WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Resumptive elements aid comprehension of object relative clauses: evidence from Persian.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT The current study investigated the role of resumption in the interpretation of object relative clauses (RCs) in Persian-speaking children. Sixty-four (N=64) children aged 3;2-6;0 (M=4;8) completed a referent selection task that tested their comprehension of subject RCs, gapped object RCs, and object RCs containing either a resumptive pronoun or an object clitic. The results showed that the presence of a resumptive element (pronoun or clitic) had a facilitative effect on children's processing of object RCs. In both cases object RCs with resumptive elements were interpreted more accurately than gapped subject and object RCs, suggesting that resumptive elements ease processing burden in syntactically complex contexts because they provide local cues to thematic role assignment. PMID:23920156

Rahmany, Ramin; Marefat, Hamideh; Kidd, Evan

2014-07-01

2

Teaching Relative Clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of what has become the standard approach to teaching relative clauses. To overcome the disadvantages, proposes a hierarchical teaching method that begins by introducing noun phrases that contain relative clauses before comparing them with similar structures in the learner's first language. Shows an…

Nakamori, Takayuki

2002-01-01

3

Processing Relative Clauses in Supportive Contexts  

Science.gov (United States)

Results from two self-paced reading experiments in English are reported in which subject- and object-extracted relative clauses (SRCs and ORCs, respectively) were presented in contexts that support both types of relative clauses (RCs). Object-extracted versions were read more slowly than subject-extracted versions across both experiments. These…

Fedorenko, Evelina; Piantadosi, Steve; Gibson, Edward

2012-01-01

4

Cláusulas relativas con duplicación del objeto (Relative clauses with duplicated object  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El presente trabajo se ocupa del análisis de la variación que se registra en los siguientes ejemplos: (1 “una concepción que no la tiene consciente” versus (2 “una concepción que no tiene consciente”. El ejemplo (1 presenta en la cláusula relativa, a diferencia de (2, un clítico (llamado “reasuntivo” o “pleonástico” por otros autores que retoma de manera explícita el antecedente. Se propone que el hablante señala el antecedente nuevamente con el clítico cuando ha colocado un tema y todavía no está seguro de lo que quiere decir al respecto, porque va a introducir información nueva y/o producir algún contraste. En esos casos el hablante redistribuye la progresión Tema/Rema de la cláusula relativa, recreando la distribución de la información propia de la oración. Sobre un cuerpo de datos auténticos se hace un análisis cuantitativo y cualitativo. (This paper analyzes the variation between the following sentences: (1 “una concepción que no la tiene consciente” and (2 “una concepción que no tiene consciente”. Case (1, unlike (2, shows a relative clause with a clitic (called “reassumptive” or “pleonastic” that explicitly retrieves the antecedent. We propose the speaker reiterates the antecedent with the clitic, when having established the theme, he is not yet sure about what he wants to say, because he intends to introduce new information, or because he intends to produce a contrast. In those cases, the speaker distributes again the Theme/Rheme progression of the relative clause recreating the informative progression of a sentence. We make a quantitative and qualitative analysis of authentic data.

Claudia Borzi

2009-06-01

5

Celtic influence on English relative clauses?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Content: 1. The Problem 2. Preusler 3. Molyneux 4. Discussion 4.1. Preusler on Contact Clauses 4.2. Preusler on Prepositional Relatives 4.3. Preusler on Genitival Relative Clauses 4.4. Molyneux 5. Conclusions

Poppe, Erich

2006-01-01

6

Acquisition of French Relative Clauses Reconsidered.  

Science.gov (United States)

Argues that early French relative clauses (RCs) with gaps involve movement of the relative head. The article suggests that children lack relative operators for maturational reasons. This account shows that the deviation of early RCs from adult grammar is due to this lacuna and is compensated for in a manner consistent with Universal Grammar. (39…

Guasti, Maria Teresa

1995-01-01

7

Semantic Bias in the Acquisition of Relative Clauses in Japanese  

Science.gov (United States)

This study analyzes the acquisition of relative clauses in Japanese to determine the semantic and functional characteristics of children's relative clauses in spontaneous speech. Longitudinal data from five Japanese children are analyzed and compared with English data (Diessel & Tomasello, 2000). The results show that the relative clauses produced…

Ozeki, Hiromi; Shirai, Yasuhiro

2010-01-01

8

The Acquisition of Relative Clauses by Tamil Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports the findings of a cross-sectional study that investigated the acquisition of relative clauses by 27 Tamil-speaking children who ranged in age from 2 years and 11 months to 6 years and 6 months. A picture-cued production task was used to elicit relative clauses from the child subjects. (Author/VWL)

Lakshmanan, Usha

2000-01-01

9

Chinese EFL Learners’ Acquisition of English Relative Clauses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study attempts to investigate Chinese English learners’ difficulty in the acquisition of English relative clauses (RCs. In addressing the objective, the present researcher employed two tests, sentence combination test and grammaticality judgment test, which were borrowed from Izumi (2003, to examine the learners’ knowledge of English RCs. 40 subjects participated in the study. In the sentence combination test, the subjects were instructed to combine two sentences together in a way so that relative clause would be formed. In the grammaticality judgment test, the subjects were supposed to judge the grammaticality of the given sentences and provide corrections for those they regard ungrammatical. Data obtained from the two tests reveal that RCs modifying object are much easier than those modifying subject. The study found full support for the Kuno’s (1974 PDH, which proposes that center-embedding is more difficult to acquire than right-embedding due to short term memory limitations. The other two hypotheses, Keenan and Comrie’s (1977 Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy Hypothesis (NPAH, and Hamilton’s (1994 Subject-Object Hierarchy Hypothesis (SOHH were not borne out.

Qing-Qiang Gao

2014-05-01

10

A U-Shaped Relative Clause Attachment Preference in Japanese.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents results from a self-paced reading experiment in Japanese investigating attachment preferences for relative clauses to three ensuing potential nominal heads. Results are discussed in light of two types of parsing models. (Author/VWL)

Miyamoto, Edson T.; Gibson, Edward; Pearlmutter, Neal J.; Aikawa, Takako; Miyagawa, Shigeru

1999-01-01

11

Relative clause interpretation preferences in Spanish and English.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five experiments measured reading time for Spanish and English sentences containing a complex NP followed by a relative clause (e.g., ... "the daughter of the colonel who had an accident"). As has been previously reported, Spanish sentences were read more rapidly when the content of the relative clause forced it to modify the first of the two NPs in the complex NP ("the daughter") than when it modified the second NP ("the colonel"). Their English translations showed no difference in reading time. This preference to take the first noun as a host for the relative clause in Spanish occurred whether the relative clause was disambiguated by morphological gender marking or by its content. The results are generally consistent with the claim that the Late Closure parsing strategy does not apply universally across languages. However, we propose an alternative hypothesis, namely, that the Late Closure parsing strategy fails to apply across all phrase types within a language, and applies to relative clauses in neither English nor Spanish. Instead, a different principle, which we term the "construal hypothesis", accounts for processing of phrases such as relative clauses which do not play the role of a "primary relation" within a sentence. PMID:8072346

Carreiras, M; Clifton, C

1993-01-01

12

[Japanese learners' processing time for reading English relative clauses analyzed in relation to their English listening proficiency].  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined Japanese university students' processing time for English subject and object relative clauses in relation to their English listening proficiency. In Analysis 1, the relation between English listening proficiency and reading span test scores was analyzed. The results showed that the high and low listening comprehension groups' reading span test scores do not differ. Analysis 2 investigated English listening proficiency and processing time for sentences with subject and object relative clauses. The results showed that reading the relative clause ending and the main verb section of a sentence with an object relative clause (such as "attacked" and "admitted" in the sentence "The reporter that the senator attacked admitted the error") takes less time for learners with high English listening scores than for learners with low English listening scores. In Analysis 3, English listening proficiency and comprehension accuracy for sentences with subject and object relative clauses were examined. The results showed no significant difference in comprehension accuracy between the high and low listening-comprehension groups. These results indicate that processing time for English relative clauses is related to the cognitive processes involved in listening comprehension, which requires immediate processing of syntactically complex audio information. PMID:21735725

Oyama, Yoshinori

2011-06-01

13

The Syntactic Derivations of Split Antecedent Relative Clause Constructions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, I propose a syntactic derivation for Split Antecedent Relative Clause Constructions such as Mary met a man and John met a woman who knew each other well. I claim that the two antecedents of such a construction are originally two conjuncts of a coordinate nominal. Then each has undergone a sideward movement, landed in a new working site, and been selected by a verb. After that, a coordinate clausal complex is constructed. In the old working site, a complex nominal is also constructed, in which the relative clause takes the remnant coordinate nominal as its antecedent. Finally, the complex nominal adjoins to the coordinate clausal complex. This analysis shows how the freedom in the selection of the landing site gained from sideward movement makes the syntactic derivations of this special type of relative clause construction possible, while at the same time avoiding the problems of the alternative three-dimensional analysis.

Niina Ning Zhang

2007-06-01

14

Processing Relative Clauses by Hungarian Typically Developing Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Hungarian is a language with morphological case marking and relatively free word order. These typological characteristics make it a good ground for testing the crosslinguistic validity of theories on processing sentences with relative clauses. Our study focused on effects of structural factors and processing capacity. We tested 43 typically…

Kas, Bence; Lukacs, Agnes

2012-01-01

15

Elicited Production of Relative Clauses in Children with Williams Syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

Relative clauses have been implicated alternately as a strength and a weakness in the language of people with Williams Syndrome (WS). To clarify the facts, an elicited production test was administered to 10 people with WS (age 10-16 years), 10 typically developing children (age 4-7 years), and 12 typically developing adults. Nearly every WS…

Zukowski, Andrea

2009-01-01

16

Disambiguating Information and Memory Resources in Children's Processing of Italian Relative Clauses  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the role of number agreement on verb and of animacy in the comprehension of subject and object relative clauses in 51 monolingual Italian-speaking children, mean age 9:33, tested through a self-paced listening experiment with a final comprehension question. A "digit span test" and a "listening span test" were also administered to…

Arosio, Fabrizio; Guasti, Maria Teresa; Stucchi, Natale

2011-01-01

17

Processing relative clauses by Hungarian typically developing children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hungarian is a language with morphological case marking and relatively free word order. These typological characteristics make it a good ground for testing the crosslinguistic validity of theories on processing sentences with relative clauses. Our study focussed on effects of structural factors and processing capacity. We tested 43 typically developing children in two age groups (ages of 4;11–7;2 and 8;2–11;4) in an act-out task. Differences in comprehension difficulty between different w...

Kas, Bence; Luka?cs, A?gnes

2012-01-01

18

Number dissimilarities facilitate the comprehension of relative clauses in children with (Grammatical) Specific Language Impairment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates whether number dissimilarities on subject and object DPs facilitate the comprehension of subject- and object-extracted centre-embedded relative clauses in children with Grammatical Specific Language Impairment (G-SLI). We compared the performance of a group of English-speaking children with G-SLI (mean age: 12;11) with that of two groups of younger typically developing (TD) children, matched on grammar and receptive vocabulary, respectively. All groups were more accurate on subject-extracted relative clauses than object-extracted ones and, crucially, they all showed greater accuracy for sentences with dissimilar number features (i.e., one singular, one plural) on the head noun and the embedded DP. These findings are interpreted in the light of current psycholinguistic models of sentence comprehension in TD children and provide further insight into the linguistic nature of G-SLI. PMID:23806292

Adani, Flavia; Forgiarini, Matteo; Guasti, Maria Teresa; VAN DER Lely, Heather K J

2014-07-01

19

Profiling relative clause constructions in children with specific language impairment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract This study highlights the importance of error analysis in providing a comprehensive profile of an individual's grammatical ability with regard to relative clause (RC) constructions. The aim was to identify error patterns in the production of RCs by English-speaking, school-aged children with specific language impairment (SLI) and to relate them to their level of competence with these structures. Children with SLI (mean age?=?6;10, n?=?32) and two control groups - a typically developing group matched for age (mean age?=?6;11, n?=?32) and a younger typically developing group (mean age?=?4;9, n?=?20), repeated sentences containing RCs that represented a range of syntactic roles. Data are presented on three distinct error patterns - the provision of simple sentences, obligatory relativizer omission and RC conversions. Each is related to the level of competence on RCs that each child has achieved. PMID:24521402

Frizelle, Pauline; Fletcher, Paul

2014-06-01

20

Acquisition of English Relative Clauses by Persian EFL Learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to their structural complexity, English relative clauses (RCs are difficult to acquire for EFL learners. This study tested the predictions of seven major hypotheses proposed on the difficulty order of SS, SO, OO, and OS RCs for Persian EFL learners with different levels of English proficiency. Data was collected from 39 university students aged between 18 and 22 who performed a sentence comprehension task which consisted of 20 items involving reversible animate head nouns, with 5 items representing each of the SS, SO, OO, and OS RCs. Results showed that the determining factor in the difficulty order of the RCs for Persian EFL learners is the role of the head noun in the RC rather than the position of relativization, as some hypotheses predict. Moreover, Persian EFL learners opt for a linear parsing strategy in processing RC structures. Besides, Proficiency level did not bring about a drastic change in the difficulty order of the RCs.

Hamideh Marefat

2009-10-01

 
 
 
 
21

Second Language Relative Clause Acquisition: An Examination of Cross-Linguistic Influences  

Science.gov (United States)

English is a Right Branching Direction (RBD) language in which relative clauses appear to the right of the head noun. In contrast, Chinese primarily relies on a Left Branching Direction (LBD) in which relative clauses premodify the head. Many studies have provided evidence that the differences in principal branching directions between the two…

Chang, Yuh-Fang

2004-01-01

22

The Doughnut That Fell into the Dishwater: Thoughts about Teaching Relative Clauses and Other Structures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Relative clauses are useful for differentiating clearly between similar ideas. Exercises that demonstrate this purpose of relative clauses, or other grammatical constructions, can provide useful practice for students. More generally, an approach to teaching grammar that asks what purpose a structure serves can enable teachers to design exercises…

Nelson, Eric

1984-01-01

23

Claiming a territory: Relative clauses in journal descriptions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study of evaluative features of language has been a productive source of insights into academic discourse in recent years, revealing the ways that persuasion is achieved in a range of genres. This research, however, has largely focused on word-level features, such as stance adverbials and evaluative adjectives (e.g. Hunston and Thompson, 2000), with the evaluative potential of clause-level resources under-explored. Nor has research had much to tell us about the more peripheral genres of t...

2010-01-01

24

Experience and Generalization in a Connectionist Model of Mandarin Chinese Relative Clause Processing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sentences containing relative clauses are well known to be difficult to comprehend, and they have long been an arena in which to investigate the role of working memory in language comprehension. However, recent work has suggested that relative clause processing is better described by ambiguity resolution processes than by limits on extrinsic working memory. We investigated these alternative views with a Simple Recurrent Network (SRN model of relative clause processing in Mandarin Chinese, which has a unique pattern of word order across main and relative clauses and which has yielded mixed results in human comprehension studies. To assess the model’s ability to generalize from similar sentence structures, and to observe effects of ambiguity through the sentence, we trained the model on several different sentence types, based on a detailed corpus analysis of Mandarin relative clauses and simple sentences, coded to include patterns of noun animacy in the various structures. The model was evaluated on16 different relative clause subtypes. Its performance corresponded well to human reading times, including effects previously attributed to working memory overflow. The model’s performance across a wide variety of sentence types suggested that the seemingly inconsistent results in some prior empirical studies stemmed from failures to consider the full range of sentence types in empirical studies. Crucially, sentence difficulty for the model was not simply a reflection of sentence frequency in the training set; the model generalized from similar sentences and showed high error rates at points of ambiguity. The results suggest that SRNs are a powerful tool to examine the complicated constraint-satisfaction process of sentence comprehension, and that understanding comprehension of specific structures must include consideration of experiences with other similar structures in the language.

YalingHsiao

2013-10-01

25

La duplicació pronominal en les relatives locatives en català [Pronominal doubling in locative relative clauses in Catalan  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper analyses the use of the pronoun "hi" in locative relative clauses in Catalan, which is considered a case of clitic doubling. How it behaves depends on whether it is a defining or non-defining relative clause.The nature of focus of the non-defining clause justifies the presence of the pronoun which acts as a topic’s resumptive pronoun, whereas the pronoun appears in a defining relative clause when the sentence is characterised by specificity. On the other hand, there are two relevant syntactic factors in the appearance of the pronoun "hi": the first is the aim to avoid confusions with the pronoun "hi" with syntactic function – not only in non-defining but also in defining relative clauses – and the second is the fact that the explicit presence of verbal arguments contributes specificity to the defining relative clause. These two factors are also relevant with regard to the acceptability of combinations of the pronoun "hi" with other pronouns.

Albareda, Cristina

2013-01-01

26

Transfer in L3 Sentence Processing: Evidence from Relative Clause Attachment Ambiguities  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigates transfer effects in two groups of German learners of French for ambiguous relative clause (RC) constructions. The first learner group had started to learn French before English, whereas the second group had started to learn English before French. The RC attachment ambiguity is interesting to study possible transfer…

Rah, Anne

2010-01-01

27

The Effect of Mechanical and Meaningful Production of Output on Learning English Relative Clauses  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined the effectiveness of mechanical and meaningful production of output on the learning of English relative clauses by Iranian EFL learners. The study involved two groups of learners (N = 36) who completed a pre-test, three activities and a post-test over an 8-week period. The collaborative dialogue of the participants was…

Abadikhah, Shirin

2012-01-01

28

Zum didaktischen Ort der Behandlung von ausgerahmten Relativsaetzen (On the Place in Foreign Language Teaching of External Relative Clauses)  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes, adducting many examples, the external relative clause, discussing it from the pedagogical standpoint. This type of clause, belonging to normal speech, and not being merely a stylistic matter, belongs in the basic course. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

Schleyer, Walter

1974-01-01

29

To Raise or Not to Raise: the Case of Finnish Restrictive Relative Clauses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Relative clause constructions have received very little attention in Finnish grammars. The purpose of this paper is to provide some tools for distinguishing between restrictive and appositive relatives in Finnish, and to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the “standard” and raising analyses of restrictive relatives in that language. It shows that both lines of analysis are problematic for the analysis of a highly inflectional language like Finnish. The paper also contains a brief account of relative clause extraposition constructions: it points out problems in Kayne’s (1994 and Bianchi’s (1999 analysis of such data, and proposes instead that extraposition constructions, just like possessive constructions, contain a D head selecting another DP as its complement.

Satu Manninen

2003-01-01

30

Effects of Form-Focused Instruction on the Learning of Relative Clauses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem Statement: Relativization is an important grammatical sub-system for second language learners. This study intended to explore the effects of different types of L2 instruction on the learning of English relative clauses by Persian learners.Purpose: The differential effects of the three types of treatment (i.e., Focus on FormS, Focus on Meaning, Focus on Form on the learning of English relativization was investigated.Methods: Intact university classes of English learners were divided into three groups receiving different forms of instruction. Accuracy of the target form was measured by two distinct tasks of sentence combining test and grammaticality judgment test.Findings and Results: The results of the two tests show improvement of all three groups, the focus on form treatment group outperformed the other two on both tests, however. This study also suggests that learners’ attention to detailed analysis of form facilitates the learning of relative clauses in this context.

Seyed Jalal Abdolmanafi (Rokni

2012-04-01

31

The function of Spanish and English relative clauses in discourse and their segmentation in Centering Theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study explores the processing of English and Spanish relative clauses (RCs) in discourse. The main goal is to understand how RCs contribute to the textuality of a text and, on the basis of this understanding, to propose the most adequate method for their segmentation in Centering Theory. Centering Theory is a theory of discourse structure that models textual cohesion from one “utterance” to the next. The definition of “utterance” is thus instrumental to the application of the Cen...

Wiesemann, Loreley Marie

2009-01-01

32

Second Language Acquisition of Complex Structures: The Case of English Restrictive Relative Clauses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the formation of Restrictive Relative Clauses (RRC) in Greek and English and investigates the acquisition of English RRCs by advanced Greek learners. On the assumption that L1 Greek and L2 English exhibit parametrically different choices as regards RRC formation which are associated with abstract syntactic features, the current experiment addresses the question of whether parameter resetting is possible in adult L2 acquisition. The results have shown that non-native speake...

Prentza, Alexandra I.

2012-01-01

33

Review of Hendery (2012), Relative Clauses in Time and Space: A Case Study in the Methods of Diachronic Typology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Review of Hendery, Rachel. 2012. Relative Clauses in Time and Space: A case study in the methods of diachronic typology. (Typological Studies in Language.) Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 281 pp. Hardbound: ISBN 978 90 272 0682 4 | €95.00 / $143.00 | e-Book: ISBN 978 90 272 7368 0 | €95.00 / $143.00

Pat-el, Na Ama The University Of Texas

2013-01-01

34

A Reading-Time Study of the Main Verb versus Reduced Relative Clause Ambiguity Resolution by English Learners in Taiwan  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a self-paced reading task, the study aimed to investigate (a) whether English learners in Taiwan immediately resolve main verb versus reduced relative clause ambiguities in a similar way as native English speakers and (b) whether the learners at various English proficiency levels show diverse profiles. With analyses and syntheses of reading…

Yang, Pi-Lan; Shih, Su-Chin

2013-01-01

35

48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01...to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS...environment, energy and water efficiency,...

2010-10-01

36

Optional Clauses in the Individual Working Contract  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Labor Code, that is Law no. 53 from 2003 in Romanian legal framework, mainly rules the individual working contract. This is the first time when the working contract is established to have not only general clauses, but also some particular clauses. The employers and employees may now negotiate special rights and liabilities, such us competitions clause, mobility clause, confidentiality clause and the clause concerning continuous professional forming. Besides these clauses that are in the Labor Code, the parts may also agree on different clauses that are not in a specific law, but are permitted and used in practice, such as the clause of conscience, the objective clause and the clause concerning intellectual property rights.

MIHAELA TOFAN

2006-01-01

37

Some modifications of temporal relation in the sentence with the temporal clause  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is the modification of temporal relation in the complex sentence with the temporal clause. At the functional different Serbian language corpus the author notices the next types of modified temporality: excepted locational simultaneity complete or partial, and excepted locationalorientational posteriority formalized by the structure V SAMO/JEDINO/OSIM/SEM/IZUZEV(ONDA KAD VSub, and excepted locational simultaneity/excepted terminativity formalized by the structure V SAMO DOK (Neg VSub; sutuational locational simultaneity complete or partial formalized by the structure V U SITUACIJI / U SLU?AJU KAD VSub, with the posibility to be exceptivly modified in the structure V IZUZEV U SITUACIJI / U SLU?AJU KAD VSub; situational-concessive locational simultaneity complete or partial formalized by the structure V (?AK I (ONDA KAD VSub; situational-conditional locational-orientational posteriority formalized by the structure V TEK (ONDA KAD VSub, and situational-conditional orientational posteriority formalized by the structure V TEK POŠTO VSub or V TEK NAKON ŠTO VSub and situational-conditional orientational quantified posteriority formalized by the structure V Quant TEK POŠTO VSub, and finaly situational-conditional terminativity formalized by the structure (Neg V SVE DOK Neg VSub. It can ocure sporadically supstitutiv temporality formalized by the structure V DetTemp (UMESTO KAD VSub, and consecutive-adversative temporality formalized by the structure KAD VSub A (ONDA V. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178004: Sintaksi?ka, semanti?ka i pragmati?ka istraživanja standardnog srpskog jezika

Antoni? Ivana N.

2013-01-01

38

Visualizing abstract objects and relations  

CERN Document Server

Pictorial representations are very useful for humans to understand complicated relations or structures. This is the reason that the user interface of information systems is strongly required to visualize many kinds of information in a wide variety of graphical forms. At present, however, only some very specialized visualization techniques have been developed probably because the generality in the visualization has not been appreciated correctly. This book presents a visualization framework for translating abstract objects and relations, typically represented in textual forms, into pictorial re

Kamada, Tomihisa

1989-01-01

39

Fundamentals of Object Databases Object-Oriented and Object-Relational Design  

CERN Document Server

Object-oriented databases were originally developed as an alternative to relational database technology for the representation, storage, and access of non-traditional data forms that were increasingly found in advanced applications of database technology. After much debate regarding object-oriented versus relational database technology, object-oriented extensions were eventually incorporated into relational technology to create object-relational databases. Both object-oriented databases and object-relational databases, collectively known as object databases, provide inherent support for object

Dietrich, Suzanne

2010-01-01

40

Cataclysmic variables and related objects  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume begins with an introductory chapter on general properties of cataclysmic variables. Chapters 2 through 5 of Part 1 are devoted to observations and interpretation of dwarf novae and nova-like stars. Chapters 6 through 10, Part 2, discuss the general observational properties of classical and recurrent novae, the theoretical models, and the characteristics and models for some well observed classical novae and recurrent novae. Chapters 11 through 14 of Part 3 are devoted to an overview of the observations of symbiotic stars, to a description of the various models proposed for explaining the symbiotic phenomenon, and to a discussion of a few selected objects, respectively. Chapter 15 briefly examines the many unsolved problems posed by the observations of the different classes of cataclysmic variables and symbiotic stars.

Hack, Margherita; Ladous, Constanze; Jordan, Stuart D. (editor); Thomas, Richard N. (editor); Goldberg, Leo; Pecker, Jean-Claude

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

To Comma or Not to Comma: The Mathematics of the Relative Clause, All Types, via Boole and Venn  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper is part of a large scale project in Intelligence Science. The nearterm aim of this project is the increased digitalization of the analysis of human intelligence in as far as intelligence is rational. The ultimate aim is to draw up a complete and definitive map of the totality of rational human intelligence or rational thought and language. As far as the mathematical component of this project is concerned, two contributions have appeared so far, the following: 1 “The Monty Hall Problem and beyond: Digital-Mathematical and Cognitive Analysis in Boole’s Algebra, Including an Extension and Generalization to Related Cases”, in Advances in Pure Mathematics (www.scirp.org/journal/apm, Vol. 1, No. 4 (July 2011, pp. 136-154; 2 “Higher Variations of the Monty Hall Problem (3.0, 4.0 and Empirical Definition of the Phenomenon of Mathematics, in Boole’s Footsteps, as Something the Brain Does”, in Advances in Pure Mathematics (www.scirp.org/journal/apm, Vol. 2, No. 4 (July 2012, pp. 243-273, including an appendix by Richard D. Gill. The present paper pertains to the linguistics branch of the project. It is concerned with linguistic cognition. The focus of this paper is on a single phenomenon, the relative clause and all its possible types. The method of analyzing the structure of rational thought and language that is advanced in this paper and applied to the relative clause claims validity on the following three grounds. First, it is mathematical and digital in the strictest possible sense. Second, the empirical data to which this mathematical method is applied are fully accessible in language. After all, all that is essential to that structure must be exteriorized in sounds or written symbols for the structure to be transported from one brain to another and understood. The structure must somehow be encoded in its entirety in the airwaves or light beams that travel to a hearer’s ear or a reader’s eye. And these airwaves and light beams are accessible to observation. Third, general inspiration and encouragement can be drawn from the fact that it has already been long established that the brain teems with digital activity, including in the prefrontal cortex. In sum, there is every incentive for dissecting language in search of the digital structure of rational thought and its expression in language. The design of the present paper is to demonstrate that the structure can be found.

Leo Depuydt

2012-10-01

42

Cláusulas relativas, nominalización y constituyentes en pemón (Caribe) / Relative clauses, nominalization, and constituency in Pemón (Cariban)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este trabajo describe las cláusulas relativas (CRs) en pemón, lengua caribe de Venezuela. Como es difícil caracterizar universalmente las CRs basándose exclusivamente en propiedades sintácticas, se requiere una definición semántica. Usando tal definición, Keenan & Comrie (1977) postulan que la relat [...] ivización siempre accede a un segmento continuo dentro de la jerarquía: Sujeto > Objeto Directo > Objeto Indirecto > Oblicuo > Poseedor > Objeto de Comparación. En pemón son relativizables todas las posiciones de la jerarquía usando básicamente estrategias de nominalización deverbal y de pronominal resuntivo, pero abunda la discontinuidad entre antecedente y cláusula relativa. Exploramos si el constituyente [FN [CR

José, Álvarez.

43

Covered Clause Elimination  

CERN Multimedia

Generalizing the novel clause elimination procedures developed in [M. Heule, M. J\\"arvisalo, and A. Biere. Clause elimination procedures for CNF formulas. In Proc. LPAR-17, volume 6397 of LNCS, pages 357-371. Springer, 2010.], we introduce explicit (CCE), hidden (HCCE), and asymmetric (ACCE) variants of a procedure that eliminates covered clauses from CNF formulas. We show that these procedures are more effective in reducing CNF formulas than the respective variants of blocked clause elimination, and may hence be interesting as new preprocessing/simplification techniques for SAT solving.

Heule, Marijn; Biere, Armin

2010-01-01

44

An object relations approach to cult membership.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several pieces of literature suggest that most individuals who are successfully integrated into cults do not typically manifest symptoms of mental illness. However, the public is often taken aback by the lack of autonomy displayed by cult members and is bewildered by the ability of the cult leader and other cult members to transform fundamental personality functioning in an individual Within the framework of an object relations model of personality structure and functioning as delineated by Otto Kernberg and using existing data concerning the cult experience, the authors engage in a theoretical exploration of cult membership. The authors propose that some behaviors exhibited by cult members may be a function of an object relations-level regression, which is exemplified by the activation of primitive defensive operations that are usually relegated to those suffering with severe personality disorders. PMID:22329338

Salande, Joseph D; Perkins, David R

2011-01-01

45

REBOL: Relative Expression-Based Object Language  

Science.gov (United States)

REBOL, the Relative Expression-Based Object Language, is a fascinating new scripting language developed at REBOL Technologies by Carl Sassenrath, the architect of the Amiga operating system. REBOL is intended to be used for Internet programming and, among its many features, it contains very easy-to-use networking capabilities. An example is this tiny line of REBOL code which retrieves a web page and emails it to a (fictitious) email address: "send fred@cs.wisc.edu read

Sassenrath, Carl.

46

Desempeño de consultas SQL relacionales y objeto-relacionales en Oracle / The performance of relational and object-relational SQL queries when using Oracle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo se muestra por medio de consultas específicas el comportamiento del modelo relacional y objeto-relacional, y se presenta así un estudio en el que se mide y a la vez se compara la eficiencia (tiempo, uso de recursos del sistema) de operaciones que involucran cláusulas GROUP BY, subco [...] nsultas (con las cláusulas IN y EXISTS), y reuniones (joins). Abstract in english This article presents a study in which the performance of several queries involving GROUP BY clause, sub-queries (using IN and EXISTS clauses) and joins are measured and compared by means of specific queries. The behaviour of relational and object-relational models is also shown. [...

Francisco Javier, Moreno; Guillermo, Ospina Romero; Rafael, Larios Restrepo.

47

Learning in Organizations - an Object Relations Perspective  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Learning in organizations â?? an object relations perspective As a researcher with a primary interest in the study of learning environments in organizations I have conducted a number of empirical research projects primarily concerning work places in the state sector. The aim of the research has been to qualify the understanding of learning conditions in working life and to develop a multifaceted theoretical and methodological basis for the analysis focussing on action- and behaviour, symbolic interaction and discourse (Andersen & Andersen 2007; Andersen & Trojaborg 2007). The aim of this paper is to supplement this analytical basis with an analysis based on psychoanalytical theory. I shall present and clarify some theoretical and methodological ideas about the discovery and understanding of psychodynamic defence mechanisms in organizations. My intention is to achieve a better understanding of organizations as learning environments for the employees. Theoretically I draw on object relations theory. Within this tradition the theoretical point of departure is twofold: the study of work conditions in hospitals carried out by Menzies (1975) and Hinschelwood & Skogstad (2000). With regard to the first mentioned, Menzies combines two types of analysis. In the first type she understands the development of work organizations as the development of psycho-social defence systems. Psycho-social defence systems are composed of many specific defence techniques that are developed by the staff during a long period of time as institutionalized work practices. In the second type of analysis she reflects on the different defence techniques from a psychoanalytical theoretical point of view: Which kind of unconscious â??rationalityâ?? do they possess, which consequences do they have for the quality of work and which positive and negative impact do they have with respect to the staff itself? With regard to Hinschelwood & Skogstad (2000) they are introduced to further develop and contrast Menziesâ?? theoretical ideas. Instead of only emphasizing the connection between the work organization and the defence techniques applied unconsciously by the staff, Hinschelwood & Skogstad also emphasize the need to understand how the organizational culture is co-produced by psychodynamic defence mechanisms, how the defence techniques are underpinned by defensive myths and how the defence mechanisms contribute to the creation of specific atmospheres in organizations. In the empirical part of the paper I shall combine my inspiration from Menzies (defence systems and defence techniques) with my inspiration from Hinschelwood & Skogstad (defensive myths and specific atmospheres) to demonstrate different aspects of psycho-social defence that may be elicited by applying different perspectives of understanding and different empirical methods. The case for the empirical analyses will be the learning environment amongst teachers at HTX, a general and technical degree for students in their last three years of high school. The case study aims to uncover the social learning environment in an organization marked by extensive organizational and pedagogical transformation processes. I conclude the paper by discussing some advantages and disadvantages of the psychoanalytical organizational research tradition focussing on the empirical analysis of learning environments in contrast to other theoretical and methodological paradigms. References Andersen, A. S. & Andersen, V. (2007): Learning Environments for Academic Employees: Possibilities and Hurdles. Human Ressource Development Review (HRDR). Andersen, A. S. & Trojaborg, R. S. (2007). Life History and Learning in Working Life. In West, L.; Alheit, P.; Andersen, A. S. & Merrill, B. (eds.), Using Biographical and Life History Approaches in the Study of Adult and Lifelong Learning: European Perspectives. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang â?? Europäischer Verlag der Wissenschaften. Hinshelwood, R. D. & Skogstad, W. (2000),Observing Organisations â?? Anxiety, defence and culture in health care. Great Britain: Rou

Andersen, Anders Siig

48

The Relationships between Grammatical Sensitivity, Noticing of Recasts and Learning of Korean Object Relative Clauses through Conversational Interaction  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the input and interaction research paradigm, how learners' individual differences play a role in using learning opportunities during interaction has become one of the main areas of investigation. Recasts have also received much attention in interaction research. This paper explores the extent to which individual differences in grammatical…

Ahn, Seongmee

2012-01-01

49

Assessing Object Relations and Social Cognitive Correlates of Eating Disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigated relation between eating disorder and disturbances in object relations and cognitive structure in undergraduate female college students (n=183). Results indicated that eating disorder was predicted by measures of object relations disturbance and cognitive structure. (Author/ABL)

Heesacker, Roberta S.; Neimeyer, Greg J.

1990-01-01

50

Guideline No. 3 under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978: automatic adjustment clauses standard  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On April 24, 1980, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Notice of Proposed Voluntary Guideline for the Automatic Adjustment Clauses Standard Under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (45 FR 29234, May 1, 1980). This Notice discusses in the Preamble the public comments DOE received and presents the guideline in its final form as the Appendix. The objective of an automatic adjustment clause is to mitigate the effect on utility revenues of relatively volatile cost items which a utility purchases on a continual basis. The most important of such cost items is fuel, and this guideline focuses primarily on an automatic fuel-adjustment clause. The following are discussed: provision of incentives for effective fuel and power procurement practices; provision of incentives for economic and efficient generation of electricity; incorporation of automatic-adjustment charges into the rate structure; incentives for displacement of scarce fossil fuels in the generation mix; accounting and management audits; design of an automatic-adjustment clause; and need for an automatic-adjustment clause.

None

1980-12-01

51

Optimize Claus control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

According to Ford, Bacon and Davis Texas, Inc., processing-plant operators can best control Claus sulfur-recovery units by the on-stream analysis of the tail gas to regulate the air/acid-gas ratio. Reliable on-stream analyzers make it possible to take advantage of the nearly linear relationship that exists between the air/acid-gas ratio and the difference between hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide in the tail gas. A theoretical review of this relationship compared with other possibilities supports this control selection.

Taggart, G.W.

1980-04-01

52

Effects of Action Relations on the Configural Coding between Objects  

Science.gov (United States)

Configural coding is known to take place between the parts of individual objects but has never been shown between separate objects. We provide novel evidence here for configural coding between separate objects through a study of the effects of action relations between objects on extinction. Patients showing visual extinction were presented with…

Riddoch, M. J.; Pippard, B.; Booth, L.; Rickell, J.; Summers, J.; Brownson, A.; Humphreys, G. W.

2011-01-01

53

Development of Information Technology of Object-relational Databases Design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is concerned with the development of information technology of object-relational databases design and study of object features infological and logical database schemes entities and connections.

Valentyn A. Filatov

2012-12-01

54

An approach to computing direction relations between separated object groups  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Direction relations between object groups play an important role in qualitative spatial reasoning, spatial computation and spatial recognition. However, none of existing models can be used to compute direction relations between object groups. To fill this gap, an approach to computing direction relations between separated object groups is proposed in this paper, which is theoretically based on Gestalt principles and the idea of multi-directions. The approach firstly triangulates the two object groups; and then it constructs the Voronoi Diagram between the two groups using the triangular network; after this, the normal of each Vornoi edge is calculated, and the quantitative expression of the direction relations is constructed; finally, the quantitative direction relations are transformed into qualitative ones. The psychological experiments show that the proposed approach can obtain direction relations both between two single objects and between two object groups, and the results are correct from the point of view of spatial cognition.

