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Sample records for object relative clauses

  1. Effects of Local and Global Context on Processing Sentences with Subject and Object Relative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Mo, Lun; Louwerse, Max M.

    2013-01-01

    An eye tracking study investigated the effects of local and global discourse context on the processing of subject and object relative clauses, whereby the contexts favored either a subject relative clause interpretation or an object relative clause interpretation. The fixation data replicated previous studies showing that object relative clause…

  2. 48 CFR 952.245 - Clauses related to government property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01...2010-10-01 false Clauses related to government property...Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS... 952.245 Clauses related to government...

  3. 48 CFR 952.209 - Clauses related to contractor's qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01...2010-10-01 false Clauses related to contractor's qualifications...Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS... 952.209 Clauses related to contractor's...

  4. 48 CFR 952.204 - Clauses related to administrative matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01...2010-10-01 false Clauses related to administrative matters...Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS... 952.204 Clauses related to administrative...

  5. 48 CFR 952.249 - Clauses related to termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01...2010-10-01 false Clauses related to termination. 952...Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS... 952.249 Clauses related to...

  6. 48 CFR 952.202 - Clauses related to definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01...2010-10-01 false Clauses related to definitions. 952...Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS... 952.202 Clauses related to...

  7. Experience and Sentence Processing: Statistical Learning and Relative Clause Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Justine B.; Christiansen, Morten H.; Race, David S.; Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2009-01-01

    Many explanations of the difficulties associated with interpreting object relative clauses appeal to the demands that object relatives make on working memory. MacDonald and Christiansen [MacDonald, M. C., & Christiansen, M. H. (2002). "Reassessing working memory: Comment on Just and Carpenter (1992) and Waters and Caplan (1996)." "Psychological…

  8. Experience and Sentence Processing: Statistical Learning and Relative Clause Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, Justine B.; Christiansen, Morten H.; Race, David S.; Acheson, Daniel J.; Macdonald, Maryellen C.

    2008-01-01

    Many explanations of the difficulties associated with interpreting object relative clauses appeal to the demands that object relatives make on working memory. MacDonald and Christiansen (2002) pointed to variations in reading experience as a source of differences, arguing that the unique word order of object relatives makes their processing more difficult and more sensitive to the effects of previous experience than the processing of subject relatives. This hypothesis was tested in a large-sc...

  9. 48 CFR 952.227 - Provisions and clauses related to patents, technical data and copyrights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01...Provisions and clauses related to patents, technical...Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS...Provisions and clauses related to patents,...

  10. 48 CFR 952.250 - Clauses related to indemnification of contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01...2010-10-01 false Clauses related to indemnification of...Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS... 952.250 Clauses related to indemnification...

  11. 48 CFR 952.216 - Clauses related to types of contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01...2010-10-01 false Clauses related to types of contracts...Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS... 952.216 Clauses related to types of...

  12. 48 CFR 952.211 - Clauses related to contract delivery or performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01...2010-10-01 false Clauses related to contract delivery...Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS... 952.211 Clauses related to contract...

  13. 48 CFR 952.208 - Clauses related to required sources of supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01...2010-10-01 false Clauses related to required sources...Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS... 952.208 Clauses related to required sources...

  14. 48 CFR 970.2702 - Patent related clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01...2010-10-01 false Patent related clauses. 970.2702...Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY... 970.2702 Patent related...

  15. Chinese EFL Learners’ Acquisition of English Relative Clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Qiang Gao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to investigate Chinese English learners’ difficulty in the acquisition of English relative clauses (RCs. In addressing the objective, the present researcher employed two tests, sentence combination test and grammaticality judgment test, which were borrowed from Izumi (2003, to examine the learners’ knowledge of English RCs. 40 subjects participated in the study. In the sentence combination test, the subjects were instructed to combine two sentences together in a way so that relative clause would be formed. In the grammaticality judgment test, the subjects were supposed to judge the grammaticality of the given sentences and provide corrections for those they regard ungrammatical. Data obtained from the two tests reveal that RCs modifying object are much easier than those modifying subject. The study found full support for the Kuno’s (1974 PDH, which proposes that center-embedding is more difficult to acquire than right-embedding due to short term memory limitations. The other two hypotheses, Keenan and Comrie’s (1977 Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy Hypothesis (NPAH, and Hamilton’s (1994 Subject-Object Hierarchy Hypothesis (SOHH were not borne out.

  16. A U-Shaped Relative Clause Attachment Preference in Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Edson T.; Gibson, Edward; Pearlmutter, Neal J.; Aikawa, Takako; Miyagawa, Shigeru

    1999-01-01

    Presents results from a self-paced reading experiment in Japanese investigating attachment preferences for relative clauses to three ensuing potential nominal heads. Results are discussed in light of two types of parsing models. (Author/VWL)

  17. The impact of number mismatch and passives on the real-time processing of relative clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contemori, Carla; Marinis, Theodoros

    2014-05-01

    Language processing plays a crucial role in language development, providing the ability to assign structural representations to input strings (e.g., Fodor, 1998). In this paper we aim at contributing to the study of children's processing routines, examining the operations underlying the auditory processing of relative clauses in children compared to adults. English-speaking children (6;0-8;11) and adults participated in the study, which employed a self-paced listening task with a final comprehension question. The aim was to determine (i) the role of number agreement in object relative clauses in which the subject and object NPs differ in terms of number properties, and (ii) the role of verb morphology (active vs. passive) in subject relative clauses. Even though children's off-line accuracy was not always comparable to that of adults, analyses of reaction times results support the view that children have the same structural processing reflexes observed in adults. PMID:23769319

  18. Annoying Danish Relatives : Comprehension and production of relative clauses by children with and without SLI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen de López, Kristine M.; Sundahl Olsen, Lone

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI and to compare errors with those produced by TD children. Eighteen children with SLI, eighteen TD age-matched (AM) and nine TD language-matched (LM) Danish-speaking children participated in a comprehension and in a production task. All children performed better on the comprehension compared with the production task, as well as on SRCs compared to ORCs and produced various avoidance strategies. In the ORC context, children with SLI produced more reversal errors than the AM children, who opted for passive ORCs. These results are discussed within current theories of SLI and indicate a deficiency with the assignment of thematic roles rather than with the structural make-up of RCs.

  19. Relative clause reading in hearing impairment: different profiles of syntactic impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Szterman, Ronit; Friedmann, Naama

    2014-01-01

    Children with hearing impairment show difficulties in sentences derived by Wh-movement, such as relative clauses and Wh-questions. This study examines the nature of this deficit in 48 hearing impaired children aged 9–12 years and 38 hearing controls. The task involved reading aloud and paraphrasing of object relatives that include a noun-verb heterophonic homograph. The correct pronunciation of the homograph in these sentences depended upon the correct construction of the syntactic structur...

  20. Experience and Generalization in a Connectionist Model of Mandarin Chinese Relative Clause Processing

    OpenAIRE

    YalingHsiao

    2013-01-01

    Sentences containing relative clauses are well known to be difficult to comprehend, and they have long been an arena in which to investigate the role of working memory in language comprehension. However, recent work has suggested that relative clause processing is better described by ambiguity resolution processes than by limits on extrinsic working memory. We investigated these alternative views with a Simple Recurrent Network (SRN) model of relative clause processing in Mandarin Chinese, ...

  1. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...false Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and...environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety,...

  2. The Production of Turkish Relative Clauses in Second Language Acquisition: Overcoming Student Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjel Toczu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on teaching relative clauses (R.Cs in Turkish, a left-branching language, and discusses the relative difficulty of producing RCs in Turkish by English-speaking learners by investigating whether the production of subject relative clauses in Turkish is easier than that of the object relative clauses. It also offers suggestions as to how to help learners overcome these difficulties. Turkish and English belong to two different language families, Altaic and Inda-European respectively. This study lends further insight that Turkish does not have RCs similar to those found in Inda-European languages. Instead, in Turkish RCs comprise nominalized verbs and participles. The characteristics of Turkish are also explained such as its word order, agglutinating morphology, vowel and consonant harmony rules as well as case markers indicating grammatical relations between sentence constituents, which shed light to our understanding of RCs in Turkish. Data was collected through written and oral tasks from students enrolled in a military intensive Turkish language training program in the United States. Moreover, their performance was studied through classroom observations and one-on-one speaking activities.

  3. The Acquisition of Relative Clauses in Cypriot Greek: Production and Comprehension

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eleni, Theodorou; Kleanthes K., Grohmann.

    Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: English Abstract in english This paper investigates the development of relative clauses in Cypriot Greek (CG) - in particular, young children’s comprehension and production of subject relatives (SRs) and object relatives (ORs). A total of thirty-three monolingual children aged between 5 and 9 years acquiring CG as their native [...] language (variety) participated in this study. Two different tasks were used to examine the acquisition of restrictive relative clauses: (i) a Picture Pointing Task, modified from Friedmann and Novogrodsky (2004), was used to investigate the auditory comprehension of SRs and ORs, and (ii) a Preference Task, modified from Novogrodsky and Friedmann (2006), was employed to examine the production of SRs and ORs. Crosslinguistic research provides evidence that children experience difficulties in the acquisition of ORs, whereas this does not seem to be the case for SRs (McKee and McDaniel, 2001; Stathopoulou, 2007). The on-going study on the acquisition of SRs and ORs in CG, the first in the literature for this language variety, so far appears to confirm the difficulty attested for other languages that children display in the acquisition of ORs.

  4. Experience and Generalization in a Connectionist Model of Mandarin Chinese Relative Clause Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YalingHsiao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sentences containing relative clauses are well known to be difficult to comprehend, and they have long been an arena in which to investigate the role of working memory in language comprehension. However, recent work has suggested that relative clause processing is better described by ambiguity resolution processes than by limits on extrinsic working memory. We investigated these alternative views with a Simple Recurrent Network (SRN model of relative clause processing in Mandarin Chinese, which has a unique pattern of word order across main and relative clauses and which has yielded mixed results in human comprehension studies. To assess the model’s ability to generalize from similar sentence structures, and to observe effects of ambiguity through the sentence, we trained the model on several different sentence types, based on a detailed corpus analysis of Mandarin relative clauses and simple sentences, coded to include patterns of noun animacy in the various structures. The model was evaluated on16 different relative clause subtypes. Its performance corresponded well to human reading times, including effects previously attributed to working memory overflow. The model’s performance across a wide variety of sentence types suggested that the seemingly inconsistent results in some prior empirical studies stemmed from failures to consider the full range of sentence types in empirical studies. Crucially, sentence difficulty for the model was not simply a reflection of sentence frequency in the training set; the model generalized from similar sentences and showed high error rates at points of ambiguity. The results suggest that SRNs are a powerful tool to examine the complicated constraint-satisfaction process of sentence comprehension, and that understanding comprehension of specific structures must include consideration of experiences with other similar structures in the language.

  5. Experience and generalization in a connectionist model of Mandarin Chinese relative clause processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yaling; Macdonald, Maryellen C

    2013-01-01

    Sentences containing relative clauses are well known to be difficult to comprehend, and they have long been an arena in which to investigate the role of working memory in language comprehension. However, recent work has suggested that relative clause processing is better described by ambiguity resolution processes than by limits on extrinsic working memory. We investigated these alternative views with a Simple Recurrent Network (SRN) model of relative clause processing in Mandarin Chinese, which has a unique pattern of word order across main and relative clauses and which has yielded mixed results in human comprehension studies. To assess the model's ability to generalize from similar sentence structures, and to observe effects of ambiguity through the sentence, we trained the model on several different sentence types, based on a detailed corpus analysis of Mandarin relative clauses and simple sentences, coded to include patterns of noun animacy in the various structures. The model was evaluated on 16 different relative clause subtypes. Its performance corresponded well to human reading times, including effects previously attributed to working memory overflow. The model's performance across a wide variety of sentence types suggested that the seemingly inconsistent results in some prior empirical studies stemmed from failures to consider the full range of sentence types in empirical studies. Crucially, sentence difficulty for the model was not simply a reflection of sentence frequency in the training set; the model generalized from similar sentences and showed high error rates at points of ambiguity. The results suggest that SRNs are a powerful tool to examine the complicated constraint-satisfaction process of sentence comprehension, and that understanding comprehension of specific structures must include consideration of experiences with other similar structures in the language. PMID:24155735

  6. Morphological Information and Memory Resources in Children's Processing of Relative Clauses in German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arosio, Fabrizio; Yatsushiro, Kazuko; Forgiarini, Matteo; Guasti, Maria Teresa

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the processing of agreement marking and case marking in the comprehension of German relative clauses in 48 seven-year-old monolingual German-speaking children in a picture selection task. We examined the relation between the effectiveness of these different morphological cues and individual memory resources as measured by a…

  7. The Frobenius anatomy of word meanings I: subject and object relative pronouns

    OpenAIRE

    Sadrzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Clark, Stephen; Coecke, Bob

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a compositional vector-based semantics of subject and object relative pronouns within a categorical framework. Frobenius algebras are used to formalise the operations required to model the semantics of relative pronouns, including passing information between the relative clause and the modified noun phrase, as well as copying, combining, and discarding parts of the relative clause. We develop two instantiations of the abstract semantics, one based on a tr...

  8. Main Verb Versus Reduced Relative Clause Ambiguity Resolution in L2 Sentence Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juffs, Alan

    1998-01-01

    Investigated how adult learners of English-as-a-Second- Language (ESL) process sentences containing verbs that are temporarily ambiguous in interpretation between a main verb and a reduced relative clause. Seventeen Chinese, 17 Korean or Japanese, and 17 Romance learners with advanced ESL proficiency and a comparison group of 17 monolingual native…

  9. Processing Relative Clauses in First and Second Language: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates processing of English and Japanese relative clause (RC) sentences by native speakers and second/foreign language (L2) learners. Particularly, the relationship between the sentence processing and individual differences in working memory (WM) capacity was examined. The main question addressed in this study is whether…

  10. Restrictive relative clauses in English and Korean learners' second language Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xiaoling; Liu, Chuanping

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This study investigates the second language (L2) acquisition of restrictive relative clauses (RRCs) in Chinese by two groups of learners speaking typologically different first languages (L1s): English and Korean. English RRCs, unlike those of Chinese, are head-initial whereas Korean RRCs, like those of Chinese, are head-final. The difference could be predicted to hinder English learners' acquisition of L2 RRCs but facilitate it for Korean learners. This prediction was not ...

  11. The function of Spanish and English relative clauses in discourse and their segmentation in Centering Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Wiesemann, Loreley Marie

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the processing of English and Spanish relative clauses (RCs) in discourse. The main goal is to understand how RCs contribute to the textuality of a text and, on the basis of this understanding, to propose the most adequate method for their segmentation in Centering Theory. Centering Theory is a theory of discourse structure that models textual cohesion from one “utterance” to the next. The definition of “utterance” is thus instrumental to the application of the Cen...

  12. MAPPING OBJECTS TO RELATIONAL DATABASE FOR OBJECT PERSISTENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhu, P.

    2013-01-01

    Object to relational mapping is necessary because there is a mismatch between the object and relational database paradigm to achieve object persistence. Object to relational mapping is the process of transforming between object and relational modelling approaches and systems that support those approaches. This paper discusses the concept of mapping object to relational database and ORM (Object to Relational Mapping) frameworks.

  13. Processing of the Reduced Relative Clause versus Main Verb Ambiguity in L2 Learners at Different Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Anne; Adone, Dany

    2010-01-01

    This article presents new evidence from offline and online processing of garden-path sentences that are ambiguous between reduced relative clause resolution and main verb resolution. The participants of this study are intermediate and advanced German learners of English who have learned the language in a nonimmersed context. The results show that…

  14. A Reading-Time Study of the Main Verb versus Reduced Relative Clause Ambiguity Resolution by English Learners in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pi-Lan; Shih, Su-Chin

    2013-01-01

    Using a self-paced reading task, the study aimed to investigate (a) whether English learners in Taiwan immediately resolve main verb versus reduced relative clause ambiguities in a similar way as native English speakers and (b) whether the learners at various English proficiency levels show diverse profiles. With analyses and syntheses of reading…

  15. Syntactic and Prosodic Computations in the Resolution of Relative Clause Attachment Ambiguity by English-French Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekydtspotter, Laurent; Donaldson, Bryan; Edmonds, Amanda C.; Fultz, Audrey Liljestrand; Petrush, Rebecca A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the manner in which syntax, prosody, and context interact when second- and fourth-semester college-level English-French learners process relative clause (RC) attachment to either the first noun phrase (NP1) or the second noun phrase (NP2) in complex nominal expressions such as "le secretaire du psychologue qui se promene"…

  16. Moulding Interpersonal Relations through Conditional Clauses: Consensus-Building Strategies in Written Academic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warchal, Krystyna

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the interpersonal potential of the conditional clause as a rhetorical device for establishing a dialogue between the author and the reader of an academic text in search for shared understanding and consensus. It presents a corpus-based analysis of functions conditional clauses play in linguistics research articles in an…

  17. The performance of relational and object-relational SQL queries when using Oracle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Moreno Arboleda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a study in which the performance of several queries involving GROUP BY clause, sub-queries (using IN and EXISTS clauses and loins are measured and compared by means of specific queries. The behaviour of relational and oblect-relational models is also shown.

  18. PROCESAMIENTO DE CLÁUSULAS RELATIVAS ANIDADAS, MEMORIA OPERATIVA Y ENVEJECIMIENTO / NESTED RELATIVES CLAUSES PROCESSING, WORKING MEMORY, AND AGING

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    BEATRIZ, ARANCIBIA GUTIÉRREZ; MÓNICA, VÉLIZ; BERNARDO, RIFFO; RUBÉN, ROA-URETA.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este estudio examina los efectos del envejecimiento, la memoria operativa y la complejidad sintáctica en el procesamiento de oraciones. Con este propósito se compara el desempeño de adultos mayores y adultos jóvenes en una tarea de lectura autoadministrada de oraciones con anidamiento de cláusulas d [...] e relativo sujeto y objeto. Se efectuó un análisis de efectos mixtos para los tiempos de lectura, el acierto a preguntas y tiempos de respuesta, que toma en cuenta el hecho de tener observaciones repetidas en los individuos y la distribución de probabilidad correcta para las variables observadas. Los resultados muestran efectos de la edad en el procesamiento, pero no respaldan la hipótesis de un declive en el procesamiento sintáctico como efecto de una menor capacidad de memoria operativa en los adultos mayores. Además, el análisis confirma la complejidad de las relativas objeto en comparación con las relativas sujeto en español. Abstract in english This study examines the effects of age, working memory and syntactic complexity on sentence processing. For this purpose we compare the performance of younger and older adults in a self-administered reading task of sentences with subject and object nested relatives clauses. A mixed effects analysis [...] was carried for reading times, accuracy and response times, which took into account that observations were repeated inside individuals and the correct probability distribution of the observed variables. The results show effects of age in processing, but they do not support the hypothesis of syntactic processing decline as an effect of less working memory capacity in older adults. In addition, the data analysis confirms the complexity of object relatives processing compared to subject relatives processing in Spanish.

  19. Relações retóricas estabelecidas por orações gerundiais adverbiais / Rhetorical relations held by adverbial gerund clauses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliano Desiderato, Antonio.

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é propor critérios para identificação das relações implícitas estabelecidas por orações gerundiais adverbiais em um corpus formado por elocuções formais (aulas) e entrevistas. Para isso, tomam-se como fundamento teórico da pesquisa duas teorias funcionalistas, a Teoria da E [...] strutura Retórica do Texto (RST) e a Gramática Discursivo-Funcional (GDF). Na visão da RST, além do conteúdo explícito veiculado pelas orações de um texto, há proposições implícitas que surgem das relações que se estabelecem entre partes do texto. Foram utilizados os parâmetros da GDF, factualidade, pressuposição, e as camadas dos níveis representacional e interpessoal em que ocorrem as orações para a identificação das relações retóricas estabelecidas pelas orações gerundiais adverbiais. Foram encontradas relações de meio, de resultado, de condição e de propósito, o que não significa que não se reconheça, neste trabalho, que outras relações como tempo (anterioridade, posterioridade, simultaneidade), concessão, causa, dentre outras, podem ser estabelecidas por orações gerundiais adverbiais. Os parâmetros da GDF demonstraram ser eficientes na identificação das relações. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to set up criteria to identify the implicit relations held by adverbial gerund clauses in formal speeches (university lectures) and oral interviews in Brazilian Portuguese. The theoretical framework consists of two functional linguistic theories: Rhetorical Structure Theory [...] (RST) and Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG). According to RST, besides the explicit content conveyed by text sentences, there are implicit relations that connect text segments. In this study, the identification of such relations was based on the FDG parameters of factuality and presupposition, and the layers of the representational and interpersonal levels. Means, result, condition, and purpose rhetorical relations were attested in the corpus. Other rhetorical relations such circumstance (anteriority, posteriority, simultaneity), concession, and cause may also be attested in further research. FDG parameters have shown to be efficient for the identification of rhetorical relations.

  20. Visualizing abstract objects and relations

    CERN Document Server

    Kamada, Tomihisa

    1989-01-01

    Pictorial representations are very useful for humans to understand complicated relations or structures. This is the reason that the user interface of information systems is strongly required to visualize many kinds of information in a wide variety of graphical forms. At present, however, only some very specialized visualization techniques have been developed probably because the generality in the visualization has not been appreciated correctly. This book presents a visualization framework for translating abstract objects and relations, typically represented in textual forms, into pictorial re

  1. Object relations in Harry Potter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Suzanne

    2003-01-01

    Good fiction helps children address their emotional dilemmas by evoking repressed content, and offering strategies and meaningful values that help them work towards resolutions. Because certain fundamental conflicts continue to be revisited and reworked throughout adulthood, it follows that masterful children's literature might enthrall adults as well. Given the extraordinary, worldwide success of the Harry Potter stories with both children and adults, it might be inferred that they, indeed, are among such literature. Common object relations themes, as well as other intrapsychic processes, are presented in such an imaginative and resonant way that the unconscious is readily engaged. The character of Harry Potter, specifically, embodies such universal (repressed) torments as the agony of destroying and losing the mother; the ominous perception of good and bad objects at war within the self; and the earnest reparative efforts offered to save the self from eternal separation from the beloved other. PMID:14535615

  2. Totonac: From Clause to Discourse. Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics and Related Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Aileen A.; And Others

    Intended to contribute toward the understanding of paragraph and discourse structure, this study is based on the Totonac language as it comprises the "most extensive and involved system of clauses" seen by the authors and because the generation of the 396 verbal types of this system from a kernel of 11 types is "very symmetric and regular." The…

  3. Some modifications of temporal relation in the sentence with the temporal clause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni? Ivana N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is the modification of temporal relation in the complex sentence with the temporal clause. At the functional different Serbian language corpus the author notices the next types of modified temporality: excepted locational simultaneity complete or partial, and excepted locationalorientational posteriority formalized by the structure V SAMO/JEDINO/OSIM/SEM/IZUZEV(ONDA KAD VSub, and excepted locational simultaneity/excepted terminativity formalized by the structure V SAMO DOK (Neg VSub; sutuational locational simultaneity complete or partial formalized by the structure V U SITUACIJI / U SLU?AJU KAD VSub, with the posibility to be exceptivly modified in the structure V IZUZEV U SITUACIJI / U SLU?AJU KAD VSub; situational-concessive locational simultaneity complete or partial formalized by the structure V (?AK I (ONDA KAD VSub; situational-conditional locational-orientational posteriority formalized by the structure V TEK (ONDA KAD VSub, and situational-conditional orientational posteriority formalized by the structure V TEK POŠTO VSub or V TEK NAKON ŠTO VSub and situational-conditional orientational quantified posteriority formalized by the structure V Quant TEK POŠTO VSub, and finaly situational-conditional terminativity formalized by the structure (Neg V SVE DOK Neg VSub. It can ocure sporadically supstitutiv temporality formalized by the structure V DetTemp (UMESTO KAD VSub, and consecutive-adversative temporality formalized by the structure KAD VSub A (ONDA V. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178004: Sintaksi?ka, semanti?ka i pragmati?ka istraživanja standardnog srpskog jezika

  4. 48 CFR 370.701 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...the Leadership Act 370.701 Contract clause. The Contracting Officer shall insert the clause in 352.270-8, Prostitution and Related Activities, in solicitations, contracts, and orders, and in existing contracts and orders...

  5. Fundamentals of Object Databases Object-Oriented and Object-Relational Design

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Object-oriented databases were originally developed as an alternative to relational database technology for the representation, storage, and access of non-traditional data forms that were increasingly found in advanced applications of database technology. After much debate regarding object-oriented versus relational database technology, object-oriented extensions were eventually incorporated into relational technology to create object-relational databases. Both object-oriented databases and object-relational databases, collectively known as object databases, provide inherent support for object

  6. Development of Relativization in Korean as a Foreign Language: The Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy in Head-Internal and Head-External Relative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, K. Seon; Kim, Hae-Young

    2007-01-01

    This study examines how Keenan and Comrie's (1977) noun phrase accessibility hierarchy (NPAH) intersects with the typological characteristics of Korean in the acquisition of relative clauses (RCs). Korean has two types of RC constructions: head-external and head-internal. The head-external relative has its head to the right of the RC, whereas the…

  7. Problems in Relational Object Oriented Requirement Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Mahajan

    2012-01-01

    The goal of relational object oriented requirement engineering is to achieve higher quality and productivity with lower cost. There are so many problems related to relational object oriented requirement engineering. In this paper, we present a review of the various problematic issues specifically in requirements engineering of object oriented concepts and we mention some existing research attempts to deal with such issues

  8. To Comma or Not to Comma: The Mathematics of the Relative Clause, All Types, via Boole and Venn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Depuydt

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is part of a large scale project in Intelligence Science. The nearterm aim of this project is the increased digitalization of the analysis of human intelligence in as far as intelligence is rational. The ultimate aim is to draw up a complete and definitive map of the totality of rational human intelligence or rational thought and language. As far as the mathematical component of this project is concerned, two contributions have appeared so far, the following: 1 “The Monty Hall Problem and beyond: Digital-Mathematical and Cognitive Analysis in Boole’s Algebra, Including an Extension and Generalization to Related Cases”, in Advances in Pure Mathematics (www.scirp.org/journal/apm, Vol. 1, No. 4 (July 2011, pp. 136-154; 2 “Higher Variations of the Monty Hall Problem (3.0, 4.0 and Empirical Definition of the Phenomenon of Mathematics, in Boole’s Footsteps, as Something the Brain Does”, in Advances in Pure Mathematics (www.scirp.org/journal/apm, Vol. 2, No. 4 (July 2012, pp. 243-273, including an appendix by Richard D. Gill. The present paper pertains to the linguistics branch of the project. It is concerned with linguistic cognition. The focus of this paper is on a single phenomenon, the relative clause and all its possible types. The method of analyzing the structure of rational thought and language that is advanced in this paper and applied to the relative clause claims validity on the following three grounds. First, it is mathematical and digital in the strictest possible sense. Second, the empirical data to which this mathematical method is applied are fully accessible in language. After all, all that is essential to that structure must be exteriorized in sounds or written symbols for the structure to be transported from one brain to another and understood. The structure must somehow be encoded in its entirety in the airwaves or light beams that travel to a hearer’s ear or a reader’s eye. And these airwaves and light beams are accessible to observation. Third, general inspiration and encouragement can be drawn from the fact that it has already been long established that the brain teems with digital activity, including in the prefrontal cortex. In sum, there is every incentive for dissecting language in search of the digital structure of rational thought and its expression in language. The design of the present paper is to demonstrate that the structure can be found.

  9. Desempeño de consultas SQL relacionales y objeto-relacionales en Oracle / The performance of relational and object-relational SQL queries when using Oracle

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco Javier, Moreno; Guillermo, Ospina Romero; Rafael, Larios Restrepo.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo se muestra por medio de consultas específicas el comportamiento del modelo relacional y objeto-relacional, y se presenta así un estudio en el que se mide y a la vez se compara la eficiencia (tiempo, uso de recursos del sistema) de operaciones que involucran cláusulas GROUP BY, subco [...] nsultas (con las cláusulas IN y EXISTS), y reuniones (joins). Abstract in english This article presents a study in which the performance of several queries involving GROUP BY clause, sub-queries (using IN and EXISTS clauses) and joins are measured and compared by means of specific queries. The behaviour of relational and object-relational models is also shown. [...

  10. Saving clauses in international contracts concerning the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper concerns saving clauses in international contracts relating to the fuel cycle. It deals in particular with economic upheavals affecting those contracts and the usual clauses to protect the financial interests of the co-contractors. The paper also examines such economic upheavals in the context of clauses intended to preserve the contracts. (NEA)

  11. Cláusulas relativas, nominalización y constituyentes en pemón (Caribe) / Relative clauses, nominalization, and constituency in Pemón (Cariban)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José, Álvarez.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este trabajo describe las cláusulas relativas (CRs) en pemón, lengua caribe de Venezuela. Como es difícil caracterizar universalmente las CRs basándose exclusivamente en propiedades sintácticas, se requiere una definición semántica. Usando tal definición, Keenan & Comrie (1977) postulan que la relat [...] ivización siempre accede a un segmento continuo dentro de la jerarquía: Sujeto > Objeto Directo > Objeto Indirecto > Oblicuo > Poseedor > Objeto de Comparación. En pemón son relativizables todas las posiciones de la jerarquía usando básicamente estrategias de nominalización deverbal y de pronominal resuntivo, pero abunda la discontinuidad entre antecedente y cláusula relativa. Exploramos si el constituyente [FN [CR

  12. REBOL: Relative Expression-Based Object Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassenrath, Carl.

    REBOL, the Relative Expression-Based Object Language, is a fascinating new scripting language developed at REBOL Technologies by Carl Sassenrath, the architect of the Amiga operating system. REBOL is intended to be used for Internet programming and, among its many features, it contains very easy-to-use networking capabilities. An example is this tiny line of REBOL code which retrieves a web page and emails it to a (fictitious) email address: "send fred@cs.wisc.edu read

  13. Suttie's influence on Fairbairn's object relations theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Graham S

    2011-10-01

    It is suggested here that Ian Suttie influenced W. R. D. Fairbairn directly through a 1939 reprint of his The Origins of Love and Hate, a heavily underlined copy of which was found by the author in Fairbairn's library in the University of Edinburgh Library Special Collections in October 2009. Underlined sections of the book are compared with significant aspects of Fairbairn's post-1940 theorizing, and the similarities are argued to be due to Fairbairn's adopting many of the underlying attitudes and ideas that Suttie developed. This leaves Fairbairn's structural theory, which he began to develop as a rational reconstruction of Freud's structural theory as early as 1927, dependent in part on such theory but independent of direct influence by Suttie. It is argued that Suttie's importance vis-à-vis British object relations thinking needs to be reassessed. PMID:21980138

  14. Covered Clause Elimination

    CERN Document Server

    Heule, Marijn; Biere, Armin

    2010-01-01

    Generalizing the novel clause elimination procedures developed in [M. Heule, M. J\\"arvisalo, and A. Biere. Clause elimination procedures for CNF formulas. In Proc. LPAR-17, volume 6397 of LNCS, pages 357-371. Springer, 2010.], we introduce explicit (CCE), hidden (HCCE), and asymmetric (ACCE) variants of a procedure that eliminates covered clauses from CNF formulas. We show that these procedures are more effective in reducing CNF formulas than the respective variants of blocked clause elimination, and may hence be interesting as new preprocessing/simplification techniques for SAT solving.

  15. Determinación del patrón prosódico de las oraciones ambiguas con adjunción alta de la cláusula de relativo (Prosodic pattern of ambiguous sentences with high attachment of the relative clause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasna Pereira Reyes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La estructura prosódica y la sintáctica corresponden a distintos planos de análisis en una lengua; no obstante, existe una relación entre ambas que constituye una herramienta potente a la hora de enfrentar oraciones sintácticamente ambiguas (Price et al. 1991:1. Existe evidencia robusta respecto a la preferencia de adjunción alta en oraciones ambiguas con cláusula relativa en el español. La mayor parte de la investigación respecto a la ambigüedad en español se centra en el estudio de la lectura en silencio con tareas on-line y off-line, observando el funcionamiento de la memoria operativa en este contexto. Pocos autores han incorporado el estudio de patrones melódicos subyacentes a este tipo de oraciones. El presente trabajo describe el patrón prosódico que subyace a las oraciones ambiguas con adjunción alta de la cláusula de relativo (CR producidas por hablantes del español de Concepción. Los enunciados fueron etiquetados con sistema ToBI y sometidos a una evaluación perceptual para confirmar el patrón melódico descrito de la adjunción alta de la CR como soporte fonético-fonológico que acompaña a dicha adjunción. (Prosodic and syntactic structures correspond to different levels of analysis of language; however, there is a relation between them that constitutes a powerful tool when facing syntactically ambiguous sentences (Price et al. 1991:1. Robustevidence has been found in Spanish of the preference for high-attachment of the relative clause in syntactically ambiguous sentences. Most of the research concerning the topic has focused on finding out how people disambiguates these sentences when reading in silence with on-line or off-line tasks and how the working memory operates in doing so. Few researchers have incorporated the study of the underlying melody patterns in this type of sentences. The presentresearch describes the underlying prosodic pattern of ambiguous sentences with high attachment of relative clause produced by native speakers of Spanish from Concepcion. The recorded utterances were labelled with ToBI system and submitted to perceptual judgement to confirm the prosodic pattern of high-attachment preference of the relative clause as the phonetic-phonologic support that aids listeners to disambiguate this type of sentences.

  16. Learning in Organizations - an Object Relations Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Siig

    Learning in organizations – an object relations perspective As a researcher with a primary interest in the study of learning environments in organizations I have conducted a number of empirical research projects primarily concerning work places in the state sector. The aim of the research has been to qualify the understanding of learning conditions in working life and to develop a multifaceted theoretical and methodological basis for the analysis focussing on action- and behaviour, symbolic interaction and discourse (Andersen & Andersen 2007; Andersen & Trojaborg 2007). The aim of this paper is to supplement this analytical basis with an analysis based on psychoanalytical theory. I shall present and clarify some theoretical and methodological ideas about the discovery and understanding of psychodynamic defence mechanisms in organizations. My intention is to achieve a better understanding of organizations as learning environments for the employees. Theoretically I draw on object relations theory. Within this tradition the theoretical point of departure is twofold: the study of work conditions in hospitals carried out by Menzies (1975) and Hinschelwood & Skogstad (2000). With regard to the first mentioned, Menzies combines two types of analysis. In the first type she understands the development of work organizations as the development of psycho-social defence systems. Psycho-social defence systems are composed of many specific defence techniques that are developed by the staff during a long period of time as institutionalized work practices. In the second type of analysis she reflects on the different defence techniques from a psychoanalytical theoretical point of view: Which kind of unconscious ‘rationality’ do they possess, which consequences do they have for the quality of work and which positive and negative impact do they have with respect to the staff itself? With regard to Hinschelwood & Skogstad (2000) they are introduced to further develop and contrast Menzies’ theoretical ideas. Instead of only emphasizing the connection between the work organization and the defence techniques applied unconsciously by the staff, Hinschelwood & Skogstad also emphasize the need to understand how the organizational culture is co-produced by psychodynamic defence mechanisms, how the defence techniques are underpinned by defensive myths and how the defence mechanisms contribute to the creation of specific atmospheres in organizations. In the empirical part of the paper I shall combine my inspiration from Menzies (defence systems and defence techniques) with my inspiration from Hinschelwood & Skogstad (defensive myths and specific atmospheres) to demonstrate different aspects of psycho-social defence that may be elicited by applying different perspectives of understanding and different empirical methods. The case for the empirical analyses will be the learning environment amongst teachers at HTX, a general and technical degree for students in their last three years of high school. The case study aims to uncover the social learning environment in an organization marked by extensive organizational and pedagogical transformation processes. I conclude the paper by discussing some advantages and disadvantages of the psychoanalytical organizational research tradition focussing on the empirical analysis of learning environments in contrast to other theoretical and methodological paradigms. References Andersen, A. S. & Andersen, V. (2007): Learning Environments for Academic Employees: Possibilities and Hurdles. Human Ressource Development Review (HRDR). Andersen, A. S. & Trojaborg, R. S. (2007). Life History and Learning in Working Life. In West, L.; Alheit, P.; Andersen, A. S. & Merrill, B. (eds.), Using Biographical and Life History Approaches in the Study of Adult and Lifelong Learning: European Perspectives. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang – Europäischer Verlag der Wissenschaften. Hinshelwood, R. D. & Skogstad, W. (2000),Observing Organisations – Anxiety, defence and culture in health care. Great Britain: Routledge. Menzies, I.

  17. DEPENDENT VERBLESS CLAUSE: ITS STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Petrlikova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The term “clause” is not only applied to structures which comply with formal prerequisites,containing a subject and a predicate conveyed by a finite verb, but also to such structures which are analysable into clause elements. The verbless clause is a structure containing no verb element at all (either finite or nonfinite, usually having a covert subject, but containing other expressions which can be identified as a part of predicate (subject complement or adverbial. The verbless subordinate clause is joined to its superordinate clause syndetically or asyndetically (a supplementive verbless clause, or by the prepositions with or without. As an optional clause element, it functions as an adverbial, expressing a range of semantic roles, usually suggested by the introductory conjunction, or as an “optional subject/object adjunct” (supplementive verbless clauses, conveying a twofold relationship: to the predication and, at the same time, to the subject or object of its superordinate clause. Considered one of the means of sentence condensation, it is mainly used in written language.

  18. Effects of Action Relations on the Configural Coding between Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddoch, M. J.; Pippard, B.; Booth, L.; Rickell, J.; Summers, J.; Brownson, A.; Humphreys, G. W.

    2011-01-01

    Configural coding is known to take place between the parts of individual objects but has never been shown between separate objects. We provide novel evidence here for configural coding between separate objects through a study of the effects of action relations between objects on extinction. Patients showing visual extinction were presented with…

  19. An approach to computing direction relations between separated object groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, H.; Wang, Z.; Li, J.

    2013-09-01

    Direction relations between object groups play an important role in qualitative spatial reasoning, spatial computation and spatial recognition. However, none of existing models can be used to compute direction relations between object groups. To fill this gap, an approach to computing direction relations between separated object groups is proposed in this paper, which is theoretically based on gestalt principles and the idea of multi-directions. The approach firstly triangulates the two object groups, and then it constructs the Voronoi diagram between the two groups using the triangular network. After this, the normal of each Voronoi edge is calculated, and the quantitative expression of the direction relations is constructed. Finally, the quantitative direction relations are transformed into qualitative ones. The psychological experiments show that the proposed approach can obtain direction relations both between two single objects and between two object groups, and the results are correct from the point of view of spatial cognition.

  20. Object-Oriented Translation for Programmable Relational System (DRAFT)

    OpenAIRE

    Grigoriev, Evgeniy

    2013-01-01

    The paper introduces the principles of object-oriented translation for target machine which provides executing the sequences of elementary operations on persistent data presented as a set of relations (programmable relational system). The language of this target machine bases on formal operations of relational data model. An approach is given to convert both the description of complex object-oriented data structures and operations on these data, into a description of relatio...

  1. Universals in Relative Clause Acquisition: Evidence from Child and Adult L1 and L2 Learners of Hindi-Urdu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Lynne

    1986-01-01

    The performance of native and nonnative Hindi-Urdu speaking children (N=131) and adults (N=30) in the comprehension of the Hindi-Urdu correlative constructions was analyzed. Results indicated that Hindi-Urdu correlative constructs are acquired relatively late by both native and nonnative speakers, suggesting that language universals are available…

  2. 48 CFR 1309.507-2 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...in each delivery order which organizational conflict of interest provision...other agreements calling for performance of work related to the contract...the clause 1352.209-74, Organizational Conflict of Interest, in...

  3. Object-Oriented Querying of Existing Relational Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Keim, Daniel A.; Kriegel, Hans-peter; Miethsam, Andreas

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we present algorithms which allow an object-oriented querying of existing relational databases. Our goal is to provide an improved query interface for relational systems with better query facilities than SQL. This seems to be very important since, in real world applications, relational systems are most commonly used and their dominance will remain in the near future. To overcome the drawbacks of relational systems, especially the poor query facilities of SQL, ...

  4. Object-specific and relational learning in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A; Fagot, Joël; Maugard, Anaïs

    2015-01-01

    Abstract or relational stimulus processing requires an organism to appreciate the interrelations between or among two or more stimuli (e.g., same or different, less than or greater than). In the current study, we explored the role of concrete and abstract information processing in pigeons performing a visual categorization task which could be solved by attending to either the specific objects presented or the relation among the objects. In Experiment 1, we gave pigeons three training phases in which we gradually increased the variability (that is, the number of object arrays) in the training set. In Experiment 2, we trained a second group of pigeons with an even larger number of object arrays from the outset. We found that, the larger the variability in the training exemplars, the lesser the pigeons' attention to object-specific information and the greater their attention to relational information; nevertheless, the contribution of object-specific information to categorization performance was never completely eliminated. This pervasive influence of object-specific information is not peculiar to animals, but has been observed in young children and human adults as well. PMID:25092492

  5. Object relations and real life relationships: a cross method assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelzalts, Jonathan E; Fisher, Shimrit; Naot, Rachel

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the relationship between the psychoanalytic concept of object relations and real life behavior of being in an intimate relationship among heterosexual women. In a multi-method approach we used two different measures; the self-report Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory (BORRTI; Bell, Billington & Becker, 1986) and the performance based Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Social Cognition & Object Relations Scale- Global Rating Method SCORS-G (Westen, 1995) to measure the object relations of 60 women. The Alienation subscale of the BORRTI and understanding of social causality subscale of the SCORS-G explained 34.8% of variance of the intimate relationship variable. Thus, women involved in a romantic relationship reported lower rates of alienation on the BORRTI and produced TAT narratives that were more adaptive with regard to understanding of social causality as measured by the SCORS-G than those not currently in a relationship. Results are discussed with reference to the relationship between object relations and real life measures of healthy individuals and in light of the need for a multi-method approach of assessment. PMID:24506278

  6. Relative recency influences object-in-context memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Shu K E; Bonardi, Charlotte; Robinson, Jasper

    2015-03-15

    In two experiments rats received training on an object-in-context (OIC) task, in which they received preexposure to object A in context x, followed by exposure to object B in context y. In a subsequent test both A and B are presented in either context x or context y. Usually more exploration is seen of the object that has not previously been paired with the test context, an effect attributed to the ability to remember where an object was encountered. However, in the typical version of this task, object A has also been encountered less recently than object B at test. This is precisely the arrangement in tests of 'relatively recency' (RR), in which more remotely presented objects are explored more than objects experienced more recently. RR could contaminate performance on the OIC task, by enhancing the OIC effect when animals are tested in context y, and masking it when the test is in context x. This possibility was examined in two experiments, and evidence for superior performance in context y was obtained. The implications of this for theoretical interpretations of recognition memory and the procedures used to explore it are discussed. PMID:25546721

  7. Learning Spatial Relations between Objects From 3D Scenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fichtl, Severin; Alexander, John

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing cognitive development during the first years of human life may be the result of a set of developmental mechanisms which are in continuous operation [1]. One such mechanism identified is the ability of the developing child to learn effective preconditions for their behaviours. It has been suggested [2] that through the application of behaviours involving more than one object, infants begin to learn about the relations between objects.

  8. An object-relational spatio-temporal geoscience data model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hai Ha; Gabriel, Paul; Gietzel, Jan; Schaeben, Helmut

    2013-08-01

    A model for spatially and temporally indexed multi-dimensional geoscience data has been developed by first embedding a combinatorial topological model in terms of G-Maps in the domain Rm×Time(m?N), and then converting it into an object-relational model which can easily be implemented in an object-relational database system. Geoscience objects referring to space and time often have complex geometries which are usually partitioned into simpler cells and have geometrical, topological, geological, geophysical, geochemical and other relevant properties assigned to their cells. These objects may exist in a Euclidean space Rm of arbitrary dimension m depending on which properties are chosen as "coordinates", where usually m=3 and refers to three spatial dimensions, and evolve in one dimensional valid time (Time). The valid time is independent of geometry, topology and properties but not vice versa, i.e., the geometry of an object, for example, and all its properties are modeled as functions of the valid time. Then the objects are assumed to be sampled at arbitrary but fixed instances of time, and their evolution between these instances is modeled by appropriate interpolation. The structure of the data model is well adapted to the interpolation required to represent the objects in between the instances of their observation. The data model provides the basis prerequisite of our envisioned spatio-temporal geoscience information system.

  9. How to start a V2 declarative clause: Transfer of syntax vs. information structure in L2 German

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ute Bohnacker

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses V2 word order and information structure in Swedish, German and non-native German. Concentrating on the clause-initial position of V2 declaratives, the ‘prefield’, we investigate the extent of L1 transfer in a closely related L2. The prefield anchors the clause in discourse, and although almost any type of element can occur in this position, naturalistic text corpora of native Swedish and native German show distinct language-specific patterns. Certain types of elements are more common than others in clause-initial position, and their frequencies in Swedish differ substantially from German (subjects, fronted objects, certain adverbs. Nonnative cross-sectional production data from Swedish learners of German at beginner, intermediate and advanced levels are compared with native control data, matched for age and genre (Bohnacker 2005, 2006, Rosén 2006. The learners’ V2 syntax is largely targetlike, but their beginnings of sentences are unidiomatic. They have problems with the language-specific linguistic means that have an impact on information structure: They overapply the Swedish principle of “rheme later” in their L2 German, indicating L1 transfer at the interface of syntax and discourse pragmatics, especially for structures that are frequent in the L1 (subject-initial and expletive-initial clauses, and constructions with så (‘so’ and object det (‘it/that’.

  10. Visual appearance of wireframe objects in special relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thomas; Boblest, Sebastian

    2014-11-01

    The visual appearance of a moving object in special relativity can be constructed in a straightforward manner when representing the surface of the object, or at least a wire frame model of it, as a point cloud. The apparent position of each individual point is then found by intersecting its worldline with the observer?s backward light cone. In this paper, we present a complete derivation of the apparent position of a point and some more complex geometric objects for general parameter settings (configurations). We implemented our results in python and asymptote and used these tools to generate scripts that create the figures in this paper. These scripts are directly applicable in an undergraduate course to special relativity and can also serve as the basis for student projects with the aim to study more complex sceneries.

  11. Modeling Spatial Data within Object Relational-Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana BOTHA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial data can refer to elements that help place a certain object in a certain area. These elements are latitude, longitude, points, geometric figures represented by points, etc. However, when translating these elements into data that can be stored in a computer, it all comes down to numbers. The interesting part that requires attention is how to memorize them in order to obtain fast and various spatial queries. This part is where the DBMS (Data Base Management System that contains the database acts in. In this paper, we analyzed and compared two object-relational DBMS that work with spatial data: Oracle and PostgreSQL.

  12. The article in oblique relative clauses [prep.+ (definitive art. + que] in 18th century hispanoamerican texts El artículo en las relativas oblicuas [prep. + (art. definido + que] en textos americanos del siglo XVIII = The article in oblique relative clauses [prep.+ (definitive art. + que] in 18th century hispanoamerican texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha GUZMÁN RIVERÓN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of the article in sentences like la casa en (la que vivo, among other variations, is today less frequently used in Hispanoamerica. Although we know that this structure, documented as early as the 13th century, became more wide-spread in the 18th century, little is known about its evolution at the time in American sources. I study the evolution of this phenomenon, basing myself exclusively on 18th century American texts. I also explore which factors are apparently related to this linguistic development and if the pace of its spread was determined by the preceding prepositions. Aiming at a panoramic view of the spread of the article in the period in question, I also trace the appearance of these relative clauses, with and without article, in the texts collected in the CORDE, and provide detailed analyses of texts from both halves of the century, in order to evaluate the factors that may have influenced this change.El uso del artículo en estructuras como la casa en (la que vivo presenta hoy en día, entre otras variaciones, una frecuencia de uso menor en Hispanoamérica que en España. Aunque sabemos que este uso, documentado desde el siglo XIII, comienza realmente a extenderse justo en el XVIII, poco conocemos de su evolución en la época en fuentes americanas. En este trabajo, basándonos exclusivamente en textos americanos del XVIII, perseguimos investigar cómo evoluciona este fenómeno en documentación de esta procedencia. También intentaremos explorar qué factores están aparentemente en relación con este cambio e investigar si, en diferentes preposiciones, diverge el ritmo de difusión de su uso. Con vistas a obtener una idea general sobre la extensión del artículo en la época, rastrearemos las apariciones de dichas relativas —con y sin artículo— en los textos americanos recogidos en el CORDE. Para evaluar los factores que pueden incidir en él estudiaremos en detalle determinados textos de ambas mitades del siglo.

  13. Iterative Specialisation of Horn Clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Nielson, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    We present a generic algorithm for solving Horn clauses through iterative specialisation. The algorithm is generic in the sense that it can be instantiated with any decidable fragment of Horn clauses, resulting in a solution scheme for general Horn clauses that guarantees soundness and termination, and furthermore, it presents sufficient criteria for completeness. We then demonstrate the use of the framework, by creating an instance of it, based on the decidable class ${\\mathcal{H}_1}$, capable of solving a non-trivial protocol analysis problem based on the Yahalom protocol.

  14. The Network Configuration of an Object Relational Database Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Philip; Harris, W. C.

    2000-01-01

    The networking and implementation of the Oracle Database Management System (ODBMS) requires developers to have knowledge of the UNIX operating system as well as all the features of the Oracle Server. The server is an object relational database management system (DBMS). By using distributed processing, processes are split up between the database server and client application programs. The DBMS handles all the responsibilities of the server. The workstations running the database application concentrate on the interpretation and display of data.

  15. An object oriented relational database for assessing radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EnviroView is an object oriented relational database used for inventory control and monitoring locations of radioactive and toxic materials. Visual images of local sites, building locations, floor plans, and room interiors can be accessed by the user. In the event of a release to the environment, analytical, finite element, and boundary element based dispersion models are available to calculate atmospheric transport, groundwater transport, and/or transport within a building interior. The software runs on 386/486 PCs and workstations

  16. Termination for Convenience Clauses and Good Faith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Gray

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the legal validity of so-called termination for convenience clauses, which allow at least one party to the contract to terminate the contract without cause.  Such rights are in contrast to more traditional approaches to contractual termination, which distinguished between breaches of condition and breaches of warranty, allowing termination only for the former.  Specifically, it will be asked whether such termination for convenience clauses are consistent with requirements of good faith in contracting, the existence of which is itself contentious.  As a result, it will be necessary to consider the current state of the law in Australia and elsewhere in relation to the extent to which good faith is and should be a feature of contracting.

  17. Termination for Convenience Clauses and Good Faith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Gray

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the legal validity of so-called termination for convenience clauses, which allow at least one party to the contract to terminate the contract without cause. Such rights are in contrast to more traditional approaches to contractual termination, which distinguished between breaches of condition and breaches of warranty, allowing termination only for the former. Specifically, it will be asked whether such termination for convenience clauses are consistent with requirements of good faith in contracting, the existence of which is itself contentious. As a result, it will be necessary to consider the current state of the law in Australia and elsewhere in relation to the extent to which good faith is and should be a feature of contracting.

  18. Database Independent Migration of Objects into an Object-Relational Database

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, A; Munir, K; Waseem-Hassan, M; Willers, I

    2002-01-01

    CERN's (European Organization for Nuclear Research) WISDOM project [1] deals with the replication of data between homogeneous sources in a Wide Area Network (WAN) using the extensible Markup Language (XML). The last phase of the WISDOM (Wide-area, database Independent Serialization of Distributed Objects for data Migration) project [2], indicates the future directions for this work to be to incorporate heterogeneous sources as compared to homogeneous sources as described by [3]. This work will become essential for the CERN community once the need to transfer their legacy data to some other source, other then Objectivity [4], arises. Oracle 9i - an Object-Relational Database (including support for abstract data types, ADTs) appears to be a potential candidate for the physics event store in the CERN CMS experiment as suggested by [4] & [5]. Consequently this database has been selected for study. As a result of this work the HEP community will get a tool for migrating their data from Objectivity to Oracle9i.

  19. Chemical Compositions of RV Tauri Stars and Related Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, S Sumangala

    2013-01-01

    We have undertaken a comprehensive abundance analysis for a sample of relatively unexplored RV Tauri and RV Tauri like stars to further our understanding of post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB) evolution. From our study based on high resolution spectra and grid of model atmospheres, we find indications of mild s-processing for V820 Cen and IRAS 06165+3158. On the other hand, SU Gem and BT Lac exhibit the effects of mild dust-gas winnowing. We have also compiled the existing abundance data on RV Tauri objects and find that a large fraction of them are afflicted by dust-gas winnowing and now added by the present work, we find a small group of two RV Tauris showing mild s-process enhancement in our Galaxy. With two out of three reported s-process enhanced objects belonging to RV Tauri spectroscopic class C, these intrinsically metal-poor objects appear to be promising candidates to analyse the possible s-processing in RV Tauri stars.

  20. EEG Signature of Object Categorization from Event-related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daliri, Mohammad Reza; Taghizadeh, Mitra; Niksirat, Kavous Salehzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Human visual system recognizes objects in a fast manner and the neural activity of the human brain generates signals which provide information about objects categories seen by the subjects. The brain signals can be recorded using different systems like the electroencephalogram (EEG). The EEG signals carry significant information about the stimuli that stimulate the brain. In order to translate information derived from the EEG for the object recognition mechanism, in this study, twelve various categories were selected as visual stimuli and were presented to the subjects in a controlled task and the signals were recorded through 19-channel EEG recording system. Analysis of signals was performed using two different event-related potential (ERP) computations namely the "target/rest" and "target/non-target" tasks. Comparing ERP of target with rest time indicated that the most involved electrodes in our task were F3, F4, C3, C4, Fz, Cz, among others. ERP of "target/non-target" resulted that in target stimuli two positive peaks occurred about 400 ms and 520 ms after stimulus onset; however, in non-target stimuli only one positive peak appeared about 400 ms after stimulus onset. Moreover, reaction times of subjects were computed and the results showed that the category of flower had the lowest reaction time; however, the stationery category had the maximum reaction time among others. The results provide useful information about the channels and the part of the signals that are affected by different object categories in terms of ERP brain signals. This study can be considered as the first step in the context of human-computer interface applications. PMID:24083136

  1. An Analysis of Cohesion Achieved by Imperative Clause in English Netvertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Ren

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study finds that imperative clause, which is ubiquitous in English netvertising, aids to make the discourse of a net ad cohesive in two ways: non-structure and structure. The former consists of reference, ellipsis and lexical cohesion. The latter refers to the chain of imperative clauses that forms a relation of co-classification.

  2. 48 CFR 1235.7000 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 1235.7000 Section 1235.7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING Research Misconduct 1235.7000 Contract clause. The contracting officer...

  3. 48 CFR 3035.7000 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 3035.7000 Section 3035.7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...Information Dissemination by Educational Institutions 3035.7000 Contract clause. The contracting officer...

  4. 48 CFR 3042.7000 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 3042.7000 Section 3042.7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...Contracting Officer's Technical Representative 3042.7000 Contract clause. The contracting officer...

  5. 48 CFR 1223.7000 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1223.7000 Section 1223.7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...Safety Requirements for Selected DOT Contracts 1223.7000 Contract clauses. (a) Where all or...

  6. 48 CFR 227.303 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...clause at 252.227-7038, Patent Rights—Ownership by the Contractor...and (B) No alternative patent rights clause is used in accordance... (A) The acquisition of patent rights for the benefit of a foreign government is...

  7. 48 CFR 205.470 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...ACQUISITION PLANNING PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Release of Information 205.470 Contract clause. Use the clause...Provision of Information to Cooperative Agreement Holders, in solicitations and contracts expected to exceed...

  8. Results from a Search for Cataclysmic Variables and Related Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Julie N.; Thorstensen, J. R.; Lepine, S.

    2013-01-01

    We have undertaken a study to establish an upper limit on the space density of cataclysmic variables (CVs) and related objects in the solar neighborhood through a proper motion based approach. We start with the new SUPERBLINK proper motion survey, which is sensitive down to 40 mas/yr and select candidates from this using Near-UV magnitudes from GALEX, K magnitudes from 2Mass, and V magnitudes derived from Digital Sky Survey plates. We present results from numerous observing runs at the MDM Observatory with both the 1.3m McGraw-Hill Telescope and the 2.4m Hiltner Telescope. These results include a new cataclysmic variable and a sample of 168 newly discovered white dwarf main sequence binaries. We also present a calculation of the space density of cataclysmic variables based on this data.

  9. On the Relations between Action Planning, Object Identification, and Motor Representations of Observed Actions and Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Lari; Symes, Ed; Ellis, Rob; Tucker, Mike; Ottoboni, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that viewing a static prime object (a hand grasp), can activate action representations that affect the subsequent identification of graspable target objects. The present study explored whether stronger effects on target object identification would occur when the prime object (a hand grasp) was made more action-rich and…

  10. Positions of Adverbial Clauses in British English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Sidney; Nelson, Gerald

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the position of adverbial clauses in a subset consisting of 42 texts drawn from 6 text types, 3 from written English and 3 from spoken English. The article identifies factors influencing the position choice for various types of adverbial clauses. Findings indicate that clause length is not a significant positional factor. (nine…

  11. Chemical compositions of RV tauri stars and related objects

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S., Sumangala Rao; Sunetra, Giridhar.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemos emprendido un análisis de las abundancias químicas para una muestra de estrellas RV Tauri poco estudiadas, para mejorar nuestro entendimiento de la evolución estelar post-secuencia asintótica de las gigantes (post-AGB).Nuestro estudio se basa en espectros de alta resolución y en una malla de m [...] odelos atmosféricos. Encontramos indicaciones de un leve proceso-s para V820 Cen y IRAS 06165+3158. Por otra parte, SU Gem y BT Lac muestran los efectos de una ligera separación polvo-gas. Hemos reunido los datos existentes sobre las abundancias de objetos RV Tauri, y encontramos que una gran parte de ellos muestra efectos de separación polvo-gas. En nuestro estudio encontramos un pequeño grupo de estrellas RV Tauri galácticas con evidencia del proceso-s ligeramente aumentado. Dos de tres objetos con evidencia de proceso-s aumentado pertenecen a la clase C de objetos RV Tauri. Estos objetos, pobres en metales, son candidatos prometedores para el estudio del proceso-s en las estrellas RV Tauri. Abstract in english We have undertaken a comprehensive abundance analysis for a sample of relatively unexplored RV Tauri and RV Tauri like stars to further our understanding of post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB) evolution. From our study based on high resolution spectra and a grid of model atmospheres, we find ind [...] ications of mild s-processing for V820 Cen and IRAS 06165+3158. On the other hand, SU Gem and BT Lac exhibit the effects of mild dust-gas winnowing. We have also compiled the existing abundance data on RV Tauri objects and find that a large fraction of them are afflicted by dust-gas winnowing and aided by the present work, we find a small group of two RV Tauris showing mild s-process enhancement in our Galaxy. With two out of three reported s-process enhanced objects belonging to RV Tauri spectroscopic class C, these intrinsically metal-poor objects appear to be promising candidates to analyse the possible s-processing in RV Tauri stars.

  12. EEG Signature of Object Categorization from Event-related Potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Daliri, Mohammad Reza; Taghizadeh, Mitra; Niksirat, Kavous Salehzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Human visual system recognizes objects in a fast manner and the neural activity of the human brain generates signals which provide information about objects categories seen by the subjects. The brain signals can be recorded using different systems like the electroencephalogram (EEG). The EEG signals carry significant information about the stimuli that stimulate the brain. In order to translate information derived from the EEG for the object recognition mechanism, in this study, twelve various...

  13. Matrixes of Relations between Pairs Objects and Transformations between Various Kinds

    OpenAIRE

    Gnatienko, Grigory

    2007-01-01

    Ways of representation of relations between pair's objects are described at a complete choice. Methods of revealing and kinds of relations between objects are considered. The table of conformity between various forms of representation of relations is resulted.

  14. Clause Boundary Identification using Classifier and Clause Markers in Urdu Language

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daraksha, Parveen; Ratna, Sanyal; Afreen, Ansari.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the identification of clause boundary for the Urdu language. We have used Conditional Random Field as the classification method and the clause markers. The clause markers play the role to detect the type of subordinate clause, which is with or within the main clause. If there is [...] any misclassification after testing with different sentences then more rules are identified to get high recall and precision. Obtained results show that this approach efficiently determines the type of sub-ordinate clause and its boundary.

  15. The relation between energy efficiency and general objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three overall objectives for energy efficiency programs are discussed: Reduction of negative externalities, esp. climatic change; Phase-out of nuclear power while limiting electricity imports; and creating welfare gains by correcting market failures of energy efficiency programs (rebound effects)

  16. Modeling and optimization of a modified claus process as part of an integrted gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2011-01-01

    The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Due to these criteria, modifications are often required to the conventional process, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO2 capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant such as rapid change in the feed flowrates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus furnace, a four-stage method was devised so as to determine which set of linearly independent reactions would best describe the product distributions from available plant data. Various approaches are taken to derive the kinetic rate expressions which are either missing in the open literature or found to be inconsistent. A set of plant data is used for optimal estimation of the kinetic parameters. The final model agrees well with the published plant data. Using the developed kinetics models of the Claus reaction furnace, WHB, and catalytic stages, two optimization studies are carried out. The first study shows that there exists an optimal steam pressure generated in the WHB that balances hydrogen yield, oxygen demand, and power generation. In the second study, it is shown that an optimal H2S/SO2 ratio exists that balances single-pass conversion, hydrogen yield, oxygen demand, and power generation. In addition, an operability study has been carried out to examine the operating envelope in which both H2S/SO2 ratio and adiabatic flame temperature can be controlled in the face of disturbances typical for the operation of an IGCC power plant with CO2 capture. Impact of CO2 capture on the Claus process has also been discussed.

  17. Rigorous Kinetic Modeling, Optimization, and Operability Studies of a Modified Claus Unit for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant with CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Dustin; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Turton, Richard; Zitney, Stephen E

    2011-12-15

    The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and the ability to recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Because of these criteria, modifications to the conventional process are often required, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO{sub 2} capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant, such as rapid change in the feed flow rates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but they are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified, and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus furnace, a four-stage method was devised so as to determine which set of linearly independent reactions would best describe the product distributions from available plant data. Various approaches are taken to derive the kinetic rate expressions, which are either missing in the open literature or found to be inconsistent. A set of plant data is used for optimal estimation of the kinetic parameters. The final model agrees well with the published plant data. Using the developed kinetics models of the Claus reaction furnace, WHB, and catalytic stages, two optimization studies are carried out. The first study shows that there exists an optimal steam pressure generated in the WHB that balances hydrogen yield, oxygen demand, and power generation. In the second study, it is shown that an optimal H{sub 2}S/SO{sub 2} ratio exists that balances single-pass conversion, hydrogen yield, oxygen demand, and power generation. In addition, an operability study has been carried out to examine the operating envelope in which both the H{sub 2}S/SO{sub 2} ratio and the adiabatic flame temperature can be controlled in the face of disturbances typical for the operation of an IGCC power plant with CO{sub 2} capture. Impact of CO{sub 2} capture on the Claus process has also been discussed.

  18. Rigorous Kinetic Modeling and Optimization Study of a Modified Claus Unit for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant with CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Dustin; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Turton, Richard; Zitney, Stephen E.

    2012-02-08

    The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and the ability to recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Because of these criteria, modifications to the conventional process are often required, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO{sub 2} capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant, such as rapid change in the feed flow rates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but they are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified, and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus furnace, a four-stage method was devised so as to determine which set of linearly independent reactions would best describe the product distributions from available plant data. Various approaches are taken to derive the kinetic rate expressions, which are either missing in the open literature or found to be inconsistent. A set of plant data is used for optimal estimation of the kinetic parameters. The final model agrees well with the published plant data. Using the developed kinetics models of the Claus reaction furnace, WHB, and catalytic stages, two optimization studies are carried out. The first study shows that there exists an optimal steam pressure generated in the WHB that balances hydrogen yield, oxygen demand, and power generation. In the second study, it is shown that an optimal H{sub 2}S/SO{sub 2} ratio exists that balances single-pass conversion, hydrogen yield, oxygen demand, and power generation. In addition, an operability study has been carried out to examine the operating envelope in which both the H{sub 2}S/SO{sub 2} ratio and the adiabatic flame temperature can be controlled in the face of disturbances typical for the operation of an IGCC power plant with CO{sub 2} capture. Impact of CO{sub 2} capture on the Claus process has also been discussed.

  19. Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the safeguard clause notified by Greece on genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request of the European Commission, the European Food Safety Authority’s Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (EFSA GMO Panel evaluated the documentation submitted by Greece in support of its request for the prohibition of the placing on the market of the genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC. The EFSA GMO Panel notes that the majority of the publications referred to by Greece were already addressed by the EFSA GMO Panel in previous scientific outputs on maize MON 810 or other related insect-resistant genetically modified maize transformation events. In the remaining evidence provided by Greece, the EFSA GMO Panel could not identify any new data subject to scientific scrutiny or scientific information that would invalidate its previous risk assessments of maize MON 810. With regard to issues related to management and monitoring of maize MON 810, the EFSA GMO Panel refers to its recent recommendations for management and monitoring measures of maize MON 810. In conclusion, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that, based on the documentation submitted by Greece, there is no specific scientific evidence, in terms of risk to human and animal health or the environment, that would support the notification of a safeguard clause under Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC and that would invalidate the GMO Panel’s previous risk assessments of maize MON 810.

  20. Material Adverse Effect Clause – Proper Legal Work or Contribution to False Sense of Security?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Regardless of whether you are a buyer or a seller, and regardless what the object of the contract is, it is essentially important that you seek to protect your rights through various clauses that must aim to provide clearness to contractual obligations, defini- tions of breach, and consequences thereof. The article addresses a number of interest- protective legal mechanisms and necessity of their explicit incorporation in the contract. With emphasis on Material Adverse Effect clause the paper focuses on its exigency and applicability.

  1. Constraint Specialisation in Horn Clause Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query-answer transformation of a given set of clauses and a goal. The effect is to propagate the constraints from the goal top-down and propagate answer constraints bottom-up. Our approach does not unfold the clauses at all; we use the constraints from the model to compute a specialised version of each clause in the program. The approach is independent of the abstract domain and the constraints theory underlying the clauses. Experimental results on verification problems show that this is an effective transformation, both in our own verification tools (convex polyhedra analyser) and as a pre-processor to other Horn clause verification tools.

  2. 48 CFR 1537.110 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... true Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. 1537.110 Section 1537...CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Service Contracts-General 1537.110 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. The following clauses...

  3. 48 CFR 2825.901 - Omission of audit clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 true Omission of audit clause. 2825.901 Section 2825.901 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...ACQUISITION Additional Foreign Acquisition Clauses 2825.901 Omission of audit clause. The HCA, or...

  4. 48 CFR 925.901 - Omission of the audit clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Omission of the audit clause. 925.901 Section 925.901 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...ACQUISITION Additional Foreign Acquisition Clauses 925.901 Omission of the audit clause. (c)...

  5. Revisiting the Learned Clauses Database Reduction Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Jabbour, Said; Lonlac, Jerry; Sais, Lakhdar; Salhi, Yakoub

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we revisit an important issue of CDCL-based SAT solvers, namely the learned clauses database management policies. Our motivation takes its source from a simple observation on the remarkable performances of both random and size-bounded reduction strategies. We first derive a simple reduction strategy, called Size-Bounded Randomized strategy (in short SBR), that combines maintaing short clauses (of size bounded by k), while deleting randomly clauses of size grea...

  6. Revisiting Clause Exchange in Parallel SAT Solving

    OpenAIRE

    Audemard, Gilles; Hoessen, Benoi?t; Jabbour, Said; Lagniez, Jean-marie; Piette, Ce?dric

    2012-01-01

    Managing learnt clause database is known to be a tricky task in SAT solvers. In the portfolio framework, the collaboration between threads through learnt clause exchange makes this problem even more difficult to tackle. Several techniques have been proposed in the last few years, but practical results are still in favor of very limited collaboration, or even no collaboration at all. This is mainly due to the difficulty that each thread has to manage a large amount of learnt clauses generated ...

  7. 37 CFR 11.61 - Savings clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...REPRESENTATION OF OTHERS BEFORE THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE Investigations and Disciplinary Proceedings; Jurisdiction, Sanctions, Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.61 Savings clause. (a) A...

  8. Minor planets and related objects. XV - Asteroid /1620/ Geographos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of the light curves and color-phase and polarization-phase relations of Geographos according to observations over an eight-month period in 1969. The light curves are relatively smooth with two distinct maxima and minima. The largest amplitude of 2.03 mag is the largest observed on asteroids to date. The average B-V is 0.87 and the average U-B is 0.50. A laboratory model that best reproduced Geographos' light curves was a cylinder having hemispherical ends with a length to width ratio of 2.7; on the basis of this model and a relation of Bowell and Zellner (1973), Geographos was calculated to be approximately 1.50 km wide and 4.0 km long.

  9. Two types of Poisson pencils and related quantum objects

    OpenAIRE

    Gurevich, D.; Donin, J.; Rubstov, V.

    1997-01-01

    Two types of Poisson pencils connected to classical R-matrices and their quantum counterparts are considered. A representation theory of the quantum algebras related to some symmetric orbits in $sl(n)^*$ is constructed. A twisted version of quantum mechanics is discussed.

  10. Minor planets and related objects. XVI - Polarimetric diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, B.; Gehrels, T.; Gradie, J.

    1974-01-01

    Polarimetric observations of 43 asteroids are presented. All objects show a well-developed negative polarization branch as an indicator of unconsolidated surface regoliths. The empirical slope-albedo law for diffusely reflecting solid surfaces is reexamined and used to compute polarimetric albedos and diameters for 30 asteroids. In many cases the results are in good agreement with infrared-radiometric diameters; the older visual diameter measurements were systematically too small. Radiometric albedos below 5%, however, are not confirmed by the polarimetry. Bimodal frequency distributions are noted for asteroid color, albedo, and the depth of the negative polarization branch. Correlations between B - V color and polarimetric parameters suggest that most of the asteroid population can be divided into silicaceous and carbonaceous opacity classes.

  11. TPP - An interactive database of cataclysmic variables and related objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kube, J.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Hoffmann, B.

    2002-01-01

    We introduce our interactive online catalogue of cataclysmic variables, historically dubbed TPP. Similar to the Downes et al. catalogue, we include all systems which have been -- even remotely -- mentioned as a cataclysmic variable. However, TPP is intended to include all the available published information on the listed systems, such as, e.g. orbital period, inclination, distance, primary and secondary masses, magnetic field strength, etc. A major difference to the established catalogues is that every member of the community can contribute information to the database. Technically speaking, the catalogue is contained in a MySQL database and accessed through a Perl script running on our web server. Hence, the user interface is displayed in the client's web browser. On July 30, 2001, our data base contained 1167 single objects with 4071 pieces of information drawn from 1958 different literature sources. Literature references are directly linked to the ADS abstract system, the arXive preprint server and the VSNET mail archive. You find TPP in the World Wide Web at TPP, where we also provide a complete user manual. TPP was made possible by using the free scripting language Perl and the free data base MySQL. A big ``thank you'' to the developers of these powerful tools and to the whole GNU community!

  12. Objectivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope A Rush

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available I argue that one in particular of Crispin Wright’s attempts to capture our common or intuitive concepts of objectivity, warrant, and other associated notions, relies on an ambiguity between a given constructivist reading of the concepts and at least one other, arguably more ‘ordinary’, version of the notions he tries to accommodate. I do this by focusing on one case in point, and concluding with a brief argument showing how this case generalises. I demonstrate why this ambiguity is unacceptable and also that its resolution undermines the aim it serves: to account for and accommodate our ordinary conception of (at least objectivity, warrant (or justification and truth.

  13. Objectivities

    OpenAIRE

    Rush, Penelope A.

    2012-01-01

    I argue that one in particular of Crispin Wright’s attempts to capture our common or intuitive concepts of objectivity, warrant, and other associated notions, relies on an ambiguity between a given constructivist reading of the concepts and at least one other, arguably more ‘ordinary’, version of the notions he tries to accommodate. I do this by focusing on one case in point, and concluding with a brief argument showing how this case generalises. I demonstrate why this ambiguity is unac...

  14. Disjunctive Interpolants for Horn-Clause Verification (Extended Technical Report)

    OpenAIRE

    Ru?mmer, Philipp; Hojjat, Hossein; Kuncak, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    One of the main challenges in software verification is efficient and precise compositional analysis of programs with procedures and loops. Interpolation methods remain one of the most promising techniques for such verification, and are closely related to solving Horn clause constraints. We introduce a new notion of interpolation, disjunctive interpolation, which solve a more general class of problems in one step compared to previous notions of interpolants, such as tree inte...

  15. 48 CFR 16.307 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 16.307 Section 16.307 Federal...ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 16.307...

  16. 48 CFR 19.708 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...BUSINESS PROGRAMS The Small Business Subcontracting Program 19.708 Contract clauses...at 52.219-9, Small Business Subcontracting Plan, in solicitations and contracts that offer subcontracting possibilities, are...

  17. 48 CFR 228.370 - Additional clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...the clause at 252.228-7001, Ground and Flight Risk, in all solicitations...lighter-than-air airships, unmanned aerial vehicles, or other nonconventional aircraft...Missiles, and Space Launch Vehicles, may be used in...

  18. 48 CFR 2103.571 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Other Improper Business Practices 2103.571 Contract clause....

  19. 22 CFR 145.48 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...subcontracts. (a) Contracts in excess of the small...limitation shall contain contract clauses that allow...contractor violates or breaches the contract terms, and provide...supplying labor and material in the execution...

  20. A COMPARISON OF THE TURKIC TYPE RELATIVE CLAUSE TYPOLOGY WITH JAPANESE, KOREAN AND HUNGRAIAN TYPOLOGIES TÜRK D?L? SIFAT-F??LL? YAPI T?POLOJ?S?N?N JAPON, KORE VE MACAR T?POLOJ?LER? ?LE KAR?ILA?TIRILMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat KARABULUT

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, we dealt with relative clause typologies in the world languages in general and Turkic Type Relative Clause typology in particular. By doing this, we compared Turkish relative clause construction with Japanese, Korean and Hungarian ones, which are all considered in Uralic and Altaic Language Family. In doing this, we made use of Chomskian theories called Generative-Transformational Grammar and Governement and Binding Thoery. As is known, Chomsky declared that all languages have the same typolgy in the Deep Structure. The changes among languages are witnessed in Surface Structure. There is a transformation between deep structure and surface structure. It means that, a noun pharse can be moved to another place leaving an empty place behind by constructing a chain between the empty place and its antecedents (moved element. When we compared Turkic type relative clause typology with Japanese, Korean and Hungarian, we amasingly saw that the strategies are the same in these langauges. Bu çal??mada, dünya dillerinde önemli bir yere sahip olan s?fat-fiilli yap?lar?n tipolojilerini inceledik. Bunu yapmaktaki amac?m?z, Türk Dili Tipi S?fat-fiilli Yap? tipolojinsin dünya dilleri aras?ndaki yerini tespit etmek ve benzer tipolojiler ile kar??la?t?rmakt?r. Türk dili ile akraba oldu?u varsay?lan Japon, Kore ve Macar dillerini, s?fat-fiil tipolojileri aç?s?nda analiz ederek Türk Dili Tipolojisi ile olan benzerlikleri ortaya koymaya çal??t?k. S?fat-fiil tipolojisini analiz ederken, Chomsky’nin Üretken-Dönü?ümlü Dil Bilgisi ve Yönetim ve Ba?lama Kuram?’ndan faydaland?k. Dilin yap?sal olarak incelenmesi gerekti?ini ileri süren Chomsky, derin yap? ve yüzey yap? kavramlar? ile ta??n?m ve dönü?ümün bütün diller için kaç?n?lmaz bir gerçeklik oldu?unu gösterdi. Biz de bu çal??mada ad öbe?i ta??n?m? ve bo?luk kuram? ?????nda, s?fat-fiilli yap? tipolojilerini kar??la?t?rmal? olarak ele ald?k ve Türk, Japon, Kore ve Macar dilleri aras?ndaki ?a??rt?c? benzerli?i, öbek yap? ve söz dizimi seviyesinde tespit ettik.

  1. 48 CFR 52.301 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). 52.301 Section 52.301 Federal...CONTRACT CLAUSES Provision and Clause Matrix 52.301 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). Note: The FAR matrix is...

  2. 48 CFR 1352.301 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). 1352.301 Section 1352.301...CONTRACT CLAUSES Provisions and Clauses Matrix 1352.301 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). ER08MR10.000...

  3. Information Structure and Direct Object Indexation in Persian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Bahrami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Object indexation is a grammatical phenomenon in which a clitic pronoun, co-referential with the free nominal object, appends to the verb. Optionality of indexation in Persian leads us to consider the role of pragmatic factors in its occurring. The present study aims at investigating the influence of information structure on direct object indexation in Persian. To do this, the data of standard spoken Persian including 540 cases were extracted from various resources and then analyzed within the framework of Role and Reference Grammar. The high frequency of topical direct object indexation confirms the role of information structure in direct object indexation. Analyzing the few cases of focal direct object indexation indicated that all cases of both topical and focal object indexation necessarily involve identifiable referents. Hence, the basic requirement in direct object indexation in Persian is identifiability of its referent. Considering the syntactic position of direct object in Persian clauses shows strong overlap of topical and focal objects. The post-core slot only belongs to the topical direct object and focal object cannot be placed there. Therefore, in order to identify the pragmatic relations of direct object in a clause, considering the context of the discourse is highly important. 

  4. Perception and Production of Object-Related Grasping in 6-Month-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daum, Moritz M.; Prinz, Wolfgang; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 6-month-olds' perception of an object-related human grasping action was compared with their level of grasping performance using a within-participants design. In the action perception task, infants were presented with the video of an actor's grasping movement toward an occluded target object. Subsequently, an expected and an…

  5. Effects of Transference Work in the Context of Therapeutic Alliance and Quality of Object Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoglend, Per; Hersoug, Anne Grete; Bogwald, Kjell-Petter; Amlo, Svein; Marble, Alice; Sorbye, Oystein; Rossberg, Jan Ivar; Ulberg, Randi; Gabbard, Glen O.; Crits-Christoph, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Transference interpretation is considered as a core active ingredient in dynamic psychotherapy. In common clinical theory, it is maintained that more mature relationships, as well as a strong therapeutic alliance, may be prerequisites for successful transference work. In this study, the interaction between quality of object relations

  6. Reduced object related negativity response indicates impaired auditory scene analysis in adults with autistic spectrum disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Veema Lodhia; Jon Brock; Johnson, Blake W.; Hautus, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Auditory Scene Analysis provides a useful framework for understanding atypical auditory perception in autism. Specifically, a failure to segregate the incoming acoustic energy into distinct auditory objects might explain the aversive reaction autistic individuals have to certain auditory stimuli or environments. Previous research with non-autistic participants has demonstrated the presence of an Object Related Negativity (ORN) in the auditory event related potential that indexes pre-attentive...

  7. A new reading of the origins of object-relations theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2002-08-01

    The author presents a reading of Freud's "Mourning and melancholia" in which he examines not only the ideas Freud was introducing, but, as important, the way he was thinking/writing in this watershed paper. The author demonstrates how Freud made use of his exploration of the unconscious work of mourning and of melancholia to propose and explore some of the major tenets of a revised model of the mind (which later would be termed "object-relations theory"). The principal tenets of the revised model presented in this 1917 paper include: (1) the idea that the unconscious is organised to a significant degree around stable internal object relations between paired split-off parts of the ego; (2) the notion that psychic pain may be defended against by means of the replacement of an external object relationship by an unconscious, fantasied internal object relationship; (3) the idea that pathological bonds of love mixed with hate are among the strongest ties that bind internal objects to one another in a state of mutual captivity; (4) the notion that the psychopathology of internal object relations often involves the use of omnipotent thinking to a degree that cuts off the dialogue between the unconscious internal object world and the world of actual experience with real external objects; and (5) the idea that ambivalence in relations between unconscious internal objects involves not only the conflict of love and hate, but also the conflict between the wish to continue to be alive in one's object relationships and the wish to be at one with one's dead internal objects. PMID:12204163

  8. Objective Measures of Emotion Related to Brand Attitude: A New Way to Quantify Emotion-Related Aspects Relevant to Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Walla, Peter; Brenner, Gerhard; Koller, Monika

    2011-01-01

    With this study we wanted to test the hypothesis that individual like and dislike as occurring in relation to brand attitude can be objectively assessed. First, individuals rated common brands with respect to subjective preference. Then, they volunteered in an experiment during which their most liked and disliked brand names were visually presented while three different objective measures were taken. Participant's eye blinks as responses to acoustic startle probes were registered with electro...

  9. 48 CFR 3447.7000 - Foreign travel clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Foreign travel clause. 3447.7000 Section 3447.7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Foreign Travel 3447.7000 Foreign travel clause. The contracting...

  10. 48 CFR 1816.307-70 - NASA contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NASA contract clauses. 1816...TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 1816.307-70 NASA contract clauses. (a...1852.216-73, Estimated Cost and Cost Sharing, in each...

  11. 48 CFR 22.407 - Solicitation provision and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... false Solicitation provision and contract clauses. 22.407 Section 22...ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for Contracts Involving Construction 22.407 Solicitation provision and contract clauses. (a) Insert the...

  12. 48 CFR 22.1006 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...false Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. 22.1006 Section 22...GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Act of 1965, as Amended 22.1006 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. (a)(1) The...

  13. 48 CFR 32.111 - Contract clauses for noncommercial purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses for noncommercial purchases... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Non-Commercial Item Purchase Financing 32.111 Contract clauses for noncommercial...

  14. 48 CFR 17.208 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... false Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. 17.208 Section 17.208...REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS...17.208 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. (a) Insert a...

  15. 48 CFR 32.206 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... false Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. 32.206 Section 32.206... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Commercial Item Purchase...32.206 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. (a) The contract shall...

  16. 48 CFR 732.406-73 - LOC contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false LOC contract clause. 732.406-73 Section 732.406-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY...REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Advance Payments 732.406-73 LOC contract clause. (a) If...

  17. 23 CFR 635.109 - Standardized changed condition clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...1) Differing site conditions. (i) During the progress of the work, if subsurface or latent physical conditions are encountered...differing site condition” clauses and “significant...in the character of work” clauses which...

  18. Animacy Affects the Processing of Subject-Object Ambiguities in the Second Language: Evidence from Self-Paced Reading with German Second Language Learners of Dutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carrie N.; Roberts, Leah

    2010-01-01

    The results of a self-paced reading study with German second language (L2) learners of Dutch showed that noun animacy affected the learners' on-line commitments when comprehending relative clauses in their L2. Earlier research has found that German L2 learners of Dutch do not show an on-line preference for subject-object word order in temporarily…

  19. Low Quality Natural Gas Sulfur Removal and Recovery CNG Claus Sulfur Recovery Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klint, V.W.; Dale, P.R.; Stephenson, C.

    1997-10-01

    Increased use of natural gas (methane) in the domestic energy market will force the development of large non-producing gas reserves now considered to be low quality. Large reserves of low quality natural gas (LQNG) contaminated with hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen (N) are available but not suitable for treatment using current conventional gas treating methods due to economic and environmental constraints. A group of three technologies have been integrated to allow for processing of these LQNG reserves; the Controlled Freeze Zone (CFZ) process for hydrocarbon / acid gas separation; the Triple Point Crystallizer (TPC) process for H{sub 2}S / C0{sub 2} separation and the CNG Claus process for recovery of elemental sulfur from H{sub 2}S. The combined CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus group of processes is one program aimed at developing an alternative gas treating technology which is both economically and environmentally suitable for developing these low quality natural gas reserves. The CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus process is capable of treating low quality natural gas containing >10% C0{sub 2} and measurable levels of H{sub 2}S and N{sub 2} to pipeline specifications. The integrated CFZ / CNG Claus Process or the stand-alone CNG Claus Process has a number of attractive features for treating LQNG. The processes are capable of treating raw gas with a variety of trace contaminant components. The processes can also accommodate large changes in raw gas composition and flow rates. The combined processes are capable of achieving virtually undetectable levels of H{sub 2}S and significantly less than 2% CO in the product methane. The separation processes operate at pressure and deliver a high pressure (ca. 100 psia) acid gas (H{sub 2}S) stream for processing in the CNG Claus unit. This allows for substantial reductions in plant vessel size as compared to conventional Claus / Tail gas treating technologies. A close integration of the components of the CNG Claus process also allow for use of the methane/H{sub 2}S separation unit as a Claus tail gas treating unit by recycling the CNG Claus tail gas stream. This allows for virtually 100 percent sulfur recovery efficiency (virtually zero SO{sub 2} emissions) by recycling the sulfur laden tail gas to extinction. The use of the tail gas recycle scheme also deemphasizes the conventional requirement in Claus units to have high unit conversion efficiency and thereby make the operation much less affected by process upsets and feed gas composition changes. The development of these technologies has been ongoing for many years and both the CFZ and the TPC processes have been demonstrated at large pilot plant scales. On the other hand, prior to this project, the CNG Claus process had not been proven at any scale. Therefore, the primary objective of this portion of the program was to design, build and operate a pilot scale CNG Claus unit and demonstrate the required fundamental reaction chemistry and also demonstrate the viability of a reasonably sized working unit.

  20. Object relations, reality testing, and social withdrawal in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Charlotte Fredslund; Torgalsbøen, Anne-Kari; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Romm, Kristin Lie; Andreassen, Ole Andreas; Bell, Morris D; Melle, Ingrid

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationships between observed social withdrawal (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS] Passive Social Withdrawal and PANSS Active Social Avoidance), subjectively experienced social withdrawal (Social Functioning Scale [SFS] Withdrawal and SFS Interpersonal Behavior), and their associations to the underlying psychological patterns of Object Relations and Reality Testing. Patients with schizophrenia (n = 55) and bipolar disorder (n = 51) from the ongoing Thematically Organized Psychosis project, Oslo University Hospital, Norway, were evaluated using the Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory, the PANSS, and the SFS. Object relations and reality testing subscales related differentially to PANSS Passive Social Withdrawal and PANSS Active Social Avoidance. These two measures, together with the level of alienation, explained a significant amount of variance in self-experienced social dysfunction. Findings reveal the multidimensional nature of social dysfunction in severe mental disorders. PMID:23407207

  1. The Hilbert space of conditional clauses

    CERN Document Server

    Francis, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Context. The well known problems of interpretation of quantum mechanics mean that physical law lacks physical basis. Aims. To abstract the formalism of quantum mechanics from assertions about the world with clear physical meaning. Methods. Kets are defined as conditional clauses referring to measurements in a formal language. It is seen that these clauses are elements of a Hilbert space, such that addition is logical disjunction, the dual space consists of consequent clauses, and the inner product is a set of statements in the subjunctive mood. The probability interpretation gives truth values for corresponding future tense statements when the initial state is prepared and the final state is to be measured. Results. The mathematical structure of quantum mechanics is formulated in terms of discrete measurement results at finite level of accuracy and does not depend on an assumption of a substantive, or background, spacetime continuum. A continuum of kets, |x> for x in R^3, is constructed from linear combinatio...

  2. A Faster Clause-Shortening Algorithm for SAT with No Restriction on Clause Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Dantsin

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We give a randomized algorithm for testing satisfiability of Boolean formulas in conjunctive normal form with no restriction on clause length. This algorithm uses the clause-shortening approach proposed by Schuler. The running time of the algorithm is O(2^(n(1?1/? where ? = ln(m/n + O(ln ln m and n, m are respectively the number of variables and the number of clauses in the input formula. This bound is asymptotically better than the previously best known 2^(n(1?1/ log(2m bound for SAT.

  3. Objective measures of emotion related to brand attitude: a new way to quantify emotion-related aspects relevant to marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walla, Peter; Brenner, Gerhard; Koller, Monika

    2011-01-01

    With this study we wanted to test the hypothesis that individual like and dislike as occurring in relation to brand attitude can be objectively assessed. First, individuals rated common brands with respect to subjective preference. Then, they volunteered in an experiment during which their most liked and disliked brand names were visually presented while three different objective measures were taken. Participant's eye blinks as responses to acoustic startle probes were registered with electromyography (EMG) (i) and their skin conductance (ii) and their heart rate (iii) were recorded. We found significantly reduced eye blink amplitudes related to liked brand names compared to disliked brand names. This finding suggests that visual perception of liked brand names elicits higher degrees of pleasantness, more positive emotion and approach-oriented motivation than visual perception of disliked brand names. Also, skin conductance and heart rate were both reduced in case of liked versus disliked brand names. We conclude that all our physiological measures highlight emotion-related differences depending on the like and dislike toward individual brands. We suggest that objective measures should be used more frequently to quantify emotion-related aspects of brand attitude. In particular, there might be potential interest to introduce startle reflex modulation to measure emotion-related impact during product development, product design and various further fields relevant to marketing. Our findings are discussed in relation to the idea that self reported measures are most often cognitively polluted. PMID:22073192

  4. An evolutionary catalogue of Galactic post-AGB and related objects

    CERN Document Server

    Szczerba, R; Stasinska, G; Borkowski, J

    2007-01-01

    With the ongoing AKARI infrared sky survey, of much greater sensitivity than IRAS, a wealth of post-AGB objects may be discovered. It is thus time to organize our present knowledge of known post-AGB stars in th galaxy with a view to using it to search for new post-AGB objects among AKARI sources. We searched the literature available on the NASA Astrophysics Data System up to 1 October 2006, and defined criteria for classifying sources into three categories: "very likely", "possible" and "disqualified" post-AGB objects. The category of "very likely" post-AGB objects is made up of several classes. We have created an evolutionary, on-line catalogue of Galactic post-AGB objects, to be referred to as "The Torun catalogue of Galactic post-AGB and related objects". The present version of the catalogue contains 326 "very likely", 107 "possible" and 64 "disqualified" objects. For the very likely post-AGB objects, the catalogue gives the available optical and infrared photometry, infrared spectroscopy and spectral type...

  5. Cataclysmic binaries and related objects in the context of stellar evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataclysmic binaries (CBs) and related objects are discussed in the context of stellar evolution. Present knowledge about these objects and present theories about their formation are reviewed. Problems relating to the secondary components, including mass loss and the possibility of evolved secondaries, are addressed. Theoretical predictions of the mass spectrum of white dwarfs are compared with observations, and the formation of massive white dwarfs in CBs is discussed. The theoretical possibility that white dwarfs in CBs are continuously accreting is addressed, and the reason for the secondary's mass loss and its implications for the evolution of CBs are considered

  6. Comparative performance measures of relational and object-oriented databases using High Energy Physics data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major experiments at the SSC are expected to produce up to 1 Petabyte of data per year. The use of database techniques can significantly reduce the time it takes to access data. The goal of this project was to test which underlying data model, the relational or the object-oriented, would be better suited for archival and accessing high energy data. We describe the relational and the object-oriented data model and their implementation in commercial database management systems. To determine scalability we tested both implementations for 10-MB and 100-MB databases using storage and timing criteria

  7. On the nature of escapable relative islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken RamshØj; Nyvad, Anne Mette

    2014-01-01

    It is generally assumed that universal island constraints block extraction from relative clauses. However, it is well-known that such extractions can be acceptable in the Scandinavian languages. Kush & Lindahl (2011) argue that the acceptability in Swedish is illusory; relative clauses that allow extraction have a different structure (small clause structure) from those that block extraction (true relatives, CPs). We present data from an acceptability survey of relative clause extraction in Danish. In the survey, extraction significantly decreased acceptability but we found no statistically significant effect of the ability of the verb to take a small-clause complement. We also found no difference between som ‘that/who/which’ and der ‘that/who/which’, both of which can head a relative clause while only som can head a small clause. We argue that our results do not warrant the stipulation of a structural contrast between acceptable and unacceptable extractions, and that variation in acceptability stems from processing.

  8. Object relations and ego development: comparison and correlates in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, R R; Ryan, R M

    1988-09-01

    The significance of ego development and object relations for adaptation and adjustment in middle childhood was examined in a study of 92 nine- to twelve-year-old children. Subjects completed the Sentence Completion Test (SCT) and the Blatt Object Relations Scale (BORS) in individual sessions. BORS ratings were factor analyzed and a predominant factor of parental nurturance emerged. This factor was positively related to children's self-reported perceptions of parental involvement and autonomy support but was unrelated to the SCT. SCT findings revealed an expected pattern for middle childhood with the preponderance of children falling into impulsive, self-protective, and conformist stages of ego development. Both the SCT and BORS were examined in relation to aspects of children's cognitive and social functioning, assessed via teacher ratings, peer sociometrics, self-evaluations, and academic achievement records. Results showed that the SCT was primarily related to cognitive complexity variables, while the object relations measure was associated with both peer and self-evaluations. These nonoverlapping relations with varied child outcomes are discussed both in terms of methodological limitations and theoretical significance. PMID:3193345

  9. Quality of object representations related to service utilization in a long-term residential treatment center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, J Christopher; Defife, Jared A

    2012-09-01

    The current study examines patient factors related to service utilization during intensive treatment for 66 residential patients suffering from severe mental illness. We examined the relationship among demographic, psychiatric severity, and quality of object representation variables with individual and group psychotherapy sessions attended and emergency department transfers. Hierarchical linear regression models indicate malevolent affective expectations of interpersonal relationships embedded in patient narratives is uniquely related to individual psychotherapy attendance. A three-variable model consisting of higher educational status, number of axis I/II disorders, and poor understanding of social causality was related to transfers to emergency departments owing to self-destructive behavior. Quality of object representation of self and others was uniquely related to treatment use and self-destructive behaviors. Results highlight the importance of a comprehensive multimodal evaluation for improving treatment preparation, planning, and intervention. Clinical implications are considered. PMID:22962978

  10. Santa Claus and the Conservation of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassani, Sadri

    2005-01-01

    This article examines an amusing application of the concept of kinetic energy. Using some rudimentary physical notions, we have analysed the energetics of the motion of Santa Claus. The results, which are quite surprising, can be of interest to high school and early college physics educators when they teach kinetic energy, and energy conservation…

  11. 48 CFR 219.708 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...BUSINESS PROGRAMS The Small Business Subcontracting Program 219.708 Contract clauses...at 252.219-7003, Small Business Subcontracting Plan (DoD Contracts), in solicitations...FAR 52.219-9, Small Business Subcontracting Plan. (B) In contracts with...

  12. Claus Achton Friis : Skrift og brugsgrafik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlers, Steen

    1996-01-01

    Grafiker, professor Claus Achton Friis 1917-1999 er en central skikkelse i det 20.århundredes danske brugsgrafik. Han er ophavsmand til en mængde emballager, frimærker og heraldik og desuden formgiver af en række fremragende skrifter. Han var elev af grafikeren professor Gunnar Biilmann Petersen og blev selv, i en sen alder, professor på Kunstakademiets Afdeling for Grafisk Design.

  13. Licensing Revisited: Open Access Clauses in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Schmidt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Open access increases the visibility and use of research outputs and promises to maximize the return on our public investment in research. However, only a minority of researchers will "spontaneously" deposit their articles into an open access repository. Even with the growing number of institutional and funding agency mandates requiring the deposit of papers into the university repository, deposit rates have remained stubbornly low. As a result, the responsibility for populating repositories often falls onto the shoulders of library staff and/or repository managers. Populating repositories in this way – which involves obtaining the articles, checking the rights, and depositing articles into the repository – is time consuming and resource intensive work.The Confederation of Open Access Repositories (COAR, a global association of repository initiatives and networks, is promoting a new strategy for addressing some of the barriers to populating repositories, involving the use of open access archiving clauses in publisher licenses. These types of clauses are being considered by consortia and licensing agencies around the world as a way of ensuring that all the papers published by a given publisher are cleared for deposit into the institutional repository. This paper presents some use cases of open access archiving clauses, discusses the major barriers to implementing archiving language into licenses, and describes some strategies that organizations can adopt in order to include such clauses into publisher licenses.

  14. Neural representation of object location and route direction: an event-related fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Gabriele; Weststeijn, Cornelis G

    2007-08-24

    The human brain distinguishes between landmarks placed at navigationally relevant and irrelevant locations. However, to provide a successful wayfinding mechanism not only landmarks but also the routes between them need to be stored. We examined the neural representation of a memory for route direction and a memory for relevant landmarks. Healthy human adults viewed objects along a route through a virtual maze. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired during a subsequent subliminal priming recognition task. Prime-objects either preceded or succeeded a target-object on a preciously learned route. Our results provide evidence that the parahippocampal gyri distinguish between relevant and irrelevant landmarks whereas the inferior parietal gyrus, the anterior cingulate gyrus as well as the right caudate nucleus are involved in the coding of route direction. These data show that separated memory systems store different spatial information. A memory for navigationally relevant object information and a memory for route direction exist. PMID:17651709

  15. Transpersonal processes: a bridge between object relations and attachment theory in normal and psychopathological development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, R C

    1995-09-01

    This paper has three aims: (a) to present the further development of the concept of transpersonal processes and the bimodal theory of relational cognition; (b) to show how the bimodal concept illuminates developmental theory and facilitates the move from object relations theory toward a relational systems model; and (c) to show how the attachment paradigm and the notions of internal working models (Bowlby, 1973) and self-reflective capacity (Fonagy, 1991) are both congruent and synergistic with the transpersonal and bimodal concepts. PMID:8527359

  16. The Frobenius anatomy of word meanings II: possessive relative pronouns

    OpenAIRE

    Sadrzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Clark, Stephen; Coecke, Bob

    2014-01-01

    Within the categorical compositional distributional model of meaning, we provide semantic interpretations for the subject and object roles of the possessive relative pronoun `whose'. This is done in terms of Frobenius algebras over compact closed categories. These algebras and their diagrammatic language expose how meanings of words in relative clauses interact with each other. We show how our interpretation is related to Montague-style semantics and provide a truth-theoreti...

  17. Advantages Of Object-Oriented Over Relational Databases On Real-Life Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Butuner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Business, manufacturing and other kinds of databases have been implemented by the relational database technology. The transition from one generation to the next has always been necessitated by the ever-increasing complexity of database applications and the cost of implementing, maintaining, and extending these applications. Accordingly, whatever the application areas of the relational database technology are, the basic shortcomings and weaknesses of this discipline are valid. On the other hand, the object-oriented database technology forms a good basis for all kinds of database applications, e.g., CAD/CAM/CASE/CIM systems, knowledge management systems, and others, due to its flexible, effective, and extensible data modeling and application formalism. In this study, two popular database technologies, the relational and object-oriented, are briefly introduced and their general characteristics are discussed. The purpose of this study is to point-out and compare the important features of relational and object-oriented databases, for the sake of understanding the pros and cons of these technologies before implementing them. 

  18. Modeling and efficient optimization for object-based scalability and some related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, P

    2000-01-01

    MPEG-4 is the first visual coding standard that allows coding of scenes as a collection of individual audio-visual objects. We present mathematical formulations for modeling object-based scalability and some functionalities that it brings with it. Our goal is to study algorithms that aid in semi-automating the authoring and subsequent selective addition/dropping of objects from a scene to provide content scalability. We start with a simplistic model for object-based scalability using the "knapsack problem"--a problem for which the optimal object set can be found using known schemes such as dynamic programming, the branch and bound method and approximation algorithms. The above formulation is then generalized to model authoring or multiplexing of scalable objects (e.g., objects encoded at various target bit-rates) using the "multiple choice knapsack problem." We relate this model to several problems that arise in video coding, the most prominent of these being the bit allocation problem. Unlike previous approaches to solve the operational bit allocation problem using Lagrangean relaxation, we discuss an algorithm that solves linear programming (LP) relaxation of this problem. We show that for this problem the duality gap for Lagrange and LP relaxations is exactly the same. The LP relaxation is solved using strong duality with dual descent--a procedure that can be completed in "linear" time. We show that there can be at most two fractional variables in the optimal primal solution and therefore this relaxation can be justified for many practical applications. This work reduces problem complexity, guarantees similar performance, is slightly more generic, and provides an alternate LP-duality based proof for earlier work by Shoham and Gersho (1988). In addition, we show how additional constraints may be added to impose inter-dependencies among objects in a presentation and discuss how object aggregation can be exploited in reducing problem complexity. The marginal analysis approach of Fox (1966) is suggested as a method of re-allocation with incremental inputs. It helps in efficiently re-optimizing the allocation when a system has user interactivity, appearing or disappearing objects, time driven events, etc. Finally, we suggest that approximation algorithms for the multiple choice knapsack problem, which can be used to quantify complexity vs. quality tradeoff at the encoder in a tunable and universal way. PMID:18262907

  19. Adding Hierarchical Objects to Relational Database General-Purpose XML-Based Information Managements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Chun; Knight, Chris; La, Tracy; Maluf, David; Bell, David; Tran, Khai Peter; Gawdiak, Yuri

    2006-01-01

    NETMARK is a flexible, high-throughput software system for managing, storing, and rapid searching of unstructured and semi-structured documents. NETMARK transforms such documents from their original highly complex, constantly changing, heterogeneous data formats into well-structured, common data formats in using Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) and/or Extensible Markup Language (XML). The software implements an object-relational database system that combines the best practices of the relational model utilizing Structured Query Language (SQL) with those of the object-oriented, semantic database model for creating complex data. In particular, NETMARK takes advantage of the Oracle 8i object-relational database model using physical-address data types for very efficient keyword searches of records across both context and content. NETMARK also supports multiple international standards such as WEBDAV for drag-and-drop file management and SOAP for integrated information management using Web services. The document-organization and -searching capabilities afforded by NETMARK are likely to make this software attractive for use in disciplines as diverse as science, auditing, and law enforcement.

  20. 48 CFR 1816.307 - Contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a), (b), (d), and (g)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... true Contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a...TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 1816.307 Contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a...ii)(B) of the Allowable Cost and Payment clause at...

  1. 48 CFR 1436.270-3 - Part II-Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Special Aspects of Contracting...Construction 1436.270-3 Part II—Contract clauses. For Section I, Contract clause, include any clauses required by law or by the FAR (including...

  2. 48 CFR 538.7004 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...SCHEDULE CONTRACTING Cooperative Purchasing 538...Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. (a...Federal Supply Schedule Contracts by Certain Entities—Cooperative Purchasing, in solicitations and contracts for— (1)...

  3. Simple Ontology of Manipulation Actions based on Hand-Object Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wörgötter, Florentin; Aksoy, E. E.

    2013-01-01

    Humans can perform a multitude of different actions with their hands (manipulations). In spite of this, so far there have been only a few attempts to represent manipulation types trying to understand the underlying principles. Here we first discuss how manipulation actions are structured in space and time. For this we use as temporal anchor points those moments where two objects (or hand and object) touch or un-touch each other during a manipulation. We show that by this one can define a relatively small tree-like manipulation ontology. We find less than 30 fundamental manipulations. The temporal anchors also provide us with information about when to pay attention to additional important information, for example when to consider trajectory shapes and relative poses between objects. As a consequence a highly condensed representation emerges by which different manipulations can be recognized and encoded. Examples of manipulations recognition and execution by a robot based on this representation are given at theend of this study.

  4. From object relations to attachment theory: a basis for family therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, D H

    1978-03-01

    This paper describes the essence of object relations theory as developed by Winnicott through his concepts of transtional object, the good enough mother holding a situation for her child and play both solitary and mutual. These concepts are compared and contrasted with the essential features of attachment theory as put forward by Bowlby. It is suggested that Winnicotts object relations concepts and attachment theory each provide a framework to explain similar psychological and interpersonal phenomena. Reasons are put forward for the choice of attachment theory as a basis for family therapy and to suggest hypotheses to investigate the quality and quantity of intrafamilial social interaction and concomitant emotional states. The family in family therapy is described in terms of the interpersonal dynamic suggested by attachment theory. The family is seen as a homoeostatic system of relationships between individuals at different stages of development who share set goals aimed at terminating a specific form of proximity-seeking attachment behaviour and promoting exploratory behaviour. PMID:75018

  5. Bell object relations inventory for adolescents and children: reliability, validity, and factorial invariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Morris

    2003-02-01

    The Bell Object Relations Inventory (BORI; Bell,1995) is a self-report instrument that measures deficits in object relations ego functioning. It has demonstrated clinical and research utility in adult populations. This article reports the development of a version of the BORI for children ages 11 to 17, including studies of reliability, validity, and factorial invariance. Data of 705 children from public schools and 110 children from clinics and residential treatments were used. Of the 45 original BORI true/false items, 3 were dropped as inappropriate and most others were rewritten for easier reading. An additional 16 items were created to capture unique features of adolescent experiences in relationships. Items were tested in focus groups and revised accordingly. Eight items were dropped because of low communalities, so that 50 items were included in the final factor analysis. Assessments using self-report items from Behavioral Assessment Scale for Children (BASC; Reynolds & Camphaus, 1992) and the Personality Inventory for Youth (PIY) were also obtained to test concurrent validity. Oblique rotation yielded 5 factors. Four were very similar to the 4 from the adult version and were named accordingly: Alienation, Insecure Attachment, Egocentricity, and Social Incompetence. The fifth scale was comprised mostly of new items and was called Positive Attachment. Scales showed excellent factorial invariance and good internal consistency. Scales generally had very low intercorrelations reflecting their relative independence. Although differences were found for gender and race, the effect sizes were small. Support for construct validity came from moderate correlations with concurrent BASC and PIA scores, analyses of variance showing greater deficits in object relations in pathological subgroups compared with normals, and a trend analysis showed that Alienation scores followed a lawful relationship with increasing severity of psychopathology. These initial findings support the psychometric integrity of the instrument and its construct validity. Results indicate continuity of constructs between the adult and adolescent versions. The Positive Attachment subscale may prove a valuable addition for clinical and research applications. PMID:12584063

  6. Using Object-Relational Mapping to Create the Distributed Databases in a Hybrid Cloud Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Lukyanchikov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges currently problems in the use of cloud services is the task of designing of data management systems. This is especially important for hybrid systems in which the data are located in public and private clouds. Implementation monitoring functions querying, scheduling and processing software must be properly implemented and is an integral part of the system. To provide these functions is proposed to use an object-relational mapping (ORM. The article devoted to presenting the approach of designing databases for information systems hosted in a hybrid cloud infrastructure. It also provides an example of the development of ORM library.

  7. Modelling with Relational Calculus of Object and Component Systems - rCOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhenbang; Hannousse, Abdel Hakim

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents a formalization of functional and behavioural requirements, and a refinement of requirements to a design for CoCoME using the Relational Calculus of Object and Component Systems (rCOS). We give a model of requirements based on an abstraction of the use cases described in Chapter 3.2. Then the refinement calculus of rCOS is used to derive design models corresponding to the top level designs of Chapter 3.4. We demonstrate how rCOS supports modelling different views and their relationships of the system and the separation of concerns in the development.

  8. 48 CFR 252.203-7000 - Requirements Relating to Compensation of Former DoD Officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Compensation of Former DoD Officials. 252.203-7000 Section 252.203-7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE...CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.203-7000 Requirements Relating to Compensation of...

  9. Querying Uncertain Data in Geospatial Object-relational Databases Using SQL and Fuzzy Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ?ura?iová, R.

    2013-12-01

    This paper deals with uncertainty modeling in spatial object-relational databases by the use of Structured Query Language (SQL). The fundamental principles of uncertainty modeling by fuzzy sets are applied in the area of geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial databases. A spatial database system includes types of spatial data and implements the spatial extension of SQL. The implementation of the principles of fuzzy logic to spatial databases brings an opportunity for the efficient processing of uncertain data, which is important, especially when using various data sources (e.g., multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) on the basis of heterogeneous spatial data resources). The modeling and data processing of uncertainties are presented in relation to the applicable International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards (standards of the series 19100 Geographic information) and the relevant specifications of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The fuzzy spatial query approach is applied and tested on a case study with a fundamental database for GIS in Slovakia.

  10. The Pop out of Scene-Relative Object Movement against Retinal Motion Due to Self-Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Simon K.; Bradshaw, Mark F.; Warren, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    An object that moves is spotted almost effortlessly; it "pops out." When the observer is stationary, a moving object is uniquely identified by retinal motion. This is not so when the observer is also moving; as the eye travels through space all scene objects change position relative to the eye producing a complicated field of retinal motion.…

  11. A Tool for Testing of Inheritance Related Bugs in Object Oriented Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. Geetha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Object oriented software development different from traditional development products. In object oriented software polymorphism, inheritance, dynamic binding are the important features. An inheritance property is the main feature. The compilers usually detect the syntax oriented errors only. Some of the property errors may be located in the product. Data flow testing is an appropriate testing method for testing program futures. This test analysis structure of the software and gives the flow of property. This study is designed to detect the hidden errors with reference to the inheritance property. Inputs of the tool are set of classes and packages. Outputs of the tools are hierarchies of the classes, methods, attributes and a set of inheritance related bugs like naked access, spaghetti inheritance bugs are automatically detected by the tool. The tool is developed as three major modules. They are code analysis, knowledge base preparation and bugs analysis. The code analysis module is designed to parse extract details from the code. The knowledge base preparation module is designed to prepare the knowledge base about the program details. The bug's analysis module is designed to extract bugs related information from the database. It is a static testing. This study focused on Java programs.

  12. 48 CFR 1816.506-70 - NASA contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NASA contract clause. 1816.506-70...Contracts 1816.506-70 NASA contract clause. Insert...applicable to both fixed-price and cost-reimbursement type contracts...reporting (See NPR 9501.2, NASA Contractor Financial...

  13. 48 CFR 1843.205-70 - NASA contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NASA contract clauses. 1843.205-70...Change Orders 1843.205-70 NASA contract clauses. ...to reduce the administrative cost of reviewing them, the contracting... (3) If the contract is a cost-reimbursement type, the...

  14. 48 CFR 227.7009-1 - Required clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...at FAR 52.232-23. (d) Disputes. Pursuant to FAR 33.014, insert the clause at FAR 52.233-1. (e) Non-Estoppel. Insert the clause at 252.227-7000. [56 FR 36389, July 31, 1991, as amended at 61 FR 50454, Sept. 26,...

  15. Intonation Units, Clauses, and Preferred Argument Structure in Conversational Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazuko

    2000-01-01

    Examines informal Japanese conversations between 16 pairs of same-sex friends to explore the preferred information structure of the intonation unit and the preferred clause structure in terms of the number and type of arguments contained per clause. (Author/VWL)

  16. Flatness of the Energy Landscape for Horn Clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saratha Sathasivam

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Little-Hopfield neural network programmed with Horn clauses is studied. We argue that the energy landscape of the system, corresponding to the inconsistency function for logical interpretations of the sets of Horn clauses, has minimal ruggedness. This is supported by computer simulations.

  17. A New Approach in Consistency of Object Oriented Model and Relational Model in Distributed Systems Base on Heterogeneous Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Tahereh kheradmandan; Hamidreza Hamidi; Shokoh Kermanshahani

    2011-01-01

    According to application a database is designed to be object-oriented model or relational model but the important point is distribution and heterogeneity. So a model should be provided which work with different types of database and also be able to work disruption, and heterogeneity So one of the great challenges in the use of distributed database technologies is integrating object-oriented databases with relational databases because the platform-independent technologies have an object-orient...

  18. Las cláusulas de confidencialidad en el contrato de trabajo / Confidentiality Clauses in the Contract of Employment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alfredo, Sierra Herrero.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Quienes se familiarizan normalmente con la información confidencial de una empresa son sus trabajadores, en particular, aquellos que tienen el carácter de exclusiva confianza. Para resguardar el cuidado de dichos antecedentes, la empresa suscribe con dichos trabajadores cláusulas de confidencialidad [...] en los contratos de trabajo. Este artículo analiza tales cláusulas en el ámbito jurídico laboral, en particular, su noción, objetivos principales, requisitos necesarios para que sean consideradas válidas y las consecuencias que se derivan de su incumplimiento. Abstract in english Employees, especially those in exclusively confidential positions, are the usually familiar with the company's confidential information. In order to safeguard that information, the company incorporates confidentiality clauses in the contracts of employment of said employees. This article analyzes sa [...] id clauses in the legal-labor scope, particularly their notion, their main objectives, required to be deemed as valid, and the consequences of non-compliance.

  19. Multi-objective optimal experimental designs for event-related fMRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ming-Hung; Mandal, Abhyuday; Lazar, Nicole; Stufken, John

    2009-02-01

    In this article, we propose an efficient approach to find optimal experimental designs for event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (ER-fMRI). We consider multiple objectives, including estimating the hemodynamic response function (HRF), detecting activation, circumventing psychological confounds and fulfilling customized requirements. Taking into account these goals, we formulate a family of multi-objective design criteria and develop a genetic-algorithm-based technique to search for optimal designs. Our proposed technique incorporates existing knowledge about the performance of fMRI designs, and its usefulness is shown through simulations. Although our approach also works for other linear combinations of parameters, we primarily focus on the case when the interest lies either in the individual stimulus effects or in pairwise contrasts between stimulus types. Under either of these popular cases, our algorithm outperforms the previous approaches. We also find designs yielding higher estimation efficiencies than m-sequences. When the underlying model is with white noise and a constant nuisance parameter, the stimulus frequencies of the designs we obtained are in good agreement with the optimal stimulus frequencies derived by Liu and Frank, 2004, NeuroImage 21: 387-400. In addition, our approach is built upon a rigorous model formulation. PMID:18948212

  20. Experimental Study on Event-Related Potential for Objective Evaluation of Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Motoshi; Honma, Tomohiro; Inoue, Hiroshi; Niiyama, Yoshitsugu; Takahashi, Toru; Kumagai, Masanori; Akiyama, Yoshinobu

    In order to study the application of event-related potential (ERP) for performing objective evaluation of food, the ERP was measured when subjectively judging the appearance of food by three-grade scale with the opinion “like”, “favorite” and “more favorite”. Sushi and cooked rice were selected as typical foods. Five pictures of each food that the subjects liked were chosen before measurements, and then were used in opinion tests. As a result, the P300 component of the ERP was detected, and the P300 area (surrounded by ERP waveform from the latency 250 to 500ms) became larger when the subjects judged as “more favorite”, which indicates the feasibility of evaluation of food using the ERP.

  1. First Results from a Search for Nearby Cataclysmic Variables and Related Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Julie N.; Thorstensen, J.; Lépine, S.

    2011-05-01

    We are undertaking a survey to establish an upper limit on the space density of cataclysmic variables (CVs) and related objects in the solar neighborhood through a proper-motion based approach. We start with the new Lépine-Shara proper motion survey, which is sensitive down to 40 mas/yr, and select CV candidates from this using NUV - V colors from GALEX and V - K colors from 2MASS. In our first exploratory spectroscopic run, using the 2.4m Hiltner telescope at MDM Observatory, we identified a single new CV, LSPM 03338+3320 In this presentation we give details on this new CV. Briefly, its orbital period is near 96 minutes, its spectrum shows the double-peaked Balmer emission lines characteristic of quiescent dwarf novae, and its V magnitude is near 18.2.

  2. Relative object detectability (ROD): a new metric for comparing x-ray image detector performance for a specified object of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V; Jain, A; Bednarek, D R; Rudin, S

    2014-03-19

    Relative object detectability (ROD) quantifies the relative performance of two image detectors for a specified object of interest by taking the following ratio: the integral of detective quantum efficiency of a detector weighted by the frequency spectrum of the object divided by that for a second detector. Four different detectors, namely the micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF), the Dexela Model 1207 (Dex) and Hamamatsu Model C10901D-40 (Ham) CMOS x-ray detectors, and a flat-panel detector (FPD) were compared. The ROD was calculated for six pairs of detectors: (1) Dex/FPD, (2) MAF/FPD, (3) Ham/FPD, (4) Dex/Ham, (5) MAF/Ham and (6) MAF/Dex for wires of 5 mm fixed length, solid spheres ranging in diameter from 50 to 600 microns, and four simulated iodine-filled blood vessels of outer diameters 0.4 and 0.5 mm, each with wall thicknesses of 0.1 and 0.15 mm. Marked variation of ROD for the wires and spheres is demonstrated as a function of object size for the various detector pairs. The ROD of all other detectors relative to the FPD was much greater than one for small features and approached 1.0 as the diameter increased. The relative detectability of simulated small iodine-filled blood vessels for all detector pairs was seen to be independent of the vessel wall thickness for the same inner diameter. In this study, the ROD is shown to have the potential to be a useful figure of merit to evaluate the relative performance of two detectors for a given imaging task. PMID:25302002

  3. Bi-Objective Optimization Based on Compromise Method for Horizontal Fragmentation in Relational Data Warehouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Barr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Generally, research that dealt with the selection problems for optimization techniques or structures in relational data ware houses supports these problems by considering only a single criterion of optimization. The optimization criteria may be the response time of query execution, the number of inputs/outputs between the main memory and the disk, the space allocated to store the index or materialized views, or the number fragments required by the administrator of the data warehouse when using the fragmentation technique. The present work deals with the problem of selecting the horizontal fragmentation technique while considering both the number of I/O between memory and disk during decisional queries and the number of fragments, as two objective functions to minimize. To reduce the scope of choice solutions, we are based on a scalar method, called compromise method. The method is complemented by the principle of Pareto front to infer the best solutions. The study has been experimented on APB1 benchmark of data warehouse.

  4. Quality of object relations modifies the effectiveness of short- and long-term psychotherapy on self-concept

    OpenAIRE

    Olavi Lindfors; Paul Knekt; Esa Virtala

    2013-01-01

    The quality of object relations affects interpersonal behaviour, but it is not known whether it modifies effectiveness on personality functioning in psychotherapies of different mode and length. In this study we estimated the modifying effect of the quality of object relations on the effect of solution-focused therapy (SFT) and shortand long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (SPP and LPP) on self-concept. A total of 326 patients were assessed at baseline with the Quality...

  5. Proposed Framework wWhich Use the Object Oriented Principles in Relational Systems. General Aspects and Principles (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin STRIMBEI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are some significant theoretical and technological approaches on the issue of object-relational "impedance mismatch" between applications' abstract model and database structures. Two characteristics of those approaches we think that are questionable: first of all it is so called “flat” nature of relational systems and model, and then there is the drawback of the storage of (object oriented semantics on the application level, thus severe limiting the data (object sharing and, at the same time, virtually broking the data independence principle of database systems architecture. In this paper we will try to outline an approach to address to some in a concrete manner.

  6. Representing Objects using Global 3D Relational Features for Recognition Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Wail

    2015-01-01

    In robotic systems, visual interpretations of the environment compose an essential element in a variety of applications, especially those involving manipulation of objects. Interpreting the environment is often done in terms of recognition of objects using machine learning approaches. For user acceptance, the recognition must be reliable and the learning must be fast, i.e. only few number of training samples should be used. In this thesis, a framework utilized in three recognition tasks is presented. The framework uses a combination of effective learning algorithms and strong visual representations. For representing objects, we derive global descriptors encoding shape using viewpoint-invariant features obtained from multiple sensors observing the scene. Objects are also described using color independently. This allows for combining color and shape when it is required for the task. For more robust color description, color calibration is performed. The framework was used in three recognition tasks: object instance recognition, object category recognition, and object spatial relationship recognition. For the object instance recognition task, we present a system that utilizes color and scale-variant shape representations. We achieve both high performance and learning efficiency. The learning efficiency is expressed in terms of scalability to many objects while requiring only a few training samples. The system has also been applied in real-world application in which its reliability allowed to initiate higher-level semantic interpretations of complex scenes. In the object category recognition task, we present a system that is capable of assigning multiple and nested categories for novel objects using a method developed for this purpose. Integrating this method with other multi-label learning approaches is also investigated. The system uses a scale-invariant shape representation and it is shown to outperform a state-of-the-art method particularly when a few samples are used for training. Both systems are benchmarked using a multi-view object dataset of 100 objects specially created for this purpose. Finally, we show that, by defining global descriptors between objects, the framework can be extended to perform recognition of object spatial relationships. In this task, we show that we can achieve high recognition performance for a number of relationships of objects in a simulated environment.

  7. 48 CFR 225.1070 - Clause deviations in overseas contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    See 201.403(2) for approval authority for clause deviations in overseas contracts with governments of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries or other allies or with United Nations or NATO organizations. [65 FR 19856, Apr. 13,...

  8. 48 CFR 50.104-4 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL...Contractual Actions 50.104-4 Contract clause. The contracting...Indemnification Under Public Law 85-804, in contracts whenever the approving...

  9. 48 CFR 16.506 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. 16.506 Section 16.506 Federal...ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts...

  10. 48 CFR 1816.406-70 - NASA contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NASA contract clauses. 1816.406-70 Section 1816.406-70...SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 1816.406-70...

  11. 48 CFR 970.2301-2 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...contracts. (b) Insert the clause at 970.5223-6, Sustainable and Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Practices...National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), the Power Marketing Administrations, and the National Laboratories....

  12. 48 CFR 437.110 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...false Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. 437.110 Section 437.110 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... SERVICE CONTRACTING Service Contracts-General 437.110 Solicitation provisions and contract...

  13. Examining Complexity across Domains: Relating Subjective and Objective Measures of Affective Environmental Scenes, Paintings and Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Manuela M.; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Subjective complexity has been found to be related to hedonic measures of preference, pleasantness and beauty, but there is no consensus about the nature of this relationship in the visual and musical domains. Moreover, the affective content of stimuli has been largely neglected so far in the study of complexity but is crucial in many everyday contexts and in aesthetic experiences. We thus propose a cross-domain approach that acknowledges the multidimensional nature of complexity and that uses a wide range of objective complexity measures combined with subjective ratings. In four experiments, we employed pictures of affective environmental scenes, representational paintings, and Romantic solo and chamber music excerpts. Stimuli were pre-selected to vary in emotional content (pleasantness and arousal) and complexity (low versus high number of elements). For each set of stimuli, in a between-subjects design, ratings of familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal were obtained for a presentation time of 25 s from 152 participants. In line with Berlyne’s collative-motivation model, statistical analyses controlling for familiarity revealed a positive relationship between subjective complexity and arousal, and the highest correlations were observed for musical stimuli. Evidence for a mediating role of arousal in the complexity-pleasantness relationship was demonstrated in all experiments, but was only significant for females with regard to music. The direction and strength of the linear relationship between complexity and pleasantness depended on the stimulus type and gender. For environmental scenes, the root mean square contrast measures and measures of compressed file size correlated best with subjective complexity, whereas only edge detection based on phase congruency yielded equivalent results for representational paintings. Measures of compressed file size and event density also showed positive correlations with complexity and arousal in music, which is relevant for the discussion on which aspects of complexity are domain-specific and which are domain-general. PMID:23977295

  14. Examining complexity across domains: relating subjective and objective measures of affective environmental scenes, paintings and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Manuela M; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Subjective complexity has been found to be related to hedonic measures of preference, pleasantness and beauty, but there is no consensus about the nature of this relationship in the visual and musical domains. Moreover, the affective content of stimuli has been largely neglected so far in the study of complexity but is crucial in many everyday contexts and in aesthetic experiences. We thus propose a cross-domain approach that acknowledges the multidimensional nature of complexity and that uses a wide range of objective complexity measures combined with subjective ratings. In four experiments, we employed pictures of affective environmental scenes, representational paintings, and Romantic solo and chamber music excerpts. Stimuli were pre-selected to vary in emotional content (pleasantness and arousal) and complexity (low versus high number of elements). For each set of stimuli, in a between-subjects design, ratings of familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal were obtained for a presentation time of 25 s from 152 participants. In line with Berlyne's collative-motivation model, statistical analyses controlling for familiarity revealed a positive relationship between subjective complexity and arousal, and the highest correlations were observed for musical stimuli. Evidence for a mediating role of arousal in the complexity-pleasantness relationship was demonstrated in all experiments, but was only significant for females with regard to music. The direction and strength of the linear relationship between complexity and pleasantness depended on the stimulus type and gender. For environmental scenes, the root mean square contrast measures and measures of compressed file size correlated best with subjective complexity, whereas only edge detection based on phase congruency yielded equivalent results for representational paintings. Measures of compressed file size and event density also showed positive correlations with complexity and arousal in music, which is relevant for the discussion on which aspects of complexity are domain-specific and which are domain-general. PMID:23977295

  15. Direct Stakeholder's Perception of PPA Clauses In The Nepalese Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, R. B.; Stephen Ogunlana

    2007-01-01

    The paper analyses the perceptions of the stakeholders regarding the key issues in Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs) in the Nepalese Environment. A total of 90 questionnaires representing sponsors, utility, lenders and government officials were used for the study. The questionnaire sought the perception of the stakeholders regarding the significance (importance) of the clauses and the likelihood of inclusion of the clauses in PPAs. Comparison of the ranks of means was conducted by Kruskal-Wall...

  16. The relation of objectively detected Rossby-Wave-Trains and extratropical cyclones in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Mareike; Kirchner, Ingo; Lorenz, Philip; Ulbrich, Uwe; Will, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Our current interest and topic of this poster is the relation of Rossby-Wave-Trains (RWTs) and cyclones in the North Atlantic. Northern Hemisphere extra-tropical cyclones, especially those systems that occur in winter, are known to have high socioeconomic impacts, e.g. through high windspeed and large amounts of precipitation. Recently, a specific interest in Rossby-Wave-Trains has arisen. Long lived RWTs have been shown to be precursors for extreme events and they may impact the predictability of mid-latitude weather systems. We therefore apply automated schemes for the identification of RWTs and cyclones, respectively and relate their characteristics, with the focus of the impact for European climate. Evaluating reanalysis and model data of historical runs, we aim to identify possible spatio-temporal connections between these objectively identified RWTs and cyclones. As our project "MesoTel", which is presented here, is part of a decadal prediction initiative from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research called "MiKlip", we are additionally investigating the decadal variability of RWTs & cyclones within reanalyses and MiKlip simulations. Our long-term goal is to improve the predictability of seasonal means for Europe through a Two-Way-Nested (TWN) model setup. For this TWN model setup, the regional climate model COSMO-CLM (CCLM) is nested into the atmosphere-ocean general circulation model ECHAM6/MPI-OM (MPI-ESM) in order to investigate the feedback of the meso-scales on the large scales and vice versa. Focus is laid on the development and propagation of synoptic systems (e.g. Rossby Wave Trains and cyclones) that are affecting Europe. The Two-Way-Nested region, thus the CCLM domain, covers Central America and the North Atlantic (CANA) and therefore includes the Gulf stream region, whose prevalent strong meridional SST gradients favor the development of perturbations which then propagate downstream, commonly develop into extra-tropical cyclones and strike Europe. Finally, the possibly identified relationship between RWTs and cyclones shall be explored in Two-Way-Nested simulations.

  17. The Object-Based Simon Effect: Grasping Affordance or Relative Location of the Graspable Part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dongbin; Proctor, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Reaction time is often shorter when the irrelevant graspable handle of an object corresponds with the location of a keypress response to the relevant attribute than when it does not. This object-based Simon effect has been attributed to an affordance for grasping the handle with the hand to the same side. Because a grasping affordance should…

  18. On the relation between atmospheric and internal motions in an astrophysical object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equations of the flow of a perfect fluid in a relativistic spacetime are considered, as well as their first-order approximations when the velocity is small as compared with the speed of light. In particular we study how frame-dragging effects in the atmosphere of a massive object may yield some clues as to the motion of fluids within the object

  19. On the relation between atmospheric and internal motions in an astrophysical object

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Núñez, Manuel, E-mail: mnjmhd@am.uva.es

    2014-01-03

    The equations of the flow of a perfect fluid in a relativistic spacetime are considered, as well as their first-order approximations when the velocity is small as compared with the speed of light. In particular we study how frame-dragging effects in the atmosphere of a massive object may yield some clues as to the motion of fluids within the object.

  20. From pauses to clauses: prosody facilitates learning of syntactic constituency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Kara; Gerken, LouAnn

    2014-11-01

    Learning to parse the speech stream into syntactic constituents is a crucial prerequisite to adult-like sentence comprehension, and prosody is one source of information that could be used for this task. To test the role of prosody in facilitating constituent learning, 19-month-olds were familiarized with non-word sentences with 1-clause (ABCDEF) or 2-clause (ABC, DEF) prosody and were then tested on sentences that represent a grammatical (DEF, ABC) or ungrammatical (EFA, BCD) 'movement' of the clauses from the 2-clause familiarization sentences. If infants in the 2-clause group are able to use prosody to group words into cohesive chunks, they should discriminate between grammatical and ungrammatical movements in the test items, even though the test sentences have a new prosodic contour. The 1-clause, control, group should not discriminate. Results support these predictions and suggest that infants treat prosodically-grouped words as more cohesive and constituent-like than words that straddle a prosodic boundary. A follow-up experiment suggests that these results do not merely reflect recognition of words in boundary positions or acoustic similarity of words across the familiarization and test phases. PMID:25151251

  1. Syntaktische Nebensatzklassen im Deutschen / Syntactic classes of subordinate clauses in German

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hardarik, Blühdorn.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: German Abstract in portuguese O artigo dá uma visão panorâmica das classes de orações subordinadas da língua alemã. Suas funções e estruturas sintáticas são descritas mediante o esquema das posições e dos campos. Três aspectos específicos são tratados mais a fundo: as funções (i) de pronomes e (ii) de partículas de comparação em [...] relação a orações subordinadas e (iii) o papel de orações subordinadas em construções clivadas. O artigo pode ser usado para fins didáticos no meio acadêmico e como ponto de partida para estudos em sintaxe comparativa. Abstract in english This article gives an overview of the syntactic classes of subordinate clauses in German. Their functions and structures are described with the help of the model of linear positions and fields. Three questions are treated in more detail: the functions of (i) pronouns and (ii) comparative particles i [...] n relation to subordinate clauses and (iii) the role of subordinate clauses in cleft constructions. The article can be used in academic teaching and as a starting point for studies in comparative syntax.

  2. A Survey of Health Management User Objectives Related to Diagnostic and Prognostic Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Kevin R.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Poll, Scott D.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most prominent technical challenges to effective deployment of health management systems is the vast difference in user objectives with respect to engineering development. In this paper, a detailed survey on the objectives of different users of health management systems is presented. These user objectives are then mapped to the metrics typically encountered in the development and testing of two main systems health management functions: diagnosis and prognosis. Using this mapping, the gaps between user goals and the metrics associated with diagnostics and prognostics are identified and presented with a collection of lessons learned from previous studies that include both industrial and military aerospace applications.

  3. Using Object-Relational Database Systems and XML in the Context of Mobile Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Flach, G.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we present an architecture for presentation, access and exchange of information in a mobile computing environment. In the project MOVI, a new approach is developed which enables applications on mobile computers for exchange and visualization of multimedia objects with applications on stationary database servers via the Object Bus. We focus our attention on new strategies for the adaptation and integration of database techniques regarding the management of multimedia data types ...

  4. Applying the Food Safety Objective and related concepts to thermal inactivation of Salmonella in poultry meat

    OpenAIRE

    Membre?, J. M.; Bassett, J.; Gorris, L. G. M.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the practicality of designing a heat treatment process in a food manufacturing operation for a product governed by a Food Safety Objective (FSO). Salmonella in cooked poultry meat was taken as the working example. Although there is no FSO for this product in current legislation, this may change in the (near) future. Four different process design calculations were explored by means of deterministic and probabilistic approaches to mathematical data...

  5. Legislative versus Judiciary? The case of performance clause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Paulo Martins Junior

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relations between the powers tend to be conflictive. The institutional arrangements were built for the mutually control of the powers. Since 1988, the Judiciary has been interfering and making decisions in cases that impact in the electoral and party rules in Brazil, causing discomfort to the politicians. One case was a declaration of unconstitutionality of the performance clause, defined in the Article 13 of Law 9096/95. The aim of the paper is to investigate the relation between the judiciary and the legislative in Brazil after 1988, especially the processing of PL 1670/1989 which became the Law 9096/1995, and how the interference of the judiciary in that matter ocurred. We conducted a literature research on the topic and survey information on the conduct of law and judgment of Direct Unconstitutionality Actions (Ações Diretas de Inconstitucionalidade – ADIs in the Chamber, Senate and Supreme Court websites. Our findings indicate that there is no serious conflict between the powers, only a major institutional dialogue for the consolidation of democracy.

  6. A New Approach in Consistency of Object Oriented Model and Relational Model in Distributed Systems Base on Heterogeneous Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh kheradmandan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available According to application a database is designed to be object-oriented model or relational model but the important point is distribution and heterogeneity. So a model should be provided which work with different types of database and also be able to work disruption, and heterogeneity So one of the great challenges in the use of distributed database technologies is integrating object-oriented databases with relational databases because the platform-independent technologies have an object-oriented approach But today databases are usualy designed and implemented base on relational model. Hence this paper tries to offer a model that could bring further coordination and integration between these two exsisting database models

  7. Local tests of General Relativity with solar system objects and the Gaia mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestroffer, D.; David, P.; Saillenfest, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Gaia mission to be launched by ESA in 2013 will observe, in addition to stars, a large number of solar system objects (SSO). Gaia will provide during its 5 years mission high precision astrometry in an absolute reference frame of about 300 000 asteroids, including many Near-Earth Objects. The very precise orbits will enable to determine simultaneously the solar J2 and the PPN parameter beta and other parameters for testing the GR. Improvement from combining Gaia and radar data are also expected.

  8. Assisted suicide and the savings clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helminski, F

    1995-06-01

    In December 1994, the Michigan Supreme Court decided a group of cases comprising constitutional challenges to a Michigan statute against assisted suicide and prosecutions of Dr. Jack Kevorkian for his role in two incidents of suicide. The court rejected arguments that the statute infringed a right of "personal autonomy" under the Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution; it noted that, although US Supreme Court opinions indicate that decisions to withdraw or reject life-sustaining treatment are constitutionally protected, a legal difference exists between permitting death to occur by natural means and taking affirmative steps to end life. The Michigan court also decided that Kevorkian could not be charged with murder for supplying only the means by which suicide occurred, but he could be charged with a common law crime of assisting in suicide although the statute outlawing such actions became effective only after the suicides occurred. Because suicide was a crime under the prerevolutionary English Common Law, which forms the foundation of Michigan law, assisting in suicide is also a residual crime under the "savings clause" of the Michigan statutes, which incorporates common law crimes into the law of that state when no superseding statute exists. PMID:7776723

  9. A Meta-Relational Approach for the Definition and Management of Hybrid Learning Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Antonio; Fernandez-Pampillon, Ana Ma.; Fernandez-Chamizo, Carmen; Fernandez-Valmayor, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Electronic learning objects (LOs) are commonly conceived of as digital units of information used for teaching and learning. To facilitate their classification for pedagogical planning and retrieval purposes, LOs are complemented with metadata (e.g., the author). These metadata are usually restricted by a set of predetermined tags to which the…

  10. Subjective Poverty and Its Relation to Objective Poverty Concepts in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandori, Eszter Siposne

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes subjective poverty in Hungary and compares it to the objective poverty concepts. Subjective poverty is defined by examining who people consider to be poor. Based on the Easterlin paradox, the initial hypothesis states that subjective and absolute poverty concepts are highly correlated. Taking into account that Hungary is a…

  11. The One that Does, Leads: Action Relations Influence the Perceived Temporal Order of Graspable Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Katherine L.; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2010-01-01

    Perception and action are influenced by the "possibilities for action" in the environment. Neuropsychological studies (e.g., Riddoch, Humphreys, Edwards, Baker, & Willson, 2003) have demonstrated that objects that are perceived to be interacting (e.g., a corkscrew going toward the top of a wine bottle) are perceptually integrated into a functional…

  12. Triangular Pyramid Framework For Enhanced Object Relational Dynamic Data Model for GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Barkha Bahl; Navin Rajpal; Vandana Sharma

    2011-01-01

    GIS (Geographic Information System) data modeling is a methodology for designing spatial databases. Efficient database design is crucial to efficient GIS implementation. A model is a simplification of the complexity of reality, which makes the reality more understandable and operational. The Objective of this paper is to present an overview of various data models and to evolve an approach to design a model which can overcome the identified gaps of various models being studied for a GIS applic...

  13. Relating visual to verbal semantic knowledge: the evaluation of object recognition in prosopagnosia

    OpenAIRE

    Barton, Jason J. S.; Hanif, Hashim; Ashraf, Sohi

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of face specificity in prosopagnosia is hampered by difficulty in gauging pre-morbid expertise for non-face object categories, for which humans vary widely in interest and experience. In this study, we examined the correlation between visual and verbal semantic knowledge for cars to determine if visual recognition accuracy could be predicted from verbal semantic scores. We had 33 healthy subjects and six prosopagnosic patients first rated their own knowledge of cars. They were then...

  14. Relative Navigation Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) Sensor Development Test Objective (DTO) Performance Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request from the NASA Associate Administrator (AA) for Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), to quantitatively evaluate the individual performance of three light detection and ranging (LIDAR) rendezvous sensors flown as orbiter's development test objective on Space Transportation System (STS)-127, STS-133, STS-134, and STS-135. This document contains the outcome of the NESC assessment.

  15. 48 CFR 970.2703-2 - Patent rights clause provisions for management and operating contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights clause provisions for management and... DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2703-2 Patent rights clause provisions for management...

  16. High cardiac vagal control is related to better subjective and objective sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Gabriela G; Ford, Brett Q; Mauss, Iris B; Schabus, Manuel; Blechert, Jens; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac vagal control (CVC) has been linked to both physical and mental health. One critical aspect of health, that has not received much attention, is sleep. We hypothesized that adults with higher CVC - operationalized by high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) - will exhibit better sleep quality assessed both subjectively (i.e., with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and objectively (i.e., with polysomnography). HF-HRV was measured in 29 healthy young women during an extended neutral film clip. Participants then underwent full polysomnography to obtain objective measures of sleep quality and HF-HRV during a night of sleep. As expected, higher resting HF-HRV was associated with higher subjective and objective sleep quality (i.e., shorter sleep latency and fewer arousals). HF-HRV during sleep (overall or separated by sleep phases) showed less consistent relationships with sleep quality. These findings indicate that high waking CVC may be a key predictor of healthy sleep. PMID:25709072

  17. Minor planets and related objects. XXV - UBV photometry of 145 faint asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degewij, J.; Gradie, J.; Zellner, B.

    1978-01-01

    Magnitudes and colors on the UBV system are presented for 145 minor planets, including 31 objects in the Eos family, 14 in the Koronis family, 6 in the Nysa family, 11 in the Themis family, 4 Hungarias, 7 Hildas, 8 Trojans, and several objects in unusual orbits. Clearly defined color groups for the Eos, Koronis, Nysa, and Themis family members are strongly suggestive of origin from discrete parent bodies. The Nysas apparently show large light-curve amplitudes. The Mars-orbit crossers 1977RA and 1980 = 1950LA, the earth-orbit crosser 1976UA, and several main-belt asteroids are found to show peculiar colors of unknown significance. The Mars-orbit crosser 1916 = 1953RA appears to be a typical S object, while 1474 Beira and 1977VA show neutral colors. Asteroids at semimajor axis in excess of 4 AU (Trojans preceding and following Jupiter, 279 Thule, and 944 Hidalgo) all belong to a color group centered at B-V = 0.72, U-B = 0.24.

  18. Multi-objective optimization in WEDM of D3 tool steel using integrated approach of Taguchi method & Grey relational analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivade, Anand S.; Shinde, Vasudev D.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, wire electrical discharge machining of D3 tool steel is studied. Influence of pulse-on time, pulse-off time, peak current and wire speed are investigated for MRR, dimensional deviation, gap current and machining time, during intricate machining of D3 tool steel. Taguchi method is used for single characteristics optimization and to optimize all four process parameters simultaneously, Grey relational analysis (GRA) is employed along with Taguchi method. Through GRA, grey relational grade is used as a performance index to determine the optimal setting of process parameters for multi-objective characteristics. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the peak current is the most significant parameters affecting on multi-objective characteristics. Confirmatory results, proves the potential of GRA to optimize process parameters successfully for multi-objective characteristics.

  19. Promoting the demoted : The distribution and semantics of “main clause word order” in spoken Danish complement clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Juel; Christensen, Tanya Karoli

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we investigate a hypothesis regarding the distinction between the word orders ‘finite verb, adverb’ (V>Adv, in Scandinavian linguistics often considered an instance of V2, also in subject initial clauses) and ‘adverb, finite verb’ (Adv>V, sometimes referred to as V3) in Mainland Scandinavian complement clauses. The hypothesis is semantico-pragmatic and reads that V>Adv signals foregrounding of the subordinate clause, i.e. that its content is the main point of the utterance. Our results, based upon detailed coding of the LANCHART corpus of spoken Danish, are readily interpretable as supporting the semantico-pragmatic hypothesis. Our results show that V>Adv is much more frequent in subordinate clauses than commonly assumed, and that complement clauses in Danish are not in general characterized by having Adv>V word order, but only by the possibility of having this word order. Results seemingly in conflict with predictions of the semantico-pragmatic hypothesis are discussed with respect to possible norm conflicts and shifts in communicative strategy during speech production.

  20. TURKISH PARTICIPLES AND GREEK RELATIVE CLAUSES: TURKISH PARASYNTHEMES AND GREEK SYNTAGMS TÜRK D?L?NDE ORTAÇLAR – YUNAN D?L?NDE ?LG? YANTÜMCELER?: TÜRKÇE’DE PARASENTEMLER, YUNANCA’DA SENTAGMLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni SELLA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkish and Greek differ clearly in terms of both the syntactic processes and the distribution of their units. Indicative of this differentiation are the difficulties faced by the speakers of Greece in acquiring the method and usage of the S?fat Fiil of the Turkish language, particularly the ones denoting relations of specialisation between reference and referent. For this purpose, we decided to examine these relations closely, both according to the principles of the contrastive study of the two structural systems, as well as in terms of error analysis, based on the theoretical premises of A. Martinet's Functional Linguistics.The analysis and interpretation of our students' errors leads to the conclusion that, compared to Modern Greek, which is for the mostpart characterised by syntagms, i.e. with an analytic method of structuring and providing information (and it is in this sense contrasted to Ancient Greek, the hardest problem in Turkish lies in the existence of synthemes and parasynthemes, i.e. a synthetic and concentrated structural method. Indeed, this is a clear difference, one that is hard to overcome in the learning process adopted for Turkish. The co-existence of genetic and typological divergences accounts for the presence of a significant number of gaps, which are due not to the strategy of interference, but rather to the mechanism of simplification and to the principle of least effort. Yunanca ile Türkçe aras?nda hem söz dizimi hem de birimlerin da??l?m? konusunda belirleyici farkl?l?klar vard?r. Bu farkl?l?klar?n ö?renimde sebep olan zorluklar?n aras?nda ana dili Yunanca olanlar?n Türkçe ö?renmelerinde, s?fat–fiil bulunduran tümcelerin söz diziminde (sentaks ve s?fat-fiillerin kullan?m?nda, özellikle de tamlayan ve tamlanan aras?ndaki ili?ki konusunda kar??la?t?klar? güçlükler de gösterilebilir. Bundan dolay?d?r ki, iki dil sistemi Kar??tsal ?nceleme ve de Yanl??lar? ?nceleme kurallar?na dayan?larak incelenip bu zorluklar?n nedenlerini ara?t?rmaya karar verilmi?tir. Bu çal??ma, André Martinet’in ??levsel Dilbilimi’nin teorisine dayan?r. Ö?rencilerin yapt??? yanl??lar?n incelenmesi ve aç?klanmas?ndan, ana dili Yunanca olanlar?n Türkçe ö?renmelerinde en büyük zorluk, Ça?da? Yunancada bildiri?imde (Eski Yunancan?n tersine, daha çok sentagmalar?n – yani verilerin ve bilgilerin ileti?iminde daha ayr?nt?l? bir yap?n?n – Türkçede ise sentem ve parasemtemlerin (birle?kebirim - yani daha yo?un ve bire?imli bir yap?n?n - kullan?lmas?d?r. Bu ay?r?c? farkl?l?ktan kaynaklanan güçlükleri a?mak, Türkçe ö?reniminde oldukça zor bir süreçtir. Genetik ve tipoloj?k farkl?l?klar?n bir araya gelmesi, oldukça büyük say?daki sapmalar?n meydana gelmesinin sebebi olarak gösterilebilir. Bu sapmalar?n, giri?imden çok, basitle?tirme ve en az çaba göstermek dü?üncesinden kaynaklanmaktad?r.

  1. 41 CFR 109-45.301-51 - Export/import clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export/import clause. 109-45.301-51...Property § 109-45.301-51 Export/import clause. The following clause...or may not be authorized for export/import from/into the country...

  2. Apparatus and method for simultaneously displaying relative displacements of a fluctuating biological object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a method for producing discrete images of a human organ in fluctuating motion, e.g., the heart and related vessels, images derived at selected times related to the cardiac cycle are independently presented on respective discrete areas within a common image plane. A source of X-rays irradiates the organ. A physiological synchronizer produces timing signals within the cardiac cycle for controlling the periods of transmission of the X-ray beam through the organ during, for example, end diastole and end systole. An antiscattering, masking frame has alternate parallel slits and bars at equal intervals exposing substantially half the area of presentation of an X-ray sensitive film in alternate, equally spaced area strips during, e.g., diastole. The frame is repositioned in response to a signal from the synchronizer for displacing it relative to the film such that the bars then cover the sensitized areas of the film and expose substantially the remaining half of the film during systole. The image elements are interdigitally juxtaposed to present the diastolic and systolic images in an interlaced pattern. Relative displacements of the organ during a cardiac cycle may be determined from the juxtaposed image elements. (author)

  3. Improvements in or relating to storage or shipping containers for fragile objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A storage or shipping container for fragile objects such as pellets for use in a laser fusion chamber is described. It comprises a base, a stem having a reduced tip in which a pellet can be mounted and a frangible bulb (glass or plastic) adapted to fit over the stem and be sealed on the base. Protective material (fluid or gas) can be introduced into the bulb. The space within the sealed capsule between the stem and the bulb can be filled with an appropriate gas, solid or liquid to reduce chemical reaction or vibration. A modified container allows several small pellets to be stored or shipped. Several of the containers described can be placed inside a second container which has recesses to take their bases and the surrounding space filled with viscous liquid or solid such as paraffin to reduce shock. (U.K.)

  4. OBJECTIVES AND REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO THE SUSTAINABILITY OF ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cofas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the EU Sustainable Development Strategy, whose foundations were laid in Gothenburg 2001, sustainability requires simultaneous and impartial consideration of economic, social and environmental consequences of any decision taken, so at this point, stating that “the EU to become the world whose economy is highly efficient use of resources with a high quality of life of its citizens and where socio-economic development of environmentally”. As a result, international organizations, European and national support implementation of projects and strategies to change unsustainable consumption patterns. In this sense, sustainable solutions and increased use of renewable energy resources, practice on a larger scale organic farming and intelligent management of urban waste are major objectives of not only environmental policies, but also the quality of life.

  5. Objective and Subjective Responses to Low Relative Humidity in an Office Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagercrantz, Love Per; Wyon, David

    2003-01-01

    The impact of dry indoor air on comfort and health in winter was investigated in a crossover intervention study in two floors of an office building in northern Sweden. The indoor air humidity (normally 10-20% RH) was raised to 23-24% RH, one floor at a time, using steam humidifiers. Questionnaires and objective (clinical) measurements were applied. The following effects of increased humidity were significant, though small: the air was evaluated as less dry (though still on the dry side of neutral), eyes smarted less (by 10% of full scale) eye irritation decreased (by 11%), symptoms of dry throat, mouth, lips and skin were reduced, and it was easier to concentrate. The results confirm similar laboratory findings in 5-hour exposures (Fang et al. 2003, reported at this conference) to 2-week field exposures, but as the effects observed were again small, they do not provide sufficient justification for installing humidifiers.

  6. Minor planets and related objects. XVIII - UBV photometry and surface composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, B.; Wisniewski, W. Z.; Andersson, L.; Bowell, E.

    1975-01-01

    New photometric observations on the UBV system are presented for 45 asteroids, bringing the total to 91 for which complete UBV colors are available. The reduced magnitudes B (1, 0) scatter about the adopted catalog values by + or - 0m, 25, with negligible systematic difference. The UBV colors fall into three distinct groups which correspond almost perfectly to the S (silicaceous or stony), C (carbonaceous), and U (unclassifiable) asteroid types recently identified from polarimetry, infrared radiometry, and narrow-band spectrophotometry. It becomes possible to classify asteroids from UBV observations alone. The S asteroids have colors very similar to those of L and LL ordinary chondrites, and some of the U objects are consistent in color with nickel-iron or enstatite-rich meteorites, but no meteorites appear to have the UBV colors of the C asteroids. The asteroid C and S compositional types have no exact counterparts among the surfaces of natural satellites.

  7. Modeling object-oriented logic programming framework

    OpenAIRE

    Manco, Giuseppe; Turini, Franco

    1995-01-01

    We extend logic programming with object oriented features. Classes and objects are represented by collection of clauses and features are introduced to handle object-identity, inheritance, roles and state update. Most of the extensions are based on the possibility of dynamically updating inheritance links. Our prime concern is to provide a logical account for the extensions. This is obtained directly via the definition of a suitable proof-system, and, indirectly, via a meta-logical definition ...

  8. Minor planets and related objects. XIX - Shape and pole orientation of /39/ Laetitia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sather, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported for analyses of UBV photoelectric photometric data and light curves of the asteroid Laetitia. The pole orientation is determined using a technique for reducing the scatter in the magnitude-phase relation. No significant variations in color are found over the surface, and the light curves are found to indicate topographic elements (peaks, scarps, or depressions) approximately 10 km in radius. It is shown that the light-curve amplitudes as well as the wide scatter in observed magnitude and phase relation can be explained by a triaxial ellipsoidal figure with a dimensional ratio of about 15:9:5. It is concluded that the size, shape, and composition of this asteroid are highly suggestive of a major collisional fragment from a substantially more massive differentiated parent body.

  9. Humanizing the impostor: object relations and illness equations in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landzelius, Kyra Marie

    2003-03-01

    In this paper I explore a seemingly mundane and inconsequential act--that of placing dolls and stuffed animals into newborns' incubator machines, in what I dub a kind of "teddy bear diplomacy," whereby mothers ornament their babies' high tech life-support prostheses with commonplace toys and trinkets. Using hospital ethnography and maternal interviews, I probe the psychodynamic significations of these ornamenting acts, which aspire to domesticate, animate and even humanize the incubator, itself a cyborg womb that displaces maternal purpose and problematizes bonding. The stress triggered by a high-risk infant and the double bind imposed by the therapeutic protocol lead me to here examine the intersubjectivity of illness in mothers' comorbidity and satellite syndromes. I argue that teddy bears and like artifacts serve as countertransitional objects to materially symbolize and perform the imagined mother-child dyad. Moreover, as autopoetic devices in the metamorphosis of maternal identity, they may empower a mother's vicarious participation in her child's healing, and thereby work towards closure of her own intersubjective afflictions. PMID:12825782

  10. Algorithm for relative radiometric consistency process of remote sensing images based on object-oriented smoothing and contourlet transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenzhuo; Sun, Kaimin; Zhang, Hongya

    2014-01-01

    Traditional relative radiometric normalization methods generally depend on global statistical linear parameters, do not consider two-dimensional radiometric distribution, and do not eliminate foreground objects in an image. Thus, we present a method for relative radiometric consistency process based on object-oriented smoothing and contourlet transforms. Object-level smoothing is applied to both the reference image and the image to be normalized so as to reduce the influence of foreground objects on background radiation extraction. Then, high-frequency and low-frequency sections of an image are separated by contourlet transforms to preserve high-frequency texture information of the image to be normalized, with low-pass filtering applied to the low-frequency sections to gather the background radiation difference. Finally, contourlet reverse transforms are used to reconstruct the radiometrically normalized images. Test results show that the proposed method is effective for radiometric normalization of images with both large-scale and small-scale radiometric characteristics. The proposed method can not only normalize linear and nonlinear radiation differences at the same time, but also maximally preserve image texture information. It can improve the visual effects of normalized images and increase change detection accuracy.

  11. The role of sexuality in sadism: object relations and drive theory perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juni, Samuel

    2009-12-01

    The sexual components of sadism are conceptualized within the contexts of different forms of sadism. In aggression-drive sadism, sexuality is seen as a generalization of instinctual reactivity. Parallels are presented of such spillover between aggression and anxiety and even between aggression and oral impulses, with the notion that any areas of excitation or partial impulses can be energized by the acute release of energy in another domain. Another dynamic is presented for re-enactment sadists, in which the sexuality has a relational meaning. In such cases, sexuality is intertwined with the aggression, as the sadistic ritual actually re-evokes an original trauma that features these elements. It is further agued that the sexuality in these two sadistic modes is not consistent. The instinctual spillover that occurs in hostile psychopathy is psychosexually rooted in phallic functioning, in which relational implications are absent, while the sexuality in re-enacted sadism is genitally based, and is intrinsically linked to an imagined emotional relationship with the victim that is intended to ameliorate and undo past trauma that haunt the perpetrator. PMID:19949381

  12. Assessment of disease-related cognitive impairments using the novel object recognition (NOR) task in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Ben; Leger, Marianne; Piercy, Chloe; Adamson, Lisa; Harte, Michael; Neill, Joanna C

    2015-05-15

    The novel object recognition test (NOR) test is a two trial cognitive paradigm that assesses recognition memory. Recognition memory is disturbed in a range of human disorders and NOR is widely used in rodents for investigating deficits in a variety of animal models of human conditions where cognition is impaired. It possesses several advantages over more complex tasks that involve lengthy training procedures and/or food or water deprivation. It is quick to administer, non-rewarded, provides data quickly, cost effective and most importantly, ethologically relevant as it relies on the animal's natural preference for novelty. A PubMed search revealed over 900 publications in rats and mice using this task over the past 3 years with 34 reviews in the past 10 years, demonstrating its increasing popularity with neuroscientists. Although it is widely used in many disparate areas of research, no articles have systematically examined this to date, which is the subject of our review. We reveal that NOR may be used to study recognition memory deficits that occur in Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia, where research is extensive, in Parkinson's disease and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) where we observed markedly reduced numbers of publications. In addition, we review the use of NOR to study cognitive deficits induced by traumatic brain injury and cancer chemotherapy, not disorders per se, but situations in which cognitive deficits dramatically reduce the quality of life for those affected, see Fig. 1 for a summary. Our review reveals that, in all these animal models, the NOR test is extremely useful for identification of the cognitive deficits observed, their neural basis, and for testing the efficacy of novel therapeutic agents. Our conclusion is that NOR is of considerable value for cognitive researchers of all disciplines and we anticipate that its use will continue to increase due to its versatility and several other advantages, as detailed in this review. PMID:25447293

  13. Arab Students' Problems with the English Relative Clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharma, Nayef N.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of errors collected from English essays of native Arabic-speaking university students and their translations from Arabic into English identified 14 error classifications, with the vast majority of errors attributable to negative transfer or interference from Arabic. (CB)

  14. Minor planets and related objects. IX - Photometry and polarimetry of /1685/ Toro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, J. L.; Gehrels, T.; Howes, M. L.

    1973-01-01

    UBV photometry, lightcurves, a polarization-phase relation, and rotational polarization curves of Toro were obtained, June-August 1972. The average colors are B-V = 0.87 and U-B = 0.47 mag, showing some reddening with phase. The geometric albedo of Toro in the B filter is 0.14 which corresponds to an effective mean radius of 2.2 km plus or minus 0.4 (p.e.). The rotational polarization curves indicate that the lightcurves are mostly due to shape, but some albedo variation over the surface is detected as well. The shape is elongated, and probably irregular, with a cross-sectional area ratio of about 3.2, the maximum effective radius is 2.8 km and the minimum, 1.6 km.

  15. 48 CFR 1839.107-70 - NASA contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...O.B. destination to the contracting activity. (2) When delivery is F.O.B. origin and Government bills of lading (GBL) are used, the contracting officer shall use the clause with its Alternate I. [62 FR 4473, Jan. 30, 1997....

  16. 48 CFR 227.7103-6 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...7102-3), existing works (see 227.7105), special works (see 227.7106), or when contracting under the Small Business Innovation Research Program (see 227.7104). Except as provided in 227.7107-2, do not use the clause in...

  17. Objective evaluation of the relative modulation transfer function of densitometers for digitisation of electron micrographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digitisation of images recorded on film is a crucial part of data acquisition in electron microscopy, particularly for electron cryo-microscopy of biological specimens where the contrast and signal-to-noise ratio are low. A quantitative method to evaluate and compare the quality of densitometers, as measured by the modulation transfer function (MTF), is described here. The densitometer is modelled as a linear system, the output being the convolution of the input image and a point spread function. The MTF is the magnitude of the Fourier transform of the point spread function. The relative MTF describes the quality of signal transfer with spatial frequency. It is important that fine structural details in the micrograph are digitised with a high value for the MTF which does not vary with direction. A test pattern has been generated by projecting an electron image of a grid pattern onto film. The film is scanned and a computer program measures the intensities of the diffraction orders of the repeating pattern. Three different scanners are compared, one is a point scanner and the other two are line scanners. The test can be used to check if a scanner is set up optimally, and how it compares with another scanner

  18. Bei: Intraclausal Coherence Relations Illustrated with a German Preposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabski, Michael; Stede, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    Coherence relations are typically taken to link two clauses or larger units and to be signaled at the text surface by conjunctions and certain adverbials. Relations, however, also can hold within clauses, indicated by prepositions like despite, due to, or in case of, when these have an internal argument denoting an eventuality. Although these…

  19. Claus Bonderup : Conversations with the architect and his unique wife Anne Just, about food, art and architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Anna Marie; Hvejsel, Marie Frier

    2012-01-01

    Ever since I was a young student and met Claus Bonderup for the first time, I have been fascinated by his work. I still remember how we turned up for a lecture of his at the Aarhus School of Architecture in the beginning of the 1980s brimming with excitement; a lecture that would end up being very short as my professor ejected him from the auditorium. Claus was not merely a classic innovative architect but also very provocative in his holistic architecture. Back then, his works were too radical for the school. At Aalborg University, initially at the Department of Architecture & Design, and later at the Department of Civil Engineering, I have had the great pleasure of working with Claus for the last 15 years. During this time, I have had the opportunity to observe his skills as a teacher and disseminator, and I have seen the great respect he holds for young, dedicated people and witnessed the students’ confidence in him. In 2008, we wrote a small book, the “old student” and the two “young graduates” from Architecture & Design, who, I would like to emphasise, are two very special young people that have now seriously entered the frame of architectural research and teaching. Now, in the late summer of 2012, we have chosen to republish the first chapter of the book, which is about the DUCK HOUSE Claus created years ago; and we have done so for a very particular reason. A short time ago, I was approached by the director of the 13th International Architecture Exhibition, the highly esteemed British architect, David Chipperfield, and – to put it bluntly – an architect to my and Claus’ liking. Chipperfield has chosen a handful of schools of architecture and architectural universities from all over Europe, which have been invited to gather a group of students and exhibit architectural models; and I have been fortunate enough to be given this opportunity. Chipperfield has chosen to create a response to the prestigious VIP architects’ often staggeringly expensive exhibitions; he wants to make room for the new generation of up and coming architects, for the young, untested and especially talented students of architecture. During July, a group of talented students have therefore built seven architectural models that will be a part of the palette, or installation if you will, which will open in the Italian Pavilion at the end of August. It is quite extraordinary that Aalborg University has received the opportunity to exhibit for the entire period. This occasion must most certainly be marked, and Marie, Tenna and I, along with the students, consequently decided to work with BIRD HOUSES. There are several reasons for this. One of them is that in the coming years, we will launch a number of job-oriented architectural projects within Urban Farming in which the students will initially work with the subject as master’s students, but later, hopefully, as PhD students. Also, I have wished for a long time to give Claus Bonderup the recognition he deserves! His view of architecture, his knowledge and his way of relating to architecture has influenced and inspired generations of students. Claus, if anyone, deserves to be represented at the Biennale. Claus broke many unwritten rules with the Duck House he built for his Anne many years ago. The house has now been measured and reconstructed and has become the MOTHER house that serves as a basis for this project with its unique architectural models for the International Architecture Exhibition. Claus’ Duck House has, thus, in theory and practice alike, become the foundation for the new architectural models, and his thoughts on design have contributed to a fruitful dialogue with the students in their process of creating the architectural models, which can soon be seen at the 13th International Architecture Exhibition in Venice.

  20. [Self concept and object relations in patients with monopolar and neurotic depression: a clinical study with the Giessen Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böker, H; Nikisch, G; Kessler, S; Heidemann, C

    1996-07-01

    A psychodynamic concept of depression is presented which refers to object-relation-theory. It is hypothesized that there is a dynamic interrelationship between the narcissistic homeostasis and interpersonal mechanisms of defence and compensation. The perception of the self and objects of patients with unipolar and neurotic depression and their partners was compared by means of the Giessen-Test. Both clinical groups differ according to the complement of roles and to projective mechanisms of defence. The depression of male patients collides with gender role stereotypes, which are stressed by the self images of depressive women. With regard to therapeutical interventions it is recommended to take into consideration the psychodynamic and interpersonal dimension of depression as well as the conflict resulting from the social-psychological dimension of depression, especially those of depressive male patients. PMID:8765898

  1. A Trade-Off between Somatosensory and Auditory Related Brain Activity during Object Naming But Not Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghier, Mohamed L; Hope, Thomas M H; Prejawa, Susan; Parker Jones, '?iwi; Vitkovitch, Melanie; Price, Cathy J

    2015-03-18

    The parietal operculum, particularly the cytoarchitectonic area OP1 of the secondary somatosensory area (SII), is involved in somatosensory feedback. Using fMRI with 58 human subjects, we investigated task-dependent differences in SII/OP1 activity during three familiar speech production tasks: object naming, reading and repeatedly saying "1-2-3." Bilateral SII/OP1 was significantly suppressed (relative to rest) during object naming, to a lesser extent when repeatedly saying "1-2-3" and not at all during reading. These results cannot be explained by task difficulty but the contrasting difference between naming and reading illustrates how the demands on somatosensory activity change with task, even when motor output (i.e., production of object names) is matched. To investigate what determined SII/OP1 deactivation during object naming, we searched the whole brain for areas where activity increased as that in SII/OP1 decreased. This across subject covariance analysis revealed a region in the right superior temporal sulcus (STS) that lies within the auditory cortex, and is activated by auditory feedback during speech production. The tradeoff between activity in SII/OP1 and STS was not observed during reading, which showed significantly more activation than naming in both SII/OP1 and STS bilaterally. These findings suggest that, although object naming is more error prone than reading, subjects can afford to rely more or less on somatosensory or auditory feedback during naming. In contrast, fast and efficient error-free reading places more consistent demands on both types of feedback, perhaps because of the potential for increased competition between lexical and sublexical codes at the articulatory level. PMID:25788691

  2. Orações concessivas independentes à luz da gramática discursivo-funcional / Independent concessive clauses in the light of functional discourse grammar

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Talita Storti, Garcia; Erotilde Goreti, Pezatti.

    Full Text Available Este artigo investiga, à luz da Teoria da Gramática Discursivo-Funcional (HENGEVELD; MACKENZIE, 2008), a oração concessiva que não é subordinada a outras orações, ou seja, não apresenta relações sintáticas nem semânticas com orações anteriores ou posteriores, a que denominamos Concessiva Independent [...] e. O objetivo deste estudo consiste em descrever as propriedades discursivas, semânticas, morfossintáticas e prosódicas desse tipo de estrutura, mostrando que sua relevância está na construção e organização do discurso. Os resultados apontam que a Concessiva Independente funciona, no discurso, como um parêntese, que interrompe o fio discursivo, sendo, então, destacado por um contorno prosódico especial, aliado à presença de Atos Interativos. Constitui, portanto, um Movimento, a camada mais alta do Nível Interpessoal, nível que se relaciona aos aspectos pragmáticos da gramática de uma língua. O universo de investigação utilizado é o córpus Iboruna, um banco de dados que registra a variedade do português do noroeste paulista. Abstract in english This paper investigates, in light of the theory of Functional Discourse Grammar (HENGEVELD; MACKENZIE, 2008), the concessive clause that is not subordinated to other clauses, i.e., it has no semantic or syntactic relations with clauses before or after it, and which we call Independent Concessive. Th [...] e aim is to describe the discursive properties and the semantic, morphosyntactic and prosodic structure of this type of clause, showing that its relevance is in the construction and organization of discourse. The results indicate that the Independent Concessive works in speech as a parenthesis which interrupts the discursive course and is then highlighted by a special prosodic contour, combined with the presence of Interactive Acts. It is therefore a Move, the highest layer of the Interpersonal Level, the level that relates to the pragmatic aspects of the grammar of a language. The universe of research used is the Iboruna corpus, a database that records a variety of Portuguese from the Northwest of São Paulo.

  3. V2 word order in subordinate clauses in spoken Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Torben Juel; Christensen, Tanya Karoli

    Danish grammatical tradition has it that V2 and V3 word order are signals of the syntactic difference between main and subordinate clauses. However, several studies have shown that both word orders appear in both clause types (Heltoft 2005, Christensen 2007, Jensen forthc.). Though V2 and V3 are asymmetrically distributed, we argue that the word order difference should rather be seen as a signal of (subtle) semantic differences. In main clauses, V3 is highly marked in comparison to V2, and occurs in what may be called emotives. In subordinate clauses, V2 is marked and signals what has been called ”assertiveness”, but is rather a question of foregrounding (cf. Simons 2007: Main Point of Utterance). The paper presents the results of a study of word order in subordinate clauses in contemporary spoken Danish and focuses on how to include the proposed semantic difference as a factor influencing the choice of one variant over another in a (socio)linguistic variable. This is a crucial methodological issuein the study of syntactic variation since variants are hardly ever semantically equivalent in all respects. The study, which is a part of the LANCHART project (www.lanchart.hum.ku.dk), is based on panel studies of two age cohorts of speakers in Copenhagen, recorded in the 1980s and again in 2005-07, and on recent recordings with two age cohorts of speakers from the western part of Jutland. This makes it possible to study variation and change with respect to word order in subordinate clauses in both real and apparent time, as well as geographical variation. The results show that V2 word order in subordinate clauses is much more frequent than commonly assumed. Furthermore, they indicate that the most decisive factors predicting word order in subordinate clauses are the syntactic function of the clause and the type of subordinating conjunction, although social and geographical factors also have an impact. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that V2 word order is associated with foreground or main point of utterance, if we accept it as a statistical tendency in language use rather than as an invariant coding. References Christensen, T. K. 2007. Hyperparadigmer – en undersøgelse af paradigmatiske samspil i danske modussystemer. Institut for kultur og identitet. Roskilde, Roskilde Universitetscenter. PhD thesis. Heltoft, L. 2005. Ledsætning og letled i dansk. OV-sætningens rester. L. Heltoft, J. Nørgaard- Sørensen & L. Schøsler. Grammatikalisering og struktur. København, Museum Tusculanum. Jensen, Torben Juel forthc. Ordstilling i ledsætninger i moderne dansk talesprog. Ny forskning i grammatik. Simons, M. 2007. Observations on embedding verbs, evidentiality and presupposition. Lingua 117 (6), 1034-1056. Vikner, S. 1995. Verb movement and expletive subjects in the Germanic languages. Oxford University Press.

  4. Iron abundance in the prototype PG1159 star, GW Vir pulsator PG1159-035, and related objects

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Klaus; Rauch, Thomas; Kruk, Jeff W.; Kurucz, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    We performed an iron abundance determination of the hot, hydrogen deficient post-AGB star PG1159-035, which is the prototype of the PG1159 spectral class and the GW Vir pulsators, and of two related objects (PG1520+525, PG1144+005), based on the first detection of Fe VIII lines in stellar photospheres. In another PG1159 star, PG1424+535, we detect Fe VII lines. In all four stars, each within Teff = 110,000 - 150,000 K, we find a solar iron abundance. This result agrees with ...

  5. LAS CLÁUSULAS LIMITATIVAS, EXONERATIVAS O AGRAVANTES DE RESPONSABILIDAD EN MATERIA CONTRACTUAL. VALIDEZ Y LÍMITES LIMITATION, EXONERATION AND AGRAVATION OF LIABILITY CLAUSES. VALIDATION AND LIMITS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel González Castillo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata sobre las cláusulas modificatorias de responsabilidad contractual en sus tres variantes, esto es, eximentes, limitativas y agravantes de responsabilidad. Las dos primeras son las que concentran el análisis pues son las que han provocado mayor discusión doctrinal llegándose a afirmar por algunos autores que las exonerativas no serían válidas por falta de causa. El análisis abarca el fundamento de estas cláusulas, las objeciones que se han formulados a su respecto, su clasificación, límites, efectos e interpretación. El consentimiento de la parte más débil en el marco de los contratos de adhesión, donde estas cláusulas son profusamente usadas, y conocidas como "cláusulas abusivas", concentran la última parte del artículo con referencia también a la Directiva de la Unión Europea que las regula.This article discusses modification of contractual responsibility clauses in its three variants, namely, exoneration, limitation and aggravation of liability. The study focuses on the first two provisions because they are the ones that have caused more doctrinal discussion. Even some authors have asserted that exculpatory clauses would not be valid due to lack of consideration. The analysis covers the basis of these clauses, the objections that have been made regarding them, their classification, limits, effects and interpretation. Consent of the weaker party in the context of pre-formulated standard contracts, where such clauses are used extensively, and known as "unfair terms" is discussed in the last part of the article with reference also to the Directive of the European Union that regulates them.

  6. Numerical relativity reaching into post-Newtonian territory: a compact-object binary simulation spanning 350 gravitational-wave cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Szilagyi, Bela; Buonanno, Alessandra; Taracchini, Andrea; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A; Chu, Tony; Kidder, Lawrence E; Pan, Yi

    2015-01-01

    We present the first numerical-relativity simulation of a compact-object binary whose gravitational waveform is long enough to cover the entire frequency band of advanced gravitational-wave detectors, such as LIGO, Virgo and KAGRA, for mass ratio 7 and total mass as low as $45.5\\,M_\\odot$. We find that effective-one-body models, either uncalibrated or calibrated against substantially shorter numerical-relativity waveforms at smaller mass ratios, reproduce our new waveform remarkably well, with a negligible loss in detection rate due to modeling error. In contrast, post-Newtonian inspiral waveforms and existing calibrated phenomenological inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms display greater disagreement with our new simulation. The disagreement varies substantially depending on the specific post-Newtonian approximant used.

  7. Orações subordinadas sem o complementizador Que no Português Clássico / Subordinate clauses without Que in Classical Portuguese

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André Luis, ANTONELLI.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, olharemos para orações subordinadas finitas sem o complementizador que no Português Clássico. Nosso objetivo é investigar, dentro de uma perspectiva gerativista, se esse tipo de construção pode ser interpretado como um CP ou um IP complemento. A partir de fatos relacionados à posição [...] do sujeito, à ordem linear de advérbios e à colocação de clíticos, mostraremos que orações encaixadas sem o complementizador que instanciam movimento de V para C, resultando, portanto, na presença da categoria CP. Abstract in english In this work, we will look at embedded finite clauses without the complementizer que in Classical Portuguese. Our goal is to investigate, within a generative perspective, whether this kind of construction can be interpreted as a CP or an IP complement. Based on facts related to the position of the s [...] ubject, to the ordering of adverbs and to the placement of clitics, we will show that embedded clauses without the complementizer que instantiate V movement to C, resulting, therefore, in the presence of the CP category.

  8. Single-clause when-definitions: Take three

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, Robert; Dziemianko, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In our EURALEX 2006 contribution (Dziemianko and Lew 2006), we focused on the practice of defining certain abstract nouns by means of a when-clause, which seems to have gained much popularity in recent years in some major monolingual English learners’ dictionaries. We tested the hypothesis that a definition of this format would fare worse than the classic analytical definition in terms of conveying information on the syntactic class of the lemma. Experiments with Polish high-intermediate an...

  9. ASPECTS REGARDING THE COMPETITIVE OFFER CLAUSE IN INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Boanca? Ivan, Marlena

    2013-01-01

    The competitive offer clause allows one contracting party (usually the buyer) to get from the other contracting party (usually the seller) conditions that are more favorable than those from the current contract, namely those offered by a third party. The promissory party has the possibility to accept the adaptation of the contract or to refuse it. If the seller accepts to align to the competition tariff, the contract continues under the new conditions. The acceptance of the promissory party c...

  10. A Dynamic Analysis of Licensing: The Boomerang Effect and Grant-Back Clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jay Pil

    1999-01-01

    This paper develops an incomplete contract model of the licensing relationship to analyze the dynamic effects of licensing on R&D competition in the innovation market and to examine the rationale for often observed grant-back clauses. Of particular concern are how the consideration of future competition distorts the licensing relationship and how the grant-back clause can mitigate this distortion. I also evaluate the validity of the casual antitrust argument that grant-back clauses may advers...

  11. CLAUSE 49 AND ITS IMPACT ON PERFORMANCE MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paridhi Saini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to understand the effect of India's adoption of major governance reforms (with reference to Clause 49 which is based on a voluntary 1998 Code of Corporate Governance, developed by the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII, an organization of large Indian public firms.If investors consider the reforms to be valuable (or more valuable for larger firms, firm return in the form of share prices, accounting profit and earning per share should react positively to the key adoption announcement. Over a span period of 10 years before and after the announcement by the Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI, India's principal securities regulator for adoption of Clause 49, the profit after tax and EPS of the listed companies specifically the group of companies selected for this study has shown the positive effect on the above specified components. Average returns had increased considerably and even EPS also present the same picture, but these changes may have been due to factors other than the reforms. These results also supported by statistical testing. Overall, we report evidence consistent with investors expecting the Clause 49 reforms to increase the efficiency of corporates.

  12. Aquitaine cleans Claus tail gas with sulfreen unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1972-06-26

    The new Ram River, Alberta, gas plant of Aquitaine Co. of Canada Ltd. is now operating the first commercial- scale cleanup unit for Claus tail gas in North America. The unit recovers sulfur as product from tail gases off two 1,000-ton/day Claus sulfur units. Aquitaine says that the addition of the Sulfreen cleanup made it possible to construct only a 2-stage Claus plant. Otherwise, a 4-stage plant would be necessary for the throughput. A further benefit was that the waste-gas stack height could be practically reduced from a probably 500 ft to 300 ft. The contractor built the new plant in 2 stages. The first, with feed capacity of roughly 200 MMcfd-- came on stream in early Feb. The second stage is expected on stream in Sept. or Oct. A second Sulfreen unit will be built to accommodate the second-phase throughput. However, Aquitaine will use a different catalyst and different design which will reduce construction costs. A supervisory control system keeps close watch on certaintions as the field is being developed.

  13. Comparative analysis of the symptomatology of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction in relation to objective data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara Barroso Jr

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical presentation of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD relating to objective examination data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four children (36 girls and 8 boys with mean age of 6.8 years with LUTD were prospectively assessed through a specific questionnaire that analyzed clinical presentation of those patients. These data were then compared to objective data, such as micturition diary and uroflowmetry with electromyography. RESULTS: A urinary tract infection (UTI antecedent was observed in 31 cases (70.5%, and of those, 24 cases of UTI were accompanied by fever. All children presented micturition urgency. Daily urinary incontinence was observed in 33 cases (75% and nocturnal enuresis in 23 (52.3%. As for micturition frequency, 15 (34.1% had normal frequency 19 (43.2% presented more than 10 daily micturition episodes and 10 (22.7% thought they urinated less than 5 times a day. In the uroflowmetry and electromyography examination, 14 (31.8% experienced lack of coordination during micturition. Of 10 children with infrequent micturition, 5 confirmed this in their micturition diaries and 2 listed more than 5 micturition episodes per day in the diary. Of 19 patients presenting polaciuria, only 5 confirmed this in their micturition diaries, while 7 had less than 10 micturition episodes per day. CONCLUSION: Most children with LUTD presented a previous UTI, and daily incontinence was verified in around 75% of the patients. Complaints of polaciuria or infrequent micturition are not noted completely in the micturition diaries and there is no parameter in the clinical history that offers good sensitivity or specificity for the diagnosis of lack of perineal coordination.

  14. Iron abundance in the prototype PG1159 star, GW Vir pulsator PG1159-035, and related objects

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, Klaus; Kruk, Jeff W; Kurucz, Robert L

    2011-01-01

    We performed an iron abundance determination of the hot, hydrogen deficient post-AGB star PG1159-035, which is the prototype of the PG1159 spectral class and the GW Vir pulsators, and of two related objects (PG1520+525, PG1144+005), based on the first detection of Fe VIII lines in stellar photospheres. In another PG1159 star, PG1424+535, we detect Fe VII lines. In all four stars, each within Teff = 110,000 - 150,000 K, we find a solar iron abundance. This result agrees with our recent abundance analysis of the hottest PG1159 stars (Teff = 150,000 - 200,000 K) that exhibit Fe X lines. On the whole, we find that the PG1159 stars are not significantly iron deficient, in contrast to previous notions.

  15. Immediate compensation for variations in self-generated Coriolis torques related to body dynamics and carried objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeon, Pascale; Dizio, Paul; Lackner, James R

    2013-09-01

    We have previously shown that the Coriolis torques that result when an arm movement is performed during torso rotation do not affect movement trajectory. Our purpose in the present study was to examine whether torso motion-induced Coriolis and other interaction torques are counteracted during a turn and reach (T&R) movement when the effective mass of the hand is augmented, and whether the dominant arm has an advantage in coordinating intersegmental dynamics as predicted by the dynamic dominance hypothesis (Sainburg RL. Exp Brain Res 142: 241-258, 2002). Subjects made slow and fast T&R movements in the dark to just extinguished targets with either arm, while holding or not holding a 454-g object. Movement endpoints were equally accurate at both speeds, with either hand, and in both weight conditions, but subjects tended to angularly undershoot and produce more variable endpoints for targets requiring greater torso rotation. There were no changes in endpoint accuracy or trajectory deviation over repeated movements. The dominant right arm was more stable in its control of trajectory direction across targets, whereas the nondominant left arm had an improved ability to stop accurately on the target for higher levels of interaction torques. The trajectories to more eccentric targets were straighter when performed at higher speeds but slightly more deviated when subjects held the weight. Subjects did not slow their torso velocity or change the timing of the arm and torso velocities when holding the weight, although there was a slight decrease in their hand velocity relative to the torso. The delay between the onsets of torso and finger movements was almost twice as large for the right arm than the left, suggesting the right arm was better able to account for torso rotation in the arm movement. Holding the weight increased the peak Coriolis torque by 40% at the shoulder and 45% at the elbow and, for the most eccentric target, increased the peak net torque by 12% at the shoulder and 34% at the elbow. In accordance with Sainburg's dynamic dominance hypothesis, the right arm exhibited an advantage for coordinating intersegmental dynamics, showing a more stable finger velocity in relation to the torso across targets, decreasing error variability with movement speed, and more synchronized peaks of finger relative and torso angular velocities in conditions with greater joint torque requirements. The arm used had little effect on the movement path and the magnitude of the joint torques in any of the conditions. These results indicate that compensations for forthcoming Coriolis torque variations take into account the dynamic properties of the body and of external objects, as well as the planned velocities of the torso and arm. PMID:23803330

  16. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 229 - Model Availability Policy Disclosures, Clauses, and Notices; Model Substitute Check Policy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Model Availability Policy Disclosures, Clauses...Appendix C to Part 229—Model Availability Policy Disclosures, Clauses... This appendix contains model availability policy and substitute...

  17. A Comparative Analysis of the Frequency and Function of If-clauses in Applied Linguistics and Chemistry Articles

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar Hesabi; Morteza Raei Dehaghi; Mohammadtaghi Shahnazari-Dorcheh

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the differences and similarities between form and function of if-clauses as one type of conditional clauses within the applied linguistics and chemistry published academic Articles. These articles were examined and after determining the frequency of if-clauses, they were analyzed based on the model proposed by Sweetser (1990). According to the findings, if-clauses were more frequent in applied linguistics than chemistry articles. Results of function analysis indicated ...

  18. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  19. Public policy: the origin of a general clause in the South African law of contract

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L, Hawthorne.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article relates how the Constitutional Court has chosen public policy as the general clause with which to combat unfairness in contracting. Consequently the historical development of public policy is investigated in the footsteps of Wessels, who was the first South African author to address the [...] role of public policy in the law of contract in a wider sense. The historical sources on contracts in restraint of marriage, marriage brokerage contracts, usurious contracts, contracts in restraint of trade and wagering contracts are analysed with regard to public policy. Although some Roman-law and Roman-Dutch authority can be found in certain instances, the main observation is that public policy and boni mores have not been clearly distinguished by modern writers dealing with these jurisdictions. The conclusion of the paper is that public policy as an open norm is an English transplant.

  20. 48 CFR 1832.705-270 - NASA clauses for limitation of cost or funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NASA clauses for limitation of cost or funds. 1832.705-270 Section 1832...FINANCING Contract Funding 1832.705-270 NASA clauses for limitation of cost or funds. (a) The contracting...

  1. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 230 - Model Clauses and Sample Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Model Clauses and Sample Forms...Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD...OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN SAVINGS (REGULATION...Appendix B to Part 230—Model Clauses and Sample Forms...requirements (i) To open the account You...

  2. Shape and motion reconstruction from 3D-to-1D orthographically projected data via object-image relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Matthew; Arnold, Gregory; Stuff, Mark

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes an invariant-based shape- and motion reconstruction algorithm for 3D-to-1D orthographically projected range data taken from unknown viewpoints. The algorithm exploits the object-image relation that arises in echo-based range data and represents a simplification and unification of previous work in the literature. Unlike one proposed approach, this method does not require uniqueness constraints, which makes its algorithmic form independent of the translation removal process (centroid removal, range alignment, etc.). The new algorithm, which simultaneously incorporates every projection and does not use an initialization in the optimization process, requires fewer calculations and is more straightforward than the previous approach. Additionally, the new algorithm is shown to be the natural extension of the approach developed by Tomasi and Kanade for 3D-to-2D orthographically projected data and is applied to a realistic inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging scenario, as well as experiments with varying amounts of aperture diversity and noise. PMID:19696458

  3. Phraseological Patterns in Reporting Clauses Used in Citation: A Corpus-Based Study of Theses in Two Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Maggie

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the phraseological patterning that occurs in reporting clauses used to make references to others' research. It examines finite reporting clauses with "that"-clause complement and draws upon two corpora of theses written by native speakers in contrasting disciplines: approximately 190,000 words in politics/international…

  4. The Verb Always Leaves IP in V2 Clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Bonnie D.; Vikner, Sten

    2007-01-01

    The verb second (V2) phenomenon, as it is found in the Germanic languages, has been the focus of much attention within recent syntactic research. In most of the literature on V2, it is assumed that the verb in all V2 clauses has moved to a head position outside IP, e.g. Cº. In Schwartz & Vikner (1989) we claimed that all V2 clauses were CPs, and we referred to this analysis as the 'traditional' analysis. In this paper we shall call it the 'V2 outside IP' analysis, and by using this term we want to convey that although in what follows we will adhere to the view that the verb moves to Cº, any analysis in which the verb moves into an Xº which is the sister of IP may be compatible with what we say here. Various alternatives to this analysis have been explored in the literature, and here we will address two in particular: One alternative is that there is an asymmetry between subject-initial and non-subject-initial V2 clauses, the former being only IPs and the latter CPs, as suggested by Travis (1984, 1986, 1991)and Zwart (1990, 1991). Below we will refer to this analysis as the 'V2 asymmetry' analysis. The other alternative analysis is that V2 takes place inside IP, as suggested by Diesing (1988, 1990), and also in slightly different forms by Rögnvaldsson & Thr insson (1990), by Reinholtz (1989) and by Santorini (1989), and accordingly we shall group these under the term the 'V2 inside IP' analysis.

  5. Integrating Conflict Driven Clause Learning to Local Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Audenard

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces SatHyS (SAT HYbrid Solver, a novel hybrid approach for propositional satisfiability. It combines local search and conflict driven clause learning (CDCL scheme. Each time the local search part reaches a local minimum, the CDCL is launched. For SAT problems it behaves like a tabu list, whereas for UNSAT ones, the CDCL part tries to focus on minimum unsatisfiable sub-formula (MUS. Experimental results show good performances on many classes of SAT instances from the last SAT competitions.

  6. Assessment of Claus process for utilizing hydrogen sulfide from coal gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bal, S.; Olczak, C.

    1985-03-01

    Coal gas from coking plants is desulfurized by the vacuum carbonate process. Hydrogen sulfide separated from coal gas is treated by the catalysis process (sulfuric acid production) or the Claus process (sulfur production). The Claus process is analyzed. Chemical reactions which occur during the Claus process are discussed. The modified Claus process with increased desulfurization efficiency is analyzed. The following desulfurization stages are evaluated: thermal reactor (60% of hydrogen sulfide is converted into sulfur), catalytic reactors with catalysts on an aluminium basis (conversion degree in two-stage system amounts to 25% in first stage and 7% in second stage), removal of residual hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, sulfur vapors and carbon oxysulfide using 5 processes (the Sulfreen process, the IFP process, the BSR process, the BSR-Selectox process and the SCOT process). The five desulfurization processes are analyzed. Use of the Claus process with 99.9% efficiency in coking plants is recommended. 20 references.

  7. Attitudes towards conscientious objection among community pharmacists in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Piecuch, Anna; Gryka, Malwina; Koz?owska-wojciechowska, Ma?gorzata

    2013-01-01

    Background The European Council Resolution 1763 (2010), “The right to conscientious objection in lawful medical care”, provoked a discussion among Polish pharmacists on the necessity for granting them the right to refuse to dispense medicinal products which invoke conscientious objection. Objective To explore attitudes of Polish pharmacists towards the conscience clause. Setting Pharmacies with public e-mail addresses in various parts of Poland (Lower Silesia Province, Mazovia Province, K...

  8. Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal Cognitive Styles in Children and Adolescents: Developmental Trajectories in Relation to Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazhenkova, Olesya; Becker, Michael; Kozhevnikov, Maria

    2011-01-01

    A new self-report instrument, the Children's Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire (C-OSIVQ), was designed to assess cognitive styles in younger populations (8-17 years old). The questionnaire was based on the previously developed adult version of the Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire (OSIVQ; Blazhenkova & Kozhevnikov,…

  9. ASPECTS REGARDING THE COMPETITIVE OFFER CLAUSE IN INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena BOANC? IVAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The competitive offer clause allows one contracting party (usually the buyer to get from the other contracting party (usually the seller conditions that are more favorable than those from the current contract, namely those offered by a third party. The promissory party has the possibility to accept the adaptation of the contract or to refuse it. If the seller accepts to align to the competition tariff, the contract continues under the new conditions. The acceptance of the promissory party can intervene also within new negotiations between parties, a situation when the contract adaptation will be made not necessarily under the terms of the competitive offer, but anyway under more advantageous conditions for the beneficiary.Otherwise, the parties most frequently stipulate for the suspension of the contract at a given time, allowing the establishment of a contractual relationship between the clause beneficiary and the more competitive party. If the promissory party refuses expressly or by silence the adaptation of the contract, the parties stipulate for the termination of the contract as a solution, each contracting party regaining his freedom to conclude new contracts (including with the third party that makes the most favourable offer, without being encumbered by the obligations in the original contract.

  10. The jurisdiction of the Federal Court of Justice on price adjustment clauses in power supply contracts and their consequences for the practice; Die Rechtsprechung des Bundesgerichtshofs zu Preisanpassungsklauseln in Energieliefervertraegen und ihre Konsequenzen fuer die Praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuengler, Stefan [Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-06-15

    In numerous procedures for the effectiveness of adaptation clauses in energy supply contracts, the Eighth Civil Senate of the Federal Court of Justice (Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany) was appointed for purposes of decisions in conflict. A glance at the statistics shows that this Civil Senate has not handled very easily the related legal issues: More than 20 judgements and decisions of the Supreme Court on the fairness test and evaluation of price adjustment clauses in the past five years. Meanwhile, the relevant legal issues have been clarified. Thus, the recent judgments of 14th March, 2012, a temporary end point. This inspired to highlight the consequences for the practice.

  11. Historical relations of psychology as an object-science and a subject-science: toward psychology as a human science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, C T

    1977-10-01

    Textbooks and other teaching of psychology's history oversimplify to the point of presenting it as the evolution of an exclusively object-science--despite general familiarity with integral extrascientistic practices and assumptions. Representative examples are presented, along with an overview of object-psychology's cultural/practical routes to dominance. The purpose of highlighting these facets of psychology's development is to call for psychology to take explicit account of humans' subjecthood as well as objectness, on the way rereading our history toward an integrated science. PMID:11608224

  12. LAS CLÁUSULAS LIMITATIVAS, EXONERATIVAS O AGRAVANTES DE RESPONSABILIDAD EN MATERIA CONTRACTUAL. VALIDEZ Y LÍMITES / LIMITATION, EXONERATION AND AGRAVATION OF LIABILITY CLAUSES. VALIDATION AND LIMITS.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joel, González Castillo.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este artículo trata sobre las cláusulas modificatorias de responsabilidad contractual en sus tres variantes, esto es, eximentes, limitativas y agravantes de responsabilidad. Las dos primeras son las que concentran el análisis pues son las que han provocado mayor discusión doctrinal llegándose a afir [...] mar por algunos autores que las exonerativas no serían válidas por falta de causa. El análisis abarca el fundamento de estas cláusulas, las objeciones que se han formulados a su respecto, su clasificación, límites, efectos e interpretación. El consentimiento de la parte más débil en el marco de los contratos de adhesión, donde estas cláusulas son profusamente usadas, y conocidas como "cláusulas abusivas", concentran la última parte del artículo con referencia también a la Directiva de la Unión Europea que las regula. Abstract in english This article discusses modification of contractual responsibility clauses in its three variants, namely, exoneration, limitation and aggravation of liability. The study focuses on the first two provisions because they are the ones that have caused more doctrinal discussion. Even some authors have as [...] serted that exculpatory clauses would not be valid due to lack of consideration. The analysis covers the basis of these clauses, the objections that have been made regarding them, their classification, limits, effects and interpretation. Consent of the weaker party in the context of pre-formulated standard contracts, where such clauses are used extensively, and known as "unfair terms" is discussed in the last part of the article with reference also to the Directive of the European Union that regulates them.

  13. Object visibility alters the relative contribution of ventral visual stream and mirror neuron system to goal anticipation during action observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thioux, Marc; Keysers, Christian

    2015-01-15

    We used fMRI to study the effect of hiding the target of a grasping action on the cerebral activity of an observer whose task was to anticipate the size of the object being grasped. Activity in the putative mirror neuron system (pMNS) was higher when the target was concealed from the view of the observer and anticipating the size of the object being grasped requested paying attention to the hand kinematics. In contrast, activity in ventral visual areas outside the pMNS increased when the target was fully visible, and the performance improved in this condition. A repetition suppression analysis demonstrated that in full view, the size of the object being grasped by the actor was encoded in the ventral visual stream. Dynamic causal modeling showed that monitoring a grasping action increased the coupling between the parietal and ventral premotor nodes of the pMNS. The modulation of the functional connectivity between these nodes was correlated with the subject's capability to detect the size of hidden objects. In full view, synaptic activity increased within the ventral visual stream, and the connectivity with the pMNS was diminished. The re-enactment of observed actions in the pMNS is crucial when interpreting others' actions requires paying attention to the body kinematics. However, when the context permits, visual-spatial information processing may complement pMNS computations for improved action anticipation accuracy. PMID:25462688

  14. Minimal erythema dose and minimal melanogenesis dose relate better to objectively measured skin type than to Fitzpatricks skin type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf, Hans Christian; Philipsen, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    Fitzpatrick skin type (FST I-IV) is a subjective expression of ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity based on erythema and tanning reactivity after a single exposure. Pigment protection factor (PPF) is an objective measurement of skin sensitivity in all skin types after a single exposure.

  15. The relation of object naming and other visual speech production tasks: a large scale voxel-based morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Johnny King L; Humphreys, Glyn W; Douis, Hassan; Balani, Alex; Bickerton, Wai-Ling; Rotshtein, Pia

    2015-01-01

    We report a lesion-symptom mapping analysis of visual speech production deficits in a large group (280) of stroke patients at the sub-acute stage (visual speech production, namely sentence production to a picture, sentence reading and nonword reading. A principal component analysis was performed on all these tests' scores and revealed a 'shared' component that loaded across all the visual speech production tasks and a 'unique' component that isolated object naming from the other three tasks. Regions for the shared component were observed in the left fronto-temporal cortices, fusiform gyrus and bilateral visual cortices. Lesions in these regions linked to both poor object naming and impairment in general visual-speech production. On the other hand, the unique naming component was potentially associated with the bilateral anterior temporal poles, hippocampus and cerebellar areas. This is in line with the models proposing that object naming relies on a left-lateralised language dominant system that interacts with a bilateral anterior temporal network. Neuropsychological deficits in object naming can reflect both the increased demands specific to the task and the more general difficulties in language processing. PMID:25685713

  16. Analysis and Transformation Tools for Constrained Horn Clause Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Several techniques and tools have been developed for verification of properties expressed as Horn clauses with constraints over a background theory (CHC). Current CHC verification tools implement intricate algorithms and are often limited to certain subclasses of CHC problems. Our aim in this work is to investigate the use of a combination of off-the-shelf techniques from the literature in analysis and transformation of Constraint Logic Programs (CLPs) to solve challenging CHC verification problems. We find that many problems can be solved using a combination of tools based on well-known techniques from abstract interpretation, semantics-preserving transformations, program specialisation and query-answer transformations. This gives insights into the design of automatic, more general CHC verification tools based on a library of components.

  17. The Composite OLAP-Object Data Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourabbas, Elaheh; Shoshani, Arie

    2005-12-07

    In this paper, we define an OLAP-Object model that combines the main characteristics of OLAP and Object data models in order to achieve their functionalities in a common framework. We classify three different object classes: primitive, regular and composite. Then, we define a query language which uses the path concept in order to facilitate data navigation and data manipulation. The main feature of the proposed language is an anchor. It allows us to fix dynamically an object class (primitive, regular or composite) along the paths over the OLAP-Object data model for expressing queries. The queries can be formulated on objects, composite objects and combination of both. The power of the proposed query language is investigated through multiple query examples. The semantic of different clauses and syntax of the proposed language are investigated.

  18. Role of toluene in hydrogen sulfide combustion under Claus condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Examined the role of toluene addition in hydrogen sulfide combustion. • Effect of 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 5% of toluene in H2S gas stream was examined. • Toluene addition triggers production of H2 which provides oxidation competition to H2S. • Increased amount of toluene in H2S gas reduced SO2 and increased asymptotic value of H2S. • Toluene addition enhanced the formation of CO and COS. - Abstract: Experimental investigations on the effect of different amounts of toluene addition to H2S combustion in oxygen under Claus condition (? = 3) are presented. Three toluene concentrations of 0.5%, 1% and 5% in H2S are presented and compared with the baseline case of 100% H2S oxygen combustion. Temperature data showed that addition of toluene to H2S gas stream increases the flame temperature because of large heating value associated with toluene. Addition of toluene resulted in the production of H2, which increased with increase in the amounts of toluene addition. Furthermore, increased addition of toluene concentration increased the asymptotic minimum value of hydrogen sulfide due to oxidation competition between the formed H2 and H2S. The results also showed that the presence of CO triggers the formation of COS with toluene addition due to reaction of CO with SO2. The results showed that SO2 mole fraction increased to a maximum value then decayed with distance along the reactor. Addition of toluene increased the rate of SO2 decay. These results have direct impact on sulfur capture in the Claus reactor and its performance

  19. The Semantic Models of FACT Clauses in Discourse: A Systemic Functional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the semantic features of FACT clauses in discourse context within the theoretical framework of Systemic Functional Linguistics. The investigation starts with the exploration of the typical process types occurring in the matrix clause of FACT clause simplex, which is helpful and necessary to display different process types which construe FACT category. Then, the study conducts from the vantage point of semantics in discourse with three semantic models: (i positive/negative orientation model; (ii positive/negative reaction model; and (iii positive/negative evaluation model. The results show that the semantic models of FACT clauses are construed by different process types as well as their contextual factors.

  20. 78 FR 48397 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Transportation (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ...0750-AH90 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With...to amend the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to...to amend the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS)...

  1. 78 FR 73475 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ...0750-AI10 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With...to amend the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to...to amend the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS)...

  2. 78 FR 48407 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Quality Assurance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ...0750-AH95 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With...to amend the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to...to amend the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS)...

  3. 78 FR 48404 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Contract Financing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ...252 RIN 0750-AI02 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates...2013-D014) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations...proposing to amend the Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to...

  4. Win shift lose stay: An experimental test of non-compete clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Bu?nstorf, Guido; Engel, Christoph; Fischer, Sven; Gu?th, Werner

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally test the effect of enforceable non-compete clauses on working efforts. The employee can invest into the probability of making a profitable innovation. After a successful innovation (Win) the employee may want to leave the firm (Shift) whereas after an innovation failure (Lose) he may remain (Stay) . In the treatments with non-compete clause, but not in the baseline, the employer can prevent successful innovators from leaving the firm. With standard preferences, effort should...

  5. Disability in major depression related to self-rated and objectively-measured cognitive deficits: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Elizabeth M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although major depression (MD is associated with high levels of disability, the relationships between cognitive dysfunction and self-rated disability are poorly understood. This study examined the relationships between self-rated disability in persons with MD and both self-rated and objectively-measured cognitive functioning. Methods Twenty-one persons with MD and 21 control participants underwent neuropsychological assessment and z-scores representing deviations from control performance were calculated and averaged across the domains of psychomotor speed, initial learning, memory retention and executive function. Self-ratings of cognitive deficits (SRCDs were reported on a 6-point scale for overall rating of cognitive change, speed of thinking, concentration, and short-term memory. Disability scores for self-rated physical, mental-health and functional (ie. days out of role disability were computed from the Brief-Disability Questionnaire and the SF-12 'mental component' subscale. Results Persons with MD had a mean age of 53.9 years (SD = 11.0, 76% female and had moderate to high depression severity (mean HDRS 21.7, sd = 4.4. As expected, depression severity was a strong predictor of physical (r = 0.7, p Conclusion While depression severity is associated with disability, the contributions of both self-rated and objectively-measured cognitive deficits are substantial and contribute uniquely and differentially to various forms of disability. Efforts directed at reducing cognitive deficits in depression may have the potential to reduce disability.

  6. Visual Jokes about Christmas and Santa Claus on the Internet - Why and Why not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guntis Pakalns

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses a collection of Christmas-related images and video clips found on the Internet. The author started collecting this material in 2005, since that time the material in the form of a PowerPoint presentation has been shown to diverse audiences discussing the context (mainly from the perspective of a folklore researcher while observing the reaction of the audience.The central part of the article is devoted to a brief overview of the most characteristic groups of the jokes (with links to the images, video and descriptions of the traditions: Santa Claus as the bringer of presents, his trip from the northland and his friend Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, arrival through the chimney, different other persons wearing Santa’s hat (politicians, terrorists, women, animals, etc., Santa’s sexuality, drunken Santa, Santa murdered/killed, etc. In addition, the regional version – Ded Moroz and Snegurochka (Father Frost and the Snowgirl – is discussed here. Parodies related to the topic – the Christmas tree, snowmen and figures made of snow, elves, angels, Chinese horoscope’s “animals of the year”.Some hypotheses regarding the differences, functions, selection and perception of the worldwide available jokes in different social situations (western and post-Soviet world are put forward, also considering social groups and situations, the time before and after Christmas. Why would people need such jokes? An attempt is made to explain it by different “levels of joking” – starting with “simply jokes” with their specific context in the tradition of the particular subject matter and the carnival-like sense of the reversed world (also used by the traders, making the originally rather eerie Santa Claus look like a friendly joker in the “shopping mythology” and jokes as a kind of psychological self-defence – trying to compensate, by way of irony and black humour, for the rapidly changing and excessive tediousness, seriousness, sacralisation, or right the opposite – secularisation, commercialisation of the mass media imposed Christmas traditions and the holiday stress.

  7. Location, location, location: alterations in the functional topography of face- but not object- or place-related cortex in adolescents with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BeatrizLuna

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In autism, impairments in face processing are a relatively recent discovery, but have quickly become a widely accepted aspect of the behavioral profile. Only a handful of studies have investigated potential atypicalities in autism in the development of the neural substrates mediating face processing. High-functioning individuals with autism (HFA and matched typically developing (TD controls watched dynamic movie vignettes of faces, common objects, buildings, and scenes of navigation while undergoing an fMRI scan. With these data, we mapped the functional topography of category-selective activation for faces bilaterally in the fusiform gyrus, occipital face area, and posterior superior temporal sulcus. Additionally, we mapped category selective activation for objects in the lateral occipital area and for places in the parahippocampal place area in the two groups. Our findings do not indicate a generalized disruption in the development of the entire ventral visual pathway in autism. Instead, our results suggest that the functional topography of face-related cortex is selectively disrupted in autism and that this alteration is present in early adolescence. Furthermore, for those HFA adolescents who do exhibit face-selective activation, this activation tends to be located in traditionally object-related regions, which supports the hypothesis that perceptual processing of faces in autism may be more akin to the perceptual processing of common objects in TD individuals.

  8. Rms-flux relation in the optical fast variability data of BL Lacertae object S5 0716+714

    OpenAIRE

    Mocanu, Gabriela-raluca; Sandor, Bulcsu

    2012-01-01

    The possibility that BL Lac S5 0716+714 exhibits a linear root mean square (rms)-flux relation in its IntraDay Variability (IDV) is analysed. The results may be used as an argument in the existing debate regarding the source of optical IDV in Active Galactic Nuclei. 63 time series in different optical bands were used. A linear rms-flux relation at a confidence level higher than 65% was recovered for less than 8% of the cases. We were able to check if the magnitude is log-nor...

  9. Relationalism

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This article contributes to the debate of the meaning of relationalism and background independence, which has remained of interest in theoretical physics from Newton versus Leibniz through to foundational issues for today's leading candidate theories of quantum gravity. I contrast and compose the substantially different Leibniz--Mach--Barbour (LMB) and Rovelli--Crane (RC) uses of the word `relational'. Leibniz advocated primary timelessness and Mach that `time is to be abstracted from change'. I consider 3 distinct viewpoints on Machian time: Barbour's, Rovelli's and my own. I provide four expansions on Barbour's taking configuration space to be primary: to (perhaps a weakened notion of) phase space, categorizing, perspecting and propositioning. Categorizing means considering not only object spaces but also the corresponding morphisms and then functors between such pairs. Perspecting means considering the set of subsystem perspectives; this is an arena in which the LMB and Rovelli approaches make contact. By ...

  10. Safety related states identification in nuclear power plant with VVER reactors based on the objective probabilistic assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A probabilistic assessment method for identification of safety related states during normal operation of a reactor unit is described. The applicability of this method is illustrated on the case of an abrupt loss of load (detachment from external grid) of the two Dukovany turbogenerators at the rated power level. Application of this universal method during the operation of nuclear power plants will enable such events or states to be identified as are not covered by intervention of the protective systems (steam generator tube rupture, partial break of the main steam or feedwater line, uncontrolled opening of safety valves). Early identification of safety related states at the reactor unit will facilitate control room personnel's decision-making and (after manual reactor tripping), intervention into the emergency rules

  11. New R Coronae Borealis and DY Persei Star Candidates and Other Related Objects Found in Photometric Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Otero, Sebastián; Bernhard, Klaus; Soszy?ski, Igor

    2014-01-01

    We have carried out a search for new R Coronae Borealis (RCB) variables using the publicly accessible data from various photometric sky surveys and-whenever available-AAVSO visual data. Candidates were selected from Tisserand`s "Catalogue enriched with R CrB stars" and by a visual inspection of light curves from the ASAS-3, MACHO, NSVS and OGLE surveys. We have identified two new RCB stars, four RCB candidates, and one DY Persei (DYPer) star candidate. Our identification was based mainly on photometric variability, color-color diagrams, and further information drawn from various catalogue sources; spectroscopic classifications were also reported in our analysis whenever available. Additionally, we present a sample of interesting stars which-although showing similar photometric variability-can be ruled out as RCB and DYPer stars or have been rejected as such on spectroscopic grounds in recent studies. Although not useful in the investigation of the aforementioned groups of variables, these objects defy an easy...

  12. Between-Monitor Differences in Step Counts Are Related to Body Size: Implications for Objective Physical Activity Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Jeremy; Brage, Søren; Curtis, Jeffrey M.; Swan, Pamela D.; Knowler, William C.; Franks, Paul W.

    2011-01-01

    Background The quantification of the relationships between walking and health requires that walking is measured accurately. We correlated different measures of step accumulation to body size, overall physical activity level, and glucose regulation. Methods Participants were 25 men and 25 women American Indians without diabetes (Age: 20-34 years) in Phoenix, Arizona, USA. We assessed steps/day during 7 days of free living, simultaneously with three different monitors (Accusplit-AX120, MTI-ActiGraph, and Dynastream-AMP). We assessed total physical activity during free-living with doubly labeled water combined with resting metabolic rate measured by expired gas indirect calorimetry. Glucose tolerance was determined during an oral glucose tolerance test. Findings Based on observed counts in the laboratory, the AMP was the most accurate device, followed by the MTI and the AX120, respectively. The estimated energy cost of 1000 steps per day was lower in the AX120 than the MTI or AMP. The correlation between AX120-assessed steps/day and waist circumference was significantly higher than the correlation between AMP steps and waist circumference. The difference in steps per day between the AX120 and both the AMP and the MTI were significantly related to waist circumference. Interpretation Between-monitor differences in step counts influence the observed relationship between walking and obesity-related traits. PMID:21556140

  13. Objective assessment of urban built environment related to physical activity — development, reliability and validity of the China Urban Built Environment Scan Tool (CUBEST)

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Meng; Du, Yu-kun; Liu, Qing-min; Ren, Yan-jun; Kawachi, Ichiro; Lv, Jun; Li, Li-ming

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some aspects of the neighborhood built environment may influence residents’ physical activity, which in turn, affects their health. This study aimed to develop an urban built environment evaluation tool and conduct necessary reliability and validity tests. Methods: A 41-item urban built environment scan tool was developed to objectively assess the neighborhood built environment features related to physical activity. Six neighborhoods in Hangzhou were selected from three types of...

  14. Efficient transformation of use case main success scenario steps into bussiness object relation (BORM) diagrams for effective bussiness process requirement analysis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podaras, A.; Moravec, J.; Papík, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 2, ?. 1 (2012), s. 86-88. ISSN 1804-7890 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Business process requirement Analysis * UCBTA Algorithm * UCBTA Transition Rules * Use Case Main Success Scenario Steps * BORM Diagrams Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/ZOI/papik-efficient transformation of use case main success scenario steps into bussiness object relation (borm) diagrams for effective bussiness process requirement analysis.pdf

  15. Location, Location, Location: Alterations in the Functional Topography of Face- but not Object- or Place-Related Cortex in Adolescents with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    BeatrizLuna; NancyMinshew; MarleneBehrmann

    2010-01-01

    In autism, impairments in face processing are a relatively recent discovery, but have quickly become a widely accepted aspect of the behavioral profile. Only a handful of studies have investigated potential atypicalities in autism in the development of the neural substrates mediating face processing. High-functioning individuals with autism (HFA) and matched typically developing (TD) controls watched dynamic movie vignettes of faces, common objects, buildings, and scenes of navigation while u...

  16. QDYBE some explicit formulas for exchange matrix and related objects in case of sl(2), q=1

    CERN Document Server

    Koornwinder, T H; Koornwinder, Tom H.; Touhami, Nabila

    2000-01-01

    This mainly tutorial paper is intended as a somewhat larger example for parts of the theory exposed in the Lectures on the dynamical Yang-Baxter equations by P. Etingof and O. Schiffmann, math.QA/9908064. We explicitly compute the matrix entries of the intertwining operator, fusion matrix and exchange matrix associated to sl(2,R) for q=1. We also consider the weighted trace function and the dual Macdonald-Ruijsenaars equation for this particular case. As expected, the matrix entries of the exchange matrix turn out to be Racah polynomials. However, the road to their explicit formula via the fusion matrix is quick, and it also yields an interesting way to derive their orthogonality relations.

  17. Objective functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do?an, Haluk; Otu, Hasan H

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sequence alignment involves alignment of more than two sequences and is an NP-complete problem. Therefore, heuristic algorithms that use different criteria to find an approximation to the optimal solution are employed. At the heart of these approaches lie the scoring and objective functions that a given algorithm uses to compare competing solutions in constructing a multiple sequence alignment. These objective functions are often motivated by the biological paradigms that govern functional similarities and evolutionary relations. Most existing approaches utilize a progressive process where the final alignment is constructed sequentially by adding new sequences into an existing multiple sequence alignment matrix, which is dynamically updated. In doing this, the core scoring function to assess accuracies of pairwise alignments generally remains the same, while the objective functions used in intermediary steps differ. Nevertheless, the overall assessment of the final multiple sequence alignment is generally calculated by an extension of pairwise scorings. In this chapter, we explore different scoring and objective functions used in calculating the accuracy and optimization of a multiple sequence alignment and provide utilization of these criteria in popularly used multiple sequence alignment algorithms. PMID:24170394

  18. Predicted radionuclide release from reactor-related unenclosed solid objects dumped in the Sea of Japan and the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1978 and 1991 reactor-related solid radioactive waste was dumped by the former Soviet Union as unenclosed objects in the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, and the Sea of Japan. This paper presented estimates for the current (1994) inventory of activation and corrosion products contained in the reactor-related unenclosed solid objects. In addition, simple models derived for prediction of radionuclide release from marine reactors dumped in the Kara Sea are applied to certain of the dumped objects to provide estimates of radionuclide release to the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, and Sea of Japan environments. For the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, total release rates start below 0.01 GBq yr-1 and over 1,000 years, fall to 100 Bq yr-1. In the Sea of Japan, the total release rate starts just above 1 GBq yr-1, dropping off to a level less than 0.1 GBq yr-1, extending past the year 4,000

  19. Characterization of catalysts by Moessbauer spectroscopy: An application to the study of Fischer-Tropsch, hydrotreating and super Claus catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moessbauer spectroscopy is an excellent in-situ technique for the identification of phases present in catalysts. Applied to metallic iron catalysts used in the Fischer-Tropsch reaction it reveals a detailed picture of the carburization process and provides insight into the relation between the properties of the catalytic material and its activity. The influence of a support and the effect of alloying iron with an (in)active metal on the catalytic performance is discussed for Fe, Cu-Fe and Ni-Fe systems. In addition, Moessbauer spectroscopy is used for the identification of 'Co-sulfide' species present in sulfided Co and CoMo catalysts applied in one of the largest chemical processes in the world, the hydrotreatment of crude oil. A structural model is proposed. Finally, the contribution of Moessbauer spectroscopic studies to the development of a new catalyst for cleaning of Claus tail gas via selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur is discussed. (orig.)

  20. 46 CFR 308.536 - Declaration where failure to comply with Clause 21 was inadvertent, Form MA-314.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...comply with Clause 21 was inadvertent, Form MA-314. 308.536 Section 308.536...comply with Clause 21 was inadvertent, Form MA-314. An Assured that fails inadvertently...Policy shall file this Declaration, Form MA-314, which may be obtained from the...

  1. Experiencias en la gestión de imágenes por contenido en bases de datos objeto-relacionales / Experiences in Image Management by Content in Object-Relational Databases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos E, Alvez; Aldo R, Vecchietti.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo se analizan diversos mecanismos que brinda la tecnología Objeto-Relacional (OR) para el almacenamiento de imágenes en una Base de Datos. El objetivo fue estudiar, mediante la implementación de dos ejemplos en Oracle 10g, el comportamiento de la tecnología OR en el almacenamiento, la [...] formulación de consultas, la recuperación de la información y de las imágenes asociadas. La primera implementación se corresponde con el almacenamiento de imágenes médicas concordantes con el estándar DICOM, utilizando objetos ORDImage propios de ORACLE. En el segundo ejemplo se almacenaron imágenes de un diario digital empleando instancias del UDT SI_StillImage del estándar SQL/MM. Las capacidades provistas por la Base de Datos Objeto-Relacional empleada facilitan la implementación de un servidor de imágenes. Se analizaron también las ventajas y desventajas de emplear objetos del estándar SQL/MM o datos nativos correspondientes a Oracle 10g. Abstract in english In this paper, several alternatives for the storage of still images in databases given by the Object-Relational technology are analyzed. The aim was to study, by means of two examples, implementation in Oracle 10g database, the technology behaviour in the storage, query formulation and image recover [...] y. The first application corresponds to the storage of medical images complying with DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) standard, Oracle 10g ORDImage objects have been used for this case. The second example deals with the storage of images for a digital newspaper for which SI_StillImage of the SQL/MM standard have been employed. The capabilities provided by the Object Relational technology facilitate the implementation of an images server. The advantages and drawbacks of using SQL/MM standard or native objects corresponding to Oracle 10g are also compared.

  2. SU-E-I-29: Generalized Relative Object Detectability (G-ROD): A Metric for Comparing X-Ray Imaging Detector Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, V; Jain, A; Bednarek, D; Rudin, S [Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the relative task-specific performance of two x-ray imaging detectors including the effect of other components of the imaging chain. Methods: The relative object detectability (ROD) was defined as the ratio of the integral of the detective-quantum efficiency (DQE) of a detector weighted by the square of the Fourier Transform (or frequency spectrum) of the object to the same integral for a second detector. The generalized ROD (G-ROD) is calculated by replacing DQE by the generalized DQE (GDQE) which includes geometric unsharpness and scatter to evaluate the total imaging chain. The G-ROD was calculated for the micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF) relative to a flat-panel detector (FPD) for low (1.05) and high (1.2) magnifications with two focal-spot sizes, small (0.3 mm) and medium (0.5 mm), and for the same value of scatter fraction. Solid spheres from 50 to 600 microns were simulated as the objects for this evaluation. The G-ROD results were compared with those of the ROD which considers the detectors alone. Results: For 50-micron spheres, the ROD is 7.93 and, for the small [medium] focus, the G-ROD is 6.74 [5.22] at low magnification and 3.03 [1.66] at high magnification, indicating superior performance of the MAF particularly at low magnification. Both ROD and G-ROD decrease monotonically with size and remain around one above 400-microns. The G-ROD decreases more dramatically with low compared to high magnification for both focal spots. Conclusion: In all cases, the MAF performs better than the FPD and the decreasing trend of the G-ROD indicates that the performance of both detectors becomes similar as the object size increases and becomes nearly equal above 400-micron diameter sphere size. Finally, increased magnification and focal-spot size decrease the G-ROD, indicting that they degrade the performance of the MAF more than that of the FPD for a small-object viewing task. Supported by NIH Grant: 2R01EB002873 and an equipment grant from Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation.

  3. SU-E-I-29: Generalized Relative Object Detectability (G-ROD): A Metric for Comparing X-Ray Imaging Detector Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the relative task-specific performance of two x-ray imaging detectors including the effect of other components of the imaging chain. Methods: The relative object detectability (ROD) was defined as the ratio of the integral of the detective-quantum efficiency (DQE) of a detector weighted by the square of the Fourier Transform (or frequency spectrum) of the object to the same integral for a second detector. The generalized ROD (G-ROD) is calculated by replacing DQE by the generalized DQE (GDQE) which includes geometric unsharpness and scatter to evaluate the total imaging chain. The G-ROD was calculated for the micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF) relative to a flat-panel detector (FPD) for low (1.05) and high (1.2) magnifications with two focal-spot sizes, small (0.3 mm) and medium (0.5 mm), and for the same value of scatter fraction. Solid spheres from 50 to 600 microns were simulated as the objects for this evaluation. The G-ROD results were compared with those of the ROD which considers the detectors alone. Results: For 50-micron spheres, the ROD is 7.93 and, for the small [medium] focus, the G-ROD is 6.74 [5.22] at low magnification and 3.03 [1.66] at high magnification, indicating superior performance of the MAF particularly at low magnification. Both ROD and G-ROD decrease monotonically with size and remain around one above 400-microns. The G-ROD decreases more dramatically with low compared to high magnification for both focal spots. Conclusion: In all cases, the MAF performs better than the FPD and the decreasing trend of the G-ROD indicates that the performance of both detectors becomes similar as the object size increases and becomes nearly equal above 400-micron diameter sphere size. Finally, increased magnification and focal-spot size decrease the G-ROD, indicting that they degrade the performance of the MAF more than that of the FPD for a small-object viewing task. Supported by NIH Grant: 2R01EB002873 and an equipment grant from Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation

  4. Non-finite Complementation A Usage-Based Study of Infinitive and -ing Clauses in English

    CERN Document Server

    Egan, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive guide to the way speakers of British English use infinitive and – ing clauses as verbal complements. It contains details of the non-finite complementation patterns of over 300 matrix verbs, with a particular emphasis on verbs that occur with more than one type of non-finite complement. Drawing upon data from the British National Corpus, the author shows that some of the views which are to be found in the existing literature on these sorts of clauses are in conflict with the evidence of actual usage. He also shows that there is actually much more regularity in

  5. Den sene Derrida, eller: Er Claus Beck-Nielsen et spøgelse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2009-01-01

    This article is about hosting the ghost. In Spectres de Marx (1993) Derrida introduces the ghost which seems to condense in one figure the important themes of his late writings: the address, the other, the ethical turn, the event, the mourning, the reality of immateriality, the guest. The article turns to the paternal ghost from Shakespeare's Hamlet, as well as to the most ghost-like artist on the Danish contemporary art scene: Claus Beck-Nielsen, who some years ago declared himself dead. Is Claus Beck-Nielsen really a ghost? That is the question.

  6. Forum Selection Clauses:Different Regulations from the Perspective of Cruise Ship Passengers.

    OpenAIRE

    Volner, Igor

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss treatment of forum clauses and their effect on the rights of passengers cruising around the world, with special focus on the U.S. law compared with the regulation in the European Union. Cruise ships often sail between several countries, and if a dispute arises between a cruise line and a passenger, the latter will often have a choice between several jurisdictions. This option is very frequently curtailed by forum clauses in the cruise passenger ticket c...

  7. On the road to invariant object recognition: how cortical area V2 transforms absolute to relative disparity during 3D vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen; Srinivasan, Karthik; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash

    2011-09-01

    Invariant recognition of objects depends on a hierarchy of cortical stages that build invariance gradually. Binocular disparity computations are a key part of this transformation. Cortical area V1 computes absolute disparity, which is the horizontal difference in retinal location of an image in the left and right foveas. Many cells in cortical area V2 compute relative disparity, which is the difference in absolute disparity of two visible features. Relative, but not absolute, disparity is invariant under both a disparity change across a scene and vergence eye movements. A neural network model is introduced which predicts that shunting lateral inhibition of disparity-sensitive layer 4 cells in V2 causes a peak shift in cell responses that transforms absolute disparity from V1 into relative disparity in V2. This inhibitory circuit has previously been implicated in contrast gain control, divisive normalization, selection of perceptual groupings, and attentional focusing. The model hereby links relative disparity to other visual functions and thereby suggests new ways to test its mechanistic basis. Other brain circuits are reviewed wherein lateral inhibition causes a peak shift that influences behavioral responses. PMID:21507610

  8. Sulphur recovery optimization of Claus/Sulfreen Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beveridge, B.

    1985-01-01

    Stringent environmental standards and greater public awareness require an increased emphasis on the operation of sulphur plants to maximize sulphur recovery and minimize emission levels. In an effort to reduce sulphur emissions, extensive work at the Ram River Gas Plant was conducted to optimize the plant operation between 1980 and 1984. The topics to be discussed in this paper include process analyzers and controllers, COS and CS/sub 2/ conversion, oxygen control, COS and CS/sub 2/ generation, and Sulfreen optimization. As a result of the work conducted, the overall yearly recovery average has increased from 98.1% in 1980 to 98.7% in 1983. The contribution by sulphur compounds to plant emissions were, 22.3 tonnes equilibrium limits, 8.3 tonnes ratio upsets, 13.7 tonnes COS/CS/sub 2/, and 4.7 tonnes Sulfreen losses. The Ram River Plant processes sour natural gas from 12 different pools with a maximum H/sub 2/S content of 39%. The inlet capacity is 17.7 x 10/sup 6/m/sup 3//day raw gas and 300 m/sup 3//day pentanes plus, producing 12.0 x 10/sup 6/m/sup 3//day sales gas, and 4,600 tonnes/day sulphur as the by product of the DEA sweetening process. The sulphur recovery facility consists of four, 1150 tonnes/day modified-Claus plants and two Sulfreen units. Acid gas feed to the sulphur recovery units varies between 70% and 83% H/sub 2/S with CO/sub 2/ making up the bulk of the remaining composition. Each sulphur plant is a straight through process with two, 91 tonne converters with interstage condensers/coaleser units. Each Sulfreen tail gas unit is fed by two sulphur trains. Stage I Sulfreen has six, 89 tonne reactors while the Stage II unit has three, 204 tonne reactors. The waste gas from each Sulfreen is passed through separate incinerators where the remaining sulphur components are oxidized to SO/sub 2/ before being released through a common stack.

  9. Object oriented methods

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Ian

    1994-01-01

    This book is a revision of Ian Graham's successful survey of the whole area of object technology. It covers object- oriented programming, object-oriented design, object- oriented analysis, object-oriented databases and treats several related technologies. New to this edition are more applications of object-oriented methods and more coverage of object-oriented database products available. Graham has also doubled the design and analysis material that examines over 60 different approaches - making this the most comprehensive book on the market. Also new is the foreword by Grady Booch.

  10. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 707 - Model Clauses and Sample Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... B-3Model Clauses for Pre-Maturity Notices for Term...it is renewed. Note: Pre-maturity notices should follow...card; change of address; incorporations of other documents by reference...often covered in share account contracts. Item no. 12 is not...

  11. 48 CFR 12.301 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Solicitation provisions and contract clauses for the acquisition...Section 8002 of Public Law 103-355 (41 U.S.C 264, note), contracts for the acquisition of...implement provisions of law or Executive orders...the solicitation and contract and, using...

  12. Force majeure clauses and the threat of nuclear disaster. A Japanese case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guderian, Stephan Michael

    2011-07-22

    Force majeure clauses can be found in any commercial contract. Though more or less clear guidelines for the applicability of force majeure (clauses) exist in the form of international and national law, the applicability and enforceability of force majeure clauses with respect to nuclear incidents or disasters, however, remain ambiguous. Until the Japanese nuclear disaster, no major trade region was affected by any of the historical nuclear incidents. This case-study is based on the events surrounding the Tohoku earthquake, respective tsunami and nuclear incidents, especially at the Daiichi NPP and radiological contamination released there. The applicability and enforceability of force majeure clauses with their wide legal and economical implications are analyzed and evaluated according to the CISG and national domestic Japanese law. It is found that the assertion of force majeure is generally highly fact-specific and circumstance-sensitive. In general, the potential of nuclear disaster as an event triggering the force majeure defence is clearly evident, according to both international and Japanese law. Any claim must, however, be substantiated according to the principles of the different legal regimes under which the contract falls. In consequence, a company located within the evacuated areas will probably be able to successfully assert for majeure, whilst the success of any other claim will depend on the presentation of evidence, such as radiation levels and its effects in hindering performance of contractual obligations.

  13. The Clause-Initial Position in L2 German Declaratives: Transfer of Information Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnacker, Ute; Rosen, Christina

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the information structure of verb-second (V2) declaratives in Swedish, German, and nonnative German. Even though almost any type of element can occur in the so-called prefield, the clause-initial preverbal position of V2 declaratives, we have found language-specific patterns in native-speaker corpora: The frequencies of…

  14. A Shock to the Conscience: The Due Process Clause and Corporal Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2001-01-01

    In a case involving an injured football player, an 11th Circuit judge viewed a coach's refusal to stop a fight as corporal punishment. Federal courts in five circuits have ruled that excessive corporal punishment violates the Due Process Clause if it is so brutal and harmful that it shocks the court's conscience. (MLH)

  15. Reanalysis of Clause Boundaries in Japanese as a Constraint-Driven Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Edson T.

    2003-01-01

    Reports on two experiments that focus on clause boundaries in Japanese that suggest that minimal change restriction is unnecessary to characterize reanalysis. Proposes that the data and previous observations are more naturally explained by a constraint-driven model in which revisions are performed only when required by parsing constraints.…

  16. 78 FR 37980 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Solicitation Provisions and Contract Clauses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ...saving DoD time and scarce resources. Potential offerors...clauses in commercial item acquisitions issued by...Data- Noncommercial Items, as prescribed in 227...Technical Data-Commercial Items, as prescribed in 227...at 252.232-7003, Electronic Submission of...

  17. Force majeure clauses and the threat of nuclear disaster. A Japanese case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Force majeure clauses can be found in any commercial contract. Though more or less clear guidelines for the applicability of force majeure (clauses) exist in the form of international and national law, the applicability and enforceability of force majeure clauses with respect to nuclear incidents or disasters, however, remain ambiguous. Until the Japanese nuclear disaster, no major trade region was affected by any of the historical nuclear incidents. This case-study is based on the events surrounding the Tohoku earthquake, respective tsunami and nuclear incidents, especially at the Daiichi NPP and radiological contamination released there. The applicability and enforceability of force majeure clauses with their wide legal and economical implications are analyzed and evaluated according to the CISG and national domestic Japanese law. It is found that the assertion of force majeure is generally highly fact-specific and circumstance-sensitive. In general, the potential of nuclear disaster as an event triggering the force majeure defence is clearly evident, according to both international and Japanese law. Any claim must, however, be substantiated according to the principles of the different legal regimes under which the contract falls. In consequence, a company located within the evacuated areas will probably be able to successfully assert for majeure, whilst the success of any other claim will depend on the presentation of evidence, such as radiation levels and its effects in hindering performance of contractual obligations.

  18. A surface electromyography based objective method to identify patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain, presenting a flexion related movement control impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Benedicte; Stevens, Veerle; Perneel, Christiaan; Van Tiggelen, Damien; Neyens, Ellen; Duvigneaud, Nathalie; Moerman, Luc; Danneels, Lieven

    2014-12-01

    Movement control impairments (MCI) are often present in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain (NS-CLBP). Therefore, movement control exercises are widely used to rehabilitate patients. However, the objective assessment remains difficult. The purpose of this study was to develop a statistical model, based on logistic regression analysis, to differentiate patients with NS-CLBP presenting a flexion-related MCI from healthy subjects. This model is based on trunk muscle activation patterns measured by surface electromyography (sEMG), during movement control exercises. Sixty-three healthy male subjects and 36 male patients with a flexion-related MCI participated in this study. Muscle activity of the internal obliques, the external obliques, the lumbar multifidus and the thoracic part of the iliocostalis was registered. Ratios of deep stabilizing to superficial torque producing muscle activity were calculated to examine trunk muscle recruitment patterns during 6 different exercises. Logistic regression analyses were performed (1) to define the ratios and exercises that were most discriminating between patients and non-patients, (2) to make a predictive model. K-Fold cross-validation was used to assess the performance of the predictive model. This study demonstrated that sEMG trunk muscle recruitment patterns during movement control tests, allows differentiating NSCLBP patients with a flexion-related MCI from healthy subjects. PMID:25304196

  19. Quantitative assessment of bone marrow attenuation values at MDCT: An objective tool for the detection of bone bruise related to occult sacral insufficiency fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henes, F.O.; Groth, M.; Bley, T.A.; Regier, M.; Ittrich, H.; Adam, G.; Bannas, P. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Nuechtern, J.V. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Trauma, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Treszl, A. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Center for Experimental Medicine, Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    To prove the feasibility of using Hounsfield attenuation values at MDCT to detect bone bruises related to sacral insufficiency fractures. Twenty-two patients with acute sacrum trauma and no fracture findings at MDCT were included in our prospective study. Two observers independently reviewed CTs regarding visual signs of bone bruises in 132 defined regions of the sacral alae. Interobserver agreement was tested by {kappa} statistics. Subsequently, HU values were obtained in the same regions, and attenuation differences between the two sides were calculated. Validity and reliability were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. HU differences were subjected to ROC curve analysis to determine sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV. MRI served as standard reference. MRI revealed 19 regions with bone bruises and associated sacral insufficiency fractures. HU measurements demonstrated good validity and reliability (r = 0.989). ROC curve analysis exhibited an ideal cutoff value of 35.7 HU density difference between affected and non-affected regions. Visual evaluation revealed moderate agreement ({kappa} = 0.48); diagnostic accuracy was inferior to objective evaluation. Assessment of differences in bone marrow density by HU measurements is an objective and reliable tool for detection of bone bruises associated with occult sacral insufficiency fractures. (orig.)

  20. PAH EMISSION IN STARBURST, SEYFERT, ULIRGS, QSOS AND QUASAR OBJECTS, AND THEIR RELATION WITH THE INFRARED, X-RAY AND RADIO CONTINUUM EMISSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-A. Higuera-G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a second study in an ongoing work aimed to analyze the star formation activity and its relation with the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs emission. In this way, we have performed a study about the correlation between the ux of the 7.7 -m PAH band and its equivalent width, with the luminosities and uxes observed in JHK photometric bands, IRAS 12, 25, 60 and 100-m, the radio emission at 1.4GHz and X-ray at 2{10 keV, for a sample composed of Seyfert 1-2, QSOs, Quasars, Starburst, and ULIRGs. The results found let us discriminate between objects with more star formation activity from others with more AGN in uence.

  1. An automated quality assessor for Ada object-oriented designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailin, Sidney C.

    1988-01-01

    A tool for evaluating object-oriented designs (OODs) for Ada software is described. The tool assumes a design expressed as a hierarchy of object diagrams. A design of this type identifies the objects of a system, an interface to each object, and the usage relationships between objects. When such a design is implemented in Ada, objects become packages, interfaces become package specifications, and usage relationships become Ada `with' clauses and package references. An automated quality assessor has been developed that is based on flagging undesirable design constructs. For convenience, distinctions are made among three levels of severity: questionable, undesirable, and hazardous. A questionable construct is one that may well be appropriate. An undesirable construct is one that should be changed because it is potentially harmful to the reliability, maintainability, or reusability of the software. A hazardous construct is one that is undesirable and that introduces a high level of risk.

  2. Government control over health-related not-for-profit organisations: Agency for International Development v. Alliance for Open Society International Inc 570 US_(2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, Tim; Donohoo, Angus M; Faunce, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    The relationship between government and the not-for-profit (NFP) sector has important implications for society, especially in relation to the delivery of public health measures and the protection of the environment. In key health-related areas such as provision of medical services, welfare, foreign aid and education, governments have traditionally preferred for the NFP sector to act as service partners, with the relationship mediated through grants or funding agreements. This service delivery arrangement is intended to provide a diversity of voices, and encourage volunteerism and altruism, in conjunction with the purposes and objectives of the relevant NGO. Under the pretence of "accountability", however, governments increasingly are seeking to impose intrusive conditions on grantees, which limit their ability to fulfil their mission and advocate on behalf of their constituents. This column examines the United States Supreme Court decision, Agency for International Development v Alliance for Open Society International Inc 570 US_(2013), and compares it to the removal of gag clauses in Australian federal funding rules. Recent national changes to the health-related NFP sector in Australia are then discussed, such as those found in the Charities Act 2013 (Cth) and the Not-for-Profit Sector Freedom to Advocate Act 2013 (Cth). These respectively include the establishment of the Australian Charities and Not-For-Profit Commission, the modernising of the definition of "charity" and statutory blocks on "gag" clauses. This analysis concludes with a survey of recent moves by Australian States to impose new restrictions on the ability of health-related NFPs to lobby against harmful government policy Among the responses considered is the protection afforded by s 51l(xxiiiA) of the Australian Constitution. This constitutional guarantee appears to have been focused historically on preventing medical and dental practitioners and related small businesses being practically coerced into government or large-scale private corporate operations. As such, it may prohibit civil conscription arising not only from "gag clauses" in managed care contracts, but also from "gag clauses" in governmental ideological controls over taxpayer-funded, health-related NFPs. PMID:24597375

  3. SPINS: Standardized ProteIn NMR Storage. A data dictionary and object-oriented relational database for archiving protein NMR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern protein NMR spectroscopy laboratories have a rapidly growing need for an easily queried local archival system of raw experimental NMR datasets. SPINS (Standardized ProteIn Nmr Storage) is an object-oriented relational database that provides facilities for high-volume NMR data archival, organization of analyses, and dissemination of results to the public domain by automatic preparation of the header files required for submission of data to the BioMagResBank (BMRB). The current version of SPINS coordinates the process from data collection to BMRB deposition of raw NMR data by standardizing and integrating the storage and retrieval of these data in a local laboratory file system. Additional facilities include a data mining query tool, graphical database administration tools, and a NMRStar v2.1.1 file generator. SPINS also includes a user-friendly internet-based graphical user interface, which is optionally integrated with Varian VNMR NMR data collection software. This paper provides an overview of the data model underlying the SPINS database system, a description of its implementation in Oracle, and an outline of future plans for the SPINS project

  4. The COCOON object model

    OpenAIRE

    Scholl, Marc H.

    2012-01-01

    The COCOON model was intended to extend the concepts of relational database management systems (DBMSs) beyond nested relational to object-oriented ones. Key characteristics of COCOON and its database language COOL are: generic, set-oriented query and update operators similar to relational algebra and SQL updates, respectively; object-preserving semantics of query operators, which allows for the definition of updatable views; update operations that keep model-inherent integrity constraints con...

  5. Drafting force majeure clauses in natural gas purchase/sale contracts -- the practicalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The place of 'force majeure' provisions, in gas purchase/sale contracts is discussed. This issue, not normally considered to be significant in gas purchase/sale contracts, became a matter of intense interest in the aftermath of the Atcor Ltd v. Continental Energy Marketing case when the trial court, as well as the Alberta Court of Appeals, strongly criticized the wording of the force majeure clause in the contract as containing a 'choice of words that assured litigation'. Force majeure, simply stated, refers to acts of God, (lightning, earthquakes, storms, floods, etc) and acts of war. It is inserted in contracts to limit the liability of parties to the contract in the event of inability to perform due to any of the above acts of God, or acts of war. In this particular case, the force majeure cause included, in addition to the above, a long list of other causes such as strikes, lockouts or other industrial disturbances, insurrections, riots, epidemics, landslides, fires, washouts, explosions of or accidents to plant, machinery or lines of pipe, well blowouts, and pipeline repairs and reconditioning. The trial court found the drafting of the clause archaic, circumventing clarity, and drearily lengthy. In view of the court's decision it is clear that more thought has to go into drafting force majeure decisions in the future. Accordingly, this paper attempts to discuss practical issues of drafting force majeure clauses that clearly reflect the parties' intentions and exply reflect the parties' intentions and expectations so that costly litigations might be avoided, or if litigation is unavoidable, to at least have the outcome of such litigation be more predictable. The focus of the discussion is on legal interpretation issues, forms of gas contract force majeure provisions- events and consequences, and standardization of force majeure provisions. It is recommended that the drafter of such clauses should always keep in mind the potential impact that the strict construction and commercial reasonability concepts may have on the words chosen. 22 refs

  6. The Sale with Repurchase Clause / La venta con cláusula de retrocompra

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ilie, Urs.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La venta con cláusula de recompra fue regulada por el Código Civil de 1864, en sus artículos 1371-1387, como una variedad de venta afectada por una condición resolutoria. La venta con cláusula de recompra se utiliza con frecuencia en la práctica con el fin de violar las disposiciones de orden públic [...] o del artículo 1689 del Código Civil rumano, en materia de hipoteca. Teniendo en cuenta que la venta con cláusula de recompra en realidad es una forma de incumplimiento de las disposiciones del artículo 1689 del Código Civil ruman, que origena una gran cantidad de abusos por parte de los acreedores, el legislador rumano decidió prohibir este tipo de venta. También consideramos que, de lege ferenda, la aplicación de una ley nueva de prohibición de la venta con cláusula de recompra es necesario y útil. Abstract in english The sale with repurchase clause was regulated in 1864 by the Civil Code, within the meaning of articles 1371-1387, as a variety of sale affected by a cancellation condition. The sale with repurchase clause was frequently used in practice in order to breach the public provisions of article 1689 of th [...] e Romanian Civil Code, on mortgage matters. Taking into consideration that the sale with repurchase clause was actually a way to breach the provisions of article 1689 of the Romanian Civil Code, giving birth to a lot of abuses on the part of the creditors, the Romanian legislator decided to prohibit this type of sale. We also consider that, de lege ferenda, the implementation of a new prohibition law of the sale with repurchase clause is both necessary and useful.

  7. Specification of Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Morten U.

    1997-01-01

    Concurrent objects are named concurrent processes that interact by invoking each other's operations. We describe how such concurrent objects can be specified, how objects can be composed, and how it can be shown that one object refines another.First a model is defined, based on a transition relation over two objects and an event. In the model, objects can be composed by parallel composition, encapsulation, and hiding of operations. Refinement between objects is defined as fair trace inclusion.A specification language is presented where objects can be specified operationally by abstract imperative programs as well as externally by formulas in an interval logic, and even in a combination of the two styles.Verification among the different specification styles is illustrated by a number of experiments using a small distributed data base as a common example. Also, experiments are made with the expressibility of the interval logic.

  8. Convex polyhedral abstractions, specialisation and property-based predicate splitting in Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2014-01-01

    We present an approach to constrained Horn clause (CHC) verification combining three techniques: abstract interpretation over a domain of convex polyhedra, specialisation of the constraints in CHCs using abstract interpretation of query-answer transformed clauses, and refinement by splitting predicates. The purpose of the work is to investigate how analysis and transformation tools developed for constraint logic programs (CLP) can be applied to the Horn clause verification problem. Abstract interpretation over convex polyhedra is capable of deriving sophisticated invariants and when used in conjunction with specialisation for propagating constraints it can frequently solve challenging verification problems. This is a contribution in itself, but refinement is needed when it fails, and the question of how to refine convex polyhedral analyses has not been studied much. We present a refinement technique based on interpolants derived from a counterexample trace; these are used to drive a property-based specialisation that splits predicates, leading in turn to more precise convex polyhedral analyses. The process of specialisation, analysis and splitting can be repeated, in a manner similar to the CEGAR and iterative specialisation approaches.

  9. Jeopardizing Christmas: Why spoiled kids and a tight schedule could make Santa Claus fall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, L; Roth, R; Lichtenstein, E; Elliot, C; Zahner, L; Faude, O

    2015-03-01

    Santa Claus' spatio-temporal gait characteristics, ground reaction forces during treadmill walking as well as postural sway during loaded, unloaded and cognitive interference tasks were examined in order to estimate his fall risk. Seventeen healthy males, disguised as researchers and students (age: 30±10 years; height: 179±6 years; weight: 76±7kg; BMI: 24±2kg/m(2); physical activity: 12±4h/week) and who still believe in Santa Claus randomly underwent balance and gait analyses with and without cognitive interference. The conditions were to be dressed as "Santa Claus" (wearing costume consisting of a beard, cap, robe, heavy sack with a load of 20kg) or dressed in "normal clothing" (no costume). Spatiotemporal gait parameters (walking velocity, gait variability and stride time, length and width), ground reaction forces (GRF) (left- and right-sided heel strike and push off) and postural sway (30s tandem stance on a force plate) were measured. "Santa-effects" (0.001Christmas sack with 20kg of presents. Cognitive loads also impair his neuromuscular performance. It is recommended that Santa trains his strength and balance before Christmas and also to avoid filling his sack with more than 20kg of presents. Also, cognitive training may help to improve his dual task performance. PMID:25766044

  10. Recent developments of Claus techniques as applied to natural and refinery gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grancher, P.; Blanc, C.; Guyot, G.; Mathieu, P.; Nougayrede, J.; Tellier, J.

    1980-03-01

    A discussion of the Societe Nationale Elf Aquitaine (SNEA) experience covers the kinetics of the Claus reaction and the secondary reactions in both noncatalytic high-temperature units and catalytic plants treating natural or refinery gases with various contents of hydrogen sulfide, hydrocarbons, and ammonia; catalyst aging mechanisms and the advanced AM catalyst, i.e., metal salt-modified alumina resistant to sulfation, developed by SNEA improvements introduced by SNEA into the reactor design, process control and optimization, catalyst regeneration, and methods of plant shutdown without catalyst degradation; and ways for improving sulfur recovery rates in the industrial Claus plants to 99.9% (< 250 ppm sulfur compound in the stack gases) by additional desulfurization of residual gases, including a very-low-temperature Claus reaction, i.e., the Sulfreen process, which can be further improved by the reduction of the remaining sulfur gases to H/sub 2/S and selective extraction of the latter with methyldiethanolamine (SNEA's Elfapur process, by improving the Sulfreen catalyst performance through regeneration with H/sub 2/S, or by using the AM catalyst that removes oxygen from the reacting gases.

  11. 'Koloniseren is een smaak die je moet leren' - Hugo Claus en Het leven en de werken van Leopold II (1970) / Hugo Claus and Het leven en de werken van Leopold II (1970)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yves, T' Sjoen.

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: Afrikaner Abstract in english The première of Claus' play Het leven en de werken van Leopold II (The Life and Works of Leopold II), in November 1970 (by the company Nederlandse Comedie), was directed by the author himself. After a second and again rather unsuccessful run (1972 - 1973, Arena, director: J. Tummers) it disappeared [...] from the stage for nearly thirty years: there was no other production of Claus' play in the Low Countries until the autumn of 2002 (KVS, director: R. Ruëll). Undoubtedly Het leven en de werken van Leopold II is one of the lesser-known plays by the Flemish author Hugo Claus (1929-2008). While writing it, at the end of the sixties, Claus was simultaneously working on two poetry collections. Van horen zeggen contains accessible poems, sometimes rather anecdotal, with many references to the contemporary political situation. These poems show a clear affinity with the neo-realistic poetry that was dominant in Dutch-language literature in the sixties. Also in 1970, on the same day as Van horen zeggen, Claus published Heer Everzwijn (Lord Wild Boar), manneristic poetry showing another poeta faber. Given Claus' interest in the history of the Congo Free State (see also the novel De geruchten [The rumours]) and the way he caricatures King Leopold II and his government in Het leven en de werken, it is worth investigating the political and social perspectives articulated in both his drama and his poetry. What are the similarities between the poet and the playwright? How can we explain his interest in the way Leopold mistreated the people of the Congo? In this essay I present the ideological and social points of view adopted by Claus in a broad literary and political context, studying his play on Leopold's atrocities in what would later (in 1908) become a Belgian colony, alongside the poetry he produced in the same period.

  12. Extended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After some disconnected comments on the MIT bag and string models for extended hadrons, I review current understanding of extended objects in classical conventional relativistic field theories and their quantum mechanical interpretation

  13. The Experience of Force: The Role of Haptic Experience of Forces in Visual Perception of Object Motion and Interactions, Mental Simulation, and Motion-Related Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Forces are experienced in actions on objects. The mechanoreceptor system is stimulated by proximal forces in interactions with objects, and experiences of force occur in a context of information yielded by other sensory modalities, principally vision. These experiences are registered and stored as episodic traces in the brain. These stored…

  14. Object crowding

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Julian M.; Tjan, Bosco S.

    2011-01-01

    Crowding occurs when stimuli in the peripheral fields become harder to identify when flanked by other items. This phenomenon has been demonstrated extensively with simple patterns (e.g., Gabors and letters). Here, we characterize crowding for everyday objects. We presented three-item arrays of objects and letters, arranged radially and tangentially in the lower visual field. Observers identified the central target, and we measured contrast energy thresholds as a function of target-to-flanker ...

  15. Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Time magazine's ""Man of the Century"", Albert Einstein is the founder of modern physics and his theory of relativity is the most important scientific idea of the modern era. In this short book, Einstein explains, using the minimum of mathematical terms, the basic ideas and principles of the theory that has shaped the world we live in today. Unsurpassed by any subsequent books on relativity, this remains the most popular and useful exposition of Einstein's immense contribution to human knowledge.With a new foreword by Derek Raine.

  16. Object oriented programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is an introduction to object oriented programming techniques. It tries to explain the concepts by using analogies with traditional programming. The object oriented approach not inherently difficult, but most programmers find a relatively high threshold in learning it. Thus, this paper will attempt to convey the concepts with examples rather than explain the formal theory

  17. Clause Relations and Macro Patterns: Cohesion, Coherence, and the Writing of Advanced ESOL Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basturkmen, Helen

    2002-01-01

    Discusses problems nonnative speakers of English may have in making their written texts cohesive and coherent and describes instructional activities designed to help students achieve greater cohesion and coherence in their writing. (Author/VWL)

  18. Surprisal, the PDC, and the primary locus of processing difficulty in relative clauses

    OpenAIRE

    EdwardGibson; RogerLevy

    2013-01-01

    Of the ambitious purview of MacDonald's (2013) article, we find the part fleshed out in most concrete detail—the comprehension consequences of her Production-Distribution-Comprehension (PDC) theory, the easiest to comment upon. Such a theory as she has sketched out would be extraordinarily compelling: a theory that, in contrast with accounts relying on “innate parsing biases,” posits that “comprehension results reflect distributional regularities in the language” that “comprehende...

  19. Relative clauses in Iraqi Arabic and the status of resumptive pronouns

    OpenAIRE

    Jassim, Quitaf H.

    2011-01-01

    La gramàtica de l’àrab iraquià no ha estat gaire estudiada. En aquesta investigació s’aborda la naturalesa de les clàusules de relatiu de l’àrab iraquià. Ens centrem en l’estratègia resumptiva que s’hi utilitza, per oposició a l’estratègia del moviment. Considerem el comportament de les clàusules de relatiu respecte les illes, el creuament feble i el creuament fort, la reconstrucció i l’abast del lligam. La conclusió final és que l’estratègia resumptiva en àrab...

  20. Complex Syntax in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Study of Relative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrleman, Stephanie; Hippolyte, Loyse; Zufferey, Sandrine; Iglesias, Katia; Hadjikhani, Nouchine

    2015-01-01

    Background: The few studies that have evaluated syntax in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have yielded conflicting findings: some suggest that once matched on mental age, ASD and typically developing controls do not differ for grammar, while others report that morphosyntactic deficits are independent of cognitive skills in ASD. There is a need for…

  1. 41 CFR 60-741.5 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01...Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating...following: i. Recruitment, advertising, and job application procedures... ii. Hiring, upgrading, promotion, award of tenure,...

  2. 48 CFR 1515.209 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Regulations System 6 2010-10-01...Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL...Proposals and Information 1515...the source selection and their relative importance in each solicitation...Evaluation and Selection Procedures...Performance Information, or a...

  3. New concept for quantification of similarity relates entropy and energy of objects: First and Second Law entangled, group behavior of micro black holes expected

    OpenAIRE

    Zimak Petr; Terenzi Silvia; Strazewski Peter

    2010-01-01

    Abstract When the free energy of similar but distinct molecule-sized objects is plotted against the temperature at which their energy and entropy contributions cancel, a highly significant linear dependence results from which the degree of similarity between the distinctly different members within the group of objects can be quantified and a relationship between energy and entropy is derived. This energy-entropy relationship entirely reflects the mathematical structure of thermodynamic equati...

  4. New concept for quantification of similarity relates entropy and energy of objects: First and Second Law entangled, equivalence of temperature and time proposed

    OpenAIRE

    Zimak, Petr; Terenzi, Silvia; Strazewski, Peter

    2009-01-01

    When the difference between changes in energy and entropy at a given temperature is correlated with the ratio between the same changes in energy and entropy at zero average free energy of an ensemble of similar but distinct molecule-sized objects, a highly significant linear dependence results from which a relationship between energy and entropy is derived and the degree of similarity between the distinctly different members within the group of objects can be quantified. Thi...

  5. The phenotype and genotype experiment object model (PaGE-OM): a robust data structure for information related to DNA variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Anthony J; Lehvaslaiho, Heikki; Muilu, Juha; Shigemoto, Yasumasa; Oroguchi, Takashige; Tomiki, Takeshi; Mukaiyama, Atsuhiro; Konagaya, Akihiko; Kojima, Toshio; Inoue, Ituro; Kuroda, Masako; Mizushima, Hiroshi; Thorisson, Gudmundur A; Dash, Debasis; Rajeevan, Haseena; Darlison, Matthew W; Woon, Mark; Fredman, David; Smith, Albert V; Senger, Martin; Naito, Kimitoshi; Sugawara, Hideaki

    2009-06-01

    Torrents of genotype-phenotype data are being generated, all of which must be captured, processed, integrated, and exploited. To do this optimally requires the use of standard and interoperable "object models," providing a description of how to partition the total spectrum of information being dealt with into elemental "objects" (such as "alleles," "genotypes," "phenotype values," "methods") with precisely stated logical interrelationships (such as "A objects are made up from one or more B objects"). We herein propose the Phenotype and Genotype Experiment Object Model (PaGE-OM; www.pageom.org), which has been tested and implemented in conjunction with several major databases, and approved as a standard by the Object Management Group (OMG). PaGE-OM is open-source, ready for use by the wider community, and can be further developed as needs arise. It will help to improve information management, assist data integration, and simplify the task of informatics resource design and construction for genotype and phenotype data projects. PMID:19479963

  6. 48 CFR 1535.007-70 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et...from third parties under the Toxic Substances Control Act (15...235-78, Data Security for Toxic Substances Control Act Confidential...business information related to the Toxic Substances Control Act,...

  7. Medienanalytische betrachtungen zu Claus Peymanns Verfilmung der ,,Hermannsschlacht" nach Heinrich von Kleist / A media-analytic view on Claus Peymann's film about Heinrich von Kleist's "Hermannsschlacht"

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hans W., Giessen.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: German Abstract in english This paper describes interpretations of Heinrich von Kleist's Hermannsschlacht (title in English: The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest). Historically there have been four different types of interpretation: those that praise both content and form, those that express dislike of both con-tent and form, t [...] hose that praise the content but dislike the form, and those that inversely express dislike for the content but admiration for the form. It is argued here that Claus Peymann's inter-pretation, as seen in his film, goes contrary to these traditional ways of dealing with Hermannsschlacht, since Peymann's interpretation obviously respects Kleist's text but inter-prets Hermansschlacht as a text in favor of peace, not war.

  8. Conversion of Claus plants of Kirkuk-Iraq to produce hydrogen and sulfur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text': Hydrogen production from rich sub-quality natural gas (SQNG) is visible technically with assessment of cost, safety and environmental toxicology analysis of hydrogen sulfide, is summarized. There are two Claus plants in Kirkuk-Iraq, converting hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur capacity of 2200 ton/day. One of these plants is working with only 400 ton/day and it is an old Claus process. The other is a modified Claus sulfur recovery process with a capacity of 1800 ton/day. Both of these plants operate with low efficiency due to lack of maintenance and the present situation in Iraq. Therefore, the agricultural area around Kirkuk is very polluted by this gas. Two pilot plants have been constructed inside the modified Claus plant in Kirkuk The first one is based on the flow system tube furnace reactor containing mixed Titanium oxide/sulfide with a cold trap for sulfur separation and a bath of 30% dithanolamine to separate and recycle H2S from hydrogen. The second pilot plant consists of a thermal diffusion ceramic rod inside a silica column containing Zeolit 5A as a catalyst. This pilot plant also consists of a trap for continuous separation of sulfur and a system for separation of hydrogen from unreacted H2S to recycle. The efficiency of conversion of H2S to hydrogen and sulfur has been optimized as a function of catalyst type and mixture, temperature of furnace, flow rate of gas and reactor materials until the efficiency rd reactor materials until the efficiency reaches more than 97%. The Kirkuk natural gas consists of a mixture of CO2 10% and H2S 12%. We found that these pilot plants were suitable with Cadmium chalcogens catalysts to produce hydrogen, methane, ethane and sulphur, but with lower efficiency than H2S decomposition only. Our aim in the second pilot plant, which consists of a silica column, was to supply the heat by solar energy concentrator instead of electricity as our catalyst needs 450 oC. and the solar intensity is about 1000 w/m2 during the summer. The idea of converting these two Claus plants to produce hydrogen gas fuel and sulfur will be a good achievement to the environment around the oil fields, besides production of a renewable energy source (hydrogen gas). A hydrogen production plant in this part of Iraq will save a large area from polluted sulfur gas, and will demonstrate how utilization of hydrogen from these waste gases is very significant. Our calculations show that these plants can produce about 140 ton / day of hydrogen gas. Different technological options are available and associated costs reported. They are supplied by a range of hydrogen technology suppliers. The price of hydrogen from H2S is now much lower than the price of any other present technology for production of hydrogen. The last report for the price of hydrogen from gas companies by modifications of Claus process and production of CS2 gas is zero dollars cost. (author)

  9. Brain activity related to integrative processes in visual object recognition : bottom-up integration and the modulatory influence of stored knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Aaside, C T

    2002-01-01

    We report evidence from a PET activation study that the inferior occipital gyri (likely to include area V2) and the posterior parts of the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri are involved in the integration of visual elements into perceptual wholes (single objects). Of these areas, the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri were more activated by tasks with recognizable stimuli than by tasks with unrecognizable stimuli. We propose that the posterior parts of the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri, compared with the inferior occipital gyri, are involved in higher level integration, due to the involvement of re-entrant activation from stored structural knowledge. Evidence in favor of this interpretation comes from the additional finding that activation of the anterior part of the left fusiform gyrus and a more anterior part of the right inferior temporal gyrus, areas previously associated with access to stored structural knowledge, was found with recognizable stimuli, but not with unrecognizable stimuli. This latter finding also indicates: (i) that subjects may not refrain from (automatically) identifying objects even if they only have to attend to the objects' global shape, and (ii) that perceptual and memorial processes can be dissociated on both functional and anatomical grounds. No evidence was obtained for the involvement of the parietal lobes in the integration of single objects.

  10. Licensing-In Fosters Rapid Invention! : The Effect of the Grant-Back Clause and Technological Unfamiliarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leone, Maria Isabella; Reichstein, Toke

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on contractual economics and innovation management, licensing-in is hypothesized to accelerate licensees' invention process. Studying a matched dataset of licensees and non-licensees, licensees are shown to be faster at inventing, but the effect is negated if the license includes a grant-back clause, shifting incentives from licensee to licensor. Also, the effect is significantly reduced if the licensee is unfamiliar with the licensed technology. The effect of the grant-back clause is offset if the licensee is unfamiliar with the licensed technology, suggesting that the licensee retains the incentives to invent under these circumstances

  11. The clause 'provision for radioactive waste disposal' and its meaning in partial licenses of the Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author regards the clause on the provision for radioactive waste management as being a restrictive part of the discretionary decision to be made with regard to the entire project. The effect of the clause is that only the specified mode and the actual state of the development and process of nuclear waste management are politically acceptable with a view to safety. In so far as these conditions are met, the use of the powers of discretion is prejudiced in granting subsequent licences. Unless these conditions are given, it is true that granting the operating licence is not impossible but left undecided. (HSCH)

  12. OSHA safety requirements and the general duty clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Anne C; Chillock, Cynthia A; Edelman, Harold; Mills, Shannon E

    2005-03-01

    Dental offices and clinics are subject to the same general safety requirements as other workplaces. Current guidelines, inspections, education, and training focus on infectious disease as the major workplace hazard for dental health care personnel (DHCP). However, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration has cited an increasing variety and number of general safety hazards during inspections of dental offices. A review of the general safety requirements for personal protective equipment and fire safety as they relate to DHCP follows. The authors discuss the responsibility of both employers and employees to perform workplace hazard evaluation and to implement education, engineering controls, and work practice controls to minimize their exposure to recognized and emerging workplace hazards. PMID:17039683

  13. Android object recognition framework

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsen, Mats-gøran

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is a continuation of the author?s specialization project where the ultimate goal is to build an object recognition framework suitable for mobile devices in real world environments, where control over parameters such as illumination, distance, noise and availability of consistent network architectures are limited. Based on shortcomings related to object recognition performance and architectural issues the author?s goal was to increase the flexibility, usability and perfor...

  14. O princípio da adjacência e o grau de integração entre verbo e objeto The adjacency principle and the verb-object bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara ABRAÇADO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Em diversos estudos funcionalistas, a estreita ligação, comprovada translingüisticamente, entre verbo e objeto é considerada um reflexo de um princípio natural (icônico: o princípio da adjacência. Este estudo se propõe a discutir a propagada relação entre o princípio da adjacência e o grau de integração entre verbo e objeto, buscando demostrar que: (a existem alguns problemas importantes relacionados tanto à definição quanto à validação do princípio em pauta; (b a ligação acentuada entre verbo e objeto pode ser explicada em termos pragmático-discursivos, nos quais aspectos ligados à veiculação de informação (informação nova vs. informação velha desempenham um importante papel.Several functionalist studies have argued that the tendency for verb and object to occur close together in the clause -- attested in different languages of the world and named verb-object bonding-- follows a natural (iconic principle: the adjacency principle. This study is, then, about the adjacency principle and the verb-object bonding, whose conclusions suggest that: (a there are some important problems with both definition and validation of the adjacency principle; (b the link between verb and object can be explained in pragmatic-discursive terms in which aspects related to new/old information play an important role.

  15. Sintaxe das orações complexas em português: uma proposta de descrição e ensino / Syntax of complex clauses in Portuguese: a proposal of description and teaching

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Carolina, Sperança-Criscuolo.

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, a partir de uma discussão acerca de problemas relacionados ao ensino de gramática, pretende-se fazer uma proposta de descrição e ensino de algumas orações subordinadas substantivas sob uma perspectiva interdiscursiva. Com base nos pressupostos da teoria da Gramática Discursivo-Funcio [...] nal (HENGEVELD; MACKENZIE, 2008), observaram-se aspectos subjetivos codificados na sintaxe dessas orações, motivados pelas intenções do falante. Verificou-se que as construções complexas estudadas, do ponto de vista pragmático, compreendem estratégias de que o falante dispõe para demonstrar maior ou menor comprometimento com o que diz, preservando sua face, e também para garantir a confiabilidade da informação asseverada; do ponto de vista do sistema da língua, revelam adaptações que a língua sofre em função das necessidades comunicativas do falante (BYBEE, 2010). Acredita-se que o ensino dessas orações, a partir de sua funcionalidade, pode tornar a prática em sala de aula mais eficiente, melhorando o desempenho linguístico dos alunos. Abstract in english In this paper, motivated by problems related to grammar teaching, we propose a description of some noun subordinate clauses from an interdiscursive perspective. Based on the principles of the Functional Discourse Grammar theory (HENGEVELD; MACKENZIE, 2008), we observed some subjective aspects encode [...] d by these syntactic constructions, motivated by the Speaker's communicative intentions. In pragmatic terms, the complement clauses we studied correspond to the Speaker's strategies to demonstrate his commitment degree with what he's saying, protecting his/her face, and also assuring the information's reliability; in linguistic terms, they show the language suffers some adaptations (BYBEE, 2010) to serve the Speaker's communicative needs. We believe that the focus in the functionality of these constructions can make its teaching richer and more efficient, and so the students' language performance.

  16. Resolution Trees with Lemmas: Resolution Refinements that Characterize DLL Algorithms with Clause Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Buss, Samuel R; Johannsen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Resolution refinements called w-resolution trees with lemmas (WRTL) and with input lemmas (WRTI) are introduced. Dag-like resolution is equivalent to both WRTL and WRTI when there is no regularity condition. For regular proofs, an exponential separation between regular dag-like resolution and both regular WRTL and regular WRTI is given. It is proved that DLL proof search algorithms that use clause learning based on unit propagation can be polynomially simulated by regular WRTI. More generally, non-greedy DLL algorithms with learning by unit propagation are equivalent to regular WRTI. A general form of clause learning, called DLL-Learn, is defined that is equivalent to regular WRTL. A variable extension method is used to give simulations of resolution by regular WRTI, using a simplified form of proof trace extensions. DLL-Learn and non-greedy DLL algorithms with learning by unit propagation can use variable extensions to simulate general resolution without doing restarts. Finally, an exponential lower bound fo...

  17. DVD anmeldelse - En Verden af Lyd og Musik : Claus Bang: Musikterapi for døve, hørehæmmede og multihandicappede børn og unge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2006-01-01

    Anmeldelse af DVD-udgivelse af Claus Bang (2005): En Verden af Lyd og Musik. Musikterapi for døve, hørehæmmede og multihandicappede børn og unge. Al tale med undertekst eller tegnsprogstolkning. DVD-boks med 3 stk. dobbeltlag DVD beregnet til afspilning på PC. Udgivet af Musikterapi-foreningen En Verden af Lyd og Musik; produceret af Zenaria, Aalborg. Se også www.clausbang.com

  18. SPECT attenuation related artifacts and their removal by attenuation correction in uniform and non-uniform attenuating objects using iterative reconstruction algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Faraz Kalantari; Hossein Rajabi; Mohsen Saghari; Alireza Emami

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Photon attenuation is one of the main causes of quantitative errors and artifacts in SPECT. CT based attenuation map is necessary to correct for this effect accurately. A number of attenuation related artifacts are described. A fast and memory efficient algorithm is proposed for attenuation correction. Methods: In our CT based attenuation correction algorithm, attenuated projections of an arbitrary estimation are calculated. These projections are compared with real projections. ...

  19. This elusive objective existence

    CERN Document Server

    Mohrhoff, U

    2004-01-01

    Zurek's existential interpretation of quantum mechanics suffers from three classical prejudices, including the belief that space and time are intrinsically and infinitely differentiated. They compel him to relativize the concept of objective existence in two ways. The elimination of these prejudices makes it possible to recognize the quantum formalism's ontological implications - the relative and contingent reality of spatiotemporal distinctions and the extrinsic and finite spatiotemporal differentiation of the physical world - which in turn makes it possible to arrive at an unqualified objective existence. Contrary to a widespread misconception, viewing the quantum formalism as being fundamentally a probability algorithm does not imply that quantum mechanics is concerned with states of knowledge rather than states of Nature. On the contrary, it makes possible a complete and strongly objective description of the physical world that requires no reference to observers. What objectively exists, in a sense that r...

  20. Objectively measured physical activity, physical activity related personality and body mass index in 6- to 10-yr-old children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Bourdeaudhuij Ilse

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence and level of overweight in childhood is rapidly increasing. One potential contributor to the rise in overweight is a decline in physical activity (PA. The purpose of this study was to compare levels and patterns of PA and PA related personality in normal-weight (NW and overweight (OW 6- to 10-yr-old children. Methods Subjects were grouped into OW (N = 59, BMI = 24.2 ± 4.8 kg/m2 or NW (N = 61, BMI = 15.7 ± 1.5 kg/m2 according to International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. PA was assessed by accelerometry. Parents filled in a questionnaire on PA and sedentary behaviour and PA related personality of their child (born tired, moves slowly, is often tired, lacks energy, avoids physical efforts, prefers watching playing children instead of joining them, is always active, needs to let himself/herself go, has a lot of energy. Results NW children spent on average 77 min/day in MVPA, whereas OW children only 57 min/day (p = .001. OW children had fewer 5, 10 and 20 min bouts of MVPA (p = .01. OW and NW children showed identical PA patterns on both week days and weekends, although at different levels. According to parents' report, a greater percentage of OW children was not engaged in any sport (46% versus 23%, chi2 = 6.3, p = .01. OW children had a less active personality (p Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that NW children spent on average 20 min per day more in MVPA. PA patterns were similar in NW versus OW children, although at different levels. Greatest differences in PA according to weight status were found in the afternoon during after school hours. This is the first study to show distinct PA related personality traits in OW children compared to NW peers.

  1. SPECT attenuation related artifacts and their removal by attenuation correction in uniform and non-uniform attenuating objects using iterative reconstruction algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraz Kalantari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Photon attenuation is one of the main causes of quantitative errors and artifacts in SPECT. CT based attenuation map is necessary to correct for this effect accurately. A number of attenuation related artifacts are described. A fast and memory efficient algorithm is proposed for attenuation correction. Methods: In our CT based attenuation correction algorithm, attenuated projections of an arbitrary estimation are calculated. These projections are compared with real projections. The error due to comparison updates the first arbitrary image. This iterative procedure continues till there is no difference between mathematical and real projections. To consider the effect of Poisson noise during reconstruction, EM statistical reconstruction is used. The effect of attenuation is enrolled in both projection and backprojection steps. To accelerate the reconstruction algorithm, a rotating image in a fix grid with bilinear interpolation is used to simplify ray tracing for creating mathematical projections. OSEM with much faster convergence rate is also used instead of MLEM as iterative algorithm. Different phantom configurations with uniform and non-uniform attenuation map are used to evaluate the accuracy of this algorithm. Projections free from the effect of attenuation were also simulated. Reconstructed image from these attenuation free projections is considered as reference image. Normalized mean square error between reference and corrected image and image contrast were used for quantitative evaluation of this algorithm. Results: contrast of central hot spot reduced to about half of its real contrast due to attenuation. Non-uniformities, like hot skin, bright long related spots and colds bone related spots were also created in non-corrected images due to attenuation. All attenuation related artifacts removed after attenuation correction. NMSE is reduced from 1 in non-corrected images to 0.1 in corrected images. Much better fit in line profile of corrected images and reference images were also observed. Conclusion: By using more suitable models for image formation it is possible to reconstruct images with much higher quantitative and qualitative accuracy which is essential in both diagnostic and image guided therapy procedures.

  2. Designing institutions for global democracy: flexibility through escape clauses and sunset provisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan W. Kuyper

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available How can advocates of global democracy grapple with the empirical conditions that constitute world politics? I argue that flexibility mechanisms—;commonly used to advance international cooperation—should be employed to make the institutional design project of global democracy more tractable. I highlight three specific reasons underpinning this claim. First, flexibility provisions make bargaining over different institutional designs more manageable. Second, heightened flexibility takes seriously potential concerns about path-dependent institutional development. Finally, deliberately shortening the time horizons of agents by employing flexibility provisions has cognitive benefits as it forces designers to focus specifically on issues of feasibility as well as desirability. I discuss a range of flexibility mechanisms and highlight the utility of sunset provisions and escape clauses. From this analysis, I build an argument for the usage of small-scale democratic experiments through which citizens (or their representatives have a say in global policy making.

  3. The Meaning of Mood – Embedded Clauses in Spanish as a Case in Point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Dam

    2011-01-01

    Mental space theory is a cognitive framework that explains the interpretation of linguistic expressions: it explains how interlocutors get from input to output. Whereas in traditional semantics words are taken to possess a static, prefabricated meaning, cognitive frameworks take meaning to be the result of an interpretive process. This article explains how mental space theory can be used in an analysis of mood in embedded clauses in Spanish. It starts from the assumption that the meaning of mood is constructed by interlocutors in an interpretive process on the basis of information from the modal morphemes combined with information from the linguistic as well as the extra-linguistic context. The interpretive process is represented as a sequence of mental spaces which are linked and structured on the basis of information from language and context

  4. Exemption clauses and the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008: An assessment of Naidoo v Birchwood Hotel 2012 6 SA 170 (GSJ)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Y, Mupangavanhu.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Exemption clauses are a rule rather than an exception particularly in standard-form contracts. Consumers are usually forced to accept such terms on a "take-it-or-leave-it" basis. This state of affairs shows that freedom of contract is theoretical and could lead to injustices. In Naidoo v Birchwood H [...] otel 2012 6 SA 170 (GSJ) the Court refused to uphold the exemption clauses based on the fact that it would have been unfair and unjust to the plaintiff who had sustained serious bodily injuries during his stay at the hotel. The article discusses this court decision in the light of the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA) against the background of the previous jurisprudence regarding exemption clauses, including the position of exemption clauses in a new constitutional dispensation.

  5. Frecuencia y mecanismos de exposición accidental a productos biológicos potencialmente infecciosos en personal de salud / Sharp object related accident involving health personnel in a pediatric hospital

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Juan, Morales-Aguirre.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. Los accidentes por material punzocortante constituyen un riesgo al que está sometido el personal de salud. Objetivo: describir la frecuencia y mecanismos de exposición a productos biológicos infecciosos en el personal de salud. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio observacional y [...] descriptivo, de los reportes del programa de vigilancia epidemiológica a la exposición a productos biológicos infecciosos en el personal de salud del Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez de la Ciudad de México, ocurridos del 1 de enero de 1991 al 31 de diciembre de 2004. Resultados. Se presentaron 848 accidentes de trabajo durante el período estudiado. El promedio de accidentes por 100 camas/año fue de 29.9 con una variación de 4.6 a 56.4. Hubo 8.29 accidentes por 1 000 egresos/año, con un límite de 1.6 a 14.4. Los eventos se presentaron principalmente en personal de enfermería con 345 episodios (40.6%), seguido de médicos residentes con 220 eventos (25.9%). El mecanismo más frecuente fue el piquete con aguja en 616 ocasiones (72.6%), siendo las manos el sitio anatómico más comúnmente afectado en 677 casos (79.8%). Los servicios donde hubo más accidentes fueron: Urgencias con 109 eventos (12.8%), UTIP con 96 (11.3%), y UCIN con 80 (9.4%), siendo el turno matutino donde hubo el de mayor número, 507 eventos (59.7%). Las medidas de precaución realizadas por el personal lesionado fueron las siguientes: uso de guantes 488 (57.5%), lavado de manos 404 (47.6%), uso de cubrebocas 304 (35.8%), uso de bata 253 (29.8%), uso de lentes 134 (15.8%), ninguna 144 (16.9%). Con respecto al antecedente de administración de vacuna contra hepatitis B, sólo 445 (52.4%) se habían aplicado al menos una dosis y 403 (47.5%) ninguna dosis. Conclusiones. La exposición ocupacional a productos biológicos infecciosos es un problema importante en el personal de salud, especialmente en hospitales que dan atención a pacientes pediátricos, debido a las dificultades que implica el atender niños. Reforzar las estrategias educativas sobre el uso de las precauciones estándar en la toma apropiada de las muestras y utilizar material de bioseguridad podría ayudar a reducir la frecuencia de los accidentes con objetos punzocortantes. Abstract in english Introduction. The needle-stick and sharp device injuries constitute a risk to which health personnel is exposed. Objective. To describe the frequency and mechanisms of exposition to infectious biological products in health care personnel. Material and methods. It was an observational and descriptive [...] study from the reports of the epidemiological surveillance program concerning to the exposition to infectious biological products in the health care personnel from Hospital Infantil de Mexico Federico Gomez in Mexico City, happened from January 1, 1991, to December 31, 2004. Results. We observed 848 laboral accidents during this period. The average of accidents per 100 beds/ year was 29.9 with a variation from 4.6 to 56.4. There were 8.29 accidents for 1 000 outcomes/year, with a limit from 1.6 to 14.4. The events appeared mainly in the nursery personnel with 345 episodes (40.6%), followed by resident doctors with 220 events (25.9%). The most frequent mechanism was needle pinch in 616 (72.6%), being the hands the anatomical site most commonly affected in 677 cases (79.8%). The areas most affected were: Emergency with 109 events (12.8%), Pediatric Intensive Care Unit with 96 (11.3%), and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with 80 (9.4%), being in the matutinal turn the greater number of accidents, 507 events (59.7%). The standard precautions made by the injured personnel were: use of gloves 488 (57.5%); hand washing 404 (47.6%), use of mouth covers 304 (35.8%), use of gown 253 (29.8%), use of lenses 134 (15.8%), none 144 (16.9%). Concerning to the background of vaccine administration against hepatitis B, only 445 (52.4%) had been applied at least one dose and 403 (47.5%) none. Conclusions. The occupational

  6. LAS CLÁUSULAS ABUSIVAS EN EL CONTRATO DE CONCESIÓN DESDE LA PERSPECTIVA ESTADOUNIDENSE / Unconscionable clauses in a franchising agreement from the United States' perspective

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Camilo A., Rodríguez-Yong.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El artículo presenta la experiencia de Estados Unidos en el desarrollo e imple-mentación de mecanismos jurídicos y extrajurídicos encaminados a proteger a los concesionarios ante la incorporación de cláusulas abusivas en el contrato de concesión privada. En ese sentido, a partir del estudio de la le [...] gislación, la jurisprudencia y las iniciativas del sector privado, se identifican medidas legislativas, administrativas y privadas encaminadas a la consecución de este objetivo. Igualmente, el estudio del caso estadounidense refleja cómo la aplicación de la doctrina de cláusulas abusivas es posible en contratos diferentes a aquellos catalogados como de consumo. Abstract in english The article presents the United States' experience in the development and implementation of legal and extralegal mechanisms aimed at protecting franchisees before the incorporation of unconscionable clauses in a franchising agreement. From the analysis of the statutes, case law and private sector in [...] itiative, it is possible to identify legislative, administrative and private measures aimed at achieving this objective. Likewise, the study of the American case shows how the implementation of the unconscionability doctrine is possible in contracts different from those considered as consumer contracts.

  7. LAS CLÁUSULAS ABUSIVAS EN EL CONTRATO DE CONCESIÓN DESDE LA PERSPECTIVA ESTADOUNIDENSE Unconscionable clauses in a franchising agreement from the United States' perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo A. Rodríguez-Yong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta la experiencia de Estados Unidos en el desarrollo e imple-mentación de mecanismos jurídicos y extrajurídicos encaminados a proteger a los concesionarios ante la incorporación de cláusulas abusivas en el contrato de concesión privada. En ese sentido, a partir del estudio de la legislación, la jurisprudencia y las iniciativas del sector privado, se identifican medidas legislativas, administrativas y privadas encaminadas a la consecución de este objetivo. Igualmente, el estudio del caso estadounidense refleja cómo la aplicación de la doctrina de cláusulas abusivas es posible en contratos diferentes a aquellos catalogados como de consumo.The article presents the United States' experience in the development and implementation of legal and extralegal mechanisms aimed at protecting franchisees before the incorporation of unconscionable clauses in a franchising agreement. From the analysis of the statutes, case law and private sector initiative, it is possible to identify legislative, administrative and private measures aimed at achieving this objective. Likewise, the study of the American case shows how the implementation of the unconscionability doctrine is possible in contracts different from those considered as consumer contracts.

  8. Word order and information structure in New Testament Greek

    OpenAIRE

    Kirk, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines word order variation in the Koine Greek of the New Testament Greek in a variety of domains: declarative clauses, questions and relative clauses. In particular, I examine the way in which word order corresponds to information structure. It is argued that although New Testament Greek shows a variety of possible permutations of the sentence elements subject (S), verb (V) and object (O), in declarative clauses, questions and relative clauses, the word order is not ...

  9. Eye Movements of Young and Older Adults during Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Kemper, Susan; Liu, Chiung-ju

    2007-01-01

    The eye movements of young and older adults were tracked as they read sentences varying in syntactic complexity. In Experiment 1, cleft object and object relative clause sentences were more difficult to process than cleft subject and subject relative clause sentences; however, older adults made many more regressions, resulting in increased regression path fixation times and total fixation times, than young adults while processing cleft object and object relative clause sentences. In Experimen...

  10. Object Detection Using Keygraphs

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Marcelo; Junior, Roberto Marcondes Cesar

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new framework for object detection based on a generalization of the keypoint correspondence framework. This framework is based on replacing keypoints by keygraphs, i.e. isomorph directed graphs whose vertices are keypoints, in order to explore relative and structural information. Unlike similar works in the literature, we deal directly with graphs in the entire pipeline: we search for graph correspondences instead of searching for individual point correspondence...

  11. Sulfur Recovery from Acid Gas Using the Claus Process and High Temperature Air Combustion (HiTAC Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sassi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur-bearing compounds are very detrimental to the environment and to industrial process equipment. They are often obtained or formed as a by-product of separation and thermal processing of fuels containing sulfur, such as coal, crude oil and natural gas. The two sulfur compounds, which need special attention, are: hydrogen sulfide (H2S and sulfur dioxide (SO2. H2S is a highly corrosive gas with a foul smell. SO2 is a toxic gas responsible for acid rain formation and equipment corrosion. Various methods of reducing pollutants containing sulfur are described in this paper, with a focus on the modified Claus process, enhanced by the use of High Temperature Air Combustion (HiTAC technology in the Claus furnace. The Claus process has been known and used in the industry for over 100 years. It involves thermal oxidation of hydrogen sulfide and its reaction with sulfur dioxide to form sulfur and water vapor. This process is equilibrium-limited and usually achieves efficiencies in the range of 94-97%, which have been regarded as acceptable in the past years. Nowadays strict air pollution regulations regarding hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide emissions call for nearly 100% efficiency, which can only be achieved with process modifications. High temperature air combustion technology or otherwise called flameless (or colorless combustion is proposed here for application in Claus furnaces, especially those employing lean acid gas streams, which cannot be burned without the use of auxiliary fuel or oxygen enrichment under standard conditions. With the use of HiTAC it has been shown, however, that fuel-lean, Low Calorific Value (LCV fuels can be burned with very uniform thermal fields without the need for fuel enrichment or oxygen addition. The uniform temperature distribution favors clean and efficient burning with an additional advantage of significant reduction of NOx, CO and hydrocarbon emission.

  12. Object-oriented numerical computing C++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanrosendale, John

    1994-01-01

    An object oriented language is one allowing users to create a set of related types and then intermix and manipulate values of these related types. This paper discusses object oriented numerical computing using C++.

  13. Bodies as Objects of Pedagogic Power Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Juliet Christine

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on a study titled "Enacting Feminisms in Academia", which engaged five feminist lecturers teaching English at five different multilingual universities in Southern Africa. The study explored: (1) the complexity of sociolinguistic and feminist identity construction in multilingual seascapes, and by extension (2) how feminist…

  14. Hydrogen deficient stars and related objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central and most startling problem in the field of helium stars is how extreme helium stars are formed and how a star of one solar mass may get rid of all its original hydrogen. A few opposed hypotheses are known, but until now none of them have been very convincing. One of the aims of this book is to explore the various paths which may lead to a solution of the above problems, both theoretically and by means of new methods of observation. One of the points discussed, therefore, is whether the Hubble Space Telescope can be used to this end. (Auth.)

  15. Minor planets and related objects. VIII - Deimos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, B.

    1972-01-01

    Evaluation of 12 polarization measurements of Deimos in blue light were obtained at phase angles between 5 and 31 deg. A well-developed negative branch, with minimum polarization approximately -1.5% near phase angle 11 deg, indicates that Deimos is not bare rock but has a particulate surface layer of dark dust or powder. The phase angle of inversion is 19.5 deg, and the slope of the positive branch is 0.26 plus or minus 0.01% per degree. On the basis of the slope-albedo law for the moon and the major asteroids, the geometrical albedo of Deimos in blue light should be 0.07 plus or minus 0.01, and the radius 5.4 plus or minus 0.8 km. These values are in good agreement with preliminary Mariner 9 data.

  16. Salient Object Detection: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Borji, Ali; Cheng, Ming-ming; Jiang, Huaizu; Li, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Detecting and segmenting salient objects in natural scenes, also known as salient object detection, has attracted a lot of focused research in computer vision and has resulted in many applications. However, while many such models exist, a deep understanding of achievements and issues is lacking. We aim to provide a comprehensive review of the recent progress in this field. We situate salient object detection among other closely related areas such as generic scene segmentatio...

  17. Can pregalactic objects generate galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a hot universe with isothermal fluctuations or a tepid universe with general fluctuations, one would expect the first bound objects to be much smaller than galaxies. Various astrophysical processes associated with these objects could generate large-scale density fluctuations. Thus the present structure on scales larger than the first bound regions, in particular, galaxies and clusters, need not derive directly from primordial fluctuations. The primordial fluctuations only have to produce relatively small objects. (author)

  18. Towards a profile of the interpersonal organization of the portuguese clause Para um perfil da organização interpessoal da oração em Português

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. M. Gouveia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at contributing to the description of Portuguese from the point of view of Systemic Functional Grammar, particularly in relation to the description of the clause as an exchange. While assuming that the interpersonal organization of the Portuguese clause involves phenomena that are similar across different languages, such as Mood systems, for instance, the paper wants nevertheless to show that there are systemic options (and their structural realizations that are specific to Portuguese, particularly if compared to the same options in English, a language whose descriptions have so often and too strongly been imposed on Portuguese. Starting with a general description of some aspects of the Portuguese language, the paper then proceeds to a description of Mood types and the system of choices associated with them. By raising some questions and doubts concerning the description of the elements that in Portuguese carry the negotiation forward, the paper ends up proposing a description that sees Portuguese as a Finite-less language, that is, a language that does not have Finite, a function that proved to be appropriate for the description of the English language but fails to be so when considered from the point of view of Portuguese.Este texto visa contribuir para a descrição do português do ponto de vista da Gramática Sistémico-Funcional, particularmente no que diz respeito à descrição da oração como troca. Embora assuma que a organização interpessoal da oração em português envolve fenómenos que são semelhantes em várias línguas distintas, como os sistemas de Modo oracional, por exemplo, o texto pretende ainda assim demonstrar que há opções de sistema (e suas realizações estruturais que são específicas do português, sobretudo quando comparadas com as mesmas opções em inglês, uma língua cujas descrições têm amiúde e fortemente sido impostas ao português. O texto começa com uma descrição geral de alguns aspectos da língua portuguesa e avança depois para uma descrição das tipologias do Modo oracional e das escolhas associadas às mesmas. Levantando algumas questões e dúvidas relativamente à descrição dos elementos que em português contribuem para a negociação e a troca, o texto acaba por propor uma descrição que encara a língua portuguesa como uma língua sem Finito, isto é, como uma língua que não tem o Finito como uma das funções do Modo oracional, já que esta sendo apropriada para a descrição da língua inglesa perde em pertinência quando pensada do ponto de vista da língua portuguesa.

  19. WordNet Ontology Based Query Reformulation and Optimization using Disjunctive Clause Elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Amshakala

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Data integration systems attempt to provide users with seamless and flexible access to information from multiple autonomous, distributed and heterogeneous data sources through a unified query interface. Besides data are continuously growing, maintained by different organizations and managed autonomously,querying data from heterogeneous data sources faces new challenges. As data integration has been automated, the ambiguity in concept interpretation also known as semantic heterogeneity has become oneof the main obstacles to this process. Introduction of the Semantic Web Vision [5] and the shift towards machine-understandable web resources have underscored the importance of automatic semantic integration of data elements. Ontologies[7] have been widely accepted as the model of choice for modeling heterogeneous data sources by various communities including the areas of databases, Knowledge representation and Information retrieval. WordNet ontology[3] is a large lexical database that is used in many schema matching algorithms to match schemas based on the semantics of attributes. In this paper ontology based semantic query reformulation technique is followed to improve the recall of the query. The reformulated query is optimized by removing disjunctive clauses in the query to reduce the computational cost of the semantic query execution. Experimental results show that the proposed optimization technique improves recall with minimal execution time.

  20. Using definite clause grammars to build a global system for analyzing collections of documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazalon, Joseph; Coüasnon, Bertrand

    2010-01-01

    Collections of documents are sets of heterogeneous documents, like a specific ancient book series, having proper structural and semantic properties linking them. A particular collection contains document images with specific physical layouts, like text pages or full-page illustrations, appearing in a specific order. Its contents, like journal articles, may be shared by several pages, not necessary following, producing strong dependencies between pages interpretations. In order to build an analysis system which can bring contextual information from the collection to the appropriate recognition modules for each page, we propose to express the structural and the semantic properties of a collection with a definite clause grammar. This is made possible by representing collections as streams of document images, and by using extensions to the formalism we present here. We are then able to automatically generate a parser dedicated to a collection. Beside allowing structural variations and complex information flows, we also show that this approach enables the design of analysis stages, on a document or a set of documents. The interest of context usage is illustrated with several examples and their appropriate formalization in this framework.

  1. Combined Object Detection and Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarich Vansteenberge

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We develop a method for combined object detection and segmentation in natural scene. In our approach segmentation and detection are considered as two faces of the same coin that should be combined into a single framework. There are two main steps in our strategy. First we focus on the learning of a visual vocabulary that efficiently encompasses objects’ appearance, spatial configuration and underlying segmentation. This vocabulary is used within a Hough voting framework to produces object’s configuration. The second step consists in searching for valid objects’ configurations by interpreting and scoring them in terms of both detection and segmentation. This allows us to prune false detections and hallucinated object-like segmentation. Experiments show the advantage of the combined approach and the improvements over recent related methods.

  2. Las cláusulas de derechos humanos en los tratados de libre comercio de la Unión Europea / The Human Rights Clauses Within the European Union's Free Trade Agreements

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gerhard, Niedrist.

    Full Text Available A partir de 1992 es requisito para la mayoría de los acuerdos comerciales y de cooperación de la Unión Europea la incorporación de una cláusula sobre derechos humanos. La similitud entre las cláusulas de los distintos acuerdos es notoria y la violación de las mismas provoca la suspensión inmediata d [...] el acuerdo comercial. Este artículo analiza el origen histórico y las aplicaciones de estas cláusulas de derechos humanos. Abstract in english As of 1992 it is a requirement for the European Union to include a clause on human rights in the majority of its commercial and cooperation agreements. These clauses are almost identical and allow the immediate suspension of the treaty in case of a severe human rights violation. This paper analyzes [...] the historical origin and the genuine application of these clauses.

  3. The good, the bad, and the ugly: how the due process clause may limit comprehensive health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, J Paul

    2011-01-01

    This article examines atopic which has receivedlittle attention from the media or other scholarly publications: The due process concerns that arise when engaging in comprehensive federal health care reform and regulation. First, the article provides a background discussion detailing the factors necessitating health care reform in the United States. Second, it analyzes whether a constitutionally protected right to make personal health care decisions exists under the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments' Due Process Clauses. Finally, the article analyzes the susceptibility of government-sponsored health care-specifically proposals which include a public option-to due process challenges and makes suggestions to avoid any potential fundamental rights violations. PMID:21539177

  4. Graspable objects shape number processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MariagraziaRanzini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The field of numerical cognition represents an interesting case for action-based theories of cognition, since number is a special kind of abstract concept. Several studies have shown that within the parietal lobes adjacent neural regions code numerical magnitude and grasping-related information. This anatomical proximity between brain areas involved in number and sensorimotor processes may account for interactions between numerical magnitude and action. In particular, recent studies has demonstrated a causal role of action perception on numerical magnitude processing. If objects are represented in terms of actions (affordances, the causal role of action on number processing should extend to the case of objects affordances. This study investigates the relationship between numbers and objects affordances in two experiments, without (Experiment 1 or with (Experiment 2 a motor action execution (i.e., participants were asked to hold an object in their hands during the task. The task consisted in repeating aloud the odd or even digit within a pair depending on the type of the preceding or following object. Order of presentation (object-number vs. number-object, object type (graspable vs. ungraspable, object size (small vs. large, and Numerical magnitude (small vs. large were manipulated for each experiment. Experiment 1 showed a facilitation – in terms of quicker responses - for graspable over ungraspable objects preceded by numbers, and an effect of numerical magnitude after the presentation of graspable objects. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the action execution enhanced overall the sensitivity to numerical magnitude, however interfering with the effects of objects affordances on number processing. Overall, these findings demonstrate that numbers and graspable objects communicate with each other, supporting the view that abstract concepts may be grounded in motor experience.

  5. Mechanism for Learning Object retrieval supporting adaptivity

    CERN Document Server

    Chawla, Sonal

    2010-01-01

    In todayâ??s world designing adaptable course material requires new technical knowledge which involves a need for a uniform protocol that allows organizing resources with emphasis on quality and Learning. This can be achieved by bundling the resources in a known and prescribed fashion called Learning objects. Learning Objects are composed of two aspects namely â??Learning â?? and â??Objectâ?. The Learning aspect of Learning objects refers to Education. Since Education is a process so the primary aim of learning objects tends to be facilitating acquisition, assessment and conversion of content into Learning objects while fostering the assimilation of these Learning objects into learning modules and instruction. The Object part of Learning objects relates to the Digital Electronic format of the resources i.e. to say that it deals with the physical resource that forms the Learning objects. The objects in LOs are analogous to objects used in object-oriented modeling (OOM). The analogy helps visual...

  6. 29 CFR 2200.72 - Objections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Objections. 2200.72 Section 2200.72 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued...REVIEW COMMISSION RULES OF PROCEDURE Hearings § 2200.72 Objections. (a) Statement of...

  7. Object Location Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the entry page for the Object Location Experiment. The experiment begins with a description of the object location memory task that the participants will complete. Participants learn that they will study an array of objects for a designated period of time; the array of objects will then disappear; and then the array of objects will reappear, but some of the objects will have exchanged positions.

  8. The Zoo Trip: Objecting to Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poetter, Thomas S.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author objects to what curricularists and teachers often believe that meaningful activities in school have to be scripted, planned to the nth degree and assigned learning objectives and goals ahead of time, or they have no educational worth. Instead, he used Elliot Eisner's classic curriculum text, "The Educational…

  9. Effects of Immediate and Cumulative Syntactic Experience in Language Impairment: Evidence from Priming of Subject Relatives in Children with SLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraffa, Maria; Coco, Moreno I.; Branigan, Holly P.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the production of subject relative clauses (SRc) in Italian pre-school children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and age-matched typically-developing children (TD) controls. In a structural priming paradigm, children described pictures after hearing the experimenter produce a bare noun or an SRc description, as part of a…

  10. The intelligibility objection against underdetermination

    OpenAIRE

    Rogério Passos Severo

    2012-01-01

    One of the objections against the thesis of underdetermination of theories by observations is that it is unintelligible. Any two empirically equivalent theories — so the argument goes—are in principle intertranslatable, hence cannot count as rivals in any non-trivial sense. Against that objection, this paper shows that empirically equivalent theories may contain theoretical sentences that are not intertranslatable. Examples are drawn from a related discussion about incommensurability that...

  11. As relativas que são fáceis na aquisição do português brasileiro The acquisition of relative clauses in Brazilian portuguese

    OpenAIRE

    Perroni, Maria Ceci?lia

    2001-01-01

    A aquisição das orações relativas por duas crianças brasileiras (entre os 2;0 e os 5;0 de idade) aprendendo o Português Brasileiro como primeira língua é discutida, com o objetivo de descrever e explicar as primeiras relativas produzidas pelos sujeitos de estudos naturalistas, observacionais, à luz da teoria da sintaxe gerativa. Os resultados mostram que ao redor dos 3;0: a) a criança começa a construir as relativas como modificadoras do N; b) as clivadas antecedem a aquisição da...

  12. Acquisition of Japanese Relative Clauses: A Case Study on a Two-Year-Old. Annual Reports, Vol. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuko I.

    By age two, a child begins to form complex sentences by joining two or more sentences or by embedding one sentence into another. Formation of conjoined structures is a simpler process and emerges earlier than that of embedding structures. This paper attempts to answer the following questions: (1) Do children produce or understand embedding…

  13. Language Design in the Processing of Non-Restrictive Relative Clauses in French as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente Lapole, Amandine

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a lively debate on the nature of learners' morphological competence and use. Some argue that a breakdown in acquisition of second-language (L2) is expected whenever features required for the analysis of L2 input are not present in the L1. Others argue that features have the same nature and etiology in first…

  14. What captivates the subject? : an investigation of the concepts 'object' and 'identification' in the works of Lacan with a view to establishing approaches for the analysis of relations of power and structures of authority

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    What can Jacques Lacan tell us about relations of power and figures of authority? – That is the guiding question of "What Captivates the Subject?" The dissertation answers this question by providing a close study of Lacanian texts and seminars from 1953 to 1973, seeking to present not only the strong conceptual coherency of Lacan’s theory, but also its fundamental underpinnings in the work of Sigmund Freud. The dissertation thus attempts to pave the way for a renewed engagement between Lacanian theory and social theory in general. This engagement has already proven exceptionally fruitful in recent years, where research emerging from Slovenia has been developing a new Lacanian approach to the analysis of a wide range of social products and political affairs. The dissertation follows in the wake of this new movement but pursues its own line of reasoning in so far as it undertakes to account for two concepts central to the technical psychoanalytical vocabulary: identification and the object. Identifications and the relation to libidinal objects were acknowledged by Freud as the most fundamental mechanisms in the social life of any human being, just as he regarded them as fundamental to the establishment and maintenance of power structures, not least within the psychoanalytic clinic itself. Yet his accounts of the concepts remain blurry and tentative throughout his career, and it took a Lacan to finally build a rigorous theoretical framework around these concepts. Throughout the dissertation, close readings of Lacan are followed by short interventions into questions of social or political theory, so that the potential of Lacan’s theory for clarifying issues or bringing to light novel perspectives is demonstrated. For instance, not only can Lacan tell us about the inherent paradoxes of authority and power in a classroom, he can also tell us why the most powerful figure of authority may be the one who shows clear signs of weakness, or why the most unshakeable way of identifying with a framework of social values is by identifying while maintaining a distance to it.

  15. Internal waves from oscillating objects

    OpenAIRE

    Voisin, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    An analytical theory is presented for the generation of small-amplitude three-dimensional monochromatic internal waves by an oscillating object. The theory expresses the structure of the waves in terms of the size of the object, the viscosity of the fluid and the time elapsed since the start-up; to this, it adds near-field effect and modification of the added mass of the object by the stratification. Comparison with experiment allows assessment of the relative importance of all five effects.

  16. The impact on pension liabilities of Malaysian government pension scheme from remarriage due to removal of pension clause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

    2014-12-01

    In the event of death of any government employee, their monthly pension will be given to their widow and their child. The government will stop paying that pension when the widow died and when the widow chooses to remarry. However, in 1st January 2002, the remarriage clause has been removed from the regulations. This would allow all widows who remarried to receive pension as usual. In view of this, there are possibilities that those widows who are still young might remarried. If many of the widows choose to remarry, it will be a burden to the government as it would increase the pension liabilities. However, we do not know how many of the widow will remarry. In view of this, the purpose of the study is to assess the impact to pension liabilities of government pension schemes on individual life due to removal clause of the remarriage by determining the pension factor and to assess to what extent the pension liabilities of government pension schemes would be affected.

  17. Text Structure in a Contrastive and Translational Perspective : On Information Density and Clause Linkage in Italian and Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzen, IØrn; Gylling-JØrgensen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that both human translators and machine translation systems can greatly benefit from contrastive studies of text structure. Due to the great terminological and definitional confusion regarding structures in texts, the paper first discusses the main viewpoints on these issues and then outlines the two most significant differences between Italian and Danish text structure. One regards the notion of information density: Italian tends to accumulate the same information in shorter text spans and to include a larger number of Elementary Discourse Units in each sentence than Danish. The other regards clause linkage: A higher percentage of Italian clauses is morpho-syntactically and rhetorically subordinated by means of non-finite and nominalised verb forms. Danish text structure, on the other hand, is more informationally linear and characterised by a higher number of finite verbs and topic shifts. These typological differences are transferred into some simple translation rules concerning the number of Elementary Discourse Units per sentence and their textualisation. Each rule is illustrated by a number of examples taken from the parallel part of the Europarl Corpus.

  18. Objectives of the symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author defined the objectives of the symposium as follows: to present and examine the recent evidence associating clusters of leukemia with sources of ionizing radiation; to examine the statistical basis for the analysis of clustering; to examine the underlying assumptions in epidemiological studies that clusters must have an environmental cause; to examine the extent to which we can take into account the biological causes of non-randomness in populations, particularly those of geographic and genetic origin; to evaluate the relative merits of different kinds of epidemiological studies for yielding significant information concerning clustering; to consider the potential utility of combining the results from existing studies, and whether new epidemiological studies might be helpful; to consider what other directions, including application of the technologies of molecular biology, are likely to help clarify the underlying mechanisms or causes

  19. Paradigms in object recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)

  20. Uma concepção psicanalítica de personalidade: teoria das relações objetais de Fairbairn / A psychoanalytical conception of personality: Fairbairn's object-relations theory / Una concepción psicoanalítica de la personalidad: la teoría de las relaciones objetales de Fairbairn

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Augusto M., Celes; Karen Cristina Martins, Alves; Ana Caroline Galli dos, Santos.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como propósito maior desenvolver a idéia de que a teoria das relações de objeto, introduzida no movimento psicanalítico em oposição à teoria da sexualidade como base da constituição psíquica, significou uma radical mudança na concepção psicanalítica dos sujeitos. Tal mudança se expre [...] ssa no abandono da pulsionalidade como fundamento subjetivo em direção à apreensão e compreensão dos sujeitos como personalidade, isto é, algo substantivamente estruturado. Metodologicamente, opta-se pela análise e exposição da principal obra de Willian Ronald D. Fairbairn (1889-1964), tomada como paradigmática das teorias das relações de objeto. Busca-se expor a evolução do pensamento fairbairniano, desde seus estudos sobre a esquizoidia - e a contradição que isso trouxe para a teoria da libido da época - até as modificações e superações que o autor se propõe a realizar na teoria psicanalítica em função da concepção da meta libidinal como sendo o objeto. Abstract in spanish Este artículo tiene como objetivo mayor el de desarrollar la idea de que la teoría de las relaciones de objeto, introducida en el movimiento psicoanalítico en oposición a la teoría de la sexualidad como base de la constitución psíquica, significó un cambio radical en la concepción psicoanalítica de [...] los sujetos. Dicho cambio se expresa en el abandono de la pulsionalidad como fundamento subjetivo hacia la aprensión y comprensión de los sujetos como personalidad, es decir, como algo sustantivamente estructurado. Metodológicamente, se elije el análisis y exposición de la obra principal de Willian Ronald D. Fairbairn (1889-1964), tomada como paradigmática para las teorías de las relaciones de objeto. Se busca exponer la evolución del pensamiento fairbairniano, desde sus estudios sobre la esquizoidía - y la contradicción que dicho estudio trajo para la teoría de la libido de la época - hasta las modificaciones y superaciones que el autor se propone realizar en la teoría psicoanalítica en función de la concepción de la meta libidinal como sujeto. Abstract in english The main purpose of this essay is to develop the idea that the object-relations theory, introduced in the psychoanalytical movement as an opposition to the libido theory as basis to psychic constitution, produced a radical change in the psychoanalytical concept of subjects. Change is represented by [...] the quitting of the drive as a subject foundation and by the apprehension and comprehension of subjects as personalities, or rather, substantially structured. In terms of methodology, the main work by William Ronald D. Fairbairn (1889-1964) was analyzed and taken as paradigmatic for all object-relations theories. The evolution of Fairbairn's thoughts, from his studies on schizophrenia - and the contradiction it brought to the contemporary libido theory - to the changes and overcoming the author proposed to accomplish in psychoanalytical theory, as a result of his finding that the libidinal goal is an object, are presented.

  1. Managed Objects for Infrastructure Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Erik; Bodum, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Using data objects to describe features in the real world is a new idea and several approaches have already been shown to match scientific paradigms exceedingly well. Depending on the required level of abstraction, it is possible to represent the world more or less close to reality. In the realm of 3D Geoinformation research, this realism is often related to the way the spatial world is represented. By contrast, the 2D GIS community focuses on attribute data that describes additional states or characteristics of a feature. The main focus in 3D Geoinformation has always been on the representation of spatial objects, on relations like topology, ontology, and on storing and presenting them with more or less detail. The Centre for 3D Geoinformation (3DGI) at Aalborg University is currently participating in a project that explores objects that will not only contain geometry and associated attributive data but also will contain behavioural information. Our goal is to communicate the design and handling of these enhanced objects by means of the concept introduced in Java whereby objects are created in bytecode and subsequently executed within a Java virtual machine. This concept has already been implemented in the GRIFINOR platform. This article will present the core ideas of relevance to this concept as it relates to current understanding of objects. Our work also offers suggestions on how to implemented such algorithms using real-life infrastructure data. Furthermore, we elaborate on the posibillities and challenges associated with moving from mostly static objects to dynamic objects in the area of 3D geoinformation.

  2. Matching Objects with Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Emir, Burak; Odersky, Martin; Williams, John

    2006-01-01

    Data in object-oriented programming is organized in a hierarchy of classes. The problem of *object-oriented pattern matching* is how to explore this hierarchy from the outside. This usually involves classifying objects by their run-time type, accessing their members, or determining some other characteristic of a group of objects. In this paper we compare six different pattern matching techniques: object-oriented decomposition, visitors, type-tests/type-casts, typecase, case classes, and ext...

  3. Object as subject

    OpenAIRE

    White, Laura; Mitchell, John; Bassant, Mckenzie

    2010-01-01

    Object as subject Artists: Mc Kenzie Bassant, John Mitchell and Laura White. Curated by David Waterworth. Three artists took found objects as a starting point for making their work. The exhibition compares different approaches towards the found object. In the work of Laura White toys with the sculptural notion of what an object is and how to make objects in a world full of them.

  4. Detecting a Moving Object

    OpenAIRE

    Archana Sidhanti; Anusha Sidhanti

    2013-01-01

    Object tracking in video aims at detecting the appearances of an object and also the position of a moving object in a video sequence. Complex and dynamic scenes in video and television broadcasting have been a challenge for computerization of both in terms of storage and interaction. Scenes can be complex wherein there are many cluttered objects with different sizes, shapes, colors and can be dynamic with multiple interacting moving objects in a constantly changing background. Examples of suc...

  5. Some Fantasy Characters of Young Children: An Examination of Children's Beliefs in Santa Claus, the Tooth Fairy, and the Easter Bunny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosevitz, Martin; Prentice, Norman M.

    This study examined children's beliefs in Santa Claus, the Easter Bunny, and the Tooth Fairy as well as the effects of parental encouragement or support of these fantasy characters upon the children's beliefs. Subjects were 60 children aged 4, 6 and 8 years and their parents. Measures included a parental questionnaire and child interviews. Partial…

  6. The significance of the clause requiring precautionary measures to assure waste disposal in partial licenses granted under the Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This development raises the question as to what extent a waste disposal provision clause of the first few partial construction permits has to be adapted to the factual situation that has changed. Thus the clause is factually outdated according to which the granting of an operating licence for a nuclear power station cannot be expected until the first partial construction permit for the German fuel-cycle centre is in hand. It is not only conceivable that a first partial construction permit for the German fuel-cycle centre will not be in hand at the time when the authorities will decide on a (first) operating licence to be granted for a nuclear power station under construction, but add to this the crucial fact that the condition given in the above-mentioned provision clause on waste disposal is no longer in keeping with the factual situation and the thereto adapted provision principles governing waste management. Special attention has to be given to the significance and impact of this waste disposal provision clause since the situation has changed. (orig./HP)

  7. Exploring the Boomerang Effect : The Role of Core Technologies and Uncertainty in Explaining the Use of the Grant-Back Clause in Technology Licensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Leone, M. Isabella

    Licensing is one of the most commonly observed inter-firm contractual agreements.Drawing on the resource-based view of the firm and contract economics, we argue that the inclusion of a grant-back clause in licensing agreements emerges as a consequence of the licensor and licensee firms’ requirements to balance the need to protect their technological resources with the need to learn through internal and external processes. We argue that licensing agreements are increasingly likely to contain a grant-back clause (i) the closer the licensed technology is to the core of the licensor’s patent portfolio, and (ii) the higher the uncertainty of the licensed technology. In contrast, we conjecture decreasing likelihood of a grant-back clause, the closer the licensed technology is to the core of the licensee’s patent portfolio. Technological uncertainty is conjectured to positively moderate the results both when the licensed technology is part of the core technology of the licensee and the licensor. We test our hypotheses using a sample of 404 licensed technologies over the period 1984-2004. We employ a hierarchical nested decision model to account for the inclusion of a grant-back clause in a licensing contract nested in the decision about which technologies to license out. We find broad support for our theoretical arguments

  8. Where do objects become scenes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiye G; Biederman, Irving

    2011-08-01

    Regions tuned to individual visual categories, such as faces and objects, have been discovered in the later stages of the ventral visual pathway in the cortex. But most visual experience is composed of scenes, where multiple objects are interacting. Such interactions are readily described by prepositions or verb forms, for example, a bird perched on a birdhouse. At what stage in the pathway does sensitivity to such interactions arise? Here we report that object pairs shown as interacting, compared with their side-by-side depiction (e.g., a bird besides a birdhouse), elicit greater activity in the lateral occipital complex, the earliest cortical region where shape is distinguished from texture. Novelty of the interactions magnified this gain, an effect that was absent in the side-by-side depictions. Scene-like relations are thus likely achieved simultaneously with the specification of object shape. PMID:21148087

  9. Object-Oriented Performance Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Ian; Schaffer, Scott P.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a framework to support an object-oriented approach to performance analysis and instructional design that includes collaboration, automation, visual modeling, and reusable Web-based repositories of analysis knowledge. Relates the need for a new framework to the increasing concern with the cost effectiveness of student and employee…

  10. Object detection: general case

    OpenAIRE

    Mandziy, T.

    2011-01-01

    Without loss of generality, solution to object detection in signals of arbitrary dimensionality is considered on case of two dimensional images. An approach to shape variations and affine transformation invariance in object detection and recognition is proposed.

  11. OOIS (Object Oriented Information)

    OpenAIRE

    Cahill, Vinny; Tangney, Brendan

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the rationale and design of a new distributed systems programming model based on events, constraints, and objects 1 . The paper describes the inter-object communication or invocation mechanism, and the way in which concurrency, synchronisation, and timing properties are expressed and controlled. The invocation mechanism is unusual in that it is event-based. It encourages loose coupling among the objects and a high degree of encapsulation for each object. Concurrency, sync...

  12. Objects in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  13. Media Objectives for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrasjid, Harun, Ed.; Arrasjid, Dorine, Ed.

    The purpose of this book is to provide a compendium of instructional objectives concerning instructional media and materials. It is useful for either teacher training programs or college level media courses. Each objective is stated behaviorally, such as "list the important features of a tape recorder." Objectives are arranged by medium. The media…

  14. Generative probabilistic models for object segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Eslami, Seyed Mohammadali

    2014-01-01

    One of the long-standing open problems in machine vision has been the task of ‘object segmentation’, in which an image is partitioned into two sets of pixels: those that belong to the object of interest, and those that do not. A closely related task is that of ‘parts-based object segmentation’, where additionally each of the object’s pixels are labelled as belonging to one of several predetermined parts. There is broad agreement that segmentation is coupled to the task of object rec...

  15. Detecting a Moving Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Sidhanti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Object tracking in video aims at detecting the appearances of an object and also the position of a moving object in a video sequence. Complex and dynamic scenes in video and television broadcasting have been a challenge for computerization of both in terms of storage and interaction. Scenes can be complex wherein there are many cluttered objects with different sizes, shapes, colors and can be dynamic with multiple interacting moving objects in a constantly changing background. Examples of such videos abound in applications like sports, air traffic, car traffic and cloud transformations etc.

  16. Object Detection Using Edge Direction Histogram Features

    OpenAIRE

    Guangwei Wang; Zenggang Xiong; Yihua Lan; Conghuan Ye

    2013-01-01

    In In this study, we propose an object detection approach using edge direction histogram features. Since edge points are related to shape information closely, Edge Direction Histogram (EDH) is a very simple and direct way to characterize shape information of an object. We divide an object into several parts and employ edge direction histogram method to extract the EDH features. The EDH descriptor is designed to decouple variations of the object due to affin...

  17. Grasping Objects with Environmentally Induced Position Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Christopoulos, Vassilios N.; Schrater, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    Due to noisy motor commands and imprecise and ambiguous sensory information, there is often substantial uncertainty about the relative location between our body and objects in the environment. Little is known about how well people manage and compensate for this uncertainty in purposive movement tasks like grasping. Grasping objects requires reach trajectories to generate object-fingers contacts that permit stable lifting. For objects with position uncertainty, some trajectories are more effic...

  18. Interprofessional learning objectives for health team simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greidanus, Elaine; King, Sharla; LoVerso, Tatiana; Ansell, L Dawn

    2013-06-01

    Interprofessional health team simulations are often developed using learning objectives that relate to competency statements. Educators then assume these learning objectives are relevant to students participating in the simulation. However, evaluating the link between learning objectives and outcomes is often difficult in authentic simulation environments with multiple human factors. This article suggests one process for revising learning objectives based on review of the simulation, the debriefing, and the student feedback on reported learning. Implications for curriculum integration are discussed. PMID:23656376

  19. Words without Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Laycock

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Resolution of the problem of mass nouns depends on an expansion of our semantic/ontological taxonomy. Semantically, mass nouns are neither singular nor plural; they apply to neither just one object, nor to many objects, at a time. But their deepest kinship links them to the plural. A plural phrase — 'the cats in Kingston' — does not denote a single plural thing, but merely many distinct things. Just so, 'the water in the lake' does not denote a single aggregate — it is not ONE, but rather MUCH. The world is not the totality of singular objects, plural objects, and mass objects; for there are no plural or mass objects. It is the totality of single objects and (just stuff.

  20. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robering, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which these objects represent non-objectual entities in contexts from which they are excluded by type restrictions. Thus these objects are "abstract'' in a functional rather than in an ontological sense: they function as representatives of other entities but they are otherwise quite normal objects. Three examples of such a representation are considered: the denotations of that-phrases are objects representing propositions, generic noun phrases denote objects standing for sorts, and infinitivals are viewed as denoting objects representing attributes, i.e., the "ordinary'' meanings of verb phrases.

  1. Beyond the Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Object orientation (OO is regained not only in all components of integrate development media but it remarks in the rest of software world from operating system to last application domain - of course, with different intensity and success. A clear prove of OO application in all situations is the development of a wide range of industrial applications. OO technology allows drawing of relation between the geometry, topology and dimensions of data on a class hierarchy; thus, the observation of the amount of data gained by research in many scientific domains is facilitated through class libraries both for graphic primitives and for events examination. In conformity to all waiting, OO asserts in every distributive system, there are very important the applications for making open systems customer-server and dis-tributed applications in Java. Finally OO application in robot's programming and modeling needn't be omitted. However, far to be panacea, OO has also shades which will be researched so on.

  2. The HST Object Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubow, Stephen H.; Budavari, T.

    2012-05-01

    We have created a catalog of objects observed by the WFPC2 and ACS instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The catalog is based on observations taken on more than 6000 visits (telescope pointings) of ACS/WFC and more than 25000 visits of WFPC2. The catalog is obtained by cross-matching all Hubble Legacy Archive (HLA) Source Extractor source lists for these instruments. The source lists describe source detections within a visit. As a biproduct of the cross-matching, we obtain improved relative astrometry of the HST images. We apply a Bayesian method to help determine which source detections likely match. The catalog provides information about which source detections match together across visits. For each source detection, the catalog contains information that includes the corrected position, the name of the image, the filter, the exposure time, the exposure start and stop times, and the source magnitude. We also provide information on nondetections that can be used to determine dropouts. The catalog will be made publicly available.

  3. Senior High School Students’ Errors on the Use of Relative Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Bao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Relative clause is one of the most important language points in College English Examination. Teachers have been attaching great importance to the teaching of relative clause, but the outcomes are not satisfactory. Based on Error Analysis theory, this article aims to explore the reasonswhy senior high school students find it difficult to choose relative words and how to improve this situation. Participants in this study are 73 senior high school students from Tong Liao, Inner Mongolia. These students are given a test on using relative clause. Questionnaire on these 73 students and 30 teachers has also been carried on. After collecting and soring the tests paper and questionnaires, using quantitative and qualitative method, the author finds the main causes of the students’ choosing wrong relative words stem from: students pay much attention to language form and apply English rules mechanically, ignoring meaning and context of the language; students’ grammar knowledge is not comprehensive and systematic and students tend to neglect or forget some grammar points; students lack necessary basic English grammar and vocabulary knowledge, resulting in the difficulty in understanding the meaning of the sentence; students can’t adjust to relative clause because of language transfer.Therefore, teachers should strengthen the exercises of students’ English basic knowledge, teach grammars systematically and comprehensively, encourage students to use effective learning strategies to learn English, find ways to increase the input and output of English language and train students think in English mode. As to the students, they should learn to reflect on themselves, strive to improve their English and correct their learning attitude, and learn to use learning strategies effectively under the help of teachers.

  4. Viewpoint Invariant Object Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil, Osama; Habib, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Object Detection is the task of identifying the existence of an object class instance and locating it within an image. Difficulties in handling high intra-class variations constitute major obstacles to achieving high performance on standard benchmark datasets (scale, viewpoint, lighting conditions and orientation variations provide good examples). Suggested model aims at providing more robustness to detecting objects suffering severe distortion due to < 60{\\deg} viewpoint ch...

  5. Propelling Extended Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local…

  6. Confinement for Active Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Kammueller, Florian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a formal framework for the security of distributed active objects. Active objects communicate asynchronously implementing method calls via futures. We base the formal framework on a security model that uses a semi-lattice to enable multi-lateral security crucial for distributed architectures. We further provide a security type system for the programming model ASPfun of functional active objects. Type safety and a confinement property are presented. ...

  7. Modal Object Diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Maoz, Shahar; Ringert, Jan Oliver; Rumpe, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    While object diagrams (ODs) are widely used as a means to document object-oriented systems, they are expressively weak, as they are limited to describe specific possible snapshots of the system at hand. In this paper we introduce modal object diagrams (MODs), which extend the classical OD language with positive/negative and example/invariant modalities. The extended language allows the designer to specify not only positive example models but also negative examples, ones that...

  8. Objective quality measures assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leachtenauer, Jon C.

    2002-07-01

    A study was performed to assess the ability of five objective quality measures to predict perceptual quality difference ratings. The objective measures included peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), root-mean-square error (RMSE), maximum absolute difference (MAD), the Image Quality Metric (IQM), and the just-noticeable-difference (JND) metric. Perceptual difference ratings used the National Image Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS). NIIRS data from four previous studies of bandwidth compression and image processing were compared to values of the five objective measures to determine whether any of the objective metrics could be used as a substitute for the labor-intensive NIIRS ratings.

  9. Objective-C

    CERN Document Server

    DeVoe, Jiva

    2011-01-01

    A soup-to-nuts guide on the Objective-C programming language. Objective-C is the language behind Cocoa and Cocoa Touch, which is the Framework of applications written for the Macintosh, iPod touch, iPhone, and iPad platforms. Part of the Developer Reference series covering the hottest Apple topics, this book covers everything from the basics of the C language to advanced aspects of Apple development. You'll examine Objective-C and high-level subjects of frameworks, threading, networking, and much more.: Covers the basics of the C language and then quickly moves onto Objective-C and more advanc

  10. Objective global ocean biogeographic provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Matthew J.; Irwin, Andrew J.

    2008-08-01

    Biogeographic provinces are categories used for comparing and contrasting biogeochemical processes and biodiversity between ocean regions. Provinces provide a framework for reasonable extrapolation of point or transect data to broader areas. However, their use is limited due to the non-automatic, subjective nature of province classification. Furthermore, it is unknown how province boundaries respond to seasonal and climate forcing. These issues make province related hypotheses difficult to test with static provinces. To solve this problem, we use objective classification on global remote sensing data to automatically produce time and space resolved ocean provinces. Seasonal patterns in province geography reflect well-known ocean processes. Our predictions of province boundaries are verified by in-situ ship track data and province distributions in the equatorial Pacific correlate well with ENSO indexes. This objective classification system captures spatial and temporal province dynamics and provides objective categories for cross-province biogeochemical hypotheses to be rigorously tested.

  11. PRESERVATION OF DIGITAL OBJECTS INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana D’arc Pereira de Jesus

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to indicate theadvantages and disadvantages of digitalpreservation strategies discussed in the scientificliterature to assist practitioners and users ofinformation in the conservation of collections orprivate collections contained in the objects andtheir digital media. The methodological approachadopted was to literature. The results describethe strategies of digital preservation, someproblems related to the preservation of physicalmedia, such as technological obsolescence, themain storage media of digital objects and someconcerns about his durability. We conclude that itis of great importance to knowledge andapplication of strategies to support professionalsand users of information in making decisionsrelated to digital preservation, according to eachtype of collection or private collections. Throughthis study it is clear that it is also essential todisseminate these strategies to enable futuregenerations to access to knowledge producedtoday.

  12. Polynomial Bridgeland Stable Objects and Reflexive Sheaves

    CERN Document Server

    Lo, Jason

    2011-01-01

    On a smooth projective threefold, we show that there are only two isomorphism types for the moduli of stable objects with respect to Bayer's standard polynomial Bridgeland stability - the moduli of Gieseker-stable sheaves and the moduli of PT-stable objects - under the following assumptions: no two of the stability vectors are collinear, and the degree and rank of the objects are relatively prime. We also describe a close relation between the intersection of the moduli spaces of PT-stable and dual-PT-stable objects, and the moduli of reflexive sheaves.

  13. Querying moving objects detected by sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bestehorn, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Declarative query interfaces to Sensor Networks (SN) have become a commodity. These interfaces allow access to SN deployed for collecting data using relational queries. However, SN are not confined to data collection, but may track object movement, e.g., wildlife observation or traffic monitoring. While rational approaches are well suited for data collection, research on ""Moving Object Databases"" (MOD) has shown that relational operators are unsuitable to express information needs on object movement, i.e., spatio-temporal queries. ""Querying Moving Objects Detected by Sensor Networks"" studi

  14. An Heuristic Approach To Object Oriented Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepali Gupta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Quality of software is increasingly important and testing related issues are becoming crucial for software. In order to measure and understand quality, it is necessary to relate it to measurable quantities. Heuristics provide a link between sets of abstract design principles and quantitative software metrics. The aim of object oriented software metrics is to predict quality and improve productivity of the software products. Object-orientation (OO allows software to be structured in a way that helps to manage complexity and change. This paper shows role of heuristics in object oriented software engineering and how object oriented paradigm differentiate from conventional function oriented paradigm.

  15. Beginning Objective-C

    CERN Document Server

    Dovey, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective-C is today's fastest growing programming language, at least in part due to the popularity of Apple's Mac, iPhone and iPad. Beginning Objective-C is for you if you have some programming experience, but you're new to the Objective-C programming language and you want a modern-and fast-way forwards to your own coding projects. Beginning Objective-C offers you a modern programmer's perspective on Objective-C courtesy of two of the best iOS and Mac developers in the field today, and gets you programming to the best of your ability in this important language.  It gets you rolling fast into

  16. System for optical sorting of microscopic objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper Technical University of Denmark,

    The present invention relates to a system for optical sorting of microscopic objects and corresponding method. An optical detection system (52) is capable of determining the positions of said first and/or said second objects. One or more force transfer units (200, 205, 210, 215) are placed in a first reservoir, the one or more force units being suitable for optical momentum transfer. An electromagnetic radiation source (42) yields a radiation beam (31, 32) capable of optically displacing the force transfer units from one position to another within the first reservoir (1R). The force transfer units are displaced from positions away from the first objects to positions close to the first objects, and then displacing the first objects via a contact force (300) between the first objects and the force transfer units facilitates an optical sorting of the first objects and the second objects.

  17. Nuclear Energy General Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way it achieves this objective is to issue publications in various series. Two of these series are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III, paragraph A.6, of the IAEA Statute, the IAEA safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are primarily written in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own activities. The principal users are Member State regulatory bodies and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series consists of reports designed to encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia and politicians, among others. The information is presented in guides, reports on the status of technology and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The series complements the IAEA's safety standards, and provides detailed guidance, experience, good practices and examples on the fivce, good practices and examples on the five areas covered in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series. The Nuclear Energy Basic Principles is the highest level publication in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and describes the rationale and vision for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It presents eight Basic Principles on which nuclear energy systems should be based to fulfil nuclear energy's potential to help meet growing global energy needs. The Nuclear Energy Series Objectives are the second level publications. They describe what needs to be considered and the specific goals to be achieved at different stages of implementation, all of which are consistent with the Basic Principles. The four Objectives publications include Nuclear General Objectives, Nuclear Power Objectives, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives, and Radioactive Waste Management and Decommissioning Objectives. All four Objectives publications follow the same structure. For each topic in the area, the objectives are described in accordance with the sequence in the Basic Principles publication. Within each of these four Objectives publications, the individual topics that make up each area are addressed. The topics included in Nuclear General Objectives are Energy Systems Analysis and Development of Strategies for Nuclear Energy, Economics, Infrastructure, Management Systems, Human Resources and Knowledge Management. The diversity of the topics contained in Nuclear General Objectives necessitated incorporating some repetition in order to simplify access to the relevant information for the various interested audiences.

  18. An Investigation Concerning the Base-Generation of Four Old English Conjunct and Disjunct Adverbials within the Structure of Old English Clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Scot, Sky

    2009-01-01

      This paper is concerned with an investigation of four Old English adverbials with respect to where they are base-generated within the substructure of clauses which serve as examples of Old English prose. There are three structures in which base-generation of clausal constituents is deemed to occur: the CP, the IP, and the VP. Function and derivational movement are the governing factors which regulate the possibility of base-generation occurring within a particular structure. The movements ...

  19. Birth of the Object: Detection of Objectness and Extraction of Object Shape through Object Action Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Dirk; Pugeault, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    We describe a process in which the segmentation of objects as well as the extraction of the object shape becomes realized through active exploration of a robot vision system. In the exploration process, two behavioral modules that link robot actions to the visual and haptic perception of objects interact. First, by making use of an object independent grasping mechanism, physical control over potential objects can be gained. Having evaluated the initial grasping mechanism as being successful, a second behavior extracts the object shape by making use of prediction based on the motion induced by the robot. This also leads to the concept of an "object" as a set of features that change predictably over different frames. The system is equipped with a certain degree of generic prior knowledge about the world in terms of a sophisticated visual feature extraction process in an early cognitive vision system, knowledge about its own embodiment as well as knowledge about geometric relationships such as rigid body motion. This prior knowledge allows the extraction of representations that are semantically richer compared to many other approaches.

  20. Subject Extraction out of Free Relatives in Norwegian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya Hogoboom

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines an anomalous construction in Norwegian that appears to be leftward extraction of a subject out of a wh island. This extraction seems to be allowed out of a free relative clause in adjunct position, under certain semantic conditions. The range of this construction is tested and reported on. It is found that this extraction is only allowed when the matrix verb and the free relative verb fall into certain categories. In addition, there are also restrictions on the extracted subject. An explanation as to why the components of the sentence in such extractions are restricted in the way they are is put forth.

  1. The Interpretation of Jurisdictional Clauses in Human Rights Treaties / La interpretación de las cláusulas jurisdiccionales en los tratados de derechos humanos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis, Jardón.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este documento analiza los métodos por los que las cláusulas jurisdiccionales contenidas en tratados de derechos humanos deben ser interpretados. El trabajo rechaza la idea de que existan reglas especiales para interpretar las reglas de derechos humanos por lo que las posturas que defienden tal idea [...] no pueden ser extendidas a la interpretación de las cláusulas jurisdiccionales contenidas en tratados en derechos humanos. Sin embargo, el autor sostiene que los valores protegidos por los derechos humanos pueden ser utilizados para interpretar una cláusula jurisdiccional, siempre y cuando sean incorporados dentro del método contenido en el artículo 31 de la Convención de Viena sobre el Derecho de los Tratados. Abstract in english This paper assesses the methods by which jurisdictional clauses contained in human rights treaties shall be interpreted by international tribunals in order to determine their jurisdiction over them. The work rejects the idea that special rules for interpreting human rights rules and consequently pos [...] tures that defend this idea cannot be extended to the interpretation of human rights jurisdictional clauses. Nevertheless, the author concludes that values protected by human rights can indeed be used to interpret a jurisdictional clause, as long as they are incorporated in the method of interpretation contained in article 31 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties.

  2. ADHERENCE OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE POLICIES WITH A SPECIAL REFERENCE TO CLAUSE 49 OF THE LISTING AGREEMENT: A CASE STUDY OF INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnyana Ranjan Bal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to many scams in financial world (WorldCom, Enron, Satyam Computers etc. the regulatory body thoughts to implement an ethical code of conduct by which all the companies will be regulated. After getting reports of many studies and reports (Sarbanes-Oxley, Cadbury report, OECD policies etc. the policy of Corporate Governance was framed in different countries. The basic purpose of all Corporate Governance policies is to make the corporates accountable and compel them to act ethically. Clause 49 of the listing agreement deals with policies of Corporate Governance in India. This provides guidelines regarding control of various internal and external affairs while ensuring transparency and fairness in reporting. The present paper discusses the conceptual framework of Corporate Governance in India. Also our study highlights the important points of various mandatory and non-mandatory requirements of clause 49 of the listing agreement. To assess the adherence of this Clause 49 we have taken the case study of IOCL. The report on Corporate Governance of Indian Oil Corporation has been analyzed for the same.

  3. La “clause auteur” : l’écrivain, l’ethos et le discours littéraire The “clause author”: The writer, ethos, and literary discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melliandro Mendes Gallinari

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article élabore une réflexion sur la question de l’auctorialité, plus précisément sur les conceptions variables de l’auteur et ses espaces de production, en prenant en considération le discours littéraire, mais aussi d’autres discours sociaux. Le terme d’« auteur » est compris ici comme un accord entre sujets sociaux, c’est-à-dire comme une convention qui varie perpétuellement en fonction des moments historiques et des espaces institutionnels. Pour développer ce point de vue, on s’appuie sur des catégories centrales de l’analyse du discours comme le contrat de communication et l’ethos. Par rapport à ce concept, on examine comment le discours littéraire présente un ethos auctorial qui lui est particulier, et qui n’est pas à confondre avec la production d’images de l’auteur dans d’autres dispositifs comme les médias ou la critique. En fin de parcours, on s’interroge sur la construction moderne et spectaculaire de l’auteur - célébrité dans son rapport problématique à l’ethos auctorial et à la lecture de l’œuvre.This essay develops a reflection on the question of authorship, more specifically on the various conceptions of authorship and its places of production, by investigating literary discourse, but also other kinds of social discourses. The term “author” is here understood as the result of an agreement between social subjects, namely as a convention endlessly varying according to historical moments and institutional spaces. In order to develop this point of view, we will draw on central categories of discourse analysis like communication contract or ethos.  We show how literary discourse constructs a peculiar “authorial ethos”  not to be confused with the production of authorial images in other frameworks like the media or literary criticism. Eventually, we question the modern and spectacular construction of the celebrity-author in its problematic relation to the authorial ethos and to the reading of the text.

  4. Anthropological Objects Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This online article introduces students to the Objects Conservation Laboratory run by the museum's Anthropology Division. It discusses the main activities of the lab's conservators what that process involves.

  5. Demographics of Transition Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Najita, Joan R; Muzerolle, James

    2007-01-01

    The unusual properties of transition objects (young stars with an optically thin inner disc surrounded by an optically thick outer disc) suggest that significant disc evolution has occured in these systems. We explore the nature of these systems by examining their demographics, specifically their stellar accretion rates (Mdot) and disc masses (Mdisc) compared to those of accreting T Tauri stars of comparable age. We find that transition objects in Taurus occupy a restricted region of the Mdot vs. Mdisc plane. Compared to non-transition single stars in Taurus, they have stellar accretion rates that are typically ~10 times lower at the same disc mass and median disc masses ~4 times larger. These properties are anticipated by several proposed planet formation theories and suggest that the formation of Jovian mass planets may play a significant role in explaining the origin of at least some transition objects. Considering transition objects as a distinct demographic group among accreting T Tauri stars leads to a ...

  6. Haskell's overlooked object system

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselyov, O; Kiselyov, Oleg; Laemmel, Ralf

    2005-01-01

    Haskell provides type-class-bounded and parametric polymorphism as opposed to subtype polymorphism of object-oriented languages such as Java and OCaml. It is a contentious question whether Haskell 98 without extensions, or with common extensions, or with new extensions can fully support conventional object-oriented programming with encapsulation, mutable state, inheritance, overriding, statically checked implicit and explicit subtyping, and so on. We systematically substantiate that Haskell 98, with some common extensions, supports all the conventional OO features plus more advanced ones, including first-class lexically scoped classes, implicitly polymorphic classes, flexible multiple inheritance, safe downcasts and safe co-variant arguments. Haskell indeed can support width and depth, structural and nominal subtyping. We address the particular challenge to preserve Haskell's type inference even for objects and object-operating functions. The OO features are introduced in Haskell as the OOHaskell library. OOH...

  7. Haskell's overlooked object system

    OpenAIRE

    Kiselyov, Oleg; Laemmel, Ralf

    2005-01-01

    Haskell provides type-class-bounded and parametric polymorphism as opposed to subtype polymorphism of object-oriented languages such as Java and OCaml. It is a contentious question whether Haskell 98 without extensions, or with common extensions, or with new extensions can fully support conventional object-oriented programming with encapsulation, mutable state, inheritance, overriding, statically checked implicit and explicit subtyping, and so on. We systematically substanti...

  8. Azumaya Objects in Bicategories

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Niles

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the notion of Azumaya object in general bicategorical settings. The first main result gives a characterization generalizing that of Azumaya algebras over a commutative ring; this provides a general definition of Azumaya objects and the Brauer group. The second main result extends this characterization to triangulated bicategories, which we describe. Tilting theory is given as one application of this extension. This work is part of a broader project to develop tools for calculating Picard and Brauer groups in generalized contexts.

  9. Object Identification Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Neiling, Mattis; Jurk, Steffen; Lenz, Hans-j; Naumann, Felix

    2003-01-01

    Research and industry has tackled the object identification problem of data integration in many different ways. This paper presents a framework, that allows the evaluation of competing approaches. To this end, complexity measures and data characteristics are introduced, which reflect the hardness of a given object identification problem. All characteristics can be estimated by use of simple SQL queries and simple calculations. Following the principle of benchmark definitions we specify...

  10. Validade e confiabilidade da versão brasileira de um inventário de avaliação de relações objetais Validity and reliability of the Brazilian version of an inventory for the evaluation of object relations

    OpenAIRE

    Bruscato, Wilze L.; Eduardo Iacoponi

    2000-01-01

    Introdução: Relação objetal tem sido um conceito fértil para a psicanálise e para a psiquiatria. O reconhecimento crescente do valor diagnóstico do conceito de relação objetal nos transtornos psiquiátricos tem levado ao desenvolvimento de várias escalas que pretendem mensurá-lo. O estudo teve o propósito de produzir os índices de validade e confiabilidade da versão em português de um instrumento amplamente usado, planejado para avaliar relações objetais, o Bell Object Relati...

  11. Seeing objects through the language glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutonnet, Bastien; Dering, Benjamin; Viñas-Guasch, Nestor; Thierry, Guillaume

    2013-10-01

    Recent streams of research support the Whorfian hypothesis according to which language affects one's perception of the world. However, studies of object categorization in different languages have heavily relied on behavioral measures that are fuzzy and inconsistent. Here, we provide the first electrophysiological evidence for unconscious effects of language terminology on object perception. Whereas English has two words for cup and mug, Spanish labels those two objects with the word "taza." We tested native speakers of Spanish and English in an object detection task using a visual oddball paradigm, while measuring event-related brain potentials. The early deviant-related negativity elicited by deviant stimuli was greater in English than in Spanish participants. This effect, which relates to the existence of two labels in English versus one in Spanish, substantiates the neurophysiological evidence that language-specific terminology affects object categorization. PMID:23647557

  12. CODAS object monitoring service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary Control and Data Acquisition System (CODAS) of JET is based on a TCP/IP network of more than 150 computers. The CODAS computers provide the JET machine control and data acquisition for over 70,000 digital and analog signals. The Object Monitoring Service (OMS) is used by applications for monitoring objects for presentation to the JET machine operators and for the operation of individual software components (such as valve state, access control, mimic definition changes and internal data distribution). Each server typically handles connections from around 60 clients monitoring upwards of 2000 objects. Some servers have over 150 clients and 5000 objects. Acquisition libraries are dynamically linked into a running server as required either to acquire data values for objects or to forward requests to other OMS servers. A mechanism involving dynamic linking allows new libraries to be integrated without stopping or changing running software. OMS provides a very reliable and highly successful 'data-type independent' means of monitoring many different objects. It allows applications to take advantage of new data sources, without the need to change existing code

  13. The Moab Design for Digital Object Versioning

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Anderson

    2013-01-01

    The Stanford Digital Repository has adopted the "Moab" design for versioned archiving of digital objects--a locally developed approach that optimizes data transfer, storage, and replication while providing efficient single file retrieval or full object reconstruction for any version of an object. This paper includes a review of various versioning strategies including forward-delta, reverse-delta and content-addressable mechanisms, the pro's and cons of each, and highlights the relative advant...

  14. Part Objects and Their Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; MØller-Pedersen, Birger

    1992-01-01

    The notion of location of part objects is introduced, yielding a reference to the containing object. Combined with locally defined objects and classes (block structure), singularly defined part objects, and references to part objects, it is a powerful language mechanism for defining objects with different aspects or roles. The use of part objects for inheritance of code is also explored.

  15. Multi-class object layout with unsupervised image classification and object localization

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, S-n; Doretto, G.; Rittscher, J.

    2011-01-01

    Recognizing the presence of object classes in an image, or image classification, has become an increasingly important topic of interest. Equally important, however, is also the capability to locate these object classes in the image. We consider in this paper an approach to these two related problems with the primary goal of minimizing the training requirements so as to allow for ease of adding new object classes, as opposed to approaches that favor training a suite of object-specific classifi...

  16. Assemble new object detector with few examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kuiyuan; Wang, Meng; Hua, Xian-Sheng; Yan, Shuicheng; Zhang, Hong-Jiang

    2011-12-01

    Learning a satisfactory object detector generally requires sufficient training data to cover the most variations of the object. In this paper, we show that the performance of object detector is severely degraded when training examples are limited. We propose an approach to handle this issue by exploring a set of pretrained auxiliary detectors for other categories. By mining the global and local relationships between the target object category and auxiliary objects, a robust detector can be learned with very few training examples. We adopt the deformable part model proposed by Felzenszwalb and simultaneously explore the root and part filters in the auxiliary object detectors under the guidance of the few training examples from the target object category. An iterative solution is introduced for such a process. The extensive experiments on the PASCAL VOC 2007 challenge data set show the encouraging performance of the new detector assembled from those related auxiliary detectors. PMID:21632300

  17. Contaminated objects in actual transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two levels of contaminated objects are defined, under certain limits of surface activity, and two levels of packaging (IP1 and IP2). We examined these criteria in relation with their practical implementation. It appears that some of them are not easy to consider as it seems, in front of the extreme diversity of situations. The diversity of contaminated objects shows itself along numerous axes of which the more obvious are: their more or less complex structure; their ''solidity''; their ''multiplicity''; their dimension. These aspects will intervene, in connection with regulatory criteria, in the definition of their packaging for transport. The destination of the contaminated objects play also a part. When they are not intended to be recovered and reused they become wastes and they are normally incorporated in a matrix or compacted. When such objects are supposed to be decontaminated at the end of their voyage and reused, they can no longer be transported as LSA material and their surface may become ''accessible''. The new limits given by the SS6 (1985) to the ''accessible'' non fixed contamination, made it necessary in the general case to carry them in Type A packages. That is a very new situation when compared in the old one, where no distinction was made between fix and non fixed, accessible and non accessible contamination

  18. On a fat small object argument

    OpenAIRE

    Makkai, Michael; Rosicky?, Jir?i?; Vokr?i?nek, Luka?s?

    2013-01-01

    Good colimits introduced by J. Lurie generalize transfinite composites and provide an important tool for understanding cofibrant generation in locally presentable categories. We will explore the relation of good colimits to transfinite composites further and show, in particular, how they eliminate the use of large objects in the usual small object argument.

  19. Attaining Performance Objectives in a Meats Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Cureux, James

    1974-01-01

    Various tools for student evaluation and performance objectives for a vocational agriculture education unit on meats are described. The tools and objectives are related to aspects of the meat business, such as market sales, fair shows, meats judging contests, fall feeder sales, supervised experience projects, record analyses, and slaughter houses.…

  20. Experience building object-oriented systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes the experience gained by the group of developers of the Gismo project, a relatively large software package to do detector simulation and event reconstruction using object-oriented techniques

  1. Radioactive Waste Management Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way it achieves this objective is to issue publications in various series. Two of these series are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III, paragraph A.6, of the IAEA Statute, the IAEA safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are primarily written in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own activities. The principal users are Member State regulatory bodies and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series consists of reports designed to encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia and politicians, among others. The information is presented in guides, reports on the status of technology and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The series complements the IAEA's safety standards, and provides detailed guidance, experience, good practices and examples on the fivce, good practices and examples on the five areas covered in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series. The Nuclear Energy Basic Principles is the highest level publication in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and describes the rationale and vision for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It presents eight Basic Principles on which nuclear energy systems should be based to fulfil nuclear energy's potential to help meet growing global energy needs. The Nuclear Energy Series Objectives are the second level publications. They describe what needs to be considered and the specific goals to be achieved at different stages of implementation, all of which are consistent with the Basic Principles. The four Objectives publications include Nuclear General Objectives, Nuclear Power Objectives, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives, and Radioactive Waste Management and Decommissioning Objectives. This publication sets out the objectives that need to be achieved in the area of radioactive waste management, including decommissioning and environmental remediation, to ensure that the Nuclear Energy Basic Principles are satisfied.

  2. Hardware Objects for Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Thalinger, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Java, as a safe and platform independent language, avoids access to low-level I/O devices or direct memory access. In standard Java, low-level I/O it not a concern; it is handled by the operating system. However, in the embedded domain resources are scarce and a Java virtual machine (JVM) without an underlying middleware is an attractive architecture. When running the JVM on bare metal, we need access to I/O devices from Java; therefore we investigate a safe and efficient mechanism to represent I/O devices as first class Java objects, where device registers are represented by object fields. Access to those registers is safe as Java’s type system regulates it. The access is also fast as it is directly performed by the bytecodes getfield and putfield. Hardware objects thus provide an object-oriented abstraction of low-level hardware devices. As a proof of concept, we have implemented hardware objects in three quite different JVMs: in the Java processor JOP, the JIT compiler CACAO, and in the interpretingembedded JVM SimpleRTJ.

  3. Propelling Extended Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Richard

    2010-03-01

    A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local force that directly propels each part of the object. Those gradients resemble the ones created in objects by their weights. An example of the latter is the compressive stress in a column of a building increasing steadily toward its lower end. That gradient occurs because each horizontal section through the column supports all of the weight above it, including the load force pushing down on the column's upper end. The gradient resembles the pressure in a container of liquid increasing with depth in it. Likewise, the weight of a vertically hanging cable causes its tension and tensile stress to increase toward its upper end.

  4. Hamiltonian dynamics of extended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider relativistic extended objects described by a reparametrization-invariant local action that depends on the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the object as it evolves. We provide a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics of such higher derivative models which is motivated by the ADM formulation of general relativity. The canonical momenta are identified by looking at boundary behaviour under small deformations of the action; the relationship between the momentum conjugate to the embedding functions and the conserved momentum density is established. The canonical Hamiltonian is constructed explicitly; the constraints on the phase space, both primary and secondary, are identified and the role they play in the theory is described. The multipliers implementing the primary constraints are identified in terms of the ADM lapse and shift variables and Hamilton's equations are shown to be consistent with the Euler-Lagrange equations

  5. Hamiltonian dynamics of extended objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capovilla, R [Departamento de FIsica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Guven, J [School of Theoretical Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 10 Burlington Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Rojas, E [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2004-12-07

    We consider relativistic extended objects described by a reparametrization-invariant local action that depends on the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the object as it evolves. We provide a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics of such higher derivative models which is motivated by the ADM formulation of general relativity. The canonical momenta are identified by looking at boundary behaviour under small deformations of the action; the relationship between the momentum conjugate to the embedding functions and the conserved momentum density is established. The canonical Hamiltonian is constructed explicitly; the constraints on the phase space, both primary and secondary, are identified and the role they play in the theory is described. The multipliers implementing the primary constraints are identified in terms of the ADM lapse and shift variables and Hamilton's equations are shown to be consistent with the Euler-Lagrange equations.

  6. Objective triangle functors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringel, Claus Michael; Zhang, Pu

    2015-02-01

    An (additive) functor F from an additive category A to an additive category B is said to be objective, provided any morphism f in A with F(f) = 0 factors through an object K with F(K) = 0. In this paper we concentrate on triangle functors between triangulated categories. The first aim of this paper is to characterize objective triangle functors F in several ways. Second, we are interested in the corresponding Verdier quotient functors V_F, in particular we want do know under what conditions V_F is full. The third question to be considered concerns the possibility to factorize a given triangle functor F = F_2F_1 with F_1 a full and dense triangle functor and F_2 a faithful triangle functor. It turns our that the behaviour of splitting monomorphisms (and splitting epimorphisms) plays a decisive role.

  7. An Approach for Robots to Deal with Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Hidayat, Sidiq S.; Bong Keung Kim; Kohtaro Ohba

    2012-01-01

    Understanding object and its context are very important for robots when dealing with objects for completion of a mission. In this paper, an Affordance-based Ontology (ABO) is proposed for easy robot dealing with substantive and non-substantive objects. An ABO is a machine-understandable representation of objects and their relationships by what it's related to and how it's related. By using ABO, when dealing with a substantive object, robots can understand the representation ...

  8. Learning Objects Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blåbjerg, Niels JØrgen

    2005-01-01

    Learning Objects Web er et DEFF projekt som Aalborg Universitetsbibliotek har initieret. Projektet tager afsæt i de resultater og erfaringer som er opnået med vores tidligere projekt Streaming Webbased Information Modules (SWIM). Vi har et internationalt netværk af interessenter som giver os sparring og feedback i forhold til udviklingskoncept både omkring de teoretiske rammer og i forhold til praktisk anvendelse af vores undervisningskoncept. Med disse rygstød og input har vi forfulgt ønsket om at videreudvikle SWIM i det nye projekt Learning Objects Web. Udgivelsesdato: juni

  9. Object-oriented communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OOC is a high-level communications protocol based on the object-oriented paradigm. OOC's syntax, semantics, and pragmatics balance simplicity and expressivity for controls environments. While natural languages are too complex, computer protocols are often insufficiently expressive. An object-oriented communications philosophy provides a base for building the necessary high-level communications primitives like I don't understand and the current value of X is K. OOC is sufficiently flexible to express data acquisition, control requests, alarm messages, and error messages in a straightforward generic way. It can be used in networks, for inter-task communication, and even for intra-task communication

  10. Related Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    related resources metadata made simpler: a guide for libraries. gail hodge. 2001. (www.niso.org) dublin core (dublincore.org) dublin core metadata element set (std.) (www.niso.org) crossref and reference linking (www.crossref.org) digital object identifier (www.doi.org) ...

  11. Objects + Views = Components?

    OpenAIRE

    Odersky, Martin

    2000-01-01

    In support of flexible composition, components need to be adaptable and they need to have first-class plugs. Abstract state machines and object-oriented programming each satisfy one of these requirements very well but satisfy the other only incompletely. This paper describes views, a language construct which provides for both requirements in a balanced way.

  12. ALGORITHM OF OBJECT RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loktev Alexey Alexeevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The second important problem to be resolved to the algorithm and its software, that comprises an automatic design of a complex closed circuit television system, represents object recognition, by virtue of which an image is transmitted by the video camera. Since imaging of almost any object is dependent on many factors, including its orientation in respect of the camera, lighting conditions, parameters of the registering system, static and dynamic parameters of the object itself, it is quite difficult to formalize the image and represent it in the form of a certain mathematical model. Therefore, methods of computer-aided visualization depend substantially on the problems to be solved. They can be rarely generalized. The majority of these methods are non-linear; therefore, there is a need to increase the computing power and complexity of algorithms to be able to process the image. This paper covers the research of visual object recognition and implementation of the algorithm in the view of the software application that operates in the real-time mode

  13. Science Object Boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrey C. Rule

    1999-10-01

    Object boxes--plastic shoe boxes containing carefully selected figures, toys, and household items--can provide a hands-on opportunity for your students to explore both abstract concepts, such as scale, and more concrete topics, such as bird body adaptations

  14. Setting learning objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKimm, Judy; Swanwick, Tim

    2009-07-01

    Clinical teachers may be involved with students and trainees on a variety of different programmes who are required to achieve a diverse range of learning outcomes or objectives. Teachers who better understand the relationship between learning outcomes and the planning and delivery of educational activities can help learners receive more from their education and training. PMID:19584784

  15. Hunger promotes acquisition of nonfood objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Alison Jing; Schwarz, Norbert; Wyer, Robert S

    2015-03-01

    Hunger motivates people to consume food, for which finding and acquiring food is a prerequisite. We test whether the acquisition component spills over to nonfood objects: Are hungry people more likely to acquire objects that cannot satisfy their hunger? Five laboratory and field studies show that hunger increases the accessibility of acquisition-related concepts and the intention to acquire not only food but also nonfood objects. Moreover, people act on this intention and acquire more nonfood objects (e.g., binder clips) when they are hungry, both when these items are freely available and when they must be paid for. However, hunger does not influence how much they like nonfood objects. We conclude that a basic biologically based motivation can affect substantively unrelated behaviors that cannot satisfy the motivation. This presumably occurs because hunger renders acquisition-related concepts and behaviors more accessible, which influences decisions in situations to which they can be applied. PMID:25730858

  16. Objectives and Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segalman, D.J.

    1998-11-30

    I have recently become involved in the ABET certification process under the new system - ABET 2000. This system relies heavily on concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM). It encourages each institution to define its objectives in terms of its own mission and then create a coherent program based on it. The prescribed steps in setting up the new system at an engineering institution are: o identification of constituencies G definition of mission. It is expected that the department's mission will be consistent with that of the overall institution, but containing some higher resolution language appropriate to that particular discipline of the engineering profession. o statement of objectives consistent with the mission 3G~~\\vED " enumeration of desired, and preferably measurable, outcomes of the process that would ~ `=. verify satisfaction of the objectives. ~~~ 07 !398 o establish performance standards for each outcome. o creation of appropriate feedback loops to assure that the objectives are still consistent with Q$YT1 the mission, that the outcomes remain consistent with the objectives, and that the curriculum and the teaching result in those outcomes. It is my assertion that once the institution verbalizes a mission, enumerated objectives naturally flow from that mission. (We shall try to demonstrate by example.) Further, if the mission uses the word "engineer", one would expect that word also to appear in at least one of the objectives. The objective of producing engineers of any sort must -by decree - involve the presence of the ABET criteria in the outcomes list. In other words, successful satisfaction of the ABET items a-k are a necessary subset of the measure of success in producing engineers. o We shall produce bachelor level engineers whose training in the core topics of chemical (or electrical, or mechanical) engineering is recognized to be among the best in the nation. o We shall provide an opportunity for our students to gain a significant exposure to biomedical topics and the integration of those topics with chemical (electrical or mechanical) engineering. o We shall provide unique opportunities for our students to work with clinicians and researchers in hospitals and other medical institutions. combined criteria a-k of ABET and 1-6 of AICHE (or IEEE or ASME) in some sensible manner. Here I have just estimated the number of distinct criteria that would be extracted from the AICHE paragraphs. These criteria are necessarily included because of the objective to producing chemical (electrical or mechanical) engineers. every student who desires an internship or independent study at a medical institution will be placed. a majority of our students will take either the FE exam or the M-CAT exam. demonstrating a commitment to professionalism and to life-long learning. a majority of our students will go on to graduate school or other post-graduate school. (I do not assert that this sort of outcome is appropriate to all excellent schools. In the case of this hypothetical school though, this outcome might be a reasonable expectation.) medical schools will rank our school as among the best from which to admit

  17. 49 CFR 30.11 - Use of solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DENIAL OF PUBLIC WORKS CONTRACTS TO SUPPLIERS OF GOODS AND SERVICES OF COUNTRIES THAT...engineering, or other services directly related to the preparation for, or performance...the contract shall be canceled at no cost to the Government, unless a waiver...

  18. Religious Music, the Public Schools, and the Establishment Clause: A Review of Federal Case Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranmore, Jeff; Fossey, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Various issues relating to education and religion continue to appear in federal court. One issue that is most relevant to music educators is the use of religious music in school music curriculum. Although no federal guidelines exist as to what is acceptable usage, a number of federal cases have addressed the various issues, from the use of…

  19. Distributed Object Medical Imaging Model

    CERN Document Server

    Noor, Ahmad Shukri Mohd

    2009-01-01

    Digital medical informatics and images are commonly used in hospitals today,. Because of the interrelatedness of the radiology department and other departments, especially the intensive care unit and emergency department, the transmission and sharing of medical images has become a critical issue. Our research group has developed a Java-based Distributed Object Medical Imaging Model(DOMIM) to facilitate the rapid development and deployment of medical imaging applications in a distributed environment that can be shared and used by related departments and mobile physiciansDOMIM is a unique suite of multimedia telemedicine applications developed for the use by medical related organizations. The applications support realtime patients' data, image files, audio and video diagnosis annotation exchanges. The DOMIM enables joint collaboration between radiologists and physicians while they are at distant geographical locations. The DOMIM environment consists of heterogeneous, autonomous, and legacy resources. The Common...

  20. Conscientious objection in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerva, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The law regulating abortion in Italy gives healthcare practitioners the option to make a conscientious objection to activities that are specific and necessary to an abortive intervention. Conscientious objectors among Italian gynaecologists amount to about 70%. This means that only a few doctors are available to perform abortions, and therefore access to abortion is subject to constraints. In 2012 the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF EN) lodged a complaint against Italy to the European Committee of Social Rights, claiming that the inadequate protection of the right to access abortion implies a violation of the right to health. In this paper I will discuss the Italian situation with respect to conscientious objection to abortion and I will suggest possible solutions to the problem. PMID:24861043

  1. Compact cosmic objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data are discussed obtained using the method of superfar radiointerferometry. High angular resolution of radiointerferometers with superlong bases has made compact radiosources placed inside and beyond the Galaxy accessable for investigations. Outer galactic objects with extraordinarily active nuclei have been found. Seyfert galaxies 3C84(NGC 1275) in the Perseus constellation and 3C 345 quasar in the Hercules constellation are objects with active nuclei. In the nuclei of separate quasars extraordinarily active processes take place which are accompanied by outflow of clouds of relativistic particles. The velocity of these particles exceeds the light velocity. Measurements with high angular resolution performed in the shortest wave of the centimeter range (1.35 cm) have permitted to find the double nucleus in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1275. The superfar radiointerferometry has made interesting discoveries when studying gas-dust galactic nebular. Laser sources that emit bright and narrow lines of hydroxyl and water vapour are found in them

  2. DOLIB: Distributed Object Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (Distributed Object Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual shared memory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed global array is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of using DOLIB include: dynamic allocation and freeing of huge (gigabyte) distributed arrays, both C and FORTRAN callable interfaces, and the ability to mix shared-memory and message-passing programming models for ease of use and optimal performance. DOLIB is independent of language and compiler extensions and requires no special operating system support. DOLIB also supports automatic caching of read-only data for high performance. The virtual shared memory support provided in DOLIB is well suited for implementing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques. We have also used DOLIB to create DONIO (Distributed Object Network I/O Library), which obtains over a 10-fold improvement in disk I/O performance on the Intel Paragon.

  3. Objective noise characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, O.

    2014-01-01

    The noise in an electron microscope (EM) image is determined by the dose of electrons, the detection efficiency of the scattered electrons and the properties of the object under the microscope. At present, the amount of noise in EM images is often determined manually. Unfortunately, this method has proven to be inadequate for certain types of images and it does not suffice when the noise should be detected automatically. Another method is based on taking multiple images and obtaining for each...

  4. Near Earth Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    The word planet comes from Greek planetes, wanderers, because the planets appear to wander across the celestial sphere, contrary to the fixed stars. This thesis presents several methods for using this motion to distinguish between stars and solar system objects in order to detect and track NEOs, Near Earth Objects: Asteroids and comets following paths that bring them near the Earth. NEOs have collided with the Earth since its formation, some causing local devastation, some causing global climate changes, yet the threat from a collision with a near Earth object has only recently been recognised and accepted. The European Space Agency mission Gaia is a proposed space observatory, designed to perform a highly accurate census of our galaxy, the Milky Way, and beyond. Through accurate measurement of star positions, Gaia is expected to discover thousands of extra-solar planets and follow the bending of starlight by the Sun, and therefore directly observe the structure of space-time. This thesis explores several aspects of the observation of NEOs with Gaia, emphasising detection of NEOs and the quality of orbits computed from Gaia observations. The main contribution is the work on motion detection, comprising a comparative survey of five different motion detection tests, one of which is proved to be optimal among all translation invariant and symmetric tests.

  5. Development of Three-Dimensional Completion of Complex Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soska, Kasey C.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) object completion, the ability to perceive the backs of objects seen from a single viewpoint, emerges at around 6 months of age. Yet, only relatively simple 3D objects have been used in assessing its development. This study examined infants' 3D object completion when presented with more complex stimuli. Infants…

  6. One Hand, Two Objects: Emergence of Affordance in Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Anna M.; Flumini, Andrea; Natraj, Nikhilesh; Wheaton, Lewis A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies on affordances typically focus on single objects. We investigated whether affordances are modulated by the context, defined by the relation between two objects and a hand. Participants were presented with pictures displaying two manipulable objects linked by a functional (knife-butter), a spatial (knife-coffee mug), or by no relation. They…

  7. Distributed Object Medical Imaging Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shukri Mohd Noor

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital medical informatics and images are commonly used in hospitals today. Because of the interrelatedness of the radiology department and other departments, especially the intensive care unit and emergency department, the transmission and sharing of medical images has become a critical issue. Our research group has developed a Java-based Distributed Object Medical Imaging Model(DOMIM to facilitate the rapid development and deployment of medical imaging applications in a distributed environment that can be shared and used by related departments and mobile physiciansDOMIM is a unique suite of multimedia telemedicine applications developed for the use by medical related organizations. The applications support realtime patients' data, image files, audio and video diagnosis annotation exchanges. The DOMIM enables joint collaboration between radiologists and physicians while they are at distant geographical locations. The DOMIM environment consists of heterogeneous, autonomous, and legacy resources. The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA, Java Database Connectivity (JDBC, and Java language provide the capability to combine the DOMIM resources into an integrated, interoperable, and scalable system. The underneath technology, including IDL ORB, Event Service, IIOP JDBC/ODBC, legacy system wrapping and Java implementation are explored. This paper explores a distributed collaborative CORBA/JDBC based framework that will enhance medical information management requirements and development. It encompasses a new paradigm for the delivery of health services that requires process reengineering, cultural changes, as well as organizational changes.

  8. The Relationship between Craig Interpolation and Recursion-Free Horn Clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Ru?mmer, Philipp; Hojjat, Hossein; Kuncak, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Despite decades of research, there are still a number of concepts commonly found in software programs that are considered challenging for verification: among others, such concepts include concurrency, and the compositional analysis of programs with procedures. As a promising direction to overcome such difficulties, recently the use of Horn constraints as intermediate representation of software programs has been proposed. Horn constraints are related to Craig interpolation, w...

  9. The Age Factor in L2 Acquisition : An empirical investigation into the choice of +/-- human relative pronouns by Spanish learners of English and the resetting of parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar, Mª A?ngeles

    2001-01-01

    A positive approach to Second Language (L2) acquisition is to follow Chomsky's (1981) Principles and Parameters theory. Following the latest approach of the Minimalist Program (Chomsky 1995), the question of whether language acquisition involves the acquisition of morphological features that define a particular language is discussed. We would also like to examine age-related effects (Birdsong 2000) and L2 development in the acquisition of one particular linguistic phenomenon, relative clauses...

  10. LAS CLAUSULAS CLAIMS MADE EN EL CONTRATO DE SEGURO DE RESPOSABILIDAD CIVIL / THE CLAUSES "CLAIMS MADE" IN THE INSURANCE CONTRACT OF TORTS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mónica Lucía, Fernández Muñoz.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available La reforma al Código del Comercio introducida a través del artículo 4 de la Ley 39 de 1997, destaca la legislación colombiana entre muchas otras legislaciones del mundo, por la admisión de la modalidad de aseguramiento bajo el concepto de cláusulas claims made. Sin embargo, dicha innovación ha signi [...] ficado una notable revolución generando las más duras críticas ya que involucra la vulneración de los derechos de los asegurados frente a una evidente ventaja de los intereses de las compañías aseguradoras. Los cuestionamientos que se han suscitado alrededor de las cláusulas claims made, por la doctrina y la jurisprudencia internacionales han sido impulsados, entre otros argumentos, por las nuevas tendencias de los derechos de los consumidores, llegándose a debatir incluso su validez y a cuestionarse su legalidad. Si bien se han venido presentando diversas propuestas para dar solución a los serios problemas que este tipo de cláusulas traen consigo, se hace inminente la necesidad de tomar decisiones prontas y eficaces a efecto de impedir los abusos y violaciones que involucran el pacto de este tipo de cláusulas. En tal sentido, se considera oportuno no solo, abrir el debate en términos de abusividad e ineficacia de dichas cláusulas, sino también, analizar la posible procedencia de la denominada excepción de inconstitucionalidad. Abstract in english The reform made to the Commerce Code introduced by the article 4 of the Law 389 of 1997, distinguished the Colombian legislation from many other legislations around the globe, due to the fact that it admits the measure of insurance under the concept of claims made causes. This innovation has created [...] a revolution generating strong criticisms because it involves the vulnerability of the rights of the insured person generating evident advantages to the insurance companies. The discussions that have been generated around the claims made clauses, by the international doctrine and jurisprudence have been impelled, within other arguments, by the new tendencies of modem legislation that take into consideration the rights of consumers, putting into discussion even the validity and the lawfulness of this article. Many propositions have been made to try to find solutions to the serious problems that these types of clauses generate. It is now necessary to make efficient decisions in order to prevent abuses and violations caused by these clauses. It is considered suitable to open a debate the abusiveness and inefficiency of this clause analyzing at the same time the possible origin of the denominated exception of in constitutionality.

  11. The duty to negotiate in good faith and the enforceability of short-term natural gas clauses in production sharing agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exploitation of natural gas resources not associated with oil production, poses legal and ethical problems for some countries. This document examines various international oil contracts, especially Production Sharing Agreements (PSA), to establish how short-term gas provisions can be exploited. In particular the issue of breaching a PSA by failing to negotiate in good faith on such a project is debated, showing how clearly this duty falls on the government party. International oil companies are urged to create contracts which allow them to enforce short-term PSA gas clauses. (UK)

  12. Visual Jokes about Christmas and Santa Claus on the Internet - Why and Why not?

    OpenAIRE

    Guntis Pakalns

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses a collection of Christmas-related images and video clips found on the Internet. The author started collecting this material in 2005, since that time the material in the form of a PowerPoint presentation has been shown to diverse audiences discussing the context (mainly from the perspective of a folklore researcher) while observing the reaction of the audience.The central part of the article is devoted to a brief overview of the most characteristic groups of the jokes (wi...

  13. NSTA: Teaching Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning about science isn't always easy, and teaching various concepts can be quite vexing at times, particularly for newer teachers. Stepping in to provide a bit of assistance, the National Science Teachers Association has created these helpful science objects that provide a bit of a refresher course in each area. Created in partnership with organizations like NASA, NOAA, and the GE Foundation, these interactive features cover Newton's First, Second, and Third Laws, the origins of the universe, and the universe outside our own solar system. Visitors can also search to discover features that cover coral reef ecosystems, the different kinds of energy, and the ocean's affect on weather and climate.

  14. Nursing Objects Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Created and maintained by Mesa Community College this large collection of material offers hands on tools and learning objects and would be of great use to nursing faculty, staff and students alike. The easy to navigate site is well organized with a topical set of links including assessments, systems, concepts, disciplines, basics and pharmacology. There is also a search box which remains displayed no matter where a user roams on the site. By navigating through the menu and choosing from topical areas like hematology, cardiac or neurological, users can then go on to explore case studies, assessments, diagnostic tools, patient teaching and much more.

  15. Remote viewing of objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An object in a nuclear power plant is viewed through a radiation-proof shield by means of an entrance lens, optic fibre bundle and exit lens. The optic fibre bundle being heated to ensure thermostabilization of its light conducting properties in the presence of ionising radiation. Heating is by an electric heating coil. Alternatively, heating may be by argon itself heated by an electric heating element, a coating of resistive heating material, or absorption of neutrons in the material of the fibres or a coating therefor. Viewing may be on a CRT screen. (author)

  16. Two copepod species largely confused: Asterocheres echinicola (Norman, 1868) and A. violaceus (Claus, 1889). Taxonomical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandera, M. Eugenia; Conradi, Mercedes

    2009-12-01

    Due to its extremely brief description, Asterocheres echinicola (Norman, 1868) has been confused with some Asterocheres species such as Asterocheres suberitis Giesbrecht, 1897, Asterocheres parvus Giesbrecht, 1897 and Asterocheres latus (Brady, 1872). Furthermore, this species has been considered conspecific with Cyclopicera lata (Brady, 1872) and Asterocheres kervillei Canu, 1898. The objective of this paper is to study the syntypes of Asterocheres echinicola deposited in the Museum of Natural History of London together with abundant material from this and other institutions. Re-examination of these syntypes revealed that Asterocheres echinicola was conspecific with the currently known Asterocheres species, A. violaceus. Therefore, this latter species should be considered as a junior synonym of the former. The specimens described by Brady as Cyclopicera lata represent distinctively Asterocheres echinicola (= Asterocheres violaceus) and are identical to Sars’s Ascomyzom parvum and to Giesbrecht’s Asterocheres echinicola. We propose to rename Cyclopicera lata as Asterocheres latus (Brady, 1872), and raise Sars’ Ascomyzon latus, a species which is different from Asterocheres echinicola (= Asterocheres violaceus) and from Asterocheres latus (= Cyclopicera lata), as a new species. In this paper, we not only redescribe both species A. echinicola and A. latus, but also compare them with their previous descriptions, with the new material available and with their congeners. The redescription of Asterocheres latus revealed new specific differences between this species and Asterocheres kervillei, a species considered as synonymous of Asterocheres latus for almost 40 years. We strongly recommend that these differences are sufficient to consider these two species different. Finally, we analyzed the implications of all these taxonomical changes with respect to the diversity of the hosts utilized by these copepods and their geographical distribution.

  17. MDSplus Objects - Python Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MDSplus is a data acquisition and analysis software package used widely throughout the international fusion research community. During the past year, an important set of enhancements were designed under the project name of 'MDSobjects' which would provide a common, powerful application programming interface (API) to MDSplus in programming languages with object oriented capabilities. This paper will discuss the Python language implementation of this API and some of the capabilities that this implementation provides for data storage and retrieval using the MDSplus system. We have implemented a new MDSplus Python module which exposes the MDSplus objects features to the language. The internal MDSplus programming language, TDI, has also been enhanced to be able to invoke Python commands from the TDI language. Now that Python is aware of the complex data structures in MDSplus such as Signals, the language becomes a very good candidate for applications ranging from data acquisition device support to analysis and visualization. This document is composed of an abstract followed by the presentation slides. (authors)

  18. MDSplus Objects - Python Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manduchi, G. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Padua (Italy); Fredian, T. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Littleton, NH (United States); Stillerman, J. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2009-07-01

    MDSplus is a data acquisition and analysis software package used widely throughout the international fusion research community. During the past year, an important set of enhancements were designed under the project name of 'MDSobjects' which would provide a common, powerful application programming interface (API) to MDSplus in programming languages with object oriented capabilities. This paper will discuss the Python language implementation of this API and some of the capabilities that this implementation provides for data storage and retrieval using the MDSplus system. We have implemented a new MDSplus Python module which exposes the MDSplus objects features to the language. The internal MDSplus programming language, TDI, has also been enhanced to be able to invoke Python commands from the TDI language. Now that Python is aware of the complex data structures in MDSplus such as Signals, the language becomes a very good candidate for applications ranging from data acquisition device support to analysis and visualization. This document is composed of an abstract followed by the presentation transparencies. (authors)

  19. MDSplus Objects - Python Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredian, T. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Littleton, NH (United States); Manduchi, G. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Padua (Italy); Stillerman, J. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2009-07-01

    MDSplus is a data acquisition and analysis software package used widely throughout the international fusion research community. During the past year, an important set of enhancements were designed under the project name of 'MDSobjects' which would provide a common, powerful application programming interface (API) to MDSplus in programming languages with object oriented capabilities. This paper will discuss the Python language implementation of this API and some of the capabilities that this implementation provides for data storage and retrieval using the MDSplus system. We have implemented a new MDSplus Python module which exposes the MDSplus objects features to the language. The internal MDSplus programming language, TDI, has also been enhanced to be able to invoke Python commands from the TDI language. Now that Python is aware of the complex data structures in MDSplus such as Signals, the language becomes a very good candidate for applications ranging from data acquisition device support to analysis and visualization. This document is composed of an abstract followed by the presentation slides. (authors)

  20. Capturing Near Earth Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Baoyin, Hexi; Li, Junfeng; 10.1088/1674-4527/10/6/008

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Near Earth Objects (NEOs) have been attracting great attention, and thousands of NEOs have been found to date. This paper examines the NEOs' orbital dynamics using the framework of an accurate solar system model and a Sun-Earth-NEO three-body system when the NEOs are close to Earth to search for NEOs with low-energy orbits. It is possible for such an NEO to be temporarily captured by Earth; its orbit would thereby be changed and it would become an Earth-orbiting object after a small increase in its velocity. From the point of view of the Sun-Earth-NEO restricted three-body system, it is possible for an NEO whose Jacobian constant is slightly lower than C1 and higher than C3 to be temporarily captured by Earth. When such an NEO approaches Earth, it is possible to change its orbit energy to close up the zero velocity surface of the three-body system at point L1 and make the NEO become a small satellite of the Earth. Some such NEOs were found; the best example only required a 410m/s increase in velocit...