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Sample records for object relative clauses

  1. An Overview of Relative Clauses

    肖飒

    2015-01-01

    Relative clause is one kind of important modifiers among English grammar. It is a widely used clauses in English con-text. In order to get an overview of relative clause, this essay will analyze it in terms of form, meaning and use.

  2. Relative Clauses and Noun-Modifying Clauses in Chantyal

    Noonan, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The document contains a talk handout of a lecture held by Michael Noonan at the meeting on Relative Clauses and Noun-Modifying Clauses: A Cross-linguistic Investigation in Stanford University on March 22-24, 2008. It deals with relative and nominal clauses in the Chantyal language.

  3. Processing Preference Toward Object-Extracted Relative Clauses in Mandarin Chinese by L1 and L2 Speakers: An Eye-Tracking Study.

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Tu, Jung-Yueh; Cha, Jih-Ho; Wu, Ming-Da

    2016-01-01

    The current study employed an eye-movement technique with an attempt to explore the reading patterns for the two types of Chinese relative clauses, subject-extracted relative clauses (SRCs) and object-extracted relative clauses (ORCs), by native speakers (L1), and Japanese learners (L2) of Chinese. The data were analyzed in terms of gaze duration, regression path duration, and regression rate on the two critical regions, head noun, and embedded verb. The results indicated that both the L1 and L2 participants spent less time on the head nouns in ORCs than in SRCs. Also, the L2 participants spent less time on the embedded verbs in ORCs than in SRCs and their regression rate for embedded verbs was generally lower in ORCs than in SRC. The findings showed that the participants experienced less processing difficulty in ORCs than SRCs. These results suggest an ORC preference in L1 and L2 speakers of Chinese, which provides evidence in support of linear distance hypothesis and implies that the syntactic nature of Chinese is at play in the RC processing. PMID:26834677

  4. On the phrasing properties of Hindi relative clauses

    Gryllia, S.; Féry, C.; Kügler, F.; Pandey, P.; The, Scottish Consortium for ICPhS 2015

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents results from a production experiment in Hindi, showing that differences in attachment site of object relative clauses result in prosodic differences when the antecedent of the relative clause (RC) is part of a complex NP with the structure N1 of N2. In particular, based on durati

  5. The Elicited Production of Korean Relative Clauses by Heritage Speakers

    Lee-Ellis, Sunyoung

    2011-01-01

    In response to new theoretical claims and inconclusive empirical findings regarding relative clauses in East Asian languages, this study examined the factors relevant to relative clause production by Korean heritage speakers. Gap position (subject vs. object), animacy (plus or minus animate), and the topicality of head nouns (plus or minus…

  6. Asymmetries in children's production of relative clauses: data from English and Korean.

    Kim, Chae-Eun; O'Grady, William

    2016-09-01

    We report here on a series of elicited production experiments that investigate the production of indirect object and oblique relative clauses by monolingual child learners of English and Korean. Taken together, the results from the two languages point toward a pair of robust asymmetries: children manifest a preference for subject relative clauses over indirect object relative clauses, and for direct object relative clauses over oblique relative clauses. We consider various possible explanations for these preferences, of which the most promising seems to involve the requirement that the referent of the head noun be easily construed as what the relative clause is about. PMID:26264784

  7. Semantic Bias in the Acquisition of Relative Clauses in Japanese

    Ozeki, Hiromi; Shirai, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the acquisition of relative clauses in Japanese to determine the semantic and functional characteristics of children's relative clauses in spontaneous speech. Longitudinal data from five Japanese children are analyzed and compared with English data (Diessel & Tomasello, 2000). The results show that the relative clauses produced…

  8. Relational object tracking and learning

    Nitti, Davide; Laet, Tinne De; De Raedt, Luc

    2014-01-01

    We propose a relational model for online object tracking during human activities using the Distributional Clauses Particle Filter framework, which allows to encode commonsense world knowledge such as qualitative physical laws, object properties as well as relations between them. We tested the framework during a packaging activity where many objects are invisible for longer periods of time. In addition, we extended the framework to learn the parameters online and tested it in a tra...

  9. The Acquisition of Relative Clauses by Tamil Children.

    Lakshmanan, Usha

    2000-01-01

    Reports the findings of a cross-sectional study that investigated the acquisition of relative clauses by 27 Tamil-speaking children who ranged in age from 2 years and 11 months to 6 years and 6 months. A picture-cued production task was used to elicit relative clauses from the child subjects. (Author/VWL)

  10. Coreference relations in complex sentence with a complement clause

    Moskovljević-Popović Jasmina D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to analyze different co reference relations which can be established in a complex sentence between one of the arguments of the matrix clause and the understood/implicit subject of the complement clause introduced by the complementizer “da”. Various patterns of control relations which are present in contemporary Serbian - obligatory, non-obligatory, and shared control - have been enumerated and exemplified. Different types of constructions and different classes of verbs which introduce (or may introduce control relations have been identified and patterns of control instantiated by them have been described. It has been argued that the analysis of the Serbian data indicates that a type of the matrix predicate is not the only factor which determines the control relations established in a complex sentence, but that a type of situation/event described in the complement clause, as well as the relationship between the events denoted by the matrix and the complement clauses have their influence too. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178004: Standardni srpski jezik: sintaksička, semantička i pragmatička istraživanja

  11. 48 CFR 970.2702 - Patent related clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent related clauses. 970.2702 Section 970.2702 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2702...

  12. Number dissimilarities facilitate the comprehension of relative clauses in children with (Grammatical) Specific Language Impairment.

    Adani, Flavia; Forgiarini, Matteo; Guasti, Maria Teresa; VAN DER Lely, Heather K J

    2014-07-01

    This study investigates whether number dissimilarities on subject and object DPs facilitate the comprehension of subject- and object-extracted centre-embedded relative clauses in children with Grammatical Specific Language Impairment (G-SLI). We compared the performance of a group of English-speaking children with G-SLI (mean age: 12;11) with that of two groups of younger typically developing (TD) children, matched on grammar and receptive vocabulary, respectively. All groups were more accurate on subject-extracted relative clauses than object-extracted ones and, crucially, they all showed greater accuracy for sentences with dissimilar number features (i.e., one singular, one plural) on the head noun and the embedded DP. These findings are interpreted in the light of current psycholinguistic models of sentence comprehension in TD children and provide further insight into the linguistic nature of G-SLI. PMID:23806292

  13. The Production of Turkish Relative Clauses in Second Language Acquisition: Overcoming Student Difficulties

    Anjel Toczu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on teaching relative clauses (R.Cs in Turkish, a left-branching language, and discusses the relative difficulty of producing RCs in Turkish by English-speaking learners by investigating whether the production of subject relative clauses in Turkish is easier than that of the object relative clauses. It also offers suggestions as to how to help learners overcome these difficulties. Turkish and English belong to two different language families, Altaic and Inda-European respectively. This study lends further insight that Turkish does not have RCs similar to those found in Inda-European languages. Instead, in Turkish RCs comprise nominalized verbs and participles. The characteristics of Turkish are also explained such as its word order, agglutinating morphology, vowel and consonant harmony rules as well as case markers indicating grammatical relations between sentence constituents, which shed light to our understanding of RCs in Turkish. Data was collected through written and oral tasks from students enrolled in a military intensive Turkish language training program in the United States. Moreover, their performance was studied through classroom observations and one-on-one speaking activities.

  14. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND...

  15. THE ROLE OF THE GRAMMAR ON PORTUGUESE TEXTBOOKS: A LOOK ON TEACHING OF RELATIVE CLAUSE

    Lília Santos ABREU-TARDELLI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies how the textbooks of Portuguese Language of Secondary School, approved by the Programa Nacional do Livro Didático-2014, approach the teaching of grammar, in particular as regards the treatment of the relative subordinate clause. For this, first we start with the comparison between the proposals manuals for teaching grammar and what was accomplished in the student book. Furthermore, we propose here an interface between the results of the analysis of textbooks and functional description of the relative clause. In other words, we try to verify as some descriptive aspects can be used in the teaching of relative clause, with the aim of developing reading and writing skills. In order to do that, we take as theoretical framework the different conceptions of grammar proposed in Travaglia (2009, 2011 and Functional Discourse Grammar (HENGEVELD; MACKENZIE, 2008. This research points to the need to emphasize the cohesive role established by the relative pronoun that introduces the relative clause, to understand the non-restrictive relative clause from its argumentative function and to review the distinction between subtypes of adjective clause from the criteria of omission of the subordinate clause.

  16. Accusative resumptive pronoun in the Czech relative clauses with absolute relativizer co

    Fried, Mirjam

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2010), s. 16-29. ISSN 1804-137X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90610518 Keywords : relative clauses * relativizer * resumptive pronoun * corpus analysis Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  17. Animacy-Based Accessibility and Competition in Relative Clause Production in Hindi and Malayalam.

    Perera, C K; Srivastava, A K

    2016-08-01

    Two studies investigated interaction of animacy-based accessibility and competition processes with language specific constraints in shaping production preferences. Relative clause elicitation tasks (Gennari et al. in Cogn Psychol 65:141-176, 2012) were performed by two groups with 40 participants in each. Significantly more passives were produced with animate question/focus and assigned subject function to them in Malayalam, while the difference was insignificant in Hindi with animacy not equating with grammatical function assignment. Both languages produced active objects with OSV order significantly more with animate question/focus. This indicates animacy effect on word order. Animacy also influenced the expression of the agent phase in both languages as a tendency was found to omit the agent by-phase or to delay its appearance, when the two animate nouns entering into the structure are highly similar. The results point to language specific constraints in relative clause production and variability in the role of animacy-based retrieval order across languages. PMID:26108301

  18. Early object relations into new objects.

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    Two strands of change are suggested by this review, one maturational, the other therapeutic or developmental (Hartmann and Kris, 1945). By "maturational" I mean to suggest energies that infuse the individual from earliest life in a manner that includes object relations, but for the healthy exercise of which object relations per se need not be of central and crucial importance. Within wide limits such energies may be delayed until growth conditions prevail without significant distortion of certain of the organism's ego functions. Therapeutic change is analogous to developmental change in that both involve the crucial presence of another to release energies. In therapeutic change these are energies that have been repressed beyond the reach of developmental dynamics. In everyday development crisis and synthesis alternate in conjunction with new and emerging objects to add to the psychological structures brought to the fore by maturation. In many instances, as we see with John, over time and in a less focussed manner, developmental changes can approximate therapeutic change and visa versa. Freud-Dann in their "experiment" pursued one line, in which the equipmental delay brought on by extremely adverse living circumstances was redressed by providing an interpersonally enriching, loving, developmentally facilitating milieu. The sketches of individual children and John's subsequent story provide a perspective into what becomes the stuff of growth and what remains the stuff of neurosis. The developmental reserves and ego resilience of these children were impressive but probably not extraordinary. Usual growth ensued as soon as they were provided with the rich soil of Bulldogs Bank instead of the desert sand of the Tereszin concentration camp. However, no one can escape such adverse circumstances without having taken in the stuff of neurosis. Affects and percepts that were not assimilatable or even available to consciousness at the time remain buried in the unconscious

  19. Grammatical feature dissimilarities make relative clauses easier: A comprehension study with Italian children

    Adani, Flavia; van der Lely, Heather K.J.; Forgiarini, Matteo; Guasti, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The Relativized Minimality approach to A′-dependencies (Friedmann et al., 2009) predicts that headed object relative clauses (RCs) and which—questions are the most difficult, due to the presence of a lexical restriction on both the subject and the object DP which creates intervention. We investigated comprehension of center-embedded headed object RCs with Italian children, where Number and Gender feature values on subject and object DPs are manipulated. We found that, Number conditions are always more accurate than Gender ones, showing that intervention is sensitive to DP-internal structure. We propose a finer definition of the lexical restriction where external and syntactically active features (such as Number) reduce intervention whereas internal and (possibly) lexicalized features (such as Gender) do so to a lesser extent. Our results are also compatible with a memory interference approach in which the human parser is sensitive to highly specific properties of the linguistic input, such as the cue-based model (Van Dyke, 2007). PMID:21151323

  20. Children's Processing of Ambiguous Sentences: A Study of Relative Clause Attachment

    Felser, Claudia; Marinis, Theodore; Clahsen, Harald

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we investigate children's and adults' relative clause attachment preferences in sentences such as "The student photographed the fan of the actress who was looking happy." Twenty-nine 6- to 7-year-old monolingual English children and 37 adult native speakers of English participated both in an auditory questionnaire study and in an…

  1. The Role of Working Memory and Contextual Constraints in Children's Processing of Relative Clauses

    Wieghall, Anna R.; Altmann, Gerry T. M.

    2011-01-01

    An auditory sentence comprehension task investigated the extent to which the integration of contextual and structural cues was mediated by verbal memory span with 32 English-speaking six- to eight-year-old children. Spoken relative clause sentences were accompanied by visual context pictures which fully (depicting the actions described within the…

  2. A view on the development of Relative Clauses in Danish

    Jensen de López, Kristine M.; Sundahl Olsen, Lone

    2010-01-01

    dansktalende voksne. For begge grupper var objekt-relative sætninger vanskeligere at opfatte og frembringe end subjekt-relative. Undersøgelsen viste, at objekt-relative sætninger især er vanskelige at frembringe, selv om børn ret tidligt kan forstå dem. Voksne undgår også tit at bruge objekt-relative sætninger...

  3. Restrictive relative clauses in English and Korean learners' second language Chinese

    Hu, Xiaoling; Liu, Chuanping

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This study investigates the second language (L2) acquisition of restrictive relative clauses (RRCs) in Chinese by two groups of learners speaking typologically different first languages (L1s): English and Korean. English RRCs, unlike those of Chinese, are head-initial whereas Korean RRCs, like those of Chinese, are head-final. The difference could be predicted to hinder English learners' acquisition of L2 RRCs but facilitate it for Korean learners. This prediction was not ...

  4. Visualizing abstract objects and relations

    Kamada, Tomihisa

    1989-01-01

    Pictorial representations are very useful for humans to understand complicated relations or structures. This is the reason that the user interface of information systems is strongly required to visualize many kinds of information in a wide variety of graphical forms. At present, however, only some very specialized visualization techniques have been developed probably because the generality in the visualization has not been appreciated correctly. This book presents a visualization framework for translating abstract objects and relations, typically represented in textual forms, into pictorial re

  5. Object relations in Harry Potter.

    Lake, Suzanne

    2003-01-01

    Good fiction helps children address their emotional dilemmas by evoking repressed content, and offering strategies and meaningful values that help them work towards resolutions. Because certain fundamental conflicts continue to be revisited and reworked throughout adulthood, it follows that masterful children's literature might enthrall adults as well. Given the extraordinary, worldwide success of the Harry Potter stories with both children and adults, it might be inferred that they, indeed, are among such literature. Common object relations themes, as well as other intrapsychic processes, are presented in such an imaginative and resonant way that the unconscious is readily engaged. The character of Harry Potter, specifically, embodies such universal (repressed) torments as the agony of destroying and losing the mother; the ominous perception of good and bad objects at war within the self; and the earnest reparative efforts offered to save the self from eternal separation from the beloved other. PMID:14535615

  6. Representing objects, relations, and sequences.

    Gallant, Stephen I; Okaywe, T Wendy

    2013-08-01

    Vector symbolic architectures (VSAs) are high-dimensional vector representations of objects (e.g., words, image parts), relations (e.g., sentence structures), and sequences for use with machine learning algorithms. They consist of a vector addition operator for representing a collection of unordered objects, a binding operator for associating groups of objects, and a methodology for encoding complex structures. We first develop constraints that machine learning imposes on VSAs; for example, similar structures must be represented by similar vectors. The constraints suggest that current VSAs should represent phrases ("The smart Brazilian girl") by binding sums of terms, in addition to simply binding the terms directly. We show that matrix multiplication can be used as the binding operator for a VSA, and that matrix elements can be chosen at random. A consequence for living systems is that binding is mathematically possible without the need to specify, in advance, precise neuron-to-neuron connection properties for large numbers of synapses. A VSA that incorporates these ideas, Matrix Binding of Additive Terms (MBAT), is described that satisfies all constraints. With respect to machine learning, for some types of problems appropriate VSA representations permit us to prove learnability rather than relying on simulations. We also propose dividing machine (and neural) learning and representation into three stages, with differing roles for learning in each stage. For neural modeling, we give representational reasons for nervous systems to have many recurrent connections, as well as for the importance of phrases in language processing. Sizing simulations and analyses suggest that VSAs in general, and MBAT in particular, are ready for real-world applications. PMID:23607563

  7. The performance of relational and object-relational SQL queries when using Oracle

    Francisco Javier Moreno Arboleda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a study in which the performance of several queries involving GROUP BY clause, sub-queries (using IN and EXISTS clauses and loins are measured and compared by means of specific queries. The behaviour of relational and oblect-relational models is also shown.

  8. Reasoning about object relations for object pose classification

    Jose Antonio Oramas Mogrovejo; Luc De Raedt; Tinne Tuytelaars

    2014-01-01

    Oramas Mogrovejo J.A., De Raedt L., Tuytelaars T., ''Reasoning about object relations for object pose classification'', Netherlands conference on computer vision - NCCV 2014, April 24-25, 2014, Ermelo, Netherlands.

  9. Fundamentals of Object Databases Object-Oriented and Object-Relational Design

    Dietrich, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Object-oriented databases were originally developed as an alternative to relational database technology for the representation, storage, and access of non-traditional data forms that were increasingly found in advanced applications of database technology. After much debate regarding object-oriented versus relational database technology, object-oriented extensions were eventually incorporated into relational technology to create object-relational databases. Both object-oriented databases and object-relational databases, collectively known as object databases, provide inherent support for object

  10. Elicited Production of Relative Clauses in German: Evidence from Typically Developing Children and Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Adani, Flavia; Stegenwallner-Schütz, Maja; Haendler, Yair; Zukowski, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We elicited the production of various types of relative clauses in a group of German-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing controls in order to test the movement optionality account of grammatical difficulty in SLI. The results show that German-speaking children with SLI are impaired in relative clause…

  11. Moulding Interpersonal Relations through Conditional Clauses: Consensus-Building Strategies in Written Academic Discourse

    Warchal, Krystyna

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the interpersonal potential of the conditional clause as a rhetorical device for establishing a dialogue between the author and the reader of an academic text in search for shared understanding and consensus. It presents a corpus-based analysis of functions conditional clauses play in linguistics research articles in an…

  12. Parsing Strategies in L1 and L2 Sentence Processing: A Study of Relative Clause Attachment in Greek

    Papadopoulou, Despina; Clahsen, Harald

    2003-01-01

    To contribute to a better understanding of second language (L2) sentence processing, the present study examines how L2 learners parse temporarily ambiguous sentences containing relative clauses. Results are reported from both off-line and on-line experiments with three groups of advanced learners of Greek whose native languages (L1s) were Spanish,…

  13. Portuguese spoken in Almoxarife, Sao Tome: relative clauses with “ku” and “com” [with

    Carlos Filipe Guimarães Figueiredo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relative clauses with “ku” [substrate relativizer] and “com” [with] in the Portuguese of Almoxarife, spoken by the community of Almoxarife, São Tome island, aiming to uncover what the motivations are that trigger the use of those relativizers.

  14. General Relativity and Compact Objects

    Gupta, Patrick Das

    2015-01-01

    Starting with the conceptual foundation of general relativity (GR) - equivalence principle, space-time geometry and special relativity, I train cross hairs on two characteristic predictions of GR - black holes and gravitational waves. These two consequences of GR have played a significant role in relativistic astrophysics, e.g. compact X-ray sources, quasars, blazars, coalescing binary pulsars, etc. With quantum theory wedded to GR, particle production from vacuum becomes a generic feature whenever event horizons are present. In this paper, I shall briefly discuss the fate of a `black hole atom' when Hawking radiation is taken into account. In the context of gravitational waves, I shall focus on the possible consequences of gravitational and electromagnetic radiation from highly magnetized and rapidly spinning white dwarfs. The discovery of RX J0648.0-4418 system - a WD in a binary with mass slightly over 1.2 $ M_{\\odot}$, and rotating with spin period as short as 13.2 s, provides an impetus to revisit the pr...

  15. Public Relations Writing Methods by Objectives.

    Pearson, Ron

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes public relations writing as an activity which is uniquely related to organizational goals and objectives. Provides a basis for theory by linking rhetorical theory and communication management and describes a method for framing public relations writing objectives. Notes that objective statements are useful because, among other things, they…

  16. Some modifications of temporal relation in the sentence with the temporal clause

    Antonić Ivana N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is the modification of temporal relation in the complex sentence with the temporal clause. At the functional different Serbian language corpus the author notices the next types of modified temporality: excepted locational simultaneity complete or partial, and excepted locationalorientational posteriority formalized by the structure V SAMO/JEDINO/OSIM/SEM/IZUZEV(ONDA KAD VSub, and excepted locational simultaneity/excepted terminativity formalized by the structure V SAMO DOK (Neg VSub; sutuational locational simultaneity complete or partial formalized by the structure V U SITUACIJI / U SLUČAJU KAD VSub, with the posibility to be exceptivly modified in the structure V IZUZEV U SITUACIJI / U SLUČAJU KAD VSub; situational-concessive locational simultaneity complete or partial formalized by the structure V (ČAK I (ONDA KAD VSub; situational-conditional locational-orientational posteriority formalized by the structure V TEK (ONDA KAD VSub, and situational-conditional orientational posteriority formalized by the structure V TEK POŠTO VSub or V TEK NAKON ŠTO VSub and situational-conditional orientational quantified posteriority formalized by the structure V Quant TEK POŠTO VSub, and finaly situational-conditional terminativity formalized by the structure (Neg V SVE DOK Neg VSub. It can ocure sporadically supstitutiv temporality formalized by the structure V DetTemp (UMESTO KAD VSub, and consecutive-adversative temporality formalized by the structure KAD VSub A (ONDA V. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178004: Sintaksička, semantička i pragmatička istraživanja standardnog srpskog jezika

  17. Creating a Relational Distributed Object Store

    Primmer, Robert; Nyman, Scott; Lin, Wayzen

    2013-01-01

    In and of itself, data storage has apparent business utility. But when we can convert data to information, the utility of stored data increases dramatically. It is the layering of relation atop the data mass that is the engine for such conversion. Frank relation amongst discrete objects sporadically ingested is rare, making the process of synthesizing such relation all the more challenging, but the challenge must be met if we are ever to see an equivalent business value for unstructured data ...

  18. Teaching French Noun Clauses.

    Mayer, Edgar N.

    This paper attempts to give a unified view of the workings of noun clauses. These are considered according to three main types corresponding to three different kinds of source sentences. All three types can be used in any usual noun-phrase function, especially subject, direct object, and prepositional object. Four factors which complicate the…

  19. 48 CFR 233.215 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 233.215....215 Contract clause. Use Alternate I of the clause at FAR 52.233-1, Disputes, when— (1) The... (v) Tracked combat vehicles (vi) Related electronic systems; (2) The contracting officer...

  20. Cross-Linguistic Differences in Processing Double-Embedded Relative Clauses: Working-Memory Constraints or Language Statistics?

    Frank, Stefan L; Trompenaars, Thijs; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-04-01

    An English double-embedded relative clause from which the middle verb is omitted can often be processed more easily than its grammatical counterpart, a phenomenon known as the grammaticality illusion. This effect has been found to be reversed in German, suggesting that the illusion is language specific rather than a consequence of universal working memory constraints. We present results from three self-paced reading experiments which show that Dutch native speakers also do not show the grammaticality illusion in Dutch, whereas both German and Dutch native speakers do show the illusion when reading English sentences. These findings provide evidence against working memory constraints as an explanation for the observed effect in English. We propose an alternative account based on the statistical patterns of the languages involved. In support of this alternative, a single recurrent neural network model that is trained on both Dutch and English sentences is shown to predict the cross-linguistic difference in the grammaticality effect. PMID:25943302

  1. Claus Bonderup

    Fisker, Anna Marie; Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen

    -oriented architectural projects within Urban Farming in which the students will initially work with the subject as master’s students, but later, hopefully, as PhD students. Also, I have wished for a long time to give Claus Bonderup the recognition he deserves! His view of architecture, his knowledge and his way of...... house that serves as a basis for this project with its unique architectural models for the International Architecture Exhibition. Claus’ Duck House has, thus, in theory and practice alike, become the foundation for the new architectural models, and his thoughts on design have contributed to a fruitful...

  2. 48 CFR 728.313 - Contract clauses for insurance of transportation or transportation-related services.

    2010-10-01

    ... all U.S. marine insurance companies have a fair opportunity to bid for marine insurance when such... required for use in any USAID-direct contract where marine insurance is necessary or appropriate. ... insurance of transportation or transportation-related services. 728.313 Section 728.313 Federal...

  3. Learning in Organizations - an Object Relations Perspective

    Andersen, Anders Siig

    analysis of learning environments in contrast to other theoretical and methodological paradigms. References Andersen, A. S. & Andersen, V. (2007): Learning Environments for Academic Employees: Possibilities and Hurdles. Human Ressource Development Review (HRDR). Andersen, A. S. & Trojaborg, R. S. (2007....... Hinshelwood, R. D. & Skogstad, W. (2000),Observing Organisations – Anxiety, defence and culture in health care. Great Britain: Routledge. Menzies, I. E. P. (1975). A Case-Study in the Functioning of Social Systems as a Defence Against Anxiety. In Colman, A. D. & Bexton, W. (eds.), Group Relations Reader 1. A...

  4. Are topological relations dependent on the shape of spatial objects?

    SHI Wenzhong; LIU Kimfung

    2005-01-01

    Topology is normally considered as independent of shape of spatial objects. This may not necessarily be true in describing relations between spatial objects in GIS. In this paper, we present proof that the topological relations between spatial objects are dependent on the shape of spatial objects. That is, that the topological relations of non-convex sets cannot be deformed to the topological relations of convex sets. The significant theoretical value of this paper is on its findings that topology of spatial objects is shape dependent.This indicates that when we want to describe topological relations between spatial objects in GIS, both topology and the shape of objects need to be considered. As a result, spatial data modeling, query and analysis based on the existing understanding of topology of spatial objects may need re-assessed.

  5. Multi-Label Object Categorization Using Histograms of Global Relations

    Mustafa, Wail; Xiong, Hanchen; Kraft, Dirk;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present an object categorization system capable of assigning multiple and related categories for novel objects using multi-label learning. In this system, objects are described using global geometric relations of 3D features. We propose using the Joint SVM method for learning and...

  6. Personality variables predict strength-related attitude dimensions across objects.

    Britt, Thomas W; Millard, Matthew R; Sundareswaran, Preetha T; Moore, Dewayne

    2009-06-01

    We examined personality predictors of different attitude strength-related dimensions across objects. Participants responded to questions regarding 11 attitude objects that assessed the overall evaluation of the object and the strength-related dimensions of importance, certainty, and relevance. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a 4-factor solution underlying the self-report and extremity dimensions across the 11 attitude objects, with importance and relevance and certainty and extremity loading on 2 second-order factors. The need to evaluate, need for affect, sense of coherence, dogmatism, and personal fear of invalidity were all related at the bivariate level to at least one strength-related dimension. The need to evaluate and the need for affect independently predicted variance in certainty/extremity across the attitude objects and sense of coherence and dogmatism predicted unique variance in importance/relevance across objects. Discussion focuses on the possible processes by which personality variables predict strength-related dimensions across objects. PMID:20078740

  7. An approach to computing direction relations between separated object groups

    H. Yan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Direction relations between object groups play an important role in qualitative spatial reasoning, spatial computation and spatial recognition. However, none of existing models can be used to compute direction relations between object groups. To fill this gap, an approach to computing direction relations between separated object groups is proposed in this paper, which is theoretically based on Gestalt principles and the idea of multi-directions. The approach firstly triangulates the two object groups; and then it constructs the Voronoi Diagram between the two groups using the triangular network; after this, the normal of each Vornoi edge is calculated, and the quantitative expression of the direction relations is constructed; finally, the quantitative direction relations are transformed into qualitative ones. The psychological experiments show that the proposed approach can obtain direction relations both between two single objects and between two object groups, and the results are correct from the point of view of spatial cognition.

  8. An approach to computing direction relations between separated object groups

    Yan, H.; Wang, Z.; Li, J.

    2013-09-01

    Direction relations between object groups play an important role in qualitative spatial reasoning, spatial computation and spatial recognition. However, none of existing models can be used to compute direction relations between object groups. To fill this gap, an approach to computing direction relations between separated object groups is proposed in this paper, which is theoretically based on gestalt principles and the idea of multi-directions. The approach firstly triangulates the two object groups, and then it constructs the Voronoi diagram between the two groups using the triangular network. After this, the normal of each Voronoi edge is calculated, and the quantitative expression of the direction relations is constructed. Finally, the quantitative direction relations are transformed into qualitative ones. The psychological experiments show that the proposed approach can obtain direction relations both between two single objects and between two object groups, and the results are correct from the point of view of spatial cognition.

  9. Object persistency for HEP data using an object-relational database

    The authors present an initial study of the object features of Oracle 9i--the first of the market-leading object-relational database systems that supports a true object model on the server side as well as an ODMG-style C++ language binding on the client side. The authors discuss how these features can be used to provide persistent object storage in the HEP environment

  10. O-ODM Framework for Object-Relational Databases

    Carlos Alberto Rombaldo Jr

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Object-Relational Databases introduce new features which allow manipulating objects in databases. At present, many DBMS offer resources to manipulate objects in database, but most application developers just map class to relations tables, failing to exploit the O-R model strength. The lack of tools that aid the database project contributes to this situation. This work presents O-ODM (Object-Object Database Mapping, a persistent framework that maps objects from OO applications to database objects. Persistent Frameworks have been used to aid developers, managing all access to DBMS. This kind of tool allows developers to persist objects without solid knowledge about DBMSs and specific languages, improving the developers’ productivity, mainly when a different DBMS is used. The results of some experiments using O-ODM are shown.

  11. Matching Three-Dimensional Objects Using a Relational Paradigm

    Shapiro, Linda G.; Moriarty, John D.; Haralick, Robert M.; Mulgaonkar, Prasanna G.

    1980-01-01

    A relational model for describing three-dimensional objects has been designed and implemented as part of a database system. The models which provide rough descriptions to be used at the top level of a hierarchy for describing objects, were designed for initial matching attempts on an unknown object. The descriptions are in terms of the set of simple parts of the objects. Simple parts can be sticks (long, thin parts), plates (flat, wide parts) , and blobs (parts that have three significant dim...

  12. Tilting objects on twisted forms of some relative flag varieties

    Novaković, Saša

    2015-01-01

    We prove the existence of tilting objects on generalized Brauer--Severi varieties, some relative flags and some twisted forms of relative flags. As an application we obtain tilting objects on certain homogeneous varieties of classical type and on certain twisted forms of homogeneous varieties of type $A_n$ and $C_n$.

  13. The Assessment of Object Relations Phenomena in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Gustafson, Eric Wayne

    Recent attempts to empirically validate psychoanalytic theory and its contemporary object relational constructs have turned to measuring the concepts with a variety of recently developed assessment scales. This paper reviews the 27 research studies which utilize instruments designed to assess object relations phenomena in subjects diagnosed with…

  14. An Analysis Of Grammatical Constructions Of Noun Clauses Found In Selected Info Articles Of Hello Magazine

    Lestari, Triana

    2014-01-01

    This thesis entitled An Analysis Of Grammatical Construction of Noun Clauses Found in Selected Info Articles of Hello Magazine, discusses about the grammatical construction of noun clauses found in three selected info articles of Hello Magazine. There are three problems discussed in this thesis; the noun clause elements, the noun clauses patterns and the noun clauses patterns that do not follow the grammarians’ rule. The objectives of this study is to find out the elements that are used to fo...

  15. Temporal dynamics of action perception: differences on ERP evoked by object-related and non-object-related actions.

    Wamain, Yannick; Pluciennicka, Ewa; Kalénine, Solène

    2014-10-01

    While neuropsychological dissociations suggest that distinct processes are involved in execution or perception of transitive (object-related) and intransitive (non-object-related) actions, the few neuroimaging studies that directly contrasted the brain activations underlying transitive and intransitive gesture perception failed to find substantial differences between the two action types. However, the distinction could be visible on brain activity timing within the fronto-parietal network. In this study, we used Event-Related Potential (ERP) method to assess the temporal dynamics of object-related and non-object-related action processing. Although both meaningful, only object-related actions involve object motor features. Accordingly, perception of the two action types would show distinct neural correlates. Participants were presented with four movie types (ORA, Object-Related Action, NORA: Non-Object-Related Action and 2 control movies) and were instructed to perform tasks that required explicit or implicit action recognition (specific action recognition or color change detection). Movies were presented as Point-Light Display (PLD) and thus provided only information about gesture kinematics regardless of action type. ERP were computed during movie visual perception and analyzed as a function of movie type and task. The main result revealed a difference between ORA and NORA on the amplitude of the P3a component in the fronto-parietal region. The difference observed around 250 ms after movie onset do not likely origin from variation in low-level visual features or attention resource allocation. Instead, we suggest that it reflects incidental recruitment of object attributes during object-related action perception. The exact nature of these attributes is discussed. PMID:25204513

  16. Object-related generativity in children with Down syndrome.

    Fidler, Deborah J; Will, Elizabeth; Daunhauer, Lisa A; Gerlach-McDonald, Brianne; Visootsak, Jeannie

    2014-12-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) show challenges in some aspects of goal-directed behavior when compared to developmentally matched children (Daunhauer et al., 2014; Lee et al., 2011), particularly in the area of goal-directed action on objects (Fidler et al., 2005a,b). In this study, we examined one aspect of goal-directed action on objects, object-related generativity, in school-aged children with DS (n = 52), a developmentally matched group of children with intellectual disability, but not Down syndrome (DD; n = 21), and a group of chronologically younger, but developmentally matched typically developing children (TD; n = 34). We administered the Leiter-R, the Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS), and an Object-Related Generativity Task, which involved 2 min of unstructured play with a variety of objects that have divergent usages. Children with DS generated significantly fewer instances of initiating actions on new objects than children in both comparison groups, were less likely to produce novel functional action on any object (new or familiar) than TD children, and they showed fewer instances of novel functional object engagement with new objects overall than TD children. Frequency of acts on new objects in DS was associated with Leiter-R Form Completion and Repeated Patterns Raw Scores and OWLS Listening Comprehension Raw Scores. These findings contribute to the growing knowledge base regarding goal-directed behavior and self-regulation in individuals with Down syndrome. Implications for education and intervention are discussed. PMID:25194513

  17. Covered Clause Elimination

    Heule, Marijn; Biere, Armin

    2010-01-01

    Generalizing the novel clause elimination procedures developed in [M. Heule, M. J\\"arvisalo, and A. Biere. Clause elimination procedures for CNF formulas. In Proc. LPAR-17, volume 6397 of LNCS, pages 357-371. Springer, 2010.], we introduce explicit (CCE), hidden (HCCE), and asymmetric (ACCE) variants of a procedure that eliminates covered clauses from CNF formulas. We show that these procedures are more effective in reducing CNF formulas than the respective variants of blocked clause elimination, and may hence be interesting as new preprocessing/simplification techniques for SAT solving.

  18. Model Object Relational Database pada Aplikasi Notifikasi SMS

    Indrajani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyse the database using object oriented approach. In addition, this research develops and designs an object-relational database structure to make easier the process of searching for the required information. The benefit of this research is to provide a data structure that can be reused for SMS notification application developer team, so that the developers can use existing objects for future use if there are changes in the current business process. The methods used are data collection, analysis, and design. The result obtained from this research is a database structure of SMS notification application, which can be used in various programming languages for using object-relational database approach. For conclusion, by using the object-relational database structure, application developers will be made easier in developing the current database structure. Programmer can add a new data type simply by creating a new object. Data is accessed or processed as object-oriented.

  19. Relative recency influences object-in-context memory

    Tam, Shu K.E.; Bonardi, Charlotte; Robinson, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    In two experiments rats received training on an object-in-context (OIC) task, in which they received preexposure to object A in context x, followed by exposure to object B in context y. In a subsequent test both A and B are presented in either context x or context y. Usually more exploration is seen of the object that has not previously been paired with the test context, an effect attributed to the ability to remember where an object was encountered. However, in the typical version of this task, object A has also been encountered less recently than object B at test. This is precisely the arrangement in tests of ‘relatively recency’ (RR), in which more remotely presented objects are explored more than objects experienced more recently. RR could contaminate performance on the OIC task, by enhancing the OIC effect when animals are tested in context y, and masking it when the test is in context x. This possibility was examined in two experiments, and evidence for superior performance in context y was obtained. The implications of this for theoretical interpretations of recognition memory and the procedures used to explore it are discussed. PMID:25546721

  20. Background connection, a necessary object in general relativity

    It is shown that in Einstein's theory of gravity (ETG), an important geometrical object has been lost while introducing the concept of the energy pseudotensor of the gravitational field. This object found at present is the affine connection, on whose background the gravitational field should be considered. That loss made the ETG contradictory to Einstejn's general principle of relativity. To remove the contradiction, it suffices to introduce a primitive affine connection. However, nothing prevents us from considering the background object being not primitive but an arbitrary affine connection without torsion. Under this condition we may rather easily vary both the gravitational field gab and the affine connection independent of gab. Owing to restoration of the lost object, the ETG becomes a perfectly geometrical theory in which all physical objects are geometrical ones. 8 refs

  1. Object relations and physical abuse: a TAT analysis.

    Freedenfeld, R N; Ornduff, S R; Kelsey, R M

    1995-06-01

    Selected Thematic Apperception Test (Murray, 1943) stories of 39 physically abused children and a clinical group of 39 children with no recorded history of abuse were examined using the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scales (Westen, Lohr, Silk, Kerber, & Goodrich, 1985). As predicted, a history of physical abuse was associated with a more malevolent object world; a lower level capacity for emotional investment in relations and moral standards; and less accurate, complex, and logical attributions of causality in understanding human interaction. These impairments in object relations were manifest both as a typical level of functioning and as a propensity for more grossly pathological functioning. Results are discussed in terms of clinical and theoretical implications. PMID:7760261

  2. Rules-based object-relational databases ontology construction

    Chen Jia; Wu Yue

    2009-01-01

    To solve the problems of sharing and reusing information in the information system, a rules-based ontology constructing approach from object-relational databases is proposed. A 3-tuple ontology constructing model is proposed first. Then, four types of ontology constructing rules including class, property, property characteristics, and property restrictions axe formalized affording to the model. Experiment results described in Web ontology language prove that our proposed approach is feasible for applying in the semantic objects project of semantic computing laboratory in UC Irvine. Our approach reduces about twenty percent constructing time compared with the ontology construction from relational databases.

  3. Visual appearance of wireframe objects in special relativity

    The visual appearance of a moving object in special relativity can be constructed in a straightforward manner when representing the surface of the object, or at least a wire frame model of it, as a point cloud. The apparent position of each individual point is then found by intersecting its worldline with the observer's backward light cone. In this paper, we present a complete derivation of the apparent position of a point and some more complex geometric objects for general parameter settings (configurations). We implemented our results in python and asymptote and used these tools to generate scripts that create the figures in this paper. These scripts are directly applicable in an undergraduate course to special relativity and can also serve as the basis for student projects with the aim to study more complex sceneries. (paper)

  4. Performance Evaluation of Java Based Object Relational Mapping Tools

    Shoaib Mahmood Bhatti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Object persistency is the hot issue in the form of ORM (Object Relational Mapping tools in industry as developers use these tools during software development. This paper presents the performance evaluation of Java based ORM tools. For this purpose, Hibernate, Ebean and TopLinkhave been selected as the ORM tools which are popular and open source. Their performance has been measured from execution point of view. The results show that ORM tools are the good option for the developers considering the system throughput in shorter setbacks and they can be used efficiently and effectively for performing mapping of the objects into the relational dominated world of database, thus creating a hope for a better and well dominated future of this technology.

  5. Representation Model of Topological Relations between Complex Planar Objects

    CHEN Zhanlong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to express the details of the topological relations between complex planar objects, the classic 9-intersection model is improved and the two extended 9-intersection models that based on decomposition ideas are proposed: the one 9-intersection model method that is decomposed into simple area has its advantage of simplification, but at the cost of complicated expressions; another 9-intersection model method that is decomposed into point-set, conforming well with the classical 9-intersection model, but has relatively complex calculations. Compared the expressive abilities between the two kinds of extened 9-intersection models and the classic 9-intersection model by examples. The results show that both the two extended 9-intersection models can give more accurately expression of the topological relations between details of the sub parts in complex planar objects, the expressive ability of 9-intersection model has been expanded and improved.

  6. An Improved Direction Relation Detection Model for Spatial Objects

    FENG Yucai; YI Baolin

    2004-01-01

    Direction is a common spatial concept that is used in our daily life. It is frequently used as a selection condition in spatial queries. As a result, it is important for spatial databases to provide a mechanism for modeling and processing direction queries and reasoning. Depending on the direction relation matrix, an inverted direction relation matrix and the concept of direction pre- dominance are proposed to improve the detection of direction relation between objects. Direction predicates of spatial systems are also extended. These techniques can improve the veracity of direction queries and reasoning. Experiments show excellent efficiency and performance in view of direction queries.

  7. Modeling Spatial Data within Object Relational-Databases

    Iuliana BOTHA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial data can refer to elements that help place a certain object in a certain area. These elements are latitude, longitude, points, geometric figures represented by points, etc. However, when translating these elements into data that can be stored in a computer, it all comes down to numbers. The interesting part that requires attention is how to memorize them in order to obtain fast and various spatial queries. This part is where the DBMS (Data Base Management System that contains the database acts in. In this paper, we analyzed and compared two object-relational DBMS that work with spatial data: Oracle and PostgreSQL.

  8. The Network Configuration of an Object Relational Database Management System

    Diaz, Philip; Harris, W. C.

    2000-01-01

    The networking and implementation of the Oracle Database Management System (ODBMS) requires developers to have knowledge of the UNIX operating system as well as all the features of the Oracle Server. The server is an object relational database management system (DBMS). By using distributed processing, processes are split up between the database server and client application programs. The DBMS handles all the responsibilities of the server. The workstations running the database application concentrate on the interpretation and display of data.

  9. Object-Relational Management of Multiply Represented Geographic Entities

    Friis-Christensen, Anders; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    means of a prototype and a realworld case study that it is possible to implement a multiple representation schema language on top of an object-relational database management system. Specifically, it is demonstrated how it is possible to map the constructs of the language used for specifying the multiple...... representation schema to functionality available in Oracle. Though some limitations exist, Oracle has proven to be a suitable platform for implementing an MRMS....

  10. Reasoning about Object Capabilities with Logical Relations and Effect Parametricity

    Devriese, Dominique; Piessens, Frank; Birkedal, Lars

    -of-the-art techniques from programming languages research, we define a logical relation for a core calculus of JavaScript that better characterises capability-safety. The relation is powerful enough to reason about typical capability patterns and supports evolvable invariants on shared data structures, capabilities......Object capabilities are a model for fine-grained privilege separation in programming languages and systems. However,formal characterisations of the model do not fully capturecapability-safety of a programming language and are not sufficient for verifying typical uses of the model. Using state...

  11. PENALTY CLAUSES WITHIN DIFFERENT LEGAL SYSTEMS

    Simas Vitkus

    2013-06-01

    that a liquidated damages clause is used to estimate damages in case of breach, provided that there has been an actual harm to the plaintiff, whereas a penalty clauses is used to establish a penalty to be paid in case of breach with the intent to encourage performance. The latter also does not require proof of any real damage. Practical implications: the article initiates a discussion on the importance of ensuring the legal certainty in contractual relations, particularly in the field of enforceability of penalty clauses, not only on the national but also on the international level. Originality/Value: in the law of contracts the clash of common law and civil law in respect of the treatment of penalty clauses has drawn a lot of attention of scientists and researchers; however, the question of this article, i.e. how to eliminate the clash between two different legal systems and to achieve binding uniform regulation that would control the enforceability of penalty clauses, remains of high importance. Keywords: common law system, civil law system, penalty clause, liquidated damages. Research type: general review.

  12. Learning Spatial Relations between Objects From 3D Scenes

    Fichtl, Severin; Alexander, John; Guerin, Frank;

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing cognitive development during the first years of human life may be the result of a set of developmental mechanisms which are in continuous operation [1]. One such mechanism identified is the ability of the developing child to learn effective preconditions for their behaviours. It has been ...... suggested [2] that through the application of behaviours involving more than one object, infants begin to learn about the relations between objects.......Ongoing cognitive development during the first years of human life may be the result of a set of developmental mechanisms which are in continuous operation [1]. One such mechanism identified is the ability of the developing child to learn effective preconditions for their behaviours. It has been...

  13. Fundamentals for the Automation of Object-Relational Database Design

    Maria Fernanda Golobisky

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the market there is a wide amount of CASE tools for the design of relational databases. Object-relational database management system (ORDBMS emerged at the end of the 90s to incorporate the object technology into the relational databases, allowing the treatment of more complex data and relationships than its predecessor. The design for this database model is not straightforward. Most of the works proposed in the literature fail because they do not provide consistent transformation formalization such that the mappings from the conceptual model to the logical schema can be automated to generate an ORDB design toolkit. This is one of the goals of this paper. For this purpose, UML class diagram metamodel for the conceptual design and SQL:2003 standard metamodel for logical schemas are considered. A characterization of the components involved in the ORDB design is made in order to propose mapping rules that can be further automated. The architecture of a CASE tool prototype is presented. Model Driven Architecture for software design and XML for the model definitions and transformations are employed.

  14. Chemical Compositions of RV Tauri Stars and Related Objects

    Rao, S Sumangala

    2013-01-01

    We have undertaken a comprehensive abundance analysis for a sample of relatively unexplored RV Tauri and RV Tauri like stars to further our understanding of post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB) evolution. From our study based on high resolution spectra and grid of model atmospheres, we find indications of mild s-processing for V820 Cen and IRAS 06165+3158. On the other hand, SU Gem and BT Lac exhibit the effects of mild dust-gas winnowing. We have also compiled the existing abundance data on RV Tauri objects and find that a large fraction of them are afflicted by dust-gas winnowing and now added by the present work, we find a small group of two RV Tauris showing mild s-process enhancement in our Galaxy. With two out of three reported s-process enhanced objects belonging to RV Tauri spectroscopic class C, these intrinsically metal-poor objects appear to be promising candidates to analyse the possible s-processing in RV Tauri stars.

  15. The role of action representations in thematic object relations.

    Konstantinos eTsagkaridis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies assessing the role of associative/event-based (thematic and categorical (taxonomic relations in the organization of object representations suggest that thematic relationships may influence the perceived similarity of manipulable artifacts. At the same time, evidence suggests that action knowledge is an important component of manipulable artifact representations. However, the role that action plays in processing thematic relationships between objects is unclear. In this study, we assessed healthy and left hemisphere stroke participants to explore three questions: 1. Do participants favor thematic relations involving action (Th+A, e.g., wine bottle – corkscrew, thematic relationships without action (Th-A, e.g., wine bottle – cheese, or taxonomic relationships (Tax, e.g., wine bottle – water bottle when choosing between them in an association judgment task? 2. Do the underlying constructs of event, action, and categorical relatedness implicitly determine the choices that participants make? 3. Does degraded action knowledge and/or damage to temporo-parietal cortex (a region of the brain associated with action representations reduce the influence of action on the choice task? Experiment 1 showed that explicit ratings of event, action, and categorical relatedness differentially predicted healthy participants’ choices, with action relatedness determining choices between Th+A and Th-A associations above and beyond event and categorical ratings. Experiment 2 focused more specifically on these Th+A vs. Th-A choices and demonstrated that participants with left temporo-parietal lesions, a brain region known to be involved in sensorimotor processing, were less likely than controls, and tended to be less likely than patients with lesions sparing that region, to implicitly use action knowledge in determining their choices. We conclude that action knowledge plays a critical role in processing of thematic relations for manipulable

  16. The role of action representations in thematic object relations.

    Tsagkaridis, Konstantinos; Watson, Christine E; Jax, Steven A; Buxbaum, Laurel J

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have explored the role of associative/event-based (thematic) and categorical (taxonomic) relations in the organization of object representations. Recent evidence suggests that thematic information may be particularly important in determining relationships between manipulable artifacts. However, although sensorimotor information is on many accounts an important component of manipulable artifact representations, little is known about the role that action may play during the processing of semantic relationships (particularly thematic relationships) between multiple objects. In this study, we assessed healthy and left hemisphere stroke participants to explore three questions relevant to object relationship processing. First, we assessed whether participants tended to favor thematic relations including action (Th+A, e.g., wine bottle-corkscrew), thematic relationships without action (Th-A, e.g., wine bottle-cheese), or taxonomic relationships (Tax, e.g., wine bottle-water bottle) when choosing between them in an association judgment task with manipulable artifacts. Second, we assessed whether the underlying constructs of event relatedness, action relatedness, and categorical relatedness determined the choices that participants made. Third, we assessed the hypothesis that degraded action knowledge and/or damage to temporo-parietal cortex, a region of the brain associated with the representation of action knowledge, would reduce the influence of action on the choice task. Experiment 1 showed that explicit ratings of event, action, and categorical relatedness were differentially predictive of healthy participants' choices, with action relatedness determining choices between Th+A and Th-A associations above and beyond event and categorical ratings. Experiment 2 focused more specifically on these Th+A vs. Th-A choices and demonstrated that participants with left temporo-parietal lesions, a brain region known to be involved in sensorimotor processing, were

  17. Edgar Allan Poe's "Ligeia": an object-relational interpretation.

    Zlotnick-Woldenberg, C

    1999-01-01

    This paper argues that Poe's short story "Ligeia," in which the narrator experiences the death of his adored first wife (Ligeia), a second marriage to the despised Rowena, and ultimately the death of Rowena and the revivification of Ligeia, is not a supernatural tale, but rather a psychological one. According to this reading, the poisoning of Rowena and the revivification of Ligeia are hallucinated by the narrator in the course of an opium-induced psychotic break. The antecedents to this break are explored in light of object relations theory, with particular emphasis placed on the way in which the two women function as part objects. Ligeia represents the narrator's romantic and spiritual side and is associated with the good mother, while Rowena, who represents his more mundane and materialistic side, is associated with the rejecting mother. It is argued that the narrator, functioning primarily in the schizoid position and employing such defense mechanisms as splitting and projection--which already require a high degree of fantasy--is not an unlikely candidate for such a break. PMID:10586302

  18. Study of Object Substitution Masking Using Event-related Potential

    Nuruki, Atsuo; Yamada, Masafumi; Kawabata, Takuro; Shimozono, Tomoyuki; Yunokuchi, Kazutomo

    We make use of especially visual information though we are using a lot of information among modality in daily life. However, there is a difference between the real world and the perception of visual world. For instance, conscious perception of a briefly presented target can be reduced by a subsequent dot mask that does not touch it. However, the theory of this phenomenon, called Object Substitution Masking (OSM), is not clear. We investigated this issue by examining the effect of OSM on the N170 component of the event-related potential (ERP). As expected, subsequent dot mask significantly reduced accuracy in identifying the target. The N170 amplitude of P4 was also diminished by OSM. It was suggested that OSM is concerned in right posterior parietal cortex.

  19. Iterative Specialisation of Horn Clauses

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2008-01-01

    We present a generic algorithm for solving Horn clauses through iterative specialisation. The algorithm is generic in the sense that it can be instantiated with any decidable fragment of Horn clauses, resulting in a solution scheme for general Horn clauses that guarantees soundness and termination...

  20. Iterative Specialisation of Horn Clauses

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    We present a generic algorithm for solving Horn clauses through iterative specialisation. The algorithm is generic in the sense that it can be instantiated with any decidable fragment of Horn clauses, resulting in a solution scheme for general Horn clauses that guarantees soundness and termination...

  1. Universals in Relative Clause Acquisition: Evidence from Child and Adult L1 and L2 Learners of Hindi-Urdu.

    Hansen, Lynne

    1986-01-01

    The performance of native and nonnative Hindi-Urdu speaking children (N=131) and adults (N=30) in the comprehension of the Hindi-Urdu correlative constructions was analyzed. Results indicated that Hindi-Urdu correlative constructs are acquired relatively late by both native and nonnative speakers, suggesting that language universals are available…

  2. Screen memory: its importance to object relations and transference.

    Reichbart, Richard

    2008-06-01

    A screen memory of an obsessive and narcissistic man, reported early in psychoanalysis, both represented and disguised the patient's oedipal conflict, incestuous wishes, and sibling rivalry. It symbolized for him his relationship with his mother and was treated by him, in a repetitive and fetishistic manner throughout treatment, as the reason for his bitterness toward life, his sense of entitlement, his narcissism, and his distrust of women. In the transference, the memory-far from being inert- constantly played an active role in his wishes and disappointments regarding the analyst, and in his fantasied oedipal triumph over him. As the analysis progressed, and after years of treatment, the encapsulated nature of this memory began to give way to the patient's growing awareness of his oedipal wishes, the full range of his feelings toward his mother, and his sense of abandonment by her. The nature of screen memory is explored, including how it relates to a patient's personality and use of the past in general, how it may figure in the development of a person's object relations, and the decisive role it may play throughout a treatment. PMID:18515702

  3. Organic Bill Conscience Clause

    María Teresa Riofrío Martínez-Villalba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available By the close relationship between the right to life of the unborn child and the right to act in conscience of doctors, nurses and others at one time can be commanded to kill an unborn, we quote an interesting project of law about Conscience Clause.

  4. 22 CFR 124.9 - Additional clauses required only in manufacturing license agreements.

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturing license agreements. 124.9 Section 124.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL... Additional clauses required only in manufacturing license agreements. (a) Clauses for all manufacturing license agreements. The following clauses must be included only in manufacturing license agreements:...

  5. IUE observations of Herbig-Haro and related objects

    Boehm, K. H.

    1982-01-01

    The I.U.E. spectra of the Herbig-Haro objectives H-H 1, H-H 2H, H-H 2G and H-H 32 A are considered. In order to obtain a better understanding of the physics of these intriguing objects and of the formation of the ultraviolet continua and emission lines in H-H objects, the UV spectra of the Cohen-Schwartz star, the T Tauri star AS 353A, and of the reflection nebula NGC 1999 (which is illuminated by the young object V 380 Orionis), are also examined.

  6. 48 CFR 1808.870 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract clause. 1808.870 Section 1808.870 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Printing and Related Supplies 1808.870 Contract...

  7. Establishing word-object relations: a first step.

    Baldwin, D A; Markman, E M

    1989-04-01

    This work explores how infants in the early phases of acquiring language come to establish an initial mapping between objects and their labels. If infants are biased to attend more to objects in the presence of language, that could help them to note word-object object pairings. To test this, a first study compared how long 18 10-14-month-old infants looked at unfamiliar toys when labeling phrases accompanied their presentation, versus when no labeling phrases were provided. As predicted, labeling the toys increased infants' attention to them. A second study examined whether the presence of labeling phrases increased infants' attention to objects over and above what pointing, a powerful nonlinguistic method for directing infants' attention, could accomplish on its own. 22 infants from 2 age groups (10-14- and 17-20-month-olds) were shown pairs of unfamiliar toys in 2 situations: (a) in a pointing alone condition, where the experimenter pointed a number of times at one of the toys, and (b) in a labeling + pointing condition, where the experimenter labeled the target toy while pointing to it. While the pointing occurred, infants looked just as long at the target toy whether or not it was labeled. During a subsequent play period in which no labels were uttered, however, infants gazed longer at the target toys that had been labeled than at those that had not. Thus language can increase infants' attention to objects beyond the time that labeling actually occurs. These studies do not pinpoint which aspects of labeling behavior contribute to the attentional facilitation effect that was observed. In any case, however, this tendency for language to sustain infants' attention to objects may help them learn the mappings between words and objects. PMID:2924658

  8. Brain activity related to integrative processes in visual object recognition

    Gerlach, Christian; Aaside, C T; Humphreys, G W;

    2002-01-01

    involvement of re-entrant activation from stored structural knowledge. Evidence in favor of this interpretation comes from the additional finding that activation of the anterior part of the left fusiform gyrus and a more anterior part of the right inferior temporal gyrus, areas previously associated with......We report evidence from a PET activation study that the inferior occipital gyri (likely to include area V2) and the posterior parts of the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri are involved in the integration of visual elements into perceptual wholes (single objects). Of these areas, the fusiform and...... perceptual and memorial processes can be dissociated on both functional and anatomical grounds. No evidence was obtained for the involvement of the parietal lobes in the integration of single objects....

  9. Relating Things and Stuff via ObjectProperty Interactions.

    Min Sun; Byung-Soo Kim; Kohli, Pushmeet; Savarese, Silvio

    2014-07-01

    In the last few years, substantially different approaches have been adopted for segmenting and detecting "things" (object categories that have a well defined shape such as people and cars) and "stuff" (object categories which have an amorphous spatial extent such as grass and sky). While things have been typically detected by sliding window or Hough transform based methods, detection of stuff is generally formulated as a pixel or segment-wise classification problem. This paper proposes a framework for scene understanding that models both things and stuff using a common representation while preserving their distinct nature by using a property list. This representation allows us to enforce sophisticated geometric and semantic relationships between thing and stuff categories via property interactions in a single graphical model. We use the latest advances made in the field of discrete optimization to efficiently perform maximum a posteriori (MAP) inference in this model. We evaluate our method on the Stanford dataset by comparing it against state-of-the-art methods for object segmentation and detection. We also show that our method achieves competitive performances on the challenging PASCAL '09 segmentation dataset. PMID:26353309

  10. Moral Objectivity, Jurgen Habermas's Discourse Ethics, and Public Relations.

    Leeper, Roy V.

    1996-01-01

    States that while increasing attention is being paid by people in public relations to ethical theory, the predominant ethical perspective is still situational. Analyzes the applicability of the Discourse Ethics theory of Jurgen Habermas to public relations ethics. Concludes that Discourse Ethics holds the potential of a new, more objective…

  11. Exact Solutions for Compact Objects in General Relativity

    Raghoonundun, Ambrish M

    2016-01-01

    Seven new solutions to the interior static and spherically symmetric Einstein's field equations (EFE) are found and investigated. These new solutions are a generalisation of the quadratic density fall-off profile of the Tolman VII solution. The generalisation involves the addition of anisotropic pressures and electric charge to the density profile. Of these new solutions three are found to obey all the necessary conditions of physical acceptability, including linear stability under radial perturbations, and causality of the speed of pressure waves inside the object. Additionally an equation of state can be found for all the physically viable solutions. The generalised pulsation equation for interior solutions to the EFE that include both electric charge and pressure anisotropy is derived and used to determine the stability of the solutions. However the pulsation equation found is general and can be used for all new solutions that contain these ingredients.

  12. Engineering the object-relation database model in O-Raid

    Dewan, Prasun; Vikram, Ashish; Bhargava, Bharat

    1989-01-01

    Raid is a distributed database system based on the relational model. O-raid is an extension of the Raid system and will support complex data objects. The design of O-Raid is evolutionary and retains all features of relational data base systems and those of a general purpose object-oriented programming language. O-Raid has several novel properties. Objects, classes, and inheritance are supported together with a predicate-base relational query language. O-Raid objects are compatible with C++ objects and may be read and manipulated by a C++ program without any 'impedance mismatch'. Relations and columns within relations may themselves be treated as objects with associated variables and methods. Relations may contain heterogeneous objects, that is, objects of more than one class in a certain column, which can individually evolve by being reclassified. Special facilities are provided to reduce the data search in a relation containing complex objects.

  13. 48 CFR 46.710 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... performance specifications or design are of major importance; a fixed-price supply, service, or research and... QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 46.710 Contract clauses. The clauses and alternates prescribed in this... insert a clause substantially the same as the clause at 52.246-20, Warranty of Services, in...

  14. Defective Arbitration Clauses in International Commercial Contracts

    Tolkušinas, Kasparas

    2011-01-01

    Usually in a drafting process of a contract arbitration clause is left at the end of a contract. Sometimes it happens that parties really do not wish start discussions on how should arbitration clause look like or what details should it contain, because either parties think they would never come to a conflict or they are short in time and leave arbitration clause unconsidered. Absence of proper attention when drafting arbitration clauses is likely to give rise to defective arbitration clauses...

  15. How to start a V2 declarative clause: Transfer of syntax vs. information structure in L2 German

    Ute Bohnacker

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses V2 word order and information structure in Swedish, German and non-native German. Concentrating on the clause-initial position of V2 declaratives, the ‘prefield’, we investigate the extent of L1 transfer in a closely related L2. The prefield anchors the clause in discourse, and although almost any type of element can occur in this position, naturalistic text corpora of native Swedish and native German show distinct language-specific patterns. Certain types of elements are more common than others in clause-initial position, and their frequencies in Swedish differ substantially from German (subjects, fronted objects, certain adverbs. Nonnative cross-sectional production data from Swedish learners of German at beginner, intermediate and advanced levels are compared with native control data, matched for age and genre (Bohnacker 2005, 2006, Rosén 2006. The learners’ V2 syntax is largely targetlike, but their beginnings of sentences are unidiomatic. They have problems with the language-specific linguistic means that have an impact on information structure: They overapply the Swedish principle of “rheme later” in their L2 German, indicating L1 transfer at the interface of syntax and discourse pragmatics, especially for structures that are frequent in the L1 (subject-initial and expletive-initial clauses, and constructions with så (‘so’ and object det (‘it/that’.

  16. Sustainability clauses in international supply chain contracts

    Peterkova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    also to do business exclusively with socially responsible partners. Unawareness, either intentional or negligent, of unethical behaviour within a company’s supply chain may lead to an assumption that the company is complicit in such a conduct. The paper discusses a hypothesis that sustainability...... contractual clauses (SCCs) in international supply chain agreements may help to overcome the regulatory gap in relation to global sustainability while concurrently protect companies against potential social, economic and legal risks threatening in connection to unethical behaviour of their suppliers. As parts...... another corporate social responsibility tool ‘without teeth’. The central questions are: why SCCs are presumed to be effective regulatory means for global sustainability, how these clauses are seen through the lenses of international contract law and whether they can actually contribute to a positive...

  17. Objective and subjective predictors of cancer-related stress symptoms in testicular cancer survivors

    Fleer, Joke; Sleijfer, Dirk; Hoekstra, Harald; Tuinman, Marrit; Klip, Ed; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette

    2006-01-01

    Objective: (1) To investigate cancer-related stress symptoms among testicular cancer survivors (TCSs), (2) to gain insight into the relationship Of sociodemographic and cancer-related variables with cancer-related stress symptoms and (3) to assess whether objective and subjective aspects of cancer d

  18. 24 CFR 221.280 - Waived title objections.

    2010-04-01

    ... LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Contract Rights and Obligations-Low... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Waived title objections. 221.280 Section 221.280 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  19. 谈英语关系分句的翻译技巧%Discussion on the translation skills of English relative clauses

    卓天英

    2009-01-01

    英语关系分句(定语从句attributive clause)在英语语篇中无处不在,其翻译既是重点又是难点.不论是分译法,还是合译法,不论是前置法,还是后置法都应抓住关系分句深层结构上的问题,弄清楚某个具体关系分句在某个具体上下文中的确切含义、传达的信息、具有的功能、所起的作用.真正体现从语义到文体,在译语中能用最切近而又最自然的对等语来再现原文的信息,进而达到译文的最佳效果.

  20. OBJECT AND SUBJECT RELATIONS IN ADULTHOOD – TOWARDS AN INTEGRATIVE MODEL OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS

    Žvelc, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    In the article the author presents a model of interpersonal relationships based on integration of object relations theory and theory of attachment. He proposes three main bipolar dimensions of interpersonal relationships: Independence – Dependence, Connectedness – Alienation and Reciprocity – Self-absorption. The author also proposes that it is important to distinguish between two main types of adult interpersonal relationships: object and subject relations. Object relations describe...

  1. Object-based Representation and Classification of Spatial Structures and Relations

    Le Ber, Florence; Napoli, Amedeo

    2002-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the representation and the classification of spatial relations and structures in an object-based knowledge representation system. In this system, spatial structures are defined as sets of spatial entities connected with topological relations. Relations are represented by objects with their own properties. We propose to define two types of properties: the first ones are concerned with relations as concepts while the second are concerned with relations as links betw...

  2. Impairments in Object Relations and Chronicity of Suicidal Behavior in Individuals With Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Lewis, Katie C; Meehan, Kevin B; Cain, Nicole M; Wong, Philip S; Clemence, A Jill; Stevens, Jennifer; Tillman, Jane G

    2016-02-01

    While studies have demonstrated connections between impairments in object relations and self-destructive behaviors in individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD), few have investigated whether these impairments relate to actual suicidal behaviors. The current study utilized the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale-Global Method to investigate object relational functioning and suicidal behaviors in 131 residential treatment patients. Cognitive but not affective aspects of internalized representations predicted past suicidal behavior in BPD subjects; no relationships were found between quality of object representations and suicide in other-PD subjects. Implications of these findings for research, theory, and treatment of suicidal individuals are discussed. PMID:25710732

  3. The influence of object relative size on priming and explicit memory.

    Bob Uttl

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of object relative size on priming and explicit memory for color photos of common objects. Participants were presented with color photos of pairs of objects displayed in either appropriate or inappropriate relative sizes. Implicit memory was assessed by speed of object size ratings whereas explicit memory was assessed by an old/new recognition test. Study-to-test changes in relative size reduced both priming and explicit memory and had large effects for objects displayed in large vs. small size at test. Our findings of substantial size-specific influences on priming with common objects under some but not other conditions are consistent with instance views of object perception and priming but inconsistent with structural description views.

  4. Representation of spatial relations and structures in object-based knowledge representation systems

    Le Ber, Florence; Napoli, Amedeo

    2000-01-01

    This paper is concerned with representing spatial structures in object-based knowledge representation systems (OKR systems). Spatial structures are defined as sets of objects related with qualitative spatial relations. We focus on topological relations from the RCC-8 theory, their recognition on raster images, and their reification in an OKR system. Spatial structures and relations have been implemented and used in a knowledge-based system for satellite image interpretation

  5. Annoying Danish Relatives

    Jensen de López, Kristine M.; Sundahl Olsen, Lone; Chondrigianni, V.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI...... production task, as well as on SRCs compared to ORCs and produced various avoidance strategies. In the ORC context, children with SLI produced more reversal errors than the AM children, who opted for passive ORCs. These results are discussed within current theories of SLI and indicate a deficiency with the...

  6. Object Persistency for HEP Data Using an Object—Relational Database

    MarcinNowak; DirkDuellmann; 等

    2001-01-01

    We present an initial study of the object features of Oracle 9i-the first of the market-leading object-relational database systems that supports a true object model on the server side as well as an ODMG-style C++ language binding on the client side.We discuss how these features can be used to provide persistent object storage in the HEP environment.

  7. Sensitivity to Relational Similarity and Object Similarity in Apes and Children.

    Christie, Stella; Gentner, Dedre; Call, Josep; Haun, Daniel Benjamin Moritz

    2016-02-22

    Relational reasoning is a hallmark of sophisticated cognition in humans [1, 2]. Does it exist in other primates? Despite some affirmative answers [3-11], there appears to be a wide gap in relational ability between humans and other primates-even other apes [1, 2]. Here, we test one possible explanation for this gap, motivated by developmental research showing that young humans often fail at relational reasoning tasks because they focus on objects instead of relations [12-14]. When asked, "duck:duckling is like tiger:?," preschool children choose another duckling (object match) rather than a cub. If other apes share this focus on concrete objects, it could undermine their relational reasoning in similar ways. To test this, we compared great apes and 3-year-old humans' relational reasoning on the same spatial mapping task, with and without competing object matches. Without competing object matches, both children and Pan species (chimpanzees and bonobos) spontaneously used relational similarity, albeit children more so. But when object matches were present, only children responded strongly to them. We conclude that the relational gap is not due to great apes' preference for concrete objects. In fact, young humans show greater object focus than nonhuman apes. PMID:26853364

  8. 48 CFR 4.303 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... MATTERS Paper Documents 4.303 Contract clause. Insert the clause at 52.204-4, Printed or Copied Double-Sided on Recycled Paper, in solicitations and contracts that exceed the simplified acquisition threshold....

  9. 48 CFR 1632.617 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Debts 1632.617 Contract clause. The clause at (FAR) 48 CFR 52.232-17 will be modified in all FEHBP...

  10. 48 CFR 3009.171-9 - Clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... Contractors 3009.171-9 Clause. Insert the clause (HSAR) 48 CFR 3052.209-76, Prohibition on Federal Protective Service guard services contracts with business concerns owned, controlled, or operated by an...

  11. 48 CFR 3019.708 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 3019.708... ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS The Small Business Subcontracting Program 3019.708 Contract clauses....

  12. 48 CFR 16.307 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... commercial item) is contemplated. If the contract is with an educational institution, modify the clause by... AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 16.307 Contract clauses. (a)(1)...

  13. 48 CFR 3.1004 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 3.1004 Contract clauses. (a) Insert the clause at FAR 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and...

  14. MANDATORY CLAUSES IN MEDIATION CONTRACTS

    VERONICA STOICA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The mediation contract – a contract by which conflicting parties agree, in conjunction with a mediator, upon conflict resolve in an amiable manner through the agency of mediation, under due efforts on the mediator’s part, in exchange for payment of a fee by the parties – must contain a set of mandatory clauses in compliance with legal provisions, Article 45 of Law no. 192/2006. In the absence of one of said clauses, sanction by absolute annulment is imposed.

  15. 48 CFR 904.7201 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 904.7201... MATTERS Public Affairs 904.7201 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 952.204-75, Public Affairs, in solicitations and contracts that require the contractor to...

  16. 48 CFR 871.212 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 871.212... Rehabilitation and Employment Service 871.212 Contract clauses. Contracting officers must use the following clauses, as appropriate, in solicitations and contracts for vocational rehabilitation and...

  17. 48 CFR 1339.107 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1339.107... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 1339.107 Contract clauses. Insert clause 1352.239-70, Software License Addendum, in all contracts when the primary purpose is to purchase new software...

  18. 48 CFR 1346.710 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1346.710 Section 1346.710 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 1346.710 Contract clauses. The warranty clauses and alternates under FAR Subpart...

  19. 48 CFR 923.103 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 923.103... Contract clauses. Insert the clause at 952.223-78, Sustainable Acquisition Program, or its Alternate I, in all contracts under which the contractor operates Government-owned facilities or...

  20. 48 CFR 846.710 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 846.710 Section 846.710 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 846.710 Contract clauses. The contracting officer shall insert the clause...

  1. 48 CFR 923.903 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 923.903... Environmental Management Systems § 923.903 Contract clause. The FAR Environmental Management Systems clause at 52.223-XX should be used in contracts where the contractor operates a DOE site or portion...

  2. 48 CFR 53.111 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 53.111... AND FORMS FORMS General 53.111 Contract clause. Contracting officers shall insert the clause at 52.253-1, Computer Generated Forms, in solicitations and contracts that require the contractor to...

  3. 48 CFR 811.503 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 811.503... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Liquidated Damages 811.503 Contract clause. When the contracting... contracting officer must include the clause in 852.211-74, Liquidated damages, in the contract....

  4. 48 CFR 903.971 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 903.971... Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 952.203-70, Whistleblower Protection for Contractor Employees, in contracts that involve work to be done on behalf of DOE directly...

  5. 48 CFR 837.403 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 837.403... OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Nonpersonal Health Care Services 837.403 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.237-7, Indemnification and medical liability insurance,...

  6. 48 CFR 822.305 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 822.305... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act 822.305 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.222-70, Contract...

  7. 48 CFR 19.1407 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 19.1407... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned Small Business Procurement Program 19.1407 Contract clauses. The contracting officer shall insert the clause 52.219-27, Notice of Total...

  8. 48 CFR 19.1104 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 19.1104... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Price Evaluation Adjustment for Small Disadvantaged Business Concerns 19.1104 Contract clause. Insert the clause at 52.219-23, Notice of Price Evaluation Adjustment for...

  9. 48 CFR 819.7009 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 819.7009... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned and Veteran-Owned Small Business Acquisition Program 819.7009 Contract clauses. The contracting officer shall insert VAAR clause...

  10. 48 CFR 219.708 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS The Small Business Subcontracting Program 219.708 Contract clauses. (b)(1)(A) Use the clause at 252.219-7003, Small Business Subcontracting Plan... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses....

  11. 48 CFR 2103.571 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Other Improper Business Practices 2103.571 Contract clause. The clause at 2152.203-70... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract clause....

  12. 48 CFR 819.709 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS The Small Business Subcontracting Program 819.709 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert VAAR clause 852.219-9, Small Business Subcontracting Plan Minimum... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause....

  13. 48 CFR 803.7001 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 803.7001... BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Responsibility to Avoid Improper Business Practices 803.7001 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.203-71,...

  14. 48 CFR 19.1308 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 19.1308... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Historically Underutilized Business Zone (HUBZone) Program 19.1308 Contract clauses. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause 52.219-3, Notice of Total HUBZone...

  15. 78 FR 48404 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Contract Financing...

    2013-08-08

    ... Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates--Contract Financing (DFARS Case 2013-D014) AGENCY: Defense... prescription for the set of contract financing related clauses with one or more alternates. The rule also... your name, company name (if any), and ``DFARS Case 2013-D014'' on your attached document. Email:...

  16. Penalty Clauses and the CISG

    Jack Graves

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Commercial agreements often provide for “fixed sums” payable upon a specified breach. Such agreements are generally enforced in civil law jurisdictions. In contrast, the common law distinguishes between “liquidated damages” and “penalty” clauses, enforcing the former, while invalidating the latter as a penalty. The UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG does not directly address the payment of “fixed sums” as damages, and the validity of “penalty” clauses has, traditionally, been relegated to otherwise applicable domestic national law under CISG Article 4. This traditional orthodoxy has recently been challenged—suggesting that the fate of a penalty clause should be determined by reference to the general principles of the CISG and that such a clause should generally be enforced. The validity of fixed sums, as penalties, is currently under consideration by the CISG Advisory Council, so further exploration of the issue would seem particularly timely. This article examines the basis for the traditional view, along with two distinct challenges to that view—ultimately concluding that these challenges fail to support their respective solutions to the issue and suggesting the continuing vitality of the traditional view.

  17. Event-related potentials during word mapping to object shape predict toddlers’ vocabulary size

    Kristina eBorgström

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available What role does attention to different object properties play in early vocabulary development? This longitudinal study using event-related potentials in combination with behavioral measures investigated 20- and 24-month-olds’ (n = 38; n = 34; overlapping n = 24 ability to use object shape and object part information in word-object mapping. The N400 component was used to measure semantic priming by images containing shape or detail information. At 20 months, the N400 to words primed by object shape varied in topography and amplitude depending on vocabulary size, and these differences predicted productive vocabulary size at 24 months. At 24 months, when most of the children had vocabularies of several hundred words, the relation between vocabulary size and the N400 effect in a shape context was weaker. Detached object parts did not function as word primes regardless of age or vocabulary size, although the part-objects were identified behaviorally. The behavioral measure, however, also showed relatively poor recognition of the part-objects compared to the shape-objects. These three findings provide new support for the link between shape recognition and early vocabulary development.

  18. Constraint Specialisation in Horn Clause Verification

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query-answer transformation of a given set of clauses and a goal. The effect is to propagate the constraints from the goal top-down and...... propagate answer constraints bottom-up. Our approach does not unfold the clauses at all; we use the constraints from the model to compute a specialised version of each clause in the program. The approach is independent of the abstract domain and the constraints theory underlying the clauses. Experimental...

  19. Simple Ontology of Manipulation Actions based on Hand-Object Relations

    Wörgötter, Florentin; Aksoy, E. E.; Krüger, Norbert;

    2013-01-01

    and time. For this we use as temporal anchor points those moments where two objects (or hand and object) touch or un-touch each other during a manipulation. We show that by this one can define a relatively small tree-like manipulation ontology. We find less than 30 fundamental manipulations. The temporal...

  20. Drawing skill is related to the efficiency of encoding object structure.

    Perdreau, Florian; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Accurate drawing calls on many skills beyond simple motor coordination. A good internal representation of the target object's structure is necessary to capture its proportion and shape in the drawing. Here, we assess two aspects of the perception of object structure and relate them to participants' drawing accuracy. First, we assessed drawing accuracy by computing the geometrical dissimilarity of their drawing to the target object. We then used two tasks to evaluate the efficiency of encoding object structure. First, to examine the rate of temporal encoding, we varied presentation duration of a possible versus impossible test object in the fovea using two different test sizes (8° and 28°). More skilled participants were faster at encoding an object's structure, but this difference was not affected by image size. A control experiment showed that participants skilled in drawing did not have a general advantage that might have explained their faster processing for object structure. Second, to measure the critical image size for accurate classification in the periphery, we varied image size with possible versus impossible object tests centered at two different eccentricities (3° and 8°). More skilled participants were able to categorise object structure at smaller sizes, and this advantage did not change with eccentricity. A control experiment showed that the result could not be attributed to differences in visual acuity, leaving attentional resolution as a possible explanation. Overall, we conclude that drawing accuracy is related to faster encoding of object structure and better access to crowded details. PMID:25469216

  1. Drawing skill is related to the efficiency of encoding object structure

    Perdreau, Florian; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Accurate drawing calls on many skills beyond simple motor coordination. A good internal representation of the target object's structure is necessary to capture its proportion and shape in the drawing. Here, we assess two aspects of the perception of object structure and relate them to participants' drawing accuracy. First, we assessed drawing accuracy by computing the geometrical dissimilarity of their drawing to the target object. We then used two tasks to evaluate the efficiency of encoding object structure. First, to examine the rate of temporal encoding, we varied presentation duration of a possible versus impossible test object in the fovea using two different test sizes (8° and 28°). More skilled participants were faster at encoding an object's structure, but this difference was not affected by image size. A control experiment showed that participants skilled in drawing did not have a general advantage that might have explained their faster processing for object structure. Second, to measure the critical image size for accurate classification in the periphery, we varied image size with possible versus impossible object tests centered at two different eccentricities (3° and 8°). More skilled participants were able to categorise object structure at smaller sizes, and this advantage did not change with eccentricity. A control experiment showed that the result could not be attributed to differences in visual acuity, leaving attentional resolution as a possible explanation. Overall, we conclude that drawing accuracy is related to faster encoding of object structure and better access to crowded details. PMID:25469216

  2. An Approach to Reasoning Topological Relations Between Areal Objects Under Randomness

    DENG Min; ZHANG Xuesong; LIU Wenbao

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the geometric and statistical properties of areal object under randomness. In order to describe formally such a uncertain topological relation, a new formal model (I.e. 4ID model) is proposed. On the basis of this, the effects of positional uncertainty on topological relations between areal objects are investigated in detail. Some possibility functions for the determination of relations are constructed based on the assumption that randomness of point location complies with a normal distribution, and the concept of uncertain sets of topological relations under randomness is introduced.

  3. Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the safeguard clause notified by Greece on genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request of the European Commission, the European Food Safety Authority’s Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (EFSA GMO Panel evaluated the documentation submitted by Greece in support of its request for the prohibition of the placing on the market of the genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC. The EFSA GMO Panel notes that the majority of the publications referred to by Greece were already addressed by the EFSA GMO Panel in previous scientific outputs on maize MON 810 or other related insect-resistant genetically modified maize transformation events. In the remaining evidence provided by Greece, the EFSA GMO Panel could not identify any new data subject to scientific scrutiny or scientific information that would invalidate its previous risk assessments of maize MON 810. With regard to issues related to management and monitoring of maize MON 810, the EFSA GMO Panel refers to its recent recommendations for management and monitoring measures of maize MON 810. In conclusion, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that, based on the documentation submitted by Greece, there is no specific scientific evidence, in terms of risk to human and animal health or the environment, that would support the notification of a safeguard clause under Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC and that would invalidate the GMO Panel’s previous risk assessments of maize MON 810.

  4. The art of anger: reward context turns avoidance responses to anger-related objects into approach.

    Aarts, Henk; Ruys, Kirsten I; Veling, Harm; Renes, Robert A; de Groot, Jasper H B; van Nunen, Anna M; Geertjes, Sarit

    2010-10-01

    Anger has a special status among the emotions in that it can elicit avoidance as well as approach motivation. This study tested the ignored role of reward context in potentiating approach rather than avoidance responses toward objects associated with anger. In Experiment 1, angry and neutral facial expressions were parafoveally paired with common objects, and responses to the objects were assessed by subjective reports of motivation to obtain them. In Experiment 2, objects were again paired with angry or neutral faces outside of participants' awareness, and responses toward the objects were indexed by physical effort expended in attempting to win them. Results showed that approach motivation toward anger-related objects can be observed when responding is framed in terms of rewards that one can obtain, whereas avoidance motivation occurs in the absence of such a reward context. These findings point to the importance of a reward context in modulating people's responses to anger. PMID:20855898

  5. The Event as an Object-Relational Database: Avoiding the Dependency Nightmare

    Jones, C D

    2003-01-01

    With the use of object-oriented languages for HEP, many experiments have designed their data objects to contain direct references to other objects in the event (e.g., tracks and electromagnetic showers have references to each other to denote matches). Unfortunately this creates tremendous dependencies between packages which lead to brittle development systems (e.g., if the electromagnetic code has a problem you may not be able to compile the tracking code) and makes the storage system more complex. We discuss how the CLEO III experiment avoided these problems by treating an event as an object-relational database. The discussion will include: the constraints we placed on our objects; our use of a separate Association class to deal with inter-object references; and our ability to use multiple sources to supply different data items for one event.

  6. Objective Measures of Emotion Related to Brand Attitude: A New Way to Quantify Emotion-Related Aspects Relevant to Marketing

    Walla, Peter; Brenner, Gerhard; Koller, Monika

    2011-01-01

    With this study we wanted to test the hypothesis that individual like and dislike as occurring in relation to brand attitude can be objectively assessed. First, individuals rated common brands with respect to subjective preference. Then, they volunteered in an experiment during which their most liked and disliked brand names were visually presented while three different objective measures were taken. Participant's eye blinks as responses to acoustic startle probes were registered with electro...

  7. Hydrodynamic Interactions between Two Forced Objects of Arbitrary Shape: II Relative Translation

    Goldfriend, Tomer; Witten, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    We study the relative translation of two arbitrarily shaped objects, caused by their hydrodynamic interaction as they are forced through a viscous fluid in the limit of zero Reynolds number. It is well known that in the case of two rigid spheres in an unbounded fluid, the hydrodynamic interaction does not produce relative translation. More generally such an effective pair-interaction vanishes in configurations with spatial inversion symmetry, for example, an enantiomorphic pair in mirror image positions has no relative translation. We show that the breaking of inversion symmetry by boundaries of the system accounts for the interactions between two spheres in confined geometries, as observed in experiments. The same general principle also provides new predictions for interactions in other object configurations near obstacles. We examine the time-dependent relative translation of two self-aligning objects, extending the numerical analysis of our preceding publication [Goldfriend, Diamant and Witten, arXiv:1502....

  8. THE RELATIVE-PROFIT-MAXIMIZATION OBJECTIVE OF PRIVATE FIRMS AND ENDOGENOUS TIMING IN A MIXED OLIGOPOLY

    YUANZHU LU

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates whether the relative-profit-maximization objective of private firms affects endogenous timing in a mixed oligopoly in the linear demand case. Assuming firms have constant marginal costs and symmetric private firms are more efficient than the public firm, it is found that such an objective does not affect endogenous timing compared with the absolute-profit-maximization case. When the equilibrium involves the public firm acting as a leader, social welfare increases compa...

  9. The k0 and relative INAA methods to determine elements in entire archaeological pottery objects

    The advantages of instrumental neutron activation analysis applied to archaeological ceramics have been enhanced through the analysis of entire objects, using both the k 0 method and the relative method, respectively, to determine the concentrations of chemical elements in aliquots of replicate objects used as comparators and in the sample object. Twenty-two chemical elements of archaeological importance were measured in mud figurines from Caral civilization (5000 year BC), irradiated inside a well-characterized radial channel facility of the nuclear research reactor at IPEN, Peru. The results showed less than 10 % of bias for most of the elements. (author)

  10. Multi-View Object Recognition using View-Point Invariant Shape Relations and Appearance Information

    Mustafa, W.; Pugeault, N; Krueger, N

    2013-01-01

    We present an object recognition system coding shape by view-point invariant geometric relations and appearance. In our intelligent work-cell, the system can observe the work space of the robot by 3 pairs of Kinect and stereo cameras allowing for reliable and complete object information. We show that in such a set-up we can achieve high performance already with a low number of training samples. We show this by training the system to classify 56 objects using Random Forest algorithm. This indi...

  11. 48 CFR 570.601 - FAR provisions and clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FAR provisions and clauses... Clauses 570.601 FAR provisions and clauses. Include provisions or clauses substantially the same as the following FAR provisions and clauses. If . . . Then include . . . (a) the estimated value of the...

  12. Comparative performance measures of relational and object-oriented databases using High Energy Physics data

    The major experiments at the SSC are expected to produce up to 1 Petabyte of data per year. The use of database techniques can significantly reduce the time it takes to access data. The goal of this project was to test which underlying data model, the relational or the object-oriented, would be better suited for archival and accessing high energy data. We describe the relational and the object-oriented data model and their implementation in commercial database management systems. To determine scalability we tested both implementations for 10-MB and 100-MB databases using storage and timing criteria

  13. Object relations of sexually and physically abused female children: a TAT analysis.

    Ornduff, S R; Kelsey, R M

    1996-02-01

    Selected Thematic Apperception Test (Murray, 1943) stories of 17 sexually abused, 15 physically abused, and 15 nonabused but distressed clinical comparison subjects were analyzed using the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scales (Westen, Lohr, Silk, Kerber, & Goodrich, 1985). Results revealed significant differences in overall object relations between the abused and nonabused children both on mean scores, reflecting lower levels of typical functioning, and on frequency of Level 1 scores, indicating a propensity for more grossly pathological functioning. Further comparisons between sexual and physical abuse victims revealed differential impairments in the capacity to invest in relationships and moral standards. Diagnostic and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:8576838

  14. Network Analysis Modeling Towards GIS Based on Object-Relation Database

    YUE Peng; WANG Yandong; GONG Jianya; HUANG Xianfeng

    2004-01-01

    This paper compares the differences between the mathematical model in graph theory and GIS network analysis model. Thus it claims that the GIS network analysis model needs to solve. Then this paper introduces the spatial data management methods in object-relation database for GIS and discusses its effects on the network analysis model. Finally it puts forward the GIS network analysis model based on the object-relation database. The structure of the model is introduced in detail and research is done to the internal and external memory data structure of the model. The results show that it performs well in practice.

  15. Santa Claus, Ga./Ind.

    2002-01-01

    The towns of Santa Claus, Ga., (top) and Santa Claus, Ind. (bottom), are shown in these two images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite. They are the only two Santa Claus towns in the United States with post offices and zip codes, although there are 11 towns with this name in the United States. Santa Claus, Ga. is located in Toombs County, and has a population of 237. Santa Claus, Ind. is located in Spencer County, and has a population of 2,041. Its name was accepted by the United States Postal Service in 1856. The images were acquired on July 3, 2000 (top) and June 16, 2001 (bottom), respectively.With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long

  16. Revisiting Clause Exchange in Parallel SAT Solving

    Audemard, Gilles; Hoessen, Benoît; Jabbour, Said; Lagniez, Jean-Marie; Piette, Cédric

    2012-01-01

    Managing learnt clause database is known to be a tricky task in SAT solvers. In the portfolio framework, the collaboration between threads through learnt clause exchange makes this problem even more difficult to tackle. Several techniques have been proposed in the last few years, but practical results are still in favor of very limited collaboration, or even no collaboration at all. This is mainly due to the difficulty that each thread has to manage a large amount of learnt clauses generated ...

  17. AMERINDIAN RELATIONAL OBJECTS: THE (INVISIBILITY OF KADIWÉU INDIANS ART IN A BRAZILIAN SOAP OPERA

    Lisiane Koller Lecznieski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the role of ceramics in Kadiwéu social life. The Kadiwéu are Amerindians who live in the southern part of Pantanal Matogrossense, Brazil. The relations between art and social world will be described and analyzed through ethnographic examples, showing how the Kadiwéu understand their ceramic as a special way of relating to the external world, markedly the “world of the “whites”. This relational understanding of objects also points out, in a reflexive and critical manner, to crucial aspects of western conceptions of human relations.

  18. 21 CFR 26.21 - Safeguard clause.

    2010-04-01

    ... OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.21 Safeguard clause....

  19. Event-related potentials reveal increased distraction by salient global objects in older adults

    Wiegand, Iris; Finke, Kathrin; Töllner, Thomas;

    Age-related changes in visual functions influence how older individuals perceive and react upon objects in their environment. In particular, older individuals might be more distracted by highly salient, irrelevant information. Kanizsa figures induce a ‘global precedence’ effect, which reflects a ...... global-local asymmetries originates from early processing stages, where the dissociation of hierarchical levels is less distinct, and inhibition of the salient irrelevant global object information is less effective......Age-related changes in visual functions influence how older individuals perceive and react upon objects in their environment. In particular, older individuals might be more distracted by highly salient, irrelevant information. Kanizsa figures induce a ‘global precedence’ effect, which reflects a...... search. Older participants detected target stimuli slower and less accurate than younger participants did. ERPs indicated that the general performance decline originated at multiple stages within the information-processing stream, from sensory coding to spatial allocation of attention: The P1 was...

  20. Solving non-linear Horn clauses using a linear Horn clause solver

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick; Ganty, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we show that checking satisfiability of a set of non-linear Horn clauses (also called a non-linear Horn clause program) can be achieved using a solver for linear Horn clauses. We achieve this by interleaving a program transformation with a satisfiability checker for linear Horn...

  1. Shedding light on the relative DNA contribution of two persons handling the same object.

    Oldoni, F; Castella, V; Hall, D

    2016-09-01

    Traces collected on crime scene objects frequently result in challenging DNA mixtures from several contributors in different DNA proportions. Understanding how the relative proportion of DNA deposited by different persons who handled the same object evolves through time has important bearings. For instance, this information may help determine whether the major contributor in a mixed DNA profile is more likely to correspond to the object owner or to the person who may have stolen this object. In this perspective, a simulation-based protocol was designed where randomly paired participants were asked to act either as first (object owner) or second (last) users. The first user was asked to handle/wear 9 different plastic-, metal-, nitrile- and fabric-made objects, commonly found at burglary/robbery crime scenes, for a minimum of 20min during 8 or 10 consecutive days. The second user subsequently used them for 5, 30 or 120min in three distinct simulation sessions. The analysis of the relative DNA contribution on the resulting 234 mock DNA traces revealed a large variability in the contribution depending on the time, substrate and pairs of participants. Despite this, a progressive increase of the second user's DNA contribution, relative to the first user, was observed over time in 93% of the traces. The second user was shown to become the major contributor in approximately 15%, 33% and 55% of the traces recovered from objects used for 5, 30 and 120min, respectively. Single-source DNA profiles were shown to represent only 1% of the traces. In addition, the DNA profiles of 165 out of 234 (71%) simulated traces displayed extra alleles. Most of these occurred in the minor fraction of mixed DNA profiles and were interpreted as artefacts. Nevertheless, DNA profiles of known participants either involved or not in the simulations were observed in 9 cases (4%). This confirms that indirect DNA transfer should be taken into account when interpreting "touch" DNA evidence. PMID

  2. Semantic Relations between Visual Objects Can Be Unconsciously Processed but Not Reported under Change Blindness.

    Ball, Felix; Bernasconi, Fosco; Busch, Niko A

    2015-11-01

    Change blindness-the failure to detect changes in visual scenes-has often been interpreted as a result of impoverished visual information encoding or as a failure to compare the prechange and postchange scene. In the present electroencephalography study, we investigated whether semantic features of prechange and postchange information are processed unconsciously, even when observers are unaware that a change has occurred. We presented scenes composed of natural objects in which one object changed from one presentation to the next. Object changes were either semantically related (e.g., rail car changed to rail) or unrelated (e.g., rail car changed to sausage). Observers were first asked to detect whether any change had occurred and then to judge the semantic relation of the two objects involved in the change. We found a semantic mismatch ERP effect, that is, a more negative-going ERP for semantically unrelated compared to related changes, originating from a cortical network including the left middle temporal gyrus and occipital cortex and resembling the N400 effect, albeit at longer latencies. Importantly, this semantic mismatch effect persisted even when observers were unaware of the change and the semantic relationship of prechange and postchange object. This finding implies that change blindness does not preclude the encoding of the prechange and postchange objects' identities and possibly even the comparison of their semantic content. Thus, change blindness cannot be interpreted as resulting from impoverished or volatile visual representations or as a failure to process the prechange and postchange object. Instead, change detection appears to be limited at a later, postperceptual stage. PMID:26244723

  3. Managing XML Data to optimize Performance into Object-Relational Databases

    Iuliana BOTHA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper propose some possibilities for manage XML data in order to optimize performance into object-relational databases. It is detailed the possibility of storing XML data into such databases, using for exemplification an Oracle database and there are tested some optimizing techniques of the queries over XMLType tables, like indexing and partitioning tables.

  4. Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Development: Attention to Relations and Objects

    Kuwabara, Megumi; Smith, Linda B.

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates a suite of generalized differences in the attentional and cognitive processing of adults from Eastern and Western cultures. Cognition in Eastern adults is often more relational and in Western adults is more object focused. Three experiments examined whether these differences characterize the cognition of preschool…

  5. Humanoid infers Archimedes' principle: understanding physical relations and object affordances through cumulative learning experiences.

    Bhat, Ajaz Ahmad; Mohan, Vishwanathan; Sandini, Giulio; Morasso, Pietro

    2016-07-01

    Emerging studies indicate that several species such as corvids, apes and children solve 'The Crow and the Pitcher' task (from Aesop's Fables) in diverse conditions. Hidden beneath this fascinating paradigm is a fundamental question: by cumulatively interacting with different objects, how can an agent abstract the underlying cause-effect relations to predict and creatively exploit potential affordances of novel objects in the context of sought goals? Re-enacting this Aesop's Fable task on a humanoid within an open-ended 'learning-prediction-abstraction' loop, we address this problem and (i) present a brain-guided neural framework that emulates rapid one-shot encoding of ongoing experiences into a long-term memory and (ii) propose four task-agnostic learning rules (elimination, growth, uncertainty and status quo) that correlate predictions from remembered past experiences with the unfolding present situation to gradually abstract the underlying causal relations. Driven by the proposed architecture, the ensuing robot behaviours illustrated causal learning and anticipation similar to natural agents. Results further demonstrate that by cumulatively interacting with few objects, the predictions of the robot in case of novel objects converge close to the physical law, i.e. the Archimedes principle: this being independent of both the objects explored during learning and the order of their cumulative exploration. PMID:27466440

  6. Humanoid infers Archimedes' principle: understanding physical relations and object affordances through cumulative learning experiences

    2016-01-01

    Emerging studies indicate that several species such as corvids, apes and children solve ‘The Crow and the Pitcher’ task (from Aesop's Fables) in diverse conditions. Hidden beneath this fascinating paradigm is a fundamental question: by cumulatively interacting with different objects, how can an agent abstract the underlying cause–effect relations to predict and creatively exploit potential affordances of novel objects in the context of sought goals? Re-enacting this Aesop's Fable task on a humanoid within an open-ended ‘learning–prediction–abstraction’ loop, we address this problem and (i) present a brain-guided neural framework that emulates rapid one-shot encoding of ongoing experiences into a long-term memory and (ii) propose four task-agnostic learning rules (elimination, growth, uncertainty and status quo) that correlate predictions from remembered past experiences with the unfolding present situation to gradually abstract the underlying causal relations. Driven by the proposed architecture, the ensuing robot behaviours illustrated causal learning and anticipation similar to natural agents. Results further demonstrate that by cumulatively interacting with few objects, the predictions of the robot in case of novel objects converge close to the physical law, i.e. the Archimedes principle: this being independent of both the objects explored during learning and the order of their cumulative exploration. PMID:27466440

  7. Claus moleculars del plegament oxidatiu

    Ventura Zamora, Salvador

    2006-01-01

    Després de ser sintetitzades, les proteïnes es plegan per adquirir la seva funció. Encara que aquest procés, anomenat plegament oxidatiu, ha estat investigat en profunditat, s'havien descurat aspectes claus com són la termodinàmica o la predicció computacional. Investigadors de la UAB van desmuntar aquest puzle i de les seves conclusions es desprèn una teoria que unifica els estudis de plegament oxidatiu realitzats fins al moment.

  8. Santa Claus ’Names

    寒冰

    2005-01-01

    A ustria—Christkind Belgium and the N etherlands—N oel Saint Nicholas C hristkind and Black Pete Brazil—Papa;N oel D enm ark—Julinisse England—Father Christm as Finland—O ld M an C hristm asFrance—Pere N oel or le Petit Germ any—K riss Kringle Christkind or Saint N icholas Italy—B efana Japan—Santa K urohsu M exico—Three Kings Poland—Star M an or W ise M en Spain—Three Kings R ussia—B asbouschka ?Santa Claus ’Names@寒冰

  9. 48 CFR 732.111 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 732.111... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING General 732.111 Contract clauses. (a) (b) USAID may obtain short... indefinite quantity contracts that are a combination of contract types. Rather than using the...

  10. 48 CFR 716.406 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 716.406 Section 716.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost Reimbursement Contracts 716.406 Contract clauses....

  11. 48 CFR 1443.205 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1443.205 Section 1443.205 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT MODIFICATIONS Change Orders 1443.205 Contract clauses. BPCs may establish procedures,...

  12. 48 CFR 916.307 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 916.307 Section 916.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 916.307 Contract clauses. (g) Insert...

  13. 48 CFR 908.1104 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... leased over 60 days, except for those vehicles exempted by (FPMR) 41 CFR 101-38.6. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 908.1104... PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Leasing of Motor Vehicles 908.1104 Contract clauses....

  14. 48 CFR 1333.215 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1333.215 Section 1333.215 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PROTESTS, DISPUTES, AND APPEALS Disputes and Appeals 1333.215 Contract clauses. Alternate I of...

  15. 48 CFR 1433.215 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1433.215 Section 1433.215 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PROTESTS, DISPUTES, AND APPEALS Disputes and Appeals 1433.215 Contract clauses. The...

  16. 48 CFR 1345.107 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1345.107 Section 1345.107 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY General 1345.107 Contract clauses....

  17. 48 CFR 1416.405 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1416.405 Section 1416.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 1416.405 Contract clauses. The BPC, without the...

  18. 48 CFR 23.1005 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Federal Compliance With Right-To-Know Laws and Pollution Prevention Requirements 23.1005 Contract clause. (a) Insert the clause at 52.223-5, Pollution Prevention and...

  19. 48 CFR 811.404 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 811.404... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Delivery or Performance Schedules 811.404 Contract clause. When delivery is required by or on a particular date for f.o.b. destination contracts, the contracting...

  20. 48 CFR 704.404 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 704.404... ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Safeguarding Classified Information Within Industry 704.404 Contract clause. If the contract involves access to classified (“Confidential”, “Secret”, or “Top Secret”), or...

  1. 48 CFR 833.215 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 833.215 Section 833.215 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PROTESTS, DISPUTES, AND APPEALS Disputes and Appeals 833.215 Contract clause. The...

  2. 48 CFR 923.7003 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... contractor and subcontractor employees at such facility, the clause at 952.223-71, Integration of Environment... services; and (3) The facility is government-owned, or leased by or for the account of the government. (c... clause found at 952.223-71, Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Work Planning...

  3. 48 CFR 232.7004 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Electronic Submission and Processing of Payment Requests and Receiving Reports 232.7004 Contract clause. Except as provided in 232.7002(a... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause....

  4. 48 CFR 532.908 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 532.908... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Prompt Payment 532.908 Contract clauses. (a) GSA has a FAR deviation that... Information for Electronic Funds Transfer Payment; and (iii) For which the order is placed, and the...

  5. 48 CFR 538.273 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 538.273... Schedules 538.273 Contract clauses. (a) Multiple award schedules. Insert in solicitations and contracts: (1) 552.238-70, Identification of Electronic Office Equipment Providing Accessibility for the...

  6. 24 CFR 221.1 - Savings clause.

    2010-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES LOW COST AND MODERATE INCOME MORTGAGE INSURANCE-SAVINGS CLAUSE Eligibility Requirements-Low Cost Homes-Savings Clause § 221.1...) of the National Housing Act (12 U.S.C. 1715l(d)(2)) for low cost and moderate income...

  7. 48 CFR 937.7040 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Protective Services Contracting 937.7040 Contract clauses. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 952.237-70 entitled “Collective bargaining agreements—protective services” in all protective services solicitations and contracts involving DOE-owned facilities...

  8. 48 CFR 519.708 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 519.708 Section 519.708 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS The Small Business Subcontracting Program 519.708 Contract clauses....

  9. 48 CFR 1019.708 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1019.708 Section 1019.708 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS The Small Business Subcontracting Program 1019.708 Contract clauses....

  10. 48 CFR 19.708 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS The Small Business Subcontracting Program 19.708 Contract clauses. (a... affecting section 19.708, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses....

  11. 48 CFR 32.412 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 32.412 Section 32.412 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING... rapid liquidation appropriate, the contracting officer shall use the clause with its Alternate III....

  12. 48 CFR 222.7404 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... on the Use of Mandatory Arbitration Agreements 222.7404 Contract clause. Use the clause at 252.222-7006 Restrictions on the Use of Mandatory Arbitration Agreements, in all solicitations and contracts... commercial items, including commercially available off-the-shelf items....

  13. 48 CFR 23.602 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 23.602... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Notice of Radioactive Material 23.602 Contract clause. The contracting officer..., aircraft, ammunition, missiles, vehicles, electronic tubes, instrument panel gauges, compasses...

  14. 48 CFR 503.1004 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 503.1004 Section 503.1004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 503.1004 Contract clauses. (a) The...

  15. Evaluation of the therapeutic shifts on volounteers from the point of the object relations theory

    Leonida Kobal

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Society for voluntary work and psychosocial help Odmev (Echo organizes psychotherapeutic camps for children and adolescents with psychosocial problems. The team mainly consists of students of helping professions, who work in the role of helpers as volunteers. The research aim was to find out, what were the therapeutic effects of the camp on the volunteers on and after the camp. The sample contained 21 volunteers who joined the camp 2000. The therapeutic shifts were meassured by the Test of Object Relations (Žvelc, 1998b and half-structured interviews. The therapeutic shifts by the volunteers, which were interpreted in the frame of the Object Relations theory, have been shown in lower tendecy to fuse, lower separation anxiety, lower social isolation only soon after camp and in the tendency toward decreasing grandiosity and omnipotence after tree months.

  16. Implementation of the Multidimensional Modeling Concepts into Object-Relational Databases

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A key to survival in the business world is being able to analyze, plan and react to changing business conditions as fast as possible. With multidimensional models the managers can explore information at different levels of granularity and the decision makers at all levels can quickly respond to changes in the business climate-the ultimate goal of business intelligence. This paper focuses on the implementation of the multidimensional concepts into object-relational databases.

  17. Legislative versus Judiciary? The case of performance clause

    José Paulo Martins Junior; Emilie Kalyne Munhoz; Matheus Cavalcanti Pestana

    2014-01-01

    The relations between the powers tend to be conflictive. The institutional arrangements were built for the mutually control of the powers. Since 1988, the Judiciary has been interfering and making decisions in cases that impact in the electoral and party rules in Brazil, causing discomfort to the politicians. One case was a declaration of unconstitutionality of the performance clause, defined in the Article 13 of Law 9096/95. The aim of the paper is to investigate the relation between the jud...

  18. Reduced object related negativity response indicates impaired auditory scene analysis in adults with autistic spectrum disorder

    Veema Lodhia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Auditory Scene Analysis provides a useful framework for understanding atypical auditory perception in autism. Specifically, a failure to segregate the incoming acoustic energy into distinct auditory objects might explain the aversive reaction autistic individuals have to certain auditory stimuli or environments. Previous research with non-autistic participants has demonstrated the presence of an Object Related Negativity (ORN in the auditory event related potential that indexes pre-attentive processes associated with auditory scene analysis. Also evident is a later P400 component that is attention dependent and thought to be related to decision-making about auditory objects. We sought to determine whether there are differences between individuals with and without autism in the levels of processing indexed by these components. Electroencephalography (EEG was used to measure brain responses from a group of 16 autistic adults, and 16 age- and verbal-IQ-matched typically-developing adults. Auditory responses were elicited using lateralized dichotic pitch stimuli in which inter-aural timing differences create the illusory perception of a pitch that is spatially separated from a carrier noise stimulus. As in previous studies, control participants produced an ORN in response to the pitch stimuli. However, this component was significantly reduced in the participants with autism. In contrast, processing differences were not observed between the groups at the attention-dependent level (P400. These findings suggest that autistic individuals have difficulty segregating auditory stimuli into distinct auditory objects, and that this difficulty arises at an early pre-attentive level of processing.

  19. Prefrontal and striatal activity related to values of objects and locations

    DaeyeolLee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The value of an object acquired by a particular action often determines the motivation to produce that action. Previous studies found neural signals related to the values of different objects or goods in the orbitofrontal cortex, while the values of outcomes expected from different actions are broadly represented in multiple brain areas implicated in movement planning. However, how the brain combines the values associated with various objects and the information about their locations is not known. In this study, we tested whether the neurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and striatum in rhesus monkeys might contribute to translating the value signals between multiple frames of reference. Monkeys were trained to perform an oculomotor intertemporal choice in which the color of a saccade target and the number of its surrounding dots signaled the magnitude of reward and its delay, respectively. In both DLPFC and striatum, temporally discounted values associated with specific target colors and locations were encoded by partially overlapping populations of neurons. In the DLPFC, the information about reward delays and temporally discounted values of rewards available from specific target locations emerged earlier than the corresponding signals for target colors. Similar results were reproduced by a simple network model built to compute temporally discounted values of rewards in different locations. Therefore, DLPFC might play an important role in estimating the values of different actions by combining the previously learned values of objects and their present locations.

  20. The Role of Objective Numeracy and Fluid Intelligence in Sex-Related Protective Behaviors.

    Dieckmann, Nathan F; Peters, Ellen; Leon, Juan; Benavides, Martin; Baker, David P; Norris, Alison

    2015-01-01

    A wealth of studies has indicated that greater cognitive ability is related to healthier behaviors and outcomes throughout the lifespan. In the present paper, we focus on objective numeracy (ability with numbers) and present findings from a study conducted in the Peruvian Highlands that examines the relations among formal education, numeracy, other more general cognitive skills, and a sex-related protective behavior (condom use). Our results show a potential unique protective effect of numeracy on this healthprotective behavior even after accounting for measures of fluid intelligence and potential confounding factors. These results add to a growing literature highlighting the robust protective effect on health behaviors of greater cognitive skills that are enhanced through schooling. Challenges for future research will be identifying the causal mechanisms that underlie these effects and translating this knowledge into effective interventions for improving health. PMID:26149157

  1. Grey Relational Analyses for Multi-Objective Optimization of Turning S45C Carbon Steel

    Shah, A. H. A.; Azmi, A. I.; Khalil, A. N. M.

    2016-02-01

    The optimization of performance characteristics in turning process can be achieved through selection of proper machining parameters. It is well known that many researchers have successfully reported the optimization of single performance characteristic. Nevertheless, the multi-objective optimization can be difficult and challenging to be studied due to its complexity in analysis. This is because an improvement of one performance characteristic may lead to degradation of other performance characteristic. As a result, the study of multi-objective optimization in CNC turning of S45C carbon steel has been attempted in this paper through Taguchi and Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) method. Through this methodology, the multiple performance characteristics, namely; surface roughness, material removal rate (MRR), tool wear, and power consumption; can be optimized simultaneously. It appears from the experimental results that the multiple performance characteristics in CNC turning was achieved and improved through the methodology employed.

  2. Object relations and transference in the group treatment of incest offenders.

    Stukenberg, K W

    2001-01-01

    After reviewing the literature on sex offenders-a literature largely devoted to behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, and relapse-prevention approaches to treatment-the author proposes that an object-relational group psychotherapy treatment has a great deal to offer in the treatment of incest offenders. The author describes the parameters that distinguish group treatment of incest offenders from other object-relational group treatments. These parameters are largely related to the legally mandated nature of the treatment. The reality of enforced treatment and the very real influence treaters have on the lives of their patients supports a particular and salient transferential experience of the therapist as an authority figure who is generally also seen as harsh and arbitrary. Clinical case material clarifies how both overidentification with, and avoidance of, this authority figure role can derail treatment. The author concludes that there is potential for exploiting the reality-based treatment parameters with this population to help develop a treatment alliance that can be a powerful and effective treatment tool. PMID:11761493

  3. Clause Combining in Otomi before and after contact with Spanish

    Dik Bakker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, we explore two hypotheses with respect to clause combining. The first one is the assumption that languages with a mainly spoken tradition explicitly code clause relations, both coordination and subordination, to a lesser extent than languages with a long written tradition. And secondly, in case of contact between two such languages, with the latter one in a dominant position, and a sufficient level of bilingualism, we expect the former to borrow both types of relators, and increase the amount of explicit coding. We will investigate our hypotheses on the basis of Otomi, a native language from Mexico, and Spanish, the colonial language which became the official language of that country after its independence.

  4. Age-related maculopathy and sunlight exposure evaluated by objective measurement

    Hirakawa, M.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, Y.; Okubo, A; Koriyama, C; Tsuji, M; Akiba, S; Miyamoto, K; Hillebrand, G.; Yamashita, T; Sakamoto, T

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To study the relationship between age-related maculopathy (ARM) and exposure to sunlight using an objective method. Methods: In a case–control study of Japanese men aged ⩾50 years (67 controls without ophthalmic disease and 148 with ARM), those with ARM were separated into groups of early (n = 75) and late (n = 73) ARM. Facial wrinkle length and area of hyperpigmentation, which are considered to be associated with exposure to sun, were measured using imaging with computer-based image ana...

  5. Field-Testing Reusable Learning Objects Related to Sensory Over-Responsiveness

    Bryan M. Gee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is an increased need for dynamic, mobile, and relevant parent and caregiver education related to autism spectrum disorders (ASD and Sensory Processing (SP. This need may be due to the increased incidence of the conditions’ co-morbidity and the revision of the diagnostic criteria of ASD. Reusable learning objects (RLOs have been implemented as instructional tools as a part of, or adjunct to, formal health care education programs. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the appropriateness of RLOs as a part of routine patient and caregiver instruction of children with ASD. Method. A semi-structured interview/rating scale was implemented among three practicing occupational therapists to ascertain their opinions regarding six prototype RLOs related to sensory processing for caregivers of children with ASD. Results. The participants’ perspectives revealed that the SP-based prototype RLOs were a viable and valuable option to be included as a resource for parents and caregivers of children with ASD. Conclusion. The findings of this study suggest that RLOs related to SP were valuable, especially related to their subject matter, accessibility, and reusability. Furthermore, the participants indirectly identified the strengths related to the foundational concepts of RLOs and how they could be applied to other therapeutic and behavioral topics for parents and caregivers of children with ASD.

  6. LIDAR-based relative navigation with respect to non-cooperative objects

    Woods, John O.; Christian, John A.

    2016-09-01

    Most navigation solutions which make use of LIDAR for proximity operations with respect to non-cooperative objects rely on the iterative closest point, or ICP, algorithm. For correct convergence, ICP requires a good initial guess as to the 6 degree-of-freedom relative pose of a client object. Some solutions require manual pose initialization; and template matching - refined by ICP - was recently demonstrated as an automated solution for initialization. Additionally, some have used the output of one ICP iteration as the initial guess for the next, which is inherently dangerous (since bad ICP poses are propagated forward in time by the filter, by ICP, or by both; and because it introduces measurement errors that are correlated with the a priori state errors). We demonstrate the use of a method borrowed from personal robotics, OUR-CVFH (for Oriented, Unique, and Repeatable Clustered Viewpoint Feature Histograms), for rendezvous with a tumbling object in low earth orbit as well as an asteroid in a heliocentric orbit. Our strategy requires no initial pose estimate, and refines OUR-CVFH results with ICP; we demonstrate its utility as part of a full navigation solution with a dual-state inertial extended Kalman filter.

  7. A Comparative Study Between the Performance of Relational & Object Oriented Database in Data Warehousing

    Pushpa Suri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A data warehouse is a repository of subjectively selected and adapted operational data which cansuccessfully answer any ad hoc, statistical, complex or analytical queries. Data warehousing technology isbecoming essential for effective business intelligence, business strategy formulation and implementation ina globally competitive environment where in larger and larger amounts of data are required to beprocessed faster and faster for comprehension of its real meaning and impact. A warehouse is a subjectoriented,integrated, time-variant and non-volatile collection of data in support of management's decisionmaking process”. Data that gives information about a particular subject instead of about a company'songoing operations. It is integrated as data that is gathered into the data warehouse from a variety ofsources and merged into a coherent whole. Data warehouse system is time variant as all data in the datawarehouse is identified with a particular time period This paper discusses in detail two existing databasemodels used for data warehousing, the relational database and object oriented database and does ananalysis of the benefits of Object Oriented databases over the conventional relational database in Datawarehousing.

  8. The Information Structure of Adverbial Clauses in Chinese Discourse

    Yu-Fang Wang

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated adverbial clauses in spoken as well as written Chinese discourse. The adverbial clauses in the spoken data were categorized into (i) initial clauses that occur in the initial position with respect to their linked material across continuing intonation, (ii) final clauses that occur in the final position with respect to their linked material across continuing intonation, and (iii) final clauses that occur in the final position with respect to their linked material across...

  9. 48 CFR 2432.908 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... commercial services awarded pursuant to FAR part 12. (2) The Contracting Officer shall insert a clause...-reimbursement type solicitations and contracts when vouchers are to be sent directly to the paying office....

  10. A Deductive Database Approach for Complex Objects

    陈其明

    1990-01-01

    A deductive database approach for complex objects reasoning is proposed,which is characterized by handling predicates nesting in terms of mapping hierarchically structured rules and facts to a flattened Horn-clause implementation scheme.

  11. Pose Performance of LIDAR-Based Relative Navigation for Non-Cooperative Objects

    Sell, Jordan L.

    Flash LIDAR is an important new sensing technology for relative navigation; these sensors have shown promising results during rendezvous and docking applications involving a cooperative vehicle. An area of recent interest is the application of this technology for pose estimation with non-cooperative client vehicles, in support of on-orbit satellite servicing activities and asteroid redirect missions. The capability for autonomous rendezvous with non-cooperative satellites will enable refueling and servicing of satellites (particularly those designed without servicing in mind), allowing these vehicles to continue operating rather than being retired. Rendezvous with an asteroid will give further insight to the origin of individual asteroids. This research investigates numerous issues surrounding pose performance using LIDAR. To begin analyzing the characteristics of the data produced by Flash LIDAR, simulated and laboratory testing have been completed. Observations of common asteroid materials were made with a surrogate LIDAR, characterizing the reflectivity of the materials. A custom Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm was created to estimate the relative position and orientation of the LIDAR relative to the observed object. The performance of standardized pose estimation techniques (including ICP) has been examined using non-cooperative data as well as the characteristics of the materials that will potentially be observed during missions. For the hardware tests, a SwissRanger ToF camera was used as a surrogate Flash LIDAR.

  12. Age-related impairments in object-place associations are not due to hippocampal dysfunction.

    Hernandez, Abigail R; Maurer, Andrew P; Reasor, Jordan E; Turner, Sean M; Barthle, Sarah E; Johnson, Sarah A; Burke, Sara N

    2015-10-01

    Age-associated cognitive decline can reduce an individual's quality of life. As no single neurobiological deficit can account for the wide spectrum of behavioral impairments observed in old age, it is critical to develop an understanding of how interactions between different brain regions change over the life span. The performance of young and aged animals on behaviors that require the hippocampus and cortical regions to interact, however, has not been well characterized. Specifically, the ability to link a spatial location with specific features of a stimulus, such as object identity, relies on the hippocampus, perirhinal and prefrontal cortices. Although aging is associated with dysfunction in each of these brain regions, behavioral measures of functional change within the hippocampus, perirhinal and prefrontal cortices in individual animals are often not correlated. Thus, how dysfunction of a single brain region within this circuit, such as the hippocampus, impacts behaviors that require communication with the perirhinal and prefrontal cortices remains unknown. To address this question, young and aged rats were tested on the interregion dependent object-place paired association task, as well as a hippocampal-dependent test of spatial reference memory. This particular cohort of aged rats did not show deficits on the hippocampal-dependent task, but were significantly impaired at acquiring object-place associations relative to young. These data suggest that behaviors requiring functional connectivity across different regions of the memory network may be particularly sensitive to aging, and can be used to develop models that will clarify the impact of systems-level dysfunction in the elderly. PMID:26413723

  13. Multi-objective optimal experimental designs for event-related fMRI studies.

    Kao, Ming-Hung; Mandal, Abhyuday; Lazar, Nicole; Stufken, John

    2009-02-01

    In this article, we propose an efficient approach to find optimal experimental designs for event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (ER-fMRI). We consider multiple objectives, including estimating the hemodynamic response function (HRF), detecting activation, circumventing psychological confounds and fulfilling customized requirements. Taking into account these goals, we formulate a family of multi-objective design criteria and develop a genetic-algorithm-based technique to search for optimal designs. Our proposed technique incorporates existing knowledge about the performance of fMRI designs, and its usefulness is shown through simulations. Although our approach also works for other linear combinations of parameters, we primarily focus on the case when the interest lies either in the individual stimulus effects or in pairwise contrasts between stimulus types. Under either of these popular cases, our algorithm outperforms the previous approaches. We also find designs yielding higher estimation efficiencies than m-sequences. When the underlying model is with white noise and a constant nuisance parameter, the stimulus frequencies of the designs we obtained are in good agreement with the optimal stimulus frequencies derived by Liu and Frank, 2004, NeuroImage 21: 387-400. In addition, our approach is built upon a rigorous model formulation. PMID:18948212

  14. An Object-Relational Ifc Storage Model Based on Oracle Database

    Li, Hang; Liu, Hua; Liu, Yong; Wang, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    With the building models are getting increasingly complicated, the levels of collaboration across professionals attract more attention in the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry. In order to adapt the change, buildingSMART developed Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) to facilitate the interoperability between software platforms. However, IFC data are currently shared in the form of text file, which is defective. In this paper, considering the object-based inheritance hierarchy of IFC and the storage features of different database management systems (DBMS), we propose a novel object-relational storage model that uses Oracle database to store IFC data. Firstly, establish the mapping rules between data types in IFC specification and Oracle database. Secondly, design the IFC database according to the relationships among IFC entities. Thirdly, parse the IFC file and extract IFC data. And lastly, store IFC data into corresponding tables in IFC database. In experiment, three different building models are selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of our storage model. The comparison of experimental statistics proves that IFC data are lossless during data exchange.

  15. Experimental Study on Event-Related Potential for Objective Evaluation of Food

    Tanaka, Motoshi; Honma, Tomohiro; Inoue, Hiroshi; Niiyama, Yoshitsugu; Takahashi, Toru; Kumagai, Masanori; Akiyama, Yoshinobu

    In order to study the application of event-related potential (ERP) for performing objective evaluation of food, the ERP was measured when subjectively judging the appearance of food by three-grade scale with the opinion “like”, “favorite” and “more favorite”. Sushi and cooked rice were selected as typical foods. Five pictures of each food that the subjects liked were chosen before measurements, and then were used in opinion tests. As a result, the P300 component of the ERP was detected, and the P300 area (surrounded by ERP waveform from the latency 250 to 500ms) became larger when the subjects judged as “more favorite”, which indicates the feasibility of evaluation of food using the ERP.

  16. Sensory Processing Relates to Attachment to Childhood Comfort Objects of College Students

    Kalpidou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The author tested the hypothesis that attachment to comfort objects is based on the sensory processing characteristics of the individual. Fifty-two undergraduate students with and without a childhood comfort object reported sensory responses and performed a tactile threshold task. Those with a comfort object described their object and rated their…

  17. The Information Structure of Adverbial Clauses in Chinese Discourse

    Yu-Fang Wang

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated adverbial clauses in spoken as well as written Chinese discourse. The adverbial clauses in the spoken data were categorized into (i initial clauses that occur in the initial position with respect to their linked material across continuing intonation, (ii final clauses that occur in the final position with respect to their linked material across continuing intonation, and (iii final clauses that occur in the final position with respect to their linked material across final intonation. Those in the written data were classified into (i initial and (ii final clauses that occur in the initial or final clauses that occur in the initial or final position, respectively, with respect to their main clauses. An analysis of the spoken and written data shows that the temporal, conditional, and concessiveclauses are quite different from the other adverbial clauses. Specifically, the causal clauses commonly appear in the final position with respect to their associated material in the spoken data, while the initial and final causal clauses are nearly evenly distributed in the written data. The data suggest that temporal, conditional, and concessive clauses, like topics, are presupposed parts of their sentences; i.e., all of them may be thought of as establishing frameworks for the interpretation of propositions that follow, which seem to be prototypically textual in their functioning. By contrast, causal clauses in Chinese are noticeably distinct from other adverbial clauses not only in spoken data, but also in written data; they play interactional as well as textual roles in discourse linking.

  18. The Use of the Rorschach Inkblot Test in the Assessment of Object Relations: A Review of the Literature.

    Gosselin, Hope Lynette

    Research in how the Rorschach Inkblot Test has been utilized in the assessment of object relations is reviewed. The review includes a critical examination of six areas: (1) constructs and concepts of object-relations theory represented in the research; (2) relevant Rorschach history and history; (3) characteristics of Rorschach-based,…

  19. Object-relations in maltreated and abused children assessed with the Rorschach inkblots and the Mutuality of Autonomy Scale (Urist)

    Sylvia Rivera Carpio

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study was to observe the quality of the object-relations in maltreated and institutionalized boys and girls, assessed with the Rorschach inkblots and the Mutuality of AutonomyScale (MOA) of Urist. The participants were 23 children of both sexes, aged 8 to 10,who had been maltreated in their household and were institutionalized in an orphanage. The results showed that both tools reflect object-relations well. There are significant differences, depending on the sex, time of...

  20. Knee Confidence as it Relates to Self-Reported and Objective Correlates of Knee Osteoarthritis

    Skou, Søren T; Rasmussen, Sten; Simonsen, Ole;

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Objective The objective was to validate, if possible, previously reported associations and to investigate other potential associations between knee confidence and various self-reported and objective measures in an independent cohort of patients with knee osteoa...

  1. Legal briefing: conscience clauses and conscientious refusal.

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to conscience clauses and conscientious refusal. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it has also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions. Over the past several months, conscientious refusal disputes have had an unusually high profile not only in courthouses, but also in legislative and regulatory halls across the United States. Healthcare providers' own moral beliefs have been obstructing and are expected to increasingly obstruct patients' access to medical services. For example, some providers, on ethical or moral grounds, have denied: (1) sterilization procedures to pregnant patients, (2) pain medications in end-of-life situations, and (3) information about emergency contraception to rape victims. On the other hand, many healthcare providers have been forced to provide medical treatment that is inconsistent with their moral beliefs. There are two fundamental types of conscientious objection laws. First, there are laws that permit healthcare workers to refuse providing - on ethical, moral, or religious grounds healthcare services that they might otherwise have a legal or employer-mandated obligation to provide. Second, there are laws directed at forcing healthcare workers to provide services to which they might have ethical, moral, or religious objections. Both types of laws are rarely comprehensive, but instead target: (1) certain types of healthcare providers, (2) specific categories of healthcare services, (3) specific patient circumstances, and (4) certain conditions under which a right or obligation is triggered. For the sake of clarity, I have grouped recent legal developments concerning conscientious refusal into eight categories: 1. Abortion: right to refuse 2. Abortion: duty to provide 3. Contraception: right to refuse 4. Contraception: duty to provide 5. Sterilization: right to refuse 6. Fertility, HIV, vaccines

  2. International Validation of the CLAU-S Quality-of-Life Questionnaire for Use in Patients with Intermittent Claudication

    Patrick Marquis; Sylvie Comte; Philippe Lehert

    2001-01-01

    Background: Intermittent claudication (IC) occurs in patients with peripheral occlusive arterial disease and results in leg pain after walking a certain distance - the claudication distance. Until recently, no specific questionnaire has been available to measure quality of life in patients with IC. Objectives: To validate the Claudication Scale (CLAU-S) questionnaire in patients in France, the UK, Germany and Belgium. Methods: Patients completed the CLAU-S questionnaire and provided demograph...

  3. Representing Objects using Global 3D Relational Features for Recognition Tasks

    Mustafa, Wail

    2015-01-01

    In robotic systems, visual interpretations of the environment compose an essential element in a variety of applications, especially those involving manipulation of objects. Interpreting the environment is often done in terms of recognition of objects using machine learning approaches. For user...... representations. For representing objects, we derive global descriptors encoding shape using viewpoint-invariant features obtained from multiple sensors observing the scene. Objects are also described using color independently. This allows for combining color and shape when it is required for the task. For more...... to initiate higher-level semantic interpretations of complex scenes. In the object category recognition task, we present a system that is capable of assigning multiple and nested categories for novel objects using a method developed for this purpose. Integrating this method with other multi-label learning...

  4. Animacy Affects the Processing of Subject-Object Ambiguities in the Second Language: Evidence from Self-Paced Reading with German Second Language Learners of Dutch

    Jackson, Carrie N.; Roberts, Leah

    2010-01-01

    The results of a self-paced reading study with German second language (L2) learners of Dutch showed that noun animacy affected the learners' on-line commitments when comprehending relative clauses in their L2. Earlier research has found that German L2 learners of Dutch do not show an on-line preference for subject-object word order in temporarily…

  5. An Efficient Method for the Retrieval of Objects by Topological Relations in Spatial Database Systems.

    Lin, P. L.; Tan, W. H.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a new method to improve the performance of query processing in a spatial database. Experiments demonstrated that performance of database systems can be improved because both the number of objects accessed and number of objects requiring detailed inspection are much less than those in the previous approach. (AEF)

  6. Discerning Technological Systems Related to Everyday Objects: Mapping the Variation in Pupils' Experience

    Svensson, Maria; Ingerman, Ake

    2010-01-01

    Understanding technology today implies more than being able to use the technological objects present in our everyday lives. Our society is increasingly integrated with technological systems, of which technological objects, and their function, form a part. Technological literacy in that context implies understanding how knowledge is constituted in…

  7. CLAUSE AS THE TRANSLATION UNIT IN CHINESE TO ENGLISH TRANSLATION

    向阳

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of Halliday' s theory, this paper makes it clear that clause as the translation unit is operational in Chinese to English translation and expounds the application of clause as the translation unit with some examples.

  8. Material Adverse Effect Clause – Proper Legal Work or Contribution to False Sense of Security?

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Regardless of whether you are a buyer or a seller, and regardless what the object of the contract is, it is essentially important that you seek to protect your rights through various clauses that must aim to provide clearness to contractual obligations, defini- tions of breach, and consequences t...

  9. Institute Cargo Clauses : Nova verzija 2009.

    Lovrić, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Institute Cargo Clauses, 2009. znače izmijenjene i dopunjene Institute Cargo Clauses iz 1982. Osnovni razlozi za reviziju prijašnjih uvjeta leže u pojavi novih rizika, potrebi da se uvjeti kargo osiguranja prilagode promjenama u suvremenom transportnom sustavu te jezično i terminološki osuvremene. Novi uvjeti donose niz rješenja koja znače modernizaciju u odnosu na rješenja Marine Insurance Acta iz 1906. Redaktori novih uvjeta vodili su računa i o tome da pojedine odredbe budu jasnije form...

  10. Trajanje osiguranja prema Institute Cargo Clauses (2009.)

    Petrinović, Ranka; Lovrić, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Institute Cargo Clauses iz 2009. zapravo su izmjene i dopune Institute Cargo Clauses iz 1982. Osnovni su razlozi za reviziju prijašnjih uvjeta u pojavi novih rizika, potrebi da se uvjeti kargo-osiguranja prilagode promjenama u suvremenome transportnom sustavu te jezično i terminološki osuvremene. Novi uvjeti donose više rješenja koja znače modernizaciju u usporedbi s onima u Marine Insurance Acta iz 1906., pa se prezentiraju kao klauzule za novo tisućljeće. Među bitnim promjenama koje donose ...

  11. Signaling Elaboration: Combining French Gerund Clauses with Lexical Cohesion Cues

    Marianne Vergez-Couret

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the Elaboration relation and on its automatic identification in French, using the theoretical framework of Segmented Discourse Representation Theory (SDRT. One of the information sources identified by the SDRT framework to infer the Elaboration relation is based on the existence of a potential subsumption link between the eventualities at stake, depending on lexical semantics and world knowledge. We investigate this claim by combining a weak syntactic marker of the Elaboration relation, namely the gerund clause, with lexical cohesion cues. We aim at automatically identifying gerund clauses which are Elaborations by finding cohesive links between the host main clause and the gerund clause. This approach makes it possible to accurately detect few cases of intra-sentential Elaborations in our corpus, confirming the fact that lexical cohesion cues are relevant for this task.Dans cet article, nous nous focalisons sur la relation d’Élaboration en français, telle qu’elle est décrite dans le modèle théorique de la SDRT (Segmented Discourse Representation Theory, et sur son identification automatique. Selon la SDRT, une des sources d’information permettant d’inférer la relation d’Élaboration est basée sur l’existence d’un lien de subsomption entre les types des éventualités des segments à relier, indiquant que le type de la seconde éventualité est un sous-type de celui de la première dans la sémantique lexicale des éventualités ou grâce à des connaissances du monde. Nous proposons de contribuer à cette question en combinant un indice de la relation d’Élaboration, i. e. la construction syntaxique du gérondif, et des indices de cohésion lexicale. Notre objectif est d’identifier automatiquement des propositions gérondives qui sont des Élaborations en repérant des indices de cohésion lexicale entre la proposition principale et la proposition gérondive. Cette approche permet de d

  12. A Survey of Health Management User Objectives Related to Diagnostic and Prognostic Metrics

    Wheeler, Kevin R.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Poll, Scott D.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most prominent technical challenges to effective deployment of health management systems is the vast difference in user objectives with respect to engineering development. In this paper, a detailed survey on the objectives of different users of health management systems is presented. These user objectives are then mapped to the metrics typically encountered in the development and testing of two main systems health management functions: diagnosis and prognosis. Using this mapping, the gaps between user goals and the metrics associated with diagnostics and prognostics are identified and presented with a collection of lessons learned from previous studies that include both industrial and military aerospace applications.

  13. Object-relations in maltreated and abused children assessed with the Rorschach inkblots and the Mutuality of Autonomy Scale (Urist

    Sylvia Rivera Carpio

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to observe the quality of the object-relations in maltreated and institutionalized boys and girls, assessed with the Rorschach inkblots and the Mutuality of AutonomyScale (MOA of Urist. The participants were 23 children of both sexes, aged 8 to 10,who had been maltreated in their household and were institutionalized in an orphanage. The results showed that both tools reflect object-relations well. There are significant differences, depending on the sex, time of Separation from their maternal figure and the type of maltreatment they received. Furthermore, the children represent more adaptative, conventional and positive object relations what is related with their resources.

  14. A Survey of Health Management User Objectives in Aerospace Systems Related to Diagnostic and Prognostic Metrics

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One of the most prominent technical challenges to effective deployment of health management systems is the vast difference in user objectives with respect to...

  15. A simple software environment based on objects and relations / [by] Bruce J. MacLennan.

    MacLennan, Bruce J.

    1985-01-01

    Author(s) key words: Object-oriented programming, programming environments, software engineering environments, production rules, production systems, entity-relationship approach, software prototyping, knowledge representation, logic programming, simulation languages, rule-based systems, knowledge base fifth generation languages, classification

  16. CRUD-DOM : a model for bridging the gap between the object-oriented and the relational paradigms

    Pereira, Óscar M.; Rui L. Aguiar; Santos, Maribel Yasmina

    2010-01-01

    Object-oriented programming is the most successful programming paradigm. Relational database management systems are the most successful data storage components. Despite their individual successes and their desirable tight binding, they rely on different points of view about data entailing difficulties on their integration. Some solutions have been proposed to overcome these difficulties, such as Embedded SQL, object/relational mappings (O/RM), language extensions and e...

  17. Defensive Projection, Superimposed on Simplistic Object Relations, Erodes Patient-Provider Relationships in High-Risk Pregnancy: An Empirical Investigation

    Shahar, Golan; Porcerelli, John H.; Kamoo, Ray; Epperson, C. Neill; Czarkowski, Kathryn A.; Magriples, Urania; Mayes, Linda C.

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to illustrate the relevance of psychoanalytic theory and research to behavior medicine, an empirical investigation was conducted of females treated at a high-risk pregnancy specialty clinic (N = 58). Drawing from psychoanalytic object relations theory, it was hypothesized and confirmed that use of projection as a defense mechanism during pregnancy, superimposed on simplistic object relations, predicted an erosion of patient-provider relationships during the pregnancy/postdeliver...

  18. 48 CFR 3447.7000 - Foreign travel clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign travel clause... REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Foreign Travel 3447.7000 Foreign travel clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause in 3452.247-70, Foreign Travel, in all solicitations and resultant...

  19. 48 CFR 1401.670-1 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 1401.670... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 1401.670-1 Contract clause. Insert the clause at 1452.201-70 in solicitations and contracts...

  20. 48 CFR 909.507-2 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 909.507-2... PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational and Consultant Conflicts of Interest 909.507-2 Contract clause. (a)(1) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 952.209-72, Organizational Conflicts...

  1. 48 CFR 870.111-3 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 870.111... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS SPECIAL PROCUREMENT CONTROLS Controls 870.111-3 Contract clauses. (a) The contracting... contracts for bread and bakery products. (b) The contracting officer shall include the clause at...

  2. 48 CFR 41.501 - Solicitation provision and contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... contract clauses. 41.501 Section 41.501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Contract Clauses 41.501 Solicitation provision and contract clauses. (a) Because the terms and conditions... substantially the same as the provision at 52.241-1, Electric Service Territory Compliance Representation,...

  3. 48 CFR 232.1110 - Solicitation provision and contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... contract clauses. 232.1110 Section 232.1110 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Electronic Funds Transfer 232.1110 Solicitation provision and contract clauses. Use the clause at 252.232-7009,...

  4. 48 CFR 2832.1110 - Solicitation provision and contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... contract clauses. 2832.1110 Section 2832.1110 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE General Contracting Requirements CONTRACT FINANCING Electronic Funds Transfer 2832.1110 Solicitation provision and contract clauses. When the clause at FAR 52.232-34, Payment by Electronic Funds...

  5. 48 CFR 3009.507-2 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... Organizational and Consultant Conflicts of Interest 3009.507-2 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert a clause substantially the same as the clause at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3052.209-73, Limitation of Future Contracting, in solicitations and contracts when a potential organizational conflict of interest exists...

  6. 48 CFR 229.402-70 - Additional clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... performance will be in Spain. (f) Use the clause at 252.229-7006, Value Added Tax Exclusion (United Kingdom.... (i) Use the clause at 252.229-7009, Relief from Customs Duty and Value Added Tax on Fuel (Passenger... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS TAXES Contract Clauses...

  7. 48 CFR 970.0370-2 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.0370... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Improper Business Practices and Personal Conflicts of Interest 970.0370-2 Contract clause. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at...

  8. 48 CFR 619.811-3 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 619.811... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting with the Small Business Administration (The 8(a) Program) 619.811-3 Contract clauses. (d) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at FAR...

  9. 48 CFR 519.870-8 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 519.870... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting With the Small Business Administration (The 8(a) Program) 519.870-8 Contract clauses. (a) Insert the following clauses in solicitations, contracts,...

  10. 48 CFR 1403.570-3 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 1403.570... IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Other Improper Business Practices 1403.570-3 Contract clause. CO's shall include the clause at 1452.203-70, Restriction on Endorsements, in...

  11. 48 CFR 203.570-3 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Other Improper Business Practices 203.570-3 Contract clause. Use the clause at 252.203-7001, Prohibition on Persons... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause....

  12. 48 CFR 1319.811-3 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1319.811... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting With the Small Business Administration (the 8(a) Program) 1319.811-3 Contract clauses. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause 1352.219-70, Section...

  13. 48 CFR 970.0371-9 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.0371... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Improper Business Practices and Personal Conflicts of Interest 970.0371-9 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at...

  14. 48 CFR 19.811-3 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 19.811-3... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting With the Small Business Administration (the 8(a) Program) 19.811-3 Contract clauses. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.219-11, Special...

  15. 48 CFR 219.811-3 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 219.811..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting With the Small Business Administration (The 8(a) Program) 219.811-3 Contract clauses. (1) Use the clause at 252.219-7009, Section...

  16. 48 CFR 52.102 - Incorporating provisions and clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Instructions for Using... clause that can be accessed electronically by the offeror or prospective contractor may be incorporated... contracting officer includes in the solicitation and contract a statement that— (1) Identifies all...

  17. 48 CFR 1852.227-84 - Patent rights clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Patent rights clauses. 1852... 1852.227-84 Patent rights clauses. The contracting officer shall insert the following provision as prescribed in 1827.303-70(e): Patent Rights Clauses (DEC 1989) This solicitation contains the patent...

  18. Determinación del patrón prosódico de las oraciones ambiguas con adjunción alta de la cláusula de relativo (Prosodic pattern of ambiguous sentences with high attachment of the relative clause

    Yasna Pereira Reyes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La estructura prosódica y la sintáctica corresponden a distintos planos de análisis en una lengua; no obstante, existe una relación entre ambas que constituye una herramienta potente a la hora de enfrentar oraciones sintácticamente ambiguas (Price et al. 1991:1. Existe evidencia robusta respecto a la preferencia de adjunción alta en oraciones ambiguas con cláusula relativa en el español. La mayor parte de la investigación respecto a la ambigüedad en español se centra en el estudio de la lectura en silencio con tareas on-line y off-line, observando el funcionamiento de la memoria operativa en este contexto. Pocos autores han incorporado el estudio de patrones melódicos subyacentes a este tipo de oraciones. El presente trabajo describe el patrón prosódico que subyace a las oraciones ambiguas con adjunción alta de la cláusula de relativo (CR producidas por hablantes del español de Concepción. Los enunciados fueron etiquetados con sistema ToBI y sometidos a una evaluación perceptual para confirmar el patrón melódico descrito de la adjunción alta de la CR como soporte fonético-fonológico que acompaña a dicha adjunción. (Prosodic and syntactic structures correspond to different levels of analysis of language; however, there is a relation between them that constitutes a powerful tool when facing syntactically ambiguous sentences (Price et al. 1991:1. Robustevidence has been found in Spanish of the preference for high-attachment of the relative clause in syntactically ambiguous sentences. Most of the research concerning the topic has focused on finding out how people disambiguates these sentences when reading in silence with on-line or off-line tasks and how the working memory operates in doing so. Few researchers have incorporated the study of the underlying melody patterns in this type of sentences. The presentresearch describes the underlying prosodic pattern of ambiguous sentences with high attachment of relative clause

  19. Proposed Framework wWhich Use the Object Oriented Principles in Relational Systems. General Aspects and Principles (Part I

    Catalin STRIMBEI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are some significant theoretical and technological approaches on the issue of object-relational "impedance mismatch" between applications' abstract model and database structures. Two characteristics of those approaches we think that are questionable: first of all it is so called “flat” nature of relational systems and model, and then there is the drawback of the storage of (object oriented semantics on the application level, thus severe limiting the data (object sharing and, at the same time, virtually broking the data independence principle of database systems architecture. In this paper we will try to outline an approach to address to some in a concrete manner.

  20. Variability of Extragalactic Objects in Relation to Redshift, Color, Radio Spectral Index and Absorption Lines

    D. Basu

    2001-12-01

    Optical variability of extragalactic objects, viz., QSOs, BL Lacs and Seyfert galaxies has been monitored systematically over an appreciable period of time and a large amount of data have accumulated. The present work reports results of investigations involving statistical analysis of updated data on relationships between variability and various observed properties of the objects, viz., redshift, color indices, radio spectral index and absorption lines. It is found that at high frequencies (rest frame) radio spectral index does not change significantly with the degree of variability. However, the degree of variability depends on redshifts. On the other hand, presence or absence of absorption lines is significantly associated with variability for QSOs with larger redshifts ( > 1.0), while no such relationship exists for QSOs at smaller redshifts ( < 1.0 or other objects. Correlation between color indices and redshifts depends on the degree of variability and the sample chosen for the color index.

  1. An encoder for the measurement of relative motions between two objects

    The motion encoder is composed of a measuring rule, mounted on one of the object, which bears at least two tracks (X, Y) with multiple simple marks distributed following a similar pattern on the two tracks, and at least one specific mark (each mark limit is defining a step variation on the rule), and at least two mark readers, mounted on the second object, each one associated to a track. Data processing means are used to estimate distance and motion direction. Application to robotics and metrology

  2. 48 CFR 970.2703-2 - Patent rights clause provisions for management and operating contractors.

    2010-10-01

    ... dedicated to naval nuclear propulsion or weapons related programs. That clause provides for DOE's statutory...-exempted areas of technology or in operation of DOE facilities primarily dedicated to naval nuclear propulsion or weapons related programs. (b) Allocation of Principal Rights: Government title. (1) The...

  3. 48 CFR 747.507 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... (48 CFR) FAR 52.247-64 as prescribed in (48 CFR) FAR 27.507(a) in other situations. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 747.507 Section 747.507 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT...

  4. 48 CFR 745.106 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... required in (48 CFR) FAR 45.106 in all contracts under which the contractor will acquire property with... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 745.106 Section 745.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT...

  5. 48 CFR 1336.609 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1336.609 Section 1336.609 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 1336.609...

  6. 48 CFR 1424.104 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1424.104 Section 1424.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PROTECTION OF PRIVACY AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Protection of Individual Privacy 1424.104 Contract...

  7. 48 CFR 1427.303 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1427.303 Section 1427.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts. 1427.303 Contract...

  8. 48 CFR 811.107 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 811.107 Section 811.107 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 811.107...

  9. 48 CFR 811.204 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 811.204 Section 811.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Using and Maintaining Requirements Documents 811.204...

  10. Licensing Revisited: Open Access Clauses in Practice

    Birgit Schmidt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Open access increases the visibility and use of research outputs and promises to maximize the return on our public investment in research. However, only a minority of researchers will "spontaneously" deposit their articles into an open access repository. Even with the growing number of institutional and funding agency mandates requiring the deposit of papers into the university repository, deposit rates have remained stubbornly low. As a result, the responsibility for populating repositories often falls onto the shoulders of library staff and/or repository managers. Populating repositories in this way – which involves obtaining the articles, checking the rights, and depositing articles into the repository – is time consuming and resource intensive work.The Confederation of Open Access Repositories (COAR, a global association of repository initiatives and networks, is promoting a new strategy for addressing some of the barriers to populating repositories, involving the use of open access archiving clauses in publisher licenses. These types of clauses are being considered by consortia and licensing agencies around the world as a way of ensuring that all the papers published by a given publisher are cleared for deposit into the institutional repository. This paper presents some use cases of open access archiving clauses, discusses the major barriers to implementing archiving language into licenses, and describes some strategies that organizations can adopt in order to include such clauses into publisher licenses.

  11. 48 CFR 22.202 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 22.202 Section 22.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC... employment of convict labor; (b) The supplies or services are to be purchased from Federal Prison...

  12. 48 CFR 1632.772 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract clause. 1632.772 Section 1632.772 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING...

  13. 48 CFR 927.303 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... is a domestic small business or nonprofit organization as defined at (FAR) 48 CFR 27.301, except... (but see (FAR) 48 CFR 27.304-3 regarding contracts for construction work or architect-engineer services... use the clause at (FAR) 48 CFR 52.227-12 except in situations where patent counsel grants a...

  14. 48 CFR 1403.1004 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 1403.1004 Section 1403.1004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct...

  15. 48 CFR 203.1004 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 203.1004 Section 203.1004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct...

  16. The occupational health of Santa Claus

    Straube, Sebastian; Fan, Xiangning

    2015-01-01

    Previous publications in the field of Santa studies have not focused on health and safety issues arising from Santa’s workplace activities. However, it should be acknowledged that unique occupational hazards exist for Santa Claus. Major occupational health issues affecting Santa are discussed, along with suggestions for future research directions.

  17. The One that Does, Leads: Action Relations Influence the Perceived Temporal Order of Graspable Objects

    Roberts, Katherine L.; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2010-01-01

    Perception and action are influenced by the "possibilities for action" in the environment. Neuropsychological studies (e.g., Riddoch, Humphreys, Edwards, Baker, & Willson, 2003) have demonstrated that objects that are perceived to be interacting (e.g., a corkscrew going toward the top of a wine bottle) are perceptually integrated into a functional…

  18. Subjective Poverty and Its Relation to Objective Poverty Concepts in Hungary

    Nandori, Eszter Siposne

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes subjective poverty in Hungary and compares it to the objective poverty concepts. Subjective poverty is defined by examining who people consider to be poor. Based on the Easterlin paradox, the initial hypothesis states that subjective and absolute poverty concepts are highly correlated. Taking into account that Hungary is a…

  19. A Meta-Relational Approach for the Definition and Management of Hybrid Learning Objects

    Navarro, Antonio; Fernandez-Pampillon, Ana Ma.; Fernandez-Chamizo, Carmen; Fernandez-Valmayor, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Electronic learning objects (LOs) are commonly conceived of as digital units of information used for teaching and learning. To facilitate their classification for pedagogical planning and retrieval purposes, LOs are complemented with metadata (e.g., the author). These metadata are usually restricted by a set of predetermined tags to which the…

  20. A Framework Relating Outcomes Based Education and the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.

    Andrich, David

    2002-01-01

    Articulates a framework that can place the Outcomes Based Education movement in a historical context and by so doing advance its discourse on assessment. Reviews the development and structure of the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (B. Bloom et al., 1956) and the structure of Student Outcome Statements in Western Australia and explores the…

  1. Objective and Subjective Responses to Low Relative Humidity in an Office Intervention Study

    Lagercrantz, Love Per; Wyon, David; Meyer, H. W.;

    2003-01-01

    and objective (clinical) measurements were applied. The following effects of increased humidity were significant, though small: the air was evaluated as less dry (though still on the dry side of neutral), eyes smarted less (by 10% of full scale) eye irritation decreased (by 11%), symptoms of dry...

  2. Relation between infants'/toddlers' developmental status and their levels of object play

    Urška Fekonja

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of introduced study was to establish the connection between the highest achieved levels of infant' and toddler's object play and their developmental status. 23 Slovenian infants and toddlers were included in the sample. They were engaged in solitary play with standard toys. Global and partial quotients were established using the early childhood development scale RT-R. The levels of child's solitary play were estimated using assesment scale designed by Belsky and Most. The results showed some statisticaly significant correlations between children's developmental qoutients (global and partial and their highest achieved levels of object play. As the basis for the interpretation of results I used the theories which explain the development of child's language, cognition and play.

  3. Relative Navigation Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) Sensor Development Test Objective (DTO) Performance Verification

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request from the NASA Associate Administrator (AA) for Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), to quantitatively evaluate the individual performance of three light detection and ranging (LIDAR) rendezvous sensors flown as orbiter's development test objective on Space Transportation System (STS)-127, STS-133, STS-134, and STS-135. This document contains the outcome of the NESC assessment.

  4. How crawling and manual object exploration are related to the mental rotation abilities of 9-month-old infants

    Gudrun eSchwarzer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment examined whether the mental rotation ability of 9-month-old infants was related to their abilities to crawl and manually explore objects. Forty-eight 9-month-old infants were tested; half of them had been crawling for an average of 9.3 weeks. The infants were habituated to a video of a simplified Shepard-Metzler object rotating back and forth through a 240° angle around the longitudinal axis of the object. They were tested with videos of the same object rotating through a previously unseen 120° angle and with a mirror image of the display. All of the infants also participated in a manual object exploration task, in which they freely explored 5 toy blocks. The results showed that the crawlers looked significantly longer at the novel (mirror object than at the familiar object, independent of their manual exploration scores. The non-crawlers looking times, in contrast, were influenced by the manual exploration scores. The infants who did not spontaneously explore the toy blocks tended to show a familiarity preference, whereas those who explored the toy blocks preferred to look at the novel object. Thus, all of the infants were able to master the mental rotation task but it seemed to be the most complex process for infants who had no crawling experience and who did not spontaneously explore objects.

  5. Assessment of antitussive efficacy of dextromethorphan in smoking related cough: objective vs. subjective measures

    Ramsay, James; Wright, Caroline; Thompson, Rachel; Hull, David; Morice, Alyn H

    2008-01-01

    AIMS Using an established model of smokers cough we measured the antitussive effects of dextromethorphan compared with placebo. METHODS The study was a randomized, double-blind placebo controlled, crossover comparison of 22 mg 0.8 ml−1 dextromethorphan delivered pregastrically with matched placebo. Objective and subjective measurements of cough were recorded. Subjective measures included a daily diary record of cough symptoms and the Leicester quality of life questionnaire. Cough frequency was recorded using a manual cough counter. The objective measure of cough reflex sensitivity was the citric acid, dose–response cough challenge. RESULTS Dextromethorphan was significantly associated with an increase in the concentration of citric acid eliciting an average of two coughs/inhalation (C2) when compared with placebo, 1 h post dose by 0.49 mM (95% CI 0.05, 0.45, geometric mean 3.09) compared with placebo 0.24 mM (geometric mean 1.74) P , 0.43, geometric mean 3.75) compared with placebo 0.34 mM (geometric mean 2.19) P < 0.05). There was a highly significant improvement in the subjective data when compared with baseline. However, there was no significant difference between placebo and active treatment. No correlation was seen between cough sensitivity to citric acid and recorded cough counts or symptoms. When both subjective and objective data were compared with screening data there was evidence of a marked ‘placebo’ effect. CONCLUSIONS The objective measure of cough sensitivity demonstrates dextromethorphan effectively diminishes the cough reflex sensitivity. However, subjective measures do not support this. Other studies support these findings, which may represent a profound sensitivity of the cough reflex to higher influences. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT Dextromethorphan is widely used as a cough suppressant in over the counter medications. Its efficacy in altering cough reflex sensitivity has been shown in healthy volunteers. In contrast evidence

  6. Processing subject-object ambiguities in Dutch

    Kaan, Edith

    1997-01-01

    Various clause types in Dutch and German are at least temporarily ambiguous with respect to the order of subject and object. A number of previous studies regarding the processing of such subject-object ambiguities have reported a preference for a subject-object interpretation. This order preference

  7. A search for radio emission from X-ray binaries and related objects

    5-GHz radio observations are reported of 117 X-ray binary stars and cataclysmic variable stars using the Jodrell Bank Lovell-Mk II broad-band interferometer. Sensitivity was sufficient to detect sources of 2-3 mJy. In addition to seven objects already known to be radio emitters, seven new radio sources were detected. VLA observations confirmed that two of the new radio sources are coincident with the X-ray positions, one of them probably an extragalactic radio source, and the other a pulsar. (author)

  8. Statistical relations among architectural features and objective acoustical measurements of concert halls

    Gade, Anders Christian; Siebein, G. W.; Chiang, W.;

    1993-01-01

    A statistical analysis of architectural features and detailed objective acoustical measurements made in eight concert halls and several multi-use rooms in their concert configuration will be presented. A method for evaluating the architectural features of rooms that affect their acoustical...... properties was developed. Architectural features of interest include both room average values and more-detailed subdivisions of surfaces including shape, volume, height, width, and sound absorption properties of materials. Regression modeling was performed for individual source–receiver paths as well as for...

  9. On the nature of escapable relative islands

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj; Nyvad, Anne Mette

    2014-01-01

    It is generally assumed that universal island constraints block extraction from relative clauses. However, it is well-known that such extractions can be acceptable in the Scandinavian languages. Kush & Lindahl (2011) argue that the acceptability in Swedish is illusory; relative clauses that allow...... extraction have a different structure (small clause structure) from those that block extraction (true relatives, CPs). We present data from an acceptability survey of relative clause extraction in Danish. In the survey, extraction significantly decreased acceptability but we found no statistically...... significant effect of the ability of the verb to take a small-clause complement. We also found no difference between som ‘that/who/which’ and der ‘that/who/which’, both of which can head a relative clause while only som can head a small clause. We argue that our results do not warrant the stipulation of a...

  10. Effect of supersonic relative motion between baryons and dark matter on collapsed objects

    Asaba, Shinsuke; Tashiro, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The first star formation and the Epoch of Reionization are paid great attention to as main targets of planned large radio interferometries (e.g. Square Kilometre Array). Recently, it is claimed that the supersonic relative velocity between baryons and cold dark matter can suppress the abundance of the first stars and impact the cosmological reionization process. Therefore, in order to compare observed results with theoretical predictions it is important to examine the effect of the supersonic relative motion on the small-scale structure formation. In this paper, we investigate the effect on the nonlinear structure formation in the context of the spherical collapse model. We show the evolution of the dark matter sphere with the relative velocity by both using N-body simulations and numerical calculations of the equation of motion for the dark matter mass shell. The effects of the relative motions in the spherical collapse model appear as the delay of the collapse time of dark matter halos and the decrease of t...

  11. Public Relations Writing: Setting Goals and Objectives for Students and Evaluating Their Work.

    Newsom, Doug; Siegried, Tom

    It is often difficult for students in public relations writing courses to understand precisely how their various writing assignments are being evaluated. It is important, therefore, for teachers of these courses to develop a systematic method of evaluating all writing assignments. One method of doing this is to concentrate on elements common to…

  12. The User Interface: A Hypertext Model Linking Art Objects and Related Information.

    Moline, Judi

    This report presents a model combining the emerging technologies of hypertext and expert systems. Hypertext is relatively unexplored but promises an innovative approach to information retrieval. In contrast, expert systems have been used experimentally in many different application areas ranging from medical diagnosis to oil exploration. The…

  13. Apparatus and method for simultaneously displaying relative displacements of a fluctuating biological object

    In a method for producing discrete images of a human organ in fluctuating motion, e.g., the heart and related vessels, images derived at selected times related to the cardiac cycle are independently presented on respective discrete areas within a common image plane. A source of X-rays irradiates the organ. A physiological synchronizer produces timing signals within the cardiac cycle for controlling the periods of transmission of the X-ray beam through the organ during, for example, end diastole and end systole. An antiscattering, masking frame has alternate parallel slits and bars at equal intervals exposing substantially half the area of presentation of an X-ray sensitive film in alternate, equally spaced area strips during, e.g., diastole. The frame is repositioned in response to a signal from the synchronizer for displacing it relative to the film such that the bars then cover the sensitized areas of the film and expose substantially the remaining half of the film during systole. The image elements are interdigitally juxtaposed to present the diastolic and systolic images in an interlaced pattern. Relative displacements of the organ during a cardiac cycle may be determined from the juxtaposed image elements. (author)

  14. Mechanical Objects and the Engineering Learner: An Experimental Study of How the Presence of Objects Affects Students' Performance on Engineering Related Tasks

    Bairaktarova, Diana N.

    2013-01-01

    People display varying levels of interaction with the mechanical objects in their environment; engineers in particular as makers and users of these objects display a higher level of interaction with them. Investigating the educational potential of mechanical objects in stimulating and supporting learning in engineering is warranted by the fact…

  15. An Algorithmic Structuration of a Type System for an Orthogonal Object/Relational Model

    Benabbou, Amel; Amghar, Youssef

    2010-01-01

    Date and Darwen have proposed a theory of types, the latter forms the basis of a detailed presentation of a panoply of simple and complex types. However, this proposal has not been structured in a formal system. Specifically, Date and Darwen haven't indicated the formalism of the type system that corresponds to the type theory established. In this paper, we propose a pseudo-algorithmic and grammatical description of a system of types for Date and Darwen's model. Our type system is supposed take into account null values; for such intention, we introduce a particular type noted #, which expresses one or more occurrences of incomplete information in a database. Our algebraic grammar describes in detail the complete specification of an inheritance model and the subryping relation induced, thus the different definitions of related concepts.

  16. Reasoning about Function Objects

    Nordio, Martin; Calcagno, Cristiano; Meyer, Bertrand; Müller, Peter; Tschannen, Julian

    Modern object-oriented languages support higher-order implementations through function objects such as delegates in C#, agents in Eiffel, or closures in Scala. Function objects bring a new level of abstraction to the object-oriented programming model, and require a comparable extension to specification and verification techniques. We introduce a verification methodology that extends function objects with auxiliary side-effect free (pure) methods to model logical artifacts: preconditions, postconditions and modifies clauses. These pure methods can be used to specify client code abstractly, that is, independently from specific instantiations of the function objects. To demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, we have implemented an automatic prover, which verifies several non-trivial examples.

  17. Multi-objective optimization in WEDM of D3 tool steel using integrated approach of Taguchi method & Grey relational analysis

    Shivade, Anand S.; Shinde, Vasudev D.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, wire electrical discharge machining of D3 tool steel is studied. Influence of pulse-on time, pulse-off time, peak current and wire speed are investigated for MRR, dimensional deviation, gap current and machining time, during intricate machining of D3 tool steel. Taguchi method is used for single characteristics optimization and to optimize all four process parameters simultaneously, Grey relational analysis (GRA) is employed along with Taguchi method. Through GRA, grey relational grade is used as a performance index to determine the optimal setting of process parameters for multi-objective characteristics. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the peak current is the most significant parameters affecting on multi-objective characteristics. Confirmatory results, proves the potential of GRA to optimize process parameters successfully for multi-objective characteristics.

  18. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    Boschloo, A.; Krabbendam, L.; Dekker, S.; Lee, N.; Groot, R. de; Jolles, J.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school g

  19. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11–18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school g

  20. International comparisons of the associations between objective measures of the built environment and transport-related walking and cycling

    Christiansen, Lars B.; Cerin, Ester; Badland, Hannah;

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mounting evidence documents the importance of urban form for active travel, but international studies could strengthen the evidence. The aim of the study was to document the strength, shape, and generalizability of relations of objectively measured built environment variables with...

  1. The Medium Is the Message: Pictures and Objects Evoke Distinct Conceptual Relations in Parent-Child Conversations

    Ware, Elizabeth A.; Gelman, Susan A.; Kleinberg, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    An important developmental task is learning to organize experience by forming conceptual relations among entities. (For example, a "lion" and a "snake" can be linked because both are animals; a lion and a cage can be linked because the "lion" lives in the "cage".) We propose that representational medium (i.e., pictures vs. objects) plays an…

  2. Improving SAT Solvers via Blocked Clause Decomposition

    Chen, Jingchao

    2016-01-01

    The decision variable selection policy used by the most competitive CDCL (Conflict-Driven Clause Learning) SAT solvers is either VSIDS (Variable State Independent Decaying Sum) or its variants such as exponential version EVSIDS. The common characteristic of VSIDS and its variants is to make use of statistical information in the solving process, but ignore structure information of the problem. For this reason, this paper modifies the decision variable selection policy, and presents a SAT solvi...

  3. Assessment of disease-related cognitive impairments using the novel object recognition (NOR) task in rodents.

    Grayson, Ben; Leger, Marianne; Piercy, Chloe; Adamson, Lisa; Harte, Michael; Neill, Joanna C

    2015-05-15

    The novel object recognition test (NOR) test is a two trial cognitive paradigm that assesses recognition memory. Recognition memory is disturbed in a range of human disorders and NOR is widely used in rodents for investigating deficits in a variety of animal models of human conditions where cognition is impaired. It possesses several advantages over more complex tasks that involve lengthy training procedures and/or food or water deprivation. It is quick to administer, non-rewarded, provides data quickly, cost effective and most importantly, ethologically relevant as it relies on the animal's natural preference for novelty. A PubMed search revealed over 900 publications in rats and mice using this task over the past 3 years with 34 reviews in the past 10 years, demonstrating its increasing popularity with neuroscientists. Although it is widely used in many disparate areas of research, no articles have systematically examined this to date, which is the subject of our review. We reveal that NOR may be used to study recognition memory deficits that occur in Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia, where research is extensive, in Parkinson's disease and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) where we observed markedly reduced numbers of publications. In addition, we review the use of NOR to study cognitive deficits induced by traumatic brain injury and cancer chemotherapy, not disorders per se, but situations in which cognitive deficits dramatically reduce the quality of life for those affected, see Fig. 1 for a summary. Our review reveals that, in all these animal models, the NOR test is extremely useful for identification of the cognitive deficits observed, their neural basis, and for testing the efficacy of novel therapeutic agents. Our conclusion is that NOR is of considerable value for cognitive researchers of all disciplines and we anticipate that its use will continue to increase due to its versatility and several other advantages, as detailed in this review. PMID

  4. A systematic review of reliability and objective criterion-related validity of physical activity questionnaires.

    Helmerhorst, Hendrik J F; Brage, Søren; Warren, Janet; Besson, Herve; Ekelund, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the four leading risk factors for global mortality. Accurate measurement of physical activity (PA) and in particular by physical activity questionnaires (PAQs) remains a challenge. The aim of this paper is to provide an updated systematic review of the reliability and validity characteristics of existing and more recently developed PAQs and to quantitatively compare the performance between existing and newly developed PAQs.A literature search of electronic databases was performed for studies assessing reliability and validity data of PAQs using an objective criterion measurement of PA between January 1997 and December 2011. Articles meeting the inclusion criteria were screened and data were extracted to provide a systematic overview of measurement properties. Due to differences in reported outcomes and criterion methods a quantitative meta-analysis was not possible.In total, 31 studies testing 34 newly developed PAQs, and 65 studies examining 96 existing PAQs were included. Very few PAQs showed good results on both reliability and validity. Median reliability correlation coefficients were 0.62-0.71 for existing, and 0.74-0.76 for new PAQs. Median validity coefficients ranged from 0.30-0.39 for existing, and from 0.25-0.41 for new PAQs.Although the majority of PAQs appear to have acceptable reliability, the validity is moderate at best. Newly developed PAQs do not appear to perform substantially better than existing PAQs in terms of reliability and validity. Future PAQ studies should include measures of absolute validity and the error structure of the instrument. PMID:22938557

  5. A systematic review of reliability and objective criterion-related validity of physical activity questionnaires

    Helmerhorst Hendrik JF

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Physical inactivity is one of the four leading risk factors for global mortality. Accurate measurement of physical activity (PA and in particular by physical activity questionnaires (PAQs remains a challenge. The aim of this paper is to provide an updated systematic review of the reliability and validity characteristics of existing and more recently developed PAQs and to quantitatively compare the performance between existing and newly developed PAQs. A literature search of electronic databases was performed for studies assessing reliability and validity data of PAQs using an objective criterion measurement of PA between January 1997 and December 2011. Articles meeting the inclusion criteria were screened and data were extracted to provide a systematic overview of measurement properties. Due to differences in reported outcomes and criterion methods a quantitative meta-analysis was not possible. In total, 31 studies testing 34 newly developed PAQs, and 65 studies examining 96 existing PAQs were included. Very few PAQs showed good results on both reliability and validity. Median reliability correlation coefficients were 0.62–0.71 for existing, and 0.74–0.76 for new PAQs. Median validity coefficients ranged from 0.30–0.39 for existing, and from 0.25–0.41 for new PAQs. Although the majority of PAQs appear to have acceptable reliability, the validity is moderate at best. Newly developed PAQs do not appear to perform substantially better than existing PAQs in terms of reliability and validity. Future PAQ studies should include measures of absolute validity and the error structure of the instrument.

  6. The role of sexuality in sadism: object relations and drive theory perspectives.

    Juni, Samuel

    2009-12-01

    The sexual components of sadism are conceptualized within the contexts of different forms of sadism. In aggression-drive sadism, sexuality is seen as a generalization of instinctual reactivity. Parallels are presented of such spillover between aggression and anxiety and even between aggression and oral impulses, with the notion that any areas of excitation or partial impulses can be energized by the acute release of energy in another domain. Another dynamic is presented for re-enactment sadists, in which the sexuality has a relational meaning. In such cases, sexuality is intertwined with the aggression, as the sadistic ritual actually re-evokes an original trauma that features these elements. It is further agued that the sexuality in these two sadistic modes is not consistent. The instinctual spillover that occurs in hostile psychopathy is psychosexually rooted in phallic functioning, in which relational implications are absent, while the sexuality in re-enacted sadism is genitally based, and is intrinsically linked to an imagined emotional relationship with the victim that is intended to ameliorate and undo past trauma that haunt the perpetrator. PMID:19949381

  7. Musculoskeletal symptoms related to video display terminal use: an analysis of objective and subjective exposure estimates.

    Faucett, J; Rempel, D

    1996-01-01

    The occupational use of video display terminals (VDTs) has been associated with the increasing incidence of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders, often called cumulative trauma disorders. To guide clinical and policy decisions about the prevention and treatment of these VDT related disorders, valid and economic measures of total daily VDT use and VDT related job tasks such as data entry or editing will be important. In this study of newspaper reporters and copy editors (n = 83), VDT use was measured with employee self reports and by sampling the work behaviors of a subsample of employees. Behavioral sampling estimated VDT use as a characteristic of the job as opposed to a characteristic of individual employee performance. Overall, the two techniques of measuring occupational VDT use compared favorably, with the exception that self reported hours of VDT use tended to exceed the hours of use estimated by behavioral observation for employees who were younger and those who reported greater job demands. The findings suggest that behavioral sampling is a valid technique for estimating VDT use as a job characteristic. PMID:8694972

  8. Relative discriminant coefficient based multi-cue fusion for robust object tracking

    Jiangtao WANG; Jingyu YANG

    2008-01-01

    In visual tracking,integrating multiple cues will increase the reliability and robustness of the tracking system in situations where no single cue is reliable.In this paper,a novel multi-cue based tracking method is pre sented under the particle filter framework.Considering both practical distance and Bhattacharvva distance between particles and the target,a parameter called relative discriminant coefficient(RDC)is designed to measure the tracking ability for different features.Multi-cue fusion is carried out in a reweighing manner based on this parameter.Experimental results demonstrate the high robustness and effectiveness of our method in handling appearance changes,cluttered background,illumination changes and occlusions.

  9. V2 word order in subordinate clauses in spoken Danish

    Jensen, Torben Juel; Christensen, Tanya Karoli

    asymmetrically distributed, we argue that the word order difference should rather be seen as a signal of (subtle) semantic differences. In main clauses, V3 is highly marked in comparison to V2, and occurs in what may be called emotives. In subordinate clauses, V2 is marked and signals what has been called...... studies of two age cohorts of speakers in Copenhagen, recorded in the 1980s and again in 2005-07, and on recent recordings with two age cohorts of speakers from the western part of Jutland. This makes it possible to study variation and change with respect to word order in subordinate clauses in both real...... and apparent time, as well as geographical variation. The results show that V2 word order in subordinate clauses is much more frequent than commonly assumed. Furthermore, they indicate that the most decisive factors predicting word order in subordinate clauses are the syntactic function of the clause...

  10. Originalism & The Scope of the Constitution's Disqualification Clause

    Tillman, Seth Barrett

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the scope of the Constitution’s Disqualification Clause (Article I, Section 3, Clause 7) and the original public meaning of its “office...under the United States” language. In a recent paper in this journal, Benjamin Cassady argued that this clause bars disqualified former presidents, vice presidents, and officers of the United States from subsequent election or reelection to the presidency and vice presidency. Here, I take the contrary position: disqualified former presi...

  11. 12 CFR 34.5 - Due-on-sale clauses.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Due-on-sale clauses. 34.5 Section 34.5 Banks... General § 34.5 Due-on-sale clauses. A national bank may make or acquire a loan or interest therein, secured by a lien on real property, that includes a due-on-sale clause. Except as set forth in 12...

  12. What undertakings are protected under Umbrella Clauses of BITs.

    Khasanov, Jamshid

    2015-01-01

    The thesis is discusses what is the scope of Umbrella Clauses. State undertakings must satisfy the condition of being investment. That is the first requirement of applicability of investment regime to state undertakings. Despite state undertakings was seen as wide concept (by some tribunals) the language of the clause and prevailing view support undertakings must be limited to contractual undertakings (in practice some viewed that Umbrella Clause can be extended to municipal law obligations) ...

  13. Formation and Evolution of Binary Planetary Nebula Nuclei and Related Objects

    Iben, Icko, Jr.; Tutukov, Alexander V.

    1993-11-01

    A study is made of the evolution of close binaries in which the primary first fills its Roche lobe after the exhaustion of helium at its center and before the onset of thermal pulses. Initial masses are in the range 3-6 M0. Also examined is the evolution of a 1 Msun model which fills its Roche lobe on the first giant branch when the mass of its helium degenerate core reaches 0.4 M0. In all cases, a common envelope scenario is assumed, and mass is removed from the model primary on a timescale shorter than the initial thermal timescale of the envelope of the primary until the model contracts within a final Roche lobe of predetermined size. After the removal of the common envelope, systems are very close binaries in which the evolved remnant has either a carbon-oxygen (CO) core and a helium-burning shell (progenitor of mass 2.3-8 Msun) or a helium core and a hydrogen-burning shell (progenitor of mass 1-2.3 Msun). The more massive remnants fill their Roche lobes for an extended period, transferring first hydrogen-rich material at a rate ˜10-8±1 Msun yr-1 for up to 106 yr, and then helium at a rate ˜10-6±1 Msun yr-1 for (1-4) × 105 yr. As much as ˜0.4 Msun of nearly pure helium can be transferred to an accretor. A possible real analog of the hydrogen-transferring models is U Sco, although, in many instances, a hydrogen-transferring episode may be bypassed or considerably shortened if the hot remnant blows a strong enough wind. Possible observational analogs of helium transferring models are bright ultrasoft X-ray sources like CAL 83 and CAL 87 in the Large Magellanic Cloud and some classes of supernova precursors. Our models help to explain the number and properties of hot helium OB subdwarfs. A method for estimating initial orbital periods of binary planetary nebula nuclei is introduced and used to infer the initial characteristics of binary systems which have produced close binary central stars, precataclysmic variables, and related systems. Using existing

  14. Nasazení Object Relation Mapping nástrojů nad legacy datovým modelem

    Ondřej Berger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When modernizing an information system it is necesssary to deal with problems and questions modernization brings. The new system is inovated by new technologies and must preserve data which controls. It happends very often that old system cannot be shutdown and replaced by new system in single step. Then it’s necessary to share one database among various systems and transfer responsibilities to the new system continually. This solution brings problematic situations which are discussed in this paper. Transactional access using object relation mapping is presented together with non-transactional relation/procedural access with shared database objects. Other presented restriction is that number of database changes should be as small as possible.

  15. IT Project Management Control and the Control Objectives for IT and Related Technology (CobiT) Framework

    Bernroider, Edward; Ivanov, Milen

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by scarce academic consideration of project management control frameworks, this article explores usage, value and structure of frameworks with a focus on the popular Control Objectives for IT and related Technology (CobiT) construct. We attempt to add to an empirically validated structure of internal control over IT project management by including CobiT's views on the intended domain of content. Results from the empirical survey indicate that the metrics suggested by Cob...

  16. The Hilbert space of conditional clauses

    Francis, Charles

    2015-05-01

    In the absence of a satisfactory interpretation of quantum theory, physical law lacks physical basis. This paper reviews the orthodox, or Dirac-von Neumann interpretation, and makes explicit that Hilbert space describes propositions about measurement results. Kets are defined as conditional clauses referring to measurements in a formal language. It is seen that these clauses are elements of a Hilbert space, such that addition is logical disjunction, the dual space consists of consequent clauses, and the inner product is a set of statements in the subjunctive mood. The probability interpretation gives truth values for corresponding future tense statements when the initial state is actually prepared and the final state is to be measured. The mathematical structure of quantum mechanics is formulated in terms of discrete measurement results at finite level of accuracy and does not depend on an assumption of a substantive, or background, space-time continuum. A continuum of kets, ∣x> for x ∈ ℝ3, is constructed from linear combinations of kets in a finite basis. The inner product can be expressed either as a finite sum or as an integral. Discrete position functions are uniquely embedded into smooth wave functions in such a way that differential operators are defined. It is shown that the choice of basis has no effect on underlying physics (quantum covariance). The Dirac delta has a representation as a smooth function. Operators do not in general have an integral form. The Schrödinger equation is shown from the requirements of the probability interpretation. It is remarked that a formal construction of quantum electrodynamics (qed) avoiding divergence problems has been completed using finite dimensional Hilbert space. I conclude that quantum mechanics makes statements about the world with clear physical meaning, such that space is emergent from particle interactions and has no fundamental role.

  17. Interpreting conjoined noun phrases and conjoined clauses: collective versus distributive preferences.

    Clifton, Charles; Frazier, Lyn

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments are reported that show that introducing event participants in a conjoined noun phrase (NP) favours a single event (collective) interpretation, while introducing them in separate clauses favours a separate events (distributive) interpretation. In Experiment 1, acceptability judgements were speeded when the bias of a predicate toward separate events versus a single event matched the presumed bias of how the subjects' referents were introduced (as conjoined noun phrases or in conjoined clauses). In Experiment 2, reading of a phrase containing an anaphor following conjoined noun phrases was facilitated when the anaphor was they, relative to when it was neither/each of them; the opposite pattern was found when the anaphor followed conjoined clauses. We argue that comprehension was facilitated when the form of an anaphor was appropriate for how its antecedents were introduced. These results address the very general problem of how we individuate entities and events when presented with a complex situation and show that different linguistic forms can guide how we construe a situation. The results also indicate that there is no general penalty for introducing the entities or events separately-in distinct clauses as "split" antecedents. PMID:22512324

  18. Search for HH objects and emission stars in star formation regions. IV. New HH flows and HH objects related with cometary nebulae

    The results of the observations in the environments of the five cometary nebulae: MacC H12, MacC sH15, GM 1-14, RNO 33, Pars 17, are presented. This search was performed in the frames of the continuing survey of the new HH-objects in the star formation regions. Nine previously unknown HH-objects were found. Nearly all these objects belong to directed outflows, the sources of which are with high probability the central stars of the listed above nebulae. In the cases of MacC H12 and GM 1-14 the outflows have distinct bipolar structure. The position of the sources on J-H/H-K diagram is discussed

  19. Underwater binocular imaging of aerial objects versus the position of eyes relative to the flat water surface.

    Barta, András; Horváth, Gábor

    2003-12-01

    The apparent position, size, and shape of aerial objects viewed binocularly from water change as a result of the refraction of light at the water surface. Earlier studies of the refraction-distorted structure of the aerial binocular visual field of underwater observers were restricted to either vertically or horizontally oriented eyes. Here we calculate the position of the binocular image point of an aerial object point viewed by two arbitrarily positioned underwater eyes when the water surface is flat. Assuming that binocular image fusion is performed by appropriate vergent eye movements to bring the object's image onto the foveae, the structure of the aerial binocular visual field is computed and visualized as a function of the relative positions of the eyes. We also analyze two erroneous representations of the underwater imaging of aerial objects that have occurred in the literature. It is demonstrated that the structure of the aerial binocular visual field of underwater observers distorted by refraction is more complex than has been thought previously. PMID:14686517

  20. 48 CFR 922.103-5 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 922.103... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITION Basic Labor Policies 922.103-5 Contract clauses. In accordance with FAR 22.101-1(e) and FAR 22.103-5, the contracting officer shall insert...

  1. 48 CFR 1416.203-4 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1416.203-4 Section 1416.203-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed-Price Contracts 1416.203-4 Contract clauses....

  2. 48 CFR 1428.311-1 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 1428.311... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 1428.311-1 Contract clause. The CO shall modify the... in solicitations and contracts as prescribed in FAR 28.311-1....

  3. 48 CFR 709.507-2 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... solicitation or resulting contract or both include a provision in accordance with (48 CFR) FAR 9.507-1, or a clause in accordance with (48 CFR) FAR 9.507-2, establishing a restraint on the contractor's eligibility... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause....

  4. 48 CFR 3032.1110 - Solicitation provision and contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... FINANCING Electronic Funds Transfer 3032.1110 Solicitation provision and contract clauses. (a)(1) Contracting officer shall insert FAR 48 CFR 52.232-33, Payment by Electronic Funds Transfer—Central Contractor... contract clauses. 3032.1110 Section 3032.1110 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 48 CFR 1339.270 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... and contract clauses. 1339.270 Section 1339.270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Electronic and Information Technology 1339.270 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. (a) Insert provision substantially...

  6. 48 CFR 5416.203-4 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 5416.203... DEFENSE TYPES OF CONTRACTS Fixed Price Contracts 5416.203-4 Contract clauses. (S-90) When the contracting... reported or made available in a consistent manner in a publication, electronic database, or other form,...

  7. 48 CFR 32.1110 - Solicitation provision and contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation provision and contract clauses. 32.1110 Section 32.1110 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Electronic Funds Transfer 32.1110 Solicitation provision and contract clauses....

  8. 17 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - Sample Clauses

    2010-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS S-P AND S-AM Regulation S-P: Privacy of Consumer Financial Information and Safeguarding Personal.../Joint Marketing Exception You may use one of these clauses, as applicable, to meet the requirements of... Clause A-5, Alternative 1: We may disclose the following information to companies that perform...

  9. The Production of Complement Clauses in Children with Language Impairment

    Steel, Gillian; Rose, Miranda; Eadie, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to provide a comprehensive description of complement-clause production in children with language impairment. Complement clauses were examined with respect to types of complement structure produced, verb use, and both semantic and syntactic accuracy. Method: A group of 17 children with language impairment…

  10. 48 CFR 225.7403-2 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Defense Contractors Outside the United States 225.7403-2 Contract clause. Use the clause at 252.225-7043, Antiterrorism/Force Protection Policy... performance or travel outside the United States, except for contracts with— (a) Foreign governments;...

  11. 48 CFR 1019.811-3 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1019.811... PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting With the Small Business Administration (The 8(a) Program) 1019.811-3 Contract clauses. (d)(3) Insert theclause at DTAR 1052.219-18, Notification of...

  12. 48 CFR 1503.500-72 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Responsibility To Avoid Improper Business Practices 1503.500-72 Contract clause. As required by EPAAR 1503.500-71(b), the contracting... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract clause....

  13. 37 CFR 401.13 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administration of patent rights clauses. 401.13 Section 401.13 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR... patent rights clauses. (a) In the event a subject invention is made under funding agreements of more...

  14. 32 CFR 643.55 - Mandatory revocation clause in lease.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mandatory revocation clause in lease. 643.55... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Leases § 643.55 Mandatory revocation clause in lease. Each lease will contain a provision permitting the SA to revoke the lease at any time, unless it is determined that the omission...

  15. The infrared moving object detection and security detection related algorithms based on W4 and frame difference

    Yin, Jiale; Liu, Lei; Li, He; Liu, Qiankun

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the infrared moving object detection and security detection related algorithms in video surveillance based on the classical W4 and frame difference algorithm. Classical W4 algorithm is one of the powerful background subtraction algorithms applying to infrared images which can accurately, integrally and quickly detect moving object. However, the classical W4 algorithm can only overcome the deficiency in the slight movement of background. The error will become bigger and bigger for long-term surveillance system since the background model is unchanged once established. In this paper, we present the detection algorithm based on the classical W4 and frame difference. It cannot only overcome the shortcoming of falsely detecting because of state mutations from background, but also eliminate holes caused by frame difference. Based on these we further design various security detection related algorithms such as illegal intrusion alarm, illegal persistence alarm and illegal displacement alarm. We compare our method with the classical W4, frame difference, and other state-of-the-art methods. Experiments detailed in this paper show the method proposed in this paper outperforms the classical W4 and frame difference and serves well for the security detection related algorithms.

  16. Subjective and Objective Hierarchies and Their Relations to Psychological Well-Being: A U.S/Japan Comparison

    Curhan, Katherine B.; Levine, Cynthia S.; Markus, Hazel Rose; Kitayama, Shinobu; Park, JiYoung; Karasawa, Mayumi; Kawakami, Norito; Love, Gayle D.; Coe, Christopher L.; Miyamoto, Yuri; Ryff, Carol D.

    2014-01-01

    Hierarchy can be conceptualized as objective social status (e.g., education level) or subjective social status (i.e., one’s own judgment of one’s status). Both forms predict well-being. This is the first investigation of the relative strength of these hierarchy-well-being relationships in the U.S. and Japan, cultural contexts with different normative ideas about how social status is understood and conferred. In probability samples of Japanese (N=1027) and U.S. (N=1805) adults, subjective soci...

  17. Comparison of time adjustment clauses between DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC

    David Finnie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines time adjustment clauses, as they relate to time adjustment between standard terms of construction contracts. DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC were compared on the basis of how risks are allocated, how this may impact on the contractor’s pricing, and ease of understanding for each clause. ASTCC was found to be the most easily interpreted contract, followed by AS4000 and then NZS3910. These assessments were based on the following: a whether each contract contains words with multiple meanings, b the number of words used per sentence, c the amount of internal cross-referencing, and d the clarity of the contract structure. The allowable pre-conditions for the contractor to claim a time adjustment are similar for all three contracts, and none of them expressly state which party is to bare the risk of buildability, or address the risk of a designer’s disclaimer clause. All of the contracts adopt the principle of contra preferentum which means that the employer bares the risk of variance if there are any ambiguities in the design documentation. Due to their similarities of risk allocation, all of the contracts provide the employer with a similar amount of price surety. AS4000 is the only contract to contain a stringent time-bar clause, limiting a contractor’s time adjustment claim. ASTCC requires the contractor to apply ‘immediately’ and DZ3910 provides a time-bar of 20 working days or as soon as practicable. None of the contracts clarify whether their timing requirements take precedence over the prevention principle, or over any other ground for claiming a time adjustment. The effect of DZ3910’s pre-notification clause 5.19.3 is discussed, and an alternative contents structure is recommended for DZ3910, using a project management method. 

  18. Comparison of time adjustment clauses between DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC

    David Finnie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines time adjustment clauses, as they relate to time adjustment between standard terms of construction contracts. DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC were compared on the basis of how risks are allocated, how this may impact on the contractor’s pricing, and ease of understanding for each clause. ASTCC was found to be the most easily interpreted contract, followed by AS4000 and then NZS3910. These assessments were based on the following: a whether each contract contains words with multiple meanings, b the number of words used per sentence, c the amount of internal cross-referencing, and d the clarity of the contract structure. The allowable pre-conditions for the contractor to claim a time adjustment are similar for all three contracts, and none of them expressly state which party is to bare the risk of buildability, or address the risk of a designer’s disclaimer clause. All of the contracts adopt the principle of contra preferentum which means that the employer bares the risk of variance if there are any ambiguities in the design documentation. Due to their similarities of risk allocation, all of the contracts provide the employer with a similar amount of price surety. AS4000 is the only contract to contain a stringent time-bar clause, limiting a contractor’s time adjustment claim. ASTCC requires the contractor to apply ‘immediately’ and DZ3910 provides a time-bar of 20 working days or as soon as practicable. None of the contracts clarify whether their timing requirements take precedence over the prevention principle, or over any other ground for claiming a time adjustment. The effect of DZ3910’s pre-notification clause 5.19.3 is discussed, and an alternative contents structure is recommended for DZ3910, using a project management method.

  19. Perceived environment in relation to objective and self-reported physical activity in Spanish youth. The UP&DOWN study.

    Garcia-Cervantes, Laura; Rodríguez-Romo, Gabriel; Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Cabanas-Sanchez, Verónica; Delgado-Alfonso, Álvaro; Castro-Piñero, José; Veiga, Óscar L

    2016-08-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the association of environmental perception with objective and self-reported physical activity (PA) and the relation between environmental perception and meeting PA recommendations on children and adolescents. A sample of 1520 youth (770 boys) aged 8-18 years (12.1 ± 2.5 years) from the UP&DOWN study were included in the data analyses. Environmental perception was assessed with the short adapted version of the ALPHA environmental questionnaire. PA was objectively (accelerometers) and self-reported measured (PA Questionnaire for Children, Patient-centered Assessment and Counseling for Exercise Questionnaire and Finnish PA Index). Linear regression models were used to assess the association of environmental perception with PA. Bivariate logistic regression models were used to assess differences between environmental perception and meeting PA recommendations. Environmental perception was positively associated with both objective and self-reported PA. Some differences were found in the association of environmental perception and PA between sex- and age-specific groups. Youth who perceived a more favourable environment were more likely to meet PA recommendations (at least 60 min · day(-1) of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA)). Results suggest that environmental perceptions of children and adolescents may play an important role in achieving higher levels of PA. PMID:26641935

  20. Caudate asymmetry is related to attentional impulsivity and an objective measure of ADHD-like attentional problems in healthy adults.

    Dang, Linh C; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Young, Jacob S; Cowan, Ronald L; Kessler, Robert M; Zald, David H

    2016-01-01

    Case-control studies comparing ADHD with typically developing individuals suggest that anatomical asymmetry of the caudate nucleus is a marker of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, there is no consensus on whether the asymmetry favors the right or left caudate nucleus in ADHD, or whether the asymmetry is increased or decreased in ADHD. The current study aimed to clarify this relationship by applying a dimensional approach to assessing ADHD symptoms that, instead of relying on clinical classification, utilizes the natural behavioral continuum of traits related to ADHD. Structural T1-weighted MRI was collected from 71 adults between 18 and 35 years and analyzed for caudate asymmetry. ADHD-like attentional symptoms were assessed with an objective measure of attentional problems, the ADHD score from the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA). Impulsivity, a core feature in ADHD, was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, a self-report measure that assesses attentional, non-planning, and motor features of impulsivity. We found that larger right relative to left caudate volumes correlated with both higher attentional impulsiveness and worse ADHD scores on the TOVA. Higher attentional impulsiveness also correlated with worse ADHD scores, establishing coherence between the objective measure and the self-report measure of attentional problems. These results suggest that a differential passage of information through frontal-striatal networks may produce instability leading to attentional problems. The findings also demonstrate the utility of a dimensional approach to understanding structural correlates of ADHD symptoms. PMID:25269835

  1. Inhibitory Control, but Not Prolonged Object-Related Experience Appears to Affect Physical Problem-Solving Performance of Pet Dogs.

    Corsin A Müller

    Full Text Available Human infants develop an understanding of their physical environment through playful interactions with objects. Similar processes may influence also the performance of non-human animals in physical problem-solving tasks, but to date there is little empirical data to evaluate this hypothesis. In addition or alternatively to prior experiences, inhibitory control has been suggested as a factor underlying the considerable individual differences in performance reported for many species. Here we report a study in which we manipulated the extent of object-related experience for a cohort of dogs (Canis familiaris of the breed Border Collie over a period of 18 months, and assessed their level of inhibitory control, prior to testing them in a series of four physical problem-solving tasks. We found no evidence that differences in object-related experience explain variability in performance in these tasks. It thus appears that dogs do not transfer knowledge about physical rules from one physical problem-solving task to another, but rather approach each task as a novel problem. Our results, however, suggest that individual performance in these tasks is influenced in a complex way by the subject's level of inhibitory control. Depending on the task, inhibitory control had a positive or a negative effect on performance and different aspects of inhibitory control turned out to be the best predictors of individual performance in the different tasks. Therefore, studying the interplay between inhibitory control and problem-solving performance will make an important contribution to our understanding of individual and species differences in physical problem-solving performance.

  2. Inhibitory Control, but Not Prolonged Object-Related Experience Appears to Affect Physical Problem-Solving Performance of Pet Dogs.

    Müller, Corsin A; Riemer, Stefanie; Virányi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    Human infants develop an understanding of their physical environment through playful interactions with objects. Similar processes may influence also the performance of non-human animals in physical problem-solving tasks, but to date there is little empirical data to evaluate this hypothesis. In addition or alternatively to prior experiences, inhibitory control has been suggested as a factor underlying the considerable individual differences in performance reported for many species. Here we report a study in which we manipulated the extent of object-related experience for a cohort of dogs (Canis familiaris) of the breed Border Collie over a period of 18 months, and assessed their level of inhibitory control, prior to testing them in a series of four physical problem-solving tasks. We found no evidence that differences in object-related experience explain variability in performance in these tasks. It thus appears that dogs do not transfer knowledge about physical rules from one physical problem-solving task to another, but rather approach each task as a novel problem. Our results, however, suggest that individual performance in these tasks is influenced in a complex way by the subject's level of inhibitory control. Depending on the task, inhibitory control had a positive or a negative effect on performance and different aspects of inhibitory control turned out to be the best predictors of individual performance in the different tasks. Therefore, studying the interplay between inhibitory control and problem-solving performance will make an important contribution to our understanding of individual and species differences in physical problem-solving performance. PMID:26863141

  3. ‘De Regenkoning’ van Hugo Claus

    S. W. van Zuydam

    1986-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation in this article comprises the analysis of a poem by the Flemish author Hugo Claus, namely "De regenkoning". It is one of the poems in a sequence entitled "De ingewijde" (The initiated which forms part of his volume of poetry "De Oostakkerse Gedichten” (1955. These poems are extremely esoteric and an attempt is made here to “decode” the "hidden mysteries” in this particular poem. Claus’ method of using a kind of secret language corresponds to a basic feature of (universal initiation ceremonies, namely that everything that takes place is shrouded in secrecy. It was found that the nucleus of traditional initiations, namely sexual and mental maturation, likewise form a fundamental characteristic in Claus’ poem. Yet his "neophyte” is not (reborn into a "new” (sacred world, but initiated into the broken (profane realities of modern society.

  4. Computer Security: a plea to Santa Claus

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    Running pirated software or illegal licences, using cracking tools to bypass software activation measures, sharing music and films – these are problems that academic environments unfortunately have to deal with. All violate the copyright of the software/music/film owners, and copyright owners are not Santa Claus...    CERN, like other research organisations and universities, regularly receives allegations from external companies complaining about laptops or PCs running illegal software or sharing their films, videos or music with peers – and thus violating copyright.  Usually, we then contact the owners of the corresponding devices in order to understand whether these allegations are true. Very often such allegations boil down to a laptop whose owner replies “I confirm that a torrent client was left up and running on my device by mistake” or “This is a file that is stored on my personal hard disk.” As if those allegatio...

  5. Natural syntax : English interrogative main clauses

    Janez Oresnik

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural Syntax is a developing deductive theory, a branch of Naturalness Theory. The naturalnessjudgements are couched in naturalness scales, whichfollow from the basic parameters (or «axioms» listed at the beginning of the paper. The predictions of the theory are calculated in deductions, whose chief components are apair of naturalness scales and the rules governing the alignment of corresponding naturalness values. Parallel and chiastic alignments are distinguished, in complementary distribution. Chiastic alignment is mandatory in deductions limited to unnatural environments. The paper deals with English interrogative main clauses. Within these, only the interrogatives containing wh-words exclusively insitu constitute an extremely unnatural environment and require chiastic alignment. Otherwiseparallel alignment is used. Earlier publications on Natural Syntax: Kavcic 2005a,b, Oresnik 1999, 2000a,b, 200la-f   2002, 2003a-c, 2002/03, 2004. This list cites only works written in English.

  6. Punctuation and Intonation Effects on Clause and Sentence Wrap-Up: Evidence from Eye Movements

    Hirotani, Masako; Frazier, Lyn; Rayner, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Three eye movement studies examined the role of punctuation in reading. In Experiment 1, although a comma at the end of a clause facilitated overall reading times for the sentence, first pass times were longer at the end of comma-marked clauses than clauses without a comma (or the same material in clause medial position). The data supported the…

  7. Comparison between Face and Object Processing in Youths with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An event related potentials study.

    Anahita Khorrami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Incapability in face perception and recognition is one of the main issues in autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Event related potential (ERP studies have revealed controversial insights on autistic brain responses to faces and objects. The current investigation examined the ERP components of young children with ASD compared to a typically developing (TD group when looking at the upright and inverted images of faces and cars.Fourteen children and adolescents aged between 9 and 17 diagnosed as having ASD were compared with 18 age- gender matched normally developing individuals. All participants' ERPs were recorded while they were seeing the images of human faces and objects in both upright and inverted positions. The ERP components including N170 (latency and amplitude were compared between the two groups in two conditions of upright and inverted using the repeated measure analysis method.The processing speed for upright faces was faster than the inverted faces in the TD group; however, the difference was not significant. A significant difference was observed in terms of N170 latency between the two groups for different stimulus categories such as objects and faces(p<0.05. Moreover, inverted vs. upright stimuli in both groups elicited a greater response in terms of N170 amplitude in both groups, and this effect was significantly prominent in the right hemisphere (p<0.05. The N170 amplitude turned out to be greater for the inverted vs. upright stimuli irrespective of the stimuli type and group.These data suggest youths with ASD have difficulty processing information, particularly in face perception regardless of the stimuli orientation.

  8. Comparative analysis of the symptomatology of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction in relation to objective data

    Ubirajara Barroso Jr

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical presentation of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD relating to objective examination data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four children (36 girls and 8 boys with mean age of 6.8 years with LUTD were prospectively assessed through a specific questionnaire that analyzed clinical presentation of those patients. These data were then compared to objective data, such as micturition diary and uroflowmetry with electromyography. RESULTS: A urinary tract infection (UTI antecedent was observed in 31 cases (70.5%, and of those, 24 cases of UTI were accompanied by fever. All children presented micturition urgency. Daily urinary incontinence was observed in 33 cases (75% and nocturnal enuresis in 23 (52.3%. As for micturition frequency, 15 (34.1% had normal frequency 19 (43.2% presented more than 10 daily micturition episodes and 10 (22.7% thought they urinated less than 5 times a day. In the uroflowmetry and electromyography examination, 14 (31.8% experienced lack of coordination during micturition. Of 10 children with infrequent micturition, 5 confirmed this in their micturition diaries and 2 listed more than 5 micturition episodes per day in the diary. Of 19 patients presenting polaciuria, only 5 confirmed this in their micturition diaries, while 7 had less than 10 micturition episodes per day. CONCLUSION: Most children with LUTD presented a previous UTI, and daily incontinence was verified in around 75% of the patients. Complaints of polaciuria or infrequent micturition are not noted completely in the micturition diaries and there is no parameter in the clinical history that offers good sensitivity or specificity for the diagnosis of lack of perineal coordination.

  9. Formal verification of communication protocols using quantized Horn clauses

    Balu, Radhakrishnan

    2016-05-01

    The stochastic nature of quantum communication protocols naturally lends itself for expression via probabilistic logic languages. In this work we describe quantized computation using Horn clauses and base the semantics on quantum probability. Turing computable Horn clauses are very convenient to work with and the formalism can be extended to general form of first order languages. Towards this end we build a Hilbert space of H-interpretations and a corresponding non commutative von Neumann algebra of bounded linear operators. We demonstrate the expressive power of the language by casting quantum communication protocols as Horn clauses.

  10. On food security stocks, peace clauses, and permanent solutions after Bali:

    Díaz-Bonilla, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses potential solutions to the current impasse related to food security stocks, including a concrete proposal by the author on language to be included in the Agreement on Agriculture that may help comply with the mandate of the Bali Ministerial to find a solution in the next four years. The paper begins with an explanation of the background to the debate of the links between food security and WTO agricultural and trade negotiations and the interim solution (the peace clause) ...

  11. Deficits in object-in-place but not relative recency performance in the APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease: Implications for object recognition.

    Bonardi, Charlotte; Pardon, Marie-Christine; Armstrong, Paul

    2016-10-15

    Performance was examined on three variants of the spontaneous object recognition (SOR) task, in 5-month old APPswe/PS1dE9 mice and wild-type littermate controls. A deficit was observed in an object-in-place (OIP) task, in which mice are preexposed to four different objects in specific locations, and then at test two of the objects swap locations (Experiment 2). Typically more exploration is seen of the objects which have switched location, which is taken as evidence of a retrieval-generated priming mechanism. However, no significant transgenic deficit was found in a relative recency (RR) task (Experiment 1), in which mice are exposed to two different objects in two separate sample phases, and then tested with both objects. Typically more exploration of the first-presented object is observed, which is taken as evidence of a self-generated priming mechanism. Nor was there any impairment in the simplest variant, the spontaneous object recognition (SOR) task, in which mice are preexposed to one object and then tested with the familiar and a novel object. This was true regardless of whether the sample-test interval was 5min (Experiment 1) or 24h (Experiments 1 and 2). It is argued that SOR performance depends on retrieval-generated priming as well as self-generated priming, and our preliminary evidence suggests that the retrieval-generated priming process is especially impaired in these young transgenic animals. PMID:27395445

  12. Iron abundance in the prototype PG1159 star, GW Vir pulsator PG1159-035, and related objects

    Werner, Klaus; Kruk, Jeff W; Kurucz, Robert L

    2011-01-01

    We performed an iron abundance determination of the hot, hydrogen deficient post-AGB star PG1159-035, which is the prototype of the PG1159 spectral class and the GW Vir pulsators, and of two related objects (PG1520+525, PG1144+005), based on the first detection of Fe VIII lines in stellar photospheres. In another PG1159 star, PG1424+535, we detect Fe VII lines. In all four stars, each within Teff = 110,000 - 150,000 K, we find a solar iron abundance. This result agrees with our recent abundance analysis of the hottest PG1159 stars (Teff = 150,000 - 200,000 K) that exhibit Fe X lines. On the whole, we find that the PG1159 stars are not significantly iron deficient, in contrast to previous notions.

  13. Iron Abundance in the Prototype PG 1159 Star, GW Vir Pulsator PG 1159-035, and Related Objects

    Werner, K.; Rauch, T.; Kruk, J. W.; Kurucz, R. L.

    2011-01-01

    We performed an iron abundance determination of the hot, hydrogen deficient post-AGB star PG 1159-035. which is the prototype of the PG 1159 spectral class and the GW Vir pulsators, and of two related objects (PG 1520+525, PG 1144+005), based on the first detection of Fe VIII lines in stellar photospheres. In another PG 1159 star. PG 1424+535. we detect Fe VII lines. In all four stars, each within T(sub eff) = 110,000-150,000 K, we find a solar iron abundance. This result agrees with our recent abundance analysis of the hottest PG 1159 stars (T(sub eff) = 150,000-200,000 K) that exhibit Fe x lines. On the whole, we find that the PG 1159 stars are not significantly iron deficient, in contrast to previous notions.

  14. Pairs and Groups of Genetically Related Long-period Comets and Proposed Identity of the Mysterious Lick Object of 1921

    Sekanina, Zdenek; Kracht, Rainer

    2016-05-01

    We present the history of investigation of the dynamical properties of pairs and groups of genetically related long-period comets (other than the Kreutz sungrazing system). Members of a comet pair or group move in nearly identical orbits, and their origin as fragments of a common parent comet is unquestionable. The only variable is the time of perihelion passage, which differs considerably from member to member owing primarily to an orbital-momentum increment acquired during breakup. Meter-per-second separation velocities account for gaps of years or tens of years, thanks to the orbital periods of many millennia. The physical properties of individual members may not at all be alike, as illustrated by the trio of C/1988 A1, C/1996 Q1, and C/2015 F3. We exploit orbital similarity to examine whether the enigmatic and as-yet-unidentified object discovered from the Lick Observatory near the Sun at sunset on 1921 August 7 happened to be a member of such a pair and to track down the long-period comet to which it might be genetically related. Our search shows that the Lick object, which could not be a Kreutz sungrazer, was likely a companion to comet C/1847 C1 (Hind), whose perihelion distance was ˜9 R ⊙ and true orbital period was approximately 8300 yr. The gap of 74.4 yr between their perihelion times is consistent with a separation velocity of ˜1 m s‑1 which sets the fragments apart following the parent's breakup in a general proximity of perihelion during the previous return to the Sun in the seventh millennium BCE.

  15. Pairs and Groups of Genetically Related Long-period Comets and Proposed Identity of the Mysterious Lick Object of 1921

    Sekanina, Zdenek; Kracht, Rainer

    2016-05-01

    We present the history of investigation of the dynamical properties of pairs and groups of genetically related long-period comets (other than the Kreutz sungrazing system). Members of a comet pair or group move in nearly identical orbits, and their origin as fragments of a common parent comet is unquestionable. The only variable is the time of perihelion passage, which differs considerably from member to member owing primarily to an orbital-momentum increment acquired during breakup. Meter-per-second separation velocities account for gaps of years or tens of years, thanks to the orbital periods of many millennia. The physical properties of individual members may not at all be alike, as illustrated by the trio of C/1988 A1, C/1996 Q1, and C/2015 F3. We exploit orbital similarity to examine whether the enigmatic and as-yet-unidentified object discovered from the Lick Observatory near the Sun at sunset on 1921 August 7 happened to be a member of such a pair and to track down the long-period comet to which it might be genetically related. Our search shows that the Lick object, which could not be a Kreutz sungrazer, was likely a companion to comet C/1847 C1 (Hind), whose perihelion distance was ∼9 R ⊙ and true orbital period was approximately 8300 yr. The gap of 74.4 yr between their perihelion times is consistent with a separation velocity of ∼1 m s‑1 which sets the fragments apart following the parent's breakup in a general proximity of perihelion during the previous return to the Sun in the seventh millennium BCE.

  16. Admissibility of take-or-pay clauses in gas and electricity supply contracts; Zulaessigkeit von Take-or-Pay-Klauseln im Rahmen von Gas- und Stromliefervertraegen

    Gronemeyer, Achim [Clifford Chance, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Electricity and gas supply contracts often contain so-called take-or-pay (ToP) clauses. Such clauses compel the customer to assume an unconditional payment obligation for the contractually agreed minimum quantity, regardless of actual consumption. The quantity risk thus lies with the consumer. ToP clauses can in particular give rise to questions relating to the content review of electricity and gas supply contracts pursuant to the regulations governing general terms and conditions as laid down in paragraph paragraph 305 ff. of the German Civil Code. As regards cartel law the Federal Cartel Office has recently brought about an administrative ruling on the problems associated with ToP clauses in terms of cartel law.

  17. Climate-related Indicators and Data Provenance: Evaluating Coupled Boundary Objects for Science, Innovation, and Decision-Making

    Wiggins, A.; Young, A.; Brody, C.; Gerst, M.; Kenney, M. A.; Lamoureux, A.; Rice, A.; Wolfinger, F.

    2015-12-01

    Boundary object theory focuses on the role of artifacts, such as indicator images, in translation and communication across the boundaries of social groups. We use this framework for understanding how data can communicate across contexts to answer the question: Can coupling climate-related indicators with data provenance support scientific innovation and science translation? To address this question we conducted a study to understand the features and capabilities necessary for indicators and data provenance for scientific uses, using the recently online-released U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) Indicators and Global Change Information System (GCIS) as linked boundary objects. We conducted semi-structured interviews with professional researchers in which we asked the researchers to explore and describe what they observed that was useful or frustrating for a subset of the USGCRP Indicators, related GCIS content, and other similar indicator and metadata websites. Participants found these sites' navigation and the labeling and description of their assets frustrating and confusing, but were able to clearly articulate the metadata and provenance information they needed to both understand and trust the indicators. In addition to identifying desired features that are likely to be specific to this audience (e.g., references or citations for indicators), scientists wanted clear, easier-to-access provenance information of the type usually recommended for documenting research data. Notably, they felt the information would be best presented in a fashion accessible to a broader audience, as those with more technical expertise should be able to infer additional contextual details given the provenance information that they had identified as key. Such results are useful for the improvement of indicator systems, such as the prototype released by USGCRP. We note in particular that the consistency of responses across the multi-disciplinary sample, which included scholars in

  18. What You Should Know About Writing Contract Clauses

    Zweiback, Richard

    1974-01-01

    Gives tips on negotiating and writing employment contracts for teachers. Topics considered include a no-strike clause, bargaining format, administration of welfare funds, and use of the term "mutual understanding." (Author/DN)

  19. 48 CFR 1327.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1327.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  20. 48 CFR 27.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 27.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  1. 48 CFR 2427.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Administration of patent... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 2427.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  2. 48 CFR 1227.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... TRANSPORTATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1227.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  3. Syntactic priming in Chinese sentence comprehension: evidence from event-related potentials.

    Chen, Qingrong; Xu, Xiaodong; Tan, Dingliang; Zhang, Jingjing; Zhong, Yuan

    2013-10-01

    Using the event-related potential (ERP) technique, this study examined the nature of syntactic priming effects in Chinese. Participants were required to read prime-target sentence pairs each embedding an ambiguous relative clause (RC) containing either the same verb or a synonymous verb. In Chinese, the word de serves as a relative clause marker. During reading a potential Chinese RC structure (either the prime or the target sentence), Chinese readers initially expect to read an subject-verb-object (SVO) structure but the encounter of a relative clause marker de would make readers abandon the initial strategy and reanalyze the structure as a relative clause. A reduced P600 effect was elicited by the critical word de in the target sentence containing the same initial verb as in the prime sentence. No significant reduction of the P600 was observed in the target sentences in the synonymous condition. The results demonstrated that verb repetition but not similarity in meaning produced a syntactic priming effect in Chinese. The constraint-based lexicalist hypothesis and the argument structure theory were adopted to explain the syntactic priming effect obtained in the current study. PMID:23973904

  4. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  5. From Pauses to Clauses: Prosody Facilitates Learning of Syntactic Constituency

    Hawthorne, Kara; Gerken, LouAnn

    2014-01-01

    Learning to parse the speech stream into syntactic constituents is a crucial prerequisite to adult-like sentence comprehension, and prosody is one source of information that could be used for this task. To test the role of prosody in facilitating constituent learning, 19-month-olds were familiarized with non-word sentences with 1-clause (ABCDEF) or 2-clause (ABC, DEF) prosody and were then tested on sentences that represent a grammatical (DEF, ABC) or ungrammatical (EFA, BCD) 'movement' of th...

  6. Compiling HPSG type constraints into definite clause programs

    Götz, T; Goetz, Thilo; Meurers, Walt Detmar

    1995-01-01

    We present a new approach to HPSG processing: compiling HPSG grammars expressed as type constraints into definite clause programs. This provides a clear and computationally useful correspondence between linguistic theories and their implementation. The compiler performs off-line constraint inheritance and code optimization. As a result, we are able to efficiently process with HPSG grammars without having to hand-translate them into definite clause or phrase structure based systems.

  7. Compulsory Arbitration Clauses in Domestic and International Consumer Contracts

    Collins, D A

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the UK Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations (UTCCR)'s prohibition on clauses in consumer contracts that mandate dispute settlement in an arbitration tribunal as potentially unfair and oppressive as against consumers because it denies their right to civil adjudication. The understanding of UTCCR's unfairness as developed by the UK House of Lords is not necessarily applicable to arbitration clauses because of the lower cost of such proceedings and the availability ...

  8. Pairs and Groups of Genetically Related Long-Period Comets and Probable Identity of the Mysterious Lick Object of 1921

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    2015-01-01

    We present the history of investigation of the dynamical properties of pairs and groups of genetically related long-period comets (other than the Kreutz sungrazing system). Members of a comet pair or group move in nearly identical orbits and their origin as fragments of a common parent comet is unquestionable. The only variable is the time of perihelion passage, which differs from member to member considerably due primarily to an orbital-momentum increment acquired during breakup. Meter-per-second separation velocities account for gaps of years or tens of years, thanks to the orbital periods of many millennia. The physical properties of individual members may not at all be alike, as illustrated by the trio of C/1988 A1, C/1996 Q1, and C/2015 F3. We exploit orbital similarity to examine whether the celebrated and as yet unidentified object, discovered from the Lick Observatory near the Sun at sunset on 1921 August 7, happened to be a member of such a pair and to track down the long-period comet to which it cou...

  9. Multi-Objective Optimization of Vehicle Sound Package in Middle Frequency Using Gray Relational Analysis Coupled with Principal Component Analysis

    Chen, Shuming; Wang, Dengfeng; Shi, Tianze; Chen, Jing

    2015-12-01

    This research studies optimization design of the thickness of sound packages for a passenger car. The major characteristics indexes for performance determined to evaluate the process are sound pressure level of the interior middle frequency noise and weight of the sound package. Three kinds of materials of sound packages are selected for the optimization process. The corresponding parameters of the sound packages are the thickness of the insulation plate for outer side of the firewall, thickness of the sound absorbing wool for inner side of the firewall, thickness of PU foam for the front floor, and thickness of PU foam for the rear floor, respectively. In this paper, the optimization procedure is a multi-objective optimization. Therefore, gray relational analysis (GRA) is applied to decide the optimal combination of sound package parameters. Furthermore, the principal component analysis (PCA) is used to calculate the weighting values which are corresponding to multiple performance characteristics. Then, the results of the confirmation tests uncover that GRA coupled with principal analysis methods can effectively be applied to find the optimal combination of the thickness of the sound packages at different positions for a passenger car. Thus, the proposed method can be a useful tool to improve the automotive interior middle frequency noise and lower the weight of the sound packages. Additionally, it will also be useful for automotive manufactures and designers in other fields.

  10. The scalarity of syntactic integration : syntaxic, semantic and pragmatic study of quand clause (when-clause)

    Saez, Frédérique

    2011-01-01

    Our study about the "Quand-p" (When-clause) in modern French settles in a descriptive approach in the interlacing of syntax, semantic and discourse. Therefore we first needed to define a criteria that could debrief the variability of the Quand-p syntax. We found inspiration in the interlaced work of Smessaert et al. (2005), for the difference between micro- and macro-syntax, and of Berrendonner & Reichler-Béguelin (1989), Berrendonner (1990) and Béguelin (2004) for the macro-syntax analysis. ...

  11. Infants’ visual processing of faces and objects: Age-related changes in interest, and stability of individual differences

    Robledo, Marybel; Kolling, Thorsten; Deák, Gedeon O

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal measures of infant visual processing of faces and objects were collected from a sample of healthy infants (N=40) every month from 6 to 9 months of age. Infants performed two habituation tasks each month, one with novel female faces as stimuli, and another with novel complex objects. Different individual faces and objects served as habituation (i.e., visual learning) and dishabituation (i.e., novelty response) stimuli. Measures included overall looking time to the habituation stim...

  12. Complex Clause Syntax in the Italian Classroom – the Learners Between Transfer and Interference

    Darja Mertelj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When teaching Italian as a foreign language, learners’ insecurities about using conjunctions and tenses in subordinate clauses can be noticed very early. Temporality, relative temporality and modality are signalled by Italian verb forms which function in a largely different (or apparently similar way in comparison to Slovene. If ‘true’ similarities can be exploited in the process of teaching/learning by means of a positive transfer, apparent ‘similarities’ and ‘differences’ between the two language systems should, on the other hand, be clarified to avoid negative transfer (interference. During the whole learning process language awareness should be developed, also through contrastive insights into the linguistic systems concerned. Taking as a starting point a text suitable for level B1, some problematic points are presented, for which a series of tasks can be suggested with the aim of helping the learner master complex clause syntax and develop language awareness.Key words: Italian, foreign/second language, complex clause, syntax, transfer, language awareness

  13. Object and Objective Lost?

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OT has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming theoretically deconstructed and associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history...

  14. Assessment of subjective and objective cognitive function in bipolar disorder: Correlations, predictors and the relation to psychosocial function.

    Demant, Kirsa M; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V; Miskowiak, Kamilla W

    2015-09-30

    Cognitive dysfunction is prevalent in bipolar disorder (BD). However, the evidence regarding the association between subjective cognitive complaints, objective cognitive performance and psychosocial function is sparse and inconsistent. Seventy seven patients with bipolar disorder who presented cognitive complaints underwent assessment of objective and subjective cognitive function and psychosocial functioning as part of their participation in two clinical trials. We investigated the association between global and domain-specific objective and subjective cognitive function and between global cognitive function and psychosocial function. We also identified clinical variables that predicted objective and subjective cognitive function and psychosocial functioning. There was a correlation between global subjective and objective measures of cognitive dysfunction but not within the individual cognitive domains. However, the correlation was weak, suggesting that cognitive complaints are not an assay of cognition per se. Self-rated psychosocial difficulties were associated with subjective (but not objective) cognitive impairment and both subjective cognitive and psychosocial difficulties were predicted by depressive symptoms. Our findings indicate that adequate assessment of cognition in the clinical treatment of BD and in drug trials targeting cognition requires implementation of not only subjective measures but also of objective neuropsychological tests. PMID:26073281

  15. The Role of Resumptive Pronouns in Cantonese Relative Clause Acquisition

    Lau, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Resumptive pronouns are often regarded as a last-resort strategy for rescuing illicit long-distance dependencies. Previous work has demonstrated a facilitative role for resumptive pronouns in production as well as in comprehension, though not a grammatical option in the languages. This study examined whether the same pattern is found in Cantonese,…

  16. Task-Related Dynamic Division of Labor Between Anterior Temporal and Lateral Occipital Cortices in Representing Object Size

    2016-01-01

    Object size is represented by functionally distinct sectors along the ventral visual pathway. The early visual cortex encodes objects' sensory-retinal size. Subsequently, the occipitotemporal cortex computes objects' canonical size based on statistical regularities of visual features. Although the neurocomputation of size has been studied in a “bottom-up” sensory-driven framework, little is known about how perceptual size information is transformed into conceptual knowledge and how this computation is modulated by “top-down” goal-driven signals. Using continuous theta burst stimulation, we demonstrated that behavioral goal shapes the neurocognitive network underpinning object size. We manipulated the congruency of perceptual versus conceptual object size, which provides a robust behavioral probe reflecting implicit size knowledge. Neurostimulation was targeted at the lateral occipital cortex (LOC), a key region for object perception, or the anterior temporal lobe (ATL), a “hub” of supramodal conceptual processing. We observed striking contextual modulation of the neurocognitive architecture: when human participants judged perceptual size, the congruency effect was significantly attenuated by LOC stimulation but stayed resilient to ATL stimulation. By contrast, when they judged conceptual size, both LOC and ATL stimulation eradicated the otherwise robust effect. Our findings demonstrate disparate functional profiles of the LOC and ATL, providing the first evidence of a malleable network adaptively altering its division of labor with top-down states. The LOC, regardless of task demand, automatically represents “bottom-up” statistical regularities of visual conformation (reflecting typical object size), whereas the ATL contributes to this computation when the context requires semantically based linkage of visual attributes to object recognition. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In the present study, we provide compelling evidence that the

  17. The relation of object naming and other visual speech production tasks:A large scale voxel-based morphometric study

    Johnny King L. Lau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a lesion–symptom mapping analysis of visual speech production deficits in a large group (280 of stroke patients at the sub-acute stage (<120 days post-stroke. Performance on object naming was evaluated alongside three other tests of visual speech production, namely sentence production to a picture, sentence reading and nonword reading. A principal component analysis was performed on all these tests' scores and revealed a ‘shared’ component that loaded across all the visual speech production tasks and a ‘unique’ component that isolated object naming from the other three tasks. Regions for the shared component were observed in the left fronto-temporal cortices, fusiform gyrus and bilateral visual cortices. Lesions in these regions linked to both poor object naming and impairment in general visual–speech production. On the other hand, the unique naming component was potentially associated with the bilateral anterior temporal poles, hippocampus and cerebellar areas. This is in line with the models proposing that object naming relies on a left-lateralised language dominant system that interacts with a bilateral anterior temporal network. Neuropsychological deficits in object naming can reflect both the increased demands specific to the task and the more general difficulties in language processing.

  18. Fashion Objects

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2009-01-01

    This article attempts to create a framework for understanding modern fashion phenomena on the basis of Durkheim's sociology of religion. It focuses on Durkheim's conception of the relation between the cult and the sacred object, on his notion of 'exteriorisation', and on his theory of the social...... symbol in an attempt to describe the peculiar attraction of the fashion object and its social constitution. However, Durkheim's notions of cult and ritual must undergo profound changes if they are to be used in an analysis of fashion. The article tries to expand the Durkheimian cult, radically enlarging...... of the enlargement of the cult into individual behaviour....

  19. 48 CFR 1827.305 - Administration of the patent rights clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... patent rights clauses. 1827.305 Section 1827.305 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1827.305 Administration of the patent rights clauses....

  20. Object visibility alters the relative contribution of ventral visual stream and mirror neuron system to goal anticipation during action observation.

    Thioux, Marc; Keysers, Christian

    2015-01-15

    We used fMRI to study the effect of hiding the target of a grasping action on the cerebral activity of an observer whose task was to anticipate the size of the object being grasped. Activity in the putative mirror neuron system (pMNS) was higher when the target was concealed from the view of the observer and anticipating the size of the object being grasped requested paying attention to the hand kinematics. In contrast, activity in ventral visual areas outside the pMNS increased when the target was fully visible, and the performance improved in this condition. A repetition suppression analysis demonstrated that in full view, the size of the object being grasped by the actor was encoded in the ventral visual stream. Dynamic causal modeling showed that monitoring a grasping action increased the coupling between the parietal and ventral premotor nodes of the pMNS. The modulation of the functional connectivity between these nodes was correlated with the subject's capability to detect the size of hidden objects. In full view, synaptic activity increased within the ventral visual stream, and the connectivity with the pMNS was diminished. The re-enactment of observed actions in the pMNS is crucial when interpreting others' actions requires paying attention to the body kinematics. However, when the context permits, visual-spatial information processing may complement pMNS computations for improved action anticipation accuracy. PMID:25462688

  1. Teaching Picture-to-Object Relations in Picture-Based Requesting by Children with Autism: A Comparison between Error Prevention and Error Correction Teaching Procedures

    Carr, D.; Felce, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Children who have a combination of language and developmental disabilities with autism often experience major difficulties in learning relations between objects and their graphic representations. Therefore, they would benefit from teaching procedures that minimize their difficulties in acquiring these relations. This study compared two…

  2. The Description Of Noun Clauses Found In The Jakarta Post Magazine.

    Utami, Erlina

    2011-01-01

    A working paper entitled “The Description of Noun Clauses Found in The Jakarta Post Magazine” is about the use of noun clause in sentences contained in the articles The Jakarta Post magazine. According to Jayanthi, noun clause is a group of words which contains a subject and predicate of its own and does the work of a noun. According to Suryadi and Junaida, noun clause can be classified into four kinds, namely: statement, question, request, and exclamation, where question is ...

  3. 48 CFR 15.204-3 - Part II-Contract Clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Part II-Contract Clauses... Information 15.204-3 Part II—Contract Clauses. Section I, Contract clauses. The contracting officer shall... uniform contract format. An index may be inserted if this section's format is particularly complex....

  4. Syntactic and Semantic Coordination in Finite Complement-Clause Constructions: A Diary-Based Case Study

    Köymen, Bahar; Lieven, Elena; Brandt, Silke

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the coordination of matrix and subordinate clauses within finite complement-clause constructions. The data come from diary and audio recordings which include the utterances produced by an American English-speaking child, L, between the ages 1;08 and 3;05. We extracted all the finite complement-clause constructions that L…

  5. 48 CFR 1852.301 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix).

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). 1852.301 Section 1852.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... and Clause Matrix 1852.301 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix)....

  6. 48 CFR 52.301 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix).

    2010-10-01

    ... and Clause Matrix 52.301 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). Note: The FAR matrix is not carried in the CFR. It is available in the loose-leaf edition. ... and contract clauses (Matrix). 52.301 Section 52.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  7. THE COMPLEX CLAUSE IN BORUCA LA ORACIÓN COMPLEJA EN LA LENGUA BORUCA

    Damaris Castro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the complex clause in Boruca, a Chibchan language once spoken in the southern territories on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The present study concentrates on the behavior of complex clauses, following a major distinction between paratactic and hypotactic constructions. Paratactic constructions are divided into asyndetic and syndetic constructions. The latter are quite frequent and it is common to find the syndetons: mang, ní, ihchí and iné in the combination of sentences in regular speech. Hypotactic constructions also have asyndetic and syndetic constructions usually functioning as object complements. There is also evidence for reported speech, indirect questions and adverbial clauses (classified at least into seven different types.El artículo describe la oración compleja del boruca, una lengua chibcha que se habló en los territorios del Pacífico Sur en Costa Rica. El estudio se centra en el comportamiento de las proposiciones complejas, a partir de la distinción principal entre construcciones paratácticas e hipotácticas. Las construcciones paratácticas se dividen en sindéticas y asindéticas. Estas últimas son bastante frecuentes, y el uso de los conectores mang, ní, ihchí e iné es también bastante utilizado en la combinación de frases del lenguaje común. Las construcciones hipotácticas también presentan asindesis y sindesis, las cuales suelen funcionar como complementos de objeto. Hay también evidencia de discurso directo e indirecto, preguntas indirectas y construcciones adverbiales (clasificadas en siete tipos diferentes.

  8. Orphans of the 'Real': II. The future of object relations theory in the treatment of the psychoses and other primitive mental disorders.

    Grotstein, J S

    1995-01-01

    Objective relations theory is a broad, multifaceted concept that covers a number of differing paradigms. The author highlights the historical development of this concept. Originally developed by Freud and Abraham, it gradually became a shibboleth that identified both the Kleinian and the Independent schools in Great Britain and the object relations school within the American school of ego psychology. The two British schools differed between each other and from the American school. Among these schools of thought, two major paradigms have emerged: (1) the one-person psychoanalytic model, and (2) the two-person model. More recently, derivatives of the two-person model have emerged as the schools of relationism, self psychology, and intersubjectivity. In addition, the contributions of the Lacanian school have altered concepts about the fundamental nature of object relations. What is consequently at issue in terms of the psychoanalytic conception and treatment of psychoses and primitive mental disorders (with patients suffering from being "orphans of the 'Real'") is (1) the differing conceptions of what is meant by internal objects, part-objects, selfobjects, and object-representations, and (2) the differing conceptions of unconscious mental life. PMID:7550057

  9. Principle,Method of Object-Relation Hypermedia Data Model and Its Application in the Multimedia Spatial Data Management

    2000-01-01

    In this paper,a new multimedia data model,namely object-relatior~ hypermedia data model(O-RHDM)which is an advanced and effective multimedia data model is proposed and designed based on the extension and integration of non first normal form (NF2) multimedia data model.Its principle,mathematical description,algebra operation,organization method and store model are also discussed.And its specific application example in the multimedia spatial data management is given combining with the Hainan multimedia touring information system

  10. Disability in major depression related to self-rated and objectively-measured cognitive deficits: a preliminary study

    Scott Elizabeth M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although major depression (MD is associated with high levels of disability, the relationships between cognitive dysfunction and self-rated disability are poorly understood. This study examined the relationships between self-rated disability in persons with MD and both self-rated and objectively-measured cognitive functioning. Methods Twenty-one persons with MD and 21 control participants underwent neuropsychological assessment and z-scores representing deviations from control performance were calculated and averaged across the domains of psychomotor speed, initial learning, memory retention and executive function. Self-ratings of cognitive deficits (SRCDs were reported on a 6-point scale for overall rating of cognitive change, speed of thinking, concentration, and short-term memory. Disability scores for self-rated physical, mental-health and functional (ie. days out of role disability were computed from the Brief-Disability Questionnaire and the SF-12 'mental component' subscale. Results Persons with MD had a mean age of 53.9 years (SD = 11.0, 76% female and had moderate to high depression severity (mean HDRS 21.7, sd = 4.4. As expected, depression severity was a strong predictor of physical (r = 0.7, p Conclusion While depression severity is associated with disability, the contributions of both self-rated and objectively-measured cognitive deficits are substantial and contribute uniquely and differentially to various forms of disability. Efforts directed at reducing cognitive deficits in depression may have the potential to reduce disability.

  11. 48 CFR 916.203-4 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... accordance with (FAR) 48 CFR 16.203-4. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 916.203-4 Section 916.203-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING...

  12. 48 CFR 1427.201-2 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1427.201-2 Section 1427.201-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201-2 Contract...

  13. 48 CFR 1535.007-70 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.), the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.), the Safe Drinking Water Act (42 U.S.C. 300f et seq.), the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act... shall insert the clause at 48 CFR 1552.235-71, Treatment of Confidential Business Information,...

  14. 48 CFR 2009.570-5 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... nature of the proposed contract that an organizational conflict of interest exists, the contracting... COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational Conflicts of Interest 2009.570-5... forth in 2009.570-4(b) must include the clause entitled, “Contractor Organizational Conflicts...

  15. 48 CFR 2409.507 - Solicitation provisions and contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Solicitation provisions and contract clause. 2409.507 Section 2409.507 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational...

  16. PeneLoPe, a Parallel Clause-Freezer Solver

    Audemard, Gilles; Hoessen, Benoît; Jabbour, Said; Lagniez, Jean-Marie; Piette, Cédric

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a short system description of our new portfolio-based solver called PeneLoPe, based on ManySat. Particularly, this solver focuses on collaboration between threads, providing different policies for exporting and importing learnt clauses between CDCL searches. Moreover, different restart strategies are also available, together with a deterministic mode.

  17. Arbitration clauses in contracts between providers and patients.

    Buckner, F

    1998-01-01

    Arbitration clauses in contracts between health care providers and their patients can offer benefits to both parties. However, practitioners need to ensure that their contracts will not be judged unenforceable by a court. This article outlines the contractual and constitutional issues involved in arbitration agreements and provides advice to practitioners on drafting such an agreement. PMID:10662267

  18. 17 CFR Appendix B to Part 160 - Sample Clauses

    2010-04-01

    ... FINANCIAL INFORMATION Pt. 160, App. B Appendix B to Part 160—Sample Clauses This appendix only applies to... out of disclosures to nonaffiliated third parties, you may . A-7—Confidentiality and Security (All... policies and practices with respect to protecting the confidentiality and security of nonpublic...

  19. THE EFFICACY OF THE ARBITRATION CLAUSE IN A SIMULATED ACT

    Tudor Vlad RĂDULESCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the effects that an arbitration clause can still produce when it is contained in a simulated operation, whether it is in the apparent act or in the secret one, depending on the forms of simulation.

  20. 48 CFR 27.409 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses

    2010-10-01

    ... business innovation research contract (see paragraph (h) of this section); (iv) To be performed outside the... determines, in accordance with 27.404-2(b), to adopt the alternate definition of “Limited Rights Data” in... the contract is a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, insert the clause at...

  1. 48 CFR 803.570-2 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 803.570-2 Section 803.570-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Other Improper Business Practices 803.570-2...

  2. 48 CFR 3.502-3 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 3.502-3 Section 3.502-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Other Improper Business Practices 3.502-3...

  3. 48 CFR 503.570-2 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Other Improper Business Practices 503.570-2 Contract... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 503.570-2..., including acquisitions of leasehold interests in real property, if the contract amount is expected to...

  4. 48 CFR 3.503-2 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 3.503-2 Section 3.503-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Other Improper Business Practices 3.503-2...

  5. 48 CFR 815.304-71 - Solicitation provision and clause.

    2010-10-01

    ..., Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned and Veteran-Owned Small Business Evaluation Factors, in competitively... include VAAR clause 852.215-70, Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned and Veteran-Owned Small Business Evaluation... AFFAIRS CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection...

  6. 48 CFR 16.506 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... business set-aside, use the clause with its Alternate III (but see subparagraph (5) below). (5) If the... may be acquired on a brand-name basis; and (ii) Involves a partial small business set-aside, use the... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts...

  7. 48 CFR 15.408 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... contract line item prices and the total contract price. You must attach cost-element breakdowns for each... and contract clauses. 15.408 Section 15.408 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing...

  8. 48 CFR 32.206 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. 32.206 Section 32.206 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION...) of this section); (iii) Liquidation of those financing payments by delivery payments (see...

  9. 48 CFR 32.502-4 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 32.502-4 Section 32.502-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING... concerns for the progress payment and liquidation rate indicated. (3) If an unusual progress payment...

  10. Analysis and Transformation Tools for Constrained Horn Clause Verification

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    Several techniques and tools have been developed for verification of properties expressed as Horn clauses with constraints over a background theory (CHC). Current CHC verification tools implement intricate algorithms and are often limited to certain subclasses of CHC problems. Our aim in this wor...

  11. Decomposition by tree dimension in Horn clause verification

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick; Ganty, Pierre

    In this paper we investigate the use of the concept of tree dimension in Horn clause analysis and verification. The dimension of a tree is a measure of its non-linearity - for example a list of any length has dimension zero while a complete binary tree has dimension equal to its height. We apply ...

  12. 48 CFR 970.2301-2 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ..., Renewable Energy Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2301-2 Contract clauses. (a... facilities, including elements of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), the Power Marketing...-2 Section 970.2301-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY...

  13. 48 CFR 3427.470 - Publication and publicity clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publication and publicity clause. 3427.470 Section 3427.470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Data and Copyrights 3427.470 Publication and...

  14. 48 CFR 3427.472 - Advertising of awards clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising of awards clause. 3427.472 Section 3427.472 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Data...

  15. 48 CFR 3027.305 - Administration of Patent Rights Clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of Patent... SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 3027.305 Administration of Patent Rights Clauses....

  16. 48 CFR 50.206 - Solicitation provisions and contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Support Anti-terrorism by Fostering Effective Technologies Act of 2002 50.206 Solicitation provisions and contract clause. (a) Insert the provision at 52.250-2, SAFETY Act Coverage Not Applicable, in solicitations if— (1) The...

  17. The Verb Always Leaves IP in V2 Clauses

    Schwartz, Bonnie D.; Vikner, Sten

    2007-01-01

    The verb second (V2) phenomenon, as it is found in the Germanic languages, has been the focus of much attention within recent syntactic research. In most of the literature on V2, it is assumed that the verb in all V2 clauses has moved to a head position outside IP, e.g. Cº. In Schwartz & Vikner...

  18. A multi-objective genetic algorithm for a mixed-model assembly U-line balancing type-I problem considering human-related issues, training, and learning

    Rabbani, Masoud; Montazeri, Mona; Farrokhi-Asl, Hamed; Rafiei, Hamed

    2016-07-01

    Mixed-model assembly lines are increasingly accepted in many industrial environments to meet the growing trend of greater product variability, diversification of customer demands, and shorter life cycles. In this research, a new mathematical model is presented considering balancing a mixed-model U-line and human-related issues, simultaneously. The objective function consists of two separate components. The first part of the objective function is related to balance problem. In this part, objective functions are minimizing the cycle time, minimizing the number of workstations, and maximizing the line efficiencies. The second part is related to human issues and consists of hiring cost, firing cost, training cost, and salary. To solve the presented model, two well-known multi-objective evolutionary algorithms, namely non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm and multi-objective particle swarm optimization, have been used. A simple solution representation is provided in this paper to encode the solutions. Finally, the computational results are compared and analyzed.

  19. Multi-objective optimisation of a capacitated and dynamic multi-item inventory system using physical(-related) metaheuristics

    Zizler, Markus Albert

    2008-01-01

    The dissertation is about the optimisation of an inventory control system. On the one hand a forecasting model was developed und with physical optimisation methods a forecast under diverse contraints like capacity or budget restrictions was made. On the other hand the main part of the dissertation was about the optimisation of inventory control policies. Different policies have been evaluated by a cost or energy function and optimised with physical (-related) metaheuristics. Above that analog...

  20. Clinical Significance of Umami Taste and Umami-Related Gene Expression Analysis for the Objective Assessment of Umami Taste Loss.

    Shoji, Noriaki; Satoh-Ku Riwada, Shizuko; Sasano, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Loss of umami taste sensation affects quality of life and causes weight loss and health problems, particularly in the elderly. We recently expanded the use of the filter paper disc method to include assessment of umami taste sensitivity, using monosodium glutamate as the test solution. This test showed high diagnostic performance for discriminating between normal taste function and disorders in sensation of the umami taste, according to established cut-off values. The test also revealed: (1) some elderly patients suffered from specific loss of umami taste sensation with preservation of the other four taste sensations (sweet, salty, sour, and bitter); (2) umami taste disorder caused a loss of appetite and decline in weight, resulting in poor health; (3) appetite, weight and overall health improved after appropriate treatment for umami taste disorder. Because of the subjective nature of the test, however, it may not be useful for patients who cannot express which taste sensation is induced by a tastant, such as those with dementia. Most recently, using tissue samples collected from the tongue by scraping the foliate papillae, we showed that evaluation of umami taste receptor gene expression may be clinically useful for the objective genetic diagnosis of umami taste disorders. PMID:26881442

  1. Object-oriented image analysis and change detection of land-use on Tenerife related to socio-economic conditions

    Naumann, Simone; Siegmund, Alexander

    2004-10-01

    The island Tenerife is characterized by an increasing tourism, which causes an enormous change of the socio-economic situation and a rural exodus. This development leads - beside for example sociocultural issues - to fallow land, decreasing settlements, land wasting etc., as well as to an economic and ecological problem. This causes to a growing interest in geoecological aspects and to an increasing demand for an adequate monitoring database. In order to study the change of land use and land cover, the technology of remote sensing (LANDSAT 3 MSS and 7 ETM+, orthophotos) and geographical information systems were used to analyze the spatial pattern and its spatial temporal changes of land use from end of the 70s to the present in different scales. Because of the heterogeneous landscape and the unsatisfactory experience with pixel-based classification of the same area, object-oriented image analysis techniques have been applied to classify the remote sensed data. A post-classification application was implemented to detect spatial and categorical land use and land cover changes, which have been clipped with the socio-economic data within GIS to derive the driving forces of the changes and their variability in time and space.

  2. Multi Objective Optimization of Multi Wall Carbon Nanotube Based Nanogrinding Wheel Using Grey Relational and Regression Analysis

    Sethuramalingam, Prabhu; Vinayagam, Babu Kupusamy

    2016-07-01

    Carbon nanotube mixed grinding wheel is used in the grinding process to analyze the surface characteristics of AISI D2 tool steel material. Till now no work has been carried out using carbon nanotube based grinding wheel. Carbon nanotube based grinding wheel has excellent thermal conductivity and good mechanical properties which are used to improve the surface finish of the workpiece. In the present study, the multi response optimization of process parameters like surface roughness and metal removal rate of grinding process of single wall carbon nanotube (CNT) in mixed cutting fluids is undertaken using orthogonal array with grey relational analysis. Experiments are performed with designated grinding conditions obtained using the L9 orthogonal array. Based on the results of the grey relational analysis, a set of optimum grinding parameters is obtained. Using the analysis of variance approach the significant machining parameters are found. Empirical model for the prediction of output parameters has been developed using regression analysis and the results are compared empirically, for conditions of with and without CNT grinding wheel in grinding process.

  3. Multi Objective Optimization of Multi Wall Carbon Nanotube Based Nanogrinding Wheel Using Grey Relational and Regression Analysis

    Sethuramalingam, Prabhu; Vinayagam, Babu Kupusamy

    2016-05-01

    Carbon nanotube mixed grinding wheel is used in the grinding process to analyze the surface characteristics of AISI D2 tool steel material. Till now no work has been carried out using carbon nanotube based grinding wheel. Carbon nanotube based grinding wheel has excellent thermal conductivity and good mechanical properties which are used to improve the surface finish of the workpiece. In the present study, the multi response optimization of process parameters like surface roughness and metal removal rate of grinding process of single wall carbon nanotube (CNT) in mixed cutting fluids is undertaken using orthogonal array with grey relational analysis. Experiments are performed with designated grinding conditions obtained using the L9 orthogonal array. Based on the results of the grey relational analysis, a set of optimum grinding parameters is obtained. Using the analysis of variance approach the significant machining parameters are found. Empirical model for the prediction of output parameters has been developed using regression analysis and the results are compared empirically, for conditions of with and without CNT grinding wheel in grinding process.

  4. Experimental Effects and Individual Differences in Linear Mixed Models: Estimating the Relation of Spatial, Object, and Attraction Effects in Visual Attention

    ReinholdKliegl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear mixed models (LMMs provide a still underused methodological perspective on combining experimental and individual-differences research. Here we illustrate this approach with two-rectangle cueing in visual attention (Egly, Driver, & Rafal, 1994. We replicated previous experimental cue-validity effects relating to a spatial shift of attention within an object (spatial effect, to attention switch between objects (object effect, and to the attraction of attention towards the display centroid (attraction effect, taking also into account the design-inherent imbalance of valid and other trials. We simultaneously estimated variance/covariance components of subject-related random effects for these spatial, object, and attraction effects in addition to their mean RTs. The spatial effect showed a strong positive correlation with mean RT and a strong negative correlation with the attraction effect. The analysis of individual differences suggests that slow subjects engage attention more strongly at the cued location than fast subjects. We compare this joint LMM analysis of experimental effects and associated subject-related variances and correlations with two alternative, frequently used, statistical procedures.

  5. Neural mechanisms of the observation of human and non-human object touch in children: An event-related potential study.

    Galilee, Alena; McCleery, Joseph P

    2016-03-01

    Previous behavioural research on the development of self-other tactile processing and perception suggests that this system may develop in a somewhat protracted manner relative to other aspects of social development. Neuroimaging research has shown that somatosensory mechanisms are activated when adults observe another person or object being touched. In this study, we measured event-related potentials from 4- to 5-year-old children to investigate the development of the neural correlates of the observation of human and object touch. Participants were presented with video clips of an arm or a cylindrical object being touched. Touch versus non-touch effects were observed in the amplitudes of the LSW component (600-700 ms) measured from electrodes over somatosensory region. Additionally, human versus non-human stimulus effects were reflected in the amplitudes of the parietal-central N100 component, as well as in the latencies of the N170 component recorded from parietal-occipital electrodes in children, as in adults in a previous study using this same paradigm. These findings provide evidence that relatively mature tactile mirroring mechanisms are activated during the observation of touch in children, and further suggest the possibility that these mechanisms are not particularly slow in their development relative to other aspects of social cognition. PMID:26659431

  6. Commerce international, clause sociale et développement durable

    Reis, Patrice

    2010-01-01

    La dimension sociale du développement durable peut être illustrée par les débats récurrents portant sur l'insertion d'une clause sociale dans le cadre des règles de droit du commerce international portée par l'OMC. Cependant cette insertion s'avérant de plus en plus difficile, le cadre multilatéral des négociation commerciales internationales tend à être mis de coté par les Etats afin de privilégier un cadre bilatéral où la clause sociale peut plus facilement être utilisée. Article objet d'un...

  7. A model for calculating the errors of 2D bulk analysis relative to the true 3D bulk composition of an object, with application to chondrules

    Hezel, Dominik C.

    2007-09-01

    Certain problems in Geosciences require knowledge of the chemical bulk composition of objects, such as, for example, minerals or lithic clasts. This 3D bulk chemical composition (bcc) is often difficult to obtain, but if the object is prepared as a thin or thick polished section a 2D bcc can be easily determined using, for example, an electron microprobe. The 2D bcc contains an error relative to the true 3D bcc that is unknown. Here I present a computer program that calculates this error, which is represented as the standard deviation of the 2D bcc relative to the real 3D bcc. A requirement for such calculations is an approximate structure of the 3D object. In petrological applications, the known fabrics of rocks facilitate modeling. The size of the standard deviation depends on (1) the modal abundance of the phases, (2) the element concentration differences between phases and (3) the distribution of the phases, i.e. the homogeneity/heterogeneity of the object considered. A newly introduced parameter " τ" is used as a measure of this homogeneity/heterogeneity. Accessory phases, which do not necessarily appear in 2D thin sections, are a second source of error, in particular if they contain high concentrations of specific elements. An abundance of only 1 vol% of an accessory phase may raise the 3D bcc of an element by up to a factor of ˜8. The code can be queried as to whether broad beam, point, line or area analysis technique is best for obtaining 2D bcc. No general conclusion can be deduced, as the error rates of these techniques depend on the specific structure of the object considered. As an example chondrules—rapidly solidified melt droplets of chondritic meteorites—are used. It is demonstrated that 2D bcc may be used to reveal trends in the chemistry of 3D objects.

  8. Renegotiation, Collective Action Clauses and Sovereign Debt Markets

    José Wynne; Federico Weinschelbaum

    2004-01-01

    Collective action clauses (CACs) are provisions specifying that a supermajority of bondholders can change the terms of a bond. We study how CACs determine governments’ fiscal incentives, sovereign bond prices and default probabilities in environments with and without contingent debt and IMF presence. We claim that CACs are likely to be an irrelevant dimension of debt contracts in current sovereign debt markets because of the variety of instruments utilized by sovereigns and the implicit IMF...

  9. Operational Semantics of Resolution in Horn Clause Logic

    Fu, Peng; Komendantskaya, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study of operational and type-theoretic properties of different resolution strategies in Horn clause logic. We distinguish four different kinds of resolution: resolution by unification (SLD-resolution), resolution by term-matching, the recently introduced structural resolution, and partial (or lazy) resolution. We express them all uniformly as abstract reduction systems, which allows us to undertake a thorough comparative analysis of their properties. To match this small...

  10. Integrating Conflict Driven Clause Learning to Local Search

    Audenard, Gilles; Lagniez, Jean-Marie; Mazure, Bertrand; Saïs, Lakhdar

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces SatHyS (SAT HYbrid Solver), a novel hybrid approach for propositional satisfiability. It combines local search and conflict driven clause learning (CDCL) scheme. Each time the local search part reaches a local minimum, the CDCL is launched. For SAT problems it behaves like a tabu list, whereas for UNSAT ones, the CDCL part tries to focus on minimum unsatisfiable sub-formula (MUS). Experimental results show good performances on many classes of SAT instances from the las...

  11. Using Boolean Constraint Propagation for Sub-clause Deduction

    Darras, Sylvain; Dequen, Gilles; Devendeville, Laure; Mazure, Bertrand; Ostrowski, Richard; Sais, Lahkdar

    2005-01-01

    Boolean Constraint Propagation (BCP) is recognized as one of the most use- ful technique for efficient satisfiability checking. In this paper a new extension of the scope of boolean constraint propagation is proposed. It makes an original use of BCP to achieve further reduction of boolean formulas. Considering the impli- cation graph generated by the constraint propagation process as a resolution tree, sub-clauses from the original formula can be deduced. Then, we show how such extension can ...

  12. The Appositive NP-Complement Clause and Restructuring

    Inada, Shun'ichiro

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines properties of Japanese Af-ga-aru construction involving an appositive NP-complement clause and presents a new approach to restructuring. The new analysis can explain the monoclausality of. sentences with an appositive NP-complement as well as that of restructuring constructions with a VP-complement. I will show that the former construction has the same properties as the latter while the former cannot be restructured at base structure or by overt operations based on two poi...

  13. Objective thermomechanics

    Fülöp, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    An irreversible thermodynamical theory of solids is presented where the kinematic quantities are defined in an automatically objective way. Namely, auxiliary elements like reference frame, reference time and reference configuration are avoided by formulating the motion of the continuum on spacetime directly, utilizing the Weyl-Matolcsi description of spacetime. This restricts the range of definable kinematic quantities heavily. Solids are distinguished from fluids by possessing not only an instantaneous metric tensor but a relaxed metric, too, that represents the natural geometric structure of the solid. The comparison of the instantaneous metric to the relaxed one is the basis of the definition of the elastic state variable, the elastic deformedness tensor. Thermal expansion is conceived as the temperature dependence of the relaxed metric. As opposed to this reversible type of change, plasticity means an irreversible change in the relaxed metric, and is describable via a plastic change rate tensor. The relat...

  14. 48 CFR 27.303 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... dedicated to that Department's naval nuclear propulsion or weapons related programs. (2) If an agency... an agency's “exceptional circumstances” authority, the contracting officer must comply with 37...

  15. Objective assessment of urban built environment related to physical activity — development, reliability and validity of the China Urban Built Environment Scan Tool (CUBEST)

    SU, MENG; Du, Yu-kun; Liu, Qing-min; Ren, Yan-jun; Kawachi, Ichiro; Lv, Jun; Li, Li-ming

    2014-01-01

    Background Some aspects of the neighborhood built environment may influence residents’ physical activity, which in turn, affects their health. This study aimed to develop an urban built environment evaluation tool and conduct necessary reliability and validity tests. Methods A 41-item urban built environment scan tool was developed to objectively assess the neighborhood built environment features related to physical activity. Six neighborhoods in Hangzhou were selected from three types of adm...

  16. Objective assessment of urban built environment related to physical activity — development, reliability and validity of the China Urban Built Environment Scan Tool (CUBEST)

    SU, MENG; Du, Yu-kun; Liu, Qing-min; Ren, Yan-jun; Kawachi, Ichiro; Lv, Jun; Li, Li-ming

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some aspects of the neighborhood built environment may influence residents’ physical activity, which in turn, affects their health. This study aimed to develop an urban built environment evaluation tool and conduct necessary reliability and validity tests. Methods: A 41-item urban built environment scan tool was developed to objectively assess the neighborhood built environment features related to physical activity. Six neighborhoods in Hangzhou were selected from three types of a...

  17. The Composite OLAP-Object Data Model

    Pourabbas, Elaheh; Shoshani, Arie

    2005-12-07

    In this paper, we define an OLAP-Object model that combines the main characteristics of OLAP and Object data models in order to achieve their functionalities in a common framework. We classify three different object classes: primitive, regular and composite. Then, we define a query language which uses the path concept in order to facilitate data navigation and data manipulation. The main feature of the proposed language is an anchor. It allows us to fix dynamically an object class (primitive, regular or composite) along the paths over the OLAP-Object data model for expressing queries. The queries can be formulated on objects, composite objects and combination of both. The power of the proposed query language is investigated through multiple query examples. The semantic of different clauses and syntax of the proposed language are investigated.

  18. Can a medical need clause help manage the growing costs of prescription drugs in the EU?

    Brooks, Eleanor; Geyer, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Innovation in the development of new drugs has to balance the needs of health actors and administrators, the pharmaceutical industry and patients. Differing perspectives on what constitutes an innovation, where research and development should be directed and how new drugs should be evaluated and priced cause ongoing tensions within the regulatory framework. In the current climate, where Europe's health systems face rising demand for health services and increasingly restricted resources, the efficiency of pharmaceutical regulation and drug development is under even greater scrutiny. How can regulation foster innovation and industry growth while also serving the public health needs of society, and what is the EU's role in pursuing this objective? Drawing on a provision which formerly existed in Norwegian pharmaceutical legislation, this article explores the potential of a medical need clause (MNC) in addressing these issues. In restricting market authorisations to those drugs that offer an added therapeutic value, might a MNC foster innovation and spending efficiency in Europe's health systems? PMID:26333920

  19. 77 FR 60667 - EPAAR Clause for Printing

    2012-10-04

    ..., and Media Relations is responsible for the review of materials generated under a contract published or... Executive Order (EO) 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993) and therefore, not subject to review under the EO... ``Federalism'' (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999), requires EPA to develop an accountable process to...

  20. Licensing clausal complements : The case of Russian čto-clauses

    Knyazev, M

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation describes and explains the distribution of Russian complement clauses with the complementizer čto. It is shown that complement clauses with čto display distributional restrictions that are not manifested by their English and Dutch counterparts and that do not follow from the standard account of complement clauses in the literature. Two classes of environments are discussed where such restrictions are observed, namely, complements of speech act verbs in their non-agentive use...

  1. Predicted radionuclide release from reactor-related unenclosed solid objects dumped in the Sea of Japan and the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka

    Between 1978 and 1991 reactor-related solid radioactive waste was dumped by the former Soviet Union as unenclosed objects in the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, and the Sea of Japan. This paper presented estimates for the current (1994) inventory of activation and corrosion products contained in the reactor-related unenclosed solid objects. In addition, simple models derived for prediction of radionuclide release from marine reactors dumped in the Kara Sea are applied to certain of the dumped objects to provide estimates of radionuclide release to the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, and Sea of Japan environments. For the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, total release rates start below 0.01 GBq yr-1 and over 1,000 years, fall to 100 Bq yr-1. In the Sea of Japan, the total release rate starts just above 1 GBq yr-1, dropping off to a level less than 0.1 GBq yr-1, extending past the year 4,000

  2. BL Lacertae objects

    The properties of BL Lacertae objects are discussed including their spectra, variability, and brightness. The historical development of observation, and the conclusion that these objects are possibly quasar-related objects rather than variable stars as originally supposed are treated. The possible mechanisms for the unusual luminosity of these objects are considered

  3. NON-COMPETITION CLAUSES IN COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS

    MIHAELA IRINA IONESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We begin with an analysis of areas where rivalry between economic agents can not show (any act of competition committed in this area drawing the liability of the author, we will then analyze competition in relations between the trader and servant or other employees and continue with the analysis of the legal ban on competition in the limited liability companies and joint stock companies. So, the relevant provisions of Law 31/1990 are reviewed, views of legal doctrine and practice of judicial rulings on the nature and purpose of the relevant provisions referred to, their scope, applicability of statutory prohibition against competition in the profile activity of the company, the prohibition in the liquidation phase, procedural methods which can cover damage caused to the creditor’s violated rights, as well as statute of limitations for the right to action and prescription.

  4. Approaching the Post-Newtonian Regime with Numerical Relativity: A Compact-Object Binary Simulation Spanning 350 Gravitational-Wave Cycles.

    Szilágyi, Béla; Blackman, Jonathan; Buonanno, Alessandra; Taracchini, Andrea; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A; Chu, Tony; Kidder, Lawrence E; Pan, Yi

    2015-07-17

    We present the first numerical-relativity simulation of a compact-object binary whose gravitational waveform is long enough to cover the entire frequency band of advanced gravitational-wave detectors, such as LIGO, Virgo, and KAGRA, for mass ratio 7 and total mass as low as 45.5M_{⊙}. We find that effective-one-body models, either uncalibrated or calibrated against substantially shorter numerical-relativity waveforms at smaller mass ratios, reproduce our new waveform remarkably well, with a negligible loss in detection rate due to modeling error. In contrast, post-Newtonian inspiral waveforms and existing calibrated phenomenological inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms display greater disagreement with our new simulation. The disagreement varies substantially depending on the specific post-Newtonian approximant used. PMID:26230780

  5. Integrating Conflict Driven Clause Learning to Local Search

    Audenard, Gilles; Mazure, Bertrand; Saïs, Lakhdar

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces SatHyS (SAT HYbrid Solver), a novel hybrid approach for propositional satisfiability. It combines local search and conflict driven clause learning (CDCL) scheme. Each time the local search part reaches a local minimum, the CDCL is launched. For SAT problems it behaves like a tabu list, whereas for UNSAT ones, the CDCL part tries to focus on minimum unsatisfiable sub-formula (MUS). Experimental results show good performances on many classes of SAT instances from the last SAT competitions.

  6. Integrating Conflict Driven Clause Learning to Local Search

    Gilles Audenard

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces SatHyS (SAT HYbrid Solver, a novel hybrid approach for propositional satisfiability. It combines local search and conflict driven clause learning (CDCL scheme. Each time the local search part reaches a local minimum, the CDCL is launched. For SAT problems it behaves like a tabu list, whereas for UNSAT ones, the CDCL part tries to focus on minimum unsatisfiable sub-formula (MUS. Experimental results show good performances on many classes of SAT instances from the last SAT competitions.

  7. Object theatre

    Ryöppy, Merja; Heiberg, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how four perspectives from Object Theatre can enhance interaction design in the early stages of a product design process. We propose these perspectives as a playful approach for designers to gain embodied understanding and perception of objects to enable new design...... possibilities to emerge. We present a study in which the Object Theatre approach is applied to redesign socially shared everyday products that are located in public places. This project demonstrates how Object Theatre offers a broad perspective form which to explore and present product interactions. In...

  8. 78 FR 48397 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Transportation (DFARS...

    2013-08-08

    ...-city or intra-area movement, is contemplated. (1) Use the clause Requirements--Basic if the acquisition..., or for performance of intra-city or intra-area movement, use the following provisions, clauses, and... facilities; ships; floating equipment and vessels of every character, type, and description, with...

  9. 48 CFR 639.107-70 - DOSAR solicitation provision and contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... provision and contract clause. 639.107-70 Section 639.107-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...-70 DOSAR solicitation provision and contract clause. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the... electronic access to Department information that directly supports the mission of the Department. (b)...

  10. 48 CFR 339.201-70 - Required provision and contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... contract clause. 339.201-70 Section 339.201-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Electronic and Information Technology 339.201-70 Required provision and contract clause. (a) The Contracting Officer shall insert...

  11. 77 FR 50454 - Department of the Treasury Acquisition Regulations; Contract Clause on Minority and Women...

    2012-08-21

    ... 48 CFR Chapter 10 RIN 1505-AC40 Department of the Treasury Acquisition Regulations; Contract Clause... proposing to amend the Department of the Treasury Acquisition Regulation (DTAR) to include a contract clause..., 1500 Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20220. Fax and email comments will not be...

  12. Rahft: A Tool for Verifying Horn Clauses Using Abstract Interpretation and Finite Tree Automata

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick; Morales, José F.

    2016-01-01

    We present Rahft (Refinement of Abstraction in Horn clauses using Finite Tree automata), an abstraction refinement tool for verifying safety properties of programs expressed as Horn clauses. The paper describes the architecture, strength and weakness, implementation and usage aspects of the tool...

  13. 21 CFR 571.115 - Application of the cancer clause of section 409 of the act.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application of the cancer clause of section 409 of the act. 571.115 Section 571.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Administrative Actions on Applications § 571.115 Application of the cancer clause of section 409 of the act....

  14. 21 CFR 70.50 - Application of the cancer clause of section 721 of the act.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application of the cancer clause of section 721 of the act. 70.50 Section 70.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.50 Application of the cancer clause...

  15. Convex polyhedral abstractions, specialisation and property-based predicate splitting in Horn clause verification

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    We present an approach to constrained Horn clause (CHC) verification combining three techniques: abstract interpretation over a domain of convex polyhedra, specialisation of the constraints in CHCs using abstract interpretation of query-answer transformed clauses, and refinement by splitting pred...

  16. 48 CFR 1352.301 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix).

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). 1352.301 Section 1352.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Matrix 1352.301 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). ER08MR10.000 ER08MR10.001...

  17. Cause Clue Clauses: Error Localization using Maximum Satisfiability

    Jose, Manu

    2010-01-01

    Much effort is spent everyday by programmers trying to reduce long, failing execution traces to the cause of the error. We present a new algorithm for error cause localization based on a reduction to the maximal satisfiability problem (MAX SAT), which asks what is the maximum number of clauses of a Boolean formula that can be satisfied by an assignment. At an intuitive level, our algorithm takes as input a program and a failing test, and comprises the following three steps. First, as in symbolic execution, we encode a trace of a program as a Boolean trace formula which is satisfiable iff the trace is feasible. Second, for a failing program execution (e.g., one that violates an assertion or a post condition), we construct an unsatisfiable formula by taking the trace formula and additionally asserting that the input is the failing test and that the post-condition holds. Third, using MAX-SAT, we find a maximal set of clauses in this formula that can be satisfied together, and output the complement set as a poten...

  18. 48 CFR 1832.1110 - Solicitation provision and contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), and (c)).

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT FINANCING Electronic Funds Transfer 1832.1110 Solicitation provision and contract clauses. (NASA... contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), and (c)). 1832.1110 Section 1832.1110 Federal... the clause at FAR 52.232-34, Payment by Electronic Funds Transfer—Other than Central...

  19. A surface electromyography based objective method to identify patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain, presenting a flexion related movement control impairment.

    Van Damme, Benedicte; Stevens, Veerle; Perneel, Christiaan; Van Tiggelen, Damien; Neyens, Ellen; Duvigneaud, Nathalie; Moerman, Luc; Danneels, Lieven

    2014-12-01

    Movement control impairments (MCI) are often present in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain (NS-CLBP). Therefore, movement control exercises are widely used to rehabilitate patients. However, the objective assessment remains difficult. The purpose of this study was to develop a statistical model, based on logistic regression analysis, to differentiate patients with NS-CLBP presenting a flexion-related MCI from healthy subjects. This model is based on trunk muscle activation patterns measured by surface electromyography (sEMG), during movement control exercises. Sixty-three healthy male subjects and 36 male patients with a flexion-related MCI participated in this study. Muscle activity of the internal obliques, the external obliques, the lumbar multifidus and the thoracic part of the iliocostalis was registered. Ratios of deep stabilizing to superficial torque producing muscle activity were calculated to examine trunk muscle recruitment patterns during 6 different exercises. Logistic regression analyses were performed (1) to define the ratios and exercises that were most discriminating between patients and non-patients, (2) to make a predictive model. K-Fold cross-validation was used to assess the performance of the predictive model. This study demonstrated that sEMG trunk muscle recruitment patterns during movement control tests, allows differentiating NSCLBP patients with a flexion-related MCI from healthy subjects. PMID:25304196

  20. Trusted Objects

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  1. Quantitative assessment of bone marrow attenuation values at MDCT: An objective tool for the detection of bone bruise related to occult sacral insufficiency fractures

    Henes, F.O.; Groth, M.; Bley, T.A.; Regier, M.; Ittrich, H.; Adam, G.; Bannas, P. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Nuechtern, J.V. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Trauma, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Treszl, A. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Center for Experimental Medicine, Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    To prove the feasibility of using Hounsfield attenuation values at MDCT to detect bone bruises related to sacral insufficiency fractures. Twenty-two patients with acute sacrum trauma and no fracture findings at MDCT were included in our prospective study. Two observers independently reviewed CTs regarding visual signs of bone bruises in 132 defined regions of the sacral alae. Interobserver agreement was tested by {kappa} statistics. Subsequently, HU values were obtained in the same regions, and attenuation differences between the two sides were calculated. Validity and reliability were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. HU differences were subjected to ROC curve analysis to determine sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV. MRI served as standard reference. MRI revealed 19 regions with bone bruises and associated sacral insufficiency fractures. HU measurements demonstrated good validity and reliability (r = 0.989). ROC curve analysis exhibited an ideal cutoff value of 35.7 HU density difference between affected and non-affected regions. Visual evaluation revealed moderate agreement ({kappa} = 0.48); diagnostic accuracy was inferior to objective evaluation. Assessment of differences in bone marrow density by HU measurements is an objective and reliable tool for detection of bone bruises associated with occult sacral insufficiency fractures. (orig.)

  2. Quantitative assessment of bone marrow attenuation values at MDCT: An objective tool for the detection of bone bruise related to occult sacral insufficiency fractures

    To prove the feasibility of using Hounsfield attenuation values at MDCT to detect bone bruises related to sacral insufficiency fractures. Twenty-two patients with acute sacrum trauma and no fracture findings at MDCT were included in our prospective study. Two observers independently reviewed CTs regarding visual signs of bone bruises in 132 defined regions of the sacral alae. Interobserver agreement was tested by κ statistics. Subsequently, HU values were obtained in the same regions, and attenuation differences between the two sides were calculated. Validity and reliability were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. HU differences were subjected to ROC curve analysis to determine sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV. MRI served as standard reference. MRI revealed 19 regions with bone bruises and associated sacral insufficiency fractures. HU measurements demonstrated good validity and reliability (r = 0.989). ROC curve analysis exhibited an ideal cutoff value of 35.7 HU density difference between affected and non-affected regions. Visual evaluation revealed moderate agreement (κ = 0.48); diagnostic accuracy was inferior to objective evaluation. Assessment of differences in bone marrow density by HU measurements is an objective and reliable tool for detection of bone bruises associated with occult sacral insufficiency fractures. (orig.)

  3. PAH EMISSION IN STARBURST, SEYFERT, ULIRGS, QSOS AND QUASAR OBJECTS, AND THEIR RELATION WITH THE INFRARED, X-RAY AND RADIO CONTINUUM EMISSION

    M.-A. Higuera-G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a second study in an ongoing work aimed to analyze the star formation activity and its relation with the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs emission. In this way, we have performed a study about the correlation between the ux of the 7.7 -m PAH band and its equivalent width, with the luminosities and uxes observed in JHK photometric bands, IRAS 12, 25, 60 and 100-m, the radio emission at 1.4GHz and X-ray at 2{10 keV, for a sample composed of Seyfert 1-2, QSOs, Quasars, Starburst, and ULIRGs. The results found let us discriminate between objects with more star formation activity from others with more AGN in uence.

  4. Senior High School Students' Errors on the Use of Relative Words

    Bao, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Relative clause is one of the most important language points in College English Examination. Teachers have been attaching great importance to the teaching of relative clause, but the outcomes are not satisfactory. Based on Error Analysis theory, this article aims to explore the reasons why senior high school students find it difficult to choose…

  5. Neural correlates of face and object perception in an awake chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes examined by scalp-surface event-related potentials.

    Hirokata Fukushima

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The neural system of our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, is a topic of increasing research interest. However, electrophysiological examinations of neural activity during visual processing in awake chimpanzees are currently lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present report, skin-surface event-related brain potentials (ERPs were measured while a fully awake chimpanzee observed photographs of faces and objects in two experiments. In Experiment 1, human faces and stimuli composed of scrambled face images were displayed. In Experiment 2, three types of pictures (faces, flowers, and cars were presented. The waveforms evoked by face stimuli were distinguished from other stimulus types, as reflected by an enhanced early positivity appearing before 200 ms post stimulus, and an enhanced late negativity after 200 ms, around posterior and occipito-temporal sites. Face-sensitive activity was clearly observed in both experiments. However, in contrast to the robustly observed face-evoked N170 component in humans, we found that faces did not elicit a peak in the latency range of 150-200 ms in either experiment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although this pilot study examined a single subject and requires further examination, the observed scalp voltage patterns suggest that selective processing of faces in the chimpanzee brain can be detected by recording surface ERPs. In addition, this non-invasive method for examining an awake chimpanzee can be used to extend our knowledge of the characteristics of visual cognition in other primate species.

  6. Setting Objectives

    Elkins, Aaron J.

    1977-01-01

    The author questions the extent to which educators have relied on "relevance" and learner participation in objective-setting in the past decade. He describes a useful approach to learner-oriented evaluation in which content relevance was not judged by participants until after they had been exposed to it. (MF)

  7. Relational Database Reverse Engineering Based on Object-Oriented Model%基于面向对象模型的关系数据库逆向工程研究

    马恕; 余永红; 徐洁磐

    2000-01-01

    Recently, researchers have paid more attention on software reverse engineering, this paper mainly discusses the basic problems of relational database reverse engineering based on object-oriented model,it also presents a method which can be used to implement relational database reverse engineering based on EXPRESS object-oriented model. The research can play an important role on improving the quality of software reengineering,and extending the domain of object-oriented methodology.

  8. Sex differences in subjective and objective measures of pain, functional impairment, and health-related quality of life in patients with lumbar degenerative disc disease.

    Gautschi, Oliver P; Corniola, Marco V; Smoll, Nicolas R; Joswig, Holger; Schaller, Karl; Hildebrandt, Gerhard; Stienen, Martin N

    2016-05-01

    Sex differences in pain perception are known to exist; however, the exact pathomechanism remains unclear. This work aims to elucidate sex differences in subjective and objective measures of pain, functional impairment, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with lumbar degenerative disc disease. In a prospective 2-center study, back and leg pain (visual analogue scale [VAS]), functional disability (Oswestry Disability Index and Roland-Morris Disability Index), and HRQoL (EuroQol-5D and Short Form [SF12]) were collected for consecutive patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery. Objective functional impairment (OFI) was estimated using age-adjusted and sex-adjusted cutoff values for the timed-up-and-go (TUG) test. A healthy cohort of n = 110 subjects served as the control group. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to test the association between sex and pain, subjective and OFIs, and HRQoL. The study comprised n = 305 patients (41.6% females). Female patients had more VAS back pain (P = 0.002) and leg pain (P = 0.014). They were more likely to report higher functional impairment in terms of Oswestry Disability Index (P = 0.005). Similarly, HRQoL measured with the EuroQol-5D index (P = 0.012) and SF12 physical composite score (P = 0.005) was lower in female patients. Female patients reported higher VAS back and leg pain, functional impairment, and reduced HRQoL than male patients. However, there were no sex differences with respect to the presence and degree of OFI measured by the TUG test using age-adjusted and sex-adjusted cutoff values. As such, the TUG may be a good test to overcome sex bias for the clinical assessment of patients with degenerative disc disease. PMID:26761383

  9. Analysis and Transformation Tools for Constrained Horn Clause Verification

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2014-01-01

    is to investigate the use of a combination of off-the-shelf techniques from the literature in analysis and transformation of Constraint Logic Programs (CLPs) to solve challenging CHC verification problems. We find that many problems can be solved using a combination of tools based on well-known techniques from......Several techniques and tools have been developed for verification of properties expressed as Horn clauses with constraints over a background theory (CHC). Current CHC verification tools implement intricate algorithms and are often limited to certain subclasses of CHC problems. Our aim in this work...... abstract interpretation, semantics-preserving transformations, program specialisation and query-answer transformations. This gives insights into the design of automatic, more general CHC verification tools based on a library of components....

  10. Role of toluene in hydrogen sulfide combustion under Claus condition

    Highlights: • Examined the role of toluene addition in hydrogen sulfide combustion. • Effect of 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 5% of toluene in H2S gas stream was examined. • Toluene addition triggers production of H2 which provides oxidation competition to H2S. • Increased amount of toluene in H2S gas reduced SO2 and increased asymptotic value of H2S. • Toluene addition enhanced the formation of CO and COS. - Abstract: Experimental investigations on the effect of different amounts of toluene addition to H2S combustion in oxygen under Claus condition (Φ = 3) are presented. Three toluene concentrations of 0.5%, 1% and 5% in H2S are presented and compared with the baseline case of 100% H2S oxygen combustion. Temperature data showed that addition of toluene to H2S gas stream increases the flame temperature because of large heating value associated with toluene. Addition of toluene resulted in the production of H2, which increased with increase in the amounts of toluene addition. Furthermore, increased addition of toluene concentration increased the asymptotic minimum value of hydrogen sulfide due to oxidation competition between the formed H2 and H2S. The results also showed that the presence of CO triggers the formation of COS with toluene addition due to reaction of CO with SO2. The results showed that SO2 mole fraction increased to a maximum value then decayed with distance along the reactor. Addition of toluene increased the rate of SO2 decay. These results have direct impact on sulfur capture in the Claus reactor and its performance

  11. Objective thermomechanics

    Fülöp, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    An irreversible thermodynamical theory of solids is presented where the kinematic quantities are defined in an automatically objective way. Namely, auxiliary elements like reference frame, reference time and reference configuration are avoided by formulating the motion of the continuum on spacetime directly. Solids are distinguished from fluids by possessing not only an instantaneous metric tensor but also a relaxed metric. The elastic state variable is defined through comparing these two met...

  12. Objective Morality

    Allott, Robin

    1991-01-01

    An objective basis for morality can be found in an evolutionary account of its origin and development. Morality is a key factor in the success of human groups in competition or co-existence with each other.A group's moral code represents an increasingly rational pattern of behaviour derived from the collective experience of the group handed down from generation to generation. Group selection is a controversial idea for animal evolution but it is inescapable in accounting for human evolution u...

  13. SPINS: Standardized ProteIn NMR Storage. A data dictionary and object-oriented relational database for archiving protein NMR spectra

    Modern protein NMR spectroscopy laboratories have a rapidly growing need for an easily queried local archival system of raw experimental NMR datasets. SPINS (Standardized ProteIn Nmr Storage) is an object-oriented relational database that provides facilities for high-volume NMR data archival, organization of analyses, and dissemination of results to the public domain by automatic preparation of the header files required for submission of data to the BioMagResBank (BMRB). The current version of SPINS coordinates the process from data collection to BMRB deposition of raw NMR data by standardizing and integrating the storage and retrieval of these data in a local laboratory file system. Additional facilities include a data mining query tool, graphical database administration tools, and a NMRStar v2.1.1 file generator. SPINS also includes a user-friendly internet-based graphical user interface, which is optionally integrated with Varian VNMR NMR data collection software. This paper provides an overview of the data model underlying the SPINS database system, a description of its implementation in Oracle, and an outline of future plans for the SPINS project

  14. Spontaneous Decoding of the Timing and Content of Human Object Perception from Cortical Surface Recordings Reveals Complementary Information in the Event-Related Potential and Broadband Spectral Change.

    Miller, Kai J; Schalk, Gerwin; Hermes, Dora; Ojemann, Jeffrey G; Rao, Rajesh P N

    2016-01-01

    The link between object perception and neural activity in visual cortical areas is a problem of fundamental importance in neuroscience. Here we show that electrical potentials from the ventral temporal cortical surface in humans contain sufficient information for spontaneous and near-instantaneous identification of a subject's perceptual state. Electrocorticographic (ECoG) arrays were placed on the subtemporal cortical surface of seven epilepsy patients. Grayscale images of faces and houses were displayed rapidly in random sequence. We developed a template projection approach to decode the continuous ECoG data stream spontaneously, predicting the occurrence, timing and type of visual stimulus. In this setting, we evaluated the independent and joint use of two well-studied features of brain signals, broadband changes in the frequency power spectrum of the potential and deflections in the raw potential trace (event-related potential; ERP). Our ability to predict both the timing of stimulus onset and the type of image was best when we used a combination of both the broadband response and ERP, suggesting that they capture different and complementary aspects of the subject's perceptual state. Specifically, we were able to predict the timing and type of 96% of all stimuli, with less than 5% false positive rate and a ~20ms error in timing. PMID:26820899

  15. Quantum Objects

    Mansouri, Alireza; Karbasizadeh, Amir Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest an alternative interpretation for the quantum state vector, which, by considering temporal parts for physical objects, aims to give an intelligible account of measurement problem in quantum mechanics. We examine the capacity of this interpretation as for explaining three measurement problems: the problem of outcome, the problem of statistics and the problem of effect. We argue that, this interpretation of the state vector, while providing a satisfactory account, as rationally plausible as its rivals, for the measurement problem, shows yet another limitation of our perceptual experience, i.e. our inability to perceive unsharp reality.

  16. Wow!: objects

    Freitas, Paulo Sérgio da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays computers have advanced beyond the desktop into many parts of everyday life and objects. To achieve this we have to make the computer invisible, and making a computer invisible is not a matter of size of the hardware, it’s all about how the human perceives the computer. To make this possible, the interaction with the computer has to be done in an alternative way, such that the user doesn’t notice the usual computer interfaces (mouse and keyboard) when using it. Therefore this t...

  17. Objects, materiality and meaning

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    The present research work investigates the relation between physical objects, their materiality, understood as the physical substances they are made from, and the communication from the objects. In product design of physical objects the communicative aspects are just as important as the function...... of the object, and the designers aim is therefore to tune both in order to achieve a desired goal. To do so the designer basically has 2 options: Alteration of the physical shape of the object and the selection of materials. Through the manipulation of shape and materials can symbolic and sensory information...... be written into the object. The materials are therefore carriers of communication, even though this is dependent of the cultural context and the environment which the object will be part of. However the designer has only minor influence on those....

  18. Object oriented programming

    This paper is an introduction to object oriented programming techniques. It tries to explain the concepts by using analogies with traditional programming. The object oriented approach not inherently difficult, but most programmers find a relatively high threshold in learning it. Thus, this paper will attempt to convey the concepts with examples rather than explain the formal theory

  19. Considerations concerning the criminal clause, expression of contractual principle and law abuse

    Nora Andreea Daghie

    2009-01-01

    The criminal clause is an accessory convention through which the parts evaluate in advance the prejudiceinterestswhich come from the inexecution lato sensu of the contractual obligations. This convention named criminalclause is the expression of the contractual liberty principle and presents a singular practical utility but also someinconveniences. Thus the criminal clause allows avoiding the difficulties of judicial evaluation of prejudices-interests.In this way, the creditor is not obliged ...

  20. 12 CFR 591.5 - Limitation on exercise of due-on-sale clauses.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitation on exercise of due-on-sale clauses. 591.5 Section 591.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PREEMPTION OF STATE DUE-ON-SALE LAWS § 591.5 Limitation on exercise of due-on-sale clauses. (a) General. Except as provided in § 591.4 (c) and (d)(4)...

  1. Labor clauses in regional trade agreements and effects on labor conditions : an empirical analysis

    KAMATA Isao; 鎌田, 伊佐生

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of bilateral or plurilateral trade agreements (or regional trade agreements: RTAs) include "labor clauses" that require or urge the signatory countries to commit to maintaining a certain level of labor standards. This paper performs an empirical analysis of the impacts of such labor clauses provided in RTAs on working conditions that laborers in the RTA signatory countries actually face, using macro-level data for a wide variety of countries. The paper first examines the ...

  2. An eye fixation-related potentials analysis of the P300 potential for fixations onto a target object when exploring natural scenes.

    Devillez, Hélène; Guyader, Nathalie; Guérin-Dugué, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The P300 event-related potential has been extensively studied in electroencephalography with classical paradigms that force observers to not move their eyes. This potential is classically used to infer whether a target or a task-relevant stimulus was presented. Few researches have studied this potential through more ecological paradigms where observers were able to move their eyes. In this study, we examined with an ecological paradigm and an adapted methodology the P300 potential using a visual search task that involves eye movements to actively explore natural scenes and during which eye movements and electroencephalographic activity were coregistered. Averaging the electroencephalography signal time-locked to fixation onsets, a P300 potential was observed for fixations onto the target object but not for other fixations recorded for the same visual search or for fixations recorded during the free viewing without any task. Our approach consists of using control experimental conditions with similar eye movements to ensure that the P300 potential was attributable to the fact that the observer gazed at the target rather than to other factors such as eye movement pattern (the size of the previous saccade) or the "overlap issue" between the potentials elicited by two successive fixations. We also proposed to model the time overlap issue of the potentials elicited by consecutive fixations with various durations. Our results show that the P300 potential can be studied in ecological situations without any constraint on the type of visual exploration, with some precautions in the interpretation of results due to the overlap issue. PMID:26401627

  3. Towards Applicative Relational Programming

    Ibrahim, H.; van Emden, M. H.

    2006-01-01

    Functional programming comes in two flavours: one where ``functions are first-class citizens'' (we call this applicative) and one which is based on equations (we call this declarative). In relational programming clauses play the role of equations. Hence Prolog is declarative. The purpose of this paper is to provide in relational programming a mathematical basis for the relational analog of applicative functional programming. We use the cylindric semantics of first-order logic due to Tarski an...

  4. Visual Jokes about Christmas and Santa Claus on the Internet - Why and Why not?

    Guntis Pakalns

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses a collection of Christmas-related images and video clips found on the Internet. The author started collecting this material in 2005, since that time the material in the form of a PowerPoint presentation has been shown to diverse audiences discussing the context (mainly from the perspective of a folklore researcher while observing the reaction of the audience.The central part of the article is devoted to a brief overview of the most characteristic groups of the jokes (with links to the images, video and descriptions of the traditions: Santa Claus as the bringer of presents, his trip from the northland and his friend Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, arrival through the chimney, different other persons wearing Santa’s hat (politicians, terrorists, women, animals, etc., Santa’s sexuality, drunken Santa, Santa murdered/killed, etc. In addition, the regional version – Ded Moroz and Snegurochka (Father Frost and the Snowgirl – is discussed here. Parodies related to the topic – the Christmas tree, snowmen and figures made of snow, elves, angels, Chinese horoscope’s “animals of the year”.Some hypotheses regarding the differences, functions, selection and perception of the worldwide available jokes in different social situations (western and post-Soviet world are put forward, also considering social groups and situations, the time before and after Christmas. Why would people need such jokes? An attempt is made to explain it by different “levels of joking” – starting with “simply jokes” with their specific context in the tradition of the particular subject matter and the carnival-like sense of the reversed world (also used by the traders, making the originally rather eerie Santa Claus look like a friendly joker in the “shopping mythology” and jokes as a kind of psychological self-defence – trying to compensate, by way of irony and black humour, for the rapidly changing and excessive tediousness

  5. Supreme Court to hear ADA suit involving arbitration clause.

    1998-03-20

    The U.S. Supreme Court agreed to review a third case under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) this year. The Supreme Court previously agreed to hear [name removed] v. [Name removed], involving a dentist who refused to treat an HIV-positive patient in his office. The second case is Pennsylvania Department of Corrections v. [Name removed], in which the State asserts that the ADA does not apply to prisons. The third involves whether an arbitration clause in a labor union's collective bargaining agreement prevents a court from hearing a union member's discrimination claim. [Name removed] longshoreman [name removed] alleges that the [name removed] and several employers violated the ADA when they refused to help him for employment referral. [Name removed] previously settled a workers' compensation disability claim with [name removed] and Terminal Co., his employer. Three years later he applied for work at the International Longshoreman's Association hiring hall and was referred to four different employers. The employers discovered he had received a worker's compensation settlement and would no longer accept [name removed] for employment referral. The case is important because union members can continue to file ADA charges with the EEOC and the outcomes will vary depending on the circuit where the union member happens to file the claim. PMID:11365192

  6. Herbig-Haro objects

    Boehm, K. H.

    1990-01-01

    The IUE (International Ultraviolet Explorer) spectra of Herbig-Haro (HH) objects and their relation to the very detailed optical spectra available for these objects are studied. Useful information about the physics of HH objects in general and especially about their hydrodynamic models which are contained in these IUE observations is outlined. The merged spectra of high excitation, low excitation HH objects (like HH43 and HH47), and peculiar HH objects are discussed. Results of the spatial variation of lines and continua in HH objects are discussed. Their compatibility with predictions for aerodynamic and especially bow shock models is discussed. The problems arising in the interpretation of the continuous energy distribution in the short wavelength range are discussed. They require the presence of other emission mechanisms in addition to the collisionally enhanced two photon continuum. In HH43 the fluorescent H2 line emission comes from a surprisingly small spatial region. Implications of these results are discussed.

  7. Binding Third Parties to Maritime Arbitration, Incorporation of Charterparty Arbitration Clause into Bill of Lading by Reference

    Tchkuaseli, Rusudan

    2013-01-01

    Arbitration is consensual by nature. Therefore, arbitration agreement is usually binding on the parties privy to the contract containing the arbitration clause. Nevertheless, general principles of contract law allow for extension of an arbitration clause to third parties only if free, knowing and complete consent of such party to arbitrate is established. It is difficult to tailor this rule to the situation when a bill of lading issued under a charterparty contains a reference clause, which b...

  8. Proportionality And The Limitation Clauses Of The South African Bill Of Rights

    IM (Ig Rautenbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available "Proportionality" is a contemporary heavy-weight concept which has been described as an element of a globalised international grammar and as a foundational element of global constitutionalism. The article firstly describes the elements of proportionality as they are generally understood in foreign systems, namely whether the limitation pursues a legitimate aim, whether the limitation is capable of achieving this aim, whether the act impairs the right as little as possible and the so-called balancing stage when it must be determined whether the achievement of the aim outweighs the limitation imposed. The German academic Alexy (Theorie der Grundrechte (1986 developed what he called a mathematical weight formula to deal with the balancing stage. An overview is provided of how the elements of proportionality were dealt with in the text of the South African interim Constitution of 1994, the early jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court, and in the text of the final Constitution of 1996. Contemporary South African academic criticism of the use of the concept is also analysed. The article then endeavours to relate the elements of Alexy’s weight formula to both the elements of the South African general limitation clause in section 36 of the Constitution and to the appearance of such elements in the formulation of specific rights in the Bill of Rights. Although the levels of abstraction reached in the debates on the Alexy formula are so daunting that it is most unlikely that South African courts and practitioners will ever use it, certain valuable insights can be gained from it for the purposes of dealing with proportionality within the context of the limitation of rights in South Africa. Despite opposition from certain academics, proportionality is a prominent feature of the application of the limitation clauses in the South African Constitution. The elements of proportionality provides a useful tool for the application, within the context of the

  9. Treatment-Related Changes in Objectively Measured Parenting Behaviors in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Wells, Karen C.; Chi, Terry C.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Pfiffner, Linda; Nebel-Schwalm, Marie; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Abikoff, Howard B.; Conners, C. Keith; Elliott, Glen R.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Hechtman, Lily; Hoza, Betsy; Jensen, Peter S.; March, John; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Pelham, William E.; Severe, Joanne B.; Swanson, James; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined treatment outcomes for objectively measured parenting behavior in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Five hundred seventy-nine ethnically and socioeconomically diverse children with ADHD-combined type (ages 7.0-9.9 years) and their parent(s) were recruited …

  10. Cultivating objects in interaction

    Hazel, Spencer

    2014-01-01

    is chapter explores patterns of repeated orientations to physical objects in interactants’ visuo-spatial and haptic surround. A number of examples are presented from advice-giving activities in various institutional settings, where participants-in-interaction initially draw on material objects at...... hand while pursuing a particular line of explanation, and then return to these objects at later intervals. e analysis suggests that the objects are afforded representational properties through their being anchored to some referent in the talk, and that participants subsequently draw on these...... associations for describing, disambiguating or clarifying aspects of the relatively complex procedural frameworks discussed in the settings. is suggests that the temporal stability of material objects available to participants makes them an ideal resource to be developed as visual motifs....

  11. Android object recognition framework

    Karlsen, Mats-Gøran

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is a continuation of the author’s specialization project where the ultimate goal is to build an object recognition framework suitable for mobile devices in real world environments, where control over parameters such as illumination, distance, noise and availability of consistent network architectures are limited. Based on shortcomings related to object recognition performance and architectural issues the author’s goal was to increase the flexibility, usability and perfor...

  12. Clause/Term Resolution and Learning in the Evaluation of Quantified Boolean Formulas

    Giunchiglia, E; Tacchella, A; 10.1613/jair.1959

    2011-01-01

    Resolution is the rule of inference at the basis of most procedures for automated reasoning. In these procedures, the input formula is first translated into an equisatisfiable formula in conjunctive normal form (CNF) and then represented as a set of clauses. Deduction starts by inferring new clauses by resolution, and goes on until the empty clause is generated or satisfiability of the set of clauses is proven, e.g., because no new clauses can be generated. In this paper, we restrict our attention to the problem of evaluating Quantified Boolean Formulas (QBFs). In this setting, the above outlined deduction process is known to be sound and complete if given a formula in CNF and if a form of resolution, called Q-resolution, is used. We introduce Q-resolution on terms, to be used for formulas in disjunctive normal form. We show that the computation performed by most of the available procedures for QBFs --based on the Davis-Logemann-Loveland procedure (DLL) for propositional satisfiability-- corresponds to a tree...

  13. Considerations concerning the criminal clause, expression of contractual principle and law abuse

    Nora Andreea Daghie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The criminal clause is an accessory convention through which the parts evaluate in advance the prejudiceinterestswhich come from the inexecution lato sensu of the contractual obligations. This convention named criminalclause is the expression of the contractual liberty principle and presents a singular practical utility but also someinconveniences. Thus the criminal clause allows avoiding the difficulties of judicial evaluation of prejudices-interests.In this way, the creditor is not obliged to evidence the existence and the size of the prejudice, in order to obtain thepayment of the amount of money or carrying out other patrimonial value established in the criminal clause beingsufficient the proof of non inexecution lato sensu of the contractual obligation. The criminal clause has also a strongcomminatory purpose, exercising a pressure on the debtor to make all possible to execute precisely the contractualobligation. Due to these reasons it is seen in doctrine by some of the authors as one of the main guarantees in our law.Also in the doctrine however, it is shown that the debtor can be constrained in some situations to accept establishing avery high amount in the criminal clause, sometimes with inequitable consequences, with damaging effect for thedebtor.

  14. An audit questionnaire that examines specifically the management of technical activities clauses in ISO 15189.

    Hartley, T F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design an audit questionnaire that focuses on the management of the technical activities in a Diagnostic Pathology Laboratory. The ISO 15189 Standard is written in such a way that it continually moves back and forth from topics where the auditor needs to question bench level staff, to topics where the auditor needs to question Technical Management Staff. This makes for a disjointed audit process - both Bench Staff and Technical Managers are repeatedly interrupted. The solution was to do a clause by clause analysis of the Standard and assign the major responsibility for the compliance to each clause to either Technical Managers or Bench Staff. The Clauses were then grouped under four topic headings regardless of whether they were a Section 4 or Section 5 Clause. Two questionnaires have emerged - the one described in this work and one directed primarily towards the activities of bench staff. There are 95 questions and it takes approximately two hours to complete. PMID:23105892

  15. Subjective and Objective Binge Eating in Relation to Eating Disorder Symptomatology, Depressive Symptoms, and Self-Esteem Among Treatment-Seeking Adolescents with Bulimia Nervosa

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Ciao, Anna C.; Accurso, Erin C.; Pisetsky, Emily M.; Peterson, Carol B.; Byrne, Catherine E.; le Grange, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the importance of the distinction between objective (OBE) and subjective binge eating (SBE) among 80 treatment-seeking adolescents with bulimia nervosa (BN). We explored relationships among OBEs, SBEs, eating disorder (ED) symptomatology, depression, and self-esteem using two approaches. Group comparisons showed that OBE and SBE groups did not differ on ED symptoms or self-esteem; however, the SBE group had significantly greater depression. Examining continuous variabl...

  16. 中医学英语定语从句的状语化译法探讨%Study on the Shifted Translation of English Attributive Clause into Adverbial for Medical (TCM) English

    胡倩华; 丁年青

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨中医学英语定语从句的状语化译法.方法:主要结合具体例句分析其语法现象,从而探讨医学英语定语从句翻译的技巧之一——转译法,即译成状语从句,并指出其翻译技巧的指导意义.结果:在英语译成汉语的过程中,应该首先判断主句、从句语义上的逻辑关系,翻译时摆脱英语表达形式的束缚,按照汉语的行文习惯,将定语从句转译成状语从句形式的翻译.结论:定语从句在医学英语中广泛应用,正确理解及翻译定语从句对于学习中医学英语非常重要.%Objective; To study the shifted translation of attributive clause into adverbial for medical (TCM) English. Methods .-This paper analyzed the grammatical phenomena in specific sentences and discussed one of the translation skills of the attributive clause in medical ( TCM) English -- shifted translation, which referred to the translation into adverbial. It also gave instructive significance of this trans-lation skill. Results;In the process of E-C Translation,the semantic logic between the main sentence and the clause should be judged. The translation should get rid of the shackles of the English expression forms,the attributive clause should be translated into the form of adverbial clause in accordance with the language habits of the Chinese. Conclusion: The attributive clause is widely used in medical English, so the correct understanding and translation of attributive clause is very important to study medical (TCM) English.

  17. An automated quality assessor for Ada object-oriented designs

    Bailin, Sidney C.

    1988-01-01

    A tool for evaluating object-oriented designs (OODs) for Ada software is described. The tool assumes a design expressed as a hierarchy of object diagrams. A design of this type identifies the objects of a system, an interface to each object, and the usage relationships between objects. When such a design is implemented in Ada, objects become packages, interfaces become package specifications, and usage relationships become Ada `with' clauses and package references. An automated quality assessor has been developed that is based on flagging undesirable design constructs. For convenience, distinctions are made among three levels of severity: questionable, undesirable, and hazardous. A questionable construct is one that may well be appropriate. An undesirable construct is one that should be changed because it is potentially harmful to the reliability, maintainability, or reusability of the software. A hazardous construct is one that is undesirable and that introduces a high level of risk.

  18. The Legally Dogmatical Interpretation of "The Abuse of Authority" Clause in the Administrative Proceedings%行政诉讼中“滥用职权”条款之法教义学解读

    陈天昊

    2011-01-01

    "滥用职权"条款的理解与适用一直存在较多争议。从法教义学的视角出发,通过回归立法者意志、探寻法律规范之间的脉络关系,可以理清该条款的法律含义;结合司法案例,可以归纳出此条款适用的基本方法与标准;将目光往复于法律含义与司法实践之间,使我们对该条款的内涵、适用以及地位的认识更为清晰。%There are always many arguments in the understanding and practice of "The Abuse of Authori- ty" clause. Based on the view of between different law regulations Dogmatic of law, following the legislator' s will and seeking the relation can make us understand the legal content of this clause. Combining with judicial cases can induce the basic method and standard of applying this clause. And, focusing.on the legal content and judicial practice will make us clearly recognize the content, application and rank of this clause.

  19. 古典精神分析客体关系取向的修正与发展--从社会文化到客体关系的转向%T he Correction and Development of Subject-object Relation T heory in Psychoanalysis---T urning from the Social Cultural to Subject-object Relation

    姜永志

    2015-01-01

    作为一种心理学理论体系和治疗方法,弗洛伊德的精神分析自提出之日起就备受争议。在历经几次大的学派分离和理论修正之后,当代精神分析理论和方法改变了古典精神分析的本质特征,远离了它的生物学和物理学假设。精神分析的多次裂变既带来了其元心理学的分裂,也带来了新精神分析的发展。经过历次的修正,客体化倾向已经成为精神分析发展的主要方向,它既是对传统精神分析的颠覆,也是对弗洛伊德理论的新发展。在这种倾向的指引下,还会有一批跟随者继续对弗洛伊德的精神分析理论进行修正,并不断发展符合时代潮流的新精神分析理论。%Freud’s psychoanalysis has constantly been challenged since the date of being taken as a theoretical system and treatment method . After several major separation and theoretical correction , contemporary psychoanalytic theory and method nearly dispel the essential characteristics of traditional psychoanalysis ,away from its biology and physics assumptions .Multiple fission of psychoanalysis brings about the split of meta‐psychology and the new development of psychoanalysis . In all previous revisions , the development of psychoanalysis becomes closer to subject‐object relation , and its subject‐object relation has turned into the main development direction of psychoanalysis . It was the subversion of traditional psychoanalysis ,and also the new development of Freud’s theory . Under this trend , there will be a group of followers to continue deviating from Freud’s psychoanalytic theory ,and carries on the correction ,until it has little relationship with Freud’s theory .

  20. A Study of L1 Transfer on the Use of Attributive Clauses In English Writing%A Study of L1 Transfer on the Use of Attributive Clauses In English Writing

    边宛

    2011-01-01

    This study is carried out to find out the role of LI transfer on the problems of attributive clauses. By the application of Contrastive Analysis and Error Analysis, the study shows, Chinese belongs to the left-branching language, while English is the right- branching one in terms of the structure of attributive clauses.