H. Yan

2013-06-01

55

An approach to computing direction relations between separated object groups  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Direction relations between object groups play an important role in qualitative spatial reasoning, spatial computation and spatial recognition. However, none of existing models can be used to compute direction relations between object groups. To fill this gap, an approach to computing direction relations between separated object groups is proposed in this paper, which is theoretically based on gestalt principles and the idea of multi-directions. The approach firstly triangulates the two object groups, and then it constructs the Voronoi diagram between the two groups using the triangular network. After this, the normal of each Voronoi edge is calculated, and the quantitative expression of the direction relations is constructed. Finally, the quantitative direction relations are transformed into qualitative ones. The psychological experiments show that the proposed approach can obtain direction relations both between two single objects and between two object groups, and the results are correct from the point of view of spatial cognition.

H. Yan

2013-09-01

56

An approach to computing direction relations between separated object groups  

Science.gov (United States)

Direction relations between object groups play an important role in qualitative spatial reasoning, spatial computation and spatial recognition. However, none of existing models can be used to compute direction relations between object groups. To fill this gap, an approach to computing direction relations between separated object groups is proposed in this paper, which is theoretically based on gestalt principles and the idea of multi-directions. The approach firstly triangulates the two object groups, and then it constructs the Voronoi diagram between the two groups using the triangular network. After this, the normal of each Voronoi edge is calculated, and the quantitative expression of the direction relations is constructed. Finally, the quantitative direction relations are transformed into qualitative ones. The psychological experiments show that the proposed approach can obtain direction relations both between two single objects and between two object groups, and the results are correct from the point of view of spatial cognition.

Yan, H.; Wang, Z.; Li, J.

2013-09-01

57

Categorizing object-actions relations from semantic scene graphs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work we introduce a novel approach for detecting spatiotemporal object-action relations, leading to both, action recognition and object categorization. Semantic scene graphs are extracted from image sequences and used to find the characteristic main graphs of the action sequence via an exact graph-matching technique, thus providing an event table of the action scene, which allows extracting object-action relations. The method is applied to several artificial and real action scenes con...

2010-01-01

58

The Relation between Infants' Activity with Objects and Attention to Object Appearance  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors examined the relation between infants' motor skills and attention to objects features in events in which a hand acted on an object (e.g., squeezed it) that then produced a sound (e.g., squeaking). In this study, 6- to 7-month-old infants (N = 41) were habituated to a single event and then tested with changes in appearance and action.…

Perone, Sammy; Madole, Kelly L.; Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Carey, Maeve; Oakes, Lisa M.

2008-01-01

59

The Relation Between Infants’ Activity with Objects and Attention to Object Appearance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examined the relation between motor skills and attention to objects features in events in which a hand acted on an object (e.g., squeezed it) that then produced a sound (e.g., squeaking). Six- to 7-month-old infants (N = 41) were habituated to a single event and then tested with changes in appearance and action. Infants robustly responded to changes in action, but as a group did not respond to changes in appearance. Moreover, more skilled activity with objects during naturalistic play was ...

Perone, Sammy; Madole, Kelly L.; Ross-sheehy, Shannon; Carey, Maeve; Oakes, Lisa M.

2008-01-01

60

Iterative Relative Fuzzy Connectedness for Multiple Objects with Multiple Seeds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we present a new theory and an algorithm for image segmentation based on a strength of connectedness between every pair of image elements. The object definition used in the segmentation algorithm utilizes the notion of iterative relative fuzzy connectedness, IRFC. In previously published research, the IRFC theory was developed only for the case when the segmentation was involved with just two segments, an object and a background, and each of the segments was indicated by a singl...

Ciesielski, Krzysztof Chris; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Saha, Punam K.; Zhuge, Ying

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Learning Spatial Relations between Objects From 3D Scenes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ongoing cognitive development during the first years of human life may be the result of a set of developmental mechanisms which are in continuous operation [1]. One such mechanism identified is the ability of the developing child to learn effective preconditions for their behaviours. It has been suggested [2] that through the application of behaviours involving more than one object, infants begin to learn about the relations between objects.

Fichtl, Severin; Alexander, John

2013-01-01

62

Contrast source inversion method applied to relatively high contrast objects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a contrast source inversion method for microwave tomography with improved performance with respect to the popular multiplicative regularized contrast source inversion (MR-CSI) method when the contrast of the object under study is relatively high. More precisely, some shortcomings of MR-CSI which may prevent it from performing adequately on higher contrast objects are outlined. The proposed method does not suffer from such shortcomings, but necessitates the tuning of parameters. However, a unique set of parameters can be used in a wide variety of experimental conditions related to a given application. Simple guidelines to determine their values are provided

2011-07-01

63

48 CFR 3.1004 - Contract clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 3.1004 Contract clauses. ...the clause at FAR 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct, in solicitations and contracts...

2010-10-01

64

48 CFR 503.1004 - Contract clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...SERVICES ADMINISTRATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 503.1004 Contract clauses. (a) The FAR threshold for the clause at 52.203-14,...

2010-10-01

65

48 CFR 203.1004 - Contract clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 203.1004 Contract clauses. ...include the FAR clause 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct. (b)(2)(ii) Insert...

2010-10-01

66

How to start a V2 declarative clause: Transfer of syntax vs. information structure in L2 German  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses V2 word order and information structure in Swedish, German and non-native German. Concentrating on the clause-initial position of V2 declaratives, the ‘prefield’, we investigate the extent of L1 transfer in a closely related L2. The prefield anchors the clause in discourse, and although almost any type of element can occur in this position, naturalistic text corpora of native Swedish and native German show distinct language-specific patterns. Certain types of elements are more common than others in clause-initial position, and their frequencies in Swedish differ substantially from German (subjects, fronted objects, certain adverbs. Nonnative cross-sectional production data from Swedish learners of German at beginner, intermediate and advanced levels are compared with native control data, matched for age and genre (Bohnacker 2005, 2006, Rosén 2006. The learners’ V2 syntax is largely targetlike, but their beginnings of sentences are unidiomatic. They have problems with the language-specific linguistic means that have an impact on information structure: They overapply the Swedish principle of “rheme later” in their L2 German, indicating L1 transfer at the interface of syntax and discourse pragmatics, especially for structures that are frequent in the L1 (subject-initial and expletive-initial clauses, and constructions with (‘so’ and object det (‘it/that’.

Christina Rosén

2007-02-01

67

Quantum Theory of Ur Objects and General Relativity  

CERN Multimedia

The quantum theory of ur objects postulates that all existing physical objects and their properties are constructed from fundamental objects called ur objects being described by an element of a two dimensional complex Hilbert space. This approach is based on the assumption that quantum theory represents a theory being constitutive for human knowledge. Physical objects are characterized by the information one can gain from them being contained in the quantum state they are described by. Since every Hilbert space can be represented as a tensor product of two dimensional Hilbert spaces, one is led to the ur objects. According to this approach relativistic quantum fields and thus the existence of a Minkowski space-time are the consequence of an iteration of a quantization of binary alternatives. In the original formulation there was only obtained a description of quantum fields on a flat Minkowski space-time. In this work there is made the attempt to incorporate general relativity. Thus the existence of a (3+1)-d...

Kober, Martin

2009-01-01

68

La influencia del contexto referencial en la resolución de ambigüedades oración completiva/oración de relativo: Evidencia en español / The influence of referential context in solving ambiguities in complete sentences/relative clause: Evidence from Spanish  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El presente trabajo analiza la resolución de ambigüedades sintácticas en español. De manera más específica, compara el procesamiento de oraciones con ambigüedad estructural (parsing) entre oración de relativo y oración completiva, con y sin contexto referencial, utilizando una metodología de tiempos [...] de lectura autoadministrada. El objetivo era comprobar si los resultados encontrados en lectores de habla inglesa se obtenían también en español. Los tiempos de lectura para las frases que contenían tanto oraciones completivas como oraciones de relativo fueron significativamente menores cuando iban precedidas de un contexto referencial. Estos resultados aportan evidencia congruente con los modelos referenciales (Crain & Steedman, 1985; Altmann & Steedman, 1988), que apuestan por un procesamiento basado en el uso de múltiples fuentes de información a la hora de resolver ambigüedades, y no solo en información de tipo estructural, tal y como sugieren los modelos modulares (Frazier, 1987; Mitchell, 1994; Mitchell, Cuetos, Corley & Brysbaert, 1995; Cuetos, Mitchell & Corley, 1996; Frazier & Clifton, 1996; Carreiras & Meseguer, 1999). Abstract in english This paper analyzes the resolution of syntactic ambiguities in Spanish. Specifically, it compares the processing of sentences with structural ambiguity between relative clause and complete sentences, with and without referential context, using different methods of self-administered reading times. Th [...] e aim was to check whether the results found in English-speaking readers is also obtained in Spanish. The reading times for sentences containing both complete sentences and relative clauses were significantly smaller when they were preceded by a referential context. These results provide evidence consistent with referential models (Crain & Steedman, 1985; Altmann & Steedman, 1988) supporting a process based on the use of multiple sources of information when solving ambiguities, and not just on structural information as suggested by modular models (Frazier, 1987; Mitchell, 1994; Mitchell, Cuetos, Corley & Brysbaert, 1995; Cuetos, Mitchell & Corley, 1996; Frazier & Clifton, 1996; Carreiras & Meseguer, 1999).

Alonso, Laura; Antonio León, José.

69

An object oriented relational database for assessing radioactive material transport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

EnviroView is an object oriented relational database used for inventory control and monitoring locations of radioactive and toxic materials. Visual images of local sites, building locations, floor plans, and room interiors can be accessed by the user. In the event of a release to the environment, analytical, finite element, and boundary element based dispersion models are available to calculate atmospheric transport, groundwater transport, and/or transport within a building interior. The software runs on 386/486 PCs and workstations

1993-04-25

70

A universal charge-radius relation for spherical objects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Pair creation in supercritical electric fields limits the net charge of any static, spherical object from subatomic to astrophysical scales. The maximal charge of a sphere is proportional to radius for radii below 104 fm and to radius squared for larger radii. The physics behind the universal charge-radius relation will be described and possible consequences of relevance for the workshop discussed. (author)

2009-01-18

71

Santa Claus, Ga./Ind.  

Science.gov (United States)

The towns of Santa Claus, Ga., (top) and Santa Claus, Ind. (bottom), are shown in these two images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite. They are the only two Santa Claus towns in the United States with post offices and zip codes, although there are 11 towns with this name in the United States. Santa Claus, Ga. is located in Toombs County, and has a population of 237. Santa Claus, Ind. is located in Spencer County, and has a population of 2,041. Its name was accepted by the United States Postal Service in 1856. The images were acquired on July 3, 2000 (top) and June 16, 2001 (bottom), respectively.With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the technologies needed to explore the universe and search for life beyond our home planet.Size: 10.5 by 6.75 kilometers (6.5 by 4.2 miles) Location: 32.2 degrees North latitude, 82.3 degrees West longitude; and 38.1 degrees North latitude, 86.9 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1, 2 and 3 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: June 16, 2001 and July 3, 2000

2002-01-01

72

Chemical Compositions of RV Tauri Stars and Related Objects  

CERN Multimedia

We have undertaken a comprehensive abundance analysis for a sample of relatively unexplored RV Tauri and RV Tauri like stars to further our understanding of post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB) evolution. From our study based on high resolution spectra and grid of model atmospheres, we find indications of mild s-processing for V820 Cen and IRAS 06165+3158. On the other hand, SU Gem and BT Lac exhibit the effects of mild dust-gas winnowing. We have also compiled the existing abundance data on RV Tauri objects and find that a large fraction of them are afflicted by dust-gas winnowing and now added by the present work, we find a small group of two RV Tauris showing mild s-process enhancement in our Galaxy. With two out of three reported s-process enhanced objects belonging to RV Tauri spectroscopic class C, these intrinsically metal-poor objects appear to be promising candidates to analyse the possible s-processing in RV Tauri stars.

Rao, S Sumangala

2013-01-01

73

EEG Signature of Object Categorization from Event-related Potentials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human visual system recognizes objects in a fast manner and the neural activity of the human brain generates signals which provide information about objects categories seen by the subjects. The brain signals can be recorded using different systems like the electroencephalogram (EEG). The EEG signals carry significant information about the stimuli that stimulate the brain. In order to translate information derived from the EEG for the object recognition mechanism, in this study, twelve various categories were selected as visual stimuli and were presented to the subjects in a controlled task and the signals were recorded through 19-channel EEG recording system. Analysis of signals was performed using two different event-related potential (ERP) computations namely the "target/rest" and "target/non-target" tasks. Comparing ERP of target with rest time indicated that the most involved electrodes in our task were F3, F4, C3, C4, Fz, Cz, among others. ERP of "target/non-target" resulted that in target stimuli two positive peaks occurred about 400 ms and 520 ms after stimulus onset; however, in non-target stimuli only one positive peak appeared about 400 ms after stimulus onset. Moreover, reaction times of subjects were computed and the results showed that the category of flower had the lowest reaction time; however, the stationery category had the maximum reaction time among others. The results provide useful information about the channels and the part of the signals that are affected by different object categories in terms of ERP brain signals. This study can be considered as the first step in the context of human-computer interface applications. PMID:24083136

Daliri, Mohammad Reza; Taghizadeh, Mitra; Niksirat, Kavous Salehzadeh

2013-01-01

74

The role of action representations in thematic object relations.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent studies assessing the role of associative/event-based (thematic and categorical (taxonomic relations in the organization of object representations suggest that thematic relationships may influence the perceived similarity of manipulable artifacts. At the same time, evidence suggests that action knowledge is an important component of manipulable artifact representations. However, the role that action plays in processing thematic relationships between objects is unclear. In this study, we assessed healthy and left hemisphere stroke participants to explore three questions: 1. Do participants favor thematic relations involving action (Th+A, e.g., wine bottle – corkscrew, thematic relationships without action (Th-A, e.g., wine bottle – cheese, or taxonomic relationships (Tax, e.g., wine bottle – water bottle when choosing between them in an association judgment task? 2. Do the underlying constructs of event, action, and categorical relatedness implicitly determine the choices that participants make? 3. Does degraded action knowledge and/or damage to temporo-parietal cortex (a region of the brain associated with action representations reduce the influence of action on the choice task? Experiment 1 showed that explicit ratings of event, action, and categorical relatedness differentially predicted healthy participants’ choices, with action relatedness determining choices between Th+A and Th-A associations above and beyond event and categorical ratings. Experiment 2 focused more specifically on these Th+A vs. Th-A choices and demonstrated that participants with left temporo-parietal lesions, a brain region known to be involved in sensorimotor processing, were less likely than controls, and tended to be less likely than patients with lesions sparing that region, to implicitly use action knowledge in determining their choices. We conclude that action knowledge plays a critical role in processing of thematic relations for manipulable artifacts.

KonstantinosTsagkaridis

2014-03-01

75

Color-Inclination Relation of the Classical Kuiper Belt Objects  

CERN Multimedia

We re-examine the correlation between the colors and the inclinations of the Classical Kuiper Belt Objects (CKBOs) with an enlarged sample of optical measurements. The correlation is strong (rho=-0.7) and highly significant (>8 sigma) in the range 0-34 deg. Nonetheless, the optical colors are independent of inclination below ~12 deg, showing no evidence for a break at the reported boundary between the so-called dynamically "hot" and "cold" populations near ~5 deg. The commonly accepted parity between the dynamically cold CKBOs and the red CKBOs is observationally unsubstantiated, since the group of red CKBOs extends to higher inclinations. Our data suggest, however, the existence of a different color break. We find that the functional form of the color-inclination relation is most satisfactorily described by a non-linear and stepwise behavior with a color break at ~12 deg. Objects with inclinations >12 deg show bluish colors which are either weakly correlated with inclination or are simply homogeneously blue,...

Peixinho, Nuno; Jewitt, David

2008-01-01

76

Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the safeguard clause notified by Greece on genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Following a request of the European Commission, the European Food Safety Authority’s Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (EFSA GMO Panel evaluated the documentation submitted by Greece in support of its request for the prohibition of the placing on the market of the genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC. The EFSA GMO Panel notes that the majority of the publications referred to by Greece were already addressed by the EFSA GMO Panel in previous scientific outputs on maize MON 810 or other related insect-resistant genetically modified maize transformation events. In the remaining evidence provided by Greece, the EFSA GMO Panel could not identify any new data subject to scientific scrutiny or scientific information that would invalidate its previous risk assessments of maize MON 810. With regard to issues related to management and monitoring of maize MON 810, the EFSA GMO Panel refers to its recent recommendations for management and monitoring measures of maize MON 810. In conclusion, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that, based on the documentation submitted by Greece, there is no specific scientific evidence, in terms of risk to human and animal health or the environment, that would support the notification of a safeguard clause under Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC and that would invalidate the GMO Panel’s previous risk assessments of maize MON 810.

EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

2012-09-01

77

Chemical compositions of RV tauri stars and related objects  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Hemos emprendido un análisis de las abundancias químicas para una muestra de estrellas RV Tauri poco estudiadas, para mejorar nuestro entendimiento de la evolución estelar post-secuencia asintótica de las gigantes (post-AGB).Nuestro estudio se basa en espectros de alta resolución y en una malla de m [...] odelos atmosféricos. Encontramos indicaciones de un leve proceso-s para V820 Cen y IRAS 06165+3158. Por otra parte, SU Gem y BT Lac muestran los efectos de una ligera separación polvo-gas. Hemos reunido los datos existentes sobre las abundancias de objetos RV Tauri, y encontramos que una gran parte de ellos muestra efectos de separación polvo-gas. En nuestro estudio encontramos un pequeño grupo de estrellas RV Tauri galácticas con evidencia del proceso-s ligeramente aumentado. Dos de tres objetos con evidencia de proceso-s aumentado pertenecen a la clase C de objetos RV Tauri. Estos objetos, pobres en metales, son candidatos prometedores para el estudio del proceso-s en las estrellas RV Tauri. Abstract in english We have undertaken a comprehensive abundance analysis for a sample of relatively unexplored RV Tauri and RV Tauri like stars to further our understanding of post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB) evolution. From our study based on high resolution spectra and a grid of model atmospheres, we find ind [...] ications of mild s-processing for V820 Cen and IRAS 06165+3158. On the other hand, SU Gem and BT Lac exhibit the effects of mild dust-gas winnowing. We have also compiled the existing abundance data on RV Tauri objects and find that a large fraction of them are afflicted by dust-gas winnowing and aided by the present work, we find a small group of two RV Tauris showing mild s-process enhancement in our Galaxy. With two out of three reported s-process enhanced objects belonging to RV Tauri spectroscopic class C, these intrinsically metal-poor objects appear to be promising candidates to analyse the possible s-processing in RV Tauri stars.

S., Sumangala Rao; Sunetra, Giridhar.

78

A relational model for object-oriented designs.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper develops a mathematical characterisation of object-oriented concepts by defining an observation-oriented semantics for an object-oriented language (OOL) with a rich variety of features including subtypes, visibility, inheritance, dynamic binding and polymorphism. The language is expressive enough for the specification of object-oriented designs and programs. We also propose a calculus based on this model to support both structural and behavioural refinement of object-oriented desig...

2004-01-01

79

Relation between object properties and EMG during reaching to grasp.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to stably grasp an object with an artificial hand, a priori knowledge of the object's properties is a major advantage, especially to ensure subsequent manipulation of the object held by the hand. This is also true for hand prostheses: pre-shaping of the hand while approaching the object, similar to able-bodied, allows the wearer for a much faster and more intuitive way of handling and grasping an object. For hand prostheses, it would be advantageous to obtain this information about object properties from a surface electromyography (sEMG) signal, which is already present and used to control the active prosthetic hand. We describe experiments in which human subjects grasp different objects at different positions while their muscular activity is recorded through eight sEMG electrodes placed on the forearm. Results show that sEMG data, gathered before the hand is in contact with the object, can be used to obtain relevant information on object properties such as size and weight. PMID:23207412

Fligge, Nadine; Urbanek, Holger; van der Smagt, Patrick

2013-04-01

80

Vary speed of Claus blowers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Variable speed drives are uniquely applicable for use with the air blower in Claus sulfur recovery units (SRUs). Analysis shows the cost of variable speed drives is frequently justified on energy evaluation involving examination of the characteristics of SRUs and peculiarities of air blowers in SRU operation. Results of typical situations suggest that owners of SRUs used with gas plants should make an effort to establish duty cycles and look carefully at the variable speed option. This is particularly true if plans call for an SRU expansion or for occasional peaks of capacity. Experience in refinery SRU operation suggest that variable speed drives are usually justified. On the other hand, capital can be conserved by considering constant speed machines for standby duty. In addition to economy, variable speed drives have another powerful benefit because they operate as a highly linear, very responsive final control element in lieu of or in addition to a control valve, thus improving control of the tail gas composition.

Taggart, G.

1983-12-01

 
 
 
 
81

22 CFR 124.9 - Additional clauses required only in manufacturing license agreements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...required only in manufacturing license agreements. 124.9 Section 124.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL...OFF-SHORE PROCUREMENT AND OTHER DEFENSE SERVICES § 124.9 Additional clauses required only in...

2009-04-01

82

Designing role-based view for object-relational databases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a federated database system, a view mechanism is crucial since it is used to define exportable subsets of data ; to perform a virtual restructuring d ataset; and to construct the integrated schema. The view service in federated databa se systems must be capable of retaining as much semantic information as possible. The object-oriented ( 0 - 0 ) model was considered the suitable canonical data model since it meets the original criteria for canonical model selection. However, with the emerge...

2003-01-01

83

On Translating English Attributive Clauses into Chinese  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)


Translating English attributive clauses into Chinese is one of the most knotty tasks for translators. This paper compares the syntactic differences between English and Chinese, and explores the possible methods of translating English attributive clauses into Chinese. It is suggested that the translator should bear in mind the syntactic differences, correctly grasp the original meaning and conform to the Chinese expressing rules in translation.
Key words: English attrib...

Chen, Qi-min; Ke, Qun-sheng

2008-01-01

84

Factors Related to Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Preschool Children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined correlates of objectively measured physical activity (PA) in a diverse sample of preschool children (age 3–5 years; n=331). Accelerometer min·hr?1 of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and non-sedentary activity (NSA) were the outcome measures. Correlations among potential correlates and PA ranged from r= ? .12–0.26. Correlates in the final MVPA model were age, race, sex, BMI Z score, and parent perception of athletic competence, explaining 37% of the v...

Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Mciver, Kerry L.; Pate, Russell R.

2009-01-01

85

Minor planets and related objects. XV - Asteroid /1620/ Geographos  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of the light curves and color-phase and polarization-phase relations of Geographos according to observations over an eight-month period in 1969. The light curves are relatively smooth with two distinct maxima and minima. The largest amplitude of 2.03 mag is the largest observed on asteroids to date. The average B-V is 0.87 and the average U-B is 0.50. A laboratory model that best reproduced Geographos' light curves was a cylinder having hemispherical ends with a length to width ratio of 2.7; on the basis of this model and a relation of Bowell and Zellner (1973), Geographos was calculated to be approximately 1.50 km wide and 4.0 km long.

Dunlap, J. L.

1974-01-01

86

Comparison of time adjustment clauses between DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article examines time adjustment clauses, as they relate to time adjustment between standard terms of construction contracts. DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC were compared on the basis of how risks are allocated, how this may impact on the contractor’s pricing, and ease of understanding for each clause. ASTCC was found to be the most easily interpreted contract, followed by AS4000 and then NZS3910. These assessments were based on the following: a) whether each cont...

David Finnie

2013-01-01

87

Geometric objects related to the potential of electric charges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We derive explicit formulas for curvature and torsion of a line of the field of n electric charges. These formulas show that in general the torsion of a field line is not zero if n?3. We also propose a geometric interpretation of the derived formulas. In the second part of the paper we present an outline of a new description of equipotential surfaces of two and three electric charges. In this description the golden section appears in a natural way when two electric charges are equal. This approach also relates an equipotential surface of three charges to the classic surface containing twenty seven straight lines. (author)

1995-07-01

88

Proposed Framework which Uses Object Oriented Principles in Relational Systems: Structure and Formating (Part 2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our approach tries to overcome the limitations of so called “flat nature” of relational systems, in the actual context of actual relational database theories, database systems technologies and object oriented methodologies by proposing an MDA framework to map an object oriented (UML formalized model to object-relational structures of today’s database systems.

Catalin STRIMBEI

2006-01-01

89

The Information Structure of Adverbial Clauses in Chinese Discourse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated adverbial clauses in spoken as well as written Chinese discourse. The adverbial clauses in the spoken data were categorized into (i initial clauses that occur in the initial position with respect to their linked material across continuing intonation, (ii final clauses that occur in the final position with respect to their linked material across continuing intonation, and (iii final clauses that occur in the final position with respect to their linked material across final intonation. Those in the written data were classified into (i initial and (ii final clauses that occur in the initial or final clauses that occur in the initial or final position, respectively, with respect to their main clauses. An analysis of the spoken and written data shows that the temporal, conditional, and concessiveclauses are quite different from the other adverbial clauses. Specifically, the causal clauses commonly appear in the final position with respect to their associated material in the spoken data, while the initial and final causal clauses are nearly evenly distributed in the written data. The data suggest that temporal, conditional, and concessive clauses, like topics, are presupposed parts of their sentences; i.e., all of them may be thought of as establishing frameworks for the interpretation of propositions that follow, which seem to be prototypically textual in their functioning. By contrast, causal clauses in Chinese are noticeably distinct from other adverbial clauses not only in spoken data, but also in written data; they play interactional as well as textual roles in discourse linking.

Yu-Fang Wang

2006-06-01

90

Adding new clauses for faster local search  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A primary concern when using local search methods for CNF satisfiability is how to get rid of local minimas. Among many other heuristics, Weighting by Morris and Selman and Kautz works overwhelmingly better than others. Weighting increases the weight of each clause which is unsatisfied at a local minima. This paper introduces a more sophisticated weighting strategy, i.e., adding new clauses (ANC) that are unsatisfied at the local minima. As those new clauses, we choose resolvents of the clauses unsatisfied at the local minima and randomly selected neighboring clauses. The idea is that ANC is to make the slope of search space more smooth than the simple weighting. Experimental data show that ANC is faster than simple weighting: (1) When the number of variables is 200 or more, ANC is roughly four to ten times as fast as weighting in terms of the number of search steps. (2) It might be more important that the divergence of computation time for each try is much smaller in ANC than in weighting. (3) There are several possible reasons for ANC`s superiority, one of which is that ANC returns the same local minima much less frequently than weighting.

Cha, Byungki; Iwama, Kazuo [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

1996-12-31

91

Translating Circumstantial Clause of Arabic into Malay  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the function of circumstantial clause of Arabic for its translation into Malay. Circumstantial clause is among functional syntax in Arabic sentence structure. It is formed from the words or phrase in the sentence. This pattern does not seem to exist in the Malay grammar. In such circumstances, there is the difficulty to understand the meaning contained in a sentence correctly. Descriptive approach was used to analyze the circumstantial clause in Arabic. Comparative analysis is carried out on selected data of Arabic language with its translation in Malay. It is expected that there exist a need to understand the differences of these patterns in the work of the Arabic translation into Malay language.

Azman Che Mat

2014-06-01

92

[Intermittent claudication and quality of life. Psychometric validation of the French version of the CLAU-S questionnaire].  

Science.gov (United States)

CLAU-S is a disease-specific quality of life (QoL) scale for patients with intermittent claudication due to peripheral arterial disease of the lower limbs. Initially developed in Germany, the scale has been translated into French according to classical forward/backward methodology. The objective of this study was to test the validity of the French version of CLAU-S. In its current format, the CLAU-S scale evaluates 5 dimensions: "Daily Living"; "Pain"; "Social Life"; "Disease-specific anxiety"; and "Mood", for a total of 47 items. The QoL scores and clinical findings in 157 patients with intermittent claudication were analysed. Validation of the convergence and discriminatory power of the scale were confirmed. Analysis of structural validity showed grouping of items in accordance with initial scale construction and a clear separation between the different dimensions. Analysis of the internal reliability of the questionnaire confirmed the good internal coherence of these dimensions. Reproducibility of the scores over time was confirmed by test-retest analysis. In addition to the actual validation of CLAU-S, a new, innovative mathematical technique called Structural Modelling Equations was used on this QoL instrument. It related the causal structure of the QoL components in peripheral arterial disease of the lower limbs (stage 2). An indisputable causal relationship was demonstrated between clinical parameters, particularly walking distance, and the QoL components. The classical symptom-deficit-disability causal structure of disease- specific QoL questionnaires was also studied. In particular, we found an essential relationship between the Daily Living dimension and, to a lesser extent, the Social Life activities and Disease- specific anxiety dimension, and QoL. The Pain dimension proved to be an explanatory variable of the other QoL components without being directly related to QoL. Finally, the Mood dimension was a resultant variable of QoL and not an explanatory variable of QoL. This study therefore enabled validation of the psychometric properties of the French version of CLAU-S and also demonstrated the complementary roles of walking distance and QoL in the management of patients with intermittent claudication. PMID:10804390

Boccalon, H; Lehert, P; Comte, S

2000-04-01

93

A COMPARISON OF THE TURKIC TYPE RELATIVE CLAUSE TYPOLOGY WITH JAPANESE, KOREAN AND HUNGRAIAN TYPOLOGIES TÜRK D?L? SIFAT-F??LL? YAPI T?POLOJ?S?N?N JAPON, KORE VE MACAR T?POLOJ?LER? ?LE KAR?ILA?TIRILMASI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this present study, we dealt with relative clause typologies in the world languages in general and Turkic Type Relative Clause typology in particular. By doing this, we compared Turkish relative clause construction with Japanese, Korean and Hungarian ones, which are all considered in Uralic and Altaic Language Family. In doing this, we made use of Chomskian theories called Generative-Transformational Grammar and Governement and Binding Thoery. As is known, Chomsky declared that all languages have the same typolgy in the Deep Structure. The changes among languages are witnessed in Surface Structure. There is a transformation between deep structure and surface structure. It means that, a noun pharse can be moved to another place leaving an empty place behind by constructing a chain between the empty place and its antecedents (moved element. When we compared Turkic type relative clause typology with Japanese, Korean and Hungarian, we amasingly saw that the strategies are the same in these langauges. Bu çal??mada, dünya dillerinde önemli bir yere sahip olan s?fat-fiilli yap?lar?n tipolojilerini inceledik. Bunu yapmaktaki amac?m?z, Türk Dili Tipi S?fat-fiilli Yap? tipolojinsin dünya dilleri aras?ndaki yerini tespit etmek ve benzer tipolojiler ile kar??la?t?rmakt?r. Türk dili ile akraba oldu?u varsay?lan Japon, Kore ve Macar dillerini, s?fat-fiil tipolojileri aç?s?nda analiz ederek Türk Dili Tipolojisi ile olan benzerlikleri ortaya koymaya çal??t?k. S?fat-fiil tipolojisini analiz ederken, Chomsky’nin Üretken-Dönü?ümlü Dil Bilgisi ve Yönetim ve Ba?lama Kuram?’ndan faydaland?k. Dilin yap?sal olarak incelenmesi gerekti?ini ileri süren Chomsky, derin yap? ve yüzey yap? kavramlar? ile ta??n?m ve dönü?ümün bütün diller için kaç?n?lmaz bir gerçeklik oldu?unu gösterdi. Biz de bu çal??mada ad öbe?i ta??n?m? ve bo?luk kuram? ?????nda, s?fat-fiilli yap? tipolojilerini kar??la?t?rmal? olarak ele ald?k ve Türk, Japon, Kore ve Macar dilleri aras?ndaki ?a??rt?c? benzerli?i, öbek yap? ve söz dizimi seviyesinde tespit ettik.

Ferhat KARABULUT

2011-01-01

94

17 CFR Appendix B to Part 160 - Sample Clauses  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Sample Clauses B Appendix B to Part 160 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Pt. 160, App. B Appendix B to Part 160âSample Clauses This appendix only...

2010-04-01

95

17 CFR Appendix to Part 160 - Sample Clauses  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-04-01 false Sample Clauses Appendix to Part 160 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Pt. 160, App. Appendix to Part 160âSample Clauses Financial...

2009-04-01

96

12 CFR Appendix B to Part 716 - SAMPLE CLAUSES  

Science.gov (United States)

... false SAMPLE CLAUSES B Appendix B to Part 716 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Pt. 716, App. B Appendix B to Part 716âSAMPLE CLAUSES This appendix only...

2010-01-01

97

12 CFR Appendix A to Part 716 - SAMPLE CLAUSES  

Science.gov (United States)

... false SAMPLE CLAUSES A Appendix A to Part 716 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION... PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL INFORMATION Pt. 716, App. A Appendix A to Part 716âSAMPLE CLAUSES Credit unions,...

2009-01-01

98

Rights granted in the habendum clause  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The habendum clause sets out the conditions for the continuance of a petroleum or natural gas lease during the primary term and during the events or circumstances which will continue the lease beyond the primary term. This paper describes the rights granted in the habendum clause. Typical older forms of freehold leases are compared with the model lease form and with the 1991 form of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Landmen (CAPL) Petroleum and Natural Gas lease. These comparisons were made in an effort to analyse the changes in the nature of the rights granted in the habendum clause. The most significant change is that the 1991 CAPL lease form avoids the 'unless' pitfalls of older forms by creating firstly the 'drill or pay' form of habendum clause, and by introducing the alternatives of paying either a lump sum one time rental or a periodic rental payment. The effect of these changes is that failure to make timely payments does not result in automatic termination of the lease, but rather one which must be made subject of a default notice by the lessor to the lessee.12 refs

1998-12-02

99

Rights granted in the habendum clause  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The habendum clause sets out the conditions for the continuance of a petroleum or natural gas lease during the primary term and during the events or circumstances which will continue the lease beyond the primary term. This paper describes the rights granted in the habendum clause. Typical older forms of freehold leases are compared with the model lease form and with the 1991 form of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Landmen (CAPL) Petroleum and Natural Gas lease. These comparisons were made in an effort to analyse the changes in the nature of the rights granted in the habendum clause. The most significant change is that the 1991 CAPL lease form avoids the `unless` pitfalls of older forms by creating firstly the `drill or pay` form of habendum clause, and by introducing the alternatives of paying either a lump sum one time rental or a periodic rental payment. The effect of these changes is that failure to make timely payments does not result in automatic termination of the lease, but rather one which must be made subject of a default notice by the lessor to the lessee.12 refs.

Burgess, P.W. [Evans Higa Burgess, Calgary, AB (Canada)

1998-12-31

100

Licensing Revisited: Open Access Clauses in Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Open access increases the visibility and use of research outputs and promises to maximize the return on our public investment in research. However, only a minority of researchers will "spontaneously" deposit their articles into an open access repository. Even with the growing number of institutional and funding agency mandates requiring the deposit of papers into the university repository, deposit rates have remained stubbornly low. As a result, the responsibility for populating repositories often falls onto the shoulders of library staff and/or repository managers. Populating repositories in this way – which involves obtaining the articles, checking the rights, and depositing articles into the repository – is time consuming and resource intensive work.The Confederation of Open Access Repositories (COAR, a global association of repository initiatives and networks, is promoting a new strategy for addressing some of the barriers to populating repositories, involving the use of open access archiving clauses in publisher licenses. These types of clauses are being considered by consortia and licensing agencies around the world as a way of ensuring that all the papers published by a given publisher are cleared for deposit into the institutional repository. This paper presents some use cases of open access archiving clauses, discusses the major barriers to implementing archiving language into licenses, and describes some strategies that organizations can adopt in order to include such clauses into publisher licenses.

Birgit Schmidt

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
101

Santa Claus and the Conservation of Energy  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines an amusing application of the concept of kinetic energy. Using some rudimentary physical notions, we have analysed the energetics of the motion of Santa Claus. The results, which are quite surprising, can be of interest to high school and early college physics educators when they teach kinetic energy, and energy conservation…

Hassani, Sadri

2005-01-01

102

Pricing regulation clauses in natural-gas-supply contracts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Almost all natural-gas-supply contracts contain clauses on pricing regulations linking natural-gas price with fuel-oil price. However, gas purchasers often find it hard to understand the function of these clauses. The article will illustrate various clauses as to their composition and effects and will demonstrate how differently gas price is affected by fuel-oil price increases.

Specht, H.

1983-04-01

103

78 FR 21343 - New Ski Area Water Rights Clause  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service New Ski Area Water Rights Clause AGENCY: Forest...public input on a new water rights clause for ski area permits issued by the Forest Service...Service will consider in developing a new ski area water rights clause. There will...

2013-04-10

104

48 CFR 732.406-73 - LOC contract clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false LOC contract clause. 732.406-73 Section...FINANCING Advance Payments 732.406-73 LOC contract clause. (a) If payment is to be provided by LOC, the contract shall contain the clause...

2009-10-01

105

Evaluating Models of Object-Decision Priming: Evidence from Event-Related Potential Repetition Effects  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to differentiate between structural description and bias accounts of performance in the possible/impossible object-decision test. Two event-related potential (ERP) studies examined how the visual system processes structurally possible and impossible objects. Specifically, the authors investigated the effects of object…

Soldan, Anja; Mangels, Jennifer A.; Cooper, Lynn A.

2006-01-01

106

THE UNPREDICTABILITY CLAUSE IN TRANSPORT CONTRACTS, ACCORDING TO THE NEW CIVIL CODE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Until the enforcement of the highly controversial transport law, transport companies must already observe the provisions of the new Civil Code1 in their transport business. One of the novelties in the new Civil Code, that came into force on October 1, 2011, refers to the unpredictability clause: recurring to this clause, in certain situations to be precisely analysed by courts, parties may even be exempted from certain contractual obligations, when the court decides to rescind the contract based on objective criteria, not imputable to the party that no longer can properly fulfil the obligations that had been undertaken when the contract had been made. However, this solution only is provided after all means of negotiation and mediation between parties are exhausted. The clause meets current market requirements, under which many companies have to deal with bad paying partners.

Adriana Elena BELU

2014-05-01

107

Quality of Object Relations and Security of Attachment as Predictors of Early Therapeutic Alliance  

Science.gov (United States)

Security of attachment and quality of object relations were measured as predictors of initial impressions of the therapeutic alliance as well as dropout. Fifty-five individual psychotherapy clients were administered the Revised Adult Attachment Scale and the Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory prior to their initial therapy…

Goldman, Gregory A.; Anderson, Timothy

2007-01-01

108

Shell Claus off-gas process reduces sulfur (sic) emissions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In modern Claus units, with 94 to 96% sulfur recovery efficiency, the theoretically possible yield is closely approached. The remaining 4 to 6% of the sulfur present in the Claus unit off-gas is converted into sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) in a catalytic or thermal incinerator and is discharged to atmosphere. Although the total quantity of SO/sub 2/ originating from Claus units is small compared with the emissions originating from fossil-fuel-fired installations, the desulfurization of Claus off-gases has received special attention. A flow diagram is illustrated of the Shell Claus off-gas treating process. The Shell Claus Off-gas Treating Process (SCOT) belongs to the conversion/concentration type of processes; it contains a reduction section and an amine absorption section. With the SCOT process, the total sulfur recovery can be increased to above 99.8% on sulfur intake to the Claus unit.

Naber, J.E.; Wesselingh, J.A.; Groenendall, W.

1973-08-01

109

Object relations and defense mechanisms of a psychopathic serial sexual homicide perpetrator: a TAT analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The case of a 24-year-old African American man who committed serial sexual homicide and who met criteria (Hare, 1991) for psychopathy is presented. His Thematic Apperception Test (Murray, 1943) responses were used to code key aspects of personality organization--object relations and defense mechanisms--via the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale (Westen, Lohr, Silk, & Kerber, 1989) and the Defense Mechanisms Manual (Cramer, 1991), respectively. Severe object relations pathology and a reliance on the defense mechanism of immature projection and immature denial are noted. Findings are relatively consistent with previous psychodynamic Rorschach studies of psychopathic sexual homicide perpetrators (Gacono, Meloy, & Bridges, 2000; Meloy, Gacono, & Kenney, 1994). PMID:11562106

Porcerelli, J H; Abramsky, M F; Hibbard, S; Kamoo, R

2001-08-01

110

On Translating English Attributive Clauses into Chinese  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available
Translating English attributive clauses into Chinese is one of the most knotty tasks for translators. This paper compares the syntactic differences between English and Chinese, and explores the possible methods of translating English attributive clauses into Chinese. It is suggested that the translator should bear in mind the syntactic differences, correctly grasp the original meaning and conform to the Chinese expressing rules in translation.
Key words: English attributive clause, syntactic difference, translation
Résumé: la traduction de la proposition attributive anglaise en chinois est une des tâches les plus épineuses pour les traducteurs. Cet article compare les différences syntaxiques entre l’anglais et le chinois, et explore les méthodes possibles de la traduction de la proposition attributive anglaise en chinois. Il est suggéré que les traducteurs doivent porter en tête les différences syntaxiques, correctement saisir le sens original et conformé aux règles de l’expression chinoise dans la traduction.
Mots-Clés: proposition attributive anglaise, différence syntaxique, traduction

Qi-min CHEN

2008-12-01

111

Incorporating the Scale-Relativity Principle In String Theory and Extended Objects  

CERN Multimedia

First steps in incorporating Nottale's scale-relativity principle to string theory and extended objects are taken. Scale Relativity is to scales what motion Relativity is to velocities. The universal, absolute, impassible, invariant scale under dilatations, in Nature is taken to be the Planck scale which is not the same as the string scale. Starting with Nambu-Goto actions for strings and other extended objects, we show that the principle of scale-relativity invariance of the world-volume measure associated with the extended objects ( Lorentzian-scalings transformations with respect to the resolutions of the world-volume coordinates) is tantamount to the vanishing of the scale-relativity version of the $\\beta$ functions : respectively. Preliminary steps are taken to merge motion relativity with scale relativity and, in this fashion, analogs of Weyl-Finsler geometries make their appearance. The quantum case remains to be studied.

Castro, C

1996-01-01

112

Effects of Transference Work in the Context of Therapeutic Alliance and Quality of Object Relations  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Transference interpretation is considered as a core active ingredient in dynamic psychotherapy. In common clinical theory, it is maintained that more mature relationships, as well as a strong therapeutic alliance, may be prerequisites for successful transference work. In this study, the interaction between quality of object relations

Hoglend, Per; Hersoug, Anne Grete; Bogwald, Kjell-Petter; Amlo, Svein; Marble, Alice; Sorbye, Oystein; Rossberg, Jan Ivar; Ulberg, Randi; Gabbard, Glen O.; Crits-Christoph, Paul

2011-01-01

113

The Diskionary: A Glossary of Terms Commonly Used for Disks and Related Objects, First Edition  

CERN Multimedia

Based on a panel discussion at the meeting "New Light on Young Stars: Spitzer's View of Circumstellar Disks", we provide some definitions of common usage of terms describing disks and related objects.

Evans, Neal; Cieza, Lucas; Forbrich, Jan; Hillenbrand, Lynne; Lada, Charlie; Merín, Bruno; Strom, Steve; Watson, Dan

2009-01-01

114

An Approach for Displaying the Relations among Main Elements of Object-Oriented Programs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An appropriate understanding of the source code is one of the necessary steps for resolving errors and improving code and design. Two fundamental aspects in Object-Oriented Programs are program elements including classes and packages, and the relations among them. In this paper, a multi-step approach has been presented and implemented for recovering and displaying main elements of an Object-Oriented Program including classes, packages, and the relations among them. This approach has been done...

Kayvan Kaseb; Mohammad Sayedi

2013-01-01

115

Object-Relational Database Based Category Data Model for Natural Language Interface to Database  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Domain specific question answering technique allows users to use natural language to express their queries so that users need not have the knowledge about the structures of the information source. Forsuch an application relational model is not suitable as it is not a natural way to represent real world knowledge. Using relational model for representing information source results in scattered relations ofdata about the real world objects. In this paper an effective category model is presented to organize information according to their contents based on object-relational database. For the discussion of the category model railway domain is used in the paper.

Avinash J. Agrawal

2011-02-01

116

Bidirectional reasoning of horn clause programs : transformation and compilation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A compilative approach for forward reasoning of horn rules in Prolog is presented. Pure horn rules - given as Prolog clauses - are to be used for forward and backward reasoning. These rules are translated into Prolog clauses, denoting one forward reasoning step. Forward chaining is triggered by an initial fact, from which the consequences are derived. Premises of forward rules are verified by Prolog's backward proof procedure using the original clauses. Thus, without any changes to the Prolog...

Hinkelmann, Knut

1991-01-01

117

Quantitative fuzzy topological relations of spatial objects by induced fuzzy topology  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a study on the modeling of fuzzy topological relations between uncertain objects in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Based on the recently developed concept of computational fuzzy topological space, topological relations between simple fuzzy spatial objects are modeled. The fuzzy spatial objects here cover simple fuzzy region, simple fuzzy line segment and fuzzy point. To compute the topological relations between the simple spatial objects, intersection concepts and integration methods are applied and a computational 9-intersection model are proposed and developed. There are different types of intersection, and we have proposed different integration methods for computation in different cases. For example, surface integration method is applied to the case of the fuzzy region-to-fuzzy region relation, while the line integration method is used in the case of fuzzy line segment-to-fuzzy line segment relation. Moreover, this study has discovered that there are (a) sixteen topological relations between simple fuzzy region to line segment; (b) forty-six topological relations between simple fuzzy line segments; (c) three topological relations between simple fuzzy region to fuzzy point; and (d) three topological relations between simple fuzzy line segment to fuzzy point.

Liu, Kimfung; Shi, Wenzhong

2009-02-01

118

Triangular Pyramid Framework For Enhanced Object Relational Dynamic Data Model for GIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available GIS (Geographic Information System data modeling is a methodology for designing spatial databases. Efficient database design is crucial to efficient GIS implementation. A model is a simplification of the complexity of reality, which makes the reality more understandable and operational. The Objective of this paper is to present an overview of various data models and to evolve an approach to design a model which can overcome the identified gaps of various models being studied for a GIS application. The proposed data model i.e. Enhanced Object Relational Dynamic Data Model enhances Object Relational Data Model (EORDM by introducing reusability and dynamicity for the database . Reusability concept allows storage of distinct objects having same spatial representation onto a single storage space and dynamicity allows creation of relations on user's requirement. The conceptual data model for the same has been designed named Triangular Pyramid Framework which has been explained in section IV of this paper.

Barkha Bahl

2011-01-01

119

Patterns in Clause, Sentence, and Discourse in Selected Languages of India and Nepal: Part II, Clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume presents a study of the clause as a verb-centered construction surrounded by certain nuclear constituents which serve to subcategorize it. Five India-Nepal languages are examined: Kotia Oriya, Kupia, and Maithili (Indo-Aryan family); and Dhanghar-Kurux and Kolani (Dravidian family). Dhangar-Kurux and Maithili are spoken in Nepal, the…

Trail, Ronald L.

120

Observational validation of the chronometric cosmology: The redshift-magnitude relation for quasi-stellar objects.  

Science.gov (United States)

A statistical study is made of the redshift-magnitude relation for a recent comprehensive catalogue of quasi-stellar objects. The chronometric theory, although devoid of free parameters such as the q(0) and Lambda of the expansion theory, provides an excellent fit to the observed relation. The expansion theory does not provide an empirically meaningful fit. PMID:16592487

Nicoll, J F; Segal, I E

1978-02-01

 
 
 
 
121

Gas processing developments/Optimize Claus control  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A mathematical analysis of a Claus recovery unit with two acid gas streams, e.g., one from an amine unit and one from a sour water stripper, shows that there is a nearly linear relationship between the air/acid gas ratio (r) and the difference between the hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide in the tail gas (..delta..). Reliable on-stream analyzers make it possible to take advantage of this linearity, the most preferred controlled variable being delta and the most satisfactorily manipulated variable being r. In a Claus unit with one acid gas stream and two air feed streams, the second of which is used for tail gas analysis adjustment, calculation of r need be based only on the second air stream. In systems with two acid gas streams, information is lost when the individual systems are not clearly identifiable, and there is no straightforward calculation of the ratio of r for the second stream to r for the first stream.

Taggart, G.W.

1980-04-01

122

A Representation Scheme for Description and Reconstruction of Object Configurations Based on Qualitative Relations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One reason Qualitative Spatial Reasoning (QSR) is becoming increasingly important to Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the need for a smooth ‘human-like’ communication between autonomous agents and people. The selected, yet general, task motivating the work presented here is the scenario of an object configuration that has to be described by an observer on the ground using only relational object positions. The description provided should enable a second agent to create a map-like picture of...

Steinhauer, Heike Joe

2008-01-01

123

The k0 and relative INAA methods to determine elements in entire archaeological pottery objects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The advantages of instrumental neutron activation analysis applied to archaeological ceramics have been enhanced through the analysis of entire objects, using both the k 0 method and the relative method, respectively, to determine the concentrations of chemical elements in aliquots of replicate objects used as comparators and in the sample object. Twenty-two chemical elements of archaeological importance were measured in mud figurines from Caral civilization (5000 year BC), irradiated inside a well-characterized radial channel facility of the nuclear research reactor at IPEN, Peru. The results showed less than 10 % of bias for most of the elements. (author)

2014-05-01

124

It's Not Just the "Heavy NP": Relative Phrase Length Modulates the Production of Heavy-NP Shift  

Science.gov (United States)

Heavy-NP shift is the tendency for speakers to place long direct object phrases at the end of a clause rather than next to the verb. Though some analyses have focused on length of the direct object phrase alone, results from two experiments demonstrate that the length of the direct object relative to that of other phrases, and not the length of…

Stallings, Lynne M.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

2011-01-01

125

An evolutionary catalogue of Galactic post-AGB and related objects  

CERN Document Server

With the ongoing AKARI infrared sky survey, of much greater sensitivity than IRAS, a wealth of post-AGB objects may be discovered. It is thus time to organize our present knowledge of known post-AGB stars in th galaxy with a view to using it to search for new post-AGB objects among AKARI sources. We searched the literature available on the NASA Astrophysics Data System up to 1 October 2006, and defined criteria for classifying sources into three categories: "very likely", "possible" and "disqualified" post-AGB objects. The category of "very likely" post-AGB objects is made up of several classes. We have created an evolutionary, on-line catalogue of Galactic post-AGB objects, to be referred to as "The Torun catalogue of Galactic post-AGB and related objects". The present version of the catalogue contains 326 "very likely", 107 "possible" and 64 "disqualified" objects. For the very likely post-AGB objects, the catalogue gives the available optical and infrared photometry, infrared spectroscopy and spectral type...

Szczerba, R; Stasinska, G; Borkowski, J

2007-01-01

126

Infants' Use and Weighting of Prosodic Cues in Clause Segmentation  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates the acoustic properties of speech used by infant listeners to discover clauses in continuous speech. In a series of experiments using the Headturn Preference procedure, 6-month-old infants' use and weighting of prosodic cues in their segmentation of clauses in continuous speech was explored. The experiments sequentially…

Seidl, Amanda

2007-01-01

127

Flatness of the Energy Landscape for Horn Clauses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Little-Hopfield neural network programmed with Horn clauses is studied. We argue that the energy landscape of the system, corresponding to the inconsistency function for logical interpretations of the sets of Horn clauses, has minimal ruggedness. This is supported by computer simulations.

Sathasivam, Saratha; Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin Wan

2008-01-01

128

Flatness of the Energy Landscape for Horn Clauses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Little-Hopfield neural network programmed with Horn clauses is studied. We argue that the energy landscape of the system, corresponding to the inconsistency function for logical interpretations of the sets of Horn clauses, has minimal ruggedness. This is supported by computer simulations.

Saratha Sathasivam

2007-12-01

129

AMERINDIAN RELATIONAL OBJECTS: THE (INVISIBILITY OF KADIWÉU INDIANS ART IN A BRAZILIAN SOAP OPERA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work examines the role of ceramics in Kadiwéu social life. The Kadiwéu are Amerindians who live in the southern part of Pantanal Matogrossense, Brazil. The relations between art and social world will be described and analyzed through ethnographic examples, showing how the Kadiwéu understand their ceramic as a special way of relating to the external world, markedly the “world of the “whites”. This relational understanding of objects also points out, in a reflexive and critical manner, to crucial aspects of western conceptions of human relations.

Lisiane Koller Lecznieski

2010-06-01

130

Levels of Finite Clause Parsing: Implications and Applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is three-fold: (1 To point out the four types of inter-clause dependencies, thus levels of finite-clause parsing; (2 To discuss the essential role of the finite (and non-finite clause structure in text processing, discourse parsing, text-to-speech modeling and prosody prediction; (3 To apply the Segmentation-Cohesion-Dependency (SCD method based on marker classes, their semantic hierarchies, and marker sequences, combined with a machine learning technique, in order to obtain improved results on clause parsing of the Romanian Acquis corpus. A special emphasis of our analysis is devoted to the intonational role that the inter-clause lexical markers and their sequences are playing on the syntax-prosody interface (of Romanian, more precisely, for establishing the discursive-intonational contrastive foci and patterns that are necessary in prosody prediction.

Cecilia Bolea

2011-10-01

131

Academic cheating as a function of defense mechanisms and object relations.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined relationships between academic cheating behaviors by using self-reports of past cheating behavior, providing a situational experiment with the opportunity to cheat, and evaluating defense mechanisms and object relations as measured by the Defense Mechanisms Inventory. Subjects included 75 female and 8 male university students ranging in age from 18 to 51 years (M=25.5, SD=6.9). Analysis showed variations in students' self-reported cheating history relative to their measured object relations status and type of defense mechanisms. Actual cheating in the experimental setting was not significantly related to any of these variables. Findings are discussed based on a critique of heterogeneity of the cheating construct. PMID:16933657

Juni, Samuel; Gross, Julie; Sokolowska, Joanna

2006-06-01

132

Variability in Hot Subdwarfs and Related Objects from the Palomar-Green Catalog  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a selection of objects chosen from the Palomar-Green (PG) Catalog of Ultraviolet Excess Stellar Objects to search for variability. Variability could be from eclipsing binaries, cataclysmic variables, the irradiation effect and many others. The PG catalog used the Palomar 18 inch telescope to look for stars that were brighter in the ultraviolet than normal stars. One result of the PG catalog was a discovery of hot subdwarfs (sd) that dominated the sky. We chose 988 stars because they were classified in the PG catalog as sd stars or as related objects and present an analysis of 475. We used the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey and the UBVRI photometric standard stars from Landolt to find that approximately 60 of these objects show evidence of being variable.

Blacketer, Melissa; Ringwald, Fred

2014-06-01

133

Object-Relational Databases: An Area with Some Theoretical Promises and Few Practical Achievements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper tries to point out some of the promises, quarrels, achievements, and perspectives of the forced marriage between the relational and object-oriented data models, from both theoretical and implementation perspectives. As practical O-R achievements, the latest SQL standards (SQL:1999-2008 and Oracle implementation are discussed.

Marin Fotache

2009-12-01

134

Advantages Of Object-Oriented Over Relational Databases On Real-Life Applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Business, manufacturing and other kinds of databases have been implemented by the relational database technology. The transition from one generation to the next has always been necessitated by the ever-increasing complexity of database applications and the cost of implementing, maintaining, and extending these applications. Accordingly, whatever the application areas of the relational database technology are, the basic shortcomings and weaknesses of this discipline are valid. On the other hand, the object-oriented database technology forms a good basis for all kinds of database applications, e.g., CAD/CAM/CASE/CIM systems, knowledge management systems, and others, due to its flexible, effective, and extensible data modeling and application formalism. In this study, two popular database technologies, the relational and object-oriented, are briefly introduced and their general characteristics are discussed. The purpose of this study is to point-out and compare the important features of relational and object-oriented databases, for the sake of understanding the pros and cons of these technologies before implementing them. 

Hakan Butuner

2013-09-01

135

Over a barrel : exiting from NAFTA's proportionality clause  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural gas exports to the United States are locked in by the proportionality clause of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The authors state that although both conventional oil and gas have peaked in Canada, the proportionality clause requires Canada to maintain its current share of energy exports to the United States, even if Canadians experience shortages. The unique clause guarantees the United States' access to Canada's energy resources. The authors cautioned that NAFTA limits Canada's options for managing its energy future and recommended options for regaining Canadian energy security. With NAFTA and the energy proportionality clause back on the political agenda for the first time since the 1993 federal election, this document explored 3 scenarios under which the proportionality clause could be invoked. The scenarios demonstrated how the clause could prevent Canada from reducing exports to conserve oil; prioritizing natural gas for petrochemicals; or, substituting Canadian oil for volatile foreign imports. The exercise demonstrated how under certain circumstances, proportionality could result in energy shortages for Canadians. The authors suggested that if NAFTA were to be renegotiated, Canada's first priority should be to end the proportionality clause because it stands in the way of Canada developing an effective energy security plan. 51 refs., 3 tabs

2008-01-01

136

Animacy Affects the Processing of Subject-Object Ambiguities in the Second Language: Evidence from Self-Paced Reading with German Second Language Learners of Dutch  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of a self-paced reading study with German second language (L2) learners of Dutch showed that noun animacy affected the learners' on-line commitments when comprehending relative clauses in their L2. Earlier research has found that German L2 learners of Dutch do not show an on-line preference for subject-object word order in temporarily…

Jackson, Carrie N.; Roberts, Leah

2010-01-01

137

Universal Charge-Radius Relation for Subatomic and Astrophysical Compact Objects  

CERN Multimedia

Electron-positron pair creation in supercritical electric fields limits the net charge of any static, spherical object, such as superheavy nuclei, strangelets, and Q-balls, or compact stars like neutron stars, quark stars, and black holes. For radii between $4\\times10^2$ fm and $10^4$ fm the upper bound on the net charge is given by the universal relation $Z=0.71R_{fm}$, and for larger radii (measured in fm or km) $Z=7\\times10^{-5}R_{fm}^{2}=7\\times10^{31}R_{km}^2$. For objects with nuclear density the relation corresponds to $Z\\approx0.7A^{1/3}$ ($10^{8}10^{12}$), where $A$ is the baryon number. For some systems this universal upper bound improves existing charge limits in the literature.

Madsen, Jes

2008-01-01

138

The relation between energy efficiency and other general objectives from a socioeconomic perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An important question in the analysis of energy efficiency programs and their consequences is: How are objectives and instruments defined? E.g. if the objective is reduced carbon dioxide emissions and energy efficiency is the means to reach the objective, then it is not certain that increased energy efficiency will give the result as expected (1). Furthermore, energy efficiency measures will probably be an inefficient way of reaching the goal (2). (1) due to the rebound effects, and (2) since the measures are applied indiscriminately, energy use with only weak couplings to the objective are also affected. Energy efficiency is a partial and relative measure, and does not give much information studied in isolation. It should rather be studied from the perspective of total resource efficiency. Economic policy ought to have the goal of securing a socioeconomic exploitation of all resources (of which energy is one). An instrument working in this direction is internalizing of external effects e.g. through environmental taxes, so that the prices reflect the socioeconomic costs for using the resources. Early foreign studies indicates that a rebound effect exists, usually, however, the technological efficiency potentials can be realized. In a recent study of Swedish conditions, the rebound effect seems to be important. It totally negates the initial effect, at in the end the emissions have increased compared to the starting point. The results show the energy efficiency measures can be in direct conflict with climate and other environmental objectives.

2006-01-01

139

Parametric Optimization on Multi-Objective Precision Turning Using Grey Relational Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, L9(34 orthogonal array of Taguchi experiment is selected for four parameters (speed, cutting depth, feed rate, tool nose runoff with three levels in optimizing the multi-objective (surface roughness, tool wear and material removal rate precision turning on an ECOCA-3807 CNC (Computer Numerical Controlled lathe. Through the examination of surface roughness (Ra, tool wear ratio (mm-2 and the calculation of MRR; the multiple objectives are then received. By using Grey Relational Analysis (GRA, the multiple objectives can additionally be integrated and introduced as the S/N (signal to noise ratio into the Taguchi experiment. The mean effects for S/N ratios are moreover analyzed by MINITAB to achieve the multi-objective turning parameters. Through the verification results, it is shown that both surface roughness and tool wear ratio from present optimum parameters are greatly advanced with minor decrease on the MRR (Material Removal Rate comparing to those from benchmark parameters. This study not only proposes a novel optimization technique using GRA, but also contributes the satisfactory solution for multiple CNC turning objectives with profound insight.

M.Y. Wang

2008-01-01

140

Modeling and efficient optimization for object-based scalability and some related problems.  

Science.gov (United States)

MPEG-4 is the first visual coding standard that allows coding of scenes as a collection of individual audio-visual objects. We present mathematical formulations for modeling object-based scalability and some functionalities that it brings with it. Our goal is to study algorithms that aid in semi-automating the authoring and subsequent selective addition/dropping of objects from a scene to provide content scalability. We start with a simplistic model for object-based scalability using the "knapsack problem"--a problem for which the optimal object set can be found using known schemes such as dynamic programming, the branch and bound method and approximation algorithms. The above formulation is then generalized to model authoring or multiplexing of scalable objects (e.g., objects encoded at various target bit-rates) using the "multiple choice knapsack problem." We relate this model to several problems that arise in video coding, the most prominent of these being the bit allocation problem. Unlike previous approaches to solve the operational bit allocation problem using Lagrangean relaxation, we discuss an algorithm that solves linear programming (LP) relaxation of this problem. We show that for this problem the duality gap for Lagrange and LP relaxations is exactly the same. The LP relaxation is solved using strong duality with dual descent--a procedure that can be completed in "linear" time. We show that there can be at most two fractional variables in the optimal primal solution and therefore this relaxation can be justified for many practical applications. This work reduces problem complexity, guarantees similar performance, is slightly more generic, and provides an alternate LP-duality based proof for earlier work by Shoham and Gersho (1988). In addition, we show how additional constraints may be added to impose inter-dependencies among objects in a presentation and discuss how object aggregation can be exploited in reducing problem complexity. The marginal analysis approach of Fox (1966) is suggested as a method of re-allocation with incremental inputs. It helps in efficiently re-optimizing the allocation when a system has user interactivity, appearing or disappearing objects, time driven events, etc. Finally, we suggest that approximation algorithms for the multiple choice knapsack problem, which can be used to quantify complexity vs. quality tradeoff at the encoder in a tunable and universal way. PMID:18262907

Batra, P

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Event-related potentials reveal increased distraction by salient global objects in older adults  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Age-related changes in visual functions influence how older individuals perceive and react upon objects in their environment. In particular, older individuals might be more distracted by highly salient, irrelevant information. Kanizsa figures induce a â??global precedenceâ?? effect, which reflects a processing advantage for salient whole-object representations relative to configurations of local elements not inducing a global form. We investigated event-related potential (ERP) correlates of age-related decline in visual abilities, and specifically, distractibility by salient global objects in visual search. Older participants detected target stimuli slower and less accurate than younger participants did. ERPs indicated that the general performance decline originated at multiple stages within the information-processing stream, from sensory coding to spatial allocation of attention: The P1 was decreased, the N1 was enhanced, and the posterior contralateral negativity (PCN) was decreased and delayed in older age. Wefurther found a stronger a global precedence effect in the older group. This was associated with age differences in short-latency ERPs: The younger group showed a more pronounced P1 in global than local search, in the older group, the P1 did not vary with search conditions. In addition, only older participants obtained a contralateral lateralization in the N1 time range towards the salient Kanizsa distracter in local search. These results suggest that the age-specific increase in global-local asymmetries originates from early processing stages, where the dissociation of hierarchical levels is less distinct, and inhibition of the salient irrelevant global object information is less effective

Wiegand, Iris

142

Las cláusulas de confidencialidad en el contrato de trabajo / Confidentiality Clauses in the Contract of Employment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Quienes se familiarizan normalmente con la información confidencial de una empresa son sus trabajadores, en particular, aquellos que tienen el carácter de exclusiva confianza. Para resguardar el cuidado de dichos antecedentes, la empresa suscribe con dichos trabajadores cláusulas de confidencialidad [...] en los contratos de trabajo. Este artículo analiza tales cláusulas en el ámbito jurídico laboral, en particular, su noción, objetivos principales, requisitos necesarios para que sean consideradas válidas y las consecuencias que se derivan de su incumplimiento. Abstract in english Employees, especially those in exclusively confidential positions, are the usually familiar with the company's confidential information. In order to safeguard that information, the company incorporates confidentiality clauses in the contracts of employment of said employees. This article analyzes sa [...] id clauses in the legal-labor scope, particularly their notion, their main objectives, required to be deemed as valid, and the consequences of non-compliance.

Alfredo, Sierra Herrero.

143

[The Physician's Conscience, Conscience Clauses, and Religious Belief: A Catholic Perspective].  

Science.gov (United States)

This article was originally published in the Fordham Urban Law Journal as Edmund D. Pellegrino, The Physician's Conscience, Conscience Clauses, and Religious Belief: A Catholic Perspective, 30 FORDHAM URB. L.J. 221 (2002).With permission of the publishing house. Traducción: M. Santiago. This Essay explores how physicians may handle conflicts or conscience facing Roman Catholic Health practitioners regarding ?human life? issues, especially through conscience clauses. In five parts, the author examines ?first, why conscientious objection is so important in our day; second, the moral grounding for freedom in the exercise of conscience; third, the components of the physician's conscience; fourth, specific conflicts of conscience for Catholic physicians and institutions; and fifth, competing models of conflict resolution?. PMID:24836027

Pellegrino, Edmund D

2014-01-01

144

Similarity searching for chest CT images based on object features and spatial relation maps.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, an object-based image retrieval system for chest CT image databases is proposed. Based on the scheme of the content-based image retrieval method, we proposed an image segmentation method which combines the anatomical knowledge of the chest and the well-known watershed segmentation algorithm. The purpose of segmentation is to identify the mediastinum and the two lung lobes in a chest CT image. The ARGs (attributed relational graphs) are chosen to describe the features of segmented objects. Then, image database is constructed by the feature vectors of images. In database searching, two searching modes are provided that are "query by example" and "query by object". Our system uses Euclidean distance to measure the similarity between the image in query and the image in database. The system output the 30 most similar images in the chest CT image database as query results. The experimental results show that the average precision of our system is about 80% which is impressive in a totally automatic medical image retrieval system. Moreover, query concentrated in certain objects features usually show better result than the regular query by example. The possible reasons are discussed. PMID:17271928

Yu, Sung-Nien; Chiang, Chih-Tsung

2004-01-01

145

48 CFR 2016.307-70 - Contract provisions and clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-10-01 false Contract provisions and clauses. 2016.307-70 Section 2016.307-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost Reimbursement Contracts 2016.307-70 Contract provisions and...

2009-10-01

146

48 CFR 1819.7103 - Solicitation provision and contract clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

...SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS NASA Rural Area Small Business Plan 1819.7103...clause at 1852.219-74, Use of Rural Area Small Businesses, in solicitations...possession of the United States, the District of Columbia, the...

2010-10-01

147

Action feedback affects the perception of action-related objects beyond actual action success  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Successful object-oriented action typically increases the perceived size of aimed target objects. This phenomenon has been assumed to reflect an impact of an actor’s current action ability on visual perception. The actual action ability and the explicit knowledge of action outcome, however, were confounded in previous studies. The present experiments aimed at disentangling these two factors. Participants repeatedly tried to hit a circular target varying in size with a stylus movement under restricted feedback conditions. After each movement they were explicitly informed about the success in hitting the target and were then asked to judge target size. The explicit feedback regarding movement success was manipulated orthogonally to actual movement success. The results of three experiments indicated the participants’ bias to judge relatively small targets as larger and relatively large targets as smaller after explicit feedback of failure than after explicit feedback of success. This pattern was independent of the actual motor performance, suggesting that the actors’ evaluations of motor actions may bias perception of target objects in itself.

WladimirKirsch

2014-01-01

148

Punctuation and Intonation Effects on Clause and Sentence Wrap-Up: Evidence from Eye Movements  

Science.gov (United States)

Three eye movement studies examined the role of punctuation in reading. In Experiment 1, although a comma at the end of a clause facilitated overall reading times for the sentence, first pass times were longer at the end of comma-marked clauses than clauses without a comma (or the same material in clause medial position). The data supported the…

Hirotani, Masako; Frazier, Lyn; Rayner, Keith

2006-01-01

149

Generalised Interpolation by Solving Recursion-Free Horn Clauses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we present InterHorn, a solver for recursion-free Horn clauses. The main application domain of InterHorn lies in solving interpolation problems arising in software verification. We show how a range of interpolation problems, including path, transition, nested, state/transition and well-founded interpolation can be handled directly by InterHorn. By detailing these interpolation problems and their Horn clause representations, we hope to encourage the emergence of...

Gupta, Ashutosh; Popeea, Corneliu; Rybalchenko, Andrey

2013-01-01

150

Compiling HPSG type constraints into definite clause programs  

CERN Document Server

We present a new approach to HPSG processing: compiling HPSG grammars expressed as type constraints into definite clause programs. This provides a clear and computationally useful correspondence between linguistic theories and their implementation. The compiler performs off-line constraint inheritance and code optimization. As a result, we are able to efficiently process with HPSG grammars without having to hand-translate them into definite clause or phrase structure based systems.

Götz, T; Goetz, Thilo; Meurers, Walt Detmar

1995-01-01

151

A parallel portfolio SAT solver with lockless physical clause sharing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since multi-core architectures have become well-established the enquiry for parallel SAT solvers has drastically increased. Meanwhile, several successful SAT solvers have been presented that can be run in parallel mode. However, there are only a few solvers that use the shared memory architectures for physical clause sharing. In this paper we present a parallel SAT solver that allows for sharing clauses between several threads logically and physically. Yet any thread is still able to keep ...

Kottler, Stephan; Kaufmann, Michael

2011-01-01

152

Defense and object relational maturity on Thematic Apperception Test scales indicate levels of personality organization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Psychoanalytic theories describe defense mechanisms and object relations as psychological structures that have functions vital to personality regulation. In theory, these structures develop in stages and emerge as a coordinated, stable system in early adulthood. However, different levels of maturity of systemic function predominate in various individuals so that people exhibit levels of personality organization (LPO; Kernberg, 1975) differing in degree of maturity. Moreover, the various LPO of adults parallel various developmental stages of maturity of these structures in childhood and predispose to varying psychopathologies. We call this the parallelism hypothesis: Adult LPO parallels the stages of childhood development of these structures. In 2 studies (Study 1, students, n = 301; Study 2, diagnosed and presumed normal people, n = 155), we compared indicators of LPO with relative maturity of defenses and object relations using Thematic Apperception Test (Murray, 1943) scales (Cramer, 1991; Westen, Lohr, Silk, Kerber, & Goodrich, 1989). We compared scores to other indicators of participants' LPO. The parallelism hypothesis was largely supported in both studies. PMID:20408024

Hibbard, Stephen; Porcerelli, John; Kamoo, Ray; Schwartz, Mark; Abell, Steven

2010-05-01

153

Modelling with Relational Calculus of Object and Component Systems - rCOS  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This chapter presents a formalization of functional and behavioural requirements, and a refinement of requirements to a design for CoCoME using the Relational Calculus of Object and Component Systems (rCOS). We give a model of requirements based on an abstraction of the use cases described in Chapter 3.2. Then the refinement calculus of rCOS is used to derive design models corresponding to the top level designs of Chapter 3.4. We demonstrate how rCOS supports modelling different views and their relationships of the system and the separation of concerns in the development.

Chen, Zhenbang; Hannousse, Abdel Hakim

2008-01-01

154

Effect of a fuel-adjustment clause on a regulated firm's selection of inputs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many regulatory commissions have adopted fuel-adjustment clauses, which affect both profit risk and profit level. The author uses a model of regulation which oversimplifies the regulatory environment, which makes it possible to show that a fuel-adjustment clause enables a firm to alter the risk-return package it offers to investors through its input choices. If demand is inelastic, market value can be increased by using relatively more fuel in the production process. Regulators monitor fuel purchase negotiations, fuel-use decisions, plant maintenance practices, etc., and the extent of intervention affects the ability of the firm to change inputs and alter its risk-return position. Regulators can also use fixed-heat-rate versus variable-heat-rate clauses and alterations in the percentage of fuel costs passed on to customers. 18 references.

Scott, F.A. Jr.

1985-04-01

155

Towards a profile of the interpersonal organization of the portuguese clause Para um perfil da organização interpessoal da oração em Português  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper aims at contributing to the description of Portuguese from the point of view of Systemic Functional Grammar, particularly in relation to the description of the clause as an exchange. While assuming that the interpersonal organization of the Portuguese clause involves phenomena that are similar across different languages, such as Mood systems, for instance, the paper wants nevertheless to show that there are systemic options (and their structural realizations) that are specific to P...

Gouveia, Carlos A. M.

2010-01-01

156

Modifying behaviour to reduce over-speeding in work-related drivers: an objective approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this study was to utilise an objective measurement tool, via an on-board Diagnostic tool (OBDII), to explore the effectiveness of a behaviour modification intervention designed to reduce over-speed violations in a group of work-related drivers. It was predicted that over-speed violations would be decreased following participation in a behaviour modification intervention where drivers received weekly feedback on their speeding performance and goal setting exercises. The final analysis included the on-road behaviour of 16 drivers, all of whom completed each stage of the intervention programme. As predicted, over-speed violations significantly decreased from pre-test to post-test, after controlling for kilometres driven. These findings offer practical guidance for industry in developing interventions designed to improve work-related driving behaviour. PMID:24316504

Newnam, Sharon; Lewis, Ioni; Warmerdam, Amanda

2014-03-01

157

A Comparative Study Between the Performance of Relational & Object Oriented Database in Data Warehousing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A data warehouse is a repository of subjectively selected and adapted operational data which cansuccessfully answer any ad hoc, statistical, complex or analytical queries. Data warehousing technology isbecoming essential for effective business intelligence, business strategy formulation and implementation ina globally competitive environment where in larger and larger amounts of data are required to beprocessed faster and faster for comprehension of its real meaning and impact. A warehouse is a subjectoriented,integrated, time-variant and non-volatile collection of data in support of management's decisionmaking process”. Data that gives information about a particular subject instead of about a company'songoing operations. It is integrated as data that is gathered into the data warehouse from a variety ofsources and merged into a coherent whole. Data warehouse system is time variant as all data in the datawarehouse is identified with a particular time period This paper discusses in detail two existing databasemodels used for data warehousing, the relational database and object oriented database and does ananalysis of the benefits of Object Oriented databases over the conventional relational database in Datawarehousing.

Pushpa Suri

2011-05-01

158

A Tool for Testing of Inheritance Related Bugs in Object Oriented Software  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Object oriented software development different from traditional development products. In object oriented software polymorphism, inheritance, dynamic binding are the important features. An inheritance property is the main feature. The compilers usually detect the syntax oriented errors only. Some of the property errors may be located in the product. Data flow testing is an appropriate testing method for testing program futures. This test analysis structure of the software and gives the flow of property. This study is designed to detect the hidden errors with reference to the inheritance property. Inputs of the tool are set of classes and packages. Outputs of the tools are hierarchies of the classes, methods, attributes and a set of inheritance related bugs like naked access, spaghetti inheritance bugs are automatically detected by the tool. The tool is developed as three major modules. They are code analysis, knowledge base preparation and bugs analysis. The code analysis module is designed to parse extract details from the code. The knowledge base preparation module is designed to prepare the knowledge base about the program details. The bug's analysis module is designed to extract bugs related information from the database. It is a static testing. This study focused on Java programs.

B. G. Geetha

2008-01-01

159

2-Sat Sub-Clauses and the Hypernodal Structure of the 3-Sat Problem  

CERN Document Server

Like simpler graphs, nested (hypernodal) graphs consist of two components: a set of nodes and a set of edges, where each edge connects a pair of nodes. In the hypernodal graph model, however, a node may contain other graphs, so that a node may be contained in a graph that it contains. The inherently recursive structure of the hypernodal graph model aptly characterizes both the structure and dynamic of the 3-sat problem, a broadly applicable, though intractable, computer science problem. In this paper I first discuss the structure of the 3-sat problem, analyzing the relation of 3-sat to 2-sat, a related, though tractable problem. I then discuss sub-clauses and sub-clause thresholds and the transformation of sub-clauses into implication graphs, demonstrating how combinations of implication graphs are equivalent to hypernodal graphs. I conclude with a brief discussion of the use of hypernodal graphs to model the 3-sat problem, illustrating how hypernodal graphs model both the conditions for satisfiability and th...

Powell, D B

2004-01-01

160

On the nature of escapable relative islands  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

It is generally assumed that universal island constraints block extraction from relative clauses. However, it is well-known that such extractions can be acceptable in the Scandinavian languages. Kush & Lindahl (2011) argue that the acceptability in Swedish is illusory; relative clauses that allow extraction have a different structure (small clause structure) from those that block extraction (true relatives, CPs). We present data from an acceptability survey of relative clause extraction in Danish. In the survey, extraction significantly decreased acceptability but we found no statistically significant effect of the ability of the verb to take a small-clause complement. We also found no difference between som â??that/who/whichâ?? and der â??that/who/whichâ??, both of which can head a relative clause while only som can head a small clause. We argue that our results do not warrant the stipulation of a structural contrast between acceptable and unacceptable extractions, and that variation in acceptability stems from processing.

Christensen, Ken Ramshøj; Nyvad, Anne Mette

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Sulfur developments: new Shell process treats Claus off-gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Shell Claus Off-gas Treating (SCOT) process can achieve virtually complete removal of the residual sulfur compounds present in the off-gas of Claus type sulfur recovery units. The process consists essentially of 2 parts, as illustrated by a diagram: (1) a reduction stage, in which all sulfur compounds and elemental sulfur in the off-gas are reduced to hydrogen sulfide, and (2) an absorption stage, in which--after water removal by condensation--hydrogen sulfide is selectively removed by amine absorption/regeneration and is recycled to the Claus unit. A SCOT process unit is flexible and easy to operate, and it produces no secondary waste streams. This article discusses its development, its current technology, and its costs.

Naber, J.E.; Wesselingh, J.A.; Groenendaal, W.

1973-12-01

162

New Claus catalyst tests accurately reflect process conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methods for testing Claus catalysts are developed that more accurately represent the actual operating conditions in commercial sulfur recovery units. For measuring catalyst activity, an aging method has been developed that results in more meaningful activity data after the catalyst has been aged, because all catalysts undergo rapid initial deactivation in commercial units. An activity test method has been developed where catalysts can be compared at less than equilibrium conversion. A test has also been developed to characterize abrasion loss of Claus catalysts, in contrast to the traditional method of determining physical properties by measuring crush strengths. Test results from a wide range of materials correlated well with actual pneumatic conveyance attrition. Substantial differences in Claus catalyst properties were observed as a result of using these tests.

Maglio, A.; Schubert, P.F.

1988-09-12

163

Relative object detectability (ROD): a new metric for comparing x-ray image detector performance for a specified object of interest  

Science.gov (United States)

Relative object detectability (ROD) quantifies the relative performance of two image detectors for a specified object of interest by taking the following ratio: the integral of detective quantum efficiency of a detector weighted by the frequency spectrum of the object divided by that for a second detector. Four different detectors, namely the microangiographic fluoroscope (MAF), the Dexela Model 1207 (Dex) and Hamamatsu Model C10901D-40 (Ham) CMOS xray detectors, and a flat-panel detector (FPD) were compared. The ROD was calculated for six pairs of detectors: (1) Dex/FPD, (2) MAF/FPD, (3) Ham/FPD, (4) Dex/Ham, (5) MAF/Ham and (6) MAF/Dex for wires of 5 mm fixed length, solid spheres ranging in diameter from 50 to 600 microns, and four simulated iodine-filled blood vessels of outer diameters 0.4 and 0.5 mm, each with wall thicknesses of 0.1 and 0.15 mm. Marked variation of ROD for the wires and spheres is demonstrated as a function of object size for the various detector pairs. The ROD of all other detectors relative to the FPD was much greater than one for small features and approached 1.0 as the diameter increased. The relative detectability of simulated small iodine-filled blood vessels for all detector pairs was seen to be independent of the vessel wall thickness for the same inner diameter. In this study, the ROD is shown to have the potential to be a useful figure of merit to evaluate the relative performance of two detectors for a given imaging task.

Singh, V.; Jain, A.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

2014-03-01

164

Positioning and Relating: Market Boundaries and the Slippery Identity of the Marketing Object  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose a novel perspective on positioning by identifying goods and services first as market objects and then as marketing objects. As part of their normal marketing activities marketers position market objects and thereby provide means for other market actors to evaluate differences and similarities across an array of goods and services. Hence, marketers help disentangle goods and services in a market space, so formatting them as market objects. At the same time, marketers tend to make...

Finch, John; Geiger, Susi

2010-01-01

165

Challenging the distribution shift: Statically-induced direction illusion implicates differential processing of object-relative and non-object-relative motion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The direction illusion is the phenomenal exaggeration of the angle between the drift directions, typically, of two superimposed sets of random dots. The direction illusion is commonly attributed to mutual inhibition between direction-selective cell populations (distribution-shift model). A second explanation attributes the direction illusion to the differential processing of relative and non-relative motion components (differential processing model). Our first experiment demonstrates that, as predicted by the differential processing model, a static line can invoke a misperception of direction in a single set of dots - a phenomenon we refer to as the statically-induced direction illusion. In a second experiment, we find that the orientation of a static line can also influence the size of the conventional direction illusion. A third experiment eliminates the possibility that these results can be explained by the presence of motion streaks. While the results of these experiments are in agreement with the predictions made by the differential processing model, they pose serious problems for the distribution-shift account of shifts in perceived direction. PMID:22386927

Farrell-Whelan, Max; Wenderoth, Peter; Brooks, Kevin R

2012-02-23

166

An objective method to determine an area's relative significance for avian conservation  

Science.gov (United States)

Land managers are often concerned with providing habitat affords the 'best habitat for songbirds.' However, unless management simply is directed at rare species it may not be clear which habitats or management options are best. A standard, quantifiable measure to compare the significance of different tracts of land or competing management techniques for avian conservation would benefit managers in decision making. I propose a standard measure that is based on the relative density of each species within a finite area and their respective regional Partners in Flight concern scores. I applied this method to > 100 reforested sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley that ranged in age from 2 to 32 years. The objectively determined avian conservation significance for each of these reforested sites was correlated with stand age and with my subjective assessment of 'habitat quality.' I also used this method to compare the avian conservation significance of forested habitats before and after selective timber harvest with high significance for avian conservation provided habitat for species of conservation concern. I recommend application of this methodology to other and areas under different management, to determine its usefulness at predicting avian conservation significance among habitats and at various avian densities.

Twedt, D.J.

2005-01-01

167

Relation between X-ray flux and radio flux from cosmic objects  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanism of X-ray and radio emission from cosmic objects is investigated analytically. Expressions are derived for the earth-observed density fluxes of X-rays (due to collisional bremsstrahlung) and radio waves (due to the gyrosynchrotron mechanism) emitted by the same energetic electrons in a plasma under a magnetic field. An equation relating the two fluxes is obtained by solving the X-ray expression for the electron-energy spectrum at the point of emission and substituting it in the radio-wave expression. This equation is shown to be independent of the distance from earth and to permit calculation of either flux if the other is known. Numerical calculations based on a conventional power-law X-ray spectrum with an index of 3.5 are included. It is pointed out that the radio-emission mechanism is valid only for optically thin frequency regions and that such phenomena as absorption effects, Razin suppression and electron-electron bremsstrahlung must be considered in many astrophysical applications.

Suzuki, I.

1983-11-01

168

Perirhinal cortex activity during visual object discrimination: an event-related fMRI study.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Previous fMRI studies have demonstrated preferential involvement of the perirhinal cortex and hippocampus in tasks of object and spatial memory, respectively. Here we investigated whether similar activity would also be present when object and spatial discrimination was assessed in the absence of explicit declarative memory demands. On each trial in the scanner, participants were presented simultaneously with two arrays of objects and were asked to indicate whether both arrays were identical, ...

2006-01-01

169

Relating Retinotopic and Object-Selective Responses in Human Lateral Occipital Cortex  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

What is the relationship between retinotopy and object selectivity in human lateral occipital (LO) cortex? We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine sensitivity to retinal position and category in LO, an object-selective region positioned posterior to MT along the lateral cortical surface. Six subjects participated in phase-encoded retinotopic mapping experiments as well as block-design experiments in which objects from six different categories were presented at six dist...

Sayres, Rory; Grill-spector, Kalanit

2008-01-01

170

48 CFR 728.309 - Contract clause for worker's compensation insurance.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Contract clause for worker's compensation insurance...Insurance 728.309 Contract clause for worker's compensation insurance...overseas resulting in contracts which require worker's...

2010-10-01

171

48 CFR 28.309 - Contract clauses for workers' compensation insurance.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-10-01 false Contract clauses for workers' compensation insurance...Insurance 28.309 Contract clauses for workers' compensation insurance...at 52.228-3, Workers' Compensation...solicitations and contracts when the...

2009-10-01

172

48 CFR 728.309 - Contract clause for worker's compensation insurance.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-10-01 false Contract clause for worker's compensation insurance...Insurance 728.309 Contract clause for worker's compensation insurance...overseas resulting in contracts which require worker's...

2009-10-01

173

48 CFR 52.107 - Provisions and clauses prescribed in subpart 52.1.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Regulations System 2 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Provisions and clauses prescribed in subpart 52.1. 52.107 Section 52.107 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES...

2009-10-01

174

Examining complexity across domains: relating subjective and objective measures of affective environmental scenes, paintings and music.  

Science.gov (United States)

Subjective complexity has been found to be related to hedonic measures of preference, pleasantness and beauty, but there is no consensus about the nature of this relationship in the visual and musical domains. Moreover, the affective content of stimuli has been largely neglected so far in the study of complexity but is crucial in many everyday contexts and in aesthetic experiences. We thus propose a cross-domain approach that acknowledges the multidimensional nature of complexity and that uses a wide range of objective complexity measures combined with subjective ratings. In four experiments, we employed pictures of affective environmental scenes, representational paintings, and Romantic solo and chamber music excerpts. Stimuli were pre-selected to vary in emotional content (pleasantness and arousal) and complexity (low versus high number of elements). For each set of stimuli, in a between-subjects design, ratings of familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal were obtained for a presentation time of 25 s from 152 participants. In line with Berlyne's collative-motivation model, statistical analyses controlling for familiarity revealed a positive relationship between subjective complexity and arousal, and the highest correlations were observed for musical stimuli. Evidence for a mediating role of arousal in the complexity-pleasantness relationship was demonstrated in all experiments, but was only significant for females with regard to music. The direction and strength of the linear relationship between complexity and pleasantness depended on the stimulus type and gender. For environmental scenes, the root mean square contrast measures and measures of compressed file size correlated best with subjective complexity, whereas only edge detection based on phase congruency yielded equivalent results for representational paintings. Measures of compressed file size and event density also showed positive correlations with complexity and arousal in music, which is relevant for the discussion on which aspects of complexity are domain-specific and which are domain-general. PMID:23977295

Marin, Manuela M; Leder, Helmut

2013-01-01

175

Natural gas treatment: purification of Claus tail-gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The selection of a process to remove sulfur components from Claus tail-gas is exemplified on the Grossenkneten sour gas purification plant. The process design criteria and the characteristics of two typical tail-gas processes are described. The reasons for the selection of the Scot process are established. Finally constructive details and experiences after two years of operation are discussed.

Frankholz, G.; Mueller, R.

1982-02-01

176

Professor Volker Claus: vom o. Professor zum e-Professor  

Science.gov (United States)

Der Beitrag würdigt das Wirken von Professor Claus auf Gebieten des rechnerunterstützten Lehrens. Dabei wird ein Bogen von den frühen Systemen des rechnerunterstützten Lehrens über moderne Lernplattformen im Internet zu neuen Anwendungen web-basierter Systeme für das lebenslange Lehren und Lernen gespannt.

Gunzenhäuser, Rul; Taras, Christiane; Wörner, Michael

177

U.S. Foreign Medical Students: After the "Guadalajara Clause"  

Science.gov (United States)

The controversial issues surrounding the "Guadalajara Clause" of the Health Professions Educational Assistance Act of 1976 are detailed. At issue is whether Americans studying in foreign medical schools should be admitted to third and fourth year classes if they can pass part one of the National board examinations. (BT)

Walsh, John

1977-01-01

178

21 CFR 70.51 - Advisory committee on the applicability of the anticancer clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

...committee on the applicability of the anticancer clause. 70.51 Section 70.51...committee on the applicability of the anticancer clause. All requests for and procedures...governing any advisory committee on the anticancer clause shall be subject to the...

2010-04-01

179

A Survey of Health Management User Objectives Related to Diagnostic and Prognostic Metrics  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most prominent technical challenges to effective deployment of health management systems is the vast difference in user objectives with respect to engineering development. In this paper, a detailed survey on the objectives of different users of health management systems is presented. These user objectives are then mapped to the metrics typically encountered in the development and testing of two main systems health management functions: diagnosis and prognosis. Using this mapping, the gaps between user goals and the metrics associated with diagnostics and prognostics are identified and presented with a collection of lessons learned from previous studies that include both industrial and military aerospace applications.

Wheeler, Kevin R.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Poll, Scott D.

2010-01-01

180

Using Object-Relational Database Systems and XML in the Context of Mobile Environments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we present an architecture for presentation, access and exchange of information in a mobile computing environment. In the project MOVI, a new approach is developed which enables applications on mobile computers for exchange and visualization of multimedia objects with applications on stationary database servers via the Object Bus. We focus our attention on new strategies for the adaptation and integration of database techniques regarding the management of multimedia data types ...

Flach, G.

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Proposed Framework wWhich Use the Object Oriented Principles in Relational Systems. General Aspects and Principles (Part I  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are some significant theoretical and technological approaches on the issue of object-relational "impedance mismatch" between applications' abstract model and database structures. Two characteristics of those approaches we think that are questionable: first of all it is so called “flat” nature of relational systems and model, and then there is the drawback of the storage of (object oriented semantics on the application level, thus severe limiting the data (object sharing and, at the same time, virtually broking the data independence principle of database systems architecture. In this paper we will try to outline an approach to address to some in a concrete manner.

Catalin STRIMBEI

2006-01-01

182

Why the formal relational data model can be considered as a basis of object-oriented systems  

CERN Document Server

Relational data model defines a specification of a unique type "relation." However, its simplicity does not mean that the system implementing this model must operate with structures which are simple to the same degree only. We consider two principles, which allow one to combine object-oriented paradigm (OOP) and relational data model (RDM) in the framework of the unique system without breaking the formalism of the latter model. The first principle -- "data complexity in encapsulated domains" -- is well known from The Third Manifesto by Date and Darwen. The second principle --"data complexity in names"-- is the basis for a system where data are described as arbitrarily complex objects and may be uniquely represented as a set of relations. Names of these relations and names of their attributes are combinations of names entered in specifications of the complex objects. Below, we consider the main properties of such a system.

Grigoriev, Evgeniy

2007-01-01

183

The Segmented Relative Construction  

Science.gov (United States)

The behavior of the "It's...who..." type of construction and its relation to defining and non-defining relative clauses is examined. Reference is made particularly to suprasegmental features. Parallels are drawn to French relative constructions. (SCC)

Bennett, T. J. A.

1976-01-01

184

An evolutionary catalogue of Galactic post-AGB and related objects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the ongoing AKARI infrared sky survey, of much greater sensitivity than IRAS, a wealth of post-AGB objects may be discovered. It is thus time to organize our present knowledge of known post-AGB stars in th galaxy with a view to using it to search for new post-AGB objects among AKARI sources. We searched the literature available on the NASA Astrophysics Data System up to 1 October 2006, and defined criteria for classifying sources into three categories: "very likely", "p...

Szczerba, R.; Siodmiak, N.; Stasinska, G.; Borkowski, J.

2007-01-01

185

Spectral energy distribution and generalized Wien's law for photons, cosmic string loops and related physical objects  

CERN Document Server

Physical objects with energy $u_w(l) \\sim l^{-3w}$ with $l$ a characteristic length and $w$ a numerical constant ($-1 \\leq w \\leq 1$), lead to an equation of state $p=w\\rho$, with $p$ the pressure and $\\rho$ the energy density. Special objects with this property are, for instance, photons ($u = hc/l$, with $l$ the wavelength) with $w = 1/3$, and some models of cosmic string loops ($u = (c^4/aG)l$, with $l$ the length of the loop and $a$ a numerical constant), with $w = -1/3$, and maybe other kinds of objects as, for instance, hypothetical cosmic membranes with lateral size $l$ and energy proportional to the area, i.e. to $l^2$, for which $w = -2/3$, or the yet unknown constituents of dark energy, with $w = -1$. Here, we discuss the general features of the spectral energy distribution of these systems and the corresponding generalization of Wien's law, which has the form $Tl_{mp}^{3w}=constant$, being $l_{mp}$ the most probable size of the mentioned objects.

Jou, David; Sciacca, Michele

2013-01-01

186

The Kangaroo Book: Developmental Activities Related to the State Kindergarten Objectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intended for use in conjunction with the guidebook, "Early Childhood Education in South Carolina," this book of experiential activities aims to help kindergarten teachers plan an appropriate program for their children. Each activity described realizes one of the 18 objectives for kindergarten that were adopted by the South Carolina State Board of…

Corley, Rhonda; And Others

187

How crawling and manual object exploration are related to the mental rotation abilities of 9-month-old infants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present experiment examined whether the mental rotation ability of 9-month-old infants was related to their abilities to crawl and manually explore objects. Forty-eight 9-month-old infants were tested; half of them had been crawling for an average of 9.3 weeks. The infants were habituated to a video of a simplified Shepard-Metzler object rotating back and forth through a 240° angle around the longitudinal axis of the object. They were tested with videos of the same object rotating through a previously unseen 120° angle and with a mirror image of the display. All of the infants also participated in a manual object exploration task, in which they freely explored 5 toy blocks. The results showed that the crawlers looked significantly longer at the novel (mirror object than at the familiar object, independent of their manual exploration scores. The non-crawlers looking times, in contrast, were influenced by the manual exploration scores. The infants who did not spontaneously explore the toy blocks tended to show a familiarity preference, whereas those who explored the toy blocks preferred to look at the novel object. Thus, all of the infants were able to master the mental rotation task but it seemed to be the most complex process for infants who had no crawling experience and who did not spontaneously explore objects.

GudrunSchwarzer

2013-03-01

188

Relating visual to verbal semantic knowledge: the evaluation of object recognition in prosopagnosia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Assessment of face specificity in prosopagnosia is hampered by difficulty in gauging pre-morbid expertise for non-face object categories, for which humans vary widely in interest and experience. In this study, we examined the correlation between visual and verbal semantic knowledge for cars to determine if visual recognition accuracy could be predicted from verbal semantic scores. We had 33 healthy subjects and six prosopagnosic patients first rated their own knowledge of cars. They were then...

2009-01-01

189

Parametric Optimization on Multi-Objective Precision Turning Using Grey Relational Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, L9(34) orthogonal array of Taguchi experiment is selected for four parameters (speed, cutting depth, feed rate, tool nose runoff) with three levels in optimizing the multi-objective (surface roughness, tool wear and material removal rate) precision turning on an ECOCA-3807 CNC (Computer Numerical Controlled) lathe. Through the examination of surface roughness (Ra), tool wear ratio (mm-2) and the calculation of MRR; the multiple ...

2008-01-01

190

Objections raised by the Land government relating to nuclear licensing procedures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The president of the Bavarian Landtag rejected a motion brought in by a parliamentary party, demanding that the Landtag request the Bavarian government..'' to file objections, in matters of the current plan approval procedure for the Schacht Konrad waste repository''. The motion was rejected referring to paragraph 62, sub-section 4 of the GeschOLT, stating the scope of competence of the Bavarian Free State. The Bavarian Constitutional Court decided in this matter as follows: Anyone has the right to raise objections in a plan approval procedure according to paragraph 9 b, sub-section 1 Atomic Energy Act. There is no mandatory restriction of this right to cases involving a personal interest. Land governments thus are equally entitled to raise objections against the licensing of a radwaste with the Ministry of the Environment of Lower Saxony pository. The remotion brought in therefore aims at activities within the legally permitted scope of action in accordance with the Atomic Energy Act. (orig./HSCH)

1993-09-01

191

Operational Semantics of an Imperative Language in Definite Clauses  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present the â??big-stepâ? operational semantics of a small programming language NIL (Natural Imperative Language) in definite clauses, thus building on the fixpoint semantics of logic programs. NIL operates on a state which is just a sequence of counters. As basic statements NIL has incrementation, decrementation and test for null. NIL allows for sequential composition and non-deterministic choice of statements as well as mutually recursive definitions of procedures, which we find support our long-term aim of formalizing and reasoning about specific actions and planning tasks for rational agents. A novelty is the use of the de Bruijn notation instead of names. To our knowledge the operational semantics of an imperative language like NIL have not been given in definite clauses, although it is well-known that it is possible.

Villadsen, Jørgen

2003-01-01

192

LA ORACIÓN SIMPLE NGÄBÉRE THE SIMPLE CLAUSE IN NGÄBÉRE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artículo hace una descripción inicial de las características más importantes de la oración simple de la variante de la lengua ngäbére (guaymí hablada en el Pacífico Sur de Costa Rica. Sin embargo, aunque no es un trabajo comparativo propiamente dicho, sí se hacen unas pequeñas menciones de las propiedades de la oración simple en el ngäbére panameño, sobre el cual existen un poco más de estudios.This paper makes a preliminary description of the most important features of simple clause in the variant of the Ngäbére language (Guaymí spoken in the southern Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Although not a proper comparative study, it does make some reference to the characteristics of the simple clause in Panamanian Ngäbére, on which there is a bit more of study.

José Manuel Murillo Miranda

2010-06-01

193

CLAUSE 49 AND ITS IMPACT ON PERFORMANCE MEASURES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study attempts to understand the effect of India's adoption of major governance reforms (with reference to Clause 49 which is based on a voluntary 1998 Code of Corporate Governance, developed by the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII, an organization of large Indian public firms.If investors consider the reforms to be valuable (or more valuable for larger firms, firm return in the form of share prices, accounting profit and earning per share should react positively to the key adoption announcement. Over a span period of 10 years before and after the announcement by the Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI, India's principal securities regulator for adoption of Clause 49, the profit after tax and EPS of the listed companies specifically the group of companies selected for this study has shown the positive effect on the above specified components. Average returns had increased considerably and even EPS also present the same picture, but these changes may have been due to factors other than the reforms. These results also supported by statistical testing. Overall, we report evidence consistent with investors expecting the Clause 49 reforms to increase the efficiency of corporates.

Paridhi Saini

2014-04-01

194

Multi-objective optimization of cutting parameters in turning using grey relational analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents optimization of performance characteristics in unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastic composites using Taguchi method and Grey relational analysis. Performance characteristics such as surface roughness and material removal rate are optimized during rough cutting operation. Process parameters including tool nose radius, tool rake angle, feed rate, cutting speed, cutting environment and depth of cut are investigated using mixed L18 orthogonal array. Grey relation analysis is used to optimize the parameters and Principal Component Analysis is used to find the relative significance of performance characteristics. Depth of cut is the factor, which has great influence on surface roughness and material removal rate, followed by feed rate. The percentage contribution of depth of cut is 54.399% and feed rate is 5.355%.

Meenu Gupta

2013-10-01

195

OBJECTIVES AND REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO THE SUSTAINABILITY OF ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to the EU Sustainable Development Strategy, whose foundations were laid in Gothenburg 2001, sustainability requires simultaneous and impartial consideration of economic, social and environmental consequences of any decision taken, so at this point, stating that “the EU to become the world whose economy is highly efficient use of resources with a high quality of life of its citizens and where socio-economic development of environmentally”. As a result, international organizations, European and national support implementation of projects and strategies to change unsustainable consumption patterns. In this sense, sustainable solutions and increased use of renewable energy resources, practice on a larger scale organic farming and intelligent management of urban waste are major objectives of not only environmental policies, but also the quality of life.

Elena Cofas

2013-05-01

196

Apparatus and method for simultaneously displaying relative displacements of a fluctuating biological object  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a method for producing discrete images of a human organ in fluctuating motion, e.g., the heart and related vessels, images derived at selected times related to the cardiac cycle are independently presented on respective discrete areas within a common image plane. A source of X-rays irradiates the organ. A physiological synchronizer produces timing signals within the cardiac cycle for controlling the periods of transmission of the X-ray beam through the organ during, for example, end diastole and end systole. An antiscattering, masking frame has alternate parallel slits and bars at equal intervals exposing substantially half the area of presentation of an X-ray sensitive film in alternate, equally spaced area strips during, e.g., diastole. The frame is repositioned in response to a signal from the synchronizer for displacing it relative to the film such that the bars then cover the sensitized areas of the film and expose substantially the remaining half of the film during systole. The image elements are interdigitally juxtaposed to present the diastolic and systolic images in an interlaced pattern. Relative displacements of the organ during a cardiac cycle may be determined from the juxtaposed image elements. (author)

1980-01-01

197

The remuneration clause of the Law on the Supply into the Public Power System as a constitutional means of economic control and ecopolicy; Die Verguetungsregelung des Stromeinspeisungsgesetzes als Mittel verfassungsmaessiger Wirtschaftslenkung und Umweltpolitik  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The current misgivings as to the admissibility of the remuneration clause of the law on the Supply into the Public Power System originate in, and thereafter cling to, the conjecture that the remuneration clause is nothing but a special levy in disguise and therefore amenanable to the financial system. It is argued in particular that the price dictate of the law on the Supply into the Public Power System can be grouped together with the so-called ``coal penny`` under issues relating to tax law. From this it is concluded that the constituent facts and legal qualification in the case of the compensation levy of the Third Law on Electricity Production are so similar, if not identical, to those in the case of the remuneration clause of the law on the Supply into the Public Power System that the unconstitutionality of the former, declared by the Federal Constitutional Court on 11 October 1994, is direct proof of the unconstitutionality of the latter. The present article demonstrates the untenability of this equation. It is thus seen that constitutional objections along these lines remain inconvencing. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die verfassungsrechtlichen Bedenken gegen die Zulaessigkeit der Verguetungsregelung des Stromspeisungsgesetzes finden ihren Ausgangspunkt und gleichsam roten Faden in der Behauptung, dass die Verguetungsregelung als verkappte Sonderabgabe zu qualifizieren und dann an der Finanzverfassung zu messen sei. Insbesondere gehoere die Preisfestsetzung des Stromeinspeisungsgesetzes mit dem sogenannten ``Kohlepfennig`` in einen - abgaberechtlichen - Topf. Tatbestand und rechtliche Qualifikation der Verguetungsregelung des Stromeinspeisungsgesetzes seien mit Tatbestand und rechtlicher Qualifikation der Ausgleichsabgabe nach dem Dritten Verstromungsgesetz dermassen vergleichbar, wenn nicht letztlich identisch, dass aus der Verfassungswidrigkeit des Kohlepfennigs - Beschluss des Bundesverfassungsgerichts vom 11. Oktober 1994 - unmittelbar auch auf die Verfassungswidrigkeit der Verguetungsregelung des Stromeinspeisungsgesetzes geschlossen werden koenne und geschlossen werden muesse. Die Unhaltbarkeit dieser Gleichsetzung wird im folgenden offengelegt und damit deutlich gemacht, dass darauf basierende verfassungsrechtliche Bedenken nicht ueberzeugen koennen. (orig.)

Scholz, R. [Inst. fuer Politik und Oeffentliches Recht der Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

1995-09-01

198

NON-COMPETITION CLAUSES IN COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We begin with an analysis of areas where rivalry between economic agents can not show (any act of competition committed in this area drawing the liability of the author, we will then analyze competition in relations between the trader and servant or other employees and continue with the analysis of the legal ban on competition in the limited liability companies and joint stock companies. So, the relevant provisions of Law 31/1990 are reviewed, views of legal doctrine and practice of judicial rulings on the nature and purpose of the relevant provisions referred to, their scope, applicability of statutory prohibition against competition in the profile activity of the company, the prohibition in the liquidation phase, procedural methods which can cover damage caused to the creditor’s violated rights, as well as statute of limitations for the right to action and prescription.

MIHAELA IRINA IONESCU

2011-04-01

199

Novel image–novel location object recognition task sensitive to age-related cognitive decline in nondemented elderly  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Traditional tests used in the clinic to identify dementia, such as the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), are useful to identify severe cognitive impairments but might be less sensitive to detect more subtle age-related cognitive changes. Previously, the novel image–novel location (NINL) object recognition test was shown to be sensitive to detect effects of apolipoprotein E4, a risk factor for developing age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease, in nondemented elderly. In ...

Haley, Gwendolen E.; Berteau-pavy, Frederique; Berteau-pavy, Daphnee; Raber, Jacob

2012-01-01

200

Use of an Objective Rest System to Determine Energy and Momentum Relationships for Observers in Relative Motion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

         The energy-momentum four-vector transformation of relativity theory is derived from Hamilton's equation for the change in the energy of an object that is produced by an applied force. Einstein pointed out in his original work that two clocks in relative motion can be distinguished when one of them has been accelerated with respect to the other, and he used this as justification for his prediction of time dilation. An example is presented in which two airpla...

Buenker, Robert J.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Santa Claus Schedules Jobs on Unrelated Machines  

CERN Document Server

One of the classic results in scheduling theory is the 2-approximation algorithm by Lenstra, Shmoys, and Tardos for the problem of scheduling jobs to minimize makespan on unrelated machines, i.e., job j requires time p_{ij} if processed on machine i. More than two decades after its introduction it is still the algorithm of choice even in the restricted model where processing times are of the form p_{ij} in {p_j, \\infty}. This problem, also known as the restricted assignment problem, is NP-hard to approximate within a factor less than 1.5 which is also the best known lower bound for the general version. Our main result is a polynomial time algorithm that estimates the optimal makespan of the restricted assignment problem within a factor 33/17 + \\epsilon \\approx 1.9412 + \\epsilon, where \\epsilon > 0 is an arbitrary small constant. The result is obtained by upper bounding the integrality gap of a certain strong linear program, known as configuration LP, that was previously successfully used for the related Santa...

Svensson, Ola

2010-01-01

202

Norwegian Object Shift as IP-internal topicalization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

In this paper we discuss the phenomenon of Object Shift in Norwegian, and we show that this operation is more complex and discourse related than what has traditionally been assumed. We argue that Object Shift cannot be accounted for in a purely prosodic approach. Rather, we demonstrate that a common denominator for all objects undergoing Object Shift is that they are topics. We thus propose that Object Shift should be analysed as (IP-internal topicalization. Furthermore, we discuss in detail the peculiar behaviour of the topical pronominal object det ‘it’ in cases where its referent is not an individuated, gender-agreeing noun, but rather a non-individuated referent, like a full clause, a VP or a type DP. In such cases, this pronoun typically refrains from Object Shift. We discuss the contrast between these types of objects and shifting objects in light of the topic hierarchy presented in Frascarelli & Hinterhölzl (2007 and show that pronominal objects that undergo Object Shift have the characteristics of familiar topics, while det ‘it’ in the nonshifting contexts have the characteristics of aboutness topics. Consequently, we propose that Object Shift only applies to pronominal objects that constitute familiar topics.

Kristine Bentzen

2012-05-01

203

Humanizing the impostor: object relations and illness equations in the neonatal intensive care unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper I explore a seemingly mundane and inconsequential act--that of placing dolls and stuffed animals into newborns' incubator machines, in what I dub a kind of "teddy bear diplomacy," whereby mothers ornament their babies' high tech life-support prostheses with commonplace toys and trinkets. Using hospital ethnography and maternal interviews, I probe the psychodynamic significations of these ornamenting acts, which aspire to domesticate, animate and even humanize the incubator, itself a cyborg womb that displaces maternal purpose and problematizes bonding. The stress triggered by a high-risk infant and the double bind imposed by the therapeutic protocol lead me to here examine the intersubjectivity of illness in mothers' comorbidity and satellite syndromes. I argue that teddy bears and like artifacts serve as countertransitional objects to materially symbolize and perform the imagined mother-child dyad. Moreover, as autopoetic devices in the metamorphosis of maternal identity, they may empower a mother's vicarious participation in her child's healing, and thereby work towards closure of her own intersubjective afflictions. PMID:12825782

Landzelius, Kyra Marie

2003-03-01

204

Discussion of related problems in herbal prescription science based on objective indications of herbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Herbal prescription science is a bridge between basic and clinical subjects in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. In studying the doctrines in the general textbook Herbal Prescription Science and applying them to clinical practice, it was found that they are imprecise and inapplicable. Based on the analysis of Suanzaoren Decoction, Xiaoqinglong Decoction, Jichuan Decoction, etc., the authors point out that this problem is due to the current pathogenesis-based research approach of the herbal prescription science. It is proposed that correspondence between formula and syndrome is the core of the herbal prescription science. In order to solve such a problem, searching for corresponding relationship between an herb or a formula and the signs and symptoms of a syndrome or disease should be the most important task in research of herbal prescription science, for emphasis on attention to the objective indications and evidence in clinical utilization of herbal formulas is the major feature of the herbal prescription science according to medication experience in the long history of TCM.

Xing-jiang XIONG

2010-01-01

205

Fast line and object segmentation in noisy and cluttered environments using relative connectivity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In applications such as 3D plane segmentation of road traffic environments using u/v-disparity-histograms, line extraction is a key component and has to be as fast and precise as possible. Hough Transform is a good way to detect straight lines but specific line segments limited by start and end points are still to be determined. The Line Patterns Hough Transform (LPHT) introduced by Yip[1] directly delivers potential start and end points using the principle of relative connectivity. But this ...

Teutsch, Michael; Schamm, Thomas

2011-01-01

206

A systematic review of reliability and objective criterion-related validity of physical activity questionnaires  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Physical inactivity is one of the four leading risk factors for global mortality. Accurate measurement of physical activity (PA and in particular by physical activity questionnaires (PAQs remains a challenge. The aim of this paper is to provide an updated systematic review of the reliability and validity characteristics of existing and more recently developed PAQs and to quantitatively compare the performance between existing and newly developed PAQs. A literature search of electronic databases was performed for studies assessing reliability and validity data of PAQs using an objective criterion measurement of PA between January 1997 and December 2011. Articles meeting the inclusion criteria were screened and data were extracted to provide a systematic overview of measurement properties. Due to differences in reported outcomes and criterion methods a quantitative meta-analysis was not possible. In total, 31 studies testing 34 newly developed PAQs, and 65 studies examining 96 existing PAQs were included. Very few PAQs showed good results on both reliability and validity. Median reliability correlation coefficients were 0.62–0.71 for existing, and 0.74–0.76 for new PAQs. Median validity coefficients ranged from 0.30–0.39 for existing, and from 0.25–0.41 for new PAQs. Although the majority of PAQs appear to have acceptable reliability, the validity is moderate at best. Newly developed PAQs do not appear to perform substantially better than existing PAQs in terms of reliability and validity. Future PAQ studies should include measures of absolute validity and the error structure of the instrument.

Helmerhorst Hendrik JF

2012-08-01

207

A coordinated radio and H? survey of southern RS CVn systems and related objects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present the results of a search for radio emission at 5 GHz from a selection of 21 southern hemisphere Rs CVn binaries and related late-type emission-line stars. Three of the program stars were detected above the survey limit of 10 mJy, including the previously known RS CVn radio binary HR 1099 and two new radio binaries, HR 4492 (= HD 101379) and HD 195040. A simultaneous program of high-resolution H? spectroscopy revealed significant emission profile variability in both the latter stars. Radio variability on time-scales of approximately 1 day was observed in both HR 1099 and 4492. An increase by a factor of 3 in the observed radio flux density from HR 4492 on 1981 July 18 was accompanied by a significant enhancement of the H? equivalent width by approximately 0.5 A on that date. (author)

1982-01-01

208

Minor planets and related objects. IX - Photometry and polarimetry of /1685/ Toro.  

Science.gov (United States)

UBV photometry, lightcurves, a polarization-phase relation, and rotational polarization curves of Toro were obtained, June-August 1972. The average colors are B-V = 0.87 and U-B = 0.47 mag, showing some reddening with phase. The geometric albedo of Toro in the B filter is 0.14 which corresponds to an effective mean radius of 2.2 km plus or minus 0.4 (p.e.). The rotational polarization curves indicate that the lightcurves are mostly due to shape, but some albedo variation over the surface is detected as well. The shape is elongated, and probably irregular, with a cross-sectional area ratio of about 3.2, the maximum effective radius is 2.8 km and the minimum, 1.6 km.

Dunlap, J. L.; Gehrels, T.; Howes, M. L.

1973-01-01

209

Orações concessivas independentes à luz da gramática discursivo-funcional / Independent concessive clauses in the light of functional discourse grammar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo investiga, à luz da Teoria da Gramática Discursivo-Funcional (HENGEVELD; MACKENZIE, 2008), a oração concessiva que não é subordinada a outras orações, ou seja, não apresenta relações sintáticas nem semânticas com orações anteriores ou posteriores, a que denominamos Concessiva Independent [...] e. O objetivo deste estudo consiste em descrever as propriedades discursivas, semânticas, morfossintáticas e prosódicas desse tipo de estrutura, mostrando que sua relevância está na construção e organização do discurso. Os resultados apontam que a Concessiva Independente funciona, no discurso, como um parêntese, que interrompe o fio discursivo, sendo, então, destacado por um contorno prosódico especial, aliado à presença de Atos Interativos. Constitui, portanto, um Movimento, a camada mais alta do Nível Interpessoal, nível que se relaciona aos aspectos pragmáticos da gramática de uma língua. O universo de investigação utilizado é o córpus Iboruna, um banco de dados que registra a variedade do português do noroeste paulista. Abstract in english This paper investigates, in light of the theory of Functional Discourse Grammar (HENGEVELD; MACKENZIE, 2008), the concessive clause that is not subordinated to other clauses, i.e., it has no semantic or syntactic relations with clauses before or after it, and which we call Independent Concessive. Th [...] e aim is to describe the discursive properties and the semantic, morphosyntactic and prosodic structure of this type of clause, showing that its relevance is in the construction and organization of discourse. The results indicate that the Independent Concessive works in speech as a parenthesis which interrupts the discursive course and is then highlighted by a special prosodic contour, combined with the presence of Interactive Acts. It is therefore a Move, the highest layer of the Interpersonal Level, the level that relates to the pragmatic aspects of the grammar of a language. The universe of research used is the Iboruna corpus, a database that records a variety of Portuguese from the Northwest of São Paulo.

Talita Storti, Garcia; Erotilde Goreti, Pezatti.

210

Arbitration clause and null contracts: autonomy of the arbitration clause and the favor Contractus Principle Cláusula compromissória e contratos nulos: breves anotações sobre a autonomia e a conservação do contrato  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This presentation aims the study of an important issue related to arbitration: the arbitration clause and the principle of separability. Firstly, it’s necessary to identify the principle and its peculiarities, the reason for existence, and its function. Then, favor contractus principle, a subject quite discussed by contemporary practices, will be approached. The valid arbitration clause inserted into a null contract is discussed with theoretical and practical arguments. As a conclusion, the prevalence of the separability is reached. In a practical case, the arbitration clause shall prevail and the discussions shall be settled by arbitration procedure.Trata-se do estudo de um dos desafios práticos da arbitragem: o princípio da autonomia da cláusula compromissória. Num primeiro momento identifica-se o princípio, suas peculiaridades, razão de existência e sua função. Posteriormente, faz-se sua aproximação ao princípio da conservação dos contratos, tema bastante discutido pelos contratualistas contemporâneos. A cláusula compromissória válida inserida em contrato nulo é discutida com fundamentos teóricos e práticos. Conclui-se pela prevalência do princípio da autonomia sobre a nulidade dos contratos, de forma que o procedimento arbitral, se eleito, deverá ser a forma de solução do conflito, mesmo que o conflito seja a nulidade do próprio contrato.

Rui Carneiro Sampaio

2010-11-01

211

Integrating Conflict Driven Clause Learning to Local Search  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article introduces SatHyS (SAT HYbrid Solver, a novel hybrid approach for propositional satisfiability. It combines local search and conflict driven clause learning (CDCL scheme. Each time the local search part reaches a local minimum, the CDCL is launched. For SAT problems it behaves like a tabu list, whereas for UNSAT ones, the CDCL part tries to focus on minimum unsatisfiable sub-formula (MUS. Experimental results show good performances on many classes of SAT instances from the last SAT competitions.

Gilles Audenard

2009-10-01

212

Sulfur and carbon deposition on Claus catalysts examined  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors discuss Alcoa's study of the deactivation of Claus catalysts caused by sulfur and carbon deposits. Although these two deactivation mechanisms are primarily affected by operation a study of the causes, extent, avoidance and reversal of these mechanisms yields information useful to both catalyst manufacturers and users. As a result of these studies, the following procedures are recommended for extending catalyst life and to increase catalyst activity: Conduct heat soak, exceed 280/sup 0/C, high frequency in third bed; minimize toluene levels; use SP-100 for alkylated aromatics, COS and/or CS/sub 2/ decomposition.

Goodboy, K.P.; Downing, J.C.; Fleming, H.L.

1985-11-04

213

Requirements on price alignment clauses in heating supply contracts; Anforderungen an Preisanpassungsklauseln in Waermelieferungsvertraegen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Federal Court of Justice (Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany) declared two price alignment clauses in contracts of municipal district heating supply companies to be invalid. This price alignment clauses do not meet the requirements of paragraph 24 sect. 4 AVB district heating regulation. Heating supply contracts involve mass-customer business. Therefore, the question of the development of the price alignment clauses in these contracts is particularly important. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the decisions of the Federal Court of Justice and the requirements on price alignment clauses in heat supply contracts.

Thomale, Hans-Christoph [Sozietaet FPS Rechtsanwaelte und Notare, Frankfurt und Duesseldorf (Germany)

2011-07-01

214

A framework of region-based spatial relations for non-overlapping features and its application in object based image analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Object based image analysis (OBIA) is an approach increasingly used in classifying high spatial resolution remote sensing images. Object based image classifiers first segment an image into objects (or image segments), and then classify these objects based on their attributes and spatial relations. Numerous algorithms exist for the first step of the OBIA process, i.e. image segmentation. However, less research has been conducted on the object classification part of OBIA, in particular the spatial relations between objects that are commonly used to construct rules for classifying image objects and refining classification results. In this paper, we establish a context where objects are areal (not points or lines) and non-overlapping (we call this "single-valued" space), and propose a framework of binary spatial relations between segmented objects to aid in object classification. In this framework, scale-dependent "line-like objects" and "point-like objects" are identified from areal objects based on their shapes. Generally, disjoint and meet are the only two possible topological relations between two non-overlapping areal objects. However, a number of quasi- topological relations can be defined when the shapes of the objects involved are considered. Some of these relations are fuzzy and thus quantitatively defined. In addition, we define the concepts of line-like objects (e.g. roads) and point-like objects (e.g. wells), and develop the relations between two line-like objects or two point-like objects. For completeness, cardinal direction relations and distance relations are also introduced in the proposed context. Finally, we implement the framework to extract roads and moving vehicles from an aerial photo. The promising results suggest that our methods can be a valuable tool in defining rules for object based image analysis.

Liu, Yu; Guo, Qinghua; Kelly, Maggi

215

Neural correlates of conceptual object priming in young and older adults: An event-related fMRI study  

Science.gov (United States)

In this event-related fMRI study, we investigated age-related differences in brain activity associated with conceptual repetition priming in young and older adults. Participants performed a speeded “living/non-living” classification task with three repetitions of familiar objects. Both young and older adults showed a similar magnitude of behavioral priming to repeated objects and evidencing repetition-related activation reductions in fusiform gyrus, superior occipital, middle and inferior temporal cortex, as well as inferior frontal and insula regions. The neural priming effect in young adults was extensive and continued through both the second and third stimulus repetitions, whereas neural priming in older adults was markedly attenuated and reached floor at the second repetition. In young adults, greater neural priming in multiple brain regions correlated with greater behavioral facilitation whereas in older adults, only activation reduction in the left inferior frontal correlated with faster behavioral responses. These findings provide evidence for altered neural priming in older adults despite preserved behavioral priming, and suggest the possibility that age-invariant behavioral priming is observed as a result of more sustained neural processing of stimuli in older adults which may be a form of compensatory neural activity.

Ballesteros, Soledad; Bischof, Gerard N.; Goh, Joshua O.; Park, Denise C.

2012-01-01

216

75 FR 32642 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ground and Flight Risk Clause (DFARS Case 2007...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Government does not accept the risk for losses that occur...the Ground and Flight Risk clause, is confusing...reasonable wear and tear, handling of the aircraft to prevent...the Ground and Flight Risk clause, and DoD is unaware...or for death or bodily injury, caused by aircraft...

2010-06-08

217

The Claus process - theory and practice. Der Clausprozess - Theorie und Praxis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This lecture discusses both the theoretical bases of the Claus process and resulting practical aspects for the operation of Claus process plants. Furthermore some special subject areas are presented: Process-technical measures regarding environmental-friendly handling of the sulfur produced, as demonstrated by the example of the sulfur production systems of the BEB natural gas treatment plant Grossenkneten. (orig.).

Eng, H. (BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany, F.R.))

1990-01-01

218

A competitive analysis of most favored nations clauses in contracts between health care providers and insurers.  

Science.gov (United States)

A most favored nations (MFN) clause is a contractual agreement between a buyer and a seller stating that the price paid by the buyer will be at least as low as the price paid by other buyers who purchase the same commodities from the seller. During the past decade the anticompetitive impact of MFN clauses in the health care industry has been challenged under federal antitrust laws. The cases have considered MFN clauses included in contracts between large third-party payers, specifically Blue Cross and Blue Shield (BCBS) plans, and providers of health care. The clauses prohibit providers from selling their medical services to BCBS's competitors at a price lower than the price at which they sell to BCBS. The cases have challenged these clauses on the grounds that they limit selective discounting to the competitors thereby making it difficult for the competitors to attract subscribers from dominant BCBS plans by lowering premiums. In this Article, Professor Celnicker asserts that MFN clauses have significant anticompetitive potential. The Article examines the competitive consequences of MFN clauses used in the health care industry. The Article's analysis draws heavily from the economic criticisms of the Robinson-Patman Act, which prohibits a seller from discriminating in price between customers in certain circumstances. The Article concludes that in certain circumstances, MFN clauses discourage discounting, facilitate oligopolistic pricing, and deter entry or expansion by more efficient distribution systems. PMID:10115476

Celnicker, A

1991-12-01

219

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Science Archive: Migrating a Multi-Terabyte Astronomical Archive from Object to Relational DBMS  

CERN Multimedia

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Science Archive is the first in a series of multi-Terabyte digital archives in Astronomy and other data-intensive sciences. To facilitate data mining in the SDSS archive, we adapted a commercial database engine and built specialized tools on top of it. Originally we chose an object-oriented database management system due to its data organization capabilities, platform independence, query performance and conceptual fit to the data. However, after using the object database for the first couple of years of the project, it soon began to fall short in terms of its query support and data mining performance. This was as much due to the inability of the database vendor to respond our demands for features and bug fixes as it was due to their failure to keep up with the rapid improvements in hardware performance, particularly faster RAID disk systems. In the end, we were forced to abandon the object database and migrate our data to a relational database. We describe below the technical issu...

Thakar, A R; Kunszt, Peter Z; Gray, J; Thakar, Aniruddha R.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Kunszt, Peter Z.; Gray, Jim

2004-01-01

220

Iron abundance in the prototype PG1159 star, GW Vir pulsator PG1159-035, and related objects  

CERN Document Server

We performed an iron abundance determination of the hot, hydrogen deficient post-AGB star PG1159-035, which is the prototype of the PG1159 spectral class and the GW Vir pulsators, and of two related objects (PG1520+525, PG1144+005), based on the first detection of Fe VIII lines in stellar photospheres. In another PG1159 star, PG1424+535, we detect Fe VII lines. In all four stars, each within Teff = 110,000 - 150,000 K, we find a solar iron abundance. This result agrees with our recent abundance analysis of the hottest PG1159 stars (Teff = 150,000 - 200,000 K) that exhibit Fe X lines. On the whole, we find that the PG1159 stars are not significantly iron deficient, in contrast to previous notions.

Werner, Klaus; Kruk, Jeff W; Kurucz, Robert L

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

The expressibility of modality in representational complement clauses in Brazilian Portuguese  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

This paper deals with the (impossibility of expressing a variety of modal categories within the context of the layering approach to complementation in Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG.Our hypothesis is that modal expressions in complement clauses only pertain to operator or modifier classes of the highest layer relevant for that type of embedded construction and for all lower levels. In order to test this hypothesis, occurrences of complement clauses in two databases of spoken Brazilian Portuguese are analyzed. The investigation of this hypothesis is restricted to representational complement clauses.

Valéria Vendrame

2007-07-01

222

Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness – ‘I feel sleepy during the first hours at school’ – appeared to predict both school grades and self-reported school performance. Sleep quality on the other hand – as a measure of (uninterrupted sleep and/or problems falling asleep or waking up – predicted parent-reported school performance. Self- and parent-reported school performance correlated only moderately with school grades. So it turns out that the measures used to measure either sleep or school performance impacts whether or not a relation is found. Further research on sleep and school performance should take this into account. The findings do underscore the notion that sleep in adolescence can be important for learning. They are compatible with the hypothesis that a reduced sleep quality can give rise to sleepiness in the first hours at school which results in lower school performance. This notion could have applied value in counseling adolescents and their parents in changing adolescents’ sleep behavior.

AnnemarieBoschloo

2013-02-01

223

Reachability for Finite-state Process Algebras Using Horn Clauses  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this work we present an algorithm for solving the reachability problem in finite systems that are modelled with process algebras. Our method is based on Static Analysis, in particular, Data Flow Analysis, of the syntax of a process algebraic system with multi-way synchronisation. The results of the Data Flow Analysis are used in order to build a set of Horn clauses whose least model corresponds to an overapproximation of the reachable states. The computed model can be refined after each transition, and the algorithm runs until either a state whose reachability should be checked is encountered or it is not in the least model for all constructed states and thus is definitely unreachable. The advantages of the algorithm are that in many cases only a part of the Labelled Transition System will be built which leads to lower time and memory consumption. Also, it is not necessary to save all the encountered states which leads to further reduction of the memory requirements of the algorithm.

Skrypnyuk, Nataliya; Nielson, Flemming

2013-01-01

224

78 FR 37980 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Solicitation Provisions and Contract Clauses...  

Science.gov (United States)

...252.227-7013, Rights in Technical Data- Noncommercial Items, as prescribed in...clause at 252.227-7015, Technical Data-Commercial Items, as prescribed in 227...Validation of Restrictive Markings on Technical Data, as prescribed in...

2013-06-25

225

18 CFR 35.14 - Fuel cost and purchased economic power adjustment clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...purchased economic power costs (F...purchased economic power adjustment clause...was initiated, the buyer's system reserve... m. (iv) The purchasing utility shall make...needed to satisfy the buyer's system reserve...1902-0096) (Federal Power Act, 16...

2009-04-01

226

18 CFR 35.14 - Fuel cost and purchased economic power adjustment clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...purchased economic power costs (F...purchased economic power adjustment clause...was initiated, the buyer's system reserve... m. (iv) The purchasing utility shall make...needed to satisfy the buyer's system reserve...1902-0096) (Federal Power Act, 16...

2011-04-01

227

12 CFR Appendix B to Part 707 - Model Clauses and Sample Forms  

Science.gov (United States)

...advertisements). Section 269(b) of TISA provides that credit unions that use these...clauses and forms will be in compliance with TISA's disclosure provisions...would benefit those who must comply with TISA. Any references to NCUA Rules and...

2009-01-01

228

Clause chaining and conjugations in Wolof: a typology of parataxis and its semantics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to the specificity of its verb conjugation system, Wolof (Senegal) favors parataxis for clause combining and provides an interesting case where interclausal dependency can be marked by forms indicating information hierarchy. Furthermore, the study of clause combining shows that, with some restrictions on possible combinations, the various combinations of conjugations (or Tense-Aspect-Modality markers) produce different but regular interclausal meanings, such as succession, causality, oppo...

Robert, Ste?phane

2010-01-01

229

The validity of automatic termination clauses in employment contracts / by L. Tonkin.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims to establish the validity of automatic termination clauses in employment contracts. An automatic termination clause in an employment contract is a mechanism that has the effect that the expiry of an employment contract cannot constitute a dismissal. In terms of the common law a fixed term contract of employment is terminated automatically as soon as the agreed terms have been reached and it therefore does not constitute a dismissal. The common law therefore created a gap f...

Tonkin, Liechen

2012-01-01

230

Structure Learning of Probabilistic Logic Programs by Searching the Clause Space  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Learning probabilistic logic programming languages is receiving an increasing attention and systems are available for learning the parameters (PRISM, LeProbLog, LFI-ProbLog and EMBLEM) or both the structure and the parameters (SEM-CP-logic and SLIPCASE) of these languages. In this paper we present the algorithm SLIPCOVER for "Structure LearnIng of Probabilistic logic programs by searChing OVER the clause space". It performs a beam search in the space of probabilistic clauses...

Bellodi, Elena; Riguzzi, Fabrizio

2013-01-01

231

The Stance Study of Evaluative That Clauses in English Abstracts of Chinese Master Theses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Employing the model of evaluative that-clause classification by Hyland and Tse (2005), this paper conducts a contrastive study of evaluative that-clauses and its stance functions between Chinese master theses and journal articles. The frequencies, evaluative entities, stance, stance resources, and expressions were explored in two corpora of 320 abstracts from master theses and published research articles. Analysis results show similarities and significant difference between Chinese p...

Yu Wang; Hongjun Chen

2012-01-01

232

Design of relative motion and attitude profiles for three-dimensional resident space object imaging with a laser rangefinder  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper focuses on the aerospace application of a single beam laser rangefinder (LRF) for 3D imaging, shape detection, and reconstruction in the context of a space-based space situational awareness (SSA) mission scenario. The primary limitation to 3D imaging from LRF point clouds is the one-dimensional nature of the single beam measurements. A method that combines relative orbital motion and scanning attitude motion to generate point clouds has been developed and the design and characterization of multiple relative motion and attitude maneuver profiles are presented. The target resident space object (RSO) has the shape of a generic telecommunications satellite. The shape and attitude of the RSO are unknown to the chaser satellite however, it is assumed that the RSO is un-cooperative and has fixed inertial pointing. All sensors in the metrology chain are assumed ideal. A previous study by the authors used pure Keplerian motion to perform a similar 3D imaging mission at an asteroid. A new baseline for proximity operations maneuvers for LRF scanning, based on a waypoint adaptation of the Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire (HCW) equations is examined. Propellant expenditure for each waypoint profile is discussed and combinations of relative motion and attitude maneuvers that minimize the propellant used to achieve a minimum required point cloud density are studied. Both LRF strike-point coverage and point cloud density are maximized; the capability for 3D shape registration and reconstruction from point clouds generated with a single beam LRF without catalog comparison is proven. Next, a method of using edge detection algorithms to process a point cloud into a 3D modeled image containing reconstructed shapes is presented. Weighted accuracy of edge reconstruction with respect to the true model is used to calculate a qualitative “ metric” that evaluates effectiveness of coverage. Both edge recognition algorithms and the metric are independent of point cloud densit- , therefore they are utilized to compare the quality of point clouds generated by various attitude and waypoint command profiles. The RSO model incorporates diverse irregular protruding shapes, such as open sensor covers, instrument pods and solar arrays, to test the limits of the algorithms. This analysis is used to mathematically prove that point clouds generated by a single-beam LRF can achieve sufficient edge recognition accuracy for SSA applications, with meaningful shape information extractable even from sparse point clouds. For all command profiles, reconstruction of RSO shapes from the point clouds generated with the proposed method are compared to the truth model and conclusions are drawn regarding their fidelity.

Nayak, M.; Beck, J.; Udrea, B.

233

Visual Jokes about Christmas and Santa Claus on the Internet - Why and Why not?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article analyses a collection of Christmas-related images and video clips found on the Internet. The author started collecting this material in 2005, since that time the material in the form of a PowerPoint presentation has been shown to diverse audiences discussing the context (mainly from the perspective of a folklore researcher while observing the reaction of the audience.The central part of the article is devoted to a brief overview of the most characteristic groups of the jokes (with links to the images, video and descriptions of the traditions: Santa Claus as the bringer of presents, his trip from the northland and his friend Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, arrival through the chimney, different other persons wearing Santa’s hat (politicians, terrorists, women, animals, etc., Santa’s sexuality, drunken Santa, Santa murdered/killed, etc. In addition, the regional version – Ded Moroz and Snegurochka (Father Frost and the Snowgirl – is discussed here. Parodies related to the topic – the Christmas tree, snowmen and figures made of snow, elves, angels, Chinese horoscope’s “animals of the year”.Some hypotheses regarding the differences, functions, selection and perception of the worldwide available jokes in different social situations (western and post-Soviet world are put forward, also considering social groups and situations, the time before and after Christmas. Why would people need such jokes? An attempt is made to explain it by different “levels of joking” – starting with “simply jokes” with their specific context in the tradition of the particular subject matter and the carnival-like sense of the reversed world (also used by the traders, making the originally rather eerie Santa Claus look like a friendly joker in the “shopping mythology” and jokes as a kind of psychological self-defence – trying to compensate, by way of irony and black humour, for the rapidly changing and excessive tediousness, seriousness, sacralisation, or right the opposite – secularisation, commercialisation of the mass media imposed Christmas traditions and the holiday stress.

Guntis Pakalns

2012-04-01

234

Objective civil liability for work-related health damages Responsabilidade civil objetiva pelos danos à saúde do trabalhador  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The environment, including that of work , is considered a basic right guaranteed by Magna Carta (article 7º, XXII, section 225, caption and article 200, VIII . The social value of work represents the pillars of Economic Order (article 170, CF and Social Order (article 193, CF, which offers full health and physical integrity protection to workers in their working environment. Thus, the question of work-related damages suffered by employees due to industrial accidents and occupational hazards must be analyzed within the work environment protection legal context , adopting the objective civil liability theory, by means of a teleologic logical-systematic interpretation of constitutional and infra-constitutional rules. This interpretation evidences the compatibility of the economic activity and the free initiative according to the Democratic State of Right, in order to build a more just and united society , thus reducing social inequalities.O meio ambiente, incluído o do trabalho, é considerado um direito fundamental, estando expressamente previsto no artigo 7º, inciso XXII, no artigo 225, caput e artigo 200, inciso VIII, todos da Carta Magna. Ademais, os valores sociais do trabalho representam pilares da Ordem Econômica (artigo 170 da CF e da Ordem Social (artigo 193 da CF, impondo plena proteção à saúde e à integridade física do trabalhador no meio ambiente onde exerce suas atividades. Desse modo, a questão da reparação dos danos sofridos pelos empregados em função dos acidentes de trabalho e das doenças ocupacionais deve ser analisada dentro do contexto jurídico da proteção ao meio ambiente do trabalho, adotando-se a teoria da responsabilidade civil objetiva, mediante uma interpretação lógico-sistemática e teleológica das normas constitucionais e infraconstitucionais. Essa interpretação evidencia a compatibilização da atividade econômica e da livre iniciativa com os fundamentos do Estado Democrático de Direito, no intuito de se construir uma sociedade mais justa e solidária, reduzindo as desigualdades sociais.

Juliane Caravieri Martins Gambá

2007-11-01

235

Fast Mapping, Slow Learning: Disambiguation of Novel Word-Object Mappings in Relation to Vocabulary Learning at 18, 24, and 30 Months  

Science.gov (United States)

When hearing a novel name, children tend to select a novel object rather than a familiar one, a bias known as disambiguation. Using online processing measures with 18-, 24-, and 30-month-olds, we investigate how the development of this bias relates to word learning. Children's proportion of looking time to a novel object after hearing a novel name…

Bion, Ricardo A. H.; Borovsky, Arielle; Fernald, Anne

2013-01-01

236

Simple binary ether objects in the special theory of relativity, an ether sphere and a round ether plate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Definition is given for the simple binary ether object and its border in the (n + 1)-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean world of events. The system of differential equations for the border is derived in the case when external forces do not act on the object. Detailed consideration is given to such examples as an ether sphere and a round ether plate. Calculation of their inner energy is performed

2010-01-01

237

Associative Vocabulary Learning: Development and Testing of Two Paradigms for the (Re-) Acquisition of Action- and Object-Related Words  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite a growing number of studies, the neurophysiology of adult vocabulary acquisition is still poorly understood. One reason is that paradigms that can easily be combined with neuroscientfic methods are rare. Here, we tested the efficiency of two paradigms for vocabulary (re-) acquisition, and compared the learning of novel words for actions and objects. Cortical networks involved in adult native-language word processing are widespread, with differences postulated between words for objects...

Freundlieb, Nils; Ridder, Volker; Dobel, Christian; Enriquez-geppert, Stefanie; Baumgaertner, Annette; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C.; Liuzzi, Gianpiero

2012-01-01

238

Free and depedent small clauses in Brazilian Portuguese Mini-orações livres e dependentes em Português Brasileiro  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines free small clauses, which, unlike dependent small clauses, exhibit peculiar properties: (a) they are restricted to occur with individual level and event adjectives, (b) they have to appear with the subject postposed. After considering several hypotheses on the nature of this inversion, it is proposed that these adjectives are of the ergative type, while the stage level adjectives are unergatives. Small clauses with ergative adjectives can be complements of a third copula d...

Mary Aizawa Kato

2007-01-01

239

Context improves comprehension of fronted objects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Object-initial clauses (OCs) are associated with more processing difficulties than subject-initial clauses (SCs) in a number of languages (e.g. English, German and Finnish), but a supportive context can reduce or neutralize the difference between SCs and OCs with respect to reading times. Still, it is unresolved how context can affect the comprehension of OCs. In the present self-paced reading study of Danish, we therefore investigated both reading times, comprehension accuracy and response times for OCs and SCs. In line with previous studies on word order processing, OCs in an unsupportive context showed longer reading times than SCs, longer response times and a comprehension accuracy as poor as chance level. A manipulation of context showed no effect of reading time, but a supportive context had a stronger facilitating effect on comprehension (response accuracy and response time) for OCs than for SCs. PMID:23504556

Kristensen, Line Burholt; Engberg-Pedersen, Elisabeth; Poulsen, Mads

2014-04-01

240

Sulphur recovery optimization of Claus/Sulfreen Units  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stringent environmental standards and greater public awareness require an increased emphasis on the operation of sulphur plants to maximize sulphur recovery and minimize emission levels. In an effort to reduce sulphur emissions, extensive work at the Ram River Gas Plant was conducted to optimize the plant operation between 1980 and 1984. The topics to be discussed in this paper include process analyzers and controllers, COS and CS/sub 2/ conversion, oxygen control, COS and CS/sub 2/ generation, and Sulfreen optimization. As a result of the work conducted, the overall yearly recovery average has increased from 98.1% in 1980 to 98.7% in 1983. The contribution by sulphur compounds to plant emissions were, 22.3 tonnes equilibrium limits, 8.3 tonnes ratio upsets, 13.7 tonnes COS/CS/sub 2/, and 4.7 tonnes Sulfreen losses. The Ram River Plant processes sour natural gas from 12 different pools with a maximum H/sub 2/S content of 39%. The inlet capacity is 17.7 x 10/sup 6/m/sup 3//day raw gas and 300 m/sup 3//day pentanes plus, producing 12.0 x 10/sup 6/m/sup 3//day sales gas, and 4,600 tonnes/day sulphur as the by product of the DEA sweetening process. The sulphur recovery facility consists of four, 1150 tonnes/day modified-Claus plants and two Sulfreen units. Acid gas feed to the sulphur recovery units varies between 70% and 83% H/sub 2/S with CO/sub 2/ making up the bulk of the remaining composition. Each sulphur plant is a straight through process with two, 91 tonne converters with interstage condensers/coaleser units. Each Sulfreen tail gas unit is fed by two sulphur trains. Stage I Sulfreen has six, 89 tonne reactors while the Stage II unit has three, 204 tonne reactors. The waste gas from each Sulfreen is passed through separate incinerators where the remaining sulphur components are oxidized to SO/sub 2/ before being released through a common stack.

Beveridge, B.

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Causes and Consequences of Faulty Arbitration Clauses / Cláusulas de arbitramento defectuosas: sus causas y consecuencias  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish En vista de la relación que existe entre la cláusula de arbitramento y el proceso arbitral, antes que todo, este artículo tiene como objeto analizar las cláusulas de arbitramento. Porqué razón estas cláusulas son a veces inaplicables y las consecuencias de las deficiencias en su redacción. Para dete [...] rminar las razones que generan cláusulas de arbitraje defectuosas un estudio casuístico fue aplicado a la investigación. Este método fue escogido debido a que en lo atinente a cuestiones legales no es posible encontrar dos casos idénticos, puede hallarse casos con similares circunstancias, pero las razones que llevaron a las partes para hacer el contrato y la intención, suelen variar significativamente de un contrato a otro. A lo largo de la investigación es expresada frecuentemente una idea. Esta es en pocas palabras: "No hay cláusula perfecta, es casi imposible encontrar una cláusula aplicable a toda situación, puesto que cada contrato es firmado atendiendo a diferentes necesidades, circunstancias y requisitos." Una vez concluida la investigación, fue encontrado que las cláusulas de arbitraje inaplicables pueden ser causadas por errores de redacción o son derivadas de limitaciones propias del arbitramento, puesto que algunas veces simplemente no es el mecanismo idóneo para resolver cierta clase de conflictos. Las consecuencias varían dependiendo de la magnitud del error. Abstract in english Taking into account the link between arbitration clauses and the process of arbitration, this article first aims to analyse arbitration clauses, why these clauses are sometimes unconscionable and what are the consequences of such deficiencies. Companies have to consider that if the arbitration claus [...] e is drafted without a reasonable attention, this provision itself could be the cause of conflict. Furthermore, unconscionable, invalid and abusive clauses may lead to companies losing money and credibility. To determine the reasons that prompt faulty arbitration clauses a multi-case study was applied to the research. This approach was chosen owing to the fact that with regard to law it is not possible to find two identical cases. There may be similarities, but the reasons for making the deal and the intention of the parties, can vary significantly from one contract to another. During the research a particular comment was frequently encountered: "There is no perfect clause; it is impossible to find a perfect clause because every contract is executed according to different needs, circumstances and requirements." Once the research was concluded, it was found that faulty arbitration clauses can be prompted by drafting mistakes and limitations particular to the arbitration itself. The consequences may vary depending on the magnitude of the error.

Gómez Domínguez, Luis Alfonso.

242

Hospital visits among women with skeletal-related events secondary to breast cancer and bone metastases: a nationwide population-based cohort study in Denmark  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Marie Louise Svendsen,1 Henrik Gammelager,1 Claus Sværke,1 Mellissa Yong,2 Victoria M Chia,2 Christian F Christiansen,1 Jon P Fryzek1 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 2Center for Observational Research, Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA Objective: Skeletal-related events (SREs) among women with breast cancer may be associated with considerable use of health-care resources. We characterized inpatient and outpatient hospital visits in a nation...

Ml, Svendsen; Gammelager H; Svaerke C; Yong M; Vm, Chia; Cf, Christiansen; Jp, Fryzek

2013-01-01

243

Clause/Term Resolution and Learning in the Evaluation of Quantified Boolean Formulas  

CERN Document Server

Resolution is the rule of inference at the basis of most procedures for automated reasoning. In these procedures, the input formula is first translated into an equisatisfiable formula in conjunctive normal form (CNF) and then represented as a set of clauses. Deduction starts by inferring new clauses by resolution, and goes on until the empty clause is generated or satisfiability of the set of clauses is proven, e.g., because no new clauses can be generated. In this paper, we restrict our attention to the problem of evaluating Quantified Boolean Formulas (QBFs). In this setting, the above outlined deduction process is known to be sound and complete if given a formula in CNF and if a form of resolution, called Q-resolution, is used. We introduce Q-resolution on terms, to be used for formulas in disjunctive normal form. We show that the computation performed by most of the available procedures for QBFs --based on the Davis-Logemann-Loveland procedure (DLL) for propositional satisfiability-- corresponds to a tree...

Giunchiglia, E; Tacchella, A; 10.1613/jair.1959

2011-01-01

244

Considerations concerning the criminal clause, expression of contractual principle and law abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The criminal clause is an accessory convention through which the parts evaluate in advance the prejudiceinterestswhich come from the inexecution lato sensu of the contractual obligations. This convention named criminalclause is the expression of the contractual liberty principle and presents a singular practical utility but also someinconveniences. Thus the criminal clause allows avoiding the difficulties of judicial evaluation of prejudices-interests.In this way, the creditor is not obliged to evidence the existence and the size of the prejudice, in order to obtain thepayment of the amount of money or carrying out other patrimonial value established in the criminal clause beingsufficient the proof of non inexecution lato sensu of the contractual obligation. The criminal clause has also a strongcomminatory purpose, exercising a pressure on the debtor to make all possible to execute precisely the contractualobligation. Due to these reasons it is seen in doctrine by some of the authors as one of the main guarantees in our law.Also in the doctrine however, it is shown that the debtor can be constrained in some situations to accept establishing avery high amount in the criminal clause, sometimes with inequitable consequences, with damaging effect for thedebtor.

Nora Andreea Daghie

2009-06-01

245

Contributos para uma análise semântico-pragmática das causais de enunciação no Português Europeu contemporâneo / Utterance causal clauses in contemporary European Portuguese: some contributions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho é caracterizar as orações causais de enunciação num quadro teórico que postula a existência, no discurso, de distintos domínios da significação - domínio do conteúdo, domínio epistémico e domínio ilocutório-, na convicção de que uma análise semântica destas construções pode [...] rá contribuir para iluminar o seu comportamento sintático peculiar, que tanta controvérsia tem gerado. Defende-se, neste estudo, que as orações causais de enunciação expressam a relação discursiva de Justificação, que envolve sempre a articulação de dois atos ilocutórios, um deles com o estatuto de ato principal, o outro com o estatuto de ato subordinado. Num primeiro momento, analisa-se a articulação entre causais de enunciação e asserções e argumenta-se a favor da inseparabilidade entre os domínios epistémico e ilocutório neste tipo de construções, contrariamente ao que defende Sweetser (1999). Num segundo momento, analisa-se a articulação entre causais de enunciação e outras classes de atos ilocutórios, nomeadamente atos diretivos, compromissivos e expressivos. Abstract in english The main purpose of this paper is to characterize utterance causal clauses within a theoretical framework that assumes different domains of discourse meaning - content, epistemic and speech-act domain. The assumption is that a semantic analysis may provide some explanation for the syntactic behaviou [...] r of the construction under scrutiny. It is argued in this paper that utterance causal clauses illustrate the discourse relation of Justification, which involves the connection between two illocutionary acts, with different hierarchical status. It is also argued, contrary to Sweetser's 1999 account, that utterance causal clauses combined with assertions give rise to an elementary argumentative text, where the epistemic and the illocutionary domain are closely intertwined. The paper also contemplates the connection between utterance causal clauses and other classes of speech acts, namely directive, compromissive and expressive ones.

Ana Cristina Macário, Lopes.

246

Word order variation and foregrounding of complement clauses : Exploring the meaning of sentence adverbials as signals of word order  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Through mixed models analyses of complement clauses in a corpus of spoken Danish we examine the role of sentence adverbials in relation to a word order distinction in Scandinavian signalled by the relative position of sentence adverbials and finite verb (V>Adv vs. Adv>V). The type of sentence adverbial was the third-most important factor in explaining the word order variation: Sentence adverbials categorized as â??dialogicâ?? are significantly associated with V>Adv word order. We argue that the results are readily interpretable in the light of the semantico-pragmatic hypothesis that V>Adv signals foregrounded information, and exploit the random intercepts assigned to the individual adverbials for further exploring the functions of sentence adverbials that behave unexpectedly based on the predictions of the model.

Christensen, Tanya Karoli; Jensen, Torben Juel

2014-01-01

247

PU Vulpeculae (object Honda-Kuwano 1979) - a possible short-period relative of the symbiotic stars  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

UBV photometry was conducted in Brno and Skalnate Pleso observatories during the 1979 maximum (Chochol et al., 1981) and the authors searched for possible periodicity in the V data, compiled from their own observations as well as from data in the I.A.U. Circulars. The best period found is 76.4 days, but periods up to 80 days are also possible. Over this period, the object changes its V magnitude within about 0m.2-0m.25. (Auth.)

1981-09-03

248

Multisensory visual–tactile object related network in humans: insights gained using a novel crossmodal adaptation approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Neuroimaging techniques have provided ample evidence for multisensory integration in humans. However, it is not clear whether this integration occurs at the neuronal level or whether it reflects areal convergence without such integration. To examine this issue as regards visuo-tactile object integration we used the repetition suppression effect, also known as the fMRI-based adaptation paradigm (fMR-A). Under some assumptions, fMR-A can tag specific neuronal populations within an area and inve...

Tal, Noa; Amedi, Amir

2009-01-01

249

Den sene Derrida, eller: Er Claus Beck-Nielsen et spøgelse?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article is about hosting the ghost. In Spectres de Marx (1993) Derrida introduces the ghost which seems to condense in one figure the important themes of his late writings: the address, the other, the ethical turn, the event, the mourning, the reality of immateriality, the guest. The article turns to the paternal ghost from Shakespeare's Hamlet, as well as to the most ghost-like artist on the Danish contemporary art scene: Claus Beck-Nielsen, who some years ago declared himself dead. Is Claus Beck-Nielsen really a ghost? That is the question.

Rösing, Lilian Munk

2009-01-01

250

Non-finite Complementation A Usage-Based Study of Infinitive and -ing Clauses in English  

CERN Document Server

This book presents a comprehensive guide to the way speakers of British English use infinitive and – ing clauses as verbal complements. It contains details of the non-finite complementation patterns of over 300 matrix verbs, with a particular emphasis on verbs that occur with more than one type of non-finite complement. Drawing upon data from the British National Corpus, the author shows that some of the views which are to be found in the existing literature on these sorts of clauses are in conflict with the evidence of actual usage. He also shows that there is actually much more regularity in

Egan, Thomas

2008-01-01

251

48 CFR 227.7107-1 - Architectural designs and data clauses for architect-engineer or construction contracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

...7107-1 Architectural designs and data clauses for architect-engineer...obtain a unique architectural design of a building, a monument...nature, which for artistic, aesthetic or other special reasons the...the data pertaining to the design by including the clause...

2009-10-01

252

Glomerular Activity Patterns Evoked by Natural Odor Objects in the Rat Olfactory Bulb Are Related to Patterns Evoked by Major Odorant Components  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine how responses evoked by natural odorant mixtures compare to responses evoked by individual odorant chemicals, we mapped 2-deoxyglucose uptake during exposures to vapors arising from a variety of odor objects that may be important to rodents in the wild. We studied 21 distinct natural odor stimuli ranging from possible food sources such as fruits, vegetables, and meats to environmental odor objects such as grass, herbs, and tree leaves. The natural odor objects evoked robust and surprisingly focal patterns of 2-deoxyglucose uptake involving clusters of neighboring glomeruli, thereby resembling patterns evoked by pure chemicals. Overall, the patterns were significantly related to patterns evoked by monomolecular odorant components that had been studied previously. Object patterns also were significantly related to the molecular features present in the mixture components. Despite these overall relationships, there were individual examples of object patterns that were simpler than might have been predicted given the multiplicity of components present in the vapors. In these cases, the object patterns lacked certain responses evoked by their major odorant mixture components. These data suggest the possibility of mixture response interactions and provide a foundation for understanding the neural coding of natural odor stimuli.

Johnson, Brett A.; Ong, Joan; Leon, Michael

2014-01-01

253

Efficient transformation of use case main success scenario steps into bussiness object relation (BORM) diagrams for effective bussiness process requirement analysis.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

BORM DiagramsKód oboru RIV: IN - Informatika http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/ZOI/papik-efficient transformation of use case main success scenario steps into bussiness object relation (borm) diagrams for effective bussiness process requirement analysis.pdf

Podaras, A.; Moravec, J.; Papík, Martin

254

New R Coronae Borealis and DY Persei Star Candidates and Other Related Objects Found in Photometric Surveys  

CERN Document Server

We have carried out a search for new R Coronae Borealis (RCB) variables using the publicly accessible data from various photometric sky surveys and-whenever available-AAVSO visual data. Candidates were selected from Tisserand`s "Catalogue enriched with R CrB stars" and by a visual inspection of light curves from the ASAS-3, MACHO, NSVS and OGLE surveys. We have identified two new RCB stars, four RCB candidates, and one DY Persei (DYPer) star candidate. Our identification was based mainly on photometric variability, color-color diagrams, and further information drawn from various catalogue sources; spectroscopic classifications were also reported in our analysis whenever available. Additionally, we present a sample of interesting stars which-although showing similar photometric variability-can be ruled out as RCB and DYPer stars or have been rejected as such on spectroscopic grounds in recent studies. Although not useful in the investigation of the aforementioned groups of variables, these objects defy an easy...

Otero, Sebastián; Bernhard, Klaus; Soszy?ski, Igor

2014-01-01

255

Clause, Sentence, and Discourse Patterns in Selected Languages of Nepal: Part I, General Approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume, the first in a series of four on the languages of Nepal, contains the following papers: "Toward the Systematization of Display Grammar,""Clause Patterns in Kham,""Tentative Systemic Organization of Nepali Sentences,""Maithili Sentences,""Notation for Simultaneous Representation of Grammatical and Sememic Components in Connected…

Hale, Austin

256

78 FR 48397 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Transportation (DFARS...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to create an overarching...Contractor Liability for Loss and Damage. (k) The clause...FAR 52.247-8, Estimated Weight or Quantities Not Guaranteed...hundred pounds on gross or net weights, whichever is...

2013-08-08

257

Protection of third parties by collateral clauses of plan approvals or licenses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This contribution discusses the regulatory functions of collateral clauses of plan approvals or licences, the legal protection of the constitutional and other rights of third parties in connection with the licensing of installations or similar projects, infringements of such rights and means of defence, and protection of neighbours under public law against noise. (RST)

1989-01-01

258

A Shock to the Conscience: The Due Process Clause and Corporal Punishment.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a case involving an injured football player, an 11th Circuit judge viewed a coach's refusal to stop a fight as corporal punishment. Federal courts in five circuits have ruled that excessive corporal punishment violates the Due Process Clause if it is so brutal and harmful that it shocks the court's conscience. (MLH)

Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

2001-01-01

259

Objective becoming  

CERN Document Server

Bradford Skow presents an original defense of the 'block universe' theory of time, often said to be a theory according to which time does not pass. Along the way, he provides in-depth discussions of alternative theories of time, including those in which there is 'robust passage' of time or 'objective becoming': presentism, the moving spotlight theory of time, the growing block theory of time, and the 'branching time' theory of time. Skow explains why the moving spotlight theory is the best of these arguments, and rebuts several popular arguments against the thesis that time passes. He surveys the problems that the special theory of relativity has been thought to raise for objective becoming, and suggests ways in which fans of objective becoming may reconcile their view with relativistic physics. The last third of the book aims to clarify and evaluate the argument that we should believe that time passes because, somehow, the passage of time is given to us in experience. He isolates three separate arguments thi...

Skow, Bradford

2015-01-01

260

QDYBE some explicit formulas for exchange matrix and related objects in case of sl(2), q=1  

CERN Document Server

This mainly tutorial paper is intended as a somewhat larger example for parts of the theory exposed in the Lectures on the dynamical Yang-Baxter equations by P. Etingof and O. Schiffmann, math.QA/9908064. We explicitly compute the matrix entries of the intertwining operator, fusion matrix and exchange matrix associated to sl(2,R) for q=1. We also consider the weighted trace function and the dual Macdonald-Ruijsenaars equation for this particular case. As expected, the matrix entries of the exchange matrix turn out to be Racah polynomials. However, the road to their explicit formula via the fusion matrix is quick, and it also yields an interesting way to derive their orthogonality relations.

Koornwinder, T H; Koornwinder, Tom H.; Touhami, Nabila

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Location, location, location: alterations in the functional topography of face- but not object- or place-related cortex in adolescents with autism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In autism, impairments in face processing are a relatively recent discovery, but have quickly become a widely accepted aspect of the behavioral profile. Only a handful of studies have investigated potential atypicalities in autism in the development of the neural substrates mediating face processing. High-functioning individuals with autism (HFA and matched typically developing (TD controls watched dynamic movie vignettes of faces, common objects, buildings, and scenes of navigation while undergoing an fMRI scan. With these data, we mapped the functional topography of category-selective activation for faces bilaterally in the fusiform gyrus, occipital face area, and posterior superior temporal sulcus. Additionally, we mapped category selective activation for objects in the lateral occipital area and for places in the parahippocampal place area in the two groups. Our findings do not indicate a generalized disruption in the development of the entire ventral visual pathway in autism. Instead, our results suggest that the functional topography of face-related cortex is selectively disrupted in autism and that this alteration is present in early adolescence. Furthermore, for those HFA adolescents who do exhibit face-selective activation, this activation tends to be located in traditionally object-related regions, which supports the hypothesis that perceptual processing of faces in autism may be more akin to the perceptual processing of common objects in TD individuals.

BeatrizLuna

2010-03-01

262

With hands I don't centre! Action- and object-related effects of hand-cueing in the line bisection.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A variety of studies have shown action- and object-related visuo-motor priming in behavioural tasks. The peculiarity of this study lies in using a hand-cued line bisection task to explore the main properties of the motor effects evoked by action and object processing. In five experiments it is shown that flanking a line (thin vs. thick line) with images of hands (biological vs. non-biological hand) representing different actions (power vs. precision grip) biases performance towards the action...

Ranzini, Mariagrazia; Borghi, Anna M.; Nicoletti, Roberto

2011-01-01

263

La posición del sujeto pronominal en las cláusulas no declarativas (The placement of pronominal subjects in non-declarative clauses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El análisis de la colocación variable del sujeto en español permite observar la relevancia de los factores discursivo-cognitivos en la variación sintáctica y demostrar que todos los efectos comunicativos de una elección formal pueden relacionarse con dichos factores. El presente trabajo analiza los sujetos explícitos de primera y segunda persona en dos tipos de cláusulas no declarativas (interrogativas e imperativas, tomando como base dos corpus textualmente diversificados. Se descubre que la variación formal obedece a principios icónicos muy similares en ambos contextos gramaticales. La posposición del sujeto al verbo es la variante menos marcada, lo que establece una diferencia con la cláusula declarativa, que tiende al orden SVO. Por la misma razón, la anteposición del sujeto en aquellos contextos permite generar valores discursivo-pragmáticos especiales; estos se concretan, sobre todo, en una mayor asertividad o presuposición acerca del contenido del enunciado. Las proyecciones comunicativas de estos valores básicos se ilustran a través de la observación de diversos ejemplos. (The variable placement of Spanish subjects offers an illustration of the relevance of discursive-cognitive factors in explaining syntactic variation, as well as a demonstration of the fact that all communicative effects of formal choices can be related to such factors. In the present paper, first- and secondperson overt subjects are analyzed within two types of non-declarative clauses (interrogative and imperative ones and across two textually diversified corpora. Formal variation is discovered to follow very similar iconic principles in both grammatical contexts. The placing of the subject after the verb is the less-marked variant, which makes a difference with declarative clauses, where SVO is the preferred order. Due to this, subject preposition in the former contexts triggers the generation of special discursive-pragmatic values, particularly of higher assertiveness or presupposition regarding the content of utterances. The communicative projections of these basic values are then illustrated through the analysis of a variety of examples.

María José Serrano

2012-12-01

264

A Method to Objectively Relate the Accuracy of Satellite Trace gas Measurements to Uncertainty in Inversely Estimated Trace gas Emissions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The accuracy of measurements plays a very important role in the inverse estimation of emissions of trace gases such as methane and therefore it is crucial to determine the accuracy needed to estimate the gas emissions within some desired degree of confidence. The Fisher Information Matrix and the Cramér-Rao inequality are useful mathematical tools to answer this question. The Cramér-Rao lower bound on the error variance of the estimators is calculated as the inverse of the Fisher Information Matrix, which is a measure of the variance of the score and represents the ability to estimate the parameters. The Fisher Information matrix is related to the system sensitivity to the parameters and the uncertainty in the measurements. Under the normality assumption for the errors, the Fisher Information matrix can be calculated using the sensitivity matrix (the Jacobian matrix) and the covariance matrix of the errors. For the numerical evaluation of the matrix of sensitivities of the observations to emissions, it is necessary to compute the forward derivative of MATCH (a 3D Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry). As an example we consider a set of pseudo-observations mimicking the ESA SCIAMACHY satellite orbits and data products. The code to compute the sensitivities has been generated by automatic differentiation (AD) of the forward simulation code using Tapenade, an AD tool developed by INRIA, France. The original Fortran90 code is augmented with the derivative calculations, making it possible to evaluate systematically the sensitivity derivatives of the model output (tracer concentrations of methane) with respect to the input emissions. Practical issues associated with the computation of large scale models and optimality criteria will be discussed.

Ortega, J. M.; Tan, Q.; Prinn, R. G.

2005-12-01

265

The temporal interpretation of free relatives in English and Romanian  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract: Free relatives have been defined as types of relative clauses with a covert antecedent, which is semantically and syntactically active (de Vries 2002, GALR II:218, influencing the morphology of the wh- word which introduces the free relative. The aim of this paper is to take a closer look at the semantic properties of the covert antecedent and demonstrate that its temporal interpretation influences the choice of tense form that can surface in the relative clause.

Viorela-Valentina Dima

2007-01-01

266

A model for calculating the errors of 2D bulk analysis relative to the true 3D bulk composition of an object, with application to chondrules  

Science.gov (United States)

Certain problems in Geosciences require knowledge of the chemical bulk composition of objects, such as, for example, minerals or lithic clasts. This 3D bulk chemical composition (bcc) is often difficult to obtain, but if the object is prepared as a thin or thick polished section a 2D bcc can be easily determined using, for example, an electron microprobe. The 2D bcc contains an error relative to the true 3D bcc that is unknown. Here I present a computer program that calculates this error, which is represented as the standard deviation of the 2D bcc relative to the real 3D bcc. A requirement for such calculations is an approximate structure of the 3D object. In petrological applications, the known fabrics of rocks facilitate modeling. The size of the standard deviation depends on (1) the modal abundance of the phases, (2) the element concentration differences between phases and (3) the distribution of the phases, i.e. the homogeneity/heterogeneity of the object considered. A newly introduced parameter " ?" is used as a measure of this homogeneity/heterogeneity. Accessory phases, which do not necessarily appear in 2D thin sections, are a second source of error, in particular if they contain high concentrations of specific elements. An abundance of only 1 vol% of an accessory phase may raise the 3D bcc of an element by up to a factor of ˜8. The code can be queried as to whether broad beam, point, line or area analysis technique is best for obtaining 2D bcc. No general conclusion can be deduced, as the error rates of these techniques depend on the specific structure of the object considered. As an example chondrules—rapidly solidified melt droplets of chondritic meteorites—are used. It is demonstrated that 2D bcc may be used to reveal trends in the chemistry of 3D objects.

Hezel, Dominik C.

2007-09-01

267

The (nontree-representability of syntactic objects.a graft-theoretical approach to nominal coordination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper deals with nominal coordination and the way Graft Theory can be applied to this domain. As introduced and defined by van Riemsdijk (1998, 2000 and 2001, Graft Theory was initially applied to the domain of syntactic amalgams (Lakoff 1974 and transparent free relative clauses. The paper claims that Graft Theory can equally apply to the domain of coordination and a range of syntactic phenomena that are associated with coordination. The main idea that this paper advances is that Graft Theory could solve the problem of syntactic representability with coordinate structures, which are known to pose serious difficulties for binary branching. By endorsing the main tenets of Graft Theory, the paper also touches upon an issue with far-reaching implications: the (impossibility of representing certain syntactic objects as syntactic trees.

Mihaela T?nase-Dogaru

2010-01-01

268

Price control in contracts of heat supply. May no more index be used in automatic price escalator clauses?; Preiskontrolle in Waermeliefervertraegen.. Darf in automatischen Preisgleitklauseln kein Index mehr genutzt werden?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Automatic price escalator clauses using a price index are AGB legally permissible in heat supply contracts. The fact that such price indices necessarily compound and orient themselves only at its own development of delivery costs is so long innocuous since the selection of these indices essentially can be justified on the basis of objective criteria. However, if the heat supplier as a user of the AGB uses no indices, but passes its costs of acquisition in its price escalator clause simply to 100 %, this evenly can be inadmissible according to paragraph 24 sect. 3, sentence 1 of AVB district heating regulation. This is valid if such a 'servile' passing signifies a neglect of conditions on the market.

Legler, Dirk [Guenther Heidel Wollenteit Hack Goldmann, Hamburg (Germany)

2010-03-15

269

BL Lacertae objects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The properties of BL Lacertae objects are discussed including their spectra, variability, and brightness. The historical development of observation, and the conclusion that these objects are possibly quasar-related objects rather than variable stars as originally supposed are treated. The possible mechanisms for the unusual luminosity of these objects are considered

1977-01-01

270

Solving the Resource Constrained Project Scheduling Problem with Generalized Precedences by Lazy Clause Generation  

CERN Document Server

The technical report presents a generic exact solution approach for minimizing the project duration of the resource-constrained project scheduling problem with generalized precedences (Rcpsp/max). The approach uses lazy clause generation, i.e., a hybrid of finite domain and Boolean satisfiability solving, in order to apply nogood learning and conflict-driven search on the solution generation. Our experiments show the benefit of lazy clause generation for finding an optimal solutions and proving its optimality in comparison to other state-of-the-art exact and non-exact methods. The method is highly robust: it matched or bettered the best known results on all of the 2340 instances we examined except 3, according to the currently available data on the PSPLib. Of the 631 open instances in this set it closed 573 and improved the bounds of 51 of the remaining 58 instances.

Schutt, Andreas; Stuckey, Peter J; Wallace, Mark G

2010-01-01

271

The Stance Study of Evaluative That Clauses in English Abstracts of Chinese Master Theses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Employing the model of evaluative that-clause classification by Hyland and Tse (2005, this paper conducts a contrastive study of evaluative that-clauses and its stance functions between Chinese master theses and journal articles. The frequencies, evaluative entities, stance, stance resources, and expressions were explored in two corpora of 320 abstracts from master theses and published research articles. Analysis results show similarities and significant difference between Chinese postgraduate writers and experienced writers. Statistics indicate that Chinese postgraduate writers tend to write with more attitude stance and general writing characteristics. The poor stance constructions of Chinese postgraduate writers are attributed primarily to insufficient consciousness of the linguistic convention of “target community”.

Yu Wang

2012-08-01

272

The sulften /SUP tm/ system a new claus tail gas treating process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In acid gas treating, the response to technology-forcing regulations and stringent permitting requirements has evolved in several stages. First, Claus units were improved to recovery levels of about 97 percent by more careful design, additional reaction stages, and better control and operation. Then new methods of extending the Claus reactions increased recoveries to about 99 percent. These were followed by processes in which tail gas was reacted and subsequently treated, and these processes raised recovery levels to 99.9 percent or more. These reaction-treating processes were aimed at meeting the NSPS requirement to limit discharges of SO/sub 2/ to 250 ppm. They typically produce a residue gas containing reduced sulfur compounds (H/sub 2/S, COS, CS/sub 2/) which is then incinerated to convert the sulfur values to SO/sub 2/.

Taggart, G.W.; Dibble, J.H.

1984-03-01

273

Comparison of Claus reaction furnace performance with air and COPE O/sub 2/ based operation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The COPE (Claus Oxygen-based Process Expansion) process, jointly developed by Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., (APCI) and Goar, Allison and Associates, Inc. (GAA) permits operation of new or retrofitted existing Claus plants with up to 100% O/sub 2/ instead of air. The first commercial operation of the process was at Concoco's Lake Charles refinery in March 1985. The major technical problems overcome by the COPE process were moderation of Reaction Furnace (RF) temperatures and design of a burner system suitable for safe operation with any mixture of air and O/sub 2/. While the original COPE process recycles cooled gas to the reaction furnace to moderate temperature, additional moderation techniques have been studied. To develop the COPE process and to study additional moderation techniques, it was necessary to develop an improved reaction furnance kinetic model. This paper presents the improved reaction furnace computer model and uses it to compare several moderation techniques

Hegarty, W.P.; Chen, M.S.K.; Goar, B.G.

1987-01-01

274

Syntactic Analysis of pro in Independent Clauses in Arabic Syntax  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work is to investigate the syntactic properties of the empty category pro in Modern Standard Arabic syntax with reference to Chomsky’s (1981-1995 on TGG and Jalabneh’s (2007 Verb -movement. The syntactic properties are represented by the nominative case, case markers, requirement of Extended Projection Principle (EPP, substitution of expletives and deletion at the logical form. The study concludes that pro is assigned the nominative case at S-structure by INFL. It fulfills the requirement of EPP at all levels because of rich Agrs. There are various Agrs markers for pro; it cannot be replaced by expletive entities. It is obligatorily deleted at LF.

Atef Mustafa Jalabneh

2011-06-01

275

48 CFR 52.251-2 - Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-10-01 false Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services...52.251-2 Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related Services...following clause: Interagency Fleet Management System Vehicles and Related...

2009-10-01

276

Drafting force majeure clauses in natural gas purchase/sale contracts -- the practicalities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The place of 'force majeure' provisions, in gas purchase/sale contracts is discussed. This issue, not normally considered to be significant in gas purchase/sale contracts, became a matter of intense interest in the aftermath of the Atcor Ltd v. Continental Energy Marketing case when the trial court, as well as the Alberta Court of Appeals, strongly criticized the wording of the force majeure clause in the contract as containing a 'choice of words that assured litigation'. Force majeure, simply stated, refers to acts of God, (lightning, earthquakes, storms, floods, etc) and acts of war. It is inserted in contracts to limit the liability of parties to the contract in the event of inability to perform due to any of the above acts of God, or acts of war. In this particular case, the force majeure cause included, in addition to the above, a long list of other causes such as strikes, lockouts or other industrial disturbances, insurrections, riots, epidemics, landslides, fires, washouts, explosions of or accidents to plant, machinery or lines of pipe, well blowouts, and pipeline repairs and reconditioning. The trial court found the drafting of the clause archaic, circumventing clarity, and drearily lengthy. In view of the court's decision it is clear that more thought has to go into drafting force majeure decisions in the future. Accordingly, this paper attempts to discuss practical issues of drafting force majeure clauses that clearly reflect the parties' intentions and expectations so that costly litigations might be avoided, or if litigation is unavoidable, to at least have the outcome of such litigation be more predictable. The focus of the discussion is on legal interpretation issues, forms of gas contract force majeure provisions- events and consequences, and standardization of force majeure provisions. It is recommended that the drafter of such clauses should always keep in mind the potential impact that the strict construction and commercial reasonability concepts may have on the words chosen. 22 refs

1999-11-22

277

The Sale with Repurchase Clause / La venta con cláusula de retrocompra  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La venta con cláusula de recompra fue regulada por el Código Civil de 1864, en sus artículos 1371-1387, como una variedad de venta afectada por una condición resolutoria. La venta con cláusula de recompra se utiliza con frecuencia en la práctica con el fin de violar las disposiciones de orden públic [...] o del artículo 1689 del Código Civil rumano, en materia de hipoteca. Teniendo en cuenta que la venta con cláusula de recompra en realidad es una forma de incumplimiento de las disposiciones del artículo 1689 del Código Civil ruman, que origena una gran cantidad de abusos por parte de los acreedores, el legislador rumano decidió prohibir este tipo de venta. También consideramos que, de lege ferenda, la aplicación de una ley nueva de prohibición de la venta con cláusula de recompra es necesario y útil. Abstract in english The sale with repurchase clause was regulated in 1864 by the Civil Code, within the meaning of articles 1371-1387, as a variety of sale affected by a cancellation condition. The sale with repurchase clause was frequently used in practice in order to breach the public provisions of article 1689 of th [...] e Romanian Civil Code, on mortgage matters. Taking into consideration that the sale with repurchase clause was actually a way to breach the provisions of article 1689 of the Romanian Civil Code, giving birth to a lot of abuses on the part of the creditors, the Romanian legislator decided to prohibit this type of sale. We also consider that, de lege ferenda, the implementation of a new prohibition law of the sale with repurchase clause is both necessary and useful.

Urs, Ilie.

278

On Schiffer's Arguments Against the Fregean Model of 'that'-clauses: A Comment on Vignolo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In "Propositions: What They Could and What They Could Not Be", Massimiliano Vignolocounters the arguments put forward by Stephen Schiffer ("The Things We Mean" against theso-called Fregean model of 'that'-clauses. My purpose here is to show that some of Vignolo'sobjections to Schiffer's arguments do not hit the mark. I shall also present a new argumentagainst the Fregean model, which takes its cue from two of Schiffer's arguments.

Paolo Bonardi

2007-09-01

279

Price adaptation clauses in gas supply contracts and legal terms and conditions; Preisanpassungsklauseln in Gaslieferungsvertraegen und AGB-Recht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Against the background of recent court rulings, the contribution discusses if, and in what conditions, price adaptation clauses in gas supply contracts with standard special customers may have efect on the terms and conditions of supply. (orig.)

Kunth, B.; Tuengler, S. [Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer, Duesseldorf (Germany)

2006-09-15

280

La cláusula de conciencia en los códigos de ética periodística: análisis comparativo / The Clause of Conscience in Journalism Ethics Codes: A Comparative Analysi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La cláusula de conciencia está reconocida internacionalmente como un principio ético y fundamental en la práctica periodística. El objetivo fundamental de este documento es asegurar que la cláusula de conciencia constituye una importante excepción a los poderes del empresario, pues permite al period [...] ista salvar su conflicto de conciencia de la manera menos traumática posible, al acogerse a lo que en otras profesiones liberales se denomina objeción de conciencia. Para ello se realiza un análisis comparativo de la vigencia, el significado y las nuevas tendencias en el contenido y ejercicio de esta prerrogativa en los actuales códigos de ética periodística, tanto de ámbito supranacional como europeo y latinoamericano Abstract in english The Clause of Conscience is internationally recognized as a key ethical principle in the practice of journalism. The main goal of this paper is to assert that the clause of conscience proposes a significant limit to the powers of employers, since it allows journalists to overcome conflicts of consci [...] ence in the least traumatic way possible by making use of what is known as conscientious objection in other liberal professions. This is done through a comparative analysis of aspects like validity, meaning and new trends in the wording, content, and practice of this prerogative in present-day journalism ethics codes at a transnational level, as well as in Europe and Latin America

PORFIRIO, BARROSO; MARÌA DEL MAR, LÓPEZ.

 
 
 
 
281

Sounding objects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Taxonomy of philosophical theories of Sound: proximal theories; medial theories; distal theories. A distal theory: The Located Event Theory (LET) of sound. Understanding sound and the cognition of sounding objects; ontology of sound according to the LET; epistemology of the perception of sound and sounding objects; auditory images according to the LET; conceptual revisions entailed by distal theories and the LET; replies to objections.

2004-01-01

282

On Davis-Putnam reductions for minimally unsatisfiable clause-sets  

CERN Document Server

For investigations into the structure of MU (minimally unsatisfiable clause-sets or conjunctive normal forms), singular DP-reduction is a fundamental tool, applying DP-reduction F -> DP_v(F) in case variable v occurs in one polarity only once. (Recall, in general DP_v(F) replaces all clauses containing variable v by their resolvents on v.) We consider sDP(F), the set of all results of applying singular DP-reduction to F in MU as long as possible, obtaining non-singular F' in MU with the same deficiency, i.e., delta(F') = delta(F). (In general, delta(F) is the difference c(F) - n(F) of the number of clauses and the number of variables.) Our main results are: 1. For all F', F" in sDP(F) we have n(F') = n(F"). 2. If F is saturated (F in SMU), then we have |sDP(F)| = 1. 3. If F is "eventually saturated", that is, sDP(F) <= SMU, then for F', F" in sDP(F) we have F' isomorphic F" (establishing "confluence modulo isomorphism"). The results are obtained by a detailed analysis of singular DP-reduction for F in MU. ...

Kullmann, Oliver

2012-01-01

283

Clause pénale et dommages-intérêts incitatifs Une analyse économique  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cet article propose une analyse économique comparative de différentes règles de droit utilisées en cas de rupture de contrat. Il met plus particulièrement l'accent sur trois critères: la rupture efficace du contrat, l'existence d'investissement spécifique dans la relation contractuelle et le partage du risque. A travers cette grille d'analyse, nous montrons dans quelles conditions une règle est préférable à une autre.

Souam, Sai?d

2007-01-01

284

Hesitation disfluencies after the clause marker ATT ‘that’ in Swedish  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aims att developing a methodology for investigating the relationship between the fluent and disfluent productions of the Swedish conjunction ATT ‘that’ and the complexity of speech fragments following them. A study of the syntactic structure of the speech fragments following ATT and their relation to the pragmatic structure of the discourse, in particular the fragments’ role as regards the topic structure of the discourse, was made using data from one speaker. Syntactic word ...

2005-01-01

285

Damage to the left ventral, arcuate fasciculus and superior longitudinal fasciculus-related pathways induces deficits in object naming, phonological language function and writing, respectively.  

Science.gov (United States)

The anatomic localization of brain functions can be characterized via diffusion tensor imaging in patients with brain tumors and neurological symptoms. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the function of the ventral, arcuate fasciculus (AF) and the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF)-related language pathways using these techniques by analyzing 9 patients treated in our hospital between 2007 and 2011. In cases 1-3, the left ventral pathways, namely, the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus or inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, were mainly damaged, and the common dysfunction experienced by these patients was a deficit in object naming. In cases 4-6, the left SLF was mainly damaged, and the common deficit was dysgraphia. In cases 7-9, the left AF was mainly damaged, and almost all language functions related to phonology were abnormal. These results suggest that the left ventral, AF and SLF-related pathways are closely related to visual, auditory and hand-related language function, respectively. PMID:23311714

Shinoura, Nobusada; Midorikawa, Akira; Onodera, Toshiyuki; Tsukada, Masanobu; Yamada, Ryozi; Tabei, Yusuke; Itoi, Chisato; Saito, Seiko; Yagi, Kazuo

2013-07-01

286

Relative Clause Gap-Filling in Children with Specific Language Impairment  

Science.gov (United States)

Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) have been observed to have production and perception difficulties with sentences containing long-distance dependencies, but it is unclear whether this is due to impairment in grammatical knowledge or in processing mechanisms. The current study addressed this issue by examining automatic on-line…

Hestvik, Arild; Schwartz, Richard G.; Tornyova, Lydia

2010-01-01

287

Objects of attention, objects of perception.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four experiments were conducted, to explore the notion of objects in perception. Taking as a starting point the effects of display content on rapid attention transfer and manipulating curvature, closure, and processing time, a link between objects of attention and objects of perception is proposed. In Experiment 1, a number of parallel, equally spaced, straight lines facilitated attention transfer along the lines, relative to transfer across the lines. In Experiment 2, with curved, closed-contour shapes, no "same-object" facilitation was observed. However, when a longer time interval was provided, in Experiment 3, a same-object advantage started to emerge. In Experiment 4, using the same curved shapes but in a non-speeded distance estimation task, a strong effect of objects was observed. It is argued that attention transfer is facilitated by line tracing but that line tracing is encouraged by objects. PMID:10598473

Avrahami, J

1999-11-01

288

Left-peripheral Free Relatives in Northern Basque  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Left-peripheral relative clauses (also known as correlative clauses) are widely attested in natural languages — in the Indo-European family, both ancient and modern, and outside of that domain too. Such is also the case of Basque, an isolate language spoken in South-Western France and Northern Spain, in which these Left-peripheric Free Relatives (LPFRs), are restricted to the Eastern dialects, i.e. those spoken in France, and the neighbouring subdialects spoken across the boundary, in Spani...

Rebuschi, Georges; Lipta?k, Aniko?

2006-01-01

289

Multi-Objective Optimization of Residential Building Roof Layer Thickness for Minimization of Heat Entering the Room Using FEM and Grey Relational Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, a multi objective optimization on roof layer thickness has been carried out through Taguchi based grey relational analysis technique. Conventional type of residential building roof was changed by a modified pattern of roof having layers namely concrete, phase change material, wood wool and weathering tile and its performance on heat insulation have been studied. In this study, the optimum thickness of roof layers was determined for minimum heat gain through roof by grey relational analysis technique. The thickness of various roof layers were considered as control parameters and varied through five levels of values. For this objective, Taghuchi's L25 orthogonal array has been employed and the performance on heat insulation was studied through finite element analysis (FEA) technique. The FEA simulation on heat transfer across the roof has also been validated with the experimental results and found that it is having a good agreement. The optimized roof reduces the heat gain and temperature by 30 % and 3 °C respectively in comparison with the conventional type of roof. Also from this study, it was identified that the wood wool is the most predominant roof layer that controls the heat gain into the room.

Prakash, D.; Ravikumar, P.

2014-05-01

290

'Koloniseren is een smaak die je moet leren' - Hugo Claus en Het leven en de werken van Leopold II (1970) / Hugo Claus and Het leven en de werken van Leopold II (1970)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: Afrikaner Abstract in english The première of Claus' play Het leven en de werken van Leopold II (The Life and Works of Leopold II), in November 1970 (by the company Nederlandse Comedie), was directed by the author himself. After a second and again rather unsuccessful run (1972 - 1973, Arena, director: J. Tummers) it disappeared [...] from the stage for nearly thirty years: there was no other production of Claus' play in the Low Countries until the autumn of 2002 (KVS, director: R. Ruëll). Undoubtedly Het leven en de werken van Leopold II is one of the lesser-known plays by the Flemish author Hugo Claus (1929-2008). While writing it, at the end of the sixties, Claus was simultaneously working on two poetry collections. Van horen zeggen contains accessible poems, sometimes rather anecdotal, with many references to the contemporary political situation. These poems show a clear affinity with the neo-realistic poetry that was dominant in Dutch-language literature in the sixties. Also in 1970, on the same day as Van horen zeggen, Claus published Heer Everzwijn (Lord Wild Boar), manneristic poetry showing another poeta faber. Given Claus' interest in the history of the Congo Free State (see also the novel De geruchten [The rumours]) and the way he caricatures King Leopold II and his government in Het leven en de werken, it is worth investigating the political and social perspectives articulated in both his drama and his poetry. What are the similarities between the poet and the playwright? How can we explain his interest in the way Leopold mistreated the people of the Congo? In this essay I present the ideological and social points of view adopted by Claus in a broad literary and political context, studying his play on Leopold's atrocities in what would later (in 1908) become a Belgian colony, alongside the poetry he produced in the same period.

Yves, T' Sjoen.

291

Medienanalytische betrachtungen zu Claus Peymanns Verfilmung der ,,Hermannsschlacht" nach Heinrich von Kleist / A media-analytic view on Claus Peymann's film about Heinrich von Kleist's "Hermannsschlacht"  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: German Abstract in english This paper describes interpretations of Heinrich von Kleist's Hermannsschlacht (title in English: The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest). Historically there have been four different types of interpretation: those that praise both content and form, those that express dislike of both con-tent and form, t [...] hose that praise the content but dislike the form, and those that inversely express dislike for the content but admiration for the form. It is argued here that Claus Peymann's inter-pretation, as seen in his film, goes contrary to these traditional ways of dealing with Hermannsschlacht, since Peymann's interpretation obviously respects Kleist's text but inter-prets Hermansschlacht as a text in favor of peace, not war.

Hans W., Giessen.

292

Relationalism  

CERN Multimedia

This article contributes to the debate of the meaning of relationalism and background independence, which has remained of interest in theoretical physics from Newton versus Leibniz through to foundational issues for today's leading candidate theories of quantum gravity. I contrast and compose the substantially different Leibniz--Mach--Barbour (LMB) and Rovelli--Crane (RC) uses of the word `relational'. Leibniz advocated primary timelessness and Mach that `time is to be abstracted from change'. I consider 3 distinct viewpoints on Machian time: Barbour's, Rovelli's and my own. I provide four expansions on Barbour's taking configuration space to be primary: to (perhaps a weakened notion of) phase space, categorizing, perspecting and propositioning. Categorizing means considering not only object spaces but also the corresponding morphisms and then functors between such pairs. Perspecting means considering the set of subsystem perspectives; this is an arena in which the LMB and Rovelli approaches make contact. By ...

Anderson, Edward

2012-01-01

293

Quantitative assessment of bone marrow attenuation values at MDCT: An objective tool for the detection of bone bruise related to occult sacral insufficiency fractures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To prove the feasibility of using Hounsfield attenuation values at MDCT to detect bone bruises related to sacral insufficiency fractures. Twenty-two patients with acute sacrum trauma and no fracture findings at MDCT were included in our prospective study. Two observers independently reviewed CTs regarding visual signs of bone bruises in 132 defined regions of the sacral alae. Interobserver agreement was tested by {kappa} statistics. Subsequently, HU values were obtained in the same regions, and attenuation differences between the two sides were calculated. Validity and reliability were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. HU differences were subjected to ROC curve analysis to determine sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV. MRI served as standard reference. MRI revealed 19 regions with bone bruises and associated sacral insufficiency fractures. HU measurements demonstrated good validity and reliability (r = 0.989). ROC curve analysis exhibited an ideal cutoff value of 35.7 HU density difference between affected and non-affected regions. Visual evaluation revealed moderate agreement ({kappa} = 0.48); diagnostic accuracy was inferior to objective evaluation. Assessment of differences in bone marrow density by HU measurements is an objective and reliable tool for detection of bone bruises associated with occult sacral insufficiency fractures. (orig.)

Henes, F.O.; Groth, M.; Bley, T.A.; Regier, M.; Ittrich, H.; Adam, G.; Bannas, P. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Nuechtern, J.V. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Trauma, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Treszl, A. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Center for Experimental Medicine, Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Hamburg (Germany)

2012-10-15

294

Object crowding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Crowding occurs when stimuli in the peripheral fields become harder to identify when flanked by other items. This phenomenon has been demonstrated extensively with simple patterns (e.g., Gabors and letters). Here, we characterize crowding for everyday objects. We presented three-item arrays of objects and letters, arranged radially and tangentially in the lower visual field. Observers identified the central target, and we measured contrast energy thresholds as a function of target-to-flanker ...

Wallace, Julian M.; Tjan, Bosco S.

2011-01-01

295

Conversion of Claus plants of Kirkuk-Iraq to produce hydrogen and sulfur  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Full text': Hydrogen production from rich sub-quality natural gas (SQNG) is visible technically with assessment of cost, safety and environmental toxicology analysis of hydrogen sulfide, is summarized. There are two Claus plants in Kirkuk-Iraq, converting hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur capacity of 2200 ton/day. One of these plants is working with only 400 ton/day and it is an old Claus process. The other is a modified Claus sulfur recovery process with a capacity of 1800 ton/day. Both of these plants operate with low efficiency due to lack of maintenance and the present situation in Iraq. Therefore, the agricultural area around Kirkuk is very polluted by this gas. Two pilot plants have been constructed inside the modified Claus plant in Kirkuk The first one is based on the flow system tube furnace reactor containing mixed Titanium oxide/sulfide with a cold trap for sulfur separation and a bath of 30% dithanolamine to separate and recycle H2S from hydrogen. The second pilot plant consists of a thermal diffusion ceramic rod inside a silica column containing Zeolit 5A as a catalyst. This pilot plant also consists of a trap for continuous separation of sulfur and a system for separation of hydrogen from unreacted H2S to recycle. The efficiency of conversion of H2S to hydrogen and sulfur has been optimized as a function of catalyst type and mixture, temperature of furnace, flow rate of gas and reactor materials until the efficiency reaches more than 97%. The Kirkuk natural gas consists of a mixture of CO2 10% and H2S 12%. We found that these pilot plants were suitable with Cadmium chalcogens catalysts to produce hydrogen, methane, ethane and sulphur, but with lower efficiency than H2S decomposition only. Our aim in the second pilot plant, which consists of a silica column, was to supply the heat by solar energy concentrator instead of electricity as our catalyst needs 450 oC. and the solar intensity is about 1000 w/m2 during the summer. The idea of converting these two Claus plants to produce hydrogen gas fuel and sulfur will be a good achievement to the environment around the oil fields, besides production of a renewable energy source (hydrogen gas). A hydrogen production plant in this part of Iraq will save a large area from polluted sulfur gas, and will demonstrate how utilization of hydrogen from these waste gases is very significant. Our calculations show that these plants can produce about 140 ton / day of hydrogen gas. Different technological options are available and associated costs reported. They are supplied by a range of hydrogen technology suppliers. The price of hydrogen from H2S is now much lower than the price of any other present technology for production of hydrogen. The last report for the price of hydrogen from gas companies by modifications of Claus process and production of CS2 gas is zero dollars cost. (author)

2009-05-03

296

Validation of a theory-driven profile interpretation of the Dutch short form of the MMPI using the TAT Social Cognitions and Object Relations Scale (SCORS).  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we investigated the construct validity of the theory-driven profile interpretation of the Dutch Short Form of the MMPI (DSFM; Luteijn & Kok, 1985), an interpretation method aimed at assessing structural features of personality based on Kernberg and Caligor's (2005) views concerning personality organization. We utilized the four dimensions of the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale (SCORS; Westen, Lohr, Silk, Gold, & Kerber, 1990) as external criteria. Results showed that, congruent with theoretical expectations, the DSFM profiles predicted structural features of personality functioning, especially identity diffusion as measured by the SCORS, after adjustment for the effect of the single scales used to construct the profiles. These findings provide further support for the construct validity of the DSFM profiles to measure structural features of personality organization. We discuss directions for future research and clinical implications. PMID:19205936

Eurelings-Bontekoe, Elisabeth H M; Luyten, Patrick; Snellen, Wim

2009-03-01

297

PAH EMISSION IN STARBURST, SEYFERT, ULIRGS, QSOS AND QUASAR OBJECTS, AND THEIR RELATION WITH THE INFRARED, X-RAY AND RADIO CONTINUUM EMISSION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is a second study in an ongoing work aimed to analyze the star formation activity and its relation with the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs emission. In this way, we have performed a study about the correlation between the ux of the 7.7 -m PAH band and its equivalent width, with the luminosities and uxes observed in JHK photometric bands, IRAS 12, 25, 60 and 100-m, the radio emission at 1.4GHz and X-ray at 2{10 keV, for a sample composed of Seyfert 1-2, QSOs, Quasars, Starburst, and ULIRGs. The results found let us discriminate between objects with more star formation activity from others with more AGN in uence.

M.-A. Higuera-G.

2009-01-01

298

Objects, materiality and meaning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present research work investigates the relation between physical objects, their materiality, understood as the physical substances they are made from, and the communication from the objects. In product design of physical objects the communicative aspects are just as important as the function of the object, and the designers aim is therefore to tune both in order to achieve a desired goal. To do so the designer basically has 2 options: Alteration of the physical shape of the ob...

Lenau, Torben Anker; Lindegaard, Hanne

2008-01-01

299

Drafting force majeure clauses in natural gas purchase/sale contracts -- the practicalities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The place of 'force majeure' provisions, in gas purchase/sale contracts is discussed. This issue, not normally considered to be significant in gas purchase/sale contracts, became a matter of intense interest in the aftermath of the Atcor Ltd v. Continental Energy Marketing case when the trial court, as well as the Alberta Court of Appeals, strongly criticized the wording of the force majeure clause in the contract as containing a 'choice of words that assured litigation'. Force majeure, simply stated, refers to acts of God, (lightning, earthquakes, storms, floods, etc) and acts of war. It is inserted in contracts to limit the liability of parties to the contract in the event of inability to perform due to any of the above acts of God, or acts of war. In this particular case, the force majeure cause included, in addition to the above, a long list of other causes such as strikes, lockouts or other industrial disturbances, insurrections, riots, epidemics, landslides, fires, washouts, explosions of or accidents to plant, machinery or lines of pipe, well blowouts, and pipeline repairs and reconditioning. The trial court found the drafting of the clause archaic, circumventing clarity, and drearily lengthy. In view of the court's decision it is clear that more thought has to go into drafting force majeure decisions in the future. Accordingly, this paper attempts to discuss practical issues of drafting force majeure clauses that clearly reflect the parties' intentions and expectations so that costly litigations might be avoided, or if litigation is unavoidable, to at least have the outcome of such litigation be more predictable. The focus of the discussion is on legal interpretation issues, forms of gas contract force majeure provisions- events and consequences, and standardization of force majeure provisions. It is recommended that the drafter of such clauses should always keep in mind the potential impact that the strict construction and commercial reasonability concepts may have on the words chosen. 22 refs.

Reschke, D. N.; Campbell, L. M. [Blain and Company Law Group, Calgary, ANB (Canada)

1999-07-01

300

Choice of Court Clauses and Lis Pendens under Brussels I Regulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The principle of party autonomy, known not only in the common law legal system but also in the civil law system, provides parties contracting in civil and commercial matters with the right to establish their own rules, as long as these rules do not contradict mandatory law. This right is presumed to be protected by the force of law. It follows, that when a choice of court clause is included in the contract, disputes are supposed to be solved by the court chosen by the parties.

Ekaterina Ivanova

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Wow!: objects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nowadays computers have advanced beyond the desktop into many parts of everyday life and objects. To achieve this we have to make the computer invisible, and making a computer invisible is not a matter of size of the hardware, it’s all about how the human

2008-01-01

302

Multi-Objective 3-SAT with Survey-Propagation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An original approach to multi-objective optimization is introduced, using a message-passing algorithm to sample the Pareto set, i.e. the set of Pareto-non-dominated solutions. Several heuristics are proposed and tested on a simple bi-objective 3-SAT problem. The first one is based on a straightforward deformation of the Survey-Propagation (SP) equation to locally encode a Pareto trade-off. A simple heuristic is then tested, which combines an elimination procedure of clauses with the usual dec...

Furtlehner, Cyril; Schoenauer, Marc

2010-01-01

303

Utilities objectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The policy of French and german utilities is to make use of nuclear energy as a long term, competitive and environmentally friendly power supply. The world electricity generation is due to double within the next 30 years. In the next 20 to 30 years the necessity of nuclear energy will be broadly recognized. More than for most industries, to deal properly with nuclear energy requires the combination of a consistent political will, of a proper institutional framework, of strong and legitimate control authorities, of a sophisticated industry and of operators with skilled management and human resources. One of the major risk facing nuclear energy is the loss of competitiveness. This can be achieved only through the combination of an optimized design, a consistent standardization, a proper industrial partnership and a stable long term strategy. Although the existing plants in Western Europe are already very safe, the policy is clearly to enhance the safety of the next generation of nuclear plants which are designing today. The French and German utilities have chosen an evolutionary approach based on experience and proven technologies, with an enhanced defense in depth and an objective of easier operation and maintenance. The cost objective is to maintain and improve what has been achieved in the best existing power plants in both countries. This calls for rational choices and optimized design to meet the safety objectives, a strong standardization policy, short construction times, high availability and enough flexibility to enable optimization of the fuel cycle throughout the lifetime of the plants. The conceptual design phase has proven that the French and German teams from industry and from the utilities are able to pursue both the safety and the cost objectives, basing their decision on a rational approach which could be accepted by the safety authorities. (J.S.)

1996-01-01

304

Licensing-In Fosters Rapid Invention! : The Effect of the Grant-Back Clause and Technological Unfamiliarity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Drawing on contractual economics and innovation management, licensing-in is hypothesized to accelerate licensees' invention process. Studying a matched dataset of licensees and non-licensees, licensees are shown to be faster at inventing, but the effect is negated if the license includes a grant-back clause, shifting incentives from licensee to licensor. Also, the effect is significantly reduced if the licensee is unfamiliar with the licensed technology. The effect of the grant-back clause is offset if the licensee is unfamiliar with the licensed technology, suggesting that the licensee retains the incentives to invent under these circumstances

Leone, Maria Isabella; Reichstein, Toke

2012-01-01

305

Measures Would Be Taken By the Courts in Deciding Whether to Trigger the Off-hire Clause  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the scope of carriage of goods by sea, the central issue is the vessel. Obviously, the efficiency of the vessel is of utmost importance not only to the shipowner who render the vessel to earn hire but also the charterer who pay the hire in the purpose to utilize the vessel. Sometimes, the vessel might be out of order or cannot work efficiently. Therefore, there must be the collision of interests between the parties on whether paying the hire continuously in this situation. In other words, it is the problem of triggering off-hire clause in the charterparty. Though the standard forms, such as NYPE and Baltime form have the off-hire clause, however, the utilization of the clause is ambiguous according to different situation. Therefore, the critical challenge faced by the Court is how to trigger the off-hire clause more reasonable so that the interests of parties can be balanced.
Key words: On-hire; Off-hire; Seaworthiness
Résumé: Dans le cadre du transport de marchandises par mer, la question centrale est le navire. De toute évidence, l'efficacité du navire est de la plus haute importance, non seulement pour l'armateur qui rend le navire afin de gagner de la location, mais aussi pour l'affréteur qui paie la location dans le but d'utiliser le bateau. Parfois, le navire peut être hors de l’ordre ou ne peut pas travailler efficacement. Par conséquent, il doit y avoir la collision d'intérêts entre les parties sur le problème si on doit payer la location de façon continue dans cette situation. En d'autres termes, c'est le problème du déclenchement de la clause de l’arrêt-location dans la charte. Bien que certains formulaires standards, tels que NYPE et Baltime ont la forme de clause de l’arrêt-location, l'utilisation de cette clause est ambiguëe en fonction de différentes situations. Par conséquent, le défi critique de la Cour est de savoir comment déclencher une clause de l’arrêt-location plus raisonnable, afin que les intérêts des parties peuvent être équilibrés.
Mots-clés: en location;arrêt-location; navigabilité
? ??????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????NYPE?????????????Baltime form?\t??ST+g\tP\\y?h?k>?q6??g\t??P\\y?h?k>v??iu(W(g\tN?`?l?NN?q6[XW(r-?p0v?RM?l?^?b@?b??v?gY'??L\\1f/Y?OUTtv??iu(P\\y?h?k>?_??O_?y?9TTuvN?Te?v?R)v?_?R0^s?a0
?????????????????

Xia ZHENG

2009-03-01

306

SPINS: Standardized ProteIn NMR Storage. A data dictionary and object-oriented relational database for archiving protein NMR spectra  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Modern protein NMR spectroscopy laboratories have a rapidly growing need for an easily queried local archival system of raw experimental NMR datasets. SPINS (Standardized ProteIn Nmr Storage) is an object-oriented relational database that provides facilities for high-volume NMR data archival, organization of analyses, and dissemination of results to the public domain by automatic preparation of the header files required for submission of data to the BioMagResBank (BMRB). The current version of SPINS coordinates the process from data collection to BMRB deposition of raw NMR data by standardizing and integrating the storage and retrieval of these data in a local laboratory file system. Additional facilities include a data mining query tool, graphical database administration tools, and a NMRStar v2.1.1 file generator. SPINS also includes a user-friendly internet-based graphical user interface, which is optionally integrated with Varian VNMR NMR data collection software. This paper provides an overview of the data model underlying the SPINS database system, a description of its implementation in Oracle, and an outline of future plans for the SPINS project.

Baran, Michael C.; Moseley, Hunter N.B.; Sahota, Gurmukh; Montelione, Gaetano T. [Rutgers University, Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry (United States)], E-mail: guy@cabm.rutgers.edu

2002-10-15

307

SPINS: Standardized ProteIn NMR Storage. A data dictionary and object-oriented relational database for archiving protein NMR spectra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Modern protein NMR spectroscopy laboratories have a rapidly growing need for an easily queried local archival system of raw experimental NMR datasets. SPINS (Standardized ProteIn Nmr Storage) is an object-oriented relational database that provides facilities for high-volume NMR data archival, organization of analyses, and dissemination of results to the public domain by automatic preparation of the header files required for submission of data to the BioMagResBank (BMRB). The current version of SPINS coordinates the process from data collection to BMRB deposition of raw NMR data by standardizing and integrating the storage and retrieval of these data in a local laboratory file system. Additional facilities include a data mining query tool, graphical database administration tools, and a NMRStar v2.1.1 file generator. SPINS also includes a user-friendly internet-based graphical user interface, which is optionally integrated with Varian VNMR NMR data collection software. This paper provides an overview of the data model underlying the SPINS database system, a description of its implementation in Oracle, and an outline of future plans for the SPINS project

2002-10-01

308

48 CFR 252.251-7001 - Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related services.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related...251-7001 Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) vehicles and related...clause: Use of Interagency Fleet Management System (IFMS) Vehicles and...

2010-10-01

309

Quantum Objects  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we suggest an alternative interpretation for the quantum state vector, which, by considering temporal parts for physical objects, aims to give an intelligible account of measurement problem in quantum mechanics. We examine the capacity of this interpretation as for explaining three measurement problems: the problem of outcome, the problem of statistics and the problem of effect. We argue that, this interpretation of the state vector, while providing a satisfactory account, as rationally plausible as its rivals, for the measurement problem, shows yet another limitation of our perceptual experience, i.e. our inability to perceive unsharp reality.

Mansouri, Alireza; Karbasizadeh, Amir Ehsan

2013-01-01

310

Designing institutions for global democracy: flexibility through escape clauses and sunset provisions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How can advocates of global democracy grapple with the empirical conditions that constitute world politics? I argue that flexibility mechanisms—;commonly used to advance international cooperation—should be employed to make the institutional design project of global democracy more tractable. I highlight three specific reasons underpinning this claim. First, flexibility provisions make bargaining over different institutional designs more manageable. Second, heightened flexibility takes seriously potential concerns about path-dependent institutional development. Finally, deliberately shortening the time horizons of agents by employing flexibility provisions has cognitive benefits as it forces designers to focus specifically on issues of feasibility as well as desirability. I discuss a range of flexibility mechanisms and highlight the utility of sunset provisions and escape clauses. From this analysis, I build an argument for the usage of small-scale democratic experiments through which citizens (or their representatives have a say in global policy making.

Jonathan W. Kuyper

2013-12-01

311

The Meaning of Mood â?? Embedded Clauses in Spanish as a Case in Point  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mental space theory is a cognitive framework that explains the interpretation of linguistic expressions: it explains how interlocutors get from input to output. Whereas in traditional semantics words are taken to possess a static, prefabricated meaning, cognitive frameworks take meaning to be the result of an interpretive process. This article explains how mental space theory can be used in an analysis of mood in embedded clauses in Spanish. It starts from the assumption that the meaning of mood is constructed by interlocutors in an interpretive process on the basis of information from the modal morphemes combined with information from the linguistic as well as the extra-linguistic context. The interpretive process is represented as a sequence of mental spaces which are linked and structured on the basis of information from language and context

Jensen, Helle Dam

2011-01-01

312

Tail-gas treating system proves out in field test on operating Claus plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the Sulften System which maximizes sulfur recovery efficiency by combining reaction and absorption technologies. The principal feature of the system is its ability to produce a sulfur plant vent gas effluent with an H2S concentration of less than 10ppm on a dry and oxygen-free basis. Incinerator operation may be reduced to standby mode, thereby producing substantial economic benefit. A successful field test on an operating Claus plant effluent has proven the system's effectiveness. The primary goal of the system is to meet the US EPA's New Source Performance Standards requirement that direct discharge of H2S be limited to concentrations of less than 10 ppm. The benefits of this technology are a reduction in total sulfur discharge and incinerator thermal pollution, virtual elimination of incinerator fuel cost, reduction in tail gas treating unit operating cost, and potential reduction in incinerator capital investment for a grassroots unit.

Kroop, L.; Sigmund, P.W.; Taggart, G.W.

1985-06-03

313

A constraint-based bottom-up counterpart to definite clause grammars  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A new grammar formalism, CHR Grammars (CHRG), is proposed that provides a constraint-solving approach to language analysis, built on top of the programming language of Constraint Handling Rules in the same way as Definite Clause Grammars (DCG) on Prolog. CHRG works bottom-up and adds the following features when compared with DCG: (i) An inherent treatment of ambiguity without backtracking. (ii) Robust parsing; do not give up in case of errors but return the recognized phrases. (iii)~A flexibility to produce and consume arbitrary hypotheses making it straight\\-forward to deal with abduction, integrity constraints, operators a la assumption grammars, and to incorporate other constraint solvers. (iv)~Context-sensitive rules that apply for disambiguation, coordination in natural language and tagger-like rules.

Christiansen, Henning

2004-01-01

314

Youth health research ethics: time for a mature-minor clause?  

Science.gov (United States)

Research into adolescent health issues is hampered by absolute requirements for parental consent. Society's recognition of adolescents' autonomy and decision-making capacity has been embodied in the legal recognition of the mature minor's right to make decisions on matters affecting his or her life. Psychological research indicates that young people from 14 years have decision-making capacity. US and UK research ethics guidelines acknowledge the mature-minor principle, but Australian guidelines are out of step with international practice. An absolute requirement for parental consent in Australian research ethics guidelines is potentially unethical if it denies mature adolescents' autonomy and is a barrier to participation, study validity and improved health outcomes through research findings. There are grounds for considering a mature-minor clause in the National Health and Medical Research Council research ethics guidelines, particularly in the context of youth participation in minimal-risk research. PMID:15059054

Sanci, Lena A; Sawyer, Susan M; Weller, Penny J; Bond, Lyndal M; Patton, George C

2004-04-01

315

Free and depedent small clauses in Brazilian Portuguese / Mini-orações livres e dependentes em Português Brasileiro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este artigo examina o que chamamos de mini-orações livres, que, diferentemente de mini-orações dependentes, exibem algumas propriedades peculiares: (a) é restrita a ocorrer com adjetivos de indivíduo ou de evento, (b) tem que ter o sujeito posposto. Após considerar várias hipóteses sobre a natureza [...] dessa inversão, propôs-se que os adjetivos que nela aparecem são do tipo ergativo. Essas mini-orações podem ser complementos de um tipo especial de cópula, do tipo que aparece com construções clivadas. As derivações das mini-orações livres seriam paralelas à derivação de construções clivadas. Abstract in english This paper examines free small clauses, which, unlike dependent small clauses, exhibit peculiar properties: (a) they are restricted to occur with individual level and event adjectives, (b) they have to appear with the subject postposed. After considering several hypotheses on the nature of this inve [...] rsion, it is proposed that these adjectives are of the ergative type, while the stage level adjectives are unergatives. Small clauses with ergative adjectives can be complements of a third copula distinct from the attributive 'ser' and the stative 'estar', which underlies cleft constructions. The derivation of free small clauses is parallel to canonical cleft sentences.

Kato, Mary Aizawa.

316

The fetish object: phylogenetic considerations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Direct observations of behavior evoked by a fetish object (wet shoe) in one patient are reported. The intrinsic qualities of an object endowing it with fetish power are reported. The intrinsic qualities of an object endowing it with fetish power are examined. Such qualities may be related to human perceptual preferences, a product of phylogeny, stemming from such factors as the primate interest in body parts and extracorporeal objects. The capicity to relate to an inanimate object including the assimilation of the object by variedmotor acts reflects the crucial role of objects (tools) in hominid evolution. Also phylogenetically based is the human capacity to assign mutiple meanings to an object. PMID:1130988

Epstein, A W

1975-05-01

317

Placebo-controlled sleep laboratory studies on the acute effects of zolpidem on objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality in nonorganic insomnia related to neurotic and stress-related disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent investigations in our sleep outpatient clinic demonstrated that 30% of patients exhibited organic and 70% nonorganic sleep disorders, with 41% showing as an additional diagnosis neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders, 31% affective disorders and 15% mental and behavioral disorders due to psychoactive substance use. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the acute effects of the imidazopyridine zolpidem on objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality in the largest of the above-mentioned groups. In this single-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study, 15 patients (9 females and 6 males aged 51.1 + 11. 3 years) diagnosed as having nonorganic insomnia (ICD-10: F 51.0) related to neurotic and stress-related disorders (F 1.1:12, F 41.2:2 and F 43.2:1) were included. Objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality measures were investigated in 3 subsequent nights in the sleep laboratory (adaptation, baseline/placebo and zolpidem 10 mg night), utilizing clinical, polysomnographic, psychometric and psychophysiological methods. The drug-free patients were matched according to age and sex with 15 normal healthy controls (age 51.2 + 11.8 years). Statistical analysis of polysomnographic variables demonstrated a significant lengthening of the total sleep period (TSP) and total sleep time (TST), an improvement in sleep efficiency and a shortening of sleep latencies after zolpidem as compared with placebo. These changes were opposite to the differences between patients and controls. Concerning sleep architecture, zolpidem increased the length of S4 and S3 + S4 as compared with placebo. Subjective sleep and awakening quality and the thymopsychic variables drive, mood, affectivity and wakefulness in the morning showed no significant changes, as a significant improvement had already occurred from the adaptation to the baseline/placebo night. Noopsychic variables (attention, concentration, attention variability, numerical memory, fine motor activity, reaction time measures) showed similar findings. Moreover, subjective sleep and awakening quality, thymopsychic and noopsychic measures during baseline/placebo recordings did not differ significantly from normative data (except for fine motor activity). Psychophysiological measures did not show any significant alterations either, except for a decrease in systolic blood pressure in the evening. Conclusion: As compared with placebo, zolpidem induced a significant improvement in objective sleep quality, mainly by increasing TSP, TST and sleep efficiency and shortening sleep latencies, thereby normalizing the disorder of initiating and maintaining sleep. Deep sleep stages S3 + S4 increased (although at baseline/placebo these stages did not differ from controls), while S1, S2 and SREM did not change significantly. Subjective sleep and awakening quality as well as thymopsychic and noopsychic performance in the morning mainly showed a placebo and 'first- night effect' phenomenon in these patients. Thus, the changes induced by zolpidem were somewhat different from those after classical benzodiazepines. PMID:10754428

Saletu-Zyhlarz, G; Anderer, P; Brandstätter, N; Dantendorfer, K; Gruber, G; Mandl, M; Ritter, K; Zoghlami, A; Saletu, B

2000-01-01

318

Inheriting workplace risks: The effect of workers` compensation {open_quotes}exclusive remedy{close_quotes} clauses on the preconception tort after Johnson Controls  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article explores whether exclusive remedy clauses will bar a tort action by a child seeking recovery for injury caused by his or her parent`s occupational exposure to mutagenic or toxic agents before the child`s conception in the same manner that the clauses bar spouses` loss of consortium suits. Because both the child`s right to recover for injury and the spouse`s right to recover for loss of consortium depend on proof of employer negligence toward the employee, a comparison of the two rights provides a framework for analyzing the effect exclusive remedy clauses could have on the preconception tort action. Part I of this article discusses exclusive remedy clauses of workers` compensation acts and illustrates how it might be asserted as a defense to a preconception tort action. Part II traces the development of the preconception tort action and its underlying theory of liability. Part III reviews how exclusive remedy clauses have served to bar loss of consortium suits. Part IV analyzes the applicability of exclusive remedy clauses to the preconception tort action. This article concludes that, absent revision to workers` compensation statutes or judicial reliance on public policy to distinguish loss of consortium and preconception tort suits, exclusive remedy clauses probably will be held to bar recovery in preconception tort actions. 121 refs.

Stern, C.; Tierney, C.M.G. [McKenna & Cuneo, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-12-31

319

New concept for quantification of similarity relates entropy and energy of objects: First and Second Law entangled, equivalence of temperature and time proposed  

CERN Document Server

When the difference between changes in energy and entropy at a given temperature is correlated with the ratio between the same changes in energy and entropy at zero average free energy of an ensemble of similar but distinct molecule-sized objects, a highly significant linear dependence results from which a relationship between energy and entropy is derived and the degree of similarity between the distinctly different members within the group of objects can be quantified. This fundamental energy-entropy relationship is likely to be of general interest in physics, most notably in particle physics and cosmology. We predict a consistent and testable way of classifying mini black holes, to be generated in future Large Hadron Collider experiments, by their gravitational energy and area entropy. For any isolated universe we propose absolute temperature and absolute time to be equivalent, much in the same way as energy and entropy are for an isolated ensemble of similar objects. According to this principle, the cosmo...

Zimak, Petr; Strazewski, Peter

2009-01-01

320

Android object recognition framework  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis is a continuation of the author?s specialization project where the ultimate goal is to build an object recognition framework suitable for mobile devices in real world environments, where control over parameters such as illumination, distance, noise and availability of consistent network architectures are limited. Based on shortcomings related to object recognition performance and architectural issues the author?s goal was to increase the flexibility, usability and perfor...

Karlsen, Mats-gøran

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

New concept for quantification of similarity relates entropy and energy of objects: First and Second Law entangled, group behavior of micro black holes expected  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract When the free energy of similar but distinct molecule-sized objects is plotted against the temperature at which their energy and entropy contributions cancel, a highly significant linear dependence results from which the degree of similarity between the distinctly different members within the group of objects can be quantified and a relationship between energy and entropy is derived. This energy-entropy relationship entirely reflects the mathematical structure of thermodynamic equations, is in this sense fundamental and therefore does probably not dependent on material nor scale. The energy-entropy relationship is likely to be of general interest in molecular biology, population biology, synthetic biology, biophysics, chemical thermodynamics, systems chemistry and physics, most notably in particle physics and cosmology. In physics we predict a consistent and perhaps testable way of classifying micro black holes, to be generated in future Large Hadron Collider experiments, by their gravitational energy and area entropy.

Zimak Petr

2010-08-01

322

Las cláusulas generales, entre teoría analítica y dogmática jurídica / The General Clauses between Analytical Theory and Legal Dogmatics  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish A partir de un reciente estudio de Vito Velluzzi, el artículo propone una reconstrucción alternativa del concepto de cláusula general, respetuosa de la pluralidad de posiciones dogmáticas contrapuestas. Además, hace un análisis de algunas tesis concernientes a la indeterminación, la interpretación y [...] la elasticidad de las cláusulas generales, dirigido a favorecer una visión realista del fenómeno. Abstract in english Taking the lead from a recent inquiry by Vito Velluzzi, the paper sets forth a rational reconstruction of the concept of general clause, meant to be respectful of the plurality of competing legal-dogmatics conceptions. A few thesis about the indeterminacy, interpretation and socalled elasticity of g [...] eneral clauses are also analyzed, in order to provide a more accurate and realistic view of the matter.

Chiassoni, Pierluigi.

323

Sulfur Recovery from Acid Gas Using the Claus Process and High Temperature Air Combustion (HiTAC Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sulfur-bearing compounds are very detrimental to the environment and to industrial process equipment. They are often obtained or formed as a by-product of separation and thermal processing of fuels containing sulfur, such as coal, crude oil and natural gas. The two sulfur compounds, which need special attention, are: hydrogen sulfide (H2S and sulfur dioxide (SO2. H2S is a highly corrosive gas with a foul smell. SO2 is a toxic gas responsible for acid rain formation and equipment corrosion. Various methods of reducing pollutants containing sulfur are described in this paper, with a focus on the modified Claus process, enhanced by the use of High Temperature Air Combustion (HiTAC technology in the Claus furnace. The Claus process has been known and used in the industry for over 100 years. It involves thermal oxidation of hydrogen sulfide and its reaction with sulfur dioxide to form sulfur and water vapor. This process is equilibrium-limited and usually achieves efficiencies in the range of 94-97%, which have been regarded as acceptable in the past years. Nowadays strict air pollution regulations regarding hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide emissions call for nearly 100% efficiency, which can only be achieved with process modifications. High temperature air combustion technology or otherwise called flameless (or colorless combustion is proposed here for application in Claus furnaces, especially those employing lean acid gas streams, which cannot be burned without the use of auxiliary fuel or oxygen enrichment under standard conditions. With the use of HiTAC it has been shown, however, that fuel-lean, Low Calorific Value (LCV fuels can be burned with very uniform thermal fields without the need for fuel enrichment or oxygen addition. The uniform temperature distribution favors clean and efficient burning with an additional advantage of significant reduction of NOx, CO and hydrocarbon emission.

Mohamed Sassi

2008-01-01

324

Cultural Mainstreaming Clause of Article 151(4) EC: Protection and Promotion of Cultural Diversity or Hidden Cultural Agenda?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this article is to examine the cultural competences attributed to the Community, placing particular emphasis upon the cultural powers conferred by paragraph 4 of Article 151 EC, which entrusts the European institutions with the task of taking cultural aspects into account in their action under the various provisions of the EC Treaty, in order to respect and to promote cultural diversity. The cultural cross-sectional clause of Article 151(4) EC, by calling for a reshaping of EC ...

Psychogiopoulou, Evangelia

2006-01-01

325

The cultural mainstreaming clause of article 151(4) EC: protection and promotion of cultural diversity or hidden cultural agenda?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this article is to examine the cultural competences attributed to the Community, placing particular emphasis upon the cultural powers conferred by paragraph 4 of Article 151 EC, which entrusts the European institutions with the task of taking cultural aspects into account in their action under the various provisions of the EC Treaty, in order to respect and to promote cultural diversity. The cultural cross-sectional clause of Article 151 (4) EC, by calling for a reshaping of EC...

Psychogiopoulou, Evangelia

2006-01-01

326

This elusive objective existence  

CERN Document Server

Zurek's existential interpretation of quantum mechanics suffers from three classical prejudices, including the belief that space and time are intrinsically and infinitely differentiated. They compel him to relativize the concept of objective existence in two ways. The elimination of these prejudices makes it possible to recognize the quantum formalism's ontological implications - the relative and contingent reality of spatiotemporal distinctions and the extrinsic and finite spatiotemporal differentiation of the physical world - which in turn makes it possible to arrive at an unqualified objective existence. Contrary to a widespread misconception, viewing the quantum formalism as being fundamentally a probability algorithm does not imply that quantum mechanics is concerned with states of knowledge rather than states of Nature. On the contrary, it makes possible a complete and strongly objective description of the physical world that requires no reference to observers. What objectively exists, in a sense that r...

Mohrhoff, U

2004-01-01

327

Influência da textura na preensão de indivíduos com Síndrome de Down / Influence of the object texture related to the grip in individuals with Down Syndrome  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Diversos estudos disponibilizam evidências sobre características do desempenho motor e cognitivo de indivíduos com Síndrome de Down (SD), porém poucos estudos analisam a força muscular nestes indivíduos. As alterações apresentadas por indivíduos com SD podem manifestar-se funcionalmente [...] e interferir na sua capacidade de desempenhar de forma independente diversas atividades e tarefas da rotina diária. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a influência da textura do objeto na força de preensão palmar em indivíduos com Síndrome de Down. Participaram do estudo dez indivíduos com SD, com idade entre 4 e 30 anos. MÉTODO: A análise da força de preensão palmar foi mensurada por meio de um transdutor de força. A tarefa proposta para a coleta dos dados foi realizar a preensão do transdutor, revestido com diferentes texturas, transportá-lo até um ponto previamente demarcado, e posteriormente o retorno à posição inicial. Os dados obtidos foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva e não-paramétrica. RESULTADOS: Os dados da estatística descritiva permitiram observar que a textura áspera foi a que exigiu menor força de preensão palmar dos participantes neste estudo, no entanto a análise não-paramétrica indicou não haver diferença estatisticamente significativa. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados deste estudo indicam que textura do objeto não influenciou a força de preensão palmar executada pelos indivíduos com Síndrome de Down. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Many studies show evidences about characteristics of the motor and cognitive performance of subjects with Down Syndrome (DS). However, there is lack of studies that analyze the muscular force in these individuals. The alterations found in subjects with DS can impair their function and [...] interfere in the capacity of the subjects to perform many activities and tasks of the daily routine independently. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of object's texture on grip force in subjects with DS. Ten individuals with diagnosis of DS were selected, with age between 4 and 30 years. METHODS: The grip force was measured with a transducer with two different textures. The proposed task for data collection was to hold the transducer, covered with two different textures, and carry it until a point previously demarcated, and later return it to the initial position. The data were analyzed through descriptive and nonparametric statistics. RESULTS: It was possible to observe that the rough texture was the one that demanded minor amount of grip force; however the nonparametric analysis indicated that there was no significant difference in grip force among textures. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicated that the object's texture did not influence the grip force carried out by individuals with DS.

Anna Carolyna Lepesteur, Gianlorenço; Daniela, Ide; Lígia Maria Presumido, Braccialli.

328

Relativity  

CERN Multimedia

Relativity: The Special and General Theory is an introduction to Einstein's space-bending, time-stretching theory of Relativity, first published in December 1916. Special and General relativity explain the structure of space time and provide a theory of gravitation, respectively. Einstein's theories shocked the world with their counterintuitive results, including the dissolution of absolute time. In this book, he brings a simplified form of his profound understanding of the subject to the layperson. In the words of Einstein: "The present book is intended, as far as possible, to give an ex

Einstein, Albert

2010-01-01

329

???: RELATIVE  

Full Text Available 02000 ?????? RELATIVE download Rockefeller Univ.|ftp://linkage.rockefeller.edu/software/re d)?3???????????????? Relationship estimation in affected sib pair analysis of late-onset diseas

330

Retinal Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Early Atrophic Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and a New Metric for Objective Evaluation of the Efficacy of Ocular Nutrition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: A challenge in ocular preventive medicine is identification of patients with early pathological retinal damage that might benefit from nutritional intervention. The purpose of this study is to evaluate retinal thinning (RT) in early atrophic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) against visual function data from the Zeaxanthin and Visual Function (ZVF) randomized double masked placebo controlled clinical trial (FDA IND #78973). Methods: Retrospective, observational case series of me...

Richer, Stuart; Cho, Jane; Stiles, William; Levin, Marc; Wrobel, James S.; Sinai, Michael; Thomas, Carla

2012-01-01

331

Subjective and Objective Binge Eating in Relation to Eating Disorder Symptomatology, Depressive Symptoms, and Self-Esteem among Treatment-Seeking Adolescents with Bulimia Nervosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the importance of the distinction between objective (OBE) and subjective binge eating (SBE) among 80 treatment-seeking adolescents with bulimia nervosa. We explored relationships among OBEs, SBEs, eating disorder (ED) symptomatology, depression, and self-esteem using two approaches. Group comparisons showed that OBE and SBE groups did not differ on ED symptoms or self-esteem; however, the SBE group had significantly greater depression. Examining continuous variables, OBEs (not SBEs) accounted for significant unique variance in global ED pathology, vomiting, and self-esteem. SBEs (not OBEs) accounted for significant unique variance in restraint and depression. Both OBEs and SBEs accounted for significant unique variance in eating concern; neither accounted for unique variance in weight/shape concern, laxative use, diuretic use, or driven exercise. Loss of control, rather than amount of food, may be most important in defining binge eating. Additionally, OBEs may indicate broader ED pathology, while SBEs may indicate restrictive/depressive symptomatology. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:24852114

Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Ciao, Anna C; Accurso, Erin C; Pisetsky, Emily M; Peterson, Carol B; Byrne, Catherine E; Le Grange, Daniel

2014-07-01

332

Objectively measured physical activity, physical activity related personality and body mass index in 6- to 10-yr-old children: a cross-sectional study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence and level of overweight in childhood is rapidly increasing. One potential contributor to the rise in overweight is a decline in physical activity (PA. The purpose of this study was to compare levels and patterns of PA and PA related personality in normal-weight (NW and overweight (OW 6- to 10-yr-old children. Methods Subjects were grouped into OW (N = 59, BMI = 24.2 ± 4.8 kg/m2 or NW (N = 61, BMI = 15.7 ± 1.5 kg/m2 according to International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. PA was assessed by accelerometry. Parents filled in a questionnaire on PA and sedentary behaviour and PA related personality of their child (born tired, moves slowly, is often tired, lacks energy, avoids physical efforts, prefers watching playing children instead of joining them, is always active, needs to let himself/herself go, has a lot of energy. Results NW children spent on average 77 min/day in MVPA, whereas OW children only 57 min/day (p = .001. OW children had fewer 5, 10 and 20 min bouts of MVPA (p = .01. OW and NW children showed identical PA patterns on both week days and weekends, although at different levels. According to parents' report, a greater percentage of OW children was not engaged in any sport (46% versus 23%, chi2 = 6.3, p = .01. OW children had a less active personality (p Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that NW children spent on average 20 min per day more in MVPA. PA patterns were similar in NW versus OW children, although at different levels. Greatest differences in PA according to weight status were found in the afternoon during after school hours. This is the first study to show distinct PA related personality traits in OW children compared to NW peers.

De Bourdeaudhuij Ilse

2009-05-01

333

Relativity  

CERN Document Server

Time magazine's ""Man of the Century"", Albert Einstein is the founder of modern physics and his theory of relativity is the most important scientific idea of the modern era. In this short book, Einstein explains, using the minimum of mathematical terms, the basic ideas and principles of the theory that has shaped the world we live in today. Unsurpassed by any subsequent books on relativity, this remains the most popular and useful exposition of Einstein's immense contribution to human knowledge.With a new foreword by Derek Raine.

Einstein, Albert

2013-01-01

334

Multi-objective optimization of Nd:YAG laser cutting of thin superalloy sheet using grey relational analysis with entropy measurement  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a hybrid optimization approach for the determination of the optimum laser cutting process parameters which minimize the kerf width, kerf taper, and kerf deviation together during pulsed Nd:YAG laser cutting of a thin sheet of nickel-based superalloy SUPERNI 718 (an equivalent grade to Inconel 718). A hybrid approach of Taguchi methodology and grey relational analysis has been applied to achieve better cut qualities within existing resources. The input process parameters considered are oxygen pressure, pulse width, pulse frequency, and cutting speed. A higher resolution based L 27 orthogonal array has been used for conducting the experiments for both straight and curved cut profiles. The designed experimental results are used in grey relational analysis and the weights of the quality characteristics are determined by employing the entropy measurement method. The significant parameters were obtained by performing analysis of variance (ANOVA). The optimized parameters for straight and curved laser cut profiles have been compared. On the basis of optimization results it has been found that the optimal parameter level suggested for straight cut profiles are not valid for curved cut profiles. The application of the hybrid approach for straight cuts has reduced K t and K d by 52.37% and 17%, respectively. For curved cuts the approach has reduced K w and K t by 8.45% and 44.44%, respectively. The results have also been verified by running confirmation tests.

Rao, Raghavendra; Yadava, Vinod

2009-11-01

335

Auto-avaliação de saúde bucal em idosos: análise com base em modelo multidimensional / Objective and subjective factors related to self-rated oral health among the elderly  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Propôs-se investigar fatores associados à auto-avaliação negativa da saúde bucal. Idosos, participantes do inquérito de saúde bucal do Ministério da Saúde, 2002-2003, que auto-avaliaram sua saúde bucal como ruim/péssima foram comparados aos que a auto-avaliaram como ótima/boa/regular usando-se razõe [...] s de prevalências (RP) com base na regressão de Poisson. A minoria (870 - 17%) auto-avaliou sua saúde bucal negativamente. A auto-avaliação negativa foi menor entre aqueles com 1-9 dentes e edentados, maior entre pardos/negros/índios, que nunca usaram serviços, que apresentavam alterações de tecidos moles, que relataram pouca e média/muita dor, que auto-avaliaram sua aparência e mastigação como regular ou ruim/péssima, entre os que relataram seus relacionamentos sociais pouco ou muito afetados pelas condições bucais e entre os que avaliavam necessitar de tratamento bucal. Apesar das precárias condições bucais, a maioria auto-avaliou positivamente sua saúde bucal. Condições subjetivas estiveram mais fortemente associadas do que as objetivas. Os resultados sugerem iniqüidade e permitem orientar políticas públicas que objetivem saúde bucal e qualidade de vida. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with negative self-rated oral health. Elderly subjects from the Brazilian Ministry of Health's oral health survey (2002-2003) who rated their own oral health as bad or very bad were compared to those who rated their oral health as excellent [...] , good, or fair, using prevalence ratios based on Poisson regression. The minority (870; 17%) gave their own oral health a negative rating. Negative self-rated oral health was less prevalent among those with 1-9 teeth and the edentulous, and more prevalent among blacks, mixed-race, and indigenous, those who had never used dental service, with soft tissue alterations, who reported little pain or medium to intense pain, rated their own appearance and chewing as fair or bad or very bad, reported that their oral health limited their social interaction a little or considerably, and reported needing dental treatment (PR = 1,47; 95%CI: 1.20-1.79). Despite their precarious oral conditions, the majority gave their oral health a positive rating. Subjective conditions were more heavily associated with self-rated oral health than were objective conditions. The findings suggest unequal oral health conditions and allow orienting public policies aimed at oral health and quality of life.

Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima, Martins; Sandhi Maria, Barreto; Isabela Almeida, Pordeus.

336

Auto-avaliação de saúde bucal em idosos: análise com base em modelo multidimensional / Objective and subjective factors related to self-rated oral health among the elderly  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Propôs-se investigar fatores associados à auto-avaliação negativa da saúde bucal. Idosos, participantes do inquérito de saúde bucal do Ministério da Saúde, 2002-2003, que auto-avaliaram sua saúde bucal como ruim/péssima foram comparados aos que a auto-avaliaram como ótima/boa/regular usando-se razõe [...] s de prevalências (RP) com base na regressão de Poisson. A minoria (870 - 17%) auto-avaliou sua saúde bucal negativamente. A auto-avaliação negativa foi menor entre aqueles com 1-9 dentes e edentados, maior entre pardos/negros/índios, que nunca usaram serviços, que apresentavam alterações de tecidos moles, que relataram pouca e média/muita dor, que auto-avaliaram sua aparência e mastigação como regular ou ruim/péssima, entre os que relataram seus relacionamentos sociais pouco ou muito afetados pelas condições bucais e entre os que avaliavam necessitar de tratamento bucal. Apesar das precárias condições bucais, a maioria auto-avaliou positivamente sua saúde bucal. Condições subjetivas estiveram mais fortemente associadas do que as objetivas. Os resultados sugerem iniqüidade e permitem orientar políticas públicas que objetivem saúde bucal e qualidade de vida. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with negative self-rated oral health. Elderly subjects from the Brazilian Ministry of Health's oral health survey (2002-2003) who rated their own oral health as bad or very bad were compared to those who rated their oral health as excellent [...] , good, or fair, using prevalence ratios based on Poisson regression. The minority (870; 17%) gave their own oral health a negative rating. Negative self-rated oral health was less prevalent among those with 1-9 teeth and the edentulous, and more prevalent among blacks, mixed-race, and indigenous, those who had never used dental service, with soft tissue alterations, who reported little pain or medium to intense pain, rated their own appearance and chewing as fair or bad or very bad, reported that their oral health limited their social interaction a little or considerably, and reported needing dental treatment (PR = 1,47; 95%CI: 1.20-1.79). Despite their precarious oral conditions, the majority gave their oral health a positive rating. Subjective conditions were more heavily associated with self-rated oral health than were objective conditions. The findings suggest unequal oral health conditions and allow orienting public policies aimed at oral health and quality of life.

Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima, Martins; Sandhi Maria, Barreto; Isabela Almeida, Pordeus.

337

Auto-avaliação de saúde bucal em idosos: análise com base em modelo multidimensional Objective and subjective factors related to self-rated oral health among the elderly  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Propôs-se investigar fatores associados à auto-avaliação negativa da saúde bucal. Idosos, participantes do inquérito de saúde bucal do Ministério da Saúde, 2002-2003, que auto-avaliaram sua saúde bucal como ruim/péssima foram comparados aos que a auto-avaliaram como ótima/boa/regular usando-se razões de prevalências (RP com base na regressão de Poisson. A minoria (870 - 17% auto-avaliou sua saúde bucal negativamente. A auto-avaliação negativa foi menor entre aqueles com 1-9 dentes e edentados, maior entre pardos/negros/índios, que nunca usaram serviços, que apresentavam alterações de tecidos moles, que relataram pouca e média/muita dor, que auto-avaliaram sua aparência e mastigação como regular ou ruim/péssima, entre os que relataram seus relacionamentos sociais pouco ou muito afetados pelas condições bucais e entre os que avaliavam necessitar de tratamento bucal. Apesar das precárias condições bucais, a maioria auto-avaliou positivamente sua saúde bucal. Condições subjetivas estiveram mais fortemente associadas do que as objetivas. Os resultados sugerem iniqüidade e permitem orientar políticas públicas que objetivem saúde bucal e qualidade de vida.The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with negative self-rated oral health. Elderly subjects from the Brazilian Ministry of Health's oral health survey (2002-2003 who rated their own oral health as bad or very bad were compared to those who rated their oral health as excellent, good, or fair, using prevalence ratios based on Poisson regression. The minority (870; 17% gave their own oral health a negative rating. Negative self-rated oral health was less prevalent among those with 1-9 teeth and the edentulous, and more prevalent among blacks, mixed-race, and indigenous, those who had never used dental service, with soft tissue alterations, who reported little pain or medium to intense pain, rated their own appearance and chewing as fair or bad or very bad, reported that their oral health limited their social interaction a little or considerably, and reported needing dental treatment (PR = 1,47; 95%CI: 1.20-1.79. Despite their precarious oral conditions, the majority gave their oral health a positive rating. Subjective conditions were more heavily associated with self-rated oral health than were objective conditions. The findings suggest unequal oral health conditions and allow orienting public policies aimed at oral health and quality of life.

Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima Martins

2009-02-01

338

Towards a profile of the interpersonal organization of the portuguese clause / Para um perfil da organização interpessoal da oração em Português  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este texto visa contribuir para a descrição do português do ponto de vista da Gramática Sistémico-Funcional, particularmente no que diz respeito à descrição da oração como troca. Embora assuma que a organização interpessoal da oração em português envolve fenómenos que são semelhantes em várias língu [...] as distintas, como os sistemas de Modo oracional, por exemplo, o texto pretende ainda assim demonstrar que há opções de sistema (e suas realizações estruturais) que são específicas do português, sobretudo quando comparadas com as mesmas opções em inglês, uma língua cujas descrições têm amiúde e fortemente sido impostas ao português. O texto começa com uma descrição geral de alguns aspectos da língua portuguesa e avança depois para uma descrição das tipologias do Modo oracional e das escolhas associadas às mesmas. Levantando algumas questões e dúvidas relativamente à descrição dos elementos que em português contribuem para a negociação e a troca, o texto acaba por propor uma descrição que encara a língua portuguesa como uma língua sem Finito, isto é, como uma língua que não tem o Finito como uma das funções do Modo oracional, já que esta sendo apropriada para a descrição da língua inglesa perde em pertinência quando pensada do ponto de vista da língua portuguesa. Abstract in english This paper aims at contributing to the description of Portuguese from the point of view of Systemic Functional Grammar, particularly in relation to the description of the clause as an exchange. While assuming that the interpersonal organization of the Portuguese clause involves phenomena that are si [...] milar across different languages, such as Mood systems, for instance, the paper wants nevertheless to show that there are systemic options (and their structural realizations) that are specific to Portuguese, particularly if compared to the same options in English, a language whose descriptions have so often and too strongly been imposed on Portuguese. Starting with a general description of some aspects of the Portuguese language, the paper then proceeds to a description of Mood types and the system of choices associated with them. By raising some questions and doubts concerning the description of the elements that in Portuguese carry the negotiation forward, the paper ends up proposing a description that sees Portuguese as a Finite-less language, that is, a language that does not have Finite, a function that proved to be appropriate for the description of the English language but fails to be so when considered from the point of view of Portuguese.

Carlos A. M., Gouveia.

339

Validade e confiabilidade da versão brasileira de um inventário de avaliação de relações objetais / Validity and reliability of the Brazilian version of an inventory for the evaluation of object relations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Introdução: Relação objetal tem sido um conceito fértil para a psicanálise e para a psiquiatria. O reconhecimento crescente do valor diagnóstico do conceito de relação objetal nos transtornos psiquiátricos tem levado ao desenvolvimento de várias escalas que pretendem mensurá-lo. O estudo teve o prop [...] ósito de produzir os índices de validade e confiabilidade da versão em português de um instrumento amplamente usado, planejado para avaliar relações objetais, o Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory (BORRTI - Form O). Métodos: A amostra foi composta de 218 estudantes de graduação de psicologia. Uma análise fatorial exploratória obteve, com sucesso, as quatro dimensões descritas nos estudos originais. Resultados: Estas dimensões demonstraram boa correlação dos escores quando comparadas às respectivas dimensões da versão em inglês do BORRTI - Forma O (0,62 para alienação, 0,82 para vinculação insegura, 0,83 para egocentrismo e 0,78 para incapacidade social). Os escores de confiabilidade também foram aceitáveis, com um valor alpha de Cronbach para todos os itens de 0,59 e confiabilidade split-half Spearman-Brown de 0,63. Conclusões: Tornando estes índices disponíveis, o estudo pode contribuir para a escolha adequada de escalas que investiguem relações objetais no Brasil. Abstract in english Introduction: Object relation has been a fertile concept in psychoanalysis and psychiatry. The growing recognition of the diagnostic value of the object relation concept in psychiatric disorders has led to the development of several scales for its measurement. The study aimed to produce validity and [...] reliability indices in the Portuguese version of a widely used instrument designed to measure object relations, the Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory (BORRTI - Form O). Methods: Data was collected from 218 psychology graduate students. Exploratory factorial analysis allowed obtaining successfully the 4 dimensions described in previous studies. Results: These dimensions showed good correlation scores when compared to their respective dimensions in the English version of the BORRTI - Form O (0.62 for alienation, 0.82 for insecure attachment, 0.83 for egocentricity and 0.78 for social incompetence). Reliability scores were also acceptable with Cronbach's alpha for all items at 0.59, and split-half Spearman-Brown at 0.63. Conclusions: By making these indices available, the study can contribute to the rational choice of scales to investigate object relation in Brazil.

Bruscato, Wilze L; Iacoponi, Eduardo.

340

Retinal Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Early Atrophic Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD and a New Metric for Objective Evaluation of the Efficacy of Ocular Nutrition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: A challenge in ocular preventive medicine is identification of patients with early pathological retinal damage that might benefit from nutritional intervention. The purpose of this study is to evaluate retinal thinning (RT in early atrophic age-related macular degeneration (AMD against visual function data from the Zeaxanthin and Visual Function (ZVF randomized double masked placebo controlled clinical trial (FDA IND #78973. Methods: Retrospective, observational case series of medical center veterans with minimal visible AMD retinopathy (AREDS Report #18 simplified grading 1.4/4.0 bilateral retinopathy. Foveal and extra-foveal four quadrant SDOCT RT measurements were evaluated in n = 54 clinical and ZVF AMD patients. RT by age was determined and compared to the OptoVue SD OCT normative database. RT by quadrant in a subset of n = 29 ZVF patients was correlated with contrast sensitivity and parafoveal blue cone increment thresholds. Results: Foveal RT in AMD patients and non-AMD patients was preserved with age. Extrafoveal regions, however, showed significant slope differences between AMD patients and non-AMD patients, with the superior and nasal quadrants most vulnerable to retinal thinning (sup quad: ?5.5 ?m/decade thinning vs. Non-AMD: ?1.1 ?m/decade, P < 0.02; nasal quad: ?5.0 ?m/decade thinning vs. Non-AMD: ?1.0 ?m/decade, P < 0.04. Two measures of extrafoveal visual deterioration were correlated: A significant inverse correlation between % RT and contrast sensitivity (r = ?0.33, P = 0.01, 2 Tailed Paired T and an elevated extrafoveal increment blue cone threshold (r = +0.34, P = 0.01, 2 Tailed T. Additional SD OCT RT data for the non-AMD oldest age group (ages 82–91 is needed to fully substantiate the model. Conclusion: A simple new SD OCT clinical metric called “% extra-foveal RT” correlates well with functional visual loss in early AMD patients having minimal visible retinopathy. This metric can be used to follow the effect of repleting ocular nutrients, such as zinc, antioxidants, carotenoids, n-3 essential fats, resveratrol and vitamin D.

Stuart Richer

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
341

Making CORBA objects persistent: The object database adapter approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In spite of its remarkable successes in promoting standards for distributed object systems, the Object Management Group (OMG) has not yet settled the issue of object persistence in the Object Request Broker (ORB) environment. The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) specification briefly mentions an Object-Oriented Database Adapter that makes objects stored in an object-oriented database accessible through the ORB. This idea is pursued in the Appendix B of the ODMG standard, which identifies a number of issues involved in using an Object Database Management System (ODBMS) in a CORBA environment, and proposes an Object Database Adapter (ODA) to realize the integration of the ORB with the ODBMS. This paper discusses the design and implementation of an ODA that integrates an ORB and an ODBMS with C++ bindings. For the author`s purposes, an ODBMS is a system with programming interfaces. It may be a pure object-oriented DBMS (an OODBMS), or a combination of a relational DBMS and an object-relational mapper.

Reverbel, F.C.R.

1997-05-01

342

Reflections on drafting of civil liability clauses and solving of disputes in supply contracts throughout the nuclear fuel cycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The lengthy duration and diversity of the stages of the fuel cycle and the geographical distribution of the nuclear industries give the contracts for carrying out the different operations such flexibility that in order to settle disputes concerning notably but not exclusively liability, reference may be made to different legal systems according to whether the regulations of international public or private law can be applied. The options provided for co-contractors in view of the flexibility of the contracts lead to adoption of varying clauses for settling disputes according to the different industrial achievements envisaged. (NEA)

1977-10-05

343

Object-relations in maltreated and abused children assessed with the Rorschach inkblots and the Mutuality of Autonomy Scale (Urist Relaciones Objetales en niños maltratados y abusados a través del Rorschach y del MOA (Urist  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the study was to observe the quality of the object-relations in maltreated and institutionalized boys and girls, assessed with the Rorschach inkblots and the Mutuality of AutonomyScale (MOA of Urist. The participants were 23 children of both sexes, aged 8 to 10,who had been maltreated in their household and were institutionalized in an orphanage. The results showed that both tools reflect object-relations well. There are significant differences, depending on the sex, time of Separation from their maternal figure and the type of maltreatment they received. Furthermore, the children represent more adaptative, conventional and positive object relations what is related with their resources.El objetivo fue conocer cómo es la calidad de las relaciones objetales en Jos niños y niñas institucionalizados, que han sido objeto de algún tipo de maltrato, a través del Psicodiagnóstico de Rorschach (Exner y de la Escala de Mutualidad de Autonomía (MOA de Urist. Los participantesfueron 23 niños de ambos sexos, entre 8 y 1 O años que habían recibido maltrato en su entorno familiar. El grupo de estudio provino de los niños institucionalizados que se encuentran internados en un puericultorio, pertenecientes a un sector socio económico bajo. Los resultados mostraron que ambos instrumentos reflejan la calidad de las relaciones objetales de manera adecuada. Asimismo, existen diferencias significativas de acuerdo al sexo, momento de separación de la figura materna y tipo de maltrato recibido. Por otro lado, los menores de nuestro estudio logran representarse relaciones más adaptativas, convencionales y positivas que nos ligancon sus recursos.

Sylvia Rivera Carpio

2001-12-01

344

Bodies as Objects of Pedagogic Power Relations  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is based on a study titled "Enacting Feminisms in Academia", which engaged five feminist lecturers teaching English at five different multilingual universities in Southern Africa. The study explored: (1) the complexity of sociolinguistic and feminist identity construction in multilingual seascapes, and by extension (2) how feminist…

Perumal, Juliet Christine

2012-01-01

345

The Final Clauses of the Charter of Fundamental Rights ? Stumbling Blocks for the First and Second Convention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Particular problems in EU human rights protection stem from the final clauses of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights (Articles 51 ff. This paper examines these key provisions as well as the proposals for amendments which have been put forward by Working Group II of the Convention and which have been accepted by the Convention's Praesidium in February 2003. The author argues that a closer look at the adjustments to the final clauses reveals that cardinal problems with far-reaching systemic implications remain unsettled. This holds true, particularly, for the question of whether Member States will continue to be bound by EU fundamental rights when they derogate from Community law, or "Union law" in future. The same is true, second, as regards the question of whether and under what conditions the supremacy of Community law (or, according to the Praesidium's draft Article 9, "the law of the Union" cannot supersede national fundamental rights. A third fundamental problem has been added, unnecessarily, to the former two through Article 52 para 5 on "rights and principles" which is apt to negatively affect the significance and scope of fundamental rights set out in the Charter. As also the other proposed adjustments can hardly be regarded as adequately addressing actual or perceived constitutional concerns, this paper submits that existing doubts are reinforced as to whether the much-discussed "Convention method" really allows for an appropriate treatment of fundamental, albeit technically intricate problems.

Erich Vranes

2003-06-01

346

The Final Clauses of the Charter of Fundamental Rights Stumbling Blocks for the First and Second Convention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Particular problems in EU human rights protection stem from the final clauses of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights (Articles 51 ff. This paper examines these key provisions as well as the proposals for amendments which have been put forward by Working Group II of the Convention and which have been accepted by the Convention's Praesidium in February 2003. The author argues that a closer look at the adjustments to the final clauses reveals that cardinal problems with far-reaching systemic implications remain unsettled. This holds true, particularly, for the question of whether Member States will continue to be bound by EU fundamental rights when they derogate from Community law, or "Union law" in future. The same is true, second, as regards the question of whether and under what conditions the supremacy of Community law (or, according to the Praesidium's draft Article 9, "the law of the Union" cannot supersede national fundamental rights. A third fundamental problem has been added, unnecessarily, to the former two through Article 52 para 5 on "rights and principles" which is apt to negatively affect the significance and scope of fundamental rights set out in the Charter. As also the other proposed adjustments can hardly be regarded as adequately addressing actual or perceived constitutional concerns, this paper submits that existing doubts are reinforced as to whether the much-discussed "Convention method" really allows for an appropriate treatment of fundamental, albeit technically intricate problems.

Erich Vranes

2003-06-01

347

Text Structure in a Contrastive and Translational Perspective : On Information Density and Clause Linkage in Italian and Danish  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper argues that both human translators and machine translation systems can greatly benefit from contrastive studies of text structure. Due to the great terminological and definitional confusion regarding structures in texts, the paper first discusses the main viewpoints on these issues and then outlines the two most significant differences between Italian and Danish text structure. One regards the notion of information density: Italian tends to accumulate the same information in shorter text spans and to include a larger number of Elementary Discourse Units in each sentence than Danish. The other regards clause linkage: A higher percentage of Italian clauses is morpho-syntactically and rhetorically subordinated by means of non-finite and nominalised verb forms. Danish text structure, on the other hand, is more informationally linear and characterised by a higher number of finite verbs and topic shifts. These typological differences are transferred into some simple translation rules concerning the number of Elementary Discourse Units per sentence and their textualisation. Each rule is illustrated by a number of examples taken from the parallel part of the Europarl Corpus.

Korzen, Iørn; Gylling-Jørgensen, Morten

2012-01-01

348

Las cláusulas de derechos humanos en los tratados de libre comercio de la Unión Europea / The Human Rights Clauses Within the European Union's Free Trade Agreements  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish A partir de 1992 es requisito para la mayoría de los acuerdos comerciales y de cooperación de la Unión Europea la incorporación de una cláusula sobre derechos humanos. La similitud entre las cláusulas de los distintos acuerdos es notoria y la violación de las mismas provoca la suspensión inmediata d [...] el acuerdo comercial. Este artículo analiza el origen histórico y las aplicaciones de estas cláusulas de derechos humanos. Abstract in english As of 1992 it is a requirement for the European Union to include a clause on human rights in the majority of its commercial and cooperation agreements. These clauses are almost identical and allow the immediate suspension of the treaty in case of a severe human rights violation. This paper analyzes [...] the historical origin and the genuine application of these clauses.

Gerhard, Niedrist.

349

Infrared objective lens systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An infrared objective lens system comprises a primary lens group air spaced from a secondary lens group by means of a support assembly. The primary lens group and secondary lens group are aligned on a common optical axis and are arranged to form a real image at an external image surface from infrared radiation entering the system through a pupil in object space. Primary lens group is self-compensated for chromatic aberrations, is positively powered and is made of material the refractive index of which is relatively temperature insensitive such as arsenic triselenide and/or zinc selenide. The secondary lens group is positively powered, introduces minimal chromatic aberrations and is formed by a positively powered lens and a negatively powered lens. Lens is made of material the refractive index of which is relatively temperature insensitive such as arsenic triselenide. Lens is made of a material the refractive index of which is relatively temperature sensitive such as germanium and the thermal aberration introduced by lens is arranged to compensate for thermal aberrations introduced by the primary lens group and secondary lens group caused by thermal expansion of the support assembly as a result of which the system is rendered substantially passively athermal.

Neil, I.A.

1985-03-19

350

Representação mental e mudança terapêutica: uma contribuição da perspectiva psicanalítica da teoria das relações objetais / Mental representation and therapeutic change: a contribution from the psychoanalytical approach of object relations theory  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Apesar do avanço das pesquisas em psicoterapia, estudos na abordagem psicanalítica ainda são escassos. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar e discutir a contribuição do conceito de representação mental como um constructo importante para fundamentar pesquisas na área psicanalítica baseadas na identif [...] icação dos elementos associados à mudança terapêutica. Inicialmente discutem-se conceitos e modelos teóricos psicanalíticos para posteriormente discutir a noção de representação mental em relação à mudança terapêutica, destacando-se a contribuição da teoria das relações objetais e do apego. Nesse sentido, apresenta-se o Inventário das Relações de Objeto, instrumento que avalia a qualidade das representações mentais, identificando mudanças ao longo da psicoterapia. Espera-se oferecer subsídios para o aprimoramento do trabalho clínico em psicoterapias e o desenvolvimento de pesquisas em psicanálise. Abstract in english In spite of the progress realized in psychotherapeutic research, studies in the psychoanalytical approach are still scarce. The objective of this article is to present and to discuss the contribution of the concept of mental representation as an important construct to substantiate psychoanalytic res [...] earch based on the identification of the elements associated with therapeutic change. First, concepts and psychoanalytic models are presented and after that the notion of mental representation is specifically discussed in relation to therapeutic change, particularly the object relation theory. Thus, the Object Relation Inventory is presented, an instrument designed to assess the quality of mental representations, evaluating changes along psychotherapy. Elements to improve clinical work and the development of research in psychoanalysis are presented.

Zanatta, Denise; Benetti, Silvia Pereira da Cruz.

351

Learning Sentence-internal Temporal Relations  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we propose a data intensive approach for inferring sentence-internal temporal relations. Temporal inference is relevant for practical NLP applications which either extract or synthesize temporal information (e.g., summarisation, question answering). Our method bypasses the need for manual coding by exploiting the presence of markers like after", which overtly signal a temporal relation. We first show that models trained on main and subordinate clauses connected with a temporal marker achieve good performance on a pseudo-disambiguation task simulating temporal inference (during testing the temporal marker is treated as unseen and the models must select the right marker from a set of possible candidates). Secondly, we assess whether the proposed approach holds promise for the semi-automatic creation of temporal annotations. Specifically, we use a model trained on noisy and approximate data (i.e., main and subordinate clauses) to predict intra-sentential relations present in TimeBank, a corpus anno...

Lapata, M; 10.1613/jair.2015

2011-01-01

352

Combined Object Detection and Segmentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We develop a method for combined object detection and segmentation in natural scene. In our approach segmentation and detection are considered as two faces of the same coin that should be combined into a single framework. There are two main steps in our strategy. First we focus on the learning of a visual vocabulary that efficiently encompasses objects’ appearance, spatial configuration and underlying segmentation. This vocabulary is used within a Hough voting framework to produces object’s configuration. The second step consists in searching for valid objects’ configurations by interpreting and scoring them in terms of both detection and segmentation. This allows us to prune false detections and hallucinated object-like segmentation. Experiments show the advantage of the combined approach and the improvements over recent related methods.

Jarich Vansteenberge

2013-02-01

353

The significance of the clause requiring precautionary measures to assure waste disposal in partial licenses granted under the Atomic Energy Law  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This development raises the question as to what extent a waste disposal provision clause of the first few partial construction permits has to be adapted to the factual situation that has changed. Thus the clause is factually outdated according to which the granting of an operating licence for a nuclear power station cannot be expected until the first partial construction permit for the German fuel-cycle centre is in hand. It is not only conceivable that a first partial construction permit for the German fuel-cycle centre will not be in hand at the time when the authorities will decide on a (first) operating licence to be granted for a nuclear power station under construction, but add to this the crucial fact that the condition given in the above-mentioned provision clause on waste disposal is no longer in keeping with the factual situation and the thereto adapted provision principles governing waste management. Special attention has to be given to the significance and impact of this waste disposal provision clause since the situation has changed. (orig./HP)

1981-10-01

354

La “clause auteur” : l’écrivain, l’ethos et le discours littéraire The “clause author”: The writer, ethos, and literary discourse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cet article élabore une réflexion sur la question de l’auctorialité, plus précisément sur les conceptions variables de l’auteur et ses espaces de production, en prenant en considération le discours littéraire, mais aussi d’autres discours sociaux. Le terme d’« auteur » est compris ici comme un accord entre sujets sociaux, c’est-à-dire comme une convention qui varie perpétuellement en fonction des moments historiques et des espaces institutionnels. Pour développer ce point de vue, on s’appuie sur des catégories centrales de l’analyse du discours comme le contrat de communication et l’ethos. Par rapport à ce concept, on examine comment le discours littéraire présente un ethos auctorial qui lui est particulier, et qui n’est pas à confondre avec la production d’images de l’auteur dans d’autres dispositifs comme les médias ou la critique. En fin de parcours, on s’interroge sur la construction moderne et spectaculaire de l’auteur - célébrité dans son rapport problématique à l’ethos auctorial et à la lecture de l’œuvre.This essay develops a reflection on the question of authorship, more specifically on the various conceptions of authorship and its places of production, by investigating literary discourse, but also other kinds of social discourses. The term “author” is here understood as the result of an agreement between social subjects, namely as a convention endlessly varying according to historical moments and institutional spaces. In order to develop this point of view, we will draw on central categories of discourse analysis like communication contract or ethos.  We show how literary discourse constructs a peculiar “authorial ethos”  not to be confused with the production of authorial images in other frameworks like the media or literary criticism. Eventually, we question the modern and spectacular construction of the celebrity-author in its problematic relation to the authorial ethos and to the reading of the text.

Melliandro Mendes Gallinari

2009-10-01

355

Attending to objects: costs or benefits?  

Science.gov (United States)

The single-object advantage is said to occur when performance is faster and/or more accurate when the two targets to be compared appear on one object than when they appear on two different objects. The single-object advantage has been interpreted to suggest that attention can select objects rather than unparsed regions of visual space. In five experiments we explored whether directing attention to one object rather than two objects produces a benefit or a minor cost. Participants were required to compare two target features that belonged to one object, to two objects, or did not belong to any object. In addition, we varied the relevance to the task of object-related global information, such as symmetry of the object and perceptual cluttering of the background. Results showed that attending to one object in comparison to attending to no object produced a benefit only when object-related global information was relevant to the task. In contrast, when object-related global information was irrelevant to the task, attending to one object produced a cost. Thus, it can be concluded that attending to an object does not produce an absolute benefit, but rather produces a smaller cost than attending to two objects. PMID:11766140

Mapelli, Daniela; Cherubini, Paolo; Umiltà, Carlo

2002-01-01

356

Objectives of the symposium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author defined the objectives of the symposium as follows: to present and examine the recent evidence associating clusters of leukemia with sources of ionizing radiation; to examine the statistical basis for the analysis of clustering; to examine the underlying assumptions in epidemiological studies that clusters must have an environmental cause; to examine the extent to which we can take into account the biological causes of non-randomness in populations, particularly those of geographic and genetic origin; to evaluate the relative merits of different kinds of epidemiological studies for yielding significant information concerning clustering; to consider the potential utility of combining the results from existing studies, and whether new epidemiological studies might be helpful; to consider what other directions, including application of the technologies of molecular biology, are likely to help clarify the underlying mechanisms or causes

1992-07-01

357

Graspable objects shape number processing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The field of numerical cognition represents an interesting case for action-based theories of cognition, since number is a special kind of abstract concept. Several studies have shown that within the parietal lobes adjacent neural regions code numerical magnitude and grasping-related information. This anatomical proximity between brain areas involved in number and sensorimotor processes may account for interactions between numerical magnitude and action. In particular, recent studies has demonstrated a causal role of action perception on numerical magnitude processing. If objects are represented in terms of actions (affordances, the causal role of action on number processing should extend to the case of objects affordances. This study investigates the relationship between numbers and objects affordances in two experiments, without (Experiment 1 or with (Experiment 2 a motor action execution (i.e., participants were asked to hold an object in their hands during the task. The task consisted in repeating aloud the odd or even digit within a pair depending on the type of the preceding or following object. Order of presentation (object-number vs. number-object, object type (graspable vs. ungraspable, object size (small vs. large, and Numerical magnitude (small vs. large were manipulated for each experiment. Experiment 1 showed a facilitation – in terms of quicker responses - for graspable over ungraspable objects preceded by numbers, and an effect of numerical magnitude after the presentation of graspable objects. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the action execution enhanced overall the sensitivity to numerical magnitude, however interfering with the effects of objects affordances on number processing. Overall, these findings demonstrate that numbers and graspable objects communicate with each other, supporting the view that abstract concepts may be grounded in motor experience.

MariagraziaRanzini

2011-12-01

358

Paradigms in object recognition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)

1999-01-01

359

Ramp transfer and mooring system for the transferring of personnel and/or material between two relatively moving objects, such as, for example, from a boat to an offshore platform  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A ramp transfer and mooring system for the transferring of personnel and/or material between two relatively moving objects, such as for example from a boat to an offshore platform, wherein the ramp system permits the safe transfer between the two by a unique, flexible but at least relatively solid design which has the capability of twisting and turning to offset the relative motion to a gradual change between the two, and yet still has the capability and solidity to moor and help stabilize any sudden rolling action of the boat. The ramp transfer and mooring system of such a first exemplary embodiment includes six basic elements - the ramp structure itself, the connection means between the ramp and the boat, and the connection means between the ramp and the stationary platform including a swivel head system, a king post/pivot deck structure, and an enclosed counterweight system, a novel system of connecting the ramp to the boat, a special tie back system for storing the ramp during storms, and an alternate ramp structure. 36 drawings.

Ryan, W.J.

1982-01-20

360

Detecting a Moving Object  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Object tracking in video aims at detecting the appearances of an object and also the position of a moving object in a video sequence. Complex and dynamic scenes in video and television broadcasting have been a challenge for computerization of both in terms of storage and interaction. Scenes can be complex wherein there are many cluttered objects with different sizes, shapes, colors and can be dynamic with multiple interacting moving objects in a constantly changing background. Examples of suc...

Archana Sidhanti; Anusha Sidhanti

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Low polarization microscope objectives  

Science.gov (United States)

Low polarization, high numerical aperture microscope objectives ideal for polarization sensitive applications are designed, fabricated, and measured. A microscope objective is designed to meet the application requirements using Code V. Performance of typical AR coatings is examined and determined to be insufficient to meet the polarization performance desired. Custom AR coatings are optimized using an in house polarization ray tracing program to reduce the objectives diattenuation. The resulting microscope objectives perform about 5 times better than our low polarization Nikon objectives.

Daugherty, Brian; Chipman, Russell

2010-07-01

362

Romanian restrictive relatives: A head raising analysis?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper investigates the syntax of restrictive relative clauses from a mainly descriptive viewpoint. It offers a critical view of the head raising analysis (Kayne 1994 and shows that no conclusive evidence supports the application of this analysis to Romanian. I suggest that a different theoretical approach, provided by the Matching Analysis (Chomsky 1965, Sauerland 1998, might instead account for the empirical facts I will bring to attention. However, I leave for future research the details concerning its implementation.

Anca Sevcenco

2010-01-01

363

Grammatical relations, agreement, and genetic stability  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Languages vary in whether or not primary grammatical relations (PGRs) are sensitive to information from clause-level case or phrase structures. This variation correlates with a difference between verb agreement systems based on feature unification and systems based on feature composition. The choice between different PGR and agreement principles is found to be highly stable genetically and to characterize Indo-European as systematically different from Sino-Tibetan. Although the choice is part...

Bickel, Balthasar

2010-01-01

364

Searching for flickering variability in several symbiotic stars and related objects: BX Mon, V471 Per, RS Oph, V627 Cas, CI Cam V886 Her, Z And, T CrB, MWC 560, V407 Cyg  

CERN Document Server

UBVRI photometry observations of 10 symbiotic stars and related objects obtained in the period 2002-2003 are presented. Analysing differential light curves we found rapid light variations with timescales of tens of minutes and significant amplitudes in the well-known flickerers MWC 560, RS Oph, V407 Cyg and T CrB. MWC 560 and V407 Cyg demonstrate quasi periodic oscillations (QPO) with similar amplitudes and timescales. Flickering and unusual flare in V627 Cas as well as some indications of flickering presence in BX Mon are detected. The existence of 29 minutes oscillations in Z And with an amplitude about 0.02 mag in U band is confirmed. Only one symbiotic star, V471 Per, and both non symbiotic, CI Cam and V886 Her seem to be constant on flickering timescales. Nevertheless, small night to night changes in the brightness of V886 Her were observed as well.

Gromadzki, M; Dapergolas, A; Galan, C; Mikolajewski, M; Tomov, T

2006-01-01

365

Hamiltonian dynamics of extended objects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider a relativistic extended object described by a reparametrization invariant local action that depends on the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the object as it evolves. We provide a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics of such higher derivative models which is motivated by the ADM formulation of general relativity. The canonical momenta are identified by looking at boundary behavior under small deformations of the action; the relationship betwe...

Capovilla, Riccardo; Guven, Jemal; Rojas, Efrain

2004-01-01

366

Optical observations of ultraviolet objects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are given of a programme of spectral classification of 103 stars originally selected as 'ultraviolet objects' from TD-1 satellite photometry with the S2/68 experiment. Most of the objects appear to be spectroscopically normal stars; the method of selection yielded a sample of relatively unreddened B stars at distances up to approximately 2 kpc. This result is compared with recent studies of the spatial distribution of interstellar extinction in the same regions of the sky. (author)

1982-01-01

367

The subjective experience of object recognition: comparing metacognition for object detection and object categorization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Perceptual decisions seem to be made automatically and almost instantly. Constructing a unitary subjective conscious experience takes more time. For example, when trying to avoid a collision with a car on a foggy road you brake or steer away in a reflex, before realizing you were in a near accident. This subjective aspect of object recognition has been given little attention. We used metacognition (assessed with confidence ratings) to measure subjective experience during object detection and object categorization for degraded and masked objects, while objective performance was matched. Metacognition was equal for degraded and masked objects, but categorization led to higher metacognition than did detection. This effect turned out to be driven by a difference in metacognition for correct rejection trials, which seemed to be caused by an asymmetry of the distractor stimulus: It does not contain object-related information in the detection task, whereas it does contain such information in the categorization task. Strikingly, this asymmetry selectively impacted metacognitive ability when objective performance was matched. This finding reveals a fundamental difference in how humans reflect versus act on information: When matching the amount of information required to perform two tasks at some objective level of accuracy (acting), metacognitive ability (reflecting) is still better in tasks that rely on positive evidence (categorization) than in tasks that rely more strongly on an absence of evidence (detection). PMID:24554231

Meuwese, Julia D I; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Fahrenfort, Johannes J

2014-05-01

368

Cadastral Modeling : Grasping the objectives  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Modeling is a term that refers to a variety of efforts, including data and process modeling. The domain to be modeled may be a department, an organization, or even an industrial sector. E-business presupposes the modeling of an industrial sector, a substantial task. Cadastral modeling compares to the modeling of an industrial sector, as it aims at rendering the basic concepts that relