauses into two clauses and to...

  11. Evaluating Models of Object-Decision Priming: Evidence from Event-Related Potential Repetition Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldan, Anja; Mangels, Jennifer A.; Cooper, Lynn A.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to differentiate between structural description and bias accounts of performance in the possible/impossible object-decision test. Two event-related potential (ERP) studies examined how the visual system processes structurally possible and impossible objects. Specifically, the authors investigated the effects of object…

  12. Search in the real world : Active visual object search based on spatial relations

    OpenAIRE

    Aydemir, Alper; Sjo?o?, Kristoffer; Folkesson, John; Pronobis, Andrzej; Jensfelt, Patric

    2011-01-01

    Objects are integral to a robot’s understandingof space. Various tasks such as semantic mapping, pick-andcarrymissions or manipulation involve interaction with objects.Previous work in the field largely builds on the assumption thatthe object in question starts out within the ready sensory reachof the robot. In this work we aim to relax this assumptionby providing the means to perform robust and large-scaleactive visual object search. Presenting spatial relations thatdescribe topological re...

  13. A COMPARISON OF THE TURKIC TYPE RELATIVE CLAUSE TYPOLOGY WITH JAPANESE, KOREAN AND HUNGRAIAN TYPOLOGIES TÜRK D?L? SIFAT-F??LL? YAPI T?POLOJ?S?N?N JAPON, KORE VE MACAR T?POLOJ?LER? ?LE KAR?ILA?TIRILMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat KARABULUT

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, we dealt with relative clause typologies in the world languages in general and Turkic Type Relative Clause typology in particular. By doing this, we compared Turkish relative clause construction with Japanese, Korean and Hungarian ones, which are all considered in Uralic and Altaic Language Family. In doing this, we made use of Chomskian theories called Generative-Transformational Grammar and Governement and Binding Thoery. As is known, Chomsky declared that all languages have the same typolgy in the Deep Structure. The changes among languages are witnessed in Surface Structure. There is a transformation between deep structure and surface structure. It means that, a noun pharse can be moved to another place leaving an empty place behind by constructing a chain between the empty place and its antecedents (moved element. When we compared Turkic type relative clause typology with Japanese, Korean and Hungarian, we amasingly saw that the strategies are the same in these langauges. Bu çal??mada, dünya dillerinde önemli bir yere sahip olan s?fat-fiilli yap?lar?n tipolojilerini inceledik. Bunu yapmaktaki amac?m?z, Türk Dili Tipi S?fat-fiilli Yap? tipolojinsin dünya dilleri aras?ndaki yerini tespit etmek ve benzer tipolojiler ile kar??la?t?rmakt?r. Türk dili ile akraba oldu?u varsay?lan Japon, Kore ve Macar dillerini, s?fat-fiil tipolojileri aç?s?nda analiz ederek Türk Dili Tipolojisi ile olan benzerlikleri ortaya koymaya çal??t?k. S?fat-fiil tipolojisini analiz ederken, Chomsky’nin Üretken-Dönü?ümlü Dil Bilgisi ve Yönetim ve Ba?lama Kuram?’ndan faydaland?k. Dilin yap?sal olarak incelenmesi gerekti?ini ileri süren Chomsky, derin yap? ve yüzey yap? kavramlar? ile ta??n?m ve dönü?ümün bütün diller için kaç?n?lmaz bir gerçeklik oldu?unu gösterdi. Biz de bu çal??mada ad öbe?i ta??n?m? ve bo?luk kuram? ?????nda, s?fat-fiilli yap? tipolojilerini kar??la?t?rmal? olarak ele ald?k ve Türk, Japon, Kore ve Macar dilleri aras?ndaki ?a??rt?c? benzerli?i, öbek yap? ve söz dizimi seviyesinde tespit ettik.

  14. 48 CFR 927.303 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Contracts 927.303 Contract clauses. (a) In solicitations and contracts for experimental, research, developmental...304-3 regarding contracts for construction...business or nonprofit organization as defined at...

  15. 48 CFR 19.1104 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...1101 and 19.1102 apply. If a price evaluation adjustment is authorized...officer shall insert the authorized price evaluation adjustment factor. The clause shall be used with...with its Alternate II when a price evaluation adjustment is...

  16. 48 CFR 1632.617 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Debts 1632.617 Contract clause. The...exclude the words “net of any applicable tax credit under the Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C. 1481).” [59 FR...

  17. 48 CFR 1403.1004 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 1403.1004 Contract clause. (a) In all awards...

  18. 48 CFR 503.1004 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 503.1004 Contract clauses. (a) The FAR...

  19. Information Structure and Direct Object Indexation in Persian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Bahrami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Object indexation is a grammatical phenomenon in which a clitic pronoun, co-referential with the free nominal object, appends to the verb. Optionality of indexation in Persian leads us to consider the role of pragmatic factors in its occurring. The present study aims at investigating the influence of information structure on direct object indexation in Persian. To do this, the data of standard spoken Persian including 540 cases were extracted from various resources and then analyzed within the framework of Role and Reference Grammar. The high frequency of topical direct object indexation confirms the role of information structure in direct object indexation. Analyzing the few cases of focal direct object indexation indicated that all cases of both topical and focal object indexation necessarily involve identifiable referents. Hence, the basic requirement in direct object indexation in Persian is identifiability of its referent. Considering the syntactic position of direct object in Persian clauses shows strong overlap of topical and focal objects. The post-core slot only belongs to the topical direct object and focal object cannot be placed there. Therefore, in order to identify the pragmatic relations of direct object in a clause, considering the context of the discourse is highly important. 

  20. 79 FR 11381 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Taxes (DFARS Case 2013...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-28

    ...to include in the regulation the full text of the alternate clause. DATES...with alternate, and includes the full text of the clause in the alternate...basic clause, and to include the full text of the clause alternate....

  1. Drawing skill is related to the efficiency of encoding object structure

    OpenAIRE

    Perdreau, Florian; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Accurate drawing calls on many skills beyond simple motor coordination. A good internal representation of the target object's structure is necessary to capture its proportion and shape in the drawing. Here, we assess two aspects of the perception of object structure and relate them to participants' drawing accuracy. First, we assessed drawing accuracy by computing the geometrical dissimilarity of their drawing to the target object. We then used two tasks to evaluate the efficiency of encoding...

  2. Expertise modulates the neural basis of context dependent recognition of objects and their relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilali?, Merim; Turella, Luca; Campitelli, Guillermo; Erb, Michael; Grodd, Wolfgang

    2012-11-01

    Recognition of objects and their relations is necessary for orienting in real life. We examined cognitive processes related to recognition of objects, their relations, and the patterns they form by using the game of chess. Chess enables us to compare experts with novices and thus gain insight in the nature of development of recognition skills. Eye movement recordings showed that experts were generally faster than novices on a task that required enumeration of relations between chess objects because their extensive knowledge enabled them to immediately focus on the objects of interest. The advantage was less pronounced on random positions where the location of chess objects, and thus typical relations between them, was randomized. Neuroimaging data related experts' superior performance to the areas along the dorsal stream-bilateral posterior temporal areas and left inferior parietal lobe were related to recognition of object and their functions. The bilateral collateral sulci, together with bilateral retrosplenial cortex, were also more sensitive to normal than random positions among experts indicating their involvement in pattern recognition. The pattern of activations suggests experts engage the same regions as novices, but also that they employ novel additional regions. Expert processing, as the final stage of development, is qualitatively different than novice processing, which can be viewed as the starting stage. Since we are all experts in real life and dealing with meaningful stimuli in typical contexts, our results underline the importance of expert-like cognitive processing on generalization of laboratory results to everyday life. PMID:21998070

  3. Perception and Production of Object-Related Grasping in 6-Month-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daum, Moritz M.; Prinz, Wolfgang; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 6-month-olds' perception of an object-related human grasping action was compared with their level of grasping performance using a within-participants design. In the action perception task, infants were presented with the video of an actor's grasping movement toward an occluded target object. Subsequently, an expected and an…

  4. Drawing skill is related to the efficiency of encoding object structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdreau, Florian; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Accurate drawing calls on many skills beyond simple motor coordination. A good internal representation of the target object's structure is necessary to capture its proportion and shape in the drawing. Here, we assess two aspects of the perception of object structure and relate them to participants' drawing accuracy. First, we assessed drawing accuracy by computing the geometrical dissimilarity of their drawing to the target object. We then used two tasks to evaluate the efficiency of encoding object structure. First, to examine the rate of temporal encoding, we varied presentation duration of a possible versus impossible test object in the fovea using two different test sizes (8° and 28°). More skilled participants were faster at encoding an object's structure, but this difference was not affected by image size. A control experiment showed that participants skilled in drawing did not have a general advantage that might have explained their faster processing for object structure. Second, to measure the critical image size for accurate classification in the periphery, we varied image size with possible versus impossible object tests centered at two different eccentricities (3° and 8°). More skilled participants were able to categorise object structure at smaller sizes, and this advantage did not change with eccentricity. A control experiment showed that the result could not be attributed to differences in visual acuity, leaving attentional resolution as a possible explanation. Overall, we conclude that drawing accuracy is related to faster encoding of object structure and better access to crowded details. PMID:25469216

  5. Deriving the Properties of Object Types for Research Data Relation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Suntae Kim

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the properties of the object types required to describe the relationship among research data resources, which may be generated during the life cycle of the research, are derived. The properties of Fedora Commons and DSpace, which are open source software used for resource management, and schema properties published in DataCite were analyzed. Based on relation names of Fedora Commons, nine new relation names were derived. Thirty-eight object type properties consolidating the tar...

  6. Objective Measures of Emotion Related to Brand Attitude: A New Way to Quantify Emotion-Related Aspects Relevant to Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Walla, Peter; Brenner, Gerhard; Koller, Monika

    2011-01-01

    With this study we wanted to test the hypothesis that individual like and dislike as occurring in relation to brand attitude can be objectively assessed. First, individuals rated common brands with respect to subjective preference. Then, they volunteered in an experiment during which their most liked and disliked brand names were visually presented while three different objective measures were taken. Participant's eye blinks as responses to acoustic startle probes were registered with electro...

  7. A case Study of Applying Object-Relational Persistence in Astronomy Data Archiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, S. S.; Hiriart, R.; Barg, I.; Warner, P.; Gasson, D.

    2005-12-01

    The NOAO Science Archive (NSA) team is developing a comprehensive domain model to capture the science data in the archive. Java and an object model derived from the domain model weil address the application layer of the archive system. However, since RDBMS is the best proven technology for data management, the challenge is the paradigm mismatch between the object and the relational models. Transparent object-relational mapping (ORM) persistence is a successful solution to this challenge. In the data modeling and persistence implementation of NSA, we are using Hibernate, a well-accepted ORM tool, to bridge the object model in the business tier and the relational model in the database tier. Thus, the database is isolated from the Java application. The application queries directly on objects using a DBMS-independent object-oriented query API, which frees the application developers from the low level JDBC and SQL so that they can focus on the domain logic. We present the detailed design of the NSA R3 (Release 3) data model and object-relational persistence, including mapping, retrieving and caching. Persistence layer optimization and performance tuning will be analyzed. The system is being built on J2EE, so the integration of Hibernate into the EJB container and the transaction management are also explored.

  8. THE UNPREDICTABILITY CLAUSE IN TRANSPORT CONTRACTS, ACCORDING TO THE NEW CIVIL CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Elena BELU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Until the enforcement of the highly controversial transport law, transport companies must already observe the provisions of the new Civil Code1 in their transport business. One of the novelties in the new Civil Code, that came into force on October 1, 2011, refers to the unpredictability clause: recurring to this clause, in certain situations to be precisely analysed by courts, parties may even be exempted from certain contractual obligations, when the court decides to rescind the contract based on objective criteria, not imputable to the party that no longer can properly fulfil the obligations that had been undertaken when the contract had been made. However, this solution only is provided after all means of negotiation and mediation between parties are exhausted. The clause meets current market requirements, under which many companies have to deal with bad paying partners.

  9. The Event as an Object-Relational Database: Avoiding the Dependency Nightmare

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, C D

    2003-01-01

    With the use of object-oriented languages for HEP, many experiments have designed their data objects to contain direct references to other objects in the event (e.g., tracks and electromagnetic showers have references to each other to denote matches). Unfortunately this creates tremendous dependencies between packages which lead to brittle development systems (e.g., if the electromagnetic code has a problem you may not be able to compile the tracking code) and makes the storage system more complex. We discuss how the CLEO III experiment avoided these problems by treating an event as an object-relational database. The discussion will include: the constraints we placed on our objects; our use of a separate Association class to deal with inter-object references; and our ability to use multiple sources to supply different data items for one event.

  10. Legal briefing: conscience clauses and conscientious refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to conscience clauses and conscientious refusal. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it has also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions. Over the past several months, conscientious refusal disputes have had an unusually high profile not only in courthouses, but also in legislative and regulatory halls across the United States. Healthcare providers' own moral beliefs have been obstructing and are expected to increasingly obstruct patients' access to medical services. For example, some providers, on ethical or moral grounds, have denied: (1) sterilization procedures to pregnant patients, (2) pain medications in end-of-life situations, and (3) information about emergency contraception to rape victims. On the other hand, many healthcare providers have been forced to provide medical treatment that is inconsistent with their moral beliefs. There are two fundamental types of conscientious objection laws. First, there are laws that permit healthcare workers to refuse providing - on ethical, moral, or religious grounds healthcare services that they might otherwise have a legal or employer-mandated obligation to provide. Second, there are laws directed at forcing healthcare workers to provide services to which they might have ethical, moral, or religious objections. Both types of laws are rarely comprehensive, but instead target: (1) certain types of healthcare providers, (2) specific categories of healthcare services, (3) specific patient circumstances, and (4) certain conditions under which a right or obligation is triggered. For the sake of clarity, I have grouped recent legal developments concerning conscientious refusal into eight categories: 1. Abortion: right to refuse 2. Abortion: duty to provide 3. Contraception: right to refuse 4. Contraception: duty to provide 5. Sterilization: right to refuse 6. Fertility, HIV, vaccines, counseling 7. End-of-life measures: right to refuse 8. Comprehensive laws: right to refuse. PMID:20866024

  11. 41 CFR 60-1.4 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...agreement or other contract or understanding, a notice...clauses of this contract or with any...provided by law. (7...contract or understanding, a notice...clauses of this contract or with any...provided by law....

  12. 43 CFR 34.6 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equal opportunity clause. 34.6 Section...Interior REQUIREMENTS FOR EQUAL OPPORTUNITY DURING CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION...TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM § 34.6 Equal opportunity clause. Each...

  13. 48 CFR 3427.471 - Paperwork Reduction Act clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Paperwork Reduction Act clause. 3427.471...REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Data and Copyrights 3427...Paperwork Reduction Act clause. The...

  14. Signaling Elaboration: Combining French Gerund Clauses with Lexical Cohesion Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Vergez-Couret

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the Elaboration relation and on its automatic identification in French, using the theoretical framework of Segmented Discourse Representation Theory (SDRT. One of the information sources identified by the SDRT framework to infer the Elaboration relation is based on the existence of a potential subsumption link between the eventualities at stake, depending on lexical semantics and world knowledge. We investigate this claim by combining a weak syntactic marker of the Elaboration relation, namely the gerund clause, with lexical cohesion cues. We aim at automatically identifying gerund clauses which are Elaborations by finding cohesive links between the host main clause and the gerund clause. This approach makes it possible to accurately detect few cases of intra-sentential Elaborations in our corpus, confirming the fact that lexical cohesion cues are relevant for this task.Dans cet article, nous nous focalisons sur la relation d’Élaboration en français, telle qu’elle est décrite dans le modèle théorique de la SDRT (Segmented Discourse Representation Theory, et sur son identification automatique. Selon la SDRT, une des sources d’information permettant d’inférer la relation d’Élaboration est basée sur l’existence d’un lien de subsomption entre les types des éventualités des segments à relier, indiquant que le type de la seconde éventualité est un sous-type de celui de la première dans la sémantique lexicale des éventualités ou grâce à des connaissances du monde. Nous proposons de contribuer à cette question en combinant un indice de la relation d’Élaboration, i. e. la construction syntaxique du gérondif, et des indices de cohésion lexicale. Notre objectif est d’identifier automatiquement des propositions gérondives qui sont des Élaborations en repérant des indices de cohésion lexicale entre la proposition principale et la proposition gérondive. Cette approche permet de détecter avec précision des cas d’Élaboration dans notre corpus, validant le fait que les indices de cohésion lexicale sont pertinents pour cette tâche.

  15. 48 CFR 3027.404 - Basic rights in data clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...3027.404 Basic rights in data clause. (f)(1)(iii) The DHS...Alternate IV of the (FAR) 48 CFR clause 52.227-14 in all contracts containing the basic clause, unless the HCA approves an exclusion. Approval at a level above...

  16. 48 CFR 229.402-70 - Additional clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...facilities. (e) Use the clause at 252.229-7005, Tax...in Spain. (f) Use the clause at 252.229-7006, Value Added Tax Exclusion (United Kingdom), in solicitations...Kingdom. (g) Use the clause at 252.229-7007,...

  17. The k0 and relative INAA methods to determine elements in entire archaeological pottery objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages of instrumental neutron activation analysis applied to archaeological ceramics have been enhanced through the analysis of entire objects, using both the k 0 method and the relative method, respectively, to determine the concentrations of chemical elements in aliquots of replicate objects used as comparators and in the sample object. Twenty-two chemical elements of archaeological importance were measured in mud figurines from Caral civilization (5000 year BC), irradiated inside a well-characterized radial channel facility of the nuclear research reactor at IPEN, Peru. The results showed less than 10 % of bias for most of the elements. (author)

  18. Deriving the Properties of Object Types for Research Data Relation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim, Suntae

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the properties of the object types required to describe the relationship among research data resources, which may be generated during the life cycle of the research, are derived. The properties of Fedora Commons and DSpace, which are open source software used for resource management, and schema properties published in DataCite were analyzed. Based on relation names of Fedora Commons, nine new relation names were derived. Thirty-eight object type properties consolidating the target properties of the analysis were derived. The result of this study can be used as basic material for crosswalk research studies of object type relation terms to ensure interoperability among the systems.

  19. On the nature of escapable relative islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken RamshØj; Nyvad, Anne Mette

    2014-01-01

    It is generally assumed that universal island constraints block extraction from relative clauses. However, it is well-known that such extractions can be acceptable in the Scandinavian languages. Kush & Lindahl (2011) argue that the acceptability in Swedish is illusory; relative clauses that allow extraction have a different structure (small clause structure) from those that block extraction (true relatives, CPs). We present data from an acceptability survey of relative clause extraction in Danish. In the survey, extraction significantly decreased acceptability but we found no statistically significant effect of the ability of the verb to take a small-clause complement. We also found no difference between som ‘that/who/which’ and der ‘that/who/which’, both of which can head a relative clause while only som can head a small clause. We argue that our results do not warrant the stipulation of a structural contrast between acceptable and unacceptable extractions, and that variation in acceptability stems from processing.

  20. Comparative performance measures of relational and object-oriented databases using High Energy Physics data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major experiments at the SSC are expected to produce up to 1 Petabyte of data per year. The use of database techniques can significantly reduce the time it takes to access data. The goal of this project was to test which underlying data model, the relational or the object-oriented, would be better suited for archival and accessing high energy data. We describe the relational and the object-oriented data model and their implementation in commercial database management systems. To determine scalability we tested both implementations for 10-MB and 100-MB databases using storage and timing criteria

  1. An evolutionary catalogue of Galactic post-AGB and related objects

    CERN Document Server

    Szczerba, R; Stasinska, G; Borkowski, J

    2007-01-01

    With the ongoing AKARI infrared sky survey, of much greater sensitivity than IRAS, a wealth of post-AGB objects may be discovered. It is thus time to organize our present knowledge of known post-AGB stars in th galaxy with a view to using it to search for new post-AGB objects among AKARI sources. We searched the literature available on the NASA Astrophysics Data System up to 1 October 2006, and defined criteria for classifying sources into three categories: "very likely", "possible" and "disqualified" post-AGB objects. The category of "very likely" post-AGB objects is made up of several classes. We have created an evolutionary, on-line catalogue of Galactic post-AGB objects, to be referred to as "The Torun catalogue of Galactic post-AGB and related objects". The present version of the catalogue contains 326 "very likely", 107 "possible" and 64 "disqualified" objects. For the very likely post-AGB objects, the catalogue gives the available optical and infrared photometry, infrared spectroscopy and spectral type...

  2. AMERINDIAN RELATIONAL OBJECTS: THE (INVISIBILITY OF KADIWÉU INDIANS ART IN A BRAZILIAN SOAP OPERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Koller Lecznieski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the role of ceramics in Kadiwéu social life. The Kadiwéu are Amerindians who live in the southern part of Pantanal Matogrossense, Brazil. The relations between art and social world will be described and analyzed through ethnographic examples, showing how the Kadiwéu understand their ceramic as a special way of relating to the external world, markedly the “world of the “whites”. This relational understanding of objects also points out, in a reflexive and critical manner, to crucial aspects of western conceptions of human relations.

  3. Principles of Linguistic Composition Below and Beyond the Clause—Elements of a semantic combinatorial system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Peer

    2006-01-01

    The present investigation challenges the traditional distinction between cohesion and coherence; i.e., the distinction between the syntactical rules governing the composition of lexical units within the scope of the clause and the semantic-pragmatic rules guiding the composition of text units beyond the scope of the clause. To this end it exposes two major principles of semantic combination that are active through all levels of linguistic composition: viz. frame-schematic structure and narrative structure. These principles are considered as being components of a semantic combinatorial system to be determined in terms of dependency relations.

  4. Cross-cultural differences in cognitive development: Attention to relations and objects

    OpenAIRE

    Kuwabara, Megumi; Smith, Linda B.

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates a suite of generalized differences in the attentional and cognitive processing of adults from Eastern and Western cultures. Cognition in Eastern adults is often more relational and in Western adults is more object focused. Three experiments examined whether these differences characterize the cognition of preschool children in the two cultures. In Experiment 1, 4-year-olds from the two cultures (N = 64) participated in a relational match-to-standard task in two condi...

  5. Cryptographic protocol verification using tractable classes of horn clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidl, Helmut; Neeraj Verma, Kumar

    2007-01-01

    We consider secrecy problems for cryptographic protocols modeled using Horn clauses and present general classes of Horn clauses which can be efficiently decided. Besides simplifying the methods for the class of flat and onevariable clauses introduced for modeling of protocols with single blind copying [7,25], we also generalize this class by considering k-variable clauses instead of one-variable clauses with suitable restrictions similar to those for the class S(+). This class allows to conveniently model protocols with joint blind copying. We show that for a fixed k, our new class can be decided in DEXPTIME, as in the case of one variable.

  6. Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Development: Attention to Relations and Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Megumi; Smith, Linda B.

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates a suite of generalized differences in the attentional and cognitive processing of adults from Eastern and Western cultures. Cognition in Eastern adults is often more relational and in Western adults is more object focused. Three experiments examined whether these differences characterize the cognition of preschool…

  7. Object Relations and the Family System in Bulmia: A Theoretical Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Laura Lynn; Stern, Steven

    1988-01-01

    Presents an integration of object relations theory and family systems theory in the conceptualization of bulimia. Proposes that in bulimic families there are transgenerational developmental deficits and adaptations which determine the level and quality of intrapsychic experience within individuals and the interpersonal relationships and dynamic…

  8. The speed of object recognition from a haptic glance: event-related potential evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtubay-Antolin, Ane; Rodriguez-Herreros, Borja; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2015-05-01

    Recognition of an object usually involves a wide range of sensory inputs. Accumulating evidence shows that first brain responses associated with the visual discrimination of objects emerge around 150 ms, but fewer studies have been devoted to measure the first neural signature of haptic recognition. To investigate the speed of haptic processing, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) during a shape discrimination task without visual information. After a restricted exploratory procedure, participants (n = 27) were instructed to judge whether the touched object corresponded to an expected object whose name had been previously presented in a screen. We encountered that any incongruence between the presented word and the shape of the object evoked a frontocentral negativity starting at ?175 ms. With the use of source analysis and L2 minimum-norm estimation, the neural sources of this differential activity were located in higher level somatosensory areas and prefrontal regions involved in error monitoring and cognitive control. Our findings reveal that the somatosensory system is able to complete an amount of haptic processing substantial enough to trigger conflict-related responses in medial and prefrontal cortices in <200 ms. The present results show that our haptic system is a fast recognition device closely interlinked with error- and conflict-monitoring processes. PMID:25744887

  9. Parametric Optimization on Multi-Objective Precision Turning Using Grey Relational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Y. Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, L9(34 orthogonal array of Taguchi experiment is selected for four parameters (speed, cutting depth, feed rate, tool nose runoff with three levels in optimizing the multi-objective (surface roughness, tool wear and material removal rate precision turning on an ECOCA-3807 CNC (Computer Numerical Controlled lathe. Through the examination of surface roughness (Ra, tool wear ratio (mm-2 and the calculation of MRR; the multiple objectives are then received. By using Grey Relational Analysis (GRA, the multiple objectives can additionally be integrated and introduced as the S/N (signal to noise ratio into the Taguchi experiment. The mean effects for S/N ratios are moreover analyzed by MINITAB to achieve the multi-objective turning parameters. Through the verification results, it is shown that both surface roughness and tool wear ratio from present optimum parameters are greatly advanced with minor decrease on the MRR (Material Removal Rate comparing to those from benchmark parameters. This study not only proposes a novel optimization technique using GRA, but also contributes the satisfactory solution for multiple CNC turning objectives with profound insight.

  10. The relation between energy efficiency and other general objectives from a socioeconomic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important question in the analysis of energy efficiency programs and their consequences is: How are objectives and instruments defined? E.g. if the objective is reduced carbon dioxide emissions and energy efficiency is the means to reach the objective, then it is not certain that increased energy efficiency will give the result as expected (1). Furthermore, energy efficiency measures will probably be an inefficient way of reaching the goal (2). (1) due to the rebound effects, and (2) since the measures are applied indiscriminately, energy use with only weak couplings to the objective are also affected. Energy efficiency is a partial and relative measure, and does not give much information studied in isolation. It should rather be studied from the perspective of total resource efficiency. Economic policy ought to have the goal of securing a socioeconomic exploitation of all resources (of which energy is one). An instrument working in this direction is internalizing of external effects e.g. through environmental taxes, so that the prices reflect the socioeconomic costs for using the resources. Early foreign studies indicates that a rebound effect exists, usually, however, the technological efficiency potentials can be realized. In a recent study of Swedish conditions, the rebound effect seems to be important. It totally negates the initial effect, at in the end the emissions have increased compared to the starting point. The results show the energy efficiency measures can be in direct conflict with climate and other environmental objectives.

  11. Event-related potentials reveal increased distraction by salient global objects in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris; Finke, Kathrin

    Age-related changes in visual functions influence how older individuals perceive and react upon objects in their environment. In particular, older individuals might be more distracted by highly salient, irrelevant information. Kanizsa figures induce a ‘global precedence’ effect, which reflects a processing advantage for salient whole-object representations relative to configurations of local elements not inducing a global form. We investigated event-related potential (ERP) correlates of age-related decline in visual abilities, and specifically, distractibility by salient global objects in visual search. Older participants detected target stimuli slower and less accurate than younger participants did. ERPs indicated that the general performance decline originated at multiple stages within the information-processing stream, from sensory coding to spatial allocation of attention: The P1 was decreased, the N1 was enhanced, and the posterior contralateral negativity (PCN) was decreased and delayed in older age. Wefurther found a stronger a global precedence effect in the older group. This was associated with age differences in short-latency ERPs: The younger group showed a more pronounced P1 in global than local search, in the older group, the P1 did not vary with search conditions. In addition, only older participants obtained a contralateral lateralization in the N1 time range towards the salient Kanizsa distracter in local search. These results suggest that the age-specific increase in global-local asymmetries originates from early processing stages, where the dissociation of hierarchical levels is less distinct, and inhibition of the salient irrelevant global object information is less effective

  12. Epidemiological perspectives on sleep : health-related outcomes and subjective-objective sleep assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Westerlund, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This thesis aimed to expand knowledge about self-reported habitual sleep in relation to health outcomes and objectively measured sleep. Study I was a cross-sectional analysis of 40,197 Swedish adult volunteers participating in the National March, a fundraising event for the Swedish Cancer Society held in 1997. We compared the entire distribution of BMI between subjects with different sleep patterns. Relative to those who reported 6–8 h or good-quality sleep, the upper tail of the BMI ...

  13. Adding Hierarchical Objects to Relational Database General-Purpose XML-Based Information Managements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Chun; Knight, Chris; La, Tracy; Maluf, David; Bell, David; Tran, Khai Peter; Gawdiak, Yuri

    2006-01-01

    NETMARK is a flexible, high-throughput software system for managing, storing, and rapid searching of unstructured and semi-structured documents. NETMARK transforms such documents from their original highly complex, constantly changing, heterogeneous data formats into well-structured, common data formats in using Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) and/or Extensible Markup Language (XML). The software implements an object-relational database system that combines the best practices of the relational model utilizing Structured Query Language (SQL) with those of the object-oriented, semantic database model for creating complex data. In particular, NETMARK takes advantage of the Oracle 8i object-relational database model using physical-address data types for very efficient keyword searches of records across both context and content. NETMARK also supports multiple international standards such as WEBDAV for drag-and-drop file management and SOAP for integrated information management using Web services. The document-organization and -searching capabilities afforded by NETMARK are likely to make this software attractive for use in disciplines as diverse as science, auditing, and law enforcement.

  14. Reduced object related negativity response indicates impaired auditory scene analysis in adults with autistic spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veema Lodhia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Auditory Scene Analysis provides a useful framework for understanding atypical auditory perception in autism. Specifically, a failure to segregate the incoming acoustic energy into distinct auditory objects might explain the aversive reaction autistic individuals have to certain auditory stimuli or environments. Previous research with non-autistic participants has demonstrated the presence of an Object Related Negativity (ORN in the auditory event related potential that indexes pre-attentive processes associated with auditory scene analysis. Also evident is a later P400 component that is attention dependent and thought to be related to decision-making about auditory objects. We sought to determine whether there are differences between individuals with and without autism in the levels of processing indexed by these components. Electroencephalography (EEG was used to measure brain responses from a group of 16 autistic adults, and 16 age- and verbal-IQ-matched typically-developing adults. Auditory responses were elicited using lateralized dichotic pitch stimuli in which inter-aural timing differences create the illusory perception of a pitch that is spatially separated from a carrier noise stimulus. As in previous studies, control participants produced an ORN in response to the pitch stimuli. However, this component was significantly reduced in the participants with autism. In contrast, processing differences were not observed between the groups at the attention-dependent level (P400. These findings suggest that autistic individuals have difficulty segregating auditory stimuli into distinct auditory objects, and that this difficulty arises at an early pre-attentive level of processing.

  15. Prefrontal and striatal activity related to values of objects and locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DaeyeolLee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The value of an object acquired by a particular action often determines the motivation to produce that action. Previous studies found neural signals related to the values of different objects or goods in the orbitofrontal cortex, while the values of outcomes expected from different actions are broadly represented in multiple brain areas implicated in movement planning. However, how the brain combines the values associated with various objects and the information about their locations is not known. In this study, we tested whether the neurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and striatum in rhesus monkeys might contribute to translating the value signals between multiple frames of reference. Monkeys were trained to perform an oculomotor intertemporal choice in which the color of a saccade target and the number of its surrounding dots signaled the magnitude of reward and its delay, respectively. In both DLPFC and striatum, temporally discounted values associated with specific target colors and locations were encoded by partially overlapping populations of neurons. In the DLPFC, the information about reward delays and temporally discounted values of rewards available from specific target locations emerged earlier than the corresponding signals for target colors. Similar results were reproduced by a simple network model built to compute temporally discounted values of rewards in different locations. Therefore, DLPFC might play an important role in estimating the values of different actions by combining the previously learned values of objects and their present locations.

  16. Simple Ontology of Manipulation Actions based on Hand-Object Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wörgötter, Florentin; Aksoy, E. E.

    2013-01-01

    Humans can perform a multitude of different actions with their hands (manipulations). In spite of this, so far there have been only a few attempts to represent manipulation types trying to understand the underlying principles. Here we first discuss how manipulation actions are structured in space and time. For this we use as temporal anchor points those moments where two objects (or hand and object) touch or un-touch each other during a manipulation. We show that by this one can define a relatively small tree-like manipulation ontology. We find less than 30 fundamental manipulations. The temporal anchors also provide us with information about when to pay attention to additional important information, for example when to consider trajectory shapes and relative poses between objects. As a consequence a highly condensed representation emerges by which different manipulations can be recognized and encoded. Examples of manipulations recognition and execution by a robot based on this representation are given at theend of this study.

  17. Action feedback affects the perception of action-related objects beyond actual action success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WladimirKirsch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful object-oriented action typically increases the perceived size of aimed target objects. This phenomenon has been assumed to reflect an impact of an actor’s current action ability on visual perception. The actual action ability and the explicit knowledge of action outcome, however, were confounded in previous studies. The present experiments aimed at disentangling these two factors. Participants repeatedly tried to hit a circular target varying in size with a stylus movement under restricted feedback conditions. After each movement they were explicitly informed about the success in hitting the target and were then asked to judge target size. The explicit feedback regarding movement success was manipulated orthogonally to actual movement success. The results of three experiments indicated the participants’ bias to judge relatively small targets as larger and relatively large targets as smaller after explicit feedback of failure than after explicit feedback of success. This pattern was independent of the actual motor performance, suggesting that the actors’ evaluations of motor actions may bias perception of target objects in itself.

  18. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 145 - Clauses for Contracts and Small Purchases Awarded by Recipient

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...than $2000 shall include a clause for compliance with...or laborers shall include a clause for compliance with...100,000 shall contain a clause that requires the recipient...certification regarding its exclusion status and that of its...

  19. 48 CFR 1436.270-3 - Part II-Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Special Aspects of Contracting...Construction 1436.270-3 Part II—Contract clauses. For Section I, Contract clause, include any clauses required by law or by the FAR (including...

  20. 24 CFR 200.420 - Equal opportunity clause to be included in contracts and subcontracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equal opportunity clause to be included in contracts...Opportunity § 200.420 Equal opportunity clause to be included in contracts...and subcontracts. (a) The equal opportunity clause prescribed by...

  1. 79 FR 58699 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Taxes (DFARS Case 2013...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    ...clause. The rule also includes in the regulation the full text of the alternate clause. DATES: Effective September...the requirements for their use, and (3) include the full text of the alternate clause. No comments were received...

  2. 79 FR 17448 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Quality Assurance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-28

    ...alternate clauses and includes the full text of each alternate. DATES: Effective...procurement, and (3) include the full text of the clause alternate. The inclusion of the full text of the alternate clause makes...

  3. Improving parsing by incorporating "prosodic clause boundaries" into a grammar

    OpenAIRE

    Bakenecker, G.; Block, U.; Batliner, Anton; Kompe, Ralf; Nöth, Elmar; Regel-Brietzmann, P.

    1994-01-01

    In written language, punctuation is used to separate main and subordinate clause. In spoken language, ambiguities arise due to missing punctuation, but clause boundaries are often marked prosodically and can be used instead. We detect PCBs (Prosodically markedClauseBoundaries) by using prosodic features (duration, intonation, energy, and pause information) with a neural network, achieving a recognition rate of 82%. PCBs are integrated into our grammar using a special syntactic category "break...

  4. Subjective cognitive complaint in healthy older adults: identification of major domains and relation to objective performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Anne-Sophie; Belleville, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed complaints across a range of memory domains in middle-aged and older adults, as well as assessed their relationship with objective cognitive performance and personal characteristics. A total of 115 community-dwelling, healthy adults between the ages of 45 and 87 completed the Self-Evaluation Questionnaire (QAM) and were tested with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. A principal component analysis identified seven dimensions of complaint. Difficulty inhibiting internal and external sources of interference when learning or remembering something was the main area of complaint and it was correlated with word-list recall and Digit Symbol. We identified complaints related to a set of memory failures that appear to be more detrimental to autonomy and safety. These were correlated with a measure of functional autonomy and might, therefore, indicate more severe difficulties. Overall, this study provides indications regarding the main domains of memory complaints and identifies which complaints are most reflective of objective cognitive problems. PMID:23731126

  5. 48 CFR 27.201-2 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201-2 Contract clauses. ...Notice and Assistance Regarding Patent and Copyright Infringement, in all solicitations and contracts...

  6. 17 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - Sample Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...parties to transactions, and credit card usage” ]; and • Information we...your creditworthiness and credit history” ]. Sample Clause...parties to transactions, and credit card usage” ]; and • Information...

  7. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 216 - Sample Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...parties to transactions, and credit card usage” ]; and • Information we...your creditworthiness and credit history” ]. Sample Clause...parties to transactions, and credit card usage” ]; and • Information...

  8. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 716 - SAMPLE CLAUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...parties to transactions, and credit card usage” ]; and • Information we...your creditworthiness and credit history” ]. Sample Clause...parties to transactions, and credit card usage” ]; and • Information...

  9. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 160 - Sample Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...parties to transactions and credit card usage” ]; and • Information we...your creditworthiness and credit history” ]. Sample Clause...parties to transactions and credit card usage” ]; and • Information...

  10. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 573 - Sample Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...parties to transactions, and credit card usage” ]; and • Information we...your creditworthiness and credit history” ]. Sample Clause...parties to transactions, and credit card usage” ]; and • Information...

  11. 16 CFR Appendix B to Part 313 - Sample Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...parties to transactions, and credit card usage” ]; and • Information we...your creditworthiness and credit history” ]. Sample Clause...parties to transactions, and credit card usage” ]; and • Information...

  12. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 332 - Sample Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...parties to transactions, and credit card usage ”]; and • Information we...your creditworthiness and credit history ”]. Sample Clause...parties to transactions, and credit card usage ”]; and • Information...

  13. Formalized description of basic structure of representation of matrix universal object-relational databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklyaev Ivan Aleksandrovich

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A formal description of the relational structure of data representation (SRD is expanded by its foreign level, corresponding to a set of databases that allows simultaneous work with several matrix universal object-relational data-bases (MUORDB. In MUORDB the possibility of formation of complex units of information is realized, for this the fifth dimension has been set. This does not contradict the properties of atomicity of relational databases. The concept of MUORDB formation is based first on the layout of the relational SRD in a joint matrix structure, i.e. metadata are represented in the same form as substan-tive information relational SRD. In MUORDB the structure of the tuple is deep-ened by one dimension and its element is extended from two to five compo-nents: a reference to a field (attribute of the table, meaning, the boundaries of time of limited information relevance of the tuple element, the number of the parent element in the tuple, designed for tree-like structure of complex information unit. The fundamental step in creating a MUORDB database is to develop a universal data type. The value of the generic type is placed in a dynamic array of byte type, which hosted at the seventh dimension of the MUORDB matrix. Thus, the final seven-dimensional matrix, consisting of six dynamic arrays and the sixth static array responsible for the tuple element is obtained.

  14. Field-Testing Reusable Learning Objects Related to Sensory Over-Responsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan M. Gee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is an increased need for dynamic, mobile, and relevant parent and caregiver education related to autism spectrum disorders (ASD and Sensory Processing (SP. This need may be due to the increased incidence of the conditions’ co-morbidity and the revision of the diagnostic criteria of ASD. Reusable learning objects (RLOs have been implemented as instructional tools as a part of, or adjunct to, formal health care education programs. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the appropriateness of RLOs as a part of routine patient and caregiver instruction of children with ASD. Method. A semi-structured interview/rating scale was implemented among three practicing occupational therapists to ascertain their opinions regarding six prototype RLOs related to sensory processing for caregivers of children with ASD. Results. The participants’ perspectives revealed that the SP-based prototype RLOs were a viable and valuable option to be included as a resource for parents and caregivers of children with ASD. Conclusion. The findings of this study suggest that RLOs related to SP were valuable, especially related to their subject matter, accessibility, and reusability. Furthermore, the participants indirectly identified the strengths related to the foundational concepts of RLOs and how they could be applied to other therapeutic and behavioral topics for parents and caregivers of children with ASD.

  15. A Comparative Study Between the Performance of Relational & Object Oriented Database in Data Warehousing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpa Suri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A data warehouse is a repository of subjectively selected and adapted operational data which cansuccessfully answer any ad hoc, statistical, complex or analytical queries. Data warehousing technology isbecoming essential for effective business intelligence, business strategy formulation and implementation ina globally competitive environment where in larger and larger amounts of data are required to beprocessed faster and faster for comprehension of its real meaning and impact. A warehouse is a subjectoriented,integrated, time-variant and non-volatile collection of data in support of management's decisionmaking process”. Data that gives information about a particular subject instead of about a company'songoing operations. It is integrated as data that is gathered into the data warehouse from a variety ofsources and merged into a coherent whole. Data warehouse system is time variant as all data in the datawarehouse is identified with a particular time period This paper discusses in detail two existing databasemodels used for data warehousing, the relational database and object oriented database and does ananalysis of the benefits of Object Oriented databases over the conventional relational database in Datawarehousing.

  16. "A Proper Objective": Constitutional Commitment and Educational Opportunity after Bolling v. Sharpe and Parents Involved in Community Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Minow, Martha Louise

    2012-01-01

    “Segregation in public education is not reasonably related to any proper governmental objective, and thus it imposes on Negro children of the District of Columbia a burden that constitutes an arbitrary deprivation of their liberty in violation of the Due Process Clause.” (Bolling v. Sharpe, 347 U.S. 497, 500 (1954).) Four years ago, the United States Supreme Court, in a case called Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No.1 rejected as unconstitutional two schoo...

  17. The Use of the Rorschach Inkblot Test in the Assessment of Object Relations: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Hope Lynette

    Research in how the Rorschach Inkblot Test has been utilized in the assessment of object relations is reviewed. The review includes a critical examination of six areas: (1) constructs and concepts of object-relations theory represented in the research; (2) relevant Rorschach history and history; (3) characteristics of Rorschach-based,…

  18. Comparison of time adjustment clauses between DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Finnie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines time adjustment clauses, as they relate to time adjustment between standard terms of construction contracts. DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC were compared on the basis of how risks are allocated, how this may impact on the contractor’s pricing, and ease of understanding for each clause. ASTCC was found to be the most easily interpreted contract, followed by AS4000 and then NZS3910. These assessments were based on the following: a whether each contract contains words with multiple meanings, b the number of words used per sentence, c the amount of internal cross-referencing, and d the clarity of the contract structure. The allowable pre-conditions for the contractor to claim a time adjustment are similar for all three contracts, and none of them expressly state which party is to bare the risk of buildability, or address the risk of a designer’s disclaimer clause. All of the contracts adopt the principle of contra preferentum which means that the employer bares the risk of variance if there are any ambiguities in the design documentation. Due to their similarities of risk allocation, all of the contracts provide the employer with a similar amount of price surety. AS4000 is the only contract to contain a stringent time-bar clause, limiting a contractor’s time adjustment claim. ASTCC requires the contractor to apply ‘immediately’ and DZ3910 provides a time-bar of 20 working days or as soon as practicable. None of the contracts clarify whether their timing requirements take precedence over the prevention principle, or over any other ground for claiming a time adjustment. The effect of DZ3910’s pre-notification clause 5.19.3 is discussed, and an alternative contents structure is recommended for DZ3910, using a project management method. 

  19. Intonation Units, Clauses, and Preferred Argument Structure in Conversational Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazuko

    2000-01-01

    Examines informal Japanese conversations between 16 pairs of same-sex friends to explore the preferred information structure of the intonation unit and the preferred clause structure in terms of the number and type of arguments contained per clause. (Author/VWL)

  20. Flatness of the Energy Landscape for Horn Clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saratha Sathasivam

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Little-Hopfield neural network programmed with Horn clauses is studied. We argue that the energy landscape of the system, corresponding to the inconsistency function for logical interpretations of the sets of Horn clauses, has minimal ruggedness. This is supported by computer simulations.

  1. Flatness of the Energy Landscape for Horn Clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Saratha Sathasivam; Wan Ahmad Tajuddin Wan Abdullah

    2007-01-01

    The Little-Hopfield neural network programmed with Horn clauses is studied. We argue that the energy landscape of the system, corresponding to the inconsistency function for logical interpretations of the sets of Horn clauses, has minimal ruggedness. This is supported by computer simulations.

  2. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 40 - Sample Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Explanation of opt out right (institutions that disclose...of the exceptions) A bank may use this clause...explanation of the consumer's right to opt out of the disclosure...consumer may exercise that right. The bank may use this clause...

  3. The Hilbert space of conditional clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Charles

    2015-05-01

    In the absence of a satisfactory interpretation of quantum theory, physical law lacks physical basis. This paper reviews the orthodox, or Dirac-von Neumann interpretation, and makes explicit that Hilbert space describes propositions about measurement results. Kets are defined as conditional clauses referring to measurements in a formal language. It is seen that these clauses are elements of a Hilbert space, such that addition is logical disjunction, the dual space consists of consequent clauses, and the inner product is a set of statements in the subjunctive mood. The probability interpretation gives truth values for corresponding future tense statements when the initial state is actually prepared and the final state is to be measured. The mathematical structure of quantum mechanics is formulated in terms of discrete measurement results at finite level of accuracy and does not depend on an assumption of a substantive, or background, space-time continuum. A continuum of kets, ?x> for x ? ?3, is constructed from linear combinations of kets in a finite basis. The inner product can be expressed either as a finite sum or as an integral. Discrete position functions are uniquely embedded into smooth wave functions in such a way that differential operators are defined. It is shown that the choice of basis has no effect on underlying physics (quantum covariance). The Dirac delta has a representation as a smooth function. Operators do not in general have an integral form. The Schrödinger equation is shown from the requirements of the probability interpretation. It is remarked that a formal construction of quantum electrodynamics (qed) avoiding divergence problems has been completed using finite dimensional Hilbert space. I conclude that quantum mechanics makes statements about the world with clear physical meaning, such that space is emergent from particle interactions and has no fundamental role.

  4. Experimental Study on Event-Related Potential for Objective Evaluation of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Motoshi; Honma, Tomohiro; Inoue, Hiroshi; Niiyama, Yoshitsugu; Takahashi, Toru; Kumagai, Masanori; Akiyama, Yoshinobu

    In order to study the application of event-related potential (ERP) for performing objective evaluation of food, the ERP was measured when subjectively judging the appearance of food by three-grade scale with the opinion “like”, “favorite” and “more favorite”. Sushi and cooked rice were selected as typical foods. Five pictures of each food that the subjects liked were chosen before measurements, and then were used in opinion tests. As a result, the P300 component of the ERP was detected, and the P300 area (surrounded by ERP waveform from the latency 250 to 500ms) became larger when the subjects judged as “more favorite”, which indicates the feasibility of evaluation of food using the ERP.

  5. Las cláusulas de confidencialidad en el contrato de trabajo / Confidentiality Clauses in the Contract of Employment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alfredo, Sierra Herrero.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Quienes se familiarizan normalmente con la información confidencial de una empresa son sus trabajadores, en particular, aquellos que tienen el carácter de exclusiva confianza. Para resguardar el cuidado de dichos antecedentes, la empresa suscribe con dichos trabajadores cláusulas de confidencialidad [...] en los contratos de trabajo. Este artículo analiza tales cláusulas en el ámbito jurídico laboral, en particular, su noción, objetivos principales, requisitos necesarios para que sean consideradas válidas y las consecuencias que se derivan de su incumplimiento. Abstract in english Employees, especially those in exclusively confidential positions, are the usually familiar with the company's confidential information. In order to safeguard that information, the company incorporates confidentiality clauses in the contracts of employment of said employees. This article analyzes sa [...] id clauses in the legal-labor scope, particularly their notion, their main objectives, required to be deemed as valid, and the consequences of non-compliance.

  6. Fast Blocked Clause Decomposition with High Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jingchao

    2015-01-01

    Any CNF formula can be decomposed two blocked subsets such that both can be solved by BCE (Blocked Clause Elimination). To make the decomposition more useful, one hopes to have the decomposition as unbalanced as possible. It is often time consuming to achieve this goal, since it has been proven to be NP-hard. So far there have been several decomposition and post-processing algorithms such as PureDecompose, QuickDecompose, EagerMover etc. We found that these existing algorith...

  7. 79 FR 65815 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Foreign Acquisition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-05

    ...addition, the rule includes the full text of each provision or clause alternate...basic or the alternate clause. The full text of each provision and clause alternate...with alternates, and include the full text of each provision or clause in...

  8. Relative object detectability (ROD): a new metric for comparing x-ray image detector performance for a specified object of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V; Jain, A; Bednarek, D R; Rudin, S

    2014-03-19

    Relative object detectability (ROD) quantifies the relative performance of two image detectors for a specified object of interest by taking the following ratio: the integral of detective quantum efficiency of a detector weighted by the frequency spectrum of the object divided by that for a second detector. Four different detectors, namely the micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF), the Dexela Model 1207 (Dex) and Hamamatsu Model C10901D-40 (Ham) CMOS x-ray detectors, and a flat-panel detector (FPD) were compared. The ROD was calculated for six pairs of detectors: (1) Dex/FPD, (2) MAF/FPD, (3) Ham/FPD, (4) Dex/Ham, (5) MAF/Ham and (6) MAF/Dex for wires of 5 mm fixed length, solid spheres ranging in diameter from 50 to 600 microns, and four simulated iodine-filled blood vessels of outer diameters 0.4 and 0.5 mm, each with wall thicknesses of 0.1 and 0.15 mm. Marked variation of ROD for the wires and spheres is demonstrated as a function of object size for the various detector pairs. The ROD of all other detectors relative to the FPD was much greater than one for small features and approached 1.0 as the diameter increased. The relative detectability of simulated small iodine-filled blood vessels for all detector pairs was seen to be independent of the vessel wall thickness for the same inner diameter. In this study, the ROD is shown to have the potential to be a useful figure of merit to evaluate the relative performance of two detectors for a given imaging task. PMID:25302002

  9. Age-related changes in feature-based object memory retrieval as measured by event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Mudar, Raksha A; Spence, Jeffrey S; Pudhiyidath, Athula; Eroh, Justin; DeLaRosa, Bambi; Kraut, Michael A; Hart, John

    2014-07-01

    To investigate neural mechanisms that support semantic functions in aging, we recorded scalp EEG during an object retrieval task in 22 younger and 22 older adults. The task required determining if a particular object could be retrieved when two visual words representing object features were presented. Both age groups had comparable accuracy although response times were longer in older adults. In both groups a left fronto-temporal negative potential occurred at around 750ms during object retrieval, consistent with previous findings (Brier, Maguire, Tillman, Hart, & Kraut, 2008). In only older adults, a later positive frontal potential was found peaking between 800 and 1000ms during no retrieval. These findings suggest younger and older adults employ comparable neural mechanisms when features clearly facilitate retrieval of an object memory, but when features yield no retrieval, older adults use additional neural resources to engage in a more effortful and exhaustive search prior to making a decision. PMID:24911552

  10. Positioning and Relating: Market Boundaries and the Slippery Identity of the Marketing Object

    OpenAIRE

    Finch, John; Geiger, Susi

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel perspective on positioning by identifying goods and services first as market objects and then as marketing objects. As part of their normal marketing activities marketers position market objects and thereby provide means for other market actors to evaluate differences and similarities across an array of goods and services. Hence, marketers help disentangle goods and services in a market space, so formatting them as market objects. At the same time, marketers tend to make...

  11. Over a barrel : exiting from NAFTA's proportionality clause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural gas exports to the United States are locked in by the proportionality clause of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The authors state that although both conventional oil and gas have peaked in Canada, the proportionality clause requires Canada to maintain its current share of energy exports to the United States, even if Canadians experience shortages. The unique clause guarantees the United States' access to Canada's energy resources. The authors cautioned that NAFTA limits Canada's options for managing its energy future and recommended options for regaining Canadian energy security. With NAFTA and the energy proportionality clause back on the political agenda for the first time since the 1993 federal election, this document explored 3 scenarios under which the proportionality clause could be invoked. The scenarios demonstrated how the clause could prevent Canada from reducing exports to conserve oil; prioritizing natural gas for petrochemicals; or, substituting Canadian oil for volatile foreign imports. The exercise demonstrated how under certain circumstances, proportionality could result in energy shortages for Canadians. The authors suggested that if NAFTA were to be renegotiated, Canada's first priority should be to end the proportionality clause because it stands in the way of Canada developing an effective energy security plan. 51 refs., 3 tabs

  12. The Production of Finite and Nonfinite Complement Clauses by Children with Specific Language Impairment and Their Typically Developing Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Amanda J.; Leonard, Laurence B.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore whether 13 children with specific language impairment (SLI; ages 5;1-8;0 [years;months]) were as proficient as typically developing age- and vocabulary-matched children in the production of finite and nonfinite complement clauses. Preschool children with SLI have marked difficulties with verb-related…

  13. CRUD-DOM : a model for bridging the gap between the object-oriented and the relational paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Óscar M.; Aguiar, Rui L.; Santos, Maribel Yasmina

    2010-01-01

    Object-oriented programming is the most successful programming paradigm. Relational database management systems are the most successful data storage components. Despite their individual successes and their desirable tight binding, they rely on different points of view about data entailing difficulties on their integration. Some solutions have been proposed to overcome these difficulties, such as Embedded SQL, object/relational mappings (O/RM), language extensions and e...

  14. Bi-Objective Optimization Based on Compromise Method for Horizontal Fragmentation in Relational Data Warehouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Barr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Generally, research that dealt with the selection problems for optimization techniques or structures in relational data ware houses supports these problems by considering only a single criterion of optimization. The optimization criteria may be the response time of query execution, the number of inputs/outputs between the main memory and the disk, the space allocated to store the index or materialized views, or the number fragments required by the administrator of the data warehouse when using the fragmentation technique. The present work deals with the problem of selecting the horizontal fragmentation technique while considering both the number of I/O between memory and disk during decisional queries and the number of fragments, as two objective functions to minimize. To reduce the scope of choice solutions, we are based on a scalar method, called compromise method. The method is complemented by the principle of Pareto front to infer the best solutions. The study has been experimented on APB1 benchmark of data warehouse.

  15. THE COMPLEX CLAUSE IN BORUCA LA ORACIÓN COMPLEJA EN LA LENGUA BORUCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damaris Castro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the complex clause in Boruca, a Chibchan language once spoken in the southern territories on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The present study concentrates on the behavior of complex clauses, following a major distinction between paratactic and hypotactic constructions. Paratactic constructions are divided into asyndetic and syndetic constructions. The latter are quite frequent and it is common to find the syndetons: mang, ní, ihchí and iné in the combination of sentences in regular speech. Hypotactic constructions also have asyndetic and syndetic constructions usually functioning as object complements. There is also evidence for reported speech, indirect questions and adverbial clauses (classified at least into seven different types.El artículo describe la oración compleja del boruca, una lengua chibcha que se habló en los territorios del Pacífico Sur en Costa Rica. El estudio se centra en el comportamiento de las proposiciones complejas, a partir de la distinción principal entre construcciones paratácticas e hipotácticas. Las construcciones paratácticas se dividen en sindéticas y asindéticas. Estas últimas son bastante frecuentes, y el uso de los conectores mang, ní, ihchí e iné es también bastante utilizado en la combinación de frases del lenguaje común. Las construcciones hipotácticas también presentan asindesis y sindesis, las cuales suelen funcionar como complementos de objeto. Hay también evidencia de discurso directo e indirecto, preguntas indirectas y construcciones adverbiales (clasificadas en siete tipos diferentes.

  16. THE COMPLEX CLAUSE IN BORUCA / LA ORACIÓN COMPLEJA EN LA LENGUA BORUCA

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Damaris, Castro.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo describe la oración compleja del boruca, una lengua chibcha que se habló en los territorios del Pacífico Sur en Costa Rica. El estudio se centra en el comportamiento de las proposiciones complejas, a partir de la distinción principal entre construcciones paratácticas e hipotácticas. Las [...] construcciones paratácticas se dividen en sindéticas y asindéticas. Estas últimas son bastante frecuentes, y el uso de los conectores mang, ní, ihchí e iné es también bastante utilizado en la combinación de frases del lenguaje común. Las construcciones hipotácticas también presentan asindesis y sindesis, las cuales suelen funcionar como complementos de objeto. Hay también evidencia de discurso directo e indirecto, preguntas indirectas y construcciones adverbiales (clasificadas en siete tipos diferentes). Abstract in english This paper describes the complex clause in Boruca, a Chibchan language once spoken in the southern territories on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The present study concentrates on the behavior of complex clauses, following a major distinction between paratactic and hypotactic constructions. Paratac [...] tic constructions are divided into asyndetic and syndetic constructions. The latter are quite frequent and it is common to find the syndetons: mang, ní, ihchí and iné in the combination of sentences in regular speech. Hypotactic constructions also have asyndetic and syndetic constructions usually functioning as object complements. There is also evidence for reported speech, indirect questions and adverbial clauses (classified at least into seven different types).

  17. Merger Clauses in Contracts Governed by Polish law

    OpenAIRE

    Rados?aw Struga?a

    2013-01-01

    The use of so-called merger clauses while drafting contracts governed by the civil law is becoming increasingly popular. Since merger clauses originated from the common law, it is not easy to ascertain their legal effects under the civil law. This is also the case in Polish law. Not only is there little mention in the legal literature of the effects of merger clauses, but also legal scholars' views on the issue differ widely. This article tries to answer the question of what the legal effe...

  18. Proposed Framework wWhich Use the Object Oriented Principles in Relational Systems. General Aspects and Principles (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin STRIMBEI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are some significant theoretical and technological approaches on the issue of object-relational "impedance mismatch" between applications' abstract model and database structures. Two characteristics of those approaches we think that are questionable: first of all it is so called “flat” nature of relational systems and model, and then there is the drawback of the storage of (object oriented semantics on the application level, thus severe limiting the data (object sharing and, at the same time, virtually broking the data independence principle of database systems architecture. In this paper we will try to outline an approach to address to some in a concrete manner.

  19. 2-Sat Sub-Clauses and the Hypernodal Structure of the 3-Sat Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, D B

    2004-01-01

    Like simpler graphs, nested (hypernodal) graphs consist of two components: a set of nodes and a set of edges, where each edge connects a pair of nodes. In the hypernodal graph model, however, a node may contain other graphs, so that a node may be contained in a graph that it contains. The inherently recursive structure of the hypernodal graph model aptly characterizes both the structure and dynamic of the 3-sat problem, a broadly applicable, though intractable, computer science problem. In this paper I first discuss the structure of the 3-sat problem, analyzing the relation of 3-sat to 2-sat, a related, though tractable problem. I then discuss sub-clauses and sub-clause thresholds and the transformation of sub-clauses into implication graphs, demonstrating how combinations of implication graphs are equivalent to hypernodal graphs. I conclude with a brief discussion of the use of hypernodal graphs to model the 3-sat problem, illustrating how hypernodal graphs model both the conditions for satisfiability and th...

  20. A Survey of Health Management User Objectives Related to Diagnostic and Prognostic Metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Scott D. Poll; Wheeler, Kevin R.; Tolga Kurtoglu

    2010-01-01

    One of the most prominent technical challenges to effective deployment of health management systems is the vast difference in user objectives with respect to engineering development. In this paper, a detailed survey on the objectives of different users of health management systems is presented. These user objectives are then mapped to the metrics typically encountered in the development and testing of two main systems health management functions: diagnosis and prognosis. Using this mapping, t...

  1. Representing Objects using Global 3D Relational Features for Recognition Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Wail

    2015-01-01

    In robotic systems, visual interpretations of the environment compose an essential element in a variety of applications, especially those involving manipulation of objects. Interpreting the environment is often done in terms of recognition of objects using machine learning approaches. For user acceptance, the recognition must be reliable and the learning must be fast, i.e. only few number of training samples should be used. In this thesis, a framework utilized in three recognition tasks is presented. The framework uses a combination of effective learning algorithms and strong visual representations. For representing objects, we derive global descriptors encoding shape using viewpoint-invariant features obtained from multiple sensors observing the scene. Objects are also described using color independently. This allows for combining color and shape when it is required for the task. For more robust color description, color calibration is performed. The framework was used in three recognition tasks: object instance recognition, object category recognition, and object spatial relationship recognition. For the object instance recognition task, we present a system that utilizes color and scale-variant shape representations. We achieve both high performance and learning efficiency. The learning efficiency is expressed in terms of scalability to many objects while requiring only a few training samples. The system has also been applied in real-world application in which its reliability allowed to initiate higher-level semantic interpretations of complex scenes. In the object category recognition task, we present a system that is capable of assigning multiple and nested categories for novel objects using a method developed for this purpose. Integrating this method with other multi-label learning approaches is also investigated. The system uses a scale-invariant shape representation and it is shown to outperform a state-of-the-art method particularly when a few samples are used for training. Both systems are benchmarked using a multi-view object dataset of 100 objects specially created for this purpose. Finally, we show that, by defining global descriptors between objects, the framework can be extended to perform recognition of object spatial relationships. In this task, we show that we can achieve high recognition performance for a number of relationships of objects in a simulated environment.

  2. The Market as an Object of Attachment : Exploring Postsocial Relations in Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Knorr-Cetina, Karin D.; Brügger, Urs

    2000-01-01

    This paper rests on the assumption of an increased presence and relevance of object worlds in the social world. !t holds that this influx of object worlds coincides with changing patterns of human relatedness that can be gIossed by the notion postsocial forms. Postsocial forms include object-relationships where the objects are non-human entities. One characteristic of the present situation is that perhaps for the first time in recent history it appears unclear whether other persons are, for h...

  3. The Object-Based Simon Effect: Grasping Affordance or Relative Location of the Graspable Part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dongbin; Proctor, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Reaction time is often shorter when the irrelevant graspable handle of an object corresponds with the location of a keypress response to the relevant attribute than when it does not. This object-based Simon effect has been attributed to an affordance for grasping the handle with the hand to the same side. Because a grasping affordance should…

  4. 48 CFR 852.102 - Incorporating provisions and clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...completion by the offeror or prospective contractor and submittal with the quotation or offer. (b) For any FAR or 48 CFR Capter 8 (VAAR) provision or clause that requires completion by the contracting officer, the contracting officer shall, as...

  5. Direct Stakeholder's Perception of PPA Clauses In The Nepalese Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Shrestha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the perceptions of the stakeholders regarding the key issues in Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs in the Nepalese Environment. A total of 90 questionnaires representing sponsors, utility, lenders and government officials were used for the study. The questionnaire sought the perception of the stakeholders regarding the significance (importance of the clauses and the likelihood of inclusion of the clauses in PPAs. Comparison of the ranks of means was conducted by Kruskal-Wallis tests to see the significance of the differences in responses of the stakeholders and Mann-Whitney tests to see the significance of the differences of the pairs of stakeholders. Data analysis showed clauses where the prime stakeholders have similar stand and clauses where the perceptions are divergent. The findings of this paper will help the stakeholders in negotiating PPAs.

  6. 48 CFR 970.3270 - Standard financial management clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Alternate IV in management and operating...integrated accounting systems. (2...equivalent controls in a separate...5203-1, Management controls. (5...respect to Cost Accounting Standards...financial management clauses...accounting systems:...

  7. 48 CFR 50.104-4 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL...Contractual Actions 50.104-4 Contract clause. The contracting...Indemnification Under Public Law 85-804, in contracts whenever the approving...

  8. 48 CFR 1509.507-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...QUALIFICATIONS Organizational Conflicts of Interests 1509.507-2...Technical Assistance and Removal Team (START) solicitations and...Environmental Services Assistance Team (ESAT) solicitations and...a similar clause requiring conflict of interest...

  9. Direct Stakeholder's Perception of PPA Clauses In The Nepalese Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, R. B.; Stephen Ogunlana

    2007-01-01

    The paper analyses the perceptions of the stakeholders regarding the key issues in Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs) in the Nepalese Environment. A total of 90 questionnaires representing sponsors, utility, lenders and government officials were used for the study. The questionnaire sought the perception of the stakeholders regarding the significance (importance) of the clauses and the likelihood of inclusion of the clauses in PPAs. Comparison of the ranks of means was conducted by Kruskal-Wall...

  10. Generalised Interpolation by Solving Recursion-Free Horn Clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Ashutosh; Popeea, Corneliu; Rybalchenko, Andrey

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present InterHorn, a solver for recursion-free Horn clauses. The main application domain of InterHorn lies in solving interpolation problems arising in software verification. We show how a range of interpolation problems, including path, transition, nested, state/transition and well-founded interpolation can be handled directly by InterHorn. By detailing these interpolation problems and their Horn clause representations, we hope to encourage the emergence of...

  11. Exclamative Clauses at the Syntax-Semantics Interface

    OpenAIRE

    Zanuttini, Raffaella

    2001-01-01

    Exclamative clauses exhibit a structural diversity which raises the question of whether they form a clause type in the sense of Sadock & Zwicky (1985). Based on data from English, Italian, and Paduan, we argue that the class of exclamatives is syntactically characterizable in terms of a pair of abstract syntactic properties. Moreover, we propose that these properties encode two components of meaning which uniquely define the semantics and pragmatics of exclarnatives. Overall, our paper is a c...

  12. Stock loan with Automatic termination clause, cap and margin

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Shuqing; Liang, Zongxia; Wu, Weiming

    2010-01-01

    This paper works out fair values of stock loan model with automatic termination clause, cap and margin. This stock loan is treated as a generalized perpetual American option with possibly negative interest rate and some constraints. Since it helps a bank to control the risk, the banks charge less service fees compared to stock loans without any constraints. The automatic termination clause, cap and margin are in fact a stop order set by the bank. Mathematically, it is a kind...

  13. A Survey of Health Management User Objectives Related to Diagnostic and Prognostic Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Kevin R.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Poll, Scott D.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most prominent technical challenges to effective deployment of health management systems is the vast difference in user objectives with respect to engineering development. In this paper, a detailed survey on the objectives of different users of health management systems is presented. These user objectives are then mapped to the metrics typically encountered in the development and testing of two main systems health management functions: diagnosis and prognosis. Using this mapping, the gaps between user goals and the metrics associated with diagnostics and prognostics are identified and presented with a collection of lessons learned from previous studies that include both industrial and military aerospace applications.

  14. Syntaktische Nebensatzklassen im Deutschen / Syntactic classes of subordinate clauses in German

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hardarik, Blühdorn.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo dá uma visão panorâmica das classes de orações subordinadas da língua alemã. Suas funções e estruturas sintáticas são descritas mediante o esquema das posições e dos campos. Três aspectos específicos são tratados mais a fundo: as funções (i) de pronomes e (ii) de partículas de comparação em [...] relação a orações subordinadas e (iii) o papel de orações subordinadas em construções clivadas. O artigo pode ser usado para fins didáticos no meio acadêmico e como ponto de partida para estudos em sintaxe comparativa. Abstract in english This article gives an overview of the syntactic classes of subordinate clauses in German. Their functions and structures are described with the help of the model of linear positions and fields. Three questions are treated in more detail: the functions of (i) pronouns and (ii) comparative particles i [...] n relation to subordinate clauses and (iii) the role of subordinate clauses in cleft constructions. The article can be used in academic teaching and as a starting point for studies in comparative syntax.

  15. Quantum search algorithm tailored to clause-satisfaction problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsi, Avatar

    2015-05-01

    Many important computer science problems can be reduced to the clause-satisfaction problem. We are given n Boolean variables xk and m clauses cj where each clause is a function of values of some xk. We want to find an assignment i of xk for which all m clauses are satisfied. Let fj(i ) be a binary function, which is 1 if the j th clause is satisfied by the assignment i , else fj(i ) =0 . Then the solution is r for which f (i =r )=1 , where f (i ) is the and function of all fj(i ) . In quantum computing, Grover's algorithm can be used to find r . A crucial component of this algorithm is the selective phase inversion Ir of the solution state encoding r . Ir is implemented by computing f (i ) for all i in superposition which requires computing and of all m binary functions fj(i ) . Hence there must be coupling between the computation circuits for each fj(i ) . In this paper, we present an alternative quantum search algorithm which relaxes the requirement of such couplings. Hence it offers implementation advantages for clause-satisfaction problems.

  16. Action feedback affects the perception of action-related objects beyond actual action success

    OpenAIRE

    WladimirKirsch

    2014-01-01

    Successful object-oriented action typically increases the perceived size of aimed target objects. This phenomenon has been assumed to reflect an impact of an actor’s current action ability on visual perception. The actual action ability and the explicit knowledge of action outcome, however, were confounded in previous studies. The present experiments aimed at disentangling these two factors. Participants repeatedly tried to hit a circular target varying in size with a stylus movement under ...

  17. The one that does, leads: action relations influence the perceived temporal order of graspable objects.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Kl; Humphreys, Gw

    2010-01-01

    Perception and action are influenced by the "possibilities for action" in the environment. Neuropsychological studies (e.g., Riddoch, Humphreys, Edwards, Baker, and Willson, 2003) have demonstrated that objects that are perceived to be interacting (e.g., a corkscrew going toward the top of a wine bottle) are perceptually integrated into a functional unit, facilitating report of both objects. In addition, patients with parietal damage tend to report the "active" item of the pair (the corkscrew...

  18. Applying the Food Safety Objective and related concepts to thermal inactivation of Salmonella in poultry meat

    OpenAIRE

    Membré, J.M.; Bassett, J; Gorris, L. G. M.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the practicality of designing a heat treatment process in a food manufacturing operation for a product governed by a Food Safety Objective (FSO). Salmonella in cooked poultry meat was taken as the working example. Although there is no FSO for this product in current legislation, this may change in the (near) future. Four different process design calculations were explored by means of deterministic and probabilistic approaches to mathematical data...

  19. Operant behavior can be triggered by the position of the rat relative to objects rotating on an inaccessible platform

    OpenAIRE

    Pastalkova, E.; Kelemen, E; Bureš, J

    2003-01-01

    The present study describes a task testing the ability of rats to trigger operant behavior by their relative spatial position to inaccessible rotating objects. Rats were placed in a Skinner box with a transparent front wall through which they could observe one or two adjacent objects fixed on a slowly rotating arena (d = 1 m) surrounded by an immobile black cylinder. The direction of arena rotation was alternated at a sequence of different time intervals. Rats were reinforced for the first ba...

  20. A New Approach in Consistency of Object Oriented Model and Relational Model in Distributed Systems Base on Heterogeneous Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh kheradmandan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available According to application a database is designed to be object-oriented model or relational model but the important point is distribution and heterogeneity. So a model should be provided which work with different types of database and also be able to work disruption, and heterogeneity So one of the great challenges in the use of distributed database technologies is integrating object-oriented databases with relational databases because the platform-independent technologies have an object-oriented approach But today databases are usualy designed and implemented base on relational model. Hence this paper tries to offer a model that could bring further coordination and integration between these two exsisting database models

  1. Local tests of General Relativity with solar system objects and the Gaia mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestroffer, D.; David, P.; Saillenfest, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Gaia mission to be launched by ESA in 2013 will observe, in addition to stars, a large number of solar system objects (SSO). Gaia will provide during its 5 years mission high precision astrometry in an absolute reference frame of about 300 000 asteroids, including many Near-Earth Objects. The very precise orbits will enable to determine simultaneously the solar J2 and the PPN parameter beta and other parameters for testing the GR. Improvement from combining Gaia and radar data are also expected.

  2. A Meta-Relational Approach for the Definition and Management of Hybrid Learning Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Antonio; Fernandez-Pampillon, Ana Ma.; Fernandez-Chamizo, Carmen; Fernandez-Valmayor, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Electronic learning objects (LOs) are commonly conceived of as digital units of information used for teaching and learning. To facilitate their classification for pedagogical planning and retrieval purposes, LOs are complemented with metadata (e.g., the author). These metadata are usually restricted by a set of predetermined tags to which the…

  3. The Kangaroo Book: Developmental Activities Related to the State Kindergarten Objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Rhonda; And Others

    Intended for use in conjunction with the guidebook, "Early Childhood Education in South Carolina," this book of experiential activities aims to help kindergarten teachers plan an appropriate program for their children. Each activity described realizes one of the 18 objectives for kindergarten that were adopted by the South Carolina State Board of…

  4. General Clauses and Practice : the Use of the Principle of Good Faith in the Decisions of Chinese Courts

    OpenAIRE

    Novaretti, Simona

    2010-01-01

    The term ‘good faith’ or rather ‘objective good faith’ is the ‘king clause’ of People’s Republic of China (PRC) law. This is also tied to the value system implied by the Chinese term chengshi xinyong (????). This article offers an analysis of the Chinese term and how the PRC courts utilize the principle, which is a neologism from the 1931 Republican Civil Code, much infl uenced by German and Japanese laws. The introduction of the term in 1931 was meant to ...

  5. Multi-objective optimization in WEDM of D3 tool steel using integrated approach of Taguchi method & Grey relational analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivade, Anand S.; Shinde, Vasudev D.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, wire electrical discharge machining of D3 tool steel is studied. Influence of pulse-on time, pulse-off time, peak current and wire speed are investigated for MRR, dimensional deviation, gap current and machining time, during intricate machining of D3 tool steel. Taguchi method is used for single characteristics optimization and to optimize all four process parameters simultaneously, Grey relational analysis (GRA) is employed along with Taguchi method. Through GRA, grey relational grade is used as a performance index to determine the optimal setting of process parameters for multi-objective characteristics. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the peak current is the most significant parameters affecting on multi-objective characteristics. Confirmatory results, proves the potential of GRA to optimize process parameters successfully for multi-objective characteristics.

  6. High cardiac vagal control is related to better subjective and objective sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Gabriela G; Ford, Brett Q; Mauss, Iris B; Schabus, Manuel; Blechert, Jens; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac vagal control (CVC) has been linked to both physical and mental health. One critical aspect of health, that has not received much attention, is sleep. We hypothesized that adults with higher CVC--operationalized by high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV)--will exhibit better sleep quality assessed both subjectively (i.e., with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and objectively (i.e., with polysomnography). HF-HRV was measured in 29 healthy young women during an extended neutral film clip. Participants then underwent full polysomnography to obtain objective measures of sleep quality and HF-HRV during a night of sleep. As expected, higher resting HF-HRV was associated with higher subjective and objective sleep quality (i.e., shorter sleep latency and fewer arousals). HF-HRV during sleep (overall or separated by sleep phases) showed less consistent relationships with sleep quality. These findings indicate that high waking CVC may be a key predictor of healthy sleep. PMID:25709072

  7. 48 CFR 352.270-8 - Prostitution and related activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prostitution and related activities. 352.270-8...Provisions and Clauses 352.270-8 Prostitution and related activities. As prescribed...shall insert the following clause: Prostitution and Related Activities (January...

  8. 48 CFR 428.310 - Contract clause for work on a Government installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Contract clause for work on a Government installation. 428.310 Section 428.310 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 428.310 Contract clause for work on a Government...

  9. 48 CFR 970.2703-2 - Patent rights clause provisions for management and operating contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights clause provisions for management and... DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2703-2 Patent rights clause provisions for management...

  10. 48 CFR 232.705-70 - Clause for limitation of Government's obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Clause for limitation of Government's obligation. 232...CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Funding 232.705-70 Clause for limitation of Government's obligation. Use...232-7007, Limitation of Government's Obligation, in...

  11. Multi-objective optimization of cutting parameters in turning using grey relational analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Meenu Gupta; Surinder Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This study presents optimization of performance characteristics in unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastic composites using Taguchi method and Grey relational analysis. Performance characteristics such as surface roughness and material removal rate are optimized during rough cutting operation. Process parameters including tool nose radius, tool rake angle, feed rate, cutting speed, cutting environment and depth of cut are investigated using mixed L18 orthogonal array. Grey relation anal...

  12. On a type of heterosexuality, and the fluidity of object relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, D W

    1989-01-01

    This paper delineates a form of heterosexuality whose underlying psychological structure resembles that of perversions. It is characterized by: idealization of instinctual processes, whereby the ego subordinates the object to the actualization of the instinctual event itself; heightened narcissism in an otherwise neurotic ego organization; multiple intrapsychic uses of the object; a special kind of defensive organization; an experienced victory over the superego and associated elevation of certain aspects of the ego ideal; and a resultant alteration in the nature of close interpersonal relationships. I use clinical vignettes from both male and female patients in psychoanalysis to focus on the phenomena in question. The thinking of Chassequet-Smirgel, Freud, Khan, Rangell, Socarides, and others is used in an attempt to gain an encompassing perspective. It is emphasized that patients demonstrating this form of heterosexuality do not possess a perversion per se, but demonstrate a character neurosis which integrates certain perverse mechanisms into its defensive organization. These mechanisms can be isolated and studied in psychoanalytic treatment, with the potential for illuminating their defensive and mood-regulating functions, and eventual working through and resolution of the intrapsychic conflicts underlying them. Some comments on the implications of this form of sexuality for our contemporary culture are included. PMID:2708772

  13. Multi-objective optimization of cutting parameters in turning using grey relational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Gupta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study presents optimization of performance characteristics in unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastic composites using Taguchi method and Grey relational analysis. Performance characteristics such as surface roughness and material removal rate are optimized during rough cutting operation. Process parameters including tool nose radius, tool rake angle, feed rate, cutting speed, cutting environment and depth of cut are investigated using mixed L18 orthogonal array. Grey relation analysis is used to optimize the parameters and Principal Component Analysis is used to find the relative significance of performance characteristics. Depth of cut is the factor, which has great influence on surface roughness and material removal rate, followed by feed rate. The percentage contribution of depth of cut is 54.399% and feed rate is 5.355%.

  14. TURKISH PARTICIPLES AND GREEK RELATIVE CLAUSES: TURKISH PARASYNTHEMES AND GREEK SYNTAGMS TÜRK D?L?NDE ORTAÇLAR – YUNAN D?L?NDE ?LG? YANTÜMCELER?: TÜRKÇE’DE PARASENTEMLER, YUNANCA’DA SENTAGMLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni SELLA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkish and Greek differ clearly in terms of both the syntactic processes and the distribution of their units. Indicative of this differentiation are the difficulties faced by the speakers of Greece in acquiring the method and usage of the S?fat Fiil of the Turkish language, particularly the ones denoting relations of specialisation between reference and referent. For this purpose, we decided to examine these relations closely, both according to the principles of the contrastive study of the two structural systems, as well as in terms of error analysis, based on the theoretical premises of A. Martinet's Functional Linguistics.The analysis and interpretation of our students' errors leads to the conclusion that, compared to Modern Greek, which is for the mostpart characterised by syntagms, i.e. with an analytic method of structuring and providing information (and it is in this sense contrasted to Ancient Greek, the hardest problem in Turkish lies in the existence of synthemes and parasynthemes, i.e. a synthetic and concentrated structural method. Indeed, this is a clear difference, one that is hard to overcome in the learning process adopted for Turkish. The co-existence of genetic and typological divergences accounts for the presence of a significant number of gaps, which are due not to the strategy of interference, but rather to the mechanism of simplification and to the principle of least effort. Yunanca ile Türkçe aras?nda hem söz dizimi hem de birimlerin da??l?m? konusunda belirleyici farkl?l?klar vard?r. Bu farkl?l?klar?n ö?renimde sebep olan zorluklar?n aras?nda ana dili Yunanca olanlar?n Türkçe ö?renmelerinde, s?fat–fiil bulunduran tümcelerin söz diziminde (sentaks ve s?fat-fiillerin kullan?m?nda, özellikle de tamlayan ve tamlanan aras?ndaki ili?ki konusunda kar??la?t?klar? güçlükler de gösterilebilir. Bundan dolay?d?r ki, iki dil sistemi Kar??tsal ?nceleme ve de Yanl??lar? ?nceleme kurallar?na dayan?larak incelenip bu zorluklar?n nedenlerini ara?t?rmaya karar verilmi?tir. Bu çal??ma, André Martinet’in ??levsel Dilbilimi’nin teorisine dayan?r. Ö?rencilerin yapt??? yanl??lar?n incelenmesi ve aç?klanmas?ndan, ana dili Yunanca olanlar?n Türkçe ö?renmelerinde en büyük zorluk, Ça?da? Yunancada bildiri?imde (Eski Yunancan?n tersine, daha çok sentagmalar?n – yani verilerin ve bilgilerin ileti?iminde daha ayr?nt?l? bir yap?n?n – Türkçede ise sentem ve parasemtemlerin (birle?kebirim - yani daha yo?un ve bire?imli bir yap?n?n - kullan?lmas?d?r. Bu ay?r?c? farkl?l?ktan kaynaklanan güçlükleri a?mak, Türkçe ö?reniminde oldukça zor bir süreçtir. Genetik ve tipoloj?k farkl?l?klar?n bir araya gelmesi, oldukça büyük say?daki sapmalar?n meydana gelmesinin sebebi olarak gösterilebilir. Bu sapmalar?n, giri?imden çok, basitle?tirme ve en az çaba göstermek dü?üncesinden kaynaklanmaktad?r.

  15. Apparatus and method for simultaneously displaying relative displacements of a fluctuating biological object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a method for producing discrete images of a human organ in fluctuating motion, e.g., the heart and related vessels, images derived at selected times related to the cardiac cycle are independently presented on respective discrete areas within a common image plane. A source of X-rays irradiates the organ. A physiological synchronizer produces timing signals within the cardiac cycle for controlling the periods of transmission of the X-ray beam through the organ during, for example, end diastole and end systole. An antiscattering, masking frame has alternate parallel slits and bars at equal intervals exposing substantially half the area of presentation of an X-ray sensitive film in alternate, equally spaced area strips during, e.g., diastole. The frame is repositioned in response to a signal from the synchronizer for displacing it relative to the film such that the bars then cover the sensitized areas of the film and expose substantially the remaining half of the film during systole. The image elements are interdigitally juxtaposed to present the diastolic and systolic images in an interlaced pattern. Relative displacements of the organ during a cardiac cycle may be determined from the juxtaposed image elements. (author)

  16. 78 FR 48404 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Contract Financing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ...the proposed rule would include the full text of the clause alternate. DATES...alternate. The inclusion of the full text of each clause alternate aims to...This proposed rule would include the full text of each clause and each...

  17. 78 FR 48407 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Quality Assurance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ...the proposed rule would include the full text of each provision and/or clause...alternates. The inclusion of the full text of each clause alternate aims to...This proposed rule would include the full text of each clause and each...

  18. 79 FR 65592 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Special Contracting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-05

    ...systems. The rule also includes the full text of each alternate, rather than only...and clauses, and to include the full text of each clause alternate. The use...Additionally, the inclusion of the full text of each provision or clause...

  19. Objective and Subjective Responses to Low Relative Humidity in an Office Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagercrantz, Love Per; Wyon, David

    2003-01-01

    The impact of dry indoor air on comfort and health in winter was investigated in a crossover intervention study in two floors of an office building in northern Sweden. The indoor air humidity (normally 10-20% RH) was raised to 23-24% RH, one floor at a time, using steam humidifiers. Questionnaires and objective (clinical) measurements were applied. The following effects of increased humidity were significant, though small: the air was evaluated as less dry (though still on the dry side of neutral), eyes smarted less (by 10% of full scale) eye irritation decreased (by 11%), symptoms of dry throat, mouth, lips and skin were reduced, and it was easier to concentrate. The results confirm similar laboratory findings in 5-hour exposures (Fang et al. 2003, reported at this conference) to 2-week field exposures, but as the effects observed were again small, they do not provide sufficient justification for installing humidifiers.

  20. System for radiographically inspecting an object using backscattered radiation and related method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a system for radiographically inspecting an object disposed at a selected inspecting location along a radiation path. It comprises a source of radiation for directing a beam of radiation in a first direction along the radiation path; scanning area selecting means, interposed in the radiation path between the radiation source and the selected inspecting location, for sequentially selecting area portions of the beam of radiation and for transmitting the selected area portions to preselected area portions of the inspecting location; scanning-area determining means, responsive to the scanning area selecting means, for determining the area portions of the inspecting location selected by the scanning-area selecting means; an illuminator; and detection means

  1. OBJECTIVES AND REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO THE SUSTAINABILITY OF ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cofas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the EU Sustainable Development Strategy, whose foundations were laid in Gothenburg 2001, sustainability requires simultaneous and impartial consideration of economic, social and environmental consequences of any decision taken, so at this point, stating that “the EU to become the world whose economy is highly efficient use of resources with a high quality of life of its citizens and where socio-economic development of environmentally”. As a result, international organizations, European and national support implementation of projects and strategies to change unsustainable consumption patterns. In this sense, sustainable solutions and increased use of renewable energy resources, practice on a larger scale organic farming and intelligent management of urban waste are major objectives of not only environmental policies, but also the quality of life.

  2. Promoting the demoted : The distribution and semantics of “main clause word order” in spoken Danish complement clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Juel; Christensen, Tanya Karoli

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we investigate a hypothesis regarding the distinction between the word orders ‘finite verb, adverb’ (V>Adv, in Scandinavian linguistics often considered an instance of V2, also in subject initial clauses) and ‘adverb, finite verb’ (Adv>V, sometimes referred to as V3) in Mainland Scandinavian complement clauses. The hypothesis is semantico-pragmatic and reads that V>Adv signals foregrounding of the subordinate clause, i.e. that its content is the main point of the utterance. Our results, based upon detailed coding of the LANCHART corpus of spoken Danish, are readily interpretable as supporting the semantico-pragmatic hypothesis. Our results show that V>Adv is much more frequent in subordinate clauses than commonly assumed, and that complement clauses in Danish are not in general characterized by having Adv>V word order, but only by the possibility of having this word order. Results seemingly in conflict with predictions of the semantico-pragmatic hypothesis are discussed with respect to possible norm conflicts and shifts in communicative strategy during speech production.

  3. Incorporating Clause Learning in Grid-Based Randomized SAT Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti E.J. Hyvaerinen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Computational Grids provide a widely distributed computing environment suitable for randomized SAT solving. This paper develops techniques for incorporating clause learning, known to yield significant speed-ups in the sequential case, in such a distributed framework. The approach exploits existing state-of-the-art clause learning SAT solvers by embedding them with virtually no modifications. The paper presents an algorithmic framework for learning-enhanced randomized SAT solving in Grid environments. With a substantial amount of controlled experiments it is demonstrated that this approach enables a form of clause learning which is not directly available in the underlying sequential SAT solver. Finally, an implementation of the algorithm is run in a production level Grid where it solves several problems not solved in the SAT 2007 solver competition.

  4. Modeling object-oriented logic programming framework

    OpenAIRE

    Manco, Giuseppe; Turini, Franco

    1995-01-01

    We extend logic programming with object oriented features. Classes and objects are represented by collection of clauses and features are introduced to handle object-identity, inheritance, roles and state update. Most of the extensions are based on the possibility of dynamically updating inheritance links. Our prime concern is to provide a logical account for the extensions. This is obtained directly via the definition of a suitable proof-system, and, indirectly, via a meta-logical definition ...

  5. Pontrjagin forms and invariant objects related to the Q-curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Branson, T; Branson, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    We clarify the conformal invariance of the Pontrjagin forms by giving them a manifestly conformally invariant construction; they are shown to be the Pontrjagin forms of the conformally invariant tractor connection. The Q-curvature is intimately related to the Pfaffian. Working on even-dimensional manifolds, we show how the $k$-form operators $Q_k$ of \\cite{ddd}, which generalise the Q-curvature, retain a key aspect of the $Q$-curvature's relation to the Pfaffian, by obstructing certain representations of natural operators on closed forms. In a closely related direction, we show that the $Q_k$ give rise to conformally invariant quadratic forms $\\Theta_k$ on cohomology that interpolate, in a suitable sense, between the integrated metric pairing (at $k=n/2$) and the Pfaffian (at $k=0$). Using a different construction, we show that the $Q_k$ operators yield a generalisation of the period map which maps conformal structures to Lagrangian subspaces of the direct sum $H^k\\oplus H_k$ (where $H_k$ is the dual of the d...

  6. The postpositional hierarchy and its mapping to clause structure in Japanese

    OpenAIRE

    Takamine, Kaori

    2010-01-01

    It can be observed that the relative order of modifier PPs in Japanese is free. Given that the word order in Japanese can be rearranged by scrambling, two questions arise with regard to the word order of modifiers. Is the word order of these modifiers constrained underlyingly? And how are the modifier PPs introduced into a clause structure? A possible answer is a traditional approach under which the order of the PPs is not constrained and that the modifier PPs can be freely adjoined to a synt...

  7. Objectives, definition and elaboration of technical scenarios for emergency drills relating to a french PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety measures applied during the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants are such that the occurrence of an accident with unacceptable consequences for the public is a highly improbable event. Despite this low probability, a number of emergency plans have been drawn up to cater for the occurrence of events that might lead to such an accident: on-site emergency plan to protect plant personnel, terminate the accident and mitigate its consequences; short-and long-term emergency plans to protect the general public and prepare for a return to acceptable living conditions. To check that plans are appropriate and ready to be implemented, they must be regularly tested by means of drills. These drills may be directed solely at technical aspects of nuclear units, or they may concern all the players normally involved, i.e. the utility (EdF), all the specialized government departments concerned and stand-ins for the media. The paper describes some aspects of the procedure for choosing objectives and the preparation of drills, which are illustrated by examples from the national EPAULE exercise. From a technical standpoint, the drills demonstrated that current organizational structures are both effective and operational; however, they cannot determine how the public would actually react in the event of a nuclear accident, given the difficulty of assessing the emotional impact of exposure to a danger than cannot be perceived directly and to information reporerceived directly and to information reported by the media

  8. Discussion of related problems in herbal prescription science based on objective indications of herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-jiang XIONG

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal prescription science is a bridge between basic and clinical subjects in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. In studying the doctrines in the general textbook Herbal Prescription Science and applying them to clinical practice, it was found that they are imprecise and inapplicable. Based on the analysis of Suanzaoren Decoction, Xiaoqinglong Decoction, Jichuan Decoction, etc., the authors point out that this problem is due to the current pathogenesis-based research approach of the herbal prescription science. It is proposed that correspondence between formula and syndrome is the core of the herbal prescription science. In order to solve such a problem, searching for corresponding relationship between an herb or a formula and the signs and symptoms of a syndrome or disease should be the most important task in research of herbal prescription science, for emphasis on attention to the objective indications and evidence in clinical utilization of herbal formulas is the major feature of the herbal prescription science according to medication experience in the long history of TCM.

  9. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    OpenAIRE

    AnnemarieBoschloo; Renatede Groot

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness – ‘I feel sleepy during the first hours at school’ – appeared to predict both school grades and se...

  10. Assessment of disease-related cognitive impairments using the novel object recognition (NOR) task in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Ben; Leger, Marianne; Piercy, Chloe; Adamson, Lisa; Harte, Michael; Neill, Joanna C

    2015-05-15

    The novel object recognition test (NOR) test is a two trial cognitive paradigm that assesses recognition memory. Recognition memory is disturbed in a range of human disorders and NOR is widely used in rodents for investigating deficits in a variety of animal models of human conditions where cognition is impaired. It possesses several advantages over more complex tasks that involve lengthy training procedures and/or food or water deprivation. It is quick to administer, non-rewarded, provides data quickly, cost effective and most importantly, ethologically relevant as it relies on the animal's natural preference for novelty. A PubMed search revealed over 900 publications in rats and mice using this task over the past 3 years with 34 reviews in the past 10 years, demonstrating its increasing popularity with neuroscientists. Although it is widely used in many disparate areas of research, no articles have systematically examined this to date, which is the subject of our review. We reveal that NOR may be used to study recognition memory deficits that occur in Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia, where research is extensive, in Parkinson's disease and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) where we observed markedly reduced numbers of publications. In addition, we review the use of NOR to study cognitive deficits induced by traumatic brain injury and cancer chemotherapy, not disorders per se, but situations in which cognitive deficits dramatically reduce the quality of life for those affected, see Fig. 1 for a summary. Our review reveals that, in all these animal models, the NOR test is extremely useful for identification of the cognitive deficits observed, their neural basis, and for testing the efficacy of novel therapeutic agents. Our conclusion is that NOR is of considerable value for cognitive researchers of all disciplines and we anticipate that its use will continue to increase due to its versatility and several other advantages, as detailed in this review. PMID:25447293

  11. Terrasar-X and Rapideye Data for the Parameterisation of Relational Characteristics of Urban Atkis Dlm Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hese, S.; Lindner, M.; Voltersen, M.; Berger, C.

    2011-09-01

    This work presents a multi-sensor data analysis concept for the parameterisation of urban landuse in comparison to ATKIS DLM reference objects (digital landscape model). An object based top-down approach is implemented and the potential of multisensor data for a primary urban landcover object classification is assessed. Urban landuse structure is developed based on relational features applied to land cover objects and compared to an aggregated DLM class legend. For a better imperviousness description an advanced imperviousness measure - the build-up impervious intensity ratio is developed that takes building height and derived floor area (based on LiDAR data) and the amount of vegetation within a search radius to every building into account. The developed concept is parameterized with test areas in Rostock and transferability is investigated with data coverage in Cologne (Germany). The work is linked to the urban work package of the DLR funded ENVILAND-2 project that aims to develop operational concepts for the use of TerraSAR-X and Rapideye data in urban mapping scenarios.

  12. Aspects of royalty clauses inside freehold oil and gas leases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the most common royalty clauses currently used are discussed with particular emphasis on the CAPL 88 and the CAPL 91 petroleum and natural gas lease forms and the provisions regarding lessors and lessees. The problems regarding their practical applications are described. The legal status of a royalty inside a freehold oil and gas lease is also examined. 4 refs

  13. Claus Bonderup : Conversations with the architect and his unique wife Anne Just, about food, art and architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Anna Marie; Hvejsel, Marie Frier

    2012-01-01

    Ever since I was a young student and met Claus Bonderup for the first time, I have been fascinated by his work. I still remember how we turned up for a lecture of his at the Aarhus School of Architecture in the beginning of the 1980s brimming with excitement; a lecture that would end up being very short as my professor ejected him from the auditorium. Claus was not merely a classic innovative architect but also very provocative in his holistic architecture. Back then, his works were too radical for the school. At Aalborg University, initially at the Department of Architecture & Design, and later at the Department of Civil Engineering, I have had the great pleasure of working with Claus for the last 15 years. During this time, I have had the opportunity to observe his skills as a teacher and disseminator, and I have seen the great respect he holds for young, dedicated people and witnessed the students’ confidence in him. In 2008, we wrote a small book, the “old student” and the two “young graduates” from Architecture & Design, who, I would like to emphasise, are two very special young people that have now seriously entered the frame of architectural research and teaching. Now, in the late summer of 2012, we have chosen to republish the first chapter of the book, which is about the DUCK HOUSE Claus created years ago; and we have done so for a very particular reason. A short time ago, I was approached by the director of the 13th International Architecture Exhibition, the highly esteemed British architect, David Chipperfield, and – to put it bluntly – an architect to my and Claus’ liking. Chipperfield has chosen a handful of schools of architecture and architectural universities from all over Europe, which have been invited to gather a group of students and exhibit architectural models; and I have been fortunate enough to be given this opportunity. Chipperfield has chosen to create a response to the prestigious VIP architects’ often staggeringly expensive exhibitions; he wants to make room for the new generation of up and coming architects, for the young, untested and especially talented students of architecture. During July, a group of talented students have therefore built seven architectural models that will be a part of the palette, or installation if you will, which will open in the Italian Pavilion at the end of August. It is quite extraordinary that Aalborg University has received the opportunity to exhibit for the entire period. This occasion must most certainly be marked, and Marie, Tenna and I, along with the students, consequently decided to work with BIRD HOUSES. There are several reasons for this. One of them is that in the coming years, we will launch a number of job-oriented architectural projects within Urban Farming in which the students will initially work with the subject as master’s students, but later, hopefully, as PhD students. Also, I have wished for a long time to give Claus Bonderup the recognition he deserves! His view of architecture, his knowledge and his way of relating to architecture has influenced and inspired generations of students. Claus, if anyone, deserves to be represented at the Biennale. Claus broke many unwritten rules with the Duck House he built for his Anne many years ago. The house has now been measured and reconstructed and has become the MOTHER house that serves as a basis for this project with its unique architectural models for the International Architecture Exhibition. Claus’ Duck House has, thus, in theory and practice alike, become the foundation for the new architectural models, and his thoughts on design have contributed to a fruitful dialogue with the students in their process of creating the architectural models, which can soon be seen at the 13th International Architecture Exhibition in Venice.

  14. A saw is first identified as an object used on wood: ERP evidence for temporal differences between Thematic and Functional similarity relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamain, Yannick; Pluciennicka, Ewa; Kalénine, Solène

    2015-05-01

    The role of functional and motor information in manipulable artifact object semantic organization is still poorly understood. In particular, several types of semantic relations involving object functional knowledge may be distinguished. Functional similarity relations group objects with similar functions at relatively specific (e.g. saw-axe, both used to cut wood) or general (saw-knife, both used to cut) levels. Thematic relations group objects based on their complementarity in events (saw used upon/with wood). Recent eye-tracking data showed distinct temporal time courses for the different semantic relations, with fastest processing of thematic relations and slowest processing of general function similarity relations. Behavioral data suggest the involvement of distinct cognitive mechanisms in manipulable artifact object semantic processing. The aim of the present study was to assess the neural correlates of thematic, and specific and general function similarity relation processing. Specifically, we investigated whether time course differences between semantic relations could be highlighted at the neurophysiological level. We used a protocol combining semantic priming with electroencephalography, and manipulated the type of semantic relation and the duration of the interval between prime and target objects. Two consistent and complementary results were shown. On N1 and P3 components, semantic priming was observed for thematic relations only. On N400 component, the type of semantic relation interacted with interval duration, and semantic priming was visible for all 3 relations after the longest interval only. Results revealed graded processing time courses for thematic, specific function similarity, and general function similarity relations at the neural level, and further indicate that thematic relations impact object processing during the early stages of object recognition. Findings suggest a hierarchical organization of three types of semantic relations based on functional knowledge. The parallel between semantic relations involving manipulable artifact objects and levels of action representations is discussed. PMID:25725356

  15. A trade-off between somatosensory and auditory related brain activity during object naming but not reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghier, Mohamed L; Hope, Thomas M H; Prejawa, Susan; Parker Jones, '?iwi; Vitkovitch, Melanie; Price, Cathy J

    2015-03-18

    The parietal operculum, particularly the cytoarchitectonic area OP1 of the secondary somatosensory area (SII), is involved in somatosensory feedback. Using fMRI with 58 human subjects, we investigated task-dependent differences in SII/OP1 activity during three familiar speech production tasks: object naming, reading and repeatedly saying "1-2-3." Bilateral SII/OP1 was significantly suppressed (relative to rest) during object naming, to a lesser extent when repeatedly saying "1-2-3" and not at all during reading. These results cannot be explained by task difficulty but the contrasting difference between naming and reading illustrates how the demands on somatosensory activity change with task, even when motor output (i.e., production of object names) is matched. To investigate what determined SII/OP1 deactivation during object naming, we searched the whole brain for areas where activity increased as that in SII/OP1 decreased. This across subject covariance analysis revealed a region in the right superior temporal sulcus (STS) that lies within the auditory cortex, and is activated by auditory feedback during speech production. The tradeoff between activity in SII/OP1 and STS was not observed during reading, which showed significantly more activation than naming in both SII/OP1 and STS bilaterally. These findings suggest that, although object naming is more error prone than reading, subjects can afford to rely more or less on somatosensory or auditory feedback during naming. In contrast, fast and efficient error-free reading places more consistent demands on both types of feedback, perhaps because of the potential for increased competition between lexical and sublexical codes at the articulatory level. PMID:25788691

  16. Orações concessivas independentes à luz da gramática discursivo-funcional / Independent concessive clauses in the light of functional discourse grammar

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Talita Storti, Garcia; Erotilde Goreti, Pezatti.

    Full Text Available Este artigo investiga, à luz da Teoria da Gramática Discursivo-Funcional (HENGEVELD; MACKENZIE, 2008), a oração concessiva que não é subordinada a outras orações, ou seja, não apresenta relações sintáticas nem semânticas com orações anteriores ou posteriores, a que denominamos Concessiva Independent [...] e. O objetivo deste estudo consiste em descrever as propriedades discursivas, semânticas, morfossintáticas e prosódicas desse tipo de estrutura, mostrando que sua relevância está na construção e organização do discurso. Os resultados apontam que a Concessiva Independente funciona, no discurso, como um parêntese, que interrompe o fio discursivo, sendo, então, destacado por um contorno prosódico especial, aliado à presença de Atos Interativos. Constitui, portanto, um Movimento, a camada mais alta do Nível Interpessoal, nível que se relaciona aos aspectos pragmáticos da gramática de uma língua. O universo de investigação utilizado é o córpus Iboruna, um banco de dados que registra a variedade do português do noroeste paulista. Abstract in english This paper investigates, in light of the theory of Functional Discourse Grammar (HENGEVELD; MACKENZIE, 2008), the concessive clause that is not subordinated to other clauses, i.e., it has no semantic or syntactic relations with clauses before or after it, and which we call Independent Concessive. Th [...] e aim is to describe the discursive properties and the semantic, morphosyntactic and prosodic structure of this type of clause, showing that its relevance is in the construction and organization of discourse. The results indicate that the Independent Concessive works in speech as a parenthesis which interrupts the discursive course and is then highlighted by a special prosodic contour, combined with the presence of Interactive Acts. It is therefore a Move, the highest layer of the Interpersonal Level, the level that relates to the pragmatic aspects of the grammar of a language. The universe of research used is the Iboruna corpus, a database that records a variety of Portuguese from the Northwest of São Paulo.

  17. Numerical relativity reaching into post-Newtonian territory: a compact-object binary simulation spanning 350 gravitational-wave cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela; Blackman, Jonathan; Chu, Tony; Kidder, Lawrence; Pfeiffer, Harald; Buonanno, Alessandra; Pan, Yi; Taracchini, Andrea; SXS Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    We present the first numerical-relativity simulation of a compact-object binary whose gravitational waveform is long enough to cover the entire frequency band of advanced gravitational-wave detectors such as LIGO, Virgo and KAGRA, for mass ratio 7 and total mass as low as 45 . 5M? . We find that effective-one-body models, either uncalibrated or calibrated against substantially shorter numerical-relativity waveforms at smaller mass ratios, reproduce our new waveform remarkably well, with a loss in detection rate due to modeling error smaller than 0 . 3 % . In contrast, post-Newtonian inspiral waveforms and existing phenomenological inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms display much greater disagreement with our new simulation. The disagreement varies substantially depending on the specific post-Newtonian approximant used.

  18. Numerical relativity reaching into post-Newtonian territory: a compact-object binary simulation spanning 350 gravitational-wave cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Szilagyi, Bela; Buonanno, Alessandra; Taracchini, Andrea; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A; Chu, Tony; Kidder, Lawrence E; Pan, Yi

    2015-01-01

    We present the first numerical-relativity simulation of a compact-object binary whose gravitational waveform is long enough to cover the entire frequency band of advanced gravitational-wave detectors, such as LIGO, Virgo and KAGRA, for mass ratio 7 and total mass as low as $45.5\\,M_\\odot$. We find that effective-one-body models, either uncalibrated or calibrated against substantially shorter numerical-relativity waveforms at smaller mass ratios, reproduce our new waveform remarkably well, with a negligible loss in detection rate due to modeling error. In contrast, post-Newtonian inspiral waveforms and existing calibrated phenomenological inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms display greater disagreement with our new simulation. The disagreement varies substantially depending on the specific post-Newtonian approximant used.

  19. V2 word order in subordinate clauses in spoken Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Juel; Christensen, Tanya Karoli

    Danish grammatical tradition has it that V2 and V3 word order are signals of the syntactic difference between main and subordinate clauses. However, several studies have shown that both word orders appear in both clause types (Heltoft 2005, Christensen 2007, Jensen forthc.). Though V2 and V3 are asymmetrically distributed, we argue that the word order difference should rather be seen as a signal of (subtle) semantic differences. In main clauses, V3 is highly marked in comparison to V2, and occurs in what may be called emotives. In subordinate clauses, V2 is marked and signals what has been called ”assertiveness”, but is rather a question of foregrounding (cf. Simons 2007: Main Point of Utterance). The paper presents the results of a study of word order in subordinate clauses in contemporary spoken Danish and focuses on how to include the proposed semantic difference as a factor influencing the choice of one variant over another in a (socio)linguistic variable. This is a crucial methodological issuein the study of syntactic variation since variants are hardly ever semantically equivalent in all respects. The study, which is a part of the LANCHART project (www.lanchart.hum.ku.dk), is based on panel studies of two age cohorts of speakers in Copenhagen, recorded in the 1980s and again in 2005-07, and on recent recordings with two age cohorts of speakers from the western part of Jutland. This makes it possible to study variation and change with respect to word order in subordinate clauses in both real and apparent time, as well as geographical variation. The results show that V2 word order in subordinate clauses is much more frequent than commonly assumed. Furthermore, they indicate that the most decisive factors predicting word order in subordinate clauses are the syntactic function of the clause and the type of subordinating conjunction, although social and geographical factors also have an impact. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that V2 word order is associated with foreground or main point of utterance, if we accept it as a statistical tendency in language use rather than as an invariant coding. References Christensen, T. K. 2007. Hyperparadigmer – en undersøgelse af paradigmatiske samspil i danske modussystemer. Institut for kultur og identitet. Roskilde, Roskilde Universitetscenter. PhD thesis. Heltoft, L. 2005. Ledsætning og letled i dansk. OV-sætningens rester. L. Heltoft, J. Nørgaard- Sørensen & L. Schøsler. Grammatikalisering og struktur. København, Museum Tusculanum. Jensen, Torben Juel forthc. Ordstilling i ledsætninger i moderne dansk talesprog. Ny forskning i grammatik. Simons, M. 2007. Observations on embedding verbs, evidentiality and presupposition. Lingua 117 (6), 1034-1056. Vikner, S. 1995. Verb movement and expletive subjects in the Germanic languages. Oxford University Press.

  20. 48 CFR 52.222-13 - Compliance with Davis-Bacon and Related Act Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Compliance with Davis-Bacon and Related Act Regulations...Clauses 52.222-13 Compliance with Davis-Bacon and Related Act Regulations...the following clause: Compliance With Davis-Bacon and Related Act Regulations...

  1. Orações subordinadas sem o complementizador Que no Português Clássico / Subordinate clauses without Que in Classical Portuguese

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André Luis, ANTONELLI.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, olharemos para orações subordinadas finitas sem o complementizador que no Português Clássico. Nosso objetivo é investigar, dentro de uma perspectiva gerativista, se esse tipo de construção pode ser interpretado como um CP ou um IP complemento. A partir de fatos relacionados à posição [...] do sujeito, à ordem linear de advérbios e à colocação de clíticos, mostraremos que orações encaixadas sem o complementizador que instanciam movimento de V para C, resultando, portanto, na presença da categoria CP. Abstract in english In this work, we will look at embedded finite clauses without the complementizer que in Classical Portuguese. Our goal is to investigate, within a generative perspective, whether this kind of construction can be interpreted as a CP or an IP complement. Based on facts related to the position of the s [...] ubject, to the ordering of adverbs and to the placement of clitics, we will show that embedded clauses without the complementizer que instantiate V movement to C, resulting, therefore, in the presence of the CP category.

  2. Comparative analysis of the symptomatology of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction in relation to objective data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara Barroso Jr

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical presentation of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD relating to objective examination data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four children (36 girls and 8 boys with mean age of 6.8 years with LUTD were prospectively assessed through a specific questionnaire that analyzed clinical presentation of those patients. These data were then compared to objective data, such as micturition diary and uroflowmetry with electromyography. RESULTS: A urinary tract infection (UTI antecedent was observed in 31 cases (70.5%, and of those, 24 cases of UTI were accompanied by fever. All children presented micturition urgency. Daily urinary incontinence was observed in 33 cases (75% and nocturnal enuresis in 23 (52.3%. As for micturition frequency, 15 (34.1% had normal frequency 19 (43.2% presented more than 10 daily micturition episodes and 10 (22.7% thought they urinated less than 5 times a day. In the uroflowmetry and electromyography examination, 14 (31.8% experienced lack of coordination during micturition. Of 10 children with infrequent micturition, 5 confirmed this in their micturition diaries and 2 listed more than 5 micturition episodes per day in the diary. Of 19 patients presenting polaciuria, only 5 confirmed this in their micturition diaries, while 7 had less than 10 micturition episodes per day. CONCLUSION: Most children with LUTD presented a previous UTI, and daily incontinence was verified in around 75% of the patients. Complaints of polaciuria or infrequent micturition are not noted completely in the micturition diaries and there is no parameter in the clinical history that offers good sensitivity or specificity for the diagnosis of lack of perineal coordination.

  3. Comparative analysis of the symptomatology of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction in relation to objective data

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ubirajara, Barroso Jr; Thiago, Nova; Anderson, Dultra; Patricia, Lordelo; Juarez, Andrade; Antonio J., Vinhaes.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical presentation of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) relating to objective examination data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four children (36 girls and 8 boys with mean age of 6.8 years) with LUTD were prospectively assessed through a specific questio [...] nnaire that analyzed clinical presentation of those patients. These data were then compared to objective data, such as micturition diary and uroflowmetry with electromyography. RESULTS: A urinary tract infection (UTI) antecedent was observed in 31 cases (70.5%), and of those, 24 cases of UTI were accompanied by fever. All children presented micturition urgency. Daily urinary incontinence was observed in 33 cases (75%) and nocturnal enuresis in 23 (52.3%). As for micturition frequency, 15 (34.1%) had normal frequency 19 (43.2%) presented more than 10 daily micturition episodes and 10 (22.7%) thought they urinated less than 5 times a day. In the uroflowmetry and electromyography examination, 14 (31.8%) experienced lack of coordination during micturition. Of 10 children with infrequent micturition, 5 confirmed this in their micturition diaries and 2 listed more than 5 micturition episodes per day in the diary. Of 19 patients presenting polaciuria, only 5 confirmed this in their micturition diaries, while 7 had less than 10 micturition episodes per day. CONCLUSION: Most children with LUTD presented a previous UTI, and daily incontinence was verified in around 75% of the patients. Complaints of polaciuria or infrequent micturition are not noted completely in the micturition diaries and there is no parameter in the clinical history that offers good sensitivity or specificity for the diagnosis of lack of perineal coordination.

  4. Iron Abundance in the Prototype PG 1159 Star, GW Vir Pulsator PG 1159-035, and Related Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, K.; Rauch, T.; Kruk, J. W.; Kurucz, R. L.

    2011-01-01

    We performed an iron abundance determination of the hot, hydrogen deficient post-AGB star PG 1159-035. which is the prototype of the PG 1159 spectral class and the GW Vir pulsators, and of two related objects (PG 1520+525, PG 1144+005), based on the first detection of Fe VIII lines in stellar photospheres. In another PG 1159 star. PG 1424+535. we detect Fe VII lines. In all four stars, each within T(sub eff) = 110,000-150,000 K, we find a solar iron abundance. This result agrees with our recent abundance analysis of the hottest PG 1159 stars (T(sub eff) = 150,000-200,000 K) that exhibit Fe x lines. On the whole, we find that the PG 1159 stars are not significantly iron deficient, in contrast to previous notions.

  5. A Case Study on Head Movement Comparative Clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Donati, Caterina

    1996-01-01

    According to Chomsky (1995), movement is simply feature movement for checking and the "generalized pied-piping" which shows up in overt syntax is just due to phonological reasons. In this paper I point out that this approach cannot be right, in that the distinction between X and XP movement does exist minimally in syntax, independently from any phonological consideration. Evidence is given that comparative clauses, all other morphological and phonological conditions being equal, minimally con...

  6. A Dynamic Analysis of Licensing: The Boomerang Effect and Grant-Back Clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jay Pil

    1999-01-01

    This paper develops an incomplete contract model of the licensing relationship to analyze the dynamic effects of licensing on R&D competition in the innovation market and to examine the rationale for often observed grant-back clauses. Of particular concern are how the consideration of future competition distorts the licensing relationship and how the grant-back clause can mitigate this distortion. I also evaluate the validity of the casual antitrust argument that grant-back clauses may advers...

  7. Ditransitives, Purpose Clauses and Control; most of a story of almost everything

    OpenAIRE

    Beaven, Ally

    2011-01-01

    In attempts to formulate theories of antecedent selection in control constructions there has been an overwhelming preference to restrict the search for answers to the domain of control in complements. This paper seeks to rectify this situation by examining the patterns of control behaviour found in purpose clause adjunts. Taking as our starting point purpose clauses attached to ditransitive matrix clauses, a theory of control is developed in which dontroller choice is dependant on event se...

  8. ATS (ammonium thiosulfate) Claus tail-gas cleanup process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zey, A. (Pritchard Corp.); White, S.; Johnson, D.

    1980-01-01

    The ATS (ammonium thiosulfate) Claus tail-gas cleanup process was developed by the Pritchard Corp. and installed for Colorado Interstate Gas Corp. (CIG) and Wycon Chemical Co. at CIG's Table Rock, Wyo., natural gas-treatment plant to process tail gas from an 80 ton/day Claus plant. The new unit will produce 18,140 tons/yr of ammonium thiosulfate fertilizer solution. In the first, absorption stage, sulfur dioxide is removed from the incinerated Claus tail gas by scrubbing with aqueous ammonia after recovering the waste heat as high-pressure steam. In the second, conversion stage, the ammonium sulfite solution from the sulfur dioxide absorber is converted to ammonium thiosulfate by contacting with hydrogen sulfide. The new plant, which started up in Feb. 1980, has a sulfur dioxide emission rate of 1000 ppm by vol, but the process can be modified to limit the sulfur dioxide emissions to less than 250 ppm. The process can be added to existing or new facilities. Its application is limited only by the market for ammonium thiosulfate fertilizer. The process chemistry, mechanical design, and the construction materials are described in detail.

  9. CLAUSE 49 AND ITS IMPACT ON PERFORMANCE MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paridhi Saini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to understand the effect of India's adoption of major governance reforms (with reference to Clause 49 which is based on a voluntary 1998 Code of Corporate Governance, developed by the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII, an organization of large Indian public firms.If investors consider the reforms to be valuable (or more valuable for larger firms, firm return in the form of share prices, accounting profit and earning per share should react positively to the key adoption announcement. Over a span period of 10 years before and after the announcement by the Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI, India's principal securities regulator for adoption of Clause 49, the profit after tax and EPS of the listed companies specifically the group of companies selected for this study has shown the positive effect on the above specified components. Average returns had increased considerably and even EPS also present the same picture, but these changes may have been due to factors other than the reforms. These results also supported by statistical testing. Overall, we report evidence consistent with investors expecting the Clause 49 reforms to increase the efficiency of corporates.

  10. El control a las cláusulas abusivas en los contratos de adhesión con consumidores / Control to Abusive Clauses in Adhesion Contracts with Consumers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Verónica María, Echeverri Salazar.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Una cláusula abusiva es aquella que implica un atentado contra el principio de la buena fe en la medida en que involucra una desproporción significativa entre las obligaciones y beneficios que adquieren las partes. El Estado debe controlar la implementación de las mismas, lo cual implica una interve [...] nción en la autonomía de la voluntad privada de los contratantes, razón por la que se ha discutido en el ámbito internacional el ámbito de dicho control. Pese a dichas discusiones, es claro que el control (que puede ser legislativo, administrativo o judicial) procede cuando se presenta un contrato de adhesión con un consumidor. El control judicial que se hace de ellas puede ser a través de la declaratoria de inexistencia, de ineficacia, de nulidad absoluta o de nulidad relativa. Abstract in english An abusive clause is that involving a violation of the good faith principle, since it involves a significant unjust liability concerning obligations and benefits the parties are bound to. The State should control the implementation of this kind of clauses by starting an intervention to the private w [...] ill autonomy of contactors; for this reason the scope of such control has been discussed worldwide. Despite the discussions, it is clear that control (which can be legislative, administrative or judicial control) becomes effective when an adhesion contract is executed with a consumer. The judicial control on this kind of clauses can be executed by declaring inexistence, inefficiency, and total or relative nullity of abusive clauses.

  11. 48 CFR 328.311 - Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under cost-reimbursement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under cost-reimbursement...Insurance 328.311 Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under...

  12. 48 CFR 28.311 - Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under cost-reimbursement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under cost-reimbursement... Insurance 28.311 Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under...

  13. 48 CFR 1428.311 - Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under cost-reimbursement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under cost-reimbursement...Insurance 1428.311 Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under...

  14. 48 CFR 1828.311 - Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under cost-reimbursement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 true Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under cost-reimbursement...Insurance 1828.311 Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under...

  15. 48 CFR 228.311 - Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under cost-reimbursement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under cost-reimbursement...Insurance 228.311 Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under...

  16. 48 CFR 528.311 - Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under cost-reimbursement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under cost-reimbursement...Insurance 528.311 Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under...

  17. 48 CFR 3028.311 - Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under cost-reimbursement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under cost-reimbursement...Insurance 3028.311 Solicitation provision and contract clause on liability insurance under...

  18. Identification of metrics to monitor salt marsh integrity on National Wildlife Refuges in relation to conservation and management objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckles, Hilary A.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Shriver, W. George; Danz, Nicholas P.; Wiest, Whitney A.; Nagel, Jessica L.; Olker, Jennifer H.

    2013-01-01

    Most salt marshes in the US have been degraded by human activities, and threats from physical alterations, surrounding land-use, species invasions, and global climate change persist. Salt marshes are unique and highly productive ecosystems with high intrinsic value to wildlife, and many National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) have been established in coastal areas to protect large tracts of salt marsh and wetland-dependent species. Various management practices are employed routinely on coastal NWRs to restore and enhance marsh integrity and ensure ecosystem sustainability. Prioritizing NWR salt marshes for application of management actions and choosing among multiple management options requires scientifically-based methods for assessing marsh condition. Monitoring is integral to structured decision-making (SDM), a formal process for decomposing a decision into its essential elements. Within a natural resource context, SDM involves identifying management objectives, alternative management actions, and expected management outcomes. The core of SDM is a set of criteria for measuring system performance and evaluating management responses. Therefore, use of SDM to frame natural resource decisions leads to logical selection of monitoring attributes that are linked explicitly to management needs. We used SDM to guide selection of variables for monitoring the ecological integrity of salt marshes within the National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS). Our objectives were to identify indicators of salt marsh integrity that are effective across large geographic regions, responsive to a wide range of threats, and feasible to implement within funding and staffing constraints of the NWRS. In April, 2008, we engaged interdisciplinary experts in a week-long rapid prototyping SDM workshop to define the essential elements of salt marsh management decisions on refuges throughout the northeastern, southwestern, and northwestern US, corresponding to respective Regions 5, 2, and 1 of the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). Through this process we identified measurable attributes for monitoring salt marsh ecosystems that are integrated into conservation practice and target management objectives. The following salt marsh attributes were identified through the SDM process either for describing state condition to determine management needs or for evaluating the achievement of management objectives: historical condition and geomorphic setting; ditch density; surrounding land use; ratio of open water area to vegetation area; rate of pesticide application; environmental contaminant concentration; change in marsh surface elevation relative to sea level rise; tidal range and groundwater level; surface topography; salinity; and species composition and abundance of vegetation, invasive species, invertebrates, nekton, and breeding and wintering birds. The identified attributes were too broadly defined to serve as operational monitoring variables. Therefore, we tested specific metrics for quantifying most of these attributes in summers of 2008 and 2009. The first four attributes in the above list can be characterized by office-based analysis of existing GIS data layers. The remaining attributes require field-based methods for assessment. We were forced to exclude a small number of attributes from field tests due to inconsistent data (pesticide application rate, environmental contaminant concentrations) or requirements that exceeded the scope of this project (change in marsh surface elevation; surface topography; benthic invertebrates; wintering birds). We evaluated potential metrics for evaluating all remaining field attributes. In partnership with NWRS biologists, we tested rapid versus intensive metrics for monitoring field attributes (tidal range and groundwater level; marsh surface elevation; salinity; and species composition and abundance of vegetation, invasive species, nekton, and breeding birds) at coastal refuges throughout FWS Region 5. Seven refuges participated in metric testing in 2008: Rachel Carson (ME), Parker River (MA), Wertheim (NY), E. B. Forsythe

  19. The temporal interpretation of free relatives in English and Romanian

    OpenAIRE

    Viorela-Valentina Dima

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Free relatives have been defined as types of relative clauses with a covert antecedent, which is semantically and syntactically active (de Vries 2002, GALR II:218), influencing the morphology of the wh- word which introduces the free relative. The aim of this paper is to take a closer look at the semantic properties of the covert antecedent and demonstrate that its temporal interpretation influences the choice of tense form that can surface in the relative clause.

  20. Public policy: the origin of a general clause in the South African law of contract

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L, Hawthorne.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article relates how the Constitutional Court has chosen public policy as the general clause with which to combat unfairness in contracting. Consequently the historical development of public policy is investigated in the footsteps of Wessels, who was the first South African author to address the [...] role of public policy in the law of contract in a wider sense. The historical sources on contracts in restraint of marriage, marriage brokerage contracts, usurious contracts, contracts in restraint of trade and wagering contracts are analysed with regard to public policy. Although some Roman-law and Roman-Dutch authority can be found in certain instances, the main observation is that public policy and boni mores have not been clearly distinguished by modern writers dealing with these jurisdictions. The conclusion of the paper is that public policy as an open norm is an English transplant.

  1. Embedded "wh"-Questions in L2 English in India: Inversion as a Main Clause Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, David

    2015-01-01

    This corpus study brings a second language (L2) research perspective, insights from generative grammar, and new empirical evidence to bear on a long-accepted claim in the World Englishes literature--namely, that inversion with "wh"-movement in colloquial Indian English is obligatory in embedded clauses and impossible in main clauses. It…

  2. 79 FR 30535 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Special Contracting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-28

    ...systems. The rule also includes the full text of each alternate, rather than only...would instead include the entire full text of the alternate clause. Further...with alternates, and includes the full text of each provision or clause for...

  3. Attitudes towards conscientious objection among community pharmacists in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Piecuch, Anna; Gryka, Malwina; Koz?owska-Wojciechowska, Ma?gorzata

    2013-01-01

    Background The European Council Resolution 1763 (2010), “The right to conscientious objection in lawful medical care”, provoked a discussion among Polish pharmacists on the necessity for granting them the right to refuse to dispense medicinal products which invoke conscientious objection. Objective To explore attitudes of Polish pharmacists towards the conscience clause. Setting Pharmacies with public e-mail addresses in various parts of Poland (Lower Silesia Province, Mazovia Province, Kuyav...

  4. Sustainability clauses in international supply chain contracts : Regulation, enforceability and effects of ethical requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterkova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    Our current society is not successful in mitigation of global social and environmental challenges. States lack legal tools, and sometimes also the will, to secure social and environmental interests transnationally and the existing soft and private regulation is criticized for its weak legitimacy, effectiveness and enforcement. Regardless of this regulatory gap, companies who do not comply with the globally accepted sustainability standards run reputational risks that can lead to long-term negative economic effects. Moreover, stakeholders expect companies not only to follow the standards themselves but also to do business exclusively with socially responsible partners. Unawareness, either intentional or negligent, of unethical behaviour within a company’s supply chain may lead to an assumption that the company is complicit in such a conduct. The paper discusses a hypothesis that sustainability contractual clauses (SCCs) in international supply chain agreements may help to overcome the regulatory gap in relation to global sustainability while concurrently protect companies against potential social, economic and legal risks threatening in connection to unethical behaviour of their suppliers. As parts of enforceable business contracts, SCCs are considered to overcome the heavily criticized softness of other CSR regulation and, therefore, to be more successful in fostering ethical behaviour of suppliers who are legally independent but often in economic and business terms dependent on the sourcing companies. However, this hardening function is questionable face-to-face the lack of case law or another proof of SCCs’ formal enforcement. This article aims to shed a light on the question whether SCCs can be the efficient regulatory solution for global challenges we are looking for or whether they are yet another corporate social responsibility tool ‘without teeth’. The central questions are: why SCCs are presumed to be effective regulatory means for global sustainability, how these clauses are seen through the lenses of international contract law and whether they can actually contribute to a positive change in suppliers’ social and environmental performance. Based on the analysis of SCCs’ features and the underlying regulatory framework, the author concludes that while SCCs would not be enforceable by courts in most cases, they can still be successful in regulating global sustainability. Their positive effects on suppliers’ behaviour will depend on how companies draft and use such clauses. It is suggested that the full potential of private contracting could be triggered by adequate governmental regulation.

  5. Differentiating spatial and object-based effects on attention: an event-related brain potential study with peripheral cueing.

    OpenAIRE

    He, X.; Humphreys, G.; Fan, S.; Chen, L.; Han, S.

    2008-01-01

    Do spatial attention and object attention modulate visual processing in similar ways? Previously we have found a dissociation between these two forms of attention on ERP measures of sensory processing under conditions of peripheral cueing, with spatial attention effects associated with changes over anterior scalp regions and object attention effects associated with changes over posterior regions (He, X., Fan, S., Zhou, K., Chen, L., 2004. Cue validity and object-based attention. J. Cogn. Neur...

  6. The Verb Always Leaves IP in V2 Clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Bonnie D.; Vikner, Sten

    2007-01-01

    The verb second (V2) phenomenon, as it is found in the Germanic languages, has been the focus of much attention within recent syntactic research. In most of the literature on V2, it is assumed that the verb in all V2 clauses has moved to a head position outside IP, e.g. Cº. In Schwartz & Vikner (1989) we claimed that all V2 clauses were CPs, and we referred to this analysis as the 'traditional' analysis. In this paper we shall call it the 'V2 outside IP' analysis, and by using this term we want to convey that although in what follows we will adhere to the view that the verb moves to Cº, any analysis in which the verb moves into an Xº which is the sister of IP may be compatible with what we say here. Various alternatives to this analysis have been explored in the literature, and here we will address two in particular: One alternative is that there is an asymmetry between subject-initial and non-subject-initial V2 clauses, the former being only IPs and the latter CPs, as suggested by Travis (1984, 1986, 1991)and Zwart (1990, 1991). Below we will refer to this analysis as the 'V2 asymmetry' analysis. The other alternative analysis is that V2 takes place inside IP, as suggested by Diesing (1988, 1990), and also in slightly different forms by Rögnvaldsson & Thr insson (1990), by Reinholtz (1989) and by Santorini (1989), and accordingly we shall group these under the term the 'V2 inside IP' analysis.

  7. Integrating Conflict Driven Clause Learning to Local Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Audenard

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces SatHyS (SAT HYbrid Solver, a novel hybrid approach for propositional satisfiability. It combines local search and conflict driven clause learning (CDCL scheme. Each time the local search part reaches a local minimum, the CDCL is launched. For SAT problems it behaves like a tabu list, whereas for UNSAT ones, the CDCL part tries to focus on minimum unsatisfiable sub-formula (MUS. Experimental results show good performances on many classes of SAT instances from the last SAT competitions.

  8. NON-COMPETITION CLAUSES IN COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA IRINA IONESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We begin with an analysis of areas where rivalry between economic agents can not show (any act of competition committed in this area drawing the liability of the author, we will then analyze competition in relations between the trader and servant or other employees and continue with the analysis of the legal ban on competition in the limited liability companies and joint stock companies. So, the relevant provisions of Law 31/1990 are reviewed, views of legal doctrine and practice of judicial rulings on the nature and purpose of the relevant provisions referred to, their scope, applicability of statutory prohibition against competition in the profile activity of the company, the prohibition in the liquidation phase, procedural methods which can cover damage caused to the creditor’s violated rights, as well as statute of limitations for the right to action and prescription.

  9. EROs found behind lensing clusters. II. Stellar populations and dust properties of optical dropout EROs and comparison with related objects

    CERN Document Server

    Schärer, D; Egami, E; Pellò, R; Richard, J; Le Borgne, J F; Kneib, J P; Wise, M; Boone, F

    2007-01-01

    We determine the nature, redshift, stellar populations and dust properties of optically faint or non-detected extremely red objects (ERO) found from our survey of the lensing clusters A1835 and AC114. We perform SED fitting and use deep optical, HST, VLT, Spitzer data, and for some objects and sub-mm data. For most of the lensed EROs we find photometric redshifts showing a strong degeneracy between "low-z" (z~1-3) and high-z (z~6-7). Although formally best fits are often found at high-z, their resulting bright absolute magnitudes, the number density of these objects, and in some cases Spitzer photometry or longer wavelength observations, suggest strongly that all of these objects are at "low-z". The majority of these objects are best fitted with young (<~ 0.5-0.7 Gyr) and dusty starbursts. Indications for strong extinction, with A_V~2.4-4, are found in some objects. For dusty objects star formation rates (SFR) have been estimated from the bolometric luminosity determined after fitting of semi-empirical sta...

  10. Assessment of subjective and objective cognitive function in bipolar disorder : Correlations, predictors and the relation to psychosocial function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Kirsa M; Vinberg, Maj

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is prevalent in bipolar disorder (BD). However, the evidence regarding the association between subjective cognitive complaints, objective cognitive performance and psychosocial function is sparse and inconsistent. Seventy seven patients with bipolar disorder who presented cognitive complaints underwent assessment of objective and subjective cognitive function and psychosocial functioning as part of their participation in two clinical trials. We investigated the association between global and domain-specific objective and subjective cognitive function and between global cognitive function and psychosocial function. We also identified clinical variables that predicted objective and subjective cognitive function and psychosocial functioning. There was a significant, however weak, correlation between objective and subjective measures of global cognitive function but not within the individual cognitive domains, and a moderate correlation between subjective cognitive function and psychosocial function. Increased depression severity predicted greater subjective cognitive dysfunction globally (memory, attention and executive function) and in attention as well as lower psychosocial functioning. In conclusion, subjective cognitive difficulties seem to reflect general objective deficits in bipolar disorder but not individual cognitive domains. Cognitive complaints are associated with impaired psychosocial function and both are predicted by greater depression severity. Subjective cognitive complaints seem clinically useful as a threshold marker aiming for further objective cognitive assessment.

  11. Utilizing Conjoint Analysis to Develop Breeding Objectives for the Improvement of Pasture Species for Contrasting Environments When the Relative Values of Individual Traits Are Difficult to Assess

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kevin F.; Fennessy, Peter F.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the large number of active programs breeding improved forage plants, relatively little is known about the weightings that breeders consciously or sub-consciously give to specific traits when selecting individual plants, or that agronomists and producers use when assessing the relative merits of contrasting cultivars. This is in contrast to most modern animal breeding programs where the relative merits of novel genetics may be assessed against an index-based breeding objective. There a...

  12. Clause States based configuration checking in local search for satisfiability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chuan; Cai, Shaowei; Su, Kaile; Wu, Wei

    2015-05-01

    Two-mode stochastic local search (SLS) and focused random walk (FRW) are the two most influential paradigms of SLS algorithms for the propositional satisfiability (SAT) problem. Recently, an interesting idea called configuration checking (CC) was proposed to handle the cycling problem in SLS. The CC idea has been successfully used to improve SLS algorithms for SAT, resulting in state-of-the-art solvers. Previous CC strategies for SAT are based on neighboring variables, and prove successful in two-mode SLS algorithms. However, this kind of neighboring variables based CC strategy is not suitable for improving FRW algorithms. In this paper, we propose a new CC strategy which is based on clause states. We apply this clause states based CC (CSCC) strategy to both two-mode SLS and FRW paradigms. Our experiments show that the CSCC strategy is effective on both paradigms. Furthermore, our developed FRW algorithms based on CSCC achieve state-of-the-art performance on a broad range of random SAT benchmarks. PMID:25134096

  13. Understanding of subordinate clauses in the language of dysphasic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarevi? Emilija

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the research of peculiarities of syntactic development, as an element of language structure on the grammatical level of children suffering from developmental dysphasia, after the completed speech pathology treatment of many years. Syntactic level at younger school age was studied by assessing language competence in the accomplishment of communicative sentence with subordinate clause. The research was performed on the samples of children at school age in regular primary schools in Belgrade. The sample comprised 160 respondents who were divided in two groups: target and comparative. The target group consisted of 60 respondents (children suffering from developmental dysphasia after the completed speech pathology treatment of many years, and the comparative group consisted of 100 respondents from regular primary school "Gavrilo Princip" in Zemun. Research results show that grammatical development of children suffering from developmental dysphasia takes place at a considerably slower rate and entails substantially more difficulties in accomplishing predication in subordinate clauses. This paper discusses the consequences which the difficulties in grammatical development can have on school achievement.

  14. Identification of Metrics to Monitor Salt Marsh Integrity on National Wildlife Refuges In Relation to Conservation and Management Objectives

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We used SDM to guide selection of variables for monitoring the ecological integrity of salt marshes within the National Wildlife Refuge System NWRS. Our objectives...

  15. Tree automata-based refinement with application to Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we apply tree-automata techniques to refinement of abstract interpretation in Horn clause verification. We go beyond previous work on refining trace abstractions; firstly we handle tree automata rather than string automata and thereby can capture traces in any Horn clause derivations rather than just transition systems; secondly, we show how algorithms manipulating tree automata interact with abstract interpretations, establishing progress in refinement and generating refined clauses that eliminate causes of imprecision. We show how to derive a refined set of Horn clauses in which given infeasible traces have been eliminated, using a recent optimised algorithm for tree automata determinisation. We also show how we can introduce disjunctive abstractions selectively by splitting states in the tree automaton. The approach is independent of the abstract domain and constraint theory underlying the Horn clauses. Experiments using linear constraint problems and the abstract domain of convex polyhedra show that the refinement technique is practical and that iteration of abstract interpretation with tree automata-based refinement solves many challenging Horn clause verification problems. We compare the results with other state of the art Horn clause verification tools.

  16. An Objective Climatology of Tropical Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Luise; Hohberger, Esther; Knippertz, Peter; Fink, Andreas H.

    2010-05-01

    Tropical Plumes (TPs) are continuous bands of high and mid-level clouds stretching over several thousand of kilometres from the Tropics pole- and eastward into the subtropics or even mid-latitudes. TP-related poleward moisture transports can lead to extreme precipitation events in the outer Tropics or subtropics, and the cloudiness associated with TPs affects the Earth's radiation budget. Previous TP studies were based on a subjective visual inspection of infrared satellite images and were therefore quite time consuming with respect to climatological investigations. Here we present a newly developed objective identification algorithm that allows a flexible and quick processing of large datasets. The new algorithm is applied to 10.8?m brightness temperatures (BTs) from the Cloud Archive User Service (CLAUS), which provides global data on a uniform latitude-longitude grid at a spatial resolution of 0.5 by 0.5 degrees and a temporal resolution of three hours for the time period July 1983 to June 2006. Following the classic definition by McGuirk et al. (1987, Mon. Wea. Rev.) TPs are defined as extended bands (length > 2000 km) with BT anomalies below -30 K that cross 15° North or South. Additionally a criterion for the elongatedness of TP is developed, which is based on the length-width ratio of the smallest rectangle that contains the TP. The detected systems are tracked in time based on spatial overlap and attributes such as lifetime are determined. For boreal winter (Oct.-March), the resulting climatology reveals that TP occurrence is largely confined to oceanic regions with the main maximum located over the Central South Pacific close to the South Pacific convergence zone. Other TP frequency maxima are found over the eastern parts of the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans and over the western part of the South Atlantic near the South Atlantic convergence zone. In boreal summer (April-Sep.) the geographical distribution of TP occurrence has a similar structure, but the frequency is generally reduced except for the Bay of Bengal and the Northwest Pacific. Based on composite analysis typical conditions for TP geneses in the different regions are examined. TP development over the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans is clearly linked to the propagation of extratropical upper-level troughs into low latitudes as documented in earlier studies. Over the North Indian and Northwest Pacific Oceans convective processes within the Tropics appear to play a more important role. The TP statistics derived from the CLAUS data set will be compared to a statistic obtained from the recently released, more homogenous, but lower resolution PATMOS-x dataset, from which trends in the occurrence of TPs can be assessed.

  17. Object visibility alters the relative contribution of ventral visual stream and mirror neuron system to goal anticipation during action observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thioux, Marc; Keysers, Christian

    2015-01-15

    We used fMRI to study the effect of hiding the target of a grasping action on the cerebral activity of an observer whose task was to anticipate the size of the object being grasped. Activity in the putative mirror neuron system (pMNS) was higher when the target was concealed from the view of the observer and anticipating the size of the object being grasped requested paying attention to the hand kinematics. In contrast, activity in ventral visual areas outside the pMNS increased when the target was fully visible, and the performance improved in this condition. A repetition suppression analysis demonstrated that in full view, the size of the object being grasped by the actor was encoded in the ventral visual stream. Dynamic causal modeling showed that monitoring a grasping action increased the coupling between the parietal and ventral premotor nodes of the pMNS. The modulation of the functional connectivity between these nodes was correlated with the subject's capability to detect the size of hidden objects. In full view, synaptic activity increased within the ventral visual stream, and the connectivity with the pMNS was diminished. The re-enactment of observed actions in the pMNS is crucial when interpreting others' actions requires paying attention to the body kinematics. However, when the context permits, visual-spatial information processing may complement pMNS computations for improved action anticipation accuracy. PMID:25462688

  18. The Composite OLAP-Object Data Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourabbas, Elaheh; Shoshani, Arie

    2005-12-07

    In this paper, we define an OLAP-Object model that combines the main characteristics of OLAP and Object data models in order to achieve their functionalities in a common framework. We classify three different object classes: primitive, regular and composite. Then, we define a query language which uses the path concept in order to facilitate data navigation and data manipulation. The main feature of the proposed language is an anchor. It allows us to fix dynamically an object class (primitive, regular or composite) along the paths over the OLAP-Object data model for expressing queries. The queries can be formulated on objects, composite objects and combination of both. The power of the proposed query language is investigated through multiple query examples. The semantic of different clauses and syntax of the proposed language are investigated.

  19. Analysis and Transformation Tools for Constrained Horn Clause Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Several techniques and tools have been developed for verification of properties expressed as Horn clauses with constraints over a background theory (CHC). Current CHC verification tools implement intricate algorithms and are often limited to certain subclasses of CHC problems. Our aim in this work is to investigate the use of a combination of off-the-shelf techniques from the literature in analysis and transformation of Constraint Logic Programs (CLPs) to solve challenging CHC verification problems. We find that many problems can be solved using a combination of tools based on well-known techniques from abstract interpretation, semantics-preserving transformations, program specialisation and query-answer transformations. This gives insights into the design of automatic, more general CHC verification tools based on a library of components.

  20. Role of toluene in hydrogen sulfide combustion under Claus condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Examined the role of toluene addition in hydrogen sulfide combustion. • Effect of 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 5% of toluene in H2S gas stream was examined. • Toluene addition triggers production of H2 which provides oxidation competition to H2S. • Increased amount of toluene in H2S gas reduced SO2 and increased asymptotic value of H2S. • Toluene addition enhanced the formation of CO and COS. - Abstract: Experimental investigations on the effect of different amounts of toluene addition to H2S combustion in oxygen under Claus condition (? = 3) are presented. Three toluene concentrations of 0.5%, 1% and 5% in H2S are presented and compared with the baseline case of 100% H2S oxygen combustion. Temperature data showed that addition of toluene to H2S gas stream increases the flame temperature because of large heating value associated with toluene. Addition of toluene resulted in the production of H2, which increased with increase in the amounts of toluene addition. Furthermore, increased addition of toluene concentration increased the asymptotic minimum value of hydrogen sulfide due to oxidation competition between the formed H2 and H2S. The results also showed that the presence of CO triggers the formation of COS with toluene addition due to reaction of CO with SO2. The results showed that SO2 mole fraction increased to a maximum value then decayed with distance along the reactor. Addition of toluene increased the rate of SO2 decay. These results have direct impact on sulfur capture in the Claus reactor and its performance

  1. 48 CFR 227.7009-2 - Clauses to be used when applicable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Infringement Claims, Licenses, and Assignments...applicable. (a) Release of past infringement. The clause at 252.227-7001, Release of Past Infringement, is an example which may...

  2. The suspended well clause in the CAPL freehold mineral lease and proposal for deep right reversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current version of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Landmen (CAPL) Lease form has a clause entitled the 'suspended wells clause' (commonly called the 'shut-in' clause). The very pro-lessee' orientation of earlier leases which basically provided that if the Lessee had a well located on the lands at the end of the primary term the lessee could hold the lease by submitting a shut-in well payment to the Lessor, regardless of the reasons for which the well was shut in. This provision provided the Lessee with a great deal of flexibility, but created many problems for both freehold land owners and industry. Various scenarios illustrating the problems that industry is encountering with this clause are described and possible solutions to the problems are suggested. The feasibility of adding a deep rights reversion provision to the CAPL Lease is also discussed. 1 ref

  3. 37 CFR 401.3 - Use of the standard clauses at § 401.14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...is necessary to protect the security to such activities; or ...particular field of use or market, the clause might be modified along lines similar to those described...agreement on the basis of national security, the provision...

  4. 48 CFR 1834.203-70 - NASA solicitation provision and contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION Earned Value Management System 1834.203-70 NASA...234-1, Notice of Earned Value Management System, in solicitations for contracts...clause at 1852.234-2, Earned Value Management System, in solicitations...

  5. 77 FR 20598 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Solicitation Provisions and Contract Clauses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ...shall contain a list of contract clauses to be included in contracts for the acquisition of...commercial items. The law does not require that...212.503(a) as a law not applicable to commercial contracts. --Add provision...

  6. Monopoly pricing under a Medicaid-style most-favored-customer clause and its welfare implication

    OpenAIRE

    Klibanoff, Peter; Kundu, Tapas

    2009-01-01

    To control Medicaid's increasing expenditure on reimbursement of outpatient prescription drugs, the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 included a rebate program that featured a most favored customer (MFC) clause. This clause guarantees that Medicaid gets a fixed rebate on each unit of purchase by Medicaid consumers. The rebate is calculated as the difference between the minimum price and the average manufacturer price (minimum price provisioning or MPP) or a proportion of the average m...

  7. Win shift lose stay: An experimental test of non-compete clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Bu?nstorf, Guido; Engel, Christoph; Fischer, Sven; Gu?th, Werner

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally test the effect of enforceable non-compete clauses on working efforts. The employee can invest into the probability of making a profitable innovation. After a successful innovation (Win) the employee may want to leave the firm (Shift) whereas after an innovation failure (Lose) he may remain (Stay) . In the treatments with non-compete clause, but not in the baseline, the employer can prevent successful innovators from leaving the firm. With standard preferences, effort should...

  8. Argument clauses and correlative es in German - deriving discourse properties in a unification analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Berman, Judith; Dipper, Stefanie; Fortmann, Christian; Kuhn, Jonas

    1998-01-01

    We present an analysis of finite argument clauses in German with the goal of clarifying the conditions that control the presence/absence of an additional correlative es in the Mittelfeld. The syntactic analysis relies on the assumption that both the clause and the pronominal es contribute to the same argument slot of the matrix verb, unifying their f-structure contribution under the same grammatical function. The discourse effects triggered by es follow from the behaviour expected from a (sem...

  9. How MFN clauses used in the health care industry unreasonably restrain trade under the Sherman Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Beth Ann

    When used in the health care industry, an MFN clause is a contractual agreement that guarantees a health insurer the same best price as their market competitors. MFN clauses have the effect of unnecessarily raising consumer costs, reducing choice among providers, constraining access to care and preventing the development of alternative health care delivery models. The purpose of this paper is four-fold. First, to design a four-quadrant matrix to evaluate the pro-competitive and anticompetitive purposes and effects of MFN clauses under Section 1 of the Sherman Act. Second, to defeat the jurisprudential presumption that MFN clauses are pro-competitive in the health care industry and to recommend that this presumption be abolished. Third, to examine the U.S. Department of Justice's paradigmatic shift over the last decade toward prosecuting large insurers who employ MFN clauses resulting in U.S. Consent Decrees. Fourth, to outline the indicia of a meritorious claim against an insurer who employs an MFN clause. PMID:16521890

  10. Oxygen based Claus process for recovery of sulfur from H[sub 2]S gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khudenko, B.M. (Khudenko Engineering, Atlanta, GA (United States)); Gitman, G.M. (American Combustion, Inc., Norcross, GA (United States)); Wechsler, T.E.P. (Von Roll, Inc., Norcross, GA (United States))

    Novel oxygen-based modifications of the Claus process for sulfur recovery from gases containing hydrogen sulfide are analyzed and compared with the conventional air-based technology. Oxygen-based modifications include systems with air enrichment by oxygen, with oxygen-air-water oxidizers, with recycle of cooled products from boilers back into the Claus furnace, and systems with consecutive or parallel-consecutive Claus furnaces. The analysis used in this work involves the process thermodynamics and kinetics, as well as modeling of the entire system. The thermodynamics was evaluated using the STANJAN chemical equilibrium solver program, which utilizes the principle of minimization of free Gibbs energy. The process kinetics was evaluated using published data on full-scale Claus systems. The performance of various process modifications was evaluated by the use of numerical analyses. The major findings of the work are that oxygen-based Claus systems can be used for: (1) upgrading existing systems and for use in new systems; and (2) reducing the equipment size requirement in new systems. In addition the Claus process may be used for a variety of conditions met in various industries.

  11. Visual Jokes about Christmas and Santa Claus on the Internet - Why and Why not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guntis Pakalns

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses a collection of Christmas-related images and video clips found on the Internet. The author started collecting this material in 2005, since that time the material in the form of a PowerPoint presentation has been shown to diverse audiences discussing the context (mainly from the perspective of a folklore researcher while observing the reaction of the audience.The central part of the article is devoted to a brief overview of the most characteristic groups of the jokes (with links to the images, video and descriptions of the traditions: Santa Claus as the bringer of presents, his trip from the northland and his friend Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, arrival through the chimney, different other persons wearing Santa’s hat (politicians, terrorists, women, animals, etc., Santa’s sexuality, drunken Santa, Santa murdered/killed, etc. In addition, the regional version – Ded Moroz and Snegurochka (Father Frost and the Snowgirl – is discussed here. Parodies related to the topic – the Christmas tree, snowmen and figures made of snow, elves, angels, Chinese horoscope’s “animals of the year”.Some hypotheses regarding the differences, functions, selection and perception of the worldwide available jokes in different social situations (western and post-Soviet world are put forward, also considering social groups and situations, the time before and after Christmas. Why would people need such jokes? An attempt is made to explain it by different “levels of joking” – starting with “simply jokes” with their specific context in the tradition of the particular subject matter and the carnival-like sense of the reversed world (also used by the traders, making the originally rather eerie Santa Claus look like a friendly joker in the “shopping mythology” and jokes as a kind of psychological self-defence – trying to compensate, by way of irony and black humour, for the rapidly changing and excessive tediousness, seriousness, sacralisation, or right the opposite – secularisation, commercialisation of the mass media imposed Christmas traditions and the holiday stress.

  12. Objectives, Extent and Organization of Radiological and Environmental Protection in Relation to the Nature and Size of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological and environmental protection programs for nuclear facilities have similar goals and objectives, which are basically to protect people and the environment from adverse effects. To be effective, the programs must have organizational independence and a strong commitment from management. In return, the programs should ensure that the facility is operating in full compliance with law and good practice. The scope and elements of radiological environmental protection programs will vary according to facility type and size, with the larger and more complex facilities having a diversity of staff and functions. Examples of good and poor organization charts are given and discussed from the standpoint of program effectiveness along with a discussion of the role of the radiation protection committee. (author)

  13. Utilizing Conjoint Analysis to Develop Breeding Objectives for the Improvement of Pasture Species for Contrasting Environments When the Relative Values of Individual Traits Are Difficult to Assess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin F. Smith

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the large number of active programs breeding improved forage plants, relatively little is known about the weightings that breeders consciously or sub-consciously give to specific traits when selecting individual plants, or that agronomists and producers use when assessing the relative merits of contrasting cultivars. This is in contrast to most modern animal breeding programs where the relative merits of novel genetics may be assessed against an index-based breeding objective. There are numbers of reasons why these technologies have not been used widely in plant breeding although applications in forest tree breeding are relatively common. A first step in defining breeding objectives for forage species can be to define the relative importance of specific traits and to interpret how these contribute to the relative potential advantage to a new plant or cultivar. One method of defining these weightings is through surveys of users followed by analyses of their combined experience. Therefore in this study, we have assessed the usefulness of discrete choice techniques in the development of weightings for specific traits in forage plant improvement based on views of both expert users (agronomists and farm consultants and farmers who were asked to define their relative priorities when considering the renovation of a pasture. The surveys were conducted in three distinct regions of, or environments within, Australia of special relevance to meat production from beef and sheep (high rainfall, temperate (inland, and Mediterranean. In summary this study defines the focus of breeding objectives and selection criteria for different pasture species across production systems.

  14. EFFICIENT TRANSFORMATION OF USE CASE MAIN SUCCESS SCENARIO STEPS INTO BUSSINESS OBJECT RELATION (BORM) DIAGRAMS FOR EFFECTIVE BUSSINESS PROCESS REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    ATHANASIOS PODARAS; JOSEF MORAVEC; MARTIN PAPIK

    2012-01-01

    The basic part of an innovative and modern approach to business processrequirement analysis which is based on the simultaneous utilization of UML Use Caseapproach and the Business Object Relation Modelling approach is analyzed in thepresent paper. Precisely the transition rules by which the Use Case Main SuccessScenario steps are converted into to a BORM diagram, entitled as the Use Case ToBORM Transformation Algorithm (UCBTA) transition rules, are presented as apattern based method which lea...

  15. Efficient transformation of use case main success scenario steps into bussiness object relation (BORM) diagrams for effective bussiness process requirement analysis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podaras, A.; Moravec, J.; Papík, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 2, ?. 1 (2012), s. 86-88. ISSN 1804-7890 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Business process requirement Analysis * UCBTA Algorithm * UCBTA Transition Rules * Use Case Main Success Scenario Steps * BORM Diagrams Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/ZOI/papik-efficient transformation of use case main success scenario steps into bussiness object relation (borm) diagrams for effective bussiness process requirement analysis.pdf

  16. Word order variation and foregrounding of complement clauses : Exploring the meaning of sentence adverbials as signals of word order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tanya Karoli; Jensen, Torben Juel

    2015-01-01

    Through mixed models analyses of complement clauses in a corpus of spoken Danish we examine the role of sentence adverbials in relation to a word order distinction in Scandinavian signalled by the relative position of sentence adverbials and finite verb (V>Adv vs. Adv>V). The type of sentence adverbial was the third-most important factor in explaining the word order variation: Sentence adverbials categorized as ‘dialogic’ are significantly associated with V>Adv word order. We argue that the results are readily interpretable in the light of the semantico-pragmatic hypothesis that V>Adv signals foregrounded information, and exploit the random intercepts assigned to the individual adverbials for further exploring the functions of sentence adverbials that behave unexpectedly based on the predictions of the model.

  17. Proportionality and the limitation clauses of the South African Bill of Rights

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    IM, Rautenbach.

    Full Text Available "Proportionality" is a contemporary heavy-weight concept which has been described as an element of a globalised international grammar and as a foundational element of global constitutionalism. The article firstly describes the elements of proportionality as they are generally understood in foreign s [...] ystems, namely whether the limitation pursues a legitimate aim, whether the limitation is capable of achieving this aim, whether the act impairs the right as little as possible and the so-called balancing stage when it must be determined whether the achievement of the aim outweighs the limitation imposed. The German academic Alexy (Theorie der Grundrechte (1986)) developed what he called a mathematical weight formula to deal with the balancing stage. An overview is provided of how the elements of proportionality were dealt with in the text of the South African interim Constitution of 1994, the early jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court, and in the text of the final Constitution of 1996. Contemporary South African academic criticism of the use of the concept is also analysed. The article then endeavours to relate the elements of Alexy's weight formula to both the elements of the South African general limitation clause in section 36 of the Constitution and to the appearance of such elements in the formulation of specific rights in the Bill of Rights. Although the levels of abstraction reached in the debates on the Alexy formula are so daunting that it is most unlikely that South African courts and practitioners will ever use it, certain valuable insights can be gained from it for the purposes of dealing with proportionality within the context of the limitation of rights in South Africa. Despite opposition from certain academics, proportionality is a prominent feature of the application of the limitation clauses in the South African Constitution. The elements of proportionality provides a useful tool for the application, within the context of the limitation of rights, of general and wide concepts such as "fairness", "reasonableness", "rationality", "public interest" and, somewhat surprisingly, also of the general concept "proportionality" as such. South Africa's participation in the global recognition and application of this way of dealing with the limitation of rights is worthwhile.

  18. Subordinate clauses in Karajá / Orações subordinadas em Karajá

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo Rivail, Ribeiro.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O Karajá, língua indígena do Brasil Central, apresenta um mecanismo tipologicamente incomum para marcar relativização: mudança de acento. Apesar de sua produtividade, tal mecanismo não é mencionado em nenhum dos trabalhos anteriores, teóricos ou descritivos, que tratam da sintaxe Karajá. Ao descreve [...] r as estratégias de relativização (e subordinação, em geral) em Karajá, este artigo apresenta uma visão panorâmica da gramática da língua, descrevendo as propriedades semânticas das posposições (que desempenham um papel essencial na criação de orações subordinadas adverbiais, incluindo converbos), nominalização lexical, e morfologia flexional. Abstract in english Karajá, a Macro-Jê language spoken in Central Brazil, presents a typologically uncommon device to signal relativization: stress shift. Despite its productivity, such mechanism is not mentioned in any of the previous descriptive or theoretical works dealing with Karajá grammar. In describing relativi [...] zation (and subordination in general) in Karajá, this paper presents an overview of the language's grammar, including the semantic properties of postpositions (which play an essencial role in the creation of adverbial clauses, including converbs), lexical nominalization, and inflectional morphology.

  19. Reachability for Finite-state Process Algebras Using Horn Clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrypnyuk, Nataliya; Nielson, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present an algorithm for solving the reachability problem in finite systems that are modelled with process algebras. Our method is based on Static Analysis, in particular, Data Flow Analysis, of the syntax of a process algebraic system with multi-way synchronisation. The results of the Data Flow Analysis are used in order to build a set of Horn clauses whose least model corresponds to an overapproximation of the reachable states. The computed model can be refined after each transition, and the algorithm runs until either a state whose reachability should be checked is encountered or it is not in the least model for all constructed states and thus is definitely unreachable. The advantages of the algorithm are that in many cases only a part of the Labelled Transition System will be built which leads to lower time and memory consumption. Also, it is not necessary to save all the encountered states which leads to further reduction of the memory requirements of the algorithm.

  20. Predicted radionuclide release from reactor-related unenclosed solid objects dumped in the Sea of Japan and the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1978 and 1991 reactor-related solid radioactive waste was dumped by the former Soviet Union as unenclosed objects in the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, and the Sea of Japan. This paper presented estimates for the current (1994) inventory of activation and corrosion products contained in the reactor-related unenclosed solid objects. In addition, simple models derived for prediction of radionuclide release from marine reactors dumped in the Kara Sea are applied to certain of the dumped objects to provide estimates of radionuclide release to the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, and Sea of Japan environments. For the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, total release rates start below 0.01 GBq yr-1 and over 1,000 years, fall to 100 Bq yr-1. In the Sea of Japan, the total release rate starts just above 1 GBq yr-1, dropping off to a level less than 0.1 GBq yr-1, extending past the year 4,000

  1. Causes and Consequences of Faulty Arbitration Clauses / Cláusulas de arbitramento defectuosas: sus causas y consecuencias

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Alfonso, Gómez Domínguez.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available En vista de la relación que existe entre la cláusula de arbitramento y el proceso arbitral, antes que todo, este artículo tiene como objeto analizar las cláusulas de arbitramento. Porqué razón estas cláusulas son a veces inaplicables y las consecuencias de las deficiencias en su redacción. Para dete [...] rminar las razones que generan cláusulas de arbitraje defectuosas un estudio casuístico fue aplicado a la investigación. Este método fue escogido debido a que en lo atinente a cuestiones legales no es posible encontrar dos casos idénticos, puede hallarse casos con similares circunstancias, pero las razones que llevaron a las partes para hacer el contrato y la intención, suelen variar significativamente de un contrato a otro. A lo largo de la investigación es expresada frecuentemente una idea. Esta es en pocas palabras: "No hay cláusula perfecta, es casi imposible encontrar una cláusula aplicable a toda situación, puesto que cada contrato es firmado atendiendo a diferentes necesidades, circunstancias y requisitos." Una vez concluida la investigación, fue encontrado que las cláusulas de arbitraje inaplicables pueden ser causadas por errores de redacción o son derivadas de limitaciones propias del arbitramento, puesto que algunas veces simplemente no es el mecanismo idóneo para resolver cierta clase de conflictos. Las consecuencias varían dependiendo de la magnitud del error. Abstract in english Taking into account the link between arbitration clauses and the process of arbitration, this article first aims to analyse arbitration clauses, why these clauses are sometimes unconscionable and what are the consequences of such deficiencies. Companies have to consider that if the arbitration claus [...] e is drafted without a reasonable attention, this provision itself could be the cause of conflict. Furthermore, unconscionable, invalid and abusive clauses may lead to companies losing money and credibility. To determine the reasons that prompt faulty arbitration clauses a multi-case study was applied to the research. This approach was chosen owing to the fact that with regard to law it is not possible to find two identical cases. There may be similarities, but the reasons for making the deal and the intention of the parties, can vary significantly from one contract to another. During the research a particular comment was frequently encountered: "There is no perfect clause; it is impossible to find a perfect clause because every contract is executed according to different needs, circumstances and requirements." Once the research was concluded, it was found that faulty arbitration clauses can be prompted by drafting mistakes and limitations particular to the arbitration itself. The consequences may vary depending on the magnitude of the error.

  2. Experiencias en la gestión de imágenes por contenido en bases de datos objeto-relacionales / Experiences in Image Management by Content in Object-Relational Databases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos E, Alvez; Aldo R, Vecchietti.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizan diversos mecanismos que brinda la tecnología Objeto-Relacional (OR) para el almacenamiento de imágenes en una Base de Datos. El objetivo fue estudiar, mediante la implementación de dos ejemplos en Oracle 10g, el comportamiento de la tecnología OR en el almacenamiento, la [...] formulación de consultas, la recuperación de la información y de las imágenes asociadas. La primera implementación se corresponde con el almacenamiento de imágenes médicas concordantes con el estándar DICOM, utilizando objetos ORDImage propios de ORACLE. En el segundo ejemplo se almacenaron imágenes de un diario digital empleando instancias del UDT SI_StillImage del estándar SQL/MM. Las capacidades provistas por la Base de Datos Objeto-Relacional empleada facilitan la implementación de un servidor de imágenes. Se analizaron también las ventajas y desventajas de emplear objetos del estándar SQL/MM o datos nativos correspondientes a Oracle 10g. Abstract in english In this paper, several alternatives for the storage of still images in databases given by the Object-Relational technology are analyzed. The aim was to study, by means of two examples, implementation in Oracle 10g database, the technology behaviour in the storage, query formulation and image recover [...] y. The first application corresponds to the storage of medical images complying with DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) standard, Oracle 10g ORDImage objects have been used for this case. The second example deals with the storage of images for a digital newspaper for which SI_StillImage of the SQL/MM standard have been employed. The capabilities provided by the Object Relational technology facilitate the implementation of an images server. The advantages and drawbacks of using SQL/MM standard or native objects corresponding to Oracle 10g are also compared.

  3. SU-E-I-29: Generalized Relative Object Detectability (G-ROD): A Metric for Comparing X-Ray Imaging Detector Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, V; Jain, A; Bednarek, D; Rudin, S [Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the relative task-specific performance of two x-ray imaging detectors including the effect of other components of the imaging chain. Methods: The relative object detectability (ROD) was defined as the ratio of the integral of the detective-quantum efficiency (DQE) of a detector weighted by the square of the Fourier Transform (or frequency spectrum) of the object to the same integral for a second detector. The generalized ROD (G-ROD) is calculated by replacing DQE by the generalized DQE (GDQE) which includes geometric unsharpness and scatter to evaluate the total imaging chain. The G-ROD was calculated for the micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF) relative to a flat-panel detector (FPD) for low (1.05) and high (1.2) magnifications with two focal-spot sizes, small (0.3 mm) and medium (0.5 mm), and for the same value of scatter fraction. Solid spheres from 50 to 600 microns were simulated as the objects for this evaluation. The G-ROD results were compared with those of the ROD which considers the detectors alone. Results: For 50-micron spheres, the ROD is 7.93 and, for the small [medium] focus, the G-ROD is 6.74 [5.22] at low magnification and 3.03 [1.66] at high magnification, indicating superior performance of the MAF particularly at low magnification. Both ROD and G-ROD decrease monotonically with size and remain around one above 400-microns. The G-ROD decreases more dramatically with low compared to high magnification for both focal spots. Conclusion: In all cases, the MAF performs better than the FPD and the decreasing trend of the G-ROD indicates that the performance of both detectors becomes similar as the object size increases and becomes nearly equal above 400-micron diameter sphere size. Finally, increased magnification and focal-spot size decrease the G-ROD, indicting that they degrade the performance of the MAF more than that of the FPD for a small-object viewing task. Supported by NIH Grant: 2R01EB002873 and an equipment grant from Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation.

  4. SU-E-I-29: Generalized Relative Object Detectability (G-ROD): A Metric for Comparing X-Ray Imaging Detector Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the relative task-specific performance of two x-ray imaging detectors including the effect of other components of the imaging chain. Methods: The relative object detectability (ROD) was defined as the ratio of the integral of the detective-quantum efficiency (DQE) of a detector weighted by the square of the Fourier Transform (or frequency spectrum) of the object to the same integral for a second detector. The generalized ROD (G-ROD) is calculated by replacing DQE by the generalized DQE (GDQE) which includes geometric unsharpness and scatter to evaluate the total imaging chain. The G-ROD was calculated for the micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF) relative to a flat-panel detector (FPD) for low (1.05) and high (1.2) magnifications with two focal-spot sizes, small (0.3 mm) and medium (0.5 mm), and for the same value of scatter fraction. Solid spheres from 50 to 600 microns were simulated as the objects for this evaluation. The G-ROD results were compared with those of the ROD which considers the detectors alone. Results: For 50-micron spheres, the ROD is 7.93 and, for the small [medium] focus, the G-ROD is 6.74 [5.22] at low magnification and 3.03 [1.66] at high magnification, indicating superior performance of the MAF particularly at low magnification. Both ROD and G-ROD decrease monotonically with size and remain around one above 400-microns. The G-ROD decreases more dramatically with low compared to high magnification for both focal spots. Conclusion: In all cases, the MAF performs better than the FPD and the decreasing trend of the G-ROD indicates that the performance of both detectors becomes similar as the object size increases and becomes nearly equal above 400-micron diameter sphere size. Finally, increased magnification and focal-spot size decrease the G-ROD, indicting that they degrade the performance of the MAF more than that of the FPD for a small-object viewing task. Supported by NIH Grant: 2R01EB002873 and an equipment grant from Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation

  5. Stage and Individual-level predicates whithin "if" and "when" clauses: what works and what doesn't

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuncion Martínez-Arbelaiz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Clauses headed by if and when are very often considered syntactically and semantically equivalent.  Nevertheless, in this paper we show that the type of predicate has an impact both on the grammaticality and the interpretation of the subordinate clause in Spanish. Theses clauses provide evidence for the proposal that stage-level predicates involve an extra-argument that individual-level predicates lack. Following Kratzer (1995, we assume that this is extra-argument is a spatio-temporal argument. While stage-level predicates in the subordinate clause are perfectly grammatical, individual-level predicates yield to ungrammatical sentences, unless an indefinite or a kind-referring NP is involved.  Kratzer´s Prohibition against vacuous quantification provides a sound account for the asymmetry between the two types of predicates.  In addition, a stative verb in the when clause is grammatical, but it forces an epistemic reading. When both predicates are individual-level predicates in the subordinate and the main clause, the if clause may can take a factual reading while the when clause is ungrammatical unless there is some kind of operator involved through a generic, a kind-referring NP or an indefinite pronoun.

  6. Development of Word Order in German Complement-Clause Constructions: Effects of Input Frequencies, Lexical Items, and Discourse Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Silke; Lieven, Elena; Tomasello, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the development of word order in German children's spontaneous production of complement clauses. From soon after their second birthday, young German children use both verb final complements with complementizers and verb-second complements without complementizers. By their third birthday they use both kinds of complement clauses with…

  7. 48 CFR 227.7107-1 - Architectural designs and data clauses for architect-engineer or construction contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Architectural designs and data clauses for architect-engineer...in Technical Data 227.7107-1 Architectural designs and data clauses for architect-engineer...architect-engineer services, is to obtain a unique architectural design of a building, a...

  8. BL Lacertae objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties of BL Lacertae objects are discussed including their spectra, variability, and brightness. The historical development of observation, and the conclusion that these objects are possibly quasar-related objects rather than variable stars as originally supposed are treated. The possible mechanisms for the unusual luminosity of these objects are considered

  9. Damage to the left ventral, arcuate fasciculus and superior longitudinal fasciculus-related pathways induces deficits in object naming, phonological language function and writing, respectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoura, Nobusada; Midorikawa, Akira; Onodera, Toshiyuki; Tsukada, Masanobu; Yamada, Ryozi; Tabei, Yusuke; Itoi, Chisato; Saito, Seiko; Yagi, Kazuo

    2013-07-01

    The anatomic localization of brain functions can be characterized via diffusion tensor imaging in patients with brain tumors and neurological symptoms. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the function of the ventral, arcuate fasciculus (AF) and the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF)-related language pathways using these techniques by analyzing 9 patients treated in our hospital between 2007 and 2011. In cases 1-3, the left ventral pathways, namely, the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus or inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, were mainly damaged, and the common dysfunction experienced by these patients was a deficit in object naming. In cases 4-6, the left SLF was mainly damaged, and the common deficit was dysgraphia. In cases 7-9, the left AF was mainly damaged, and almost all language functions related to phonology were abnormal. These results suggest that the left ventral, AF and SLF-related pathways are closely related to visual, auditory and hand-related language function, respectively. PMID:23311714

  10. Den sene Derrida, eller: Er Claus Beck-Nielsen et spøgelse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2009-01-01

    This article is about hosting the ghost. In Spectres de Marx (1993) Derrida introduces the ghost which seems to condense in one figure the important themes of his late writings: the address, the other, the ethical turn, the event, the mourning, the reality of immateriality, the guest. The article turns to the paternal ghost from Shakespeare's Hamlet, as well as to the most ghost-like artist on the Danish contemporary art scene: Claus Beck-Nielsen, who some years ago declared himself dead. Is Claus Beck-Nielsen really a ghost? That is the question.

  11. Object Location Memory Explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman and Eals (1992) developed a task to measure object location memory. This page describes the classic object location task and offers suggestions for investigating gender differences related to the task.

  12. La posición del sujeto pronominal en las cláusulas no declarativas (The placement of pronominal subjects in non-declarative clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Serrano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de la colocación variable del sujeto en español permite observar la relevancia de los factores discursivo-cognitivos en la variación sintáctica y demostrar que todos los efectos comunicativos de una elección formal pueden relacionarse con dichos factores. El presente trabajo analiza los sujetos explícitos de primera y segunda persona en dos tipos de cláusulas no declarativas (interrogativas e imperativas, tomando como base dos corpus textualmente diversificados. Se descubre que la variación formal obedece a principios icónicos muy similares en ambos contextos gramaticales. La posposición del sujeto al verbo es la variante menos marcada, lo que establece una diferencia con la cláusula declarativa, que tiende al orden SVO. Por la misma razón, la anteposición del sujeto en aquellos contextos permite generar valores discursivo-pragmáticos especiales; estos se concretan, sobre todo, en una mayor asertividad o presuposición acerca del contenido del enunciado. Las proyecciones comunicativas de estos valores básicos se ilustran a través de la observación de diversos ejemplos. (The variable placement of Spanish subjects offers an illustration of the relevance of discursive-cognitive factors in explaining syntactic variation, as well as a demonstration of the fact that all communicative effects of formal choices can be related to such factors. In the present paper, first- and secondperson overt subjects are analyzed within two types of non-declarative clauses (interrogative and imperative ones and across two textually diversified corpora. Formal variation is discovered to follow very similar iconic principles in both grammatical contexts. The placing of the subject after the verb is the less-marked variant, which makes a difference with declarative clauses, where SVO is the preferred order. Due to this, subject preposition in the former contexts triggers the generation of special discursive-pragmatic values, particularly of higher assertiveness or presupposition regarding the content of utterances. The communicative projections of these basic values are then illustrated through the analysis of a variety of examples.

  13. Contexts and Composite Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Falquet, Gilles; Leonard, Michel Paul; Al-Jadir, Lina

    1995-01-01

    Many applications require the capability to define and manipulate a collection of related objects as a single unit. Object-oriented database models and systems usually provide the concept of composite object for that purpose. The concept of context that we propose here provides another, more general, way to view and manipulate collections of objects. We compare the two concepts both in their formal definitions and in their implementation in object-oriented database system.

  14. Validity of patient-reported swallowing and speech outcomes in relation to objectively measured oral function among patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkel, R N P M; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I M; de Bree, R; Aaronson, N K; Leemans, C R

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to test the construct validity of the patient-reported outcomes Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) and Speech Handicap Index (SHI) in relation to objectively measured oral function among patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer. The study sample consisted of patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer. Outcome measures were the SWAL-QOL and the SHI, and the Functional Rehabilitation Outcomes Grade (FROG), a test to measure oral and shoulder function. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to test associations between the SHI and SWAL-QOL scales, and the FROG scales. During a study period of 3 months, 38 patients (21 males, 17 females; mean age 54 years) were included who visited the outpatient clinic for follow-up care 6-155 months after surgical treatment (n = 14) or combined surgery and radiotherapy (n = 24) for oral (n = 21) or oropharyngeal cancer (n = 17). Most SWAL-QOL and SHI scales (except the SWAL-QOL Fatigue scale) correlated significantly with one or more FROG oral function scales. None of the SWAL-QOL and SHI scales correlated significantly with the FROG shoulder function scale. These results support the construct validity of the SWAL-QOL and SHI questionnaires for assessing speech and swallowing problems in daily life that are moderately but significantly related to oral function. A multidimensional assessment protocol is recommended for use in clinical practice and for research purposes for measuring oral function and swallowing- and speech-related problems in daily life among head and neck cancer patients. PMID:25622807

  15. Object oriented methods

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Ian

    1994-01-01

    This book is a revision of Ian Graham's successful survey of the whole area of object technology. It covers object- oriented programming, object-oriented design, object- oriented analysis, object-oriented databases and treats several related technologies. New to this edition are more applications of object-oriented methods and more coverage of object-oriented database products available. Graham has also doubled the design and analysis material that examines over 60 different approaches - making this the most comprehensive book on the market. Also new is the foreword by Grady Booch.

  16. A surface electromyography based objective method to identify patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain, presenting a flexion related movement control impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Benedicte; Stevens, Veerle; Perneel, Christiaan; Van Tiggelen, Damien; Neyens, Ellen; Duvigneaud, Nathalie; Moerman, Luc; Danneels, Lieven

    2014-12-01

    Movement control impairments (MCI) are often present in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain (NS-CLBP). Therefore, movement control exercises are widely used to rehabilitate patients. However, the objective assessment remains difficult. The purpose of this study was to develop a statistical model, based on logistic regression analysis, to differentiate patients with NS-CLBP presenting a flexion-related MCI from healthy subjects. This model is based on trunk muscle activation patterns measured by surface electromyography (sEMG), during movement control exercises. Sixty-three healthy male subjects and 36 male patients with a flexion-related MCI participated in this study. Muscle activity of the internal obliques, the external obliques, the lumbar multifidus and the thoracic part of the iliocostalis was registered. Ratios of deep stabilizing to superficial torque producing muscle activity were calculated to examine trunk muscle recruitment patterns during 6 different exercises. Logistic regression analyses were performed (1) to define the ratios and exercises that were most discriminating between patients and non-patients, (2) to make a predictive model. K-Fold cross-validation was used to assess the performance of the predictive model. This study demonstrated that sEMG trunk muscle recruitment patterns during movement control tests, allows differentiating NSCLBP patients with a flexion-related MCI from healthy subjects. PMID:25304196

  17. 75 FR 32642 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ground and Flight Risk Clause (DFARS Case 2007...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ...228-7001, Ground and Flight...228-7002, Aircraft Flight Risk...furnishing of aircraft to the Government...is used in cost-reimbursement...into a single ground and flight...require the Ground and Flight Risk clause for all aircraft, including...variations in size, cost, or...

  18. Force majeure clauses and the threat of nuclear disaster. A Japanese case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Force majeure clauses can be found in any commercial contract. Though more or less clear guidelines for the applicability of force majeure (clauses) exist in the form of international and national law, the applicability and enforceability of force majeure clauses with respect to nuclear incidents or disasters, however, remain ambiguous. Until the Japanese nuclear disaster, no major trade region was affected by any of the historical nuclear incidents. This case-study is based on the events surrounding the Tohoku earthquake, respective tsunami and nuclear incidents, especially at the Daiichi NPP and radiological contamination released there. The applicability and enforceability of force majeure clauses with their wide legal and economical implications are analyzed and evaluated according to the CISG and national domestic Japanese law. It is found that the assertion of force majeure is generally highly fact-specific and circumstance-sensitive. In general, the potential of nuclear disaster as an event triggering the force majeure defence is clearly evident, according to both international and Japanese law. Any claim must, however, be substantiated according to the principles of the different legal regimes under which the contract falls. In consequence, a company located within the evacuated areas will probably be able to successfully assert for majeure, whilst the success of any other claim will depend on the presentation of evidence, such as radiation levels and its effects in hindering performance of contractual obligations.

  19. Force majeure clauses and the threat of nuclear disaster. A Japanese case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guderian, Stephan Michael

    2011-07-22

    Force majeure clauses can be found in any commercial contract. Though more or less clear guidelines for the applicability of force majeure (clauses) exist in the form of international and national law, the applicability and enforceability of force majeure clauses with respect to nuclear incidents or disasters, however, remain ambiguous. Until the Japanese nuclear disaster, no major trade region was affected by any of the historical nuclear incidents. This case-study is based on the events surrounding the Tohoku earthquake, respective tsunami and nuclear incidents, especially at the Daiichi NPP and radiological contamination released there. The applicability and enforceability of force majeure clauses with their wide legal and economical implications are analyzed and evaluated according to the CISG and national domestic Japanese law. It is found that the assertion of force majeure is generally highly fact-specific and circumstance-sensitive. In general, the potential of nuclear disaster as an event triggering the force majeure defence is clearly evident, according to both international and Japanese law. Any claim must, however, be substantiated according to the principles of the different legal regimes under which the contract falls. In consequence, a company located within the evacuated areas will probably be able to successfully assert for majeure, whilst the success of any other claim will depend on the presentation of evidence, such as radiation levels and its effects in hindering performance of contractual obligations.

  20. 48 CFR 1328.310-70 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...installation (b)(1) The clause is not required in fixed-price solicitations and contracts if: (i) Only a small amount of work is required on the Government installation (e.g. , a few brief visits per month); or (ii) All the...

  1. 48 CFR 12.301 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Solicitation provisions and contract clauses for the acquisition...Section 8002 of Public Law 103-355 (41 U.S.C 264, note), contracts for the acquisition of...implement provisions of law or Executive orders...the solicitation and contract and, using...

  2. Cognitive State Verbs and Complement Clauses in Children with SLI and Their Typically Developing Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horne, Amanda J. Owen; Lin, Shanju

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the use of cognitive state verbs (CSVs) and complement clauses in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. In Study 1, conversational samples from 23 children with SLI (M = 6;2), 24 age-matched TD children (M = 6;2) and 21 vocabulary-matched TD children (M = 4;9) were…

  3. A Shock to the Conscience: The Due Process Clause and Corporal Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2001-01-01

    In a case involving an injured football player, an 11th Circuit judge viewed a coach's refusal to stop a fight as corporal punishment. Federal courts in five circuits have ruled that excessive corporal punishment violates the Due Process Clause if it is so brutal and harmful that it shocks the court's conscience. (MLH)

  4. Quantitative assessment of bone marrow attenuation values at MDCT: An objective tool for the detection of bone bruise related to occult sacral insufficiency fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henes, F.O.; Groth, M.; Bley, T.A.; Regier, M.; Ittrich, H.; Adam, G.; Bannas, P. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Nuechtern, J.V. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Trauma, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Treszl, A. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Center for Experimental Medicine, Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    To prove the feasibility of using Hounsfield attenuation values at MDCT to detect bone bruises related to sacral insufficiency fractures. Twenty-two patients with acute sacrum trauma and no fracture findings at MDCT were included in our prospective study. Two observers independently reviewed CTs regarding visual signs of bone bruises in 132 defined regions of the sacral alae. Interobserver agreement was tested by {kappa} statistics. Subsequently, HU values were obtained in the same regions, and attenuation differences between the two sides were calculated. Validity and reliability were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. HU differences were subjected to ROC curve analysis to determine sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV. MRI served as standard reference. MRI revealed 19 regions with bone bruises and associated sacral insufficiency fractures. HU measurements demonstrated good validity and reliability (r = 0.989). ROC curve analysis exhibited an ideal cutoff value of 35.7 HU density difference between affected and non-affected regions. Visual evaluation revealed moderate agreement ({kappa} = 0.48); diagnostic accuracy was inferior to objective evaluation. Assessment of differences in bone marrow density by HU measurements is an objective and reliable tool for detection of bone bruises associated with occult sacral insufficiency fractures. (orig.)

  5. PAH EMISSION IN STARBURST, SEYFERT, ULIRGS, QSOS AND QUASAR OBJECTS, AND THEIR RELATION WITH THE INFRARED, X-RAY AND RADIO CONTINUUM EMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-A. Higuera-G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a second study in an ongoing work aimed to analyze the star formation activity and its relation with the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs emission. In this way, we have performed a study about the correlation between the ux of the 7.7 -m PAH band and its equivalent width, with the luminosities and uxes observed in JHK photometric bands, IRAS 12, 25, 60 and 100-m, the radio emission at 1.4GHz and X-ray at 2{10 keV, for a sample composed of Seyfert 1-2, QSOs, Quasars, Starburst, and ULIRGs. The results found let us discriminate between objects with more star formation activity from others with more AGN in uence.

  6. La cláusula de conciencia en los códigos de ética periodística: análisis comparativo / The Clause of Conscience in Journalism Ethics Codes: A Comparative Analysi

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    PORFIRIO, BARROSO; MARÌA DEL MAR, LÓPEZ.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La cláusula de conciencia está reconocida internacionalmente como un principio ético y fundamental en la práctica periodística. El objetivo fundamental de este documento es asegurar que la cláusula de conciencia constituye una importante excepción a los poderes del empresario, pues permite al period [...] ista salvar su conflicto de conciencia de la manera menos traumática posible, al acogerse a lo que en otras profesiones liberales se denomina objeción de conciencia. Para ello se realiza un análisis comparativo de la vigencia, el significado y las nuevas tendencias en el contenido y ejercicio de esta prerrogativa en los actuales códigos de ética periodística, tanto de ámbito supranacional como europeo y latinoamericano Abstract in english The Clause of Conscience is internationally recognized as a key ethical principle in the practice of journalism. The main goal of this paper is to assert that the clause of conscience proposes a significant limit to the powers of employers, since it allows journalists to overcome conflicts of consci [...] ence in the least traumatic way possible by making use of what is known as conscientious objection in other liberal professions. This is done through a comparative analysis of aspects like validity, meaning and new trends in the wording, content, and practice of this prerogative in present-day journalism ethics codes at a transnational level, as well as in Europe and Latin America

  7. Relative complexity in scientific discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Hundt, Marianne; Denison, David; Schneider, Gerold

    2012-01-01

    Variation and change in relativization strategies are well documented. Previous studies have looked at issues such as (a) relativizer choice with respect to the semantics of the antecedent and type of relative, (b) prescriptive traditions, (c) variation across text types and regional varieties, and (d) the role that relative clauses play in the organization of information within the noun phrase. In this article, our focus is on scientific writing in British and American English. The additi...

  8. Object composition

    OpenAIRE

    Bono, Viviana; Bettini, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    an extension of Java with incomplete objects. This extension is based on the definition of specific annotations (thus the Java grammar is not extended). It provides a preprocessor that, given a program that uses our special annotations (for incomplete classes) and generates standard Java classes. Incomplete Objects The programmer, besides standard classes, can define incomplete classes whose instances are incomplete objects that can be composed in an object-based fashion. Hence, in our langua...

  9. Objects, materiality and meaning

    OpenAIRE

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    The present research work investigates the relation between physical objects, their materiality, understood as the physical substances they are made from, and the communication from the objects. In product design of physical objects the communicative aspects are just as important as the function of the object, and the designers aim is therefore to tune both in order to achieve a desired goal. To do so the designer basically has 2 options: Alteration of the physical shape of the ob...

  10. SPINS: Standardized ProteIn NMR Storage. A data dictionary and object-oriented relational database for archiving protein NMR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern protein NMR spectroscopy laboratories have a rapidly growing need for an easily queried local archival system of raw experimental NMR datasets. SPINS (Standardized ProteIn Nmr Storage) is an object-oriented relational database that provides facilities for high-volume NMR data archival, organization of analyses, and dissemination of results to the public domain by automatic preparation of the header files required for submission of data to the BioMagResBank (BMRB). The current version of SPINS coordinates the process from data collection to BMRB deposition of raw NMR data by standardizing and integrating the storage and retrieval of these data in a local laboratory file system. Additional facilities include a data mining query tool, graphical database administration tools, and a NMRStar v2.1.1 file generator. SPINS also includes a user-friendly internet-based graphical user interface, which is optionally integrated with Varian VNMR NMR data collection software. This paper provides an overview of the data model underlying the SPINS database system, a description of its implementation in Oracle, and an outline of future plans for the SPINS project

  11. Insights into the chemistry of the Claus reaction furnace and waste heat boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods to deal with the unwanted by-product of acid-gas combustion in the Claus reaction furnace were presented. The by-product, carbon disulfide (CS2), is disturbing because if it is not converted to H2S in the first catalytic converter, it will appear as a sulfur emission in the tail gas of plants not using reductive clean-up technology. To address this issue, Claus catalysts have been designed specifically for CS2 hydrolysis. Studies have been conducted to determine what type of hydrocarbons lead to CS2 formation. It was concluded that all hydrocarbons result in CS2 production, but that benzene is particularly difficult. Data for a wide range of acid gas compositions and contaminant hydrocarbons at different process conditions was presented. Methods to destroy CS2 in the furnace were also identified

  12. Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Brewster, Hilary D

    2009-01-01

    The theory of relativity has become a cornerstone of modern physics. Over the course of time it has been scrutinized in a multitude of experiments and has always been verified with high accuracy. The correctness of this theory can no longer be called into question. Right after its discovery by Albert Einstein in 1905, special relativity was only gradually accepted because it made numerous predictions contradicting common sense, fervently castigated by Einstein, and also defied experiment for too long a time. It was only with the advent of particle or high energy physics that matter could be ac

  13. Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Time magazine's ""Man of the Century"", Albert Einstein is the founder of modern physics and his theory of relativity is the most important scientific idea of the modern era. In this short book, Einstein explains, using the minimum of mathematical terms, the basic ideas and principles of the theory that has shaped the world we live in today. Unsurpassed by any subsequent books on relativity, this remains the most popular and useful exposition of Einstein's immense contribution to human knowledge.With a new foreword by Derek Raine.

  14. On Schiffer's Arguments Against the Fregean Model of 'that'-clauses: A Comment on Vignolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bonardi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In "Propositions: What They Could and What They Could Not Be", Massimiliano Vignolocounters the arguments put forward by Stephen Schiffer ("The Things We Mean" against theso-called Fregean model of 'that'-clauses. My purpose here is to show that some of Vignolo'sobjections to Schiffer's arguments do not hit the mark. I shall also present a new argumentagainst the Fregean model, which takes its cue from two of Schiffer's arguments.

  15. Drafting force majeure clauses in natural gas purchase/sale contracts -- the practicalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The place of 'force majeure' provisions, in gas purchase/sale contracts is discussed. This issue, not normally considered to be significant in gas purchase/sale contracts, became a matter of intense interest in the aftermath of the Atcor Ltd v. Continental Energy Marketing case when the trial court, as well as the Alberta Court of Appeals, strongly criticized the wording of the force majeure clause in the contract as containing a 'choice of words that assured litigation'. Force majeure, simply stated, refers to acts of God, (lightning, earthquakes, storms, floods, etc) and acts of war. It is inserted in contracts to limit the liability of parties to the contract in the event of inability to perform due to any of the above acts of God, or acts of war. In this particular case, the force majeure cause included, in addition to the above, a long list of other causes such as strikes, lockouts or other industrial disturbances, insurrections, riots, epidemics, landslides, fires, washouts, explosions of or accidents to plant, machinery or lines of pipe, well blowouts, and pipeline repairs and reconditioning. The trial court found the drafting of the clause archaic, circumventing clarity, and drearily lengthy. In view of the court's decision it is clear that more thought has to go into drafting force majeure decisions in the future. Accordingly, this paper attempts to discuss practical issues of drafting force majeure clauses that clearly reflect the parties' intentions and exply reflect the parties' intentions and expectations so that costly litigations might be avoided, or if litigation is unavoidable, to at least have the outcome of such litigation be more predictable. The focus of the discussion is on legal interpretation issues, forms of gas contract force majeure provisions- events and consequences, and standardization of force majeure provisions. It is recommended that the drafter of such clauses should always keep in mind the potential impact that the strict construction and commercial reasonability concepts may have on the words chosen. 22 refs

  16. A Preprocessor Based on Clause Normal Forms and Virtual Substitutions to Parallelize Cylindrical Algebraic Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Malladi, Hari Krishna; Dukkipati, Ambedkar

    2011-01-01

    The Cylindrical Algebraic Decomposition (CAD) algorithm is a comprehensive tool to perform quantifier elimination over real closed fields. CAD has doubly exponential running time, making it infeasible for practical purposes. We propose to use the notions of clause normal forms and virtual substitutions to develop a preprocessor for CAD, that will enable an input-level parallelism. We study the performance of CAD in the presence of the preprocessor by extensive experimentatio...

  17. The Formation of English Phrasal Comparatives? Study of Lechner’s Small Clause Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaowen Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Lechner (2001) proposes two hypotheses, that is, CR-Hypothesis (Conjunction Reduction (hereafter CR) operations can target comparatives.) and PC-Hypothesis (Phrasal Comparatives (hereafter PCs) derive from clausal comparatives by CR.) In this paper, I discuss the formation of PCs and its relevance to Lechner’s two Hypotheses. As to the formation of PCs, based on his two hypotheses, he puts forward small clause analysis. Compared with Direct Analysis and Comparative Ellipsis approach, al...

  18. Convex polyhedral abstractions, specialisation and property-based predicate splitting in Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2014-01-01

    We present an approach to constrained Horn clause (CHC) verification combining three techniques: abstract interpretation over a domain of convex polyhedra, specialisation of the constraints in CHCs using abstract interpretation of query-answer transformed clauses, and refinement by splitting predicates. The purpose of the work is to investigate how analysis and transformation tools developed for constraint logic programs (CLP) can be applied to the Horn clause verification problem. Abstract interpretation over convex polyhedra is capable of deriving sophisticated invariants and when used in conjunction with specialisation for propagating constraints it can frequently solve challenging verification problems. This is a contribution in itself, but refinement is needed when it fails, and the question of how to refine convex polyhedral analyses has not been studied much. We present a refinement technique based on interpolants derived from a counterexample trace; these are used to drive a property-based specialisation that splits predicates, leading in turn to more precise convex polyhedral analyses. The process of specialisation, analysis and splitting can be repeated, in a manner similar to the CEGAR and iterative specialisation approaches.

  19. 'Koloniseren is een smaak die je moet leren' - Hugo Claus en Het leven en de werken van Leopold II (1970) / Hugo Claus and Het leven en de werken van Leopold II (1970)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yves, T' Sjoen.

    Full Text Available The première of Claus' play Het leven en de werken van Leopold II (The Life and Works of Leopold II), in November 1970 (by the company Nederlandse Comedie), was directed by the author himself. After a second and again rather unsuccessful run (1972 - 1973, Arena, director: J. Tummers) it disappeared [...] from the stage for nearly thirty years: there was no other production of Claus' play in the Low Countries until the autumn of 2002 (KVS, director: R. Ruëll). Undoubtedly Het leven en de werken van Leopold II is one of the lesser-known plays by the Flemish author Hugo Claus (1929-2008). While writing it, at the end of the sixties, Claus was simultaneously working on two poetry collections. Van horen zeggen contains accessible poems, sometimes rather anecdotal, with many references to the contemporary political situation. These poems show a clear affinity with the neo-realistic poetry that was dominant in Dutch-language literature in the sixties. Also in 1970, on the same day as Van horen zeggen, Claus published Heer Everzwijn (Lord Wild Boar), manneristic poetry showing another poeta faber. Given Claus' interest in the history of the Congo Free State (see also the novel De geruchten [The rumours]) and the way he caricatures King Leopold II and his government in Het leven en de werken, it is worth investigating the political and social perspectives articulated in both his drama and his poetry. What are the similarities between the poet and the playwright? How can we explain his interest in the way Leopold mistreated the people of the Congo? In this essay I present the ideological and social points of view adopted by Claus in a broad literary and political context, studying his play on Leopold's atrocities in what would later (in 1908) become a Belgian colony, alongside the poetry he produced in the same period.

  20. 48 CFR 1515.209 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING...considered in making the source selection and their relative importance in each solicitation. ...EPA Source Evaluation and Selection...

  1. Extended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After some disconnected comments on the MIT bag and string models for extended hadrons, I review current understanding of extended objects in classical conventional relativistic field theories and their quantum mechanical interpretation

  2. Trusted Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  3. Object oriented programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is an introduction to object oriented programming techniques. It tries to explain the concepts by using analogies with traditional programming. The object oriented approach not inherently difficult, but most programmers find a relatively high threshold in learning it. Thus, this paper will attempt to convey the concepts with examples rather than explain the formal theory

  4. Objects, materiality and meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    The present research work investigates the relation between physical objects, their materiality, understood as the physical substances they are made from, and the communication from the objects. In product design of physical objects the communicative aspects are just as important as the function of the object, and the designers aim is therefore to tune both in order to achieve a desired goal. To do so the designer basically has 2 options: Alteration of the physical shape of the object and the selection of materials. Through the manipulation of shape and materials can symbolic and sensory information be written into the object. The materials are therefore carriers of communication, even though this is dependent of the cultural context and the environment which the object will be part of. However the designer has only minor influence on those.

  5. Variation and change in the syntax of relative clauses: new evidence from Portuguese

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Maria Adriana Príncipe, 1975-

    2010-01-01

    A presente dissertação visa contribuir para a compreensão dos fenómenos de variação e mudança linguísticas, centrando-se no estudo de construções de relativização em português e em outras línguas. A perspectiva adoptada neste estudo insere-se na área de investigação que tem sido designada de sintaxe comparada (cf., a título de exemplo, Cinque e Kayne 2005). Esta opção metodológica manifesta-se em dois planos distintos. Por um lado, é estabelecida uma comparação entre os dado...

  6. Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephani, Hans

    2004-02-01

    Preface; Notation; Part I. Special Relativity: 1. Introduction: inertial systems and Galilei invariance of classical mechanics; 2. Light propagation in moving coordinate systems and Lorentz transformations; 3. Our world as a Minkowski space; 4. Mechanics of special relativity; 5. Optics of plane waves; 6. Four-dimensional vectors and tensors; 7. Electrodynamics in vacuo; 8. Transformation properties of electromagnetic fields: examples; 9. Null vectors and the algebraic properties of electromagnetic field tensors; 10. Charged point particles and their field; 11. Pole-dipole particles and their field; 12. Electrodynamics in media; 13. Perfect fluids and other physical theories; Part II. Riemannian Geometry: 14. Introduction: the force-free motion of particles in Newtonian mechanics; 15. Why Riemannian geometry?; 16. Riemannian space; 17. Tensor algebra; 18. The covariant derivative and parallel transport; 19. The curvature tensor; 20. Differential operators, integrals and integral laws; 21. Fundamental laws of physics in Riemannian spaces; Part III. Foundations of Einstein's Theory of Gravitation: 22. The fundamental equations of Einstein's theory of gravitation; 23. The Schwarzschild solution; 24. Experiments to verify the Schwarzschild metric; 25. Gravitational lenses; 26. The interior Schwarzschild solution; Part IV. Linearized Theory of Gravitation, Far Fields and Gravitational Waves: 27. The linearized Einstein theory of gravity; 28. Far fields due to arbitrary matter distributions and balance equations for momentum and angular momentum; 29. Gravitational waves; 30. The Cauchy problem for the Einstein field equations; Part V. Invariant Characterization of Exact Solutions: 31. Preferred vector fields and their properties; 32. The Petrov classification; 33. Killing vectors and groups of motion; 34. A survey of some selected classes of exact solutions; Part VI. Gravitational Collapse and Black Holes: 35. The Schwarzschild singularity; 36. Gravitational collapse - the possible life history of a spherically symmetric star; 37. Rotating black holes; 38. Black holes are not black - relativity theory and quantum theory; 39. The conformal structure of infinity; Part VII. Cosmology: 40. Robertson-Walker metrics and their properties; 41. The dynamics of Robertson-Walker metrics and the Friedmann universes; 42. Our Universe as a Friedmann model; 43. General cosmological models; Bibliography; Index.

  7. New concept for quantification of similarity relates entropy and energy of objects: First and Second Law entangled, group behavior of micro black holes expected

    OpenAIRE

    Zimak Petr; Terenzi Silvia; Strazewski Peter

    2010-01-01

    Abstract When the free energy of similar but distinct molecule-sized objects is plotted against the temperature at which their energy and entropy contributions cancel, a highly significant linear dependence results from which the degree of similarity between the distinctly different members within the group of objects can be quantified and a relationship between energy and entropy is derived. This energy-entropy relationship entirely reflects the mathematical structure of thermodynamic equati...

  8. New concept for quantification of similarity relates entropy and energy of objects: First and Second Law entangled, equivalence of temperature and time proposed

    OpenAIRE

    Zimak, Petr; Terenzi, Silvia; Strazewski, Peter

    2009-01-01

    When the difference between changes in energy and entropy at a given temperature is correlated with the ratio between the same changes in energy and entropy at zero average free energy of an ensemble of similar but distinct molecule-sized objects, a highly significant linear dependence results from which a relationship between energy and entropy is derived and the degree of similarity between the distinctly different members within the group of objects can be quantified. Thi...

  9. New concept for quantification of similarity relates entropy and energy of objects: First and Second Law entangled, equivalence of temperature and time proposed

    CERN Document Server

    Zimak, Petr; Strazewski, Peter

    2009-01-01

    When the difference between changes in energy and entropy at a given temperature is correlated with the ratio between the same changes in energy and entropy at zero average free energy of an ensemble of similar but distinct molecule-sized objects, a highly significant linear dependence results from which a relationship between energy and entropy is derived and the degree of similarity between the distinctly different members within the group of objects can be quantified. This fundamental energy-entropy relationship is likely to be of general interest in physics, most notably in particle physics and cosmology. We predict a consistent and testable way of classifying mini black holes, to be generated in future Large Hadron Collider experiments, by their gravitational energy and area entropy. For any isolated universe we propose absolute temperature and absolute time to be equivalent, much in the same way as energy and entropy are for an isolated ensemble of similar objects. According to this principle, the cosmo...

  10. 37 CFR 401.14 - Standard patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Made when used in relation to any invention means...publication, on sale or public use of the invention...reasonably accessible to the public. The license in any...meet requirements for public use specified by Federal...plan or proposal for marketing the invention...

  11. Medienanalytische betrachtungen zu Claus Peymanns Verfilmung der ,,Hermannsschlacht" nach Heinrich von Kleist / A media-analytic view on Claus Peymann's film about Heinrich von Kleist's "Hermannsschlacht"

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hans W., Giessen.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes interpretations of Heinrich von Kleist's Hermannsschlacht (title in English: The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest). Historically there have been four different types of interpretation: those that praise both content and form, those that express dislike of both con-tent and form, t [...] hose that praise the content but dislike the form, and those that inversely express dislike for the content but admiration for the form. It is argued here that Claus Peymann's inter-pretation, as seen in his film, goes contrary to these traditional ways of dealing with Hermannsschlacht, since Peymann's interpretation obviously respects Kleist's text but inter-prets Hermansschlacht as a text in favor of peace, not war.

  12. That-clause Subject/Object Asymmetry in Second Language Acquisition of ECP Principle by Iranian Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Marzieh Nezakat-alhossaini; Ahmad Moinzadeh

    2012-01-01

    This study is concerned with the question of whether Persian-speaking EFL learners recognize Empty Category Principle and ‘that-trace’ effect constraint. One-hundred fifty EFL learners participated in the study from among whom 90 language learners at Najafabad Azad University, selected by the OPT, participated in a decontextualized Grammaticality Judgment task. They were three groups of high, mid, and low. Another 60 English learners studying at Gooyesh Language Institute, selecte...

  13. 25 CFR 900.186 - Is it necessary for a self-determination contract to include any clauses about Federal Tort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...contract to include any clauses about Federal Tort Claims Act coverage? 900.186 Section...AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Federal Tort Claims Act Coverage General Provisions...contract to include any clauses about Federal Tort Claims Act coverage? No, it is...

  14. Treatment-Related Changes in Objectively Measured Parenting Behaviors in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Karen C.; Chi, Terry C.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Pfiffner, Linda; Nebel-Schwalm, Marie; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Abikoff, Howard B.; Conners, C. Keith; Elliott, Glen R.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Hechtman, Lily; Hoza, Betsy; Jensen, Peter S.; March, John; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Pelham, William E.; Severe, Joanne B.; Swanson, James; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined treatment outcomes for objectively measured parenting behavior in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Five hundred seventy-nine ethnically and socioeconomically diverse children with ADHD-combined type (ages 7.0-9.9 years) and their parent(s) were recruited …

  15. Submicron aerosols and issues related to the internal dose monitoring system of the personnel of the object 'Ukryttya' and the exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is dedicated to discussion of the phenomenon of the elevated contribution of submicron aerosol particles inside the object 'Ukryttya', which was observed in many research conducted by different methods and many researches, in context of consideration the whole set of factors of internal exposure of the personnel, which determine the structure of the internal dose monitoring system. It can be noted that recently a lot of attention are paid to the submicron aerosols during consideration of internal dose forming factors for the object 'Ukryttya' personnel. Thus a basic problem is not in absence of approaches, norms or specialists, but in absence of practical realisation. In this context appearance of Protocol of internal dose monitoring the object 'Ukryttya' personnel is a definitely progressive step to construction of an integral system of radiation safety not only for the object 'Ukryttya' but also for the Exclusion zone as a whole. Coming from the aforementioned, a set of high priority technical measures for establishment of an adequate internal dose monitoring system is suggested

  16. Brain activity related to integrative processes in visual object recognition : bottom-up integration and the modulatory influence of stored knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Aaside, C T

    2002-01-01

    We report evidence from a PET activation study that the inferior occipital gyri (likely to include area V2) and the posterior parts of the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri are involved in the integration of visual elements into perceptual wholes (single objects). Of these areas, the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri were more activated by tasks with recognizable stimuli than by tasks with unrecognizable stimuli. We propose that the posterior parts of the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri, compared with the inferior occipital gyri, are involved in higher level integration, due to the involvement of re-entrant activation from stored structural knowledge. Evidence in favor of this interpretation comes from the additional finding that activation of the anterior part of the left fusiform gyrus and a more anterior part of the right inferior temporal gyrus, areas previously associated with access to stored structural knowledge, was found with recognizable stimuli, but not with unrecognizable stimuli. This latter finding also indicates: (i) that subjects may not refrain from (automatically) identifying objects even if they only have to attend to the objects' global shape, and (ii) that perceptual and memorial processes can be dissociated on both functional and anatomical grounds. No evidence was obtained for the involvement of the parietal lobes in the integration of single objects.

  17. Conversion of Claus plants of Kirkuk-Iraq to produce hydrogen and sulfur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text': Hydrogen production from rich sub-quality natural gas (SQNG) is visible technically with assessment of cost, safety and environmental toxicology analysis of hydrogen sulfide, is summarized. There are two Claus plants in Kirkuk-Iraq, converting hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur capacity of 2200 ton/day. One of these plants is working with only 400 ton/day and it is an old Claus process. The other is a modified Claus sulfur recovery process with a capacity of 1800 ton/day. Both of these plants operate with low efficiency due to lack of maintenance and the present situation in Iraq. Therefore, the agricultural area around Kirkuk is very polluted by this gas. Two pilot plants have been constructed inside the modified Claus plant in Kirkuk The first one is based on the flow system tube furnace reactor containing mixed Titanium oxide/sulfide with a cold trap for sulfur separation and a bath of 30% dithanolamine to separate and recycle H2S from hydrogen. The second pilot plant consists of a thermal diffusion ceramic rod inside a silica column containing Zeolit 5A as a catalyst. This pilot plant also consists of a trap for continuous separation of sulfur and a system for separation of hydrogen from unreacted H2S to recycle. The efficiency of conversion of H2S to hydrogen and sulfur has been optimized as a function of catalyst type and mixture, temperature of furnace, flow rate of gas and reactor materials until the efficiency rd reactor materials until the efficiency reaches more than 97%. The Kirkuk natural gas consists of a mixture of CO2 10% and H2S 12%. We found that these pilot plants were suitable with Cadmium chalcogens catalysts to produce hydrogen, methane, ethane and sulphur, but with lower efficiency than H2S decomposition only. Our aim in the second pilot plant, which consists of a silica column, was to supply the heat by solar energy concentrator instead of electricity as our catalyst needs 450 oC. and the solar intensity is about 1000 w/m2 during the summer. The idea of converting these two Claus plants to produce hydrogen gas fuel and sulfur will be a good achievement to the environment around the oil fields, besides production of a renewable energy source (hydrogen gas). A hydrogen production plant in this part of Iraq will save a large area from polluted sulfur gas, and will demonstrate how utilization of hydrogen from these waste gases is very significant. Our calculations show that these plants can produce about 140 ton / day of hydrogen gas. Different technological options are available and associated costs reported. They are supplied by a range of hydrogen technology suppliers. The price of hydrogen from H2S is now much lower than the price of any other present technology for production of hydrogen. The last report for the price of hydrogen from gas companies by modifications of Claus process and production of CS2 gas is zero dollars cost. (author)

  18. Restrictive Clauses of Liability: Observations to the Current Regime and Proposals for Reformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Gual Acosta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The following essay intends to test the convenience of either keeping a disperse regime in Colombia, or to opt for a positive one with a systematic character with regards to restrictive clauses of public and private liability. The aforementioned will be seen from the viewpoint of compared Law where the main aspects of the only two attempts of reforming the existing regime will be regarded, as well as under the observation of the legislative proposals that have intended to reform the consumer’s statute in the last decade.

  19. Toluene destruction in thermal stage of Claus reactor with oxygen enriched air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Examined H2S and H2S/C7H8 combustion using O2 enriched air at Claus condition (? = 3). • Oxygen enrichment allowed examination at increased reactor temperatures. • Presence of toluene reduced SO2 formation and increased S2 formation. • Toluene triggered the formation of CS2 and hydrocarbons (methane and acetylene). • Increased O2 enrichment in air helped to mitigate the impact of hydrocarbons and CS2. - Abstract: Results are presented on the toluene destruction using oxygen enriched air as the oxidant with addition of defined amounts of H2S and toluene into H2/air flames under fuel-rich mixture conditions at equivalence ratio of ? = 3 (Claus condition). The oxygen enrichment allowed variation of temperature in the reactor and reduced nitrogen and total volumetric gas flow while maintaining the same equivalence ratio. The formation and destruction of hydrocarbons and other gas phase species during the combustion of H2S and C7H8 mixture are presented with oxygen enrichments (0%, 19.5% and 69.3% O2) to air. Toluene is often present in acid gas consisting of mainly H2S and CO2 so that combustion of H2S/C7H8 is of practical value. The formation of SO2 increased with oxygen enrichment to air. Increased oxygen in air reduced oxidation rate of H2 and increased H2S oxidation rate which enhanced faster rate of SO2 production to result in reduced formation of elemental sulfur. Addition of toluene to H2S reduced the rate of H2 oxidation and increased that of H2S. In contrast to the case of 100% H2S combustion, toluene favored faster increase in mole fractions of SO2 to a peak value but the formed SO2 decomposed with increased distance along the reactor. The decay of SO2 is attributed to the reactions between SO2 and other sulfur containing radicals or hydrocarbons formed (such as methane and acetylene) to produce elemental sulfur and carbon disulfide. Oxygen enrichment to the combustion air enhanced the rate of hydrocarbons decomposition which helped to reduce the amounts of CS2 formed. Formation of CS2 and hydrocarbons adversely impact the performance and efficiency of sulfur capture in a Claus process. These results assist in identifying conditions on the role of oxygen enrichment in designing compact Claus reactors

  20. New concept for quantification of similarity relates entropy and energy of objects: First and Second Law entangled, group behavior of micro black holes expected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimak Petr

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract When the free energy of similar but distinct molecule-sized objects is plotted against the temperature at which their energy and entropy contributions cancel, a highly significant linear dependence results from which the degree of similarity between the distinctly different members within the group of objects can be quantified and a relationship between energy and entropy is derived. This energy-entropy relationship entirely reflects the mathematical structure of thermodynamic equations, is in this sense fundamental and therefore does probably not dependent on material nor scale. The energy-entropy relationship is likely to be of general interest in molecular biology, population biology, synthetic biology, biophysics, chemical thermodynamics, systems chemistry and physics, most notably in particle physics and cosmology. In physics we predict a consistent and perhaps testable way of classifying micro black holes, to be generated in future Large Hadron Collider experiments, by their gravitational energy and area entropy.

  1. Subjective and Objective Binge Eating in Relation to Eating Disorder Symptomatology, Depressive Symptoms, and Self-Esteem Among Treatment-Seeking Adolescents with Bulimia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Ciao, Anna C.; Accurso, Erin C.; Pisetsky, Emily M.; Peterson, Carol B.; Byrne, Catherine E.; le Grange, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the importance of the distinction between objective (OBE) and subjective binge eating (SBE) among 80 treatment-seeking adolescents with bulimia nervosa (BN). We explored relationships among OBEs, SBEs, eating disorder (ED) symptomatology, depression, and self-esteem using two approaches. Group comparisons showed that OBE and SBE groups did not differ on ED symptoms or self-esteem; however, the SBE group had significantly greater depression. Examining continuous variabl...

  2. Licensing-In Fosters Rapid Invention! : The Effect of the Grant-Back Clause and Technological Unfamiliarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leone, Maria Isabella; Reichstein, Toke

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on contractual economics and innovation management, licensing-in is hypothesized to accelerate licensees' invention process. Studying a matched dataset of licensees and non-licensees, licensees are shown to be faster at inventing, but the effect is negated if the license includes a grant-back clause, shifting incentives from licensee to licensor. Also, the effect is significantly reduced if the licensee is unfamiliar with the licensed technology. The effect of the grant-back clause is offset if the licensee is unfamiliar with the licensed technology, suggesting that the licensee retains the incentives to invent under these circumstances

  3. Learning Sentence-internal Temporal Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Lapata, M; 10.1613/jair.2015

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a data intensive approach for inferring sentence-internal temporal relations. Temporal inference is relevant for practical NLP applications which either extract or synthesize temporal information (e.g., summarisation, question answering). Our method bypasses the need for manual coding by exploiting the presence of markers like after", which overtly signal a temporal relation. We first show that models trained on main and subordinate clauses connected with a temporal marker achieve good performance on a pseudo-disambiguation task simulating temporal inference (during testing the temporal marker is treated as unseen and the models must select the right marker from a set of possible candidates). Secondly, we assess whether the proposed approach holds promise for the semi-automatic creation of temporal annotations. Specifically, we use a model trained on noisy and approximate data (i.e., main and subordinate clauses) to predict intra-sentential relations present in TimeBank, a corpus anno...

  4. Wow!: objects

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Paulo Se?rgio Da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays computers have advanced beyond the desktop into many parts of everyday life and objects. To achieve this we have to make the computer invisible, and making a computer invisible is not a matter of size of the hardware, it’s all about how the human perceives the computer. To make this possible, the interaction with the computer has to be done in an alternative way, such that the user doesn’t notice the usual computer interfaces (mouse and keyboard) when using it. Therefore th...

  5. Quantum Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Mansouri, Alireza; Karbasizadeh, Amir Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest an alternative interpretation for the quantum state vector, which, by considering temporal parts for physical objects, aims to give an intelligible account of measurement problem in quantum mechanics. We examine the capacity of this interpretation as for explaining three measurement problems: the problem of outcome, the problem of statistics and the problem of effect. We argue that, this interpretation of the state vector, while providing a satisfactory account, as rationally plausible as its rivals, for the measurement problem, shows yet another limitation of our perceptual experience, i.e. our inability to perceive unsharp reality.

  6. Automata Describing Object Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Rumpe, Bernhard; Klein, Cornel

    2014-01-01

    Relating formal re nement techniques with commercial object oriented software development methods is important to achieve enhancement of the power and exibility of these software development methods and tools. We will present an automata model together with a denotational and an operational semantics to describe the behavior of objects. Based on the given semantics we de ne a set of powerful re nement rules and discuss their applicability in software engineering practice esp...

  7. ASPECTUAL INFLUENCE ON TEMPORAL RELATIONS: A CASE STUDY OF THE EXPERIENTIAL GUO IN MANDARINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Shiung Wu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how the temporal relation between a clause containing the experiential guo and an adjacent clause is determined. Mandarin is a language not morphologically marked for tenses (e.g., Lin 2006, and therefore, tenses cannot help in determining temporal relations in Mandarin. However, Mandarin has a rich aspectual system. This paper argues that the experiential guo indirectly influences temporal relations via rhetorical relations by either specifying a default rhetorical relation, or by constraining the circumstances under which a certain rhetorical relation can connect a clause with guo to an adjacent clause. This paper also argues that the default rhetorical relation and the constraints are determined by the aspectual properties of the experiential marker. Other information, such as discourse connectors, lexical information, etc., can override the default rhetorical relation indicated by guo and specifies a rhetorical relation. Therefore, this paper concludes that in Mandarin aspect markers can indirectly affect temporal relations by means of rhetorical relations, a result consistent with Wu’s (2005b paper on the perfective marker le in Mandarin, and Wu’s (2007b, 2004 work on the progressive marker zai and the durative marker zhe.

  8. Sintaxe das orações complexas em português: uma proposta de descrição e ensino / Syntax of complex clauses in Portuguese: a proposal of description and teaching

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Carolina, Sperança-Criscuolo.

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, a partir de uma discussão acerca de problemas relacionados ao ensino de gramática, pretende-se fazer uma proposta de descrição e ensino de algumas orações subordinadas substantivas sob uma perspectiva interdiscursiva. Com base nos pressupostos da teoria da Gramática Discursivo-Funcio [...] nal (HENGEVELD; MACKENZIE, 2008), observaram-se aspectos subjetivos codificados na sintaxe dessas orações, motivados pelas intenções do falante. Verificou-se que as construções complexas estudadas, do ponto de vista pragmático, compreendem estratégias de que o falante dispõe para demonstrar maior ou menor comprometimento com o que diz, preservando sua face, e também para garantir a confiabilidade da informação asseverada; do ponto de vista do sistema da língua, revelam adaptações que a língua sofre em função das necessidades comunicativas do falante (BYBEE, 2010). Acredita-se que o ensino dessas orações, a partir de sua funcionalidade, pode tornar a prática em sala de aula mais eficiente, melhorando o desempenho linguístico dos alunos. Abstract in english In this paper, motivated by problems related to grammar teaching, we propose a description of some noun subordinate clauses from an interdiscursive perspective. Based on the principles of the Functional Discourse Grammar theory (HENGEVELD; MACKENZIE, 2008), we observed some subjective aspects encode [...] d by these syntactic constructions, motivated by the Speaker's communicative intentions. In pragmatic terms, the complement clauses we studied correspond to the Speaker's strategies to demonstrate his commitment degree with what he's saying, protecting his/her face, and also assuring the information's reliability; in linguistic terms, they show the language suffers some adaptations (BYBEE, 2010) to serve the Speaker's communicative needs. We believe that the focus in the functionality of these constructions can make its teaching richer and more efficient, and so the students' language performance.

  9. Resolution Trees with Lemmas: Resolution Refinements that Characterize DLL Algorithms with Clause Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Buss, Samuel R; Johannsen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Resolution refinements called w-resolution trees with lemmas (WRTL) and with input lemmas (WRTI) are introduced. Dag-like resolution is equivalent to both WRTL and WRTI when there is no regularity condition. For regular proofs, an exponential separation between regular dag-like resolution and both regular WRTL and regular WRTI is given. It is proved that DLL proof search algorithms that use clause learning based on unit propagation can be polynomially simulated by regular WRTI. More generally, non-greedy DLL algorithms with learning by unit propagation are equivalent to regular WRTI. A general form of clause learning, called DLL-Learn, is defined that is equivalent to regular WRTL. A variable extension method is used to give simulations of resolution by regular WRTI, using a simplified form of proof trace extensions. DLL-Learn and non-greedy DLL algorithms with learning by unit propagation can use variable extensions to simulate general resolution without doing restarts. Finally, an exponential lower bound fo...

  10. Validade e confiabilidade da versão brasileira de um inventário de avaliação de relações objetais Validity and reliability of the Brazilian version of an inventory for the evaluation of object relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilze L Bruscato

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Relação objetal tem sido um conceito fértil para a psicanálise e para a psiquiatria. O reconhecimento crescente do valor diagnóstico do conceito de relação objetal nos transtornos psiquiátricos tem levado ao desenvolvimento de várias escalas que pretendem mensurá-lo. O estudo teve o propósito de produzir os índices de validade e confiabilidade da versão em português de um instrumento amplamente usado, planejado para avaliar relações objetais, o Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory (BORRTI - Form O. Métodos: A amostra foi composta de 218 estudantes de graduação de psicologia. Uma análise fatorial exploratória obteve, com sucesso, as quatro dimensões descritas nos estudos originais. Resultados: Estas dimensões demonstraram boa correlação dos escores quando comparadas às respectivas dimensões da versão em inglês do BORRTI - Forma O (0,62 para alienação, 0,82 para vinculação insegura, 0,83 para egocentrismo e 0,78 para incapacidade social. Os escores de confiabilidade também foram aceitáveis, com um valor alpha de Cronbach para todos os itens de 0,59 e confiabilidade split-half Spearman-Brown de 0,63. Conclusões: Tornando estes índices disponíveis, o estudo pode contribuir para a escolha adequada de escalas que investiguem relações objetais no Brasil.Introduction: Object relation has been a fertile concept in psychoanalysis and psychiatry. The growing recognition of the diagnostic value of the object relation concept in psychiatric disorders has led to the development of several scales for its measurement. The study aimed to produce validity and reliability indices in the Portuguese version of a widely used instrument designed to measure object relations, the Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory (BORRTI - Form O. Methods: Data was collected from 218 psychology graduate students. Exploratory factorial analysis allowed obtaining successfully the 4 dimensions described in previous studies. Results: These dimensions showed good correlation scores when compared to their respective dimensions in the English version of the BORRTI - Form O (0.62 for alienation, 0.82 for insecure attachment, 0.83 for egocentricity and 0.78 for social incompetence. Reliability scores were also acceptable with Cronbach's alpha for all items at 0.59, and split-half Spearman-Brown at 0.63. Conclusions: By making these indices available, the study can contribute to the rational choice of scales to investigate object relation in Brazil.

  11. Validade e confiabilidade da versão brasileira de um inventário de avaliação de relações objetais / Validity and reliability of the Brazilian version of an inventory for the evaluation of object relations

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wilze L, Bruscato; Eduardo, Iacoponi.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Relação objetal tem sido um conceito fértil para a psicanálise e para a psiquiatria. O reconhecimento crescente do valor diagnóstico do conceito de relação objetal nos transtornos psiquiátricos tem levado ao desenvolvimento de várias escalas que pretendem mensurá-lo. O estudo teve o prop [...] ósito de produzir os índices de validade e confiabilidade da versão em português de um instrumento amplamente usado, planejado para avaliar relações objetais, o Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory (BORRTI - Form O). Métodos: A amostra foi composta de 218 estudantes de graduação de psicologia. Uma análise fatorial exploratória obteve, com sucesso, as quatro dimensões descritas nos estudos originais. Resultados: Estas dimensões demonstraram boa correlação dos escores quando comparadas às respectivas dimensões da versão em inglês do BORRTI - Forma O (0,62 para alienação, 0,82 para vinculação insegura, 0,83 para egocentrismo e 0,78 para incapacidade social). Os escores de confiabilidade também foram aceitáveis, com um valor alpha de Cronbach para todos os itens de 0,59 e confiabilidade split-half Spearman-Brown de 0,63. Conclusões: Tornando estes índices disponíveis, o estudo pode contribuir para a escolha adequada de escalas que investiguem relações objetais no Brasil. Abstract in english Introduction: Object relation has been a fertile concept in psychoanalysis and psychiatry. The growing recognition of the diagnostic value of the object relation concept in psychiatric disorders has led to the development of several scales for its measurement. The study aimed to produce validity and [...] reliability indices in the Portuguese version of a widely used instrument designed to measure object relations, the Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory (BORRTI - Form O). Methods: Data was collected from 218 psychology graduate students. Exploratory factorial analysis allowed obtaining successfully the 4 dimensions described in previous studies. Results: These dimensions showed good correlation scores when compared to their respective dimensions in the English version of the BORRTI - Form O (0.62 for alienation, 0.82 for insecure attachment, 0.83 for egocentricity and 0.78 for social incompetence). Reliability scores were also acceptable with Cronbach's alpha for all items at 0.59, and split-half Spearman-Brown at 0.63. Conclusions: By making these indices available, the study can contribute to the rational choice of scales to investigate object relation in Brazil.

  12. Subjective and objective binge eating in relation to eating disorder symptomatology, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem among treatment-seeking adolescents with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Ciao, Anna C; Accurso, Erin C; Pisetsky, Emily M; Peterson, Carol B; Byrne, Catherine E; Le Grange, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the importance of the distinction between objective (OBE) and subjective binge eating (SBE) among 80 treatment-seeking adolescents with bulimia nervosa. We explored relationships among OBEs, SBEs, eating disorder (ED) symptomatology, depression, and self-esteem using two approaches. Group comparisons showed that OBE and SBE groups did not differ on ED symptoms or self-esteem; however, the SBE group had significantly greater depression. Examining continuous variables, OBEs (not SBEs) accounted for significant unique variance in global ED pathology, vomiting, and self-esteem. SBEs (not OBEs) accounted for significant unique variance in restraint and depression. Both OBEs and SBEs accounted for significant unique variance in eating concern; neither accounted for unique variance in weight/shape concern, laxative use, diuretic use, or driven exercise. Loss of control, rather than amount of food, may be most important in defining binge eating. Additionally, OBEs may indicate broader ED pathology, while SBEs may indicate restrictive/depressive symptomatology. PMID:24852114

  13. Where Theory and Law Meet: Trends in Establishment Clause Jurisprudence in the US Federal Courts and Implications for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lance E.; Southerland, Sherry A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, federal court opinions and writings of legal scholars, spanning 63 years of establishment clause jurisprudence in the US federal courts were analysed in an effort to determine dominant trends in judicial philosophy that are of significance to science educators. The study's findings suggest that the dominant legal theory…

  14. Objectively measured physical activity, physical activity related personality and body mass index in 6- to 10-yr-old children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Bourdeaudhuij Ilse

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence and level of overweight in childhood is rapidly increasing. One potential contributor to the rise in overweight is a decline in physical activity (PA. The purpose of this study was to compare levels and patterns of PA and PA related personality in normal-weight (NW and overweight (OW 6- to 10-yr-old children. Methods Subjects were grouped into OW (N = 59, BMI = 24.2 ± 4.8 kg/m2 or NW (N = 61, BMI = 15.7 ± 1.5 kg/m2 according to International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. PA was assessed by accelerometry. Parents filled in a questionnaire on PA and sedentary behaviour and PA related personality of their child (born tired, moves slowly, is often tired, lacks energy, avoids physical efforts, prefers watching playing children instead of joining them, is always active, needs to let himself/herself go, has a lot of energy. Results NW children spent on average 77 min/day in MVPA, whereas OW children only 57 min/day (p = .001. OW children had fewer 5, 10 and 20 min bouts of MVPA (p = .01. OW and NW children showed identical PA patterns on both week days and weekends, although at different levels. According to parents' report, a greater percentage of OW children was not engaged in any sport (46% versus 23%, chi2 = 6.3, p = .01. OW children had a less active personality (p Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that NW children spent on average 20 min per day more in MVPA. PA patterns were similar in NW versus OW children, although at different levels. Greatest differences in PA according to weight status were found in the afternoon during after school hours. This is the first study to show distinct PA related personality traits in OW children compared to NW peers.

  15. This elusive objective existence

    CERN Document Server

    Mohrhoff, U

    2004-01-01

    Zurek's existential interpretation of quantum mechanics suffers from three classical prejudices, including the belief that space and time are intrinsically and infinitely differentiated. They compel him to relativize the concept of objective existence in two ways. The elimination of these prejudices makes it possible to recognize the quantum formalism's ontological implications - the relative and contingent reality of spatiotemporal distinctions and the extrinsic and finite spatiotemporal differentiation of the physical world - which in turn makes it possible to arrive at an unqualified objective existence. Contrary to a widespread misconception, viewing the quantum formalism as being fundamentally a probability algorithm does not imply that quantum mechanics is concerned with states of knowledge rather than states of Nature. On the contrary, it makes possible a complete and strongly objective description of the physical world that requires no reference to observers. What objectively exists, in a sense that r...

  16. SPECT attenuation related artifacts and their removal by attenuation correction in uniform and non-uniform attenuating objects using iterative reconstruction algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraz Kalantari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Photon attenuation is one of the main causes of quantitative errors and artifacts in SPECT. CT based attenuation map is necessary to correct for this effect accurately. A number of attenuation related artifacts are described. A fast and memory efficient algorithm is proposed for attenuation correction. Methods: In our CT based attenuation correction algorithm, attenuated projections of an arbitrary estimation are calculated. These projections are compared with real projections. The error due to comparison updates the first arbitrary image. This iterative procedure continues till there is no difference between mathematical and real projections. To consider the effect of Poisson noise during reconstruction, EM statistical reconstruction is used. The effect of attenuation is enrolled in both projection and backprojection steps. To accelerate the reconstruction algorithm, a rotating image in a fix grid with bilinear interpolation is used to simplify ray tracing for creating mathematical projections. OSEM with much faster convergence rate is also used instead of MLEM as iterative algorithm. Different phantom configurations with uniform and non-uniform attenuation map are used to evaluate the accuracy of this algorithm. Projections free from the effect of attenuation were also simulated. Reconstructed image from these attenuation free projections is considered as reference image. Normalized mean square error between reference and corrected image and image contrast were used for quantitative evaluation of this algorithm. Results: contrast of central hot spot reduced to about half of its real contrast due to attenuation. Non-uniformities, like hot skin, bright long related spots and colds bone related spots were also created in non-corrected images due to attenuation. All attenuation related artifacts removed after attenuation correction. NMSE is reduced from 1 in non-corrected images to 0.1 in corrected images. Much better fit in line profile of corrected images and reference images were also observed. Conclusion: By using more suitable models for image formation it is possible to reconstruct images with much higher quantitative and qualitative accuracy which is essential in both diagnostic and image guided therapy procedures.

  17. Representação mental e mudança terapêutica: uma contribuição da perspectiva psicanalítica da teoria das relações objetais / Mental representation and therapeutic change: a contribution from the psychoanalytical approach of object relations theory

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Denise, Zanatta; Silvia Pereira da Cruz, Benetti.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Apesar do avanço das pesquisas em psicoterapia, estudos na abordagem psicanalítica ainda são escassos. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar e discutir a contribuição do conceito de representação mental como um constructo importante para fundamentar pesquisas na área psicanalítica baseadas na identif [...] icação dos elementos associados à mudança terapêutica. Inicialmente discutem-se conceitos e modelos teóricos psicanalíticos para posteriormente discutir a noção de representação mental em relação à mudança terapêutica, destacando-se a contribuição da teoria das relações objetais e do apego. Nesse sentido, apresenta-se o Inventário das Relações de Objeto, instrumento que avalia a qualidade das representações mentais, identificando mudanças ao longo da psicoterapia. Espera-se oferecer subsídios para o aprimoramento do trabalho clínico em psicoterapias e o desenvolvimento de pesquisas em psicanálise. Abstract in english In spite of the progress realized in psychotherapeutic research, studies in the psychoanalytical approach are still scarce. The objective of this article is to present and to discuss the contribution of the concept of mental representation as an important construct to substantiate psychoanalytic res [...] earch based on the identification of the elements associated with therapeutic change. First, concepts and psychoanalytic models are presented and after that the notion of mental representation is specifically discussed in relation to therapeutic change, particularly the object relation theory. Thus, the Object Relation Inventory is presented, an instrument designed to assess the quality of mental representations, evaluating changes along psychotherapy. Elements to improve clinical work and the development of research in psychoanalysis are presented.

  18. An object lesson: source determines the relations that trait anxiety, prostate cancer worry, and screening fear hold with prostate screening frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consedine, Nathan S; Adjei, Brenda A; Ramirez, Paul M; McKiernan, James M

    2008-07-01

    Fears regarding prostate cancer and the associated screening are widespread. However, the relations between anxiety, cancer worry, and screening fear and screening behavior are complex, because anxieties stemming from different sources have different effects on behavior. In differentiating among anxieties from different sources (trait anxiety, cancer worry, and screening fear), we expected that cancer worry would be associated with more frequent screening, whereas fear of screening would be associated with less frequent screening. Hypotheses were tested in a sample of 533 men (ages 45-70 years) recruited using a stratified cluster-sampling plan. Men provided information on demographic and structural variables (age, education, income, marital status, physician discussion of risk and screening, access, and insurance) and completed a set of anxiety measures (trait anxiety, cancer worry, and screening fear). As expected, two-step multiple regressions controlling for demographics, health insurance status, physician discussion, and health-care system barriers showed that prostate-specific antigen and digital rectal examination frequencies had unique associations with cancer worry and screening fear. Specifically, whereas cancer worry was associated with more frequent screening, fear of screening was associated with less frequent screening at least for digital rectal examination; trait anxiety was inconsistently related to screening. Data are discussed in terms of their implications for male screening and the understanding of how anxiety motivates health behaviors. It is suggested that understanding the source of anxiety and the manner in which health behaviors such as cancer screenings may enhance or reduce felt anxiety is a likely key to understanding the associations between anxiety and behavioral outcomes. PMID:18628414

  19. Auto-avaliação de saúde bucal em idosos: análise com base em modelo multidimensional Objective and subjective factors related to self-rated oral health among the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima Martins

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Propôs-se investigar fatores associados à auto-avaliação negativa da saúde bucal. Idosos, participantes do inquérito de saúde bucal do Ministério da Saúde, 2002-2003, que auto-avaliaram sua saúde bucal como ruim/péssima foram comparados aos que a auto-avaliaram como ótima/boa/regular usando-se razões de prevalências (RP com base na regressão de Poisson. A minoria (870 - 17% auto-avaliou sua saúde bucal negativamente. A auto-avaliação negativa foi menor entre aqueles com 1-9 dentes e edentados, maior entre pardos/negros/índios, que nunca usaram serviços, que apresentavam alterações de tecidos moles, que relataram pouca e média/muita dor, que auto-avaliaram sua aparência e mastigação como regular ou ruim/péssima, entre os que relataram seus relacionamentos sociais pouco ou muito afetados pelas condições bucais e entre os que avaliavam necessitar de tratamento bucal. Apesar das precárias condições bucais, a maioria auto-avaliou positivamente sua saúde bucal. Condições subjetivas estiveram mais fortemente associadas do que as objetivas. Os resultados sugerem iniqüidade e permitem orientar políticas públicas que objetivem saúde bucal e qualidade de vida.The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with negative self-rated oral health. Elderly subjects from the Brazilian Ministry of Health's oral health survey (2002-2003 who rated their own oral health as bad or very bad were compared to those who rated their oral health as excellent, good, or fair, using prevalence ratios based on Poisson regression. The minority (870; 17% gave their own oral health a negative rating. Negative self-rated oral health was less prevalent among those with 1-9 teeth and the edentulous, and more prevalent among blacks, mixed-race, and indigenous, those who had never used dental service, with soft tissue alterations, who reported little pain or medium to intense pain, rated their own appearance and chewing as fair or bad or very bad, reported that their oral health limited their social interaction a little or considerably, and reported needing dental treatment (PR = 1,47; 95%CI: 1.20-1.79. Despite their precarious oral conditions, the majority gave their oral health a positive rating. Subjective conditions were more heavily associated with self-rated oral health than were objective conditions. The findings suggest unequal oral health conditions and allow orienting public policies aimed at oral health and quality of life.

  20. Designing institutions for global democracy: flexibility through escape clauses and sunset provisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan W. Kuyper

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available How can advocates of global democracy grapple with the empirical conditions that constitute world politics? I argue that flexibility mechanisms—;commonly used to advance international cooperation—should be employed to make the institutional design project of global democracy more tractable. I highlight three specific reasons underpinning this claim. First, flexibility provisions make bargaining over different institutional designs more manageable. Second, heightened flexibility takes seriously potential concerns about path-dependent institutional development. Finally, deliberately shortening the time horizons of agents by employing flexibility provisions has cognitive benefits as it forces designers to focus specifically on issues of feasibility as well as desirability. I discuss a range of flexibility mechanisms and highlight the utility of sunset provisions and escape clauses. From this analysis, I build an argument for the usage of small-scale democratic experiments through which citizens (or their representatives have a say in global policy making.

  1. The Meaning of Mood – Embedded Clauses in Spanish as a Case in Point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Dam

    2011-01-01

    Mental space theory is a cognitive framework that explains the interpretation of linguistic expressions: it explains how interlocutors get from input to output. Whereas in traditional semantics words are taken to possess a static, prefabricated meaning, cognitive frameworks take meaning to be the result of an interpretive process. This article explains how mental space theory can be used in an analysis of mood in embedded clauses in Spanish. It starts from the assumption that the meaning of mood is constructed by interlocutors in an interpretive process on the basis of information from the modal morphemes combined with information from the linguistic as well as the extra-linguistic context. The interpretive process is represented as a sequence of mental spaces which are linked and structured on the basis of information from language and context

  2. A constraint-based bottom-up counterpart to definite clause grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2004-01-01

    A new grammar formalism, CHR Grammars (CHRG), is proposed that provides a constraint-solving approach to language analysis, built on top of the programming language of Constraint Handling Rules in the same way as Definite Clause Grammars (DCG) on Prolog. CHRG works bottom-up and adds the following features when compared with DCG: (i) An inherent treatment of ambiguity without backtracking. (ii) Robust parsing; do not give up in case of errors but return the recognized phrases. (iii)~A flexibility to produce and consume arbitrary hypotheses making it straight\\-forward to deal with abduction, integrity constraints, operators a la assumption grammars, and to incorporate other constraint solvers. (iv)~Context-sensitive rules that apply for disambiguation, coordination in natural language and tagger-like rules.

  3. Long-term contracts and take-or-pay clauses in natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical and empirical research on long-term contracts inspired by the American experience are surveyed, with emphasis on the analysis of the role of take-or-pay clauses and price indexation rules, and whether regulation distorts optimal contract duration. The underlying motivation is to analyze the economic fundamentals of the European Union provisions on long-term contracts in the natural gas industry, and to highlight the features that differentiate them from the American experience. The impacts of long term contracts in the opening to competition of the European Union natural gas sector, and the apparent confusion between contract duration and flexibility as applied to long-term contracts in the European Union, are also explored. 29 refs., 2 tabs

  4. Exemption clauses and the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008: An assessment of Naidoo v Birchwood Hotel 2012 6 SA 170 (GSJ)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Y, Mupangavanhu.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Exemption clauses are a rule rather than an exception particularly in standard-form contracts. Consumers are usually forced to accept such terms on a "take-it-or-leave-it" basis. This state of affairs shows that freedom of contract is theoretical and could lead to injustices. In Naidoo v Birchwood H [...] otel 2012 6 SA 170 (GSJ) the Court refused to uphold the exemption clauses based on the fact that it would have been unfair and unjust to the plaintiff who had sustained serious bodily injuries during his stay at the hotel. The article discusses this court decision in the light of the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA) against the background of the previous jurisprudence regarding exemption clauses, including the position of exemption clauses in a new constitutional dispensation.

  5. Exemption Clauses and the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008: An Assessment of Naidoo v Birchwood Hotel 2012 6 SA 170 (GSJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeukai Mupangavanhu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Exemption clauses are a rule rather than an exception particularly in standard-form contracts. Consumers are usually forced to accept such terms on a "take-it-or-leave-it" basis. This state of affairs shows that freedom of contract is theoretical and could lead to injustices. In Naidoo v Birchwood Hotel 2012 6 SA 170 (GSJ the Court refused to uphold the exemption clauses based on the fact that it would have been unfair and unjust to the plaintiff who had sustained serious bodily injuries during his stay at the hotel. The article discusses this court decision in the light of the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA against the background of the previous jurisprudence regarding exemption clauses, including the position of exemption clauses in a new constitutional dispensation.

  6. Frecuencia y mecanismos de exposición accidental a productos biológicos potencialmente infecciosos en personal de salud / Sharp object related accident involving health personnel in a pediatric hospital

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Juan, Morales-Aguirre.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Los accidentes por material punzocortante constituyen un riesgo al que está sometido el personal de salud. Objetivo: describir la frecuencia y mecanismos de exposición a productos biológicos infecciosos en el personal de salud. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio observacional y [...] descriptivo, de los reportes del programa de vigilancia epidemiológica a la exposición a productos biológicos infecciosos en el personal de salud del Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez de la Ciudad de México, ocurridos del 1 de enero de 1991 al 31 de diciembre de 2004. Resultados. Se presentaron 848 accidentes de trabajo durante el período estudiado. El promedio de accidentes por 100 camas/año fue de 29.9 con una variación de 4.6 a 56.4. Hubo 8.29 accidentes por 1 000 egresos/año, con un límite de 1.6 a 14.4. Los eventos se presentaron principalmente en personal de enfermería con 345 episodios (40.6%), seguido de médicos residentes con 220 eventos (25.9%). El mecanismo más frecuente fue el piquete con aguja en 616 ocasiones (72.6%), siendo las manos el sitio anatómico más comúnmente afectado en 677 casos (79.8%). Los servicios donde hubo más accidentes fueron: Urgencias con 109 eventos (12.8%), UTIP con 96 (11.3%), y UCIN con 80 (9.4%), siendo el turno matutino donde hubo el de mayor número, 507 eventos (59.7%). Las medidas de precaución realizadas por el personal lesionado fueron las siguientes: uso de guantes 488 (57.5%), lavado de manos 404 (47.6%), uso de cubrebocas 304 (35.8%), uso de bata 253 (29.8%), uso de lentes 134 (15.8%), ninguna 144 (16.9%). Con respecto al antecedente de administración de vacuna contra hepatitis B, sólo 445 (52.4%) se habían aplicado al menos una dosis y 403 (47.5%) ninguna dosis. Conclusiones. La exposición ocupacional a productos biológicos infecciosos es un problema importante en el personal de salud, especialmente en hospitales que dan atención a pacientes pediátricos, debido a las dificultades que implica el atender niños. Reforzar las estrategias educativas sobre el uso de las precauciones estándar en la toma apropiada de las muestras y utilizar material de bioseguridad podría ayudar a reducir la frecuencia de los accidentes con objetos punzocortantes. Abstract in english Introduction. The needle-stick and sharp device injuries constitute a risk to which health personnel is exposed. Objective. To describe the frequency and mechanisms of exposition to infectious biological products in health care personnel. Material and methods. It was an observational and descriptive [...] study from the reports of the epidemiological surveillance program concerning to the exposition to infectious biological products in the health care personnel from Hospital Infantil de Mexico Federico Gomez in Mexico City, happened from January 1, 1991, to December 31, 2004. Results. We observed 848 laboral accidents during this period. The average of accidents per 100 beds/ year was 29.9 with a variation from 4.6 to 56.4. There were 8.29 accidents for 1 000 outcomes/year, with a limit from 1.6 to 14.4. The events appeared mainly in the nursery personnel with 345 episodes (40.6%), followed by resident doctors with 220 events (25.9%). The most frequent mechanism was needle pinch in 616 (72.6%), being the hands the anatomical site most commonly affected in 677 cases (79.8%). The areas most affected were: Emergency with 109 events (12.8%), Pediatric Intensive Care Unit with 96 (11.3%), and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with 80 (9.4%), being in the matutinal turn the greater number of accidents, 507 events (59.7%). The standard precautions made by the injured personnel were: use of gloves 488 (57.5%); hand washing 404 (47.6%), use of mouth covers 304 (35.8%), use of gown 253 (29.8%), use of lenses 134 (15.8%), none 144 (16.9%). Concerning to the background of vaccine administration against hepatitis B, only 445 (52.4%) had been applied at least one dose and 403 (47.5%) none. Conclusions. The occupational exposition to biological product is an important probl

  7. Infants' ability to use object kind information for object individuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, F; Carey, S; Welch, J

    1999-03-01

    The present studies investigate infants reliance on object kind information in solving the problem of object individuation. Two experiments explored whether adults, 10- and 12-month-old infants could use their knowledge of ducks and cars to individuate an ambiguous array consisting of a toy duck perched on a toy car into two objects. A third experiment investigated whether 10-month-old infants could use their knowledge of cups and shoes to individuate an array consisting of a cup perched on a shoe into two objects. Ten-month-old infants failed to use object kind information alone to resolve the ambiguity with both pairs of objects. In contrast, infants this age succeeded in using spatiotemporal information to segment the array into two objects, i.e. they succeeded if shown that the duck moved independently relative to the car, or the cup relative to the shoe. Twelve-month-old infants, as well as adults, succeeded at object individuation on the basis of object kind information alone. These findings shed light on the developmental course of object individuation and provide converging evidence for the Object-first Hypothesis [Xu, F., Carey, S., 1996; Xu, F., 1997b]. Early on, infants may represent only one concept that provides criteria for individuation, namely physical object; kind concepts such as duck, car, cup, and shoe may be acquired later in the first year of life. PMID:10349761

  8. Santa Claus contra los Reyes Magos: influencias trasnacionales en el consumo infantil en México (1950-1960)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Susana, Sosenski.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza la inserción de la figura de Santa Claus en la sociedad mexicana a mediados del siglo XX. Santa Claus, en un primer momento, fue visto como un "extranjero indeseable", portador de una cultura ajena y una modernidad vinculada estrechamente a la sociedad de consumo. Fue vis [...] to como "el otro", tuvo que lidiar con las tradiciones católicas mexicanas y se halló confrontado con las figuras de los Reyes Magos. Las discusiones en torno a su figura se centraron en discutir su inmoralidad, sus afanes modernizadores, su función en la "americanización" de las costumbres mexicanas y su relación con los intentos de crear una "cultura comercial". La celebración del día de Reyes Magos tuvo que coexistir con esta nueva "tradición", importada y divulgada por medios de comunicación, como el cine y la prensa, a través de sus anuncios publicitarios, sus fotos y sus artículos de opinión, así como por las tiendas departamentales. En suma, en este texto se analizan las discusiones que generó el establecimiento de Santa Claus en México en la década de 1950, las diversas estrategias culturales que se utilizaron para promover este personaje y las producciones culturales que se encargaron de promocionarlo. Abstract in english This paper analyzes the inclusion of the figure of Santa Claus in Mexican society in the mid-20th Century. Initially, Santa Claus was seen as an "undesirable alien," having an alien culture and being closely linked to the modern consumer society. He was seen as "the other," and had to deal with Mexi [...] can Catholic traditions as well as being in competition with the figures of the Three Wise Men. Discussions on him focused on his immorality, his modernizing desires, his role in the "Americanization" of Mexican customs, and on his attempts to create a "business culture." The celebration of the Three Wise Men had to coexist with this new "tradition," imported and disseminated through film and print media, advertisements, photos and opinion pieces, as well as in department stores. To conclude, this paper analyzes the discussions regarding the establishment of Santa Claus in Mexico during the 1950s, the various cultural strategies used to promote his character and the cultural productions created to the same end.

  9. LAS CLÁUSULAS ABUSIVAS EN EL CONTRATO DE CONCESIÓN DESDE LA PERSPECTIVA ESTADOUNIDENSE / Unconscionable clauses in a franchising agreement from the United States' perspective

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Camilo A., Rodríguez-Yong.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta la experiencia de Estados Unidos en el desarrollo e imple-mentación de mecanismos jurídicos y extrajurídicos encaminados a proteger a los concesionarios ante la incorporación de cláusulas abusivas en el contrato de concesión privada. En ese sentido, a partir del estudio de la le [...] gislación, la jurisprudencia y las iniciativas del sector privado, se identifican medidas legislativas, administrativas y privadas encaminadas a la consecución de este objetivo. Igualmente, el estudio del caso estadounidense refleja cómo la aplicación de la doctrina de cláusulas abusivas es posible en contratos diferentes a aquellos catalogados como de consumo. Abstract in english The article presents the United States' experience in the development and implementation of legal and extralegal mechanisms aimed at protecting franchisees before the incorporation of unconscionable clauses in a franchising agreement. From the analysis of the statutes, case law and private sector in [...] itiative, it is possible to identify legislative, administrative and private measures aimed at achieving this objective. Likewise, the study of the American case shows how the implementation of the unconscionability doctrine is possible in contracts different from those considered as consumer contracts.

  10. LAS CLÁUSULAS ABUSIVAS EN EL CONTRATO DE CONCESIÓN DESDE LA PERSPECTIVA ESTADOUNIDENSE Unconscionable clauses in a franchising agreement from the United States' perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo A. Rodríguez-Yong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta la experiencia de Estados Unidos en el desarrollo e imple-mentación de mecanismos jurídicos y extrajurídicos encaminados a proteger a los concesionarios ante la incorporación de cláusulas abusivas en el contrato de concesión privada. En ese sentido, a partir del estudio de la legislación, la jurisprudencia y las iniciativas del sector privado, se identifican medidas legislativas, administrativas y privadas encaminadas a la consecución de este objetivo. Igualmente, el estudio del caso estadounidense refleja cómo la aplicación de la doctrina de cláusulas abusivas es posible en contratos diferentes a aquellos catalogados como de consumo.The article presents the United States' experience in the development and implementation of legal and extralegal mechanisms aimed at protecting franchisees before the incorporation of unconscionable clauses in a franchising agreement. From the analysis of the statutes, case law and private sector initiative, it is possible to identify legislative, administrative and private measures aimed at achieving this objective. Likewise, the study of the American case shows how the implementation of the unconscionability doctrine is possible in contracts different from those considered as consumer contracts.

  11. Las cláusulas generales, entre teoría analítica y dogmática jurídica / The General Clauses between Analytical Theory and Legal Dogmatics

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pierluigi, Chiassoni.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A partir de un reciente estudio de Vito Velluzzi, el artículo propone una reconstrucción alternativa del concepto de cláusula general, respetuosa de la pluralidad de posiciones dogmáticas contrapuestas. Además, hace un análisis de algunas tesis concernientes a la indeterminación, la interpretación y [...] la elasticidad de las cláusulas generales, dirigido a favorecer una visión realista del fenómeno. Abstract in english Taking the lead from a recent inquiry by Vito Velluzzi, the paper sets forth a rational reconstruction of the concept of general clause, meant to be respectful of the plurality of competing legal-dogmatics conceptions. A few thesis about the indeterminacy, interpretation and socalled elasticity of g [...] eneral clauses are also analyzed, in order to provide a more accurate and realistic view of the matter.

  12. Sulfur Recovery from Acid Gas Using the Claus Process and High Temperature Air Combustion (HiTAC Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sassi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur-bearing compounds are very detrimental to the environment and to industrial process equipment. They are often obtained or formed as a by-product of separation and thermal processing of fuels containing sulfur, such as coal, crude oil and natural gas. The two sulfur compounds, which need special attention, are: hydrogen sulfide (H2S and sulfur dioxide (SO2. H2S is a highly corrosive gas with a foul smell. SO2 is a toxic gas responsible for acid rain formation and equipment corrosion. Various methods of reducing pollutants containing sulfur are described in this paper, with a focus on the modified Claus process, enhanced by the use of High Temperature Air Combustion (HiTAC technology in the Claus furnace. The Claus process has been known and used in the industry for over 100 years. It involves thermal oxidation of hydrogen sulfide and its reaction with sulfur dioxide to form sulfur and water vapor. This process is equilibrium-limited and usually achieves efficiencies in the range of 94-97%, which have been regarded as acceptable in the past years. Nowadays strict air pollution regulations regarding hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide emissions call for nearly 100% efficiency, which can only be achieved with process modifications. High temperature air combustion technology or otherwise called flameless (or colorless combustion is proposed here for application in Claus furnaces, especially those employing lean acid gas streams, which cannot be burned without the use of auxiliary fuel or oxygen enrichment under standard conditions. With the use of HiTAC it has been shown, however, that fuel-lean, Low Calorific Value (LCV fuels can be burned with very uniform thermal fields without the need for fuel enrichment or oxygen addition. The uniform temperature distribution favors clean and efficient burning with an additional advantage of significant reduction of NOx, CO and hydrocarbon emission.

  13. Bodies as Objects of Pedagogic Power Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Juliet Christine

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on a study titled "Enacting Feminisms in Academia", which engaged five feminist lecturers teaching English at five different multilingual universities in Southern Africa. The study explored: (1) the complexity of sociolinguistic and feminist identity construction in multilingual seascapes, and by extension (2) how feminist…

  14. Cataclysmic variables and related objects with INTEGRAL.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimon, Vojt?ch; Hudec, René; Münz, Filip; Štrobl, Jan

    Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2006 - (Meurs, E.; Fabbiano, G.), s. 66-69 ISBN 0-521-85201-3. [Symposium of the International Astronomical Union /230./. Dublin (IE), 15.08.2005-19.08.2005] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA205/05/2167 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : cataclysmic variables * intermediate polars * X-rays Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  15. Objects as Tools for Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Dennis; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    This chapter deals with the touching, grasping, moving and handling of relatively small physical objects within spates of talk-in-interaction. We are interested in the organisation of such actions and the distribution of the objects amongst interactants in their unfolding activities, specifically in relation to how interactants, analogously, organise and distribute their turns at talk. Unlike previous work, we attend less to objects as referred-to objects or as components of topic development. Instead, our focus is on objects as transactional in the ways in which they support fundamental infrastructure of interaction, namely that turns at talk and objects are taken or possessed in some sense and this is signalled and collaboratively organised by participants.

  16. Towards a profile of the interpersonal organization of the portuguese clause / Para um perfil da organização interpessoal da oração em Português

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos A. M., Gouveia.

    Full Text Available Este texto visa contribuir para a descrição do português do ponto de vista da Gramática Sistémico-Funcional, particularmente no que diz respeito à descrição da oração como troca. Embora assuma que a organização interpessoal da oração em português envolve fenómenos que são semelhantes em várias língu [...] as distintas, como os sistemas de Modo oracional, por exemplo, o texto pretende ainda assim demonstrar que há opções de sistema (e suas realizações estruturais) que são específicas do português, sobretudo quando comparadas com as mesmas opções em inglês, uma língua cujas descrições têm amiúde e fortemente sido impostas ao português. O texto começa com uma descrição geral de alguns aspectos da língua portuguesa e avança depois para uma descrição das tipologias do Modo oracional e das escolhas associadas às mesmas. Levantando algumas questões e dúvidas relativamente à descrição dos elementos que em português contribuem para a negociação e a troca, o texto acaba por propor uma descrição que encara a língua portuguesa como uma língua sem Finito, isto é, como uma língua que não tem o Finito como uma das funções do Modo oracional, já que esta sendo apropriada para a descrição da língua inglesa perde em pertinência quando pensada do ponto de vista da língua portuguesa. Abstract in english This paper aims at contributing to the description of Portuguese from the point of view of Systemic Functional Grammar, particularly in relation to the description of the clause as an exchange. While assuming that the interpersonal organization of the Portuguese clause involves phenomena that are si [...] milar across different languages, such as Mood systems, for instance, the paper wants nevertheless to show that there are systemic options (and their structural realizations) that are specific to Portuguese, particularly if compared to the same options in English, a language whose descriptions have so often and too strongly been imposed on Portuguese. Starting with a general description of some aspects of the Portuguese language, the paper then proceeds to a description of Mood types and the system of choices associated with them. By raising some questions and doubts concerning the description of the elements that in Portuguese carry the negotiation forward, the paper ends up proposing a description that sees Portuguese as a Finite-less language, that is, a language that does not have Finite, a function that proved to be appropriate for the description of the English language but fails to be so when considered from the point of view of Portuguese.

  17. Advancement Planning: An Objectives View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druck, Kalman B.

    1986-01-01

    Planning must revolve around objectives related to students, faculty, money, and political support. When it is understood that all of the institution's advancement activity should help produce these four things, planning is easy. (MLW)

  18. Hybrid architecture: object, landscape, infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto Freitas, Rita

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "hybrid architecture" developed in this study considers hybrid all architecture that is at once object, landscape and infrastructure. Hybrid architecture, pushed by the fact that it concentrates in a single architectural intervention a triple object-, landscape- and infrastructure-related nature, generates architectural answers with very specific features, and its study achieves following goals: 1: Clarify the term hybrid related to architectural intervention; 2: Tran...

  19. Choice of Court Clauses and Lis Pendens under Brussels I Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Ivanova

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The principle of party autonomy, known not only in the common law legal system but also in the civil law system, provides parties contracting in civil and commercial matters with the right to establish their own rules, as long as these rules do not contradict mandatory law. This right is presumed to be protected by the force of law. It follows, that when a choice of court clause is included in the contract, disputes are supposed to be solved by the court chosen by the parties. This principle is not compromised by the Brussels I Regulation (or previously, the Brussels Convention. Moreover, it is repeated in its Articles 1 and 23. At the same time, the rule of lis pendens, provided for by its Article 27, aims to preclude subsequent actions in other Member States if a court is already seized and allows the appearance 'on the legal scene' of a court other than the court chosen by the parties. And the lis pendens rule prescribes the latter to stay proceedings until the court not chosen, but first seized, examines and declines its jurisdiction.

  20. LA OPULENCIA EN LA ESCASEZ. INTERCAMBIOS DE OBJETOS, RELACIONES SOCIALES Y AMBIGÜEDADES EN INSTITUTOS CORRECCIONALES DE CÓRDOBA / Opulence on scarcity. Exchange of objects, social relations and ambiguities in correctional institutes of Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela María Tedesco

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se propone reflexionar sobre las relaciones sociales que se entrelazan durante el proceso de dar, recibir, intercambiar distintos objetos en institutos correccionales de la ciudad de Córdoba. A través del análisis de situaciones como “la visita”, “el arreglo de las habitaciones”, “el fumar y compartir en el sector”; se analizan formas de tejer vínculos con el afuera, actualizar recuerdos sobre la calle, y de producir intercambios y reforzar ciertos valores dentro del grupo que convive en el instituto. La descripción de estas situaciones implica asimismo, indagar los mecanismos y circuitos a través de los cuales se incorporan distintos sentidos a los objetos, así como también, el modo en que éstos configuran la subjetividad de las personas. De esta manera, el artículo busca mostrar la dinámica que lleva a que, en contextos institucionales marcados por privación y escasez, los jóvenes generen diversos intercambios y utilicen la ambigüedad como un medio para un construir abundancia y poder.Palabras clave: jóvenes, institutos correccionales, relaciones sociales, objetosAbstractThis article proposes to reflect on the social relations that are intertwined in the process of giving, receiving, exchanging various objects in correctional institutes in the city of Córdoba. Across the analysis of situations as “the visit”, “the arrangement of the bedroom”, “to smoke and share in the sector”; discusses ways to weave ties to the outside, upgrade memory on the street and produce exchanges and strengthen certain values within the group that lives in institute. The description of these situations also means, investigate the mechanisms and circuits through which incorporate different meanings to objects, and also, they shape the subjectivity of people. Thus, the article shows the dynamics means that, in institutional contexts marked by deprivation and scarcity, young men exchanges and use the ambiguity, as a way for one to construct abundance and power.Keywords: young people, correctional institutes, social relationships, objects

  1. Learning Object Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Rosemary

    2007-01-01

    This chapter looks at the development and nature of learning objects, meta-tagging standards and taxonomies, learning object repositories, learning object repository characteristics, and types of learning object repositories, with type examples. (Contains 1 table.)

  2. Combined Object Detection and Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarich Vansteenberge

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We develop a method for combined object detection and segmentation in natural scene. In our approach segmentation and detection are considered as two faces of the same coin that should be combined into a single framework. There are two main steps in our strategy. First we focus on the learning of a visual vocabulary that efficiently encompasses objects’ appearance, spatial configuration and underlying segmentation. This vocabulary is used within a Hough voting framework to produces object’s configuration. The second step consists in searching for valid objects’ configurations by interpreting and scoring them in terms of both detection and segmentation. This allows us to prune false detections and hallucinated object-like segmentation. Experiments show the advantage of the combined approach and the improvements over recent related methods.

  3. Reversing the Hierarchy of Priorities in EU-Mediterranean Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Cassarino, Jean-pierre

    2012-01-01

    Respect for human rights and democratic principles have been regularly cited as an “essential element” of cooperation and relations between the European Union (EU) and non-EU countries in the Mediterranean. Since the 1990s onwards, numerous communications from the European Commission (EC) have stressed the need to integrate the so-called “essential-element” clause into the various agreements concluded with Mediterranean non-EU countries. When concluding their association agreements w...

  4. Las cláusulas de derechos humanos en los tratados de libre comercio de la Unión Europea / The Human Rights Clauses Within the European Union's Free Trade Agreements

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gerhard, Niedrist.

    Full Text Available A partir de 1992 es requisito para la mayoría de los acuerdos comerciales y de cooperación de la Unión Europea la incorporación de una cláusula sobre derechos humanos. La similitud entre las cláusulas de los distintos acuerdos es notoria y la violación de las mismas provoca la suspensión inmediata d [...] el acuerdo comercial. Este artículo analiza el origen histórico y las aplicaciones de estas cláusulas de derechos humanos. Abstract in english As of 1992 it is a requirement for the European Union to include a clause on human rights in the majority of its commercial and cooperation agreements. These clauses are almost identical and allow the immediate suspension of the treaty in case of a severe human rights violation. This paper analyzes [...] the historical origin and the genuine application of these clauses.

  5. Rule 10b-5 and Reasonable Reliance: Why Courts Should Abandon Focus on Non-Reliance Clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P. Altman

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In a typical privately negotiated merger or acquisition, the parties involved will be engaged in months of negotiations prior to the closing of their deal. Over the course of such, many projections, agreements, documents, oral representations and warranties (hereinafter “information” will undoubtedly be exchanged by both sides. In the final purchase agreement, a seller typically lists detailed representations and warranties about its business, and includes a proviso that the buyer is not relying on any other information. Inclusion of this “non-reliance clause” (hereinafter “NRC” is intended to restrict a buyer’s ability to bring a fraud claim under Rule 10b-5.

  6. Mechanism for Learning Object retrieval supporting adaptivity

    CERN Document Server

    Chawla, Sonal

    2010-01-01

    In todayâ??s world designing adaptable course material requires new technical knowledge which involves a need for a uniform protocol that allows organizing resources with emphasis on quality and Learning. This can be achieved by bundling the resources in a known and prescribed fashion called Learning objects. Learning Objects are composed of two aspects namely â??Learning â?? and â??Objectâ?. The Learning aspect of Learning objects refers to Education. Since Education is a process so the primary aim of learning objects tends to be facilitating acquisition, assessment and conversion of content into Learning objects while fostering the assimilation of these Learning objects into learning modules and instruction. The Object part of Learning objects relates to the Digital Electronic format of the resources i.e. to say that it deals with the physical resource that forms the Learning objects. The objects in LOs are analogous to objects used in object-oriented modeling (OOM). The analogy helps visual...

  7. Cognitive object recognition system (CORS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Chaitanya; Varadarajan, Karthik Mahesh; Krishnamurthi, Niyant; Xu, Shuli; Biederman, Irving; Kelley, Troy

    2010-04-01

    We have developed a framework, Cognitive Object Recognition System (CORS), inspired by current neurocomputational models and psychophysical research in which multiple recognition algorithms (shape based geometric primitives, 'geons,' and non-geometric feature-based algorithms) are integrated to provide a comprehensive solution to object recognition and landmarking. Objects are defined as a combination of geons, corresponding to their simple parts, and the relations among the parts. However, those objects that are not easily decomposable into geons, such as bushes and trees, are recognized by CORS using "feature-based" algorithms. The unique interaction between these algorithms is a novel approach that combines the effectiveness of both algorithms and takes us closer to a generalized approach to object recognition. CORS allows recognition of objects through a larger range of poses using geometric primitives and performs well under heavy occlusion - about 35% of object surface is sufficient. Furthermore, geon composition of an object allows image understanding and reasoning even with novel objects. With reliable landmarking capability, the system improves vision-based robot navigation in GPS-denied environments. Feasibility of the CORS system was demonstrated with real stereo images captured from a Pioneer robot. The system can currently identify doors, door handles, staircases, trashcans and other relevant landmarks in the indoor environment.

  8. What captivates the subject? : an investigation of the concepts 'object' and 'identification' in the works of Lacan with a view to establishing approaches for the analysis of relations of power and structures of authority

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    What can Jacques Lacan tell us about relations of power and figures of authority? – That is the guiding question of "What Captivates the Subject?" The dissertation answers this question by providing a close study of Lacanian texts and seminars from 1953 to 1973, seeking to present not only the strong conceptual coherency of Lacan’s theory, but also its fundamental underpinnings in the work of Sigmund Freud. The dissertation thus attempts to pave the way for a renewed engagement between Lacanian theory and social theory in general. This engagement has already proven exceptionally fruitful in recent years, where research emerging from Slovenia has been developing a new Lacanian approach to the analysis of a wide range of social products and political affairs. The dissertation follows in the wake of this new movement but pursues its own line of reasoning in so far as it undertakes to account for two concepts central to the technical psychoanalytical vocabulary: identification and the object. Identifications and the relation to libidinal objects were acknowledged by Freud as the most fundamental mechanisms in the social life of any human being, just as he regarded them as fundamental to the establishment and maintenance of power structures, not least within the psychoanalytic clinic itself. Yet his accounts of the concepts remain blurry and tentative throughout his career, and it took a Lacan to finally build a rigorous theoretical framework around these concepts. Throughout the dissertation, close readings of Lacan are followed by short interventions into questions of social or political theory, so that the potential of Lacan’s theory for clarifying issues or bringing to light novel perspectives is demonstrated. For instance, not only can Lacan tell us about the inherent paradoxes of authority and power in a classroom, he can also tell us why the most powerful figure of authority may be the one who shows clear signs of weakness, or why the most unshakeable way of identifying with a framework of social values is by identifying while maintaining a distance to it.

  9. Modelling the stages of the identity theory of object-concept development in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luger, G F; Wishart, J G; Bower, T G

    1984-01-01

    A computational model is presented for the three stages of development of the object concept in infancy identified by Bower and Wishart in their research. The stages are described by sets of PROLOG clauses that interpret object structures representing the perceptual phenomena interpreted by the infants themselves. The infant's changes between developmental stages can be described by differences between the rules modelling each stage. Three experiments are presented and the behaviour of the PROLOG model is described for each stage of development. Motion, rest, and boundedness of objects constitute the theoretical underpinning of the running PROLOG model and are hypothesized as the invariant aspects of perception that explain the behaviour of the infant at each stage of development. A possible explanation for transitions between stages is offered and justified in part by the output of the model, which in turn is used to predict the behavioural outcome of an experiment. PMID:6504685

  10. To Comma or Not to Comma: The Mathematics of the Relative Clause, All Types, via Boole and Venn

    OpenAIRE

    Leo Depuydt

    2012-01-01

    The present paper is part of a large scale project in Intelligence Science. The nearterm aim of this project is the increased digitalization of the analysis of human intelligence in as far as intelligence is rational. The ultimate aim is to draw up a complete and definitive map of the totality of rational human intelligence or rational thought and language. As far as the mathematical component of this project is concerned, two contributions have appeared so far, the following: 1) “The Monty H...

  11. Cadastral Modeling : Grasping the objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Modeling is a term that refers to a variety of efforts, including data and process modeling. The domain to be modeled may be a department, an organization, or even an industrial sector. E-business presupposes the modeling of an industrial sector, a substantial task. Cadastral modeling compares to the modeling of an industrial sector, as it aims at rendering the basic concepts that relate to the domain of real estate and the pertinent human activities. The palpable objects are pieces of land and buildings, documents, data stores and archives, as well as persons in their diverse roles as owners, holders of assets, experts, and holders of authority. More subtle objects are rights and restrictions, which relate persons through enforceable rules and commitments. The objective of this fabric of complex relations is to provide a stable and yet flexible frame for legal-economic dispositions that are related to land. The paper advances the position that cadastral modeling has to include not only the physical objects, agents, and information sets of the domain, but also the objectives or requirements of cadastral systems.

  12. Uma concepção psicanalítica de personalidade: teoria das relações objetais de Fairbairn / A psychoanalytical conception of personality: Fairbairn's object-relations theory / Una concepción psicoanalítica de la personalidad: la teoría de las relaciones objetales de Fairbairn

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Augusto M., Celes; Karen Cristina Martins, Alves; Ana Caroline Galli dos, Santos.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como propósito maior desenvolver a idéia de que a teoria das relações de objeto, introduzida no movimento psicanalítico em oposição à teoria da sexualidade como base da constituição psíquica, significou uma radical mudança na concepção psicanalítica dos sujeitos. Tal mudança se expre [...] ssa no abandono da pulsionalidade como fundamento subjetivo em direção à apreensão e compreensão dos sujeitos como personalidade, isto é, algo substantivamente estruturado. Metodologicamente, opta-se pela análise e exposição da principal obra de Willian Ronald D. Fairbairn (1889-1964), tomada como paradigmática das teorias das relações de objeto. Busca-se expor a evolução do pensamento fairbairniano, desde seus estudos sobre a esquizoidia - e a contradição que isso trouxe para a teoria da libido da época - até as modificações e superações que o autor se propõe a realizar na teoria psicanalítica em função da concepção da meta libidinal como sendo o objeto. Abstract in spanish Este artículo tiene como objetivo mayor el de desarrollar la idea de que la teoría de las relaciones de objeto, introducida en el movimiento psicoanalítico en oposición a la teoría de la sexualidad como base de la constitución psíquica, significó un cambio radical en la concepción psicoanalítica de [...] los sujetos. Dicho cambio se expresa en el abandono de la pulsionalidad como fundamento subjetivo hacia la aprensión y comprensión de los sujetos como personalidad, es decir, como algo sustantivamente estructurado. Metodológicamente, se elije el análisis y exposición de la obra principal de Willian Ronald D. Fairbairn (1889-1964), tomada como paradigmática para las teorías de las relaciones de objeto. Se busca exponer la evolución del pensamiento fairbairniano, desde sus estudios sobre la esquizoidía - y la contradicción que dicho estudio trajo para la teoría de la libido de la época - hasta las modificaciones y superaciones que el autor se propone realizar en la teoría psicoanalítica en función de la concepción de la meta libidinal como sujeto. Abstract in english The main purpose of this essay is to develop the idea that the object-relations theory, introduced in the psychoanalytical movement as an opposition to the libido theory as basis to psychic constitution, produced a radical change in the psychoanalytical concept of subjects. Change is represented by [...] the quitting of the drive as a subject foundation and by the apprehension and comprehension of subjects as personalities, or rather, substantially structured. In terms of methodology, the main work by William Ronald D. Fairbairn (1889-1964) was analyzed and taken as paradigmatic for all object-relations theories. The evolution of Fairbairn's thoughts, from his studies on schizophrenia - and the contradiction it brought to the contemporary libido theory - to the changes and overcoming the author proposed to accomplish in psychoanalytical theory, as a result of his finding that the libidinal goal is an object, are presented.

  13. Objectivity Data Migration

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, M; Valassi, Andrea; Lubeck, M; Geppert, D; Geppert, Dirk

    2003-01-01

    In this article we describe the migration of event data collected by the COMPASS and HARP experiments at CERN. Together these experiments have over 300TB of physics data stored in Objectivity/DB that had to be transferred to a new data management system by the end of Q1 2003 and Q2 2003 respectively. To achieve this, data needed to be processed with a rate close to 100MB/s, employing 14 tape drives and a cluster of 30 Linux servers. The new persistency solution to accommodate the data is built upon relational databases for metadata storage and standard "flat" files for the event data. The databases contain collections of 109 events and allow generic queries or direct navigational access to the data, preserving the original C++ user API. The central data repository at CERN is implemented using several Oracle9i servers on Linux and the CERN Mass Storage System CASTOR.

  14. Objectives of the symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author defined the objectives of the symposium as follows: to present and examine the recent evidence associating clusters of leukemia with sources of ionizing radiation; to examine the statistical basis for the analysis of clustering; to examine the underlying assumptions in epidemiological studies that clusters must have an environmental cause; to examine the extent to which we can take into account the biological causes of non-randomness in populations, particularly those of geographic and genetic origin; to evaluate the relative merits of different kinds of epidemiological studies for yielding significant information concerning clustering; to consider the potential utility of combining the results from existing studies, and whether new epidemiological studies might be helpful; to consider what other directions, including application of the technologies of molecular biology, are likely to help clarify the underlying mechanisms or causes

  15. An (un)clear conscience clause: the causes and consequences of statutory ambiguity in state contraceptive mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanSickle-Ward, Rachel; Hollis-Brusky, Amanda

    2013-08-01

    Since 1996, twenty-eight states have adopted legislation mandating insurance coverage of prescription contraceptives for women. Most of these policies include language that allows providers to opt out of the requirement because of religious or moral beliefs-conscience clause exemptions. There is striking variation in how these exemptions are defined. This article investigates the sources and consequences of ambiguous versus precise statutory language in conscience clauses. We find that some forms of political and institutional fragmentation (party polarization and gubernatorial appointment power) are correlated with the degree of policy specificity in state contraceptive mandates. This finding reinforces previous law and policy scholarship that has shown that greater fragmentation promotes ambiguous statutory language because broad wording acts as a vehicle for compromise when actors disagree. Interestingly, it is the more precisely worded statutes that have prompted court battles. We explain this with reference to the asymmetry of incentives and mobilizing costs between those disadvantaged by broad (primarily female employees) versus precisely worded statutes (primarily Catholic organizations). Our findings suggest that the impact of statutory ambiguity on court intervention is heavily contextualized by the resources and organization of affected stakeholders. PMID:23645878

  16. The impact on pension liabilities of Malaysian government pension scheme from remarriage due to removal of pension clause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

    2014-12-01

    In the event of death of any government employee, their monthly pension will be given to their widow and their child. The government will stop paying that pension when the widow died and when the widow chooses to remarry. However, in 1st January 2002, the remarriage clause has been removed from the regulations. This would allow all widows who remarried to receive pension as usual. In view of this, there are possibilities that those widows who are still young might remarried. If many of the widows choose to remarry, it will be a burden to the government as it would increase the pension liabilities. However, we do not know how many of the widow will remarry. In view of this, the purpose of the study is to assess the impact to pension liabilities of government pension schemes on individual life due to removal clause of the remarriage by determining the pension factor and to assess to what extent the pension liabilities of government pension schemes would be affected.

  17. An fMRI study dissociating distance measures computed by Broca's area in movement processing: clause boundary vs. identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Andrea; Friederici, Angela D.; Makuuchi, Michiru; Grodzinsky, Yosef

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral studies of sentence comprehension suggest that processing long-distance dependencies is subject to interference effects when Noun Phrases (NP) similar to the dependency head intervene in the dependency. Neuroimaging studies converge in localizing such effects to Broca's area, showing that activity in Broca's area increases with the number of NP interveners crossed by a moved NP of the same type. To test if NP interference effects are modulated by adding an intervening clause boundary, which should by hypothesis increase the number of successive-cyclic movements, we conducted an fMRI study contrasting NP interveners with clausal (CP) interveners. Our design thus had two components: (I) the number of NP interveners crossed by movement was parametrically modulated; (II) CP-intervention was contrasted with NP-intervention. The number of NP interveners parametrically modulated a cluster straddling left BA44/45 of Broca's area, replicating earlier studies. Adding an intervening clause boundary did not significantly modulate the size of the NP interference effect in Broca's area. Yet, such an interaction effect was observed in the Superior Frontal Gyrus (SFG). Therefore, the involvement of Broca's area in processing syntactic movement is best captured by memory mechanisms affected by a grammatically instantiated type-identity (i.e., NP) intervention. PMID:26042078

  18. Managed Objects for Infrastructure Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Erik; Bodum, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Using data objects to describe features in the real world is a new idea and several approaches have already been shown to match scientific paradigms exceedingly well. Depending on the required level of abstraction, it is possible to represent the world more or less close to reality. In the realm of 3D Geoinformation research, this realism is often related to the way the spatial world is represented. By contrast, the 2D GIS community focuses on attribute data that describes additional states or characteristics of a feature. The main focus in 3D Geoinformation has always been on the representation of spatial objects, on relations like topology, ontology, and on storing and presenting them with more or less detail. The Centre for 3D Geoinformation (3DGI) at Aalborg University is currently participating in a project that explores objects that will not only contain geometry and associated attributive data but also will contain behavioural information. Our goal is to communicate the design and handling of these enhanced objects by means of the concept introduced in Java whereby objects are created in bytecode and subsequently executed within a Java virtual machine. This concept has already been implemented in the GRIFINOR platform. This article will present the core ideas of relevance to this concept as it relates to current understanding of objects. Our work also offers suggestions on how to implemented such algorithms using real-life infrastructure data. Furthermore, we elaborate on the posibillities and challenges associated with moving from mostly static objects to dynamic objects in the area of 3D geoinformation.

  19. Paradigms in object recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)

  20. Matching Objects with Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Emir, Burak; Odersky, Martin; Williams, John

    2006-01-01

    Data in object-oriented programming is organized in a hierarchy of classes. The problem of *object-oriented pattern matching* is how to explore this hierarchy from the outside. This usually involves classifying objects by their run-time type, accessing their members, or determining some other characteristic of a group of objects. In this paper we compare six different pattern matching techniques: object-oriented decomposition, visitors, type-tests/type-casts, typecase, case classes, and ext...

  1. The significance of the clause requiring precautionary measures to assure waste disposal in partial licenses granted under the Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This development raises the question as to what extent a waste disposal provision clause of the first few partial construction permits has to be adapted to the factual situation that has changed. Thus the clause is factually outdated according to which the granting of an operating licence for a nuclear power station cannot be expected until the first partial construction permit for the German fuel-cycle centre is in hand. It is not only conceivable that a first partial construction permit for the German fuel-cycle centre will not be in hand at the time when the authorities will decide on a (first) operating licence to be granted for a nuclear power station under construction, but add to this the crucial fact that the condition given in the above-mentioned provision clause on waste disposal is no longer in keeping with the factual situation and the thereto adapted provision principles governing waste management. Special attention has to be given to the significance and impact of this waste disposal provision clause since the situation has changed. (orig./HP)

  2. A Legal Analysis of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment and Its Impact on Ballot Initiatives and Affirmative Action Programs in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Harold Davon

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores the controversial issues surrounding affirmative action in higher education. Are anti-affirmative action ballot initiatives in violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment by restructuring the political process of minorities in such a way that places special burden on their ability to secure…

  3. Exploring the Boomerang Effect : The Role of Core Technologies and Uncertainty in Explaining the Use of the Grant-Back Clause in Technology Licensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Leone, M. Isabella

    Licensing is one of the most commonly observed inter-firm contractual agreements.Drawing on the resource-based view of the firm and contract economics, we argue that the inclusion of a grant-back clause in licensing agreements emerges as a consequence of the licensor and licensee firms’ requirements to balance the need to protect their technological resources with the need to learn through internal and external processes. We argue that licensing agreements are increasingly likely to contain a grant-back clause (i) the closer the licensed technology is to the core of the licensor’s patent portfolio, and (ii) the higher the uncertainty of the licensed technology. In contrast, we conjecture decreasing likelihood of a grant-back clause, the closer the licensed technology is to the core of the licensee’s patent portfolio. Technological uncertainty is conjectured to positively moderate the results both when the licensed technology is part of the core technology of the licensee and the licensor. We test our hypotheses using a sample of 404 licensed technologies over the period 1984-2004. We employ a hierarchical nested decision model to account for the inclusion of a grant-back clause in a licensing contract nested in the decision about which technologies to license out. We find broad support for our theoretical arguments

  4. Coherent scattering from tilted objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artyukov, I. A.; Feshchenko, R. M.; Popov, N. L.; Vinogradov, A. V.

    2014-03-01

    The extension of the Fresnel integral to tilted objects is studied using both analytical and numerical approaches. Exact solutions of the parabolic wave equation are used for this purpose. The wavefields produced by a beam propagating at an arbitrary angle ???/2 relative to the object surface are investigated. The diffraction patterns are simulated for 1° ? ? ? 10°. It is shown that the inverse problem for tilted objects can be reduced to a Fredholm-type integral equation. Both 2D and 3D geometries are considered. The results may be useful as a theoretical framework for the development of coherent reflection imaging of tilted objects and x-ray imaging of submicron footprints of relativistic electron beams for measurement of their size and shape.

  5. Interpreting Precise Constitutional Text: The Argument for a “New” Interpretation of the Incompatibility Clause, the Removal & Disqualification Clause, and the Religious Test Clause–A Response to Professor Josh Chafetz’s Impeachment & Assassination

    OpenAIRE

    Tillman, Seth

    2013-01-01

    This article is a response to Professor Josh Chafetz's Impeachment & Assassination, Minnesota Law Review, Vol. 95, p. 347, 2010. This Article is a textual exploration of the Constitution’s varying usage in regard to office and officer. The Constitution uses a variety of phrases relating to office and officer, including: (A) Officer of the United States; (B) Office under the United States; (C) Office under the Authority of the United States; and (D) Officer (unmodified). The consensus po...

  6. Compensation of research-related injuries in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avilds, Miguelangel Ramiro

    2014-12-01

    The planned reform of the Clinical Trials Directive has re-opened the debate over how to implement and interpret research-related injuries regulation. In the European Union (EU), clinical trials are currently regulated by Directive 2001/20/EC, which establishes the provision of mandatory insurance before clinical trials commence but is silent on the system of liability. The proposed new Regulation will impact biomedical research assurance in all EU Member States because it points to insurance costs as being one of the causes of the fall in the number of clinical trials carried out in the EU. Despite the adoption of a risk-balance approach, the proposed new Regulation does not include a no-fault compensation system to protect subjects participating in clinical trials. An adequate protection of the rights and wellbeing of trial subjects would require not only mandatory insurance for clinical trials but also a no-fault compensation system. The new regulation should include a general clause requiring mandatory insurance and establishing liability insurance based on no-fault compensation; an exception clause, enabling the performance of clinical trials without insurance in the case of low-risk interventions or non-commercial clinical trials; and an exclusion clause, excluding compensation when there is no causal connection between injuries and clinical trial. PMID:25508840

  7. Numerical Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in numerical relativity have fueled an explosion of progress in understanding the predictions of Einstein's theory of gravity, General Relativity, for the strong field dynamics, the gravitational radiation wave forms, and consequently the state of the remnant produced from the merger of compact binary objects. I will review recent results from the field, focusing on mergers of two black holes.

  8. OOIS (Object Oriented Information)

    OpenAIRE

    Cahill, Vinny; Tangney, Brendan

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the rationale and design of a new distributed systems programming model based on events, constraints, and objects 1 . The paper describes the inter-object communication or invocation mechanism, and the way in which concurrency, synchronisation, and timing properties are expressed and controlled. The invocation mechanism is unusual in that it is event-based. It encourages loose coupling among the objects and a high degree of encapsulation for each object. Concurrency, sync...

  9. Deductive Object Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Colonna, F

    2006-01-01

    We propose some slight additions to O-O languages to implement the necessary features for using Deductive Object Programming (DOP). This way of programming based upon the manipulation of the Production Tree of the Objects of Interest, result in making Persistent these Objects and in sensibly lowering the code complexity.

  10. [Behavioral Objectives in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Richard; And Others

    1970-01-01

    This edition of the "Virginia English Bulletin" is devoted primarily to articles about behavioral objectives and the teaching of English. In "Behavioral Objectives for English?" Richard A. Meade argues that these objectives ought to include the acquisition not only of skills and knowledge but also of understandings, insights, and feelings. He also…

  11. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  12. Detecting a Moving Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Sidhanti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Object tracking in video aims at detecting the appearances of an object and also the position of a moving object in a video sequence. Complex and dynamic scenes in video and television broadcasting have been a challenge for computerization of both in terms of storage and interaction. Scenes can be complex wherein there are many cluttered objects with different sizes, shapes, colors and can be dynamic with multiple interacting moving objects in a constantly changing background. Examples of such videos abound in applications like sports, air traffic, car traffic and cloud transformations etc.

  13. Senior High School Students’ Errors on the Use of Relative Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Bao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Relative clause is one of the most important language points in College English Examination. Teachers have been attaching great importance to the teaching of relative clause, but the outcomes are not satisfactory. Based on Error Analysis theory, this article aims to explore the reasonswhy senior high school students find it difficult to choose relative words and how to improve this situation. Participants in this study are 73 senior high school students from Tong Liao, Inner Mongolia. These students are given a test on using relative clause. Questionnaire on these 73 students and 30 teachers has also been carried on. After collecting and soring the tests paper and questionnaires, using quantitative and qualitative method, the author finds the main causes of the students’ choosing wrong relative words stem from: students pay much attention to language form and apply English rules mechanically, ignoring meaning and context of the language; students’ grammar knowledge is not comprehensive and systematic and students tend to neglect or forget some grammar points; students lack necessary basic English grammar and vocabulary knowledge, resulting in the difficulty in understanding the meaning of the sentence; students can’t adjust to relative clause because of language transfer.Therefore, teachers should strengthen the exercises of students’ English basic knowledge, teach grammars systematically and comprehensively, encourage students to use effective learning strategies to learn English, find ways to increase the input and output of English language and train students think in English mode. As to the students, they should learn to reflect on themselves, strive to improve their English and correct their learning attitude, and learn to use learning strategies effectively under the help of teachers.

  14. The British welfare state and mental health problems: the continuing relevance of the work of Claus Offe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, David

    2012-09-01

    It is now over thirty years since Claus Offe theorised the crisis tendencies of the welfare state in late capitalism. As part of that work he explored ongoing and irresolvable forms of crisis management in parliamentary democracies: capitalism cannot live with the welfare state but also cannot live without it. This article examines the continued relevance of this analysis by Offe, by applying its basic assumptions to the response of the British welfare state to mental health problems, at the turn of the twenty first century. His general theoretical abstractions are tested against the empirical picture of mental health service priorities, evident since the 1980s, in sections dealing with: re-commodification tendencies; the ambiguity of wage labour in the mental health workforce; the emergence of new social movements; and the limits of legalism. PMID:22530616

  15. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robering, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which these objects represent non-objectual entities in contexts from which they are excluded by type restrictions. Thus these objects are "abstract'' in a functional rather than in an ontological sense: they function as representatives of other entities but they are otherwise quite normal objects. Three examples of such a representation are considered: the denotations of that-phrases are objects representing propositions, generic noun phrases denote objects standing for sorts, and infinitivals are viewed as denoting objects representing attributes, i.e., the "ordinary'' meanings of verb phrases.

  16. Extended objects in quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantum field theoretical study of the properties of extended objects appearing in the quantum ordered state is carried out in the framework of boson theory. First the process of creation of the ordered state is studied, and then the creation of extended objects in quantum ordered states. It is found that the spontaneous creation of an ordered state is always caused by a symmetry rearrangement when the symmetry of the Heisenberg fields is global, and that in quantum electrodynamics the dynamic rearrangement of symmetry takes place even when no ordered state is created. The c-number field phi sup(f)(chi) constructed by the boson method becomes the soliton solution of the Euler equations when the Planck constant is ignored, implying that the soliton solution can be regarded as an extended object with quantum origin. Finally the relations between the basic symmetry of the theory and topological charge is analyzed. Although basic symmetry does not restrict the shape of extended objects appearing in the ordered state, it influences which object can be classified by topological quantum number. The condition for topological quantization of an extended object is expressed in terms of the asymptotic behaviour of the boson function

  17. Beyond the Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Object orientation (OO is regained not only in all components of integrate development media but it remarks in the rest of software world from operating system to last application domain - of course, with different intensity and success. A clear prove of OO application in all situations is the development of a wide range of industrial applications. OO technology allows drawing of relation between the geometry, topology and dimensions of data on a class hierarchy; thus, the observation of the amount of data gained by research in many scientific domains is facilitated through class libraries both for graphic primitives and for events examination. In conformity to all waiting, OO asserts in every distributive system, there are very important the applications for making open systems customer-server and dis-tributed applications in Java. Finally OO application in robot's programming and modeling needn't be omitted. However, far to be panacea, OO has also shades which will be researched so on.

  18. Freud: objects and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, A

    1986-01-01

    This paper, part of a series exploring the development of Freud's object concept, deals with the concepts of objects and psychic structure in the period from 1915 to 1938. In connection with the increased prominence of object loss and hostility in his clinical material, the role of objects in the building of psychic structure via identification assumed increased importance from 1917 on. After introduction of the ego-id-superego model, Freud asserted for the first time that object choice does take place as early as the oedipal period, and interpolated the phallic-oedipal phase into his sequence of developmental phases. The prominence of structure formation through identification continued, but no new object concepts are discerned. PMID:3760444

  19. Object-Oriented Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Georgatsos, Panos; Flegkas, Paris; Sourlas, Vasilis; Tassiulas, Leandros

    2015-01-01

    We propose the object-oriented networking (OON) framework, for meeting the generalized interconnection, mobility and technology integration requirements underlining the Internet. In OON, the various objects that need to be accessed through the Internet (content, smart things, services, people, etc.) are viewed as network layer resources, rather than as application layer resources as in the IP communications model. By abstracting them as computing objects -with attributes and...

  20. Objective-C

    CERN Document Server

    DeVoe, Jiva

    2011-01-01

    A soup-to-nuts guide on the Objective-C programming language. Objective-C is the language behind Cocoa and Cocoa Touch, which is the Framework of applications written for the Macintosh, iPod touch, iPhone, and iPad platforms. Part of the Developer Reference series covering the hottest Apple topics, this book covers everything from the basics of the C language to advanced aspects of Apple development. You'll examine Objective-C and high-level subjects of frameworks, threading, networking, and much more.: Covers the basics of the C language and then quickly moves onto Objective-C and more advanc

  1. Objective quality measures assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leachtenauer, Jon C.

    2002-07-01

    A study was performed to assess the ability of five objective quality measures to predict perceptual quality difference ratings. The objective measures included peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), root-mean-square error (RMSE), maximum absolute difference (MAD), the Image Quality Metric (IQM), and the just-noticeable-difference (JND) metric. Perceptual difference ratings used the National Image Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS). NIIRS data from four previous studies of bandwidth compression and image processing were compared to values of the five objective measures to determine whether any of the objective metrics could be used as a substitute for the labor-intensive NIIRS ratings.

  2. Polynomial Bridgeland Stable Objects and Reflexive Sheaves

    CERN Document Server

    Lo, Jason

    2011-01-01

    On a smooth projective threefold, we show that there are only two isomorphism types for the moduli of stable objects with respect to Bayer's standard polynomial Bridgeland stability - the moduli of Gieseker-stable sheaves and the moduli of PT-stable objects - under the following assumptions: no two of the stability vectors are collinear, and the degree and rank of the objects are relatively prime. We also describe a close relation between the intersection of the moduli spaces of PT-stable and dual-PT-stable objects, and the moduli of reflexive sheaves.

  3. Querying moving objects detected by sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bestehorn, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Declarative query interfaces to Sensor Networks (SN) have become a commodity. These interfaces allow access to SN deployed for collecting data using relational queries. However, SN are not confined to data collection, but may track object movement, e.g., wildlife observation or traffic monitoring. While rational approaches are well suited for data collection, research on ""Moving Object Databases"" (MOD) has shown that relational operators are unsuitable to express information needs on object movement, i.e., spatio-temporal queries. ""Querying Moving Objects Detected by Sensor Networks"" studi

  4. Subject Extraction out of Free Relatives in Norwegian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya Hogoboom

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines an anomalous construction in Norwegian that appears to be leftward extraction of a subject out of a wh island. This extraction seems to be allowed out of a free relative clause in adjunct position, under certain semantic conditions. The range of this construction is tested and reported on. It is found that this extraction is only allowed when the matrix verb and the free relative verb fall into certain categories. In addition, there are also restrictions on the extracted subject. An explanation as to why the components of the sentence in such extractions are restricted in the way they are is put forth.

  5. System for optical sorting of microscopic objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper Technical University of Denmark,

    The present invention relates to a system for optical sorting of microscopic objects and corresponding method. An optical detection system (52) is capable of determining the positions of said first and/or said second objects. One or more force transfer units (200, 205, 210, 215) are placed in a first reservoir, the one or more force units being suitable for optical momentum transfer. An electromagnetic radiation source (42) yields a radiation beam (31, 32) capable of optically displacing the force transfer units from one position to another within the first reservoir (1R). The force transfer units are displaced from positions away from the first objects to positions close to the first objects, and then displacing the first objects via a contact force (300) between the first objects and the force transfer units facilitates an optical sorting of the first objects and the second objects.

  6. Object-Oriented Type Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1994-01-01

    Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late binding. Existing languages employ different type systems, and it can be difficult to compare, evaluate and improve them, since there is currently no uniform theory for such languages. This book provides such a theory. The authors review the type systems of Simula, Smalltalk, C++ and Eiffel and present a type system that generalizes and explains them. The theory is based on an idealized object-oriented language called BOPL (Basic Object Programming Language), containing common features of the above languages. A type system, type inference algorithm, and typings of inheritance and genericity are provided for BOPL. Throughout, the results are related to the languages on which BOPL is based. This text offers advanced undergraduates and professional software developers a sound understanding of the key aspects of object-oriented type systems. All algorithms are implemented in a freely available workbench, adding enormous practical value. Numerous exercises and a clear writing style will enhance its appeal to the student.

  7. Trade Related Environmental Measures in Multilateral Environmental Agreements and the WTO: Irreconcilable Differences?

    OpenAIRE

    Nidhi Singh

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: WTO adopted a multilateral trading system without ignoring the importance of protecting environment. Exceptions in Article XX, Clause (b) and (g) checks trade at the cost of environment. It is difficult to establish a relationship between Trade Related Environmental Measures (TREMs) in Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) and World Trade Organization (WTO) rules. For the past ten years there have been simultaneous efforts to reconcile the differences between the two...

  8. Finding accurate frontiers: A knowledge-intensive approach to relational learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzani, Michael; Brunk, Clifford

    1994-01-01

    An approach to analytic learning is described that searches for accurate entailments of a Horn Clause domain theory. A hill-climbing search, guided by an information based evaluation function, is performed by applying a set of operators that derive frontiers from domain theories. The analytic learning system is one component of a multi-strategy relational learning system. We compare the accuracy of concepts learned with this analytic strategy to concepts learned with an analytic strategy that operationalizes the domain theory.

  9. Images of Axial Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabal, Hector; Cap, Nelly; Trivi, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Imaging of three-dimensional objects by lenses and mirrors is sometimes poorly indicated in textbooks and can be incorrectly drawn. We stress a need to clarify the concept of longitudinal magnification, with simulated images illustrating distortions introduced along the optical axis. We consider all possible positions of the object for both a…

  10. Uniqueness of Intentional Objects.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hvorecký, Juraj

    Bratislava : Filozofický ústav SAV, 2006, s. 179-188 ISBN 80-967225-6-5. [Sémantika verzus pragmatika - kde sú hranice?. Stará Lesná ve Vysokých Tatrách (SK), 12.09.2005-14.09.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : intentional object * emotions * formal object Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  11. Face as multimedia object

    OpenAIRE

    Dipaola, Steve; Arya, Ali

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes the Face Multimedia Object (FMO), and iFACE as a framework for implementing the face object within multimedia systems. FMO encapsulates all the functionality and data required for face animation. iFACE implements FMO and provides necessary interfaces for a variety of applications in order to access FMO services.

  12. [Management By Objectives Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Dakota State Dept. of Public Instruction, Pierre.

    This booklet is a compilation of management objectives for all units and professional staff members in the South Dakota Department of Public Instruction. Prepared by each professional employee in the department, the objectives seek to define priorities, to define key elements of each job, to establish limits on the employees total time and…

  13. Beginning Objective-C

    CERN Document Server

    Dovey, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective-C is today's fastest growing programming language, at least in part due to the popularity of Apple's Mac, iPhone and iPad. Beginning Objective-C is for you if you have some programming experience, but you're new to the Objective-C programming language and you want a modern-and fast-way forwards to your own coding projects. Beginning Objective-C offers you a modern programmer's perspective on Objective-C courtesy of two of the best iOS and Mac developers in the field today, and gets you programming to the best of your ability in this important language.  It gets you rolling fast into

  14. Safety objectives for 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    This is the third year in which the CERN Management has presented annual safety objectives for the Organization, the “HSE Objectives”.   The HSE objectives for 2014, which were announced by the Director-General at his traditional New Year’s address to the staff and were presented at the first Enlarged Directorate meeting of the year, have been drawn up and agreed in close collaboration between the DSOs, the HSE Unit and the DG himself. From safety in the workplace to radiation and environmental protection, the document emphasises that “Safety is a priority for CERN” and that safety policy is a key element in how the Organization is run. And, like all policies, it generates objectives that “serve as a general framework for action”. The HSE objectives are broken down into the following fields: occupational health and safety on sites and in the workplace, radiation protection, radiation safety, environmental protection, emerge...

  15. Young Children's Self-Generated Object Views and Object Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Karin H.; Jones, Susan S.; Smith, Linda B.; Swain, Shelley N.

    2014-01-01

    Two important and related developments in children between 18 and 24 months of age are the rapid expansion of object name vocabularies and the emergence of an ability to recognize objects from sparse representations of their geometric shapes. In the same period, children also begin to show a preference for planar views (i.e., views of objects held…

  16. An Investigation Concerning the Base-Generation of Four Old English Conjunct and Disjunct Adverbials within the Structure of Old English Clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Scot, Sky

    2009-01-01

      This paper is concerned with an investigation of four Old English adverbials with respect to where they are base-generated within the substructure of clauses which serve as examples of Old English prose. There are three structures in which base-generation of clausal constituents is deemed to occur: the CP, the IP, and the VP. Function and derivational movement are the governing factors which regulate the possibility of base-generation occurring within a particular structure. The movements ...

  17. Object caching in corvids: incidence and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ivo F; Osvath, Mathias; Osvath, Helena; Mioduszewska, Berenika; von Bayern, Auguste M P; Kacelnik, Alex

    2014-02-01

    Food caching is a paramount model for studying relations between cognition, brain organisation and ecology in corvids. In contrast, behaviour towards inedible objects is poorly examined and understood. We review the literature on object caching in corvids and other birds, and describe an exploratory study on object caching in ravens, New Caledonian crows and jackdaws. The captive adult birds were presented with an identical set of novel objects adjacent to food. All three species cached objects, which shows the behaviour not to be restricted to juveniles, food cachers, tool-users or individuals deprived of cacheable food. The pattern of object interaction and caching did not mirror the incidence of food caching: the intensely food caching ravens indeed showed highest object caching incidence, but the rarely food caching jackdaws cached objects to similar extent as the moderate food caching New Caledonian crows. Ravens and jackdaws preferred objects with greater sphericity, but New Caledonian crows preferred stick-like objects (similar to tools). We suggest that the observed object caching might have been expressions of exploration or play, and deserves being studied in its own right because of its potential significance for tool-related behaviour and learning, rather than as an over-spill from food-caching research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: CO3 2013. PMID:24333834

  18. Birth of the Object: Detection of Objectness and Extraction of Object Shape through Object Action Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Dirk; Pugeault, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    We describe a process in which the segmentation of objects as well as the extraction of the object shape becomes realized through active exploration of a robot vision system. In the exploration process, two behavioral modules that link robot actions to the visual and haptic perception of objects interact. First, by making use of an object independent grasping mechanism, physical control over potential objects can be gained. Having evaluated the initial grasping mechanism as being successful, a second behavior extracts the object shape by making use of prediction based on the motion induced by the robot. This also leads to the concept of an "object" as a set of features that change predictably over different frames. The system is equipped with a certain degree of generic prior knowledge about the world in terms of a sophisticated visual feature extraction process in an early cognitive vision system, knowledge about its own embodiment as well as knowledge about geometric relationships such as rigid body motion. This prior knowledge allows the extraction of representations that are semantically richer compared to many other approaches.

  19. ADHERENCE OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE POLICIES WITH A SPECIAL REFERENCE TO CLAUSE 49 OF THE LISTING AGREEMENT: A CASE STUDY OF INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnyana Ranjan Bal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to many scams in financial world (WorldCom, Enron, Satyam Computers etc. the regulatory body thoughts to implement an ethical code of conduct by which all the companies will be regulated. After getting reports of many studies and reports (Sarbanes-Oxley, Cadbury report, OECD policies etc. the policy of Corporate Governance was framed in different countries. The basic purpose of all Corporate Governance policies is to make the corporates accountable and compel them to act ethically. Clause 49 of the listing agreement deals with policies of Corporate Governance in India. This provides guidelines regarding control of various internal and external affairs while ensuring transparency and fairness in reporting. The present paper discusses the conceptual framework of Corporate Governance in India. Also our study highlights the important points of various mandatory and non-mandatory requirements of clause 49 of the listing agreement. To assess the adherence of this Clause 49 we have taken the case study of IOCL. The report on Corporate Governance of Indian Oil Corporation has been analyzed for the same.

  20. The most-favoured-nation clause in tax treaties: tool for potential reduction of withholding income tax applicable to Chile and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée Antonieta Villagra Cayamana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tax treaties to avoid the double taxation signed by a country have consequences for the future, but they can also modify the terms of treaties that are already in force, in case these contain most-favoured-nation clauses. In this line, taxpayers and companies, particularly, as well as the Tax Administration must be alert, regarding topotential modifications of the terms of the Peruvian tax treaties already in force; mainly about the withholding tax rate applied to royalties in the Convention subscribed with Chile and the withholding tax rates applied to dividends, interests and royalties in the Convention subscribed with Canada, taking into account that both of the mentioned tax treaties contain most-favoured-nation clauses for those kind of income. The Ministry of Economy, as the entity in charge of negotiations of the bilateral conventions, according to Law Decree 25883, has the responsibility of negotiating future treaties with full knowledge that the terms to be included could also cause the effect to decrease the withholding tax rates of the income tax in respect to conventions already in effect, as a consequence of the most-favoured-nation clause they contain.

  1. The Interpretation of Jurisdictional Clauses in Human Rights Treaties / La interpretación de las cláusulas jurisdiccionales en los tratados de derechos humanos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis, Jardón.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este documento analiza los métodos por los que las cláusulas jurisdiccionales contenidas en tratados de derechos humanos deben ser interpretados. El trabajo rechaza la idea de que existan reglas especiales para interpretar las reglas de derechos humanos por lo que las posturas que defienden tal idea [...] no pueden ser extendidas a la interpretación de las cláusulas jurisdiccionales contenidas en tratados en derechos humanos. Sin embargo, el autor sostiene que los valores protegidos por los derechos humanos pueden ser utilizados para interpretar una cláusula jurisdiccional, siempre y cuando sean incorporados dentro del método contenido en el artículo 31 de la Convención de Viena sobre el Derecho de los Tratados. Abstract in english This paper assesses the methods by which jurisdictional clauses contained in human rights treaties shall be interpreted by international tribunals in order to determine their jurisdiction over them. The work rejects the idea that special rules for interpreting human rights rules and consequently pos [...] tures that defend this idea cannot be extended to the interpretation of human rights jurisdictional clauses. Nevertheless, the author concludes that values protected by human rights can indeed be used to interpret a jurisdictional clause, as long as they are incorporated in the method of interpretation contained in article 31 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties.

  2. Thinking Cities Through Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Simon; Dodsworth, Francis; Ruppert, Evelyn; Watson, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Why study the city through objects? As we will argue below, material objects are analytically important but until recently they have largely been marginalised in urban studies. Thus, our aim here is to bring them to the centre of the analysis of the city. In Part I, after first reviewing how materiality has been taken up in the work of key urbanists, we propose a conceptual and methodological orientation that draws on these and sets out a way for following and analysing city objects. We then ...

  3. La “clause auteur” : l’écrivain, l’ethos et le discours littéraire The “clause author”: The writer, ethos, and literary discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melliandro Mendes Gallinari

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article élabore une réflexion sur la question de l’auctorialité, plus précisément sur les conceptions variables de l’auteur et ses espaces de production, en prenant en considération le discours littéraire, mais aussi d’autres discours sociaux. Le terme d’« auteur » est compris ici comme un accord entre sujets sociaux, c’est-à-dire comme une convention qui varie perpétuellement en fonction des moments historiques et des espaces institutionnels. Pour développer ce point de vue, on s’appuie sur des catégories centrales de l’analyse du discours comme le contrat de communication et l’ethos. Par rapport à ce concept, on examine comment le discours littéraire présente un ethos auctorial qui lui est particulier, et qui n’est pas à confondre avec la production d’images de l’auteur dans d’autres dispositifs comme les médias ou la critique. En fin de parcours, on s’interroge sur la construction moderne et spectaculaire de l’auteur - célébrité dans son rapport problématique à l’ethos auctorial et à la lecture de l’œuvre.This essay develops a reflection on the question of authorship, more specifically on the various conceptions of authorship and its places of production, by investigating literary discourse, but also other kinds of social discourses. The term “author” is here understood as the result of an agreement between social subjects, namely as a convention endlessly varying according to historical moments and institutional spaces. In order to develop this point of view, we will draw on central categories of discourse analysis like communication contract or ethos.  We show how literary discourse constructs a peculiar “authorial ethos”  not to be confused with the production of authorial images in other frameworks like the media or literary criticism. Eventually, we question the modern and spectacular construction of the celebrity-author in its problematic relation to the authorial ethos and to the reading of the text.

  4. Anthropological Objects Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This online article introduces students to the Objects Conservation Laboratory run by the museum's Anthropology Division. It discusses the main activities of the lab's conservators what that process involves.

  5. Protected Objects in Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LØvengreen, Hans Henrik; Schwarzer, Jens Christian

    1998-01-01

    We present an implementation of Ada 95's notion of protected objects in Java. The implementation comprises a class library supporting entry queues and a (pre-) compiler translating slightly decorated Java classes to pure Java classes utilizing the library.

  6. Features, objects, action: The cognitive neuropsychology of visual object processing, 1984-2004.

    OpenAIRE

    Humphreys, Gw; Riddoch, Mj

    2006-01-01

    We review evidence on the cognitive neuropsychology of visual object processing, from 1984-2004, dividing the work according to whether it deals with the analysis of visual features, objects, or the relations between object processing and action. Research across this period has led to (1) a more detailed analysis of disorders of feature processing and feature binding, (2) a finer-grained understanding of disorders of object recognition, how these disorders can change over time, and their rela...

  7. Observation and Quantum Objectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Healey, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The paradox of Wigner's friend challenges the objectivity of description in quantum theory. A pragmatist interpretation can meet this challenge by judicious appeal to decoherence. On this interpretation, quantum theory provides situated agents with resources for predicting and explaining what happens in the physical world---not conscious observations of it. Even in Wigner's friend scenarios, differently situated agents agree on the objective content of statements about the v...

  8. Near Earth Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The word planet comes from Greek planetes, wanderers, because the planets appear to wander across the celestial sphere, contrary to the fixed stars. This thesis presents several methods for using this motion to distinguish between stars and solar system objects in order to detect and track NEOs, Near Earth Objects: Asteroids and comets following paths that bring them near the Earth. NEOs have collided with the Earth since its formation, some causing local devastation, some causing global ...

  9. Veterinary Neurobiology Learning Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provided by the University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine, this page’s learning objects are available for veterinary students and faculty to enhance their understanding of animal neurobiology. Covering canine pain pathways, nociceptor response, and vestibular nerves, each individual Macromedia Flash file is available for use on the web or for download to the user’s desktop. The objects not only use interactive learning components, but also include specific, labeled diagrams of the anatomy being studied.

  10. Probabilistic Search for Object Segmentation and Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Hillenbrand, U; Hillenbrand, Ulrich; Hirzinger, Gerd

    2002-01-01

    The problem of searching for a model-based scene interpretation is analyzed within a probabilistic framework. Object models are formulated as generative models for range data of the scene. A new statistical criterion, the truncated object probability, is introduced to infer an optimal sequence of object hypotheses to be evaluated for their match to the data. The truncated probability is partly determined by prior knowledge of the objects and partly learned from data. Some experiments on sequence quality and object segmentation and recognition from stereo data are presented. The article recovers classic concepts from object recognition (grouping, geometric hashing, alignment) from the probabilistic perspective and adds insight into the optimal ordering of object hypotheses for evaluation. Moreover, it introduces point-relation densities, a key component of the truncated probability, as statistical models of local surface shape.

  11. Duality of Multi-objective Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangyou Li; Qingxiang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a class of multi-objective programming is considered, in which related functions are- -invex functions, Mond-Weir dual problem is researched, many duality theorems are proved under weaker convexity.

  12. Plasmolysis and the Objective Collection of Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesell, J. H.

    1983-01-01

    A college level plasmolysis experiment, demonstrating principles of cell/water relations, has been modified to demonstrate the objective collection of data. Background information, laboratory procedures, results, and instructional strategies are provided. (Author/JN)

  13. Object-Level Behavior Analysis using Cohesion and Coupling Metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Justus Selwyn; Ka Iyakutti

    2010-01-01

    The object relational database (ORDB) management systems signify a set ofinterrelated objects using reference and collection attributes. The static classleveldesign metrics for designing ORDB dictates the structural complexity ofthe object-relational schema, whereas the dynamic nature of the ORDBdemands object-level assessment using runtime metrics which help determinethe functional complexity of the database. Runtime coupling and cohesionmetrics are deemed appropriate in measuring the Object...

  14. Objects of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Donald D; Prakash, Chetan

    2014-01-01

    Current models of visual perception typically assume that human vision estimates true properties of physical objects, properties that exist even if unperceived. However, recent studies of perceptual evolution, using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms, reveal that natural selection often drives true perceptions to extinction when they compete with perceptions tuned to fitness rather than truth: Perception guides adaptive behavior; it does not estimate a preexisting physical truth. Moreover, shifting from evolutionary biology to quantum physics, there is reason to disbelieve in preexisting physical truths: Certain interpretations of quantum theory deny that dynamical properties of physical objects have definite values when unobserved. In some of these interpretations the observer is fundamental, and wave functions are compendia of subjective probabilities, not preexisting elements of physical reality. These two considerations, from evolutionary biology and quantum physics, suggest that current models of object perception require fundamental reformulation. Here we begin such a reformulation, starting with a formal model of consciousness that we call a "conscious agent." We develop the dynamics of interacting conscious agents, and study how the perception of objects and space-time can emerge from such dynamics. We show that one particular object, the quantum free particle, has a wave function that is identical in form to the harmonic functions that characterize the asymptotic dynamics of conscious agents; particles are vibrations not of strings but of interacting conscious agents. This allows us to reinterpret physical properties such as position, momentum, and energy as properties of interacting conscious agents, rather than as preexisting physical truths. We sketch how this approach might extend to the perception of relativistic quantum objects, and to classical objects of macroscopic scale. PMID:24987382

  15. Objects of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DonaldDavidHoffman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current models of visual perception typically assume that human vision estimates true properties of physical objects, properties that exist even if unperceived. However, recent studies of perceptual evolution, using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms, reveal that natural selection often drives true perceptions to extinction when they compete with perceptions tuned to fitness rather than truth: Perception guides adaptive behavior; it does not estimate a preexisting physical truth. Moreover, shifting from evolutionary biology to quantum physics, there is reason to disbelieve in preexist-ing physical truths: Certain interpretations of quantum theory deny that dynamical properties of physical objects have defi-nite values when unobserved. In some of these interpretations the observer is fundamental, and wave functions are com-pendia of subjective probabilities, not preexisting elements of physical reality. These two considerations, from evolutionary biology and quantum physics, suggest that current models of object perception require fundamental reformulation. Here we begin such a reformulation, starting with a formal model of consciousness that we call a “conscious agent.” We develop the dynamics of interacting conscious agents, and study how the perception of objects and space-time can emerge from such dynamics. We show that one particular object, the quantum free particle, has a wave function that is identical in form to the harmonic functions that characterize the asymptotic dynamics of conscious agents; particles are vibrations not of strings but of interacting conscious agents. This allows us to reinterpret physical properties such as position, momentum, and energy as properties of interacting conscious agents, rather than as preexisting physical truths. We sketch how this approach might extend to the perception of relativistic quantum objects, and to classical objects of macroscopic scale.

  16. Hamiltonian dynamics of extended objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capovilla, R [Departamento de FIsica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Guven, J [School of Theoretical Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 10 Burlington Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Rojas, E [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2004-12-07

    We consider relativistic extended objects described by a reparametrization-invariant local action that depends on the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the object as it evolves. We provide a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics of such higher derivative models which is motivated by the ADM formulation of general relativity. The canonical momenta are identified by looking at boundary behaviour under small deformations of the action; the relationship between the momentum conjugate to the embedding functions and the conserved momentum density is established. The canonical Hamiltonian is constructed explicitly; the constraints on the phase space, both primary and secondary, are identified and the role they play in the theory is described. The multipliers implementing the primary constraints are identified in terms of the ADM lapse and shift variables and Hamilton's equations are shown to be consistent with the Euler-Lagrange equations.

  17. Hamiltonian dynamics of extended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider relativistic extended objects described by a reparametrization-invariant local action that depends on the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the object as it evolves. We provide a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics of such higher derivative models which is motivated by the ADM formulation of general relativity. The canonical momenta are identified by looking at boundary behaviour under small deformations of the action; the relationship between the momentum conjugate to the embedding functions and the conserved momentum density is established. The canonical Hamiltonian is constructed explicitly; the constraints on the phase space, both primary and secondary, are identified and the role they play in the theory is described. The multipliers implementing the primary constraints are identified in terms of the ADM lapse and shift variables and Hamilton's equations are shown to be consistent with the Euler-Lagrange equations

  18. Radioactive Waste Management Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way it achieves this objective is to issue publications in various series. Two of these series are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III, paragraph A.6, of the IAEA Statute, the IAEA safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are primarily written in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own activities. The principal users are Member State regulatory bodies and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series consists of reports designed to encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia and politicians, among others. The information is presented in guides, reports on the status of technology and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The series complements the IAEA's safety standards, and provides detailed guidance, experience, good practices and examples on the fivce, good practices and examples on the five areas covered in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series. The Nuclear Energy Basic Principles is the highest level publication in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and describes the rationale and vision for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It presents eight Basic Principles on which nuclear energy systems should be based to fulfil nuclear energy's potential to help meet growing global energy needs. The Nuclear Energy Series Objectives are the second level publications. They describe what needs to be considered and the specific goals to be achieved at different stages of implementation, all of which are consistent with the Basic Principles. The four Objectives publications include Nuclear General Objectives, Nuclear Power Objectives, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives, and Radioactive Waste Management and Decommissioning Objectives. This publication sets out the objectives that need to be achieved in the area of radioactive waste management, including decommissioning and environmental remediation, to ensure that the Nuclear Energy Basic Principles are satisfied.

  19. Paving the road to negligence: the compensation for research-related injuries in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro Avilés, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    The planned reform of the regulation of clinical trials in Spain has reopened the debate over how to regulate research-related injuries. Act 29/2006 and Royal Decree 223/2004 regulate the insurance of research-related injuries, and they include a general clause requiring mandatory insurance and imposing a no-fault compensation system; they also contain an exception clause enabling clinical trials to be carried out without insurance under some conditions, and an exclusion clause excluding compensation when there is no causal connection between injuries and a clinical trial. National legislation is under review, affecting the requirement of mandatory insurance and paving the road to a liability system based on negligence, which will affect the level of protection of the persons enrolled in clinical trials because it would not ensure compensation. Regulatory texts on individuals' participation as research subjects should include not only mandatory insurance, but also a no-fault compensation system for cases when voluntary research subjects are injured, irrespective of negligence. PMID:25397601

  20. Hardware Objects for Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Thalinger, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Java, as a safe and platform independent language, avoids access to low-level I/O devices or direct memory access. In standard Java, low-level I/O it not a concern; it is handled by the operating system. However, in the embedded domain resources are scarce and a Java virtual machine (JVM) without an underlying middleware is an attractive architecture. When running the JVM on bare metal, we need access to I/O devices from Java; therefore we investigate a safe and efficient mechanism to represent I/O devices as first class Java objects, where device registers are represented by object fields. Access to those registers is safe as Java’s type system regulates it. The access is also fast as it is directly performed by the bytecodes getfield and putfield. Hardware objects thus provide an object-oriented abstraction of low-level hardware devices. As a proof of concept, we have implemented hardware objects in three quite different JVMs: in the Java processor JOP, the JIT compiler CACAO, and in the interpretingembedded JVM SimpleRTJ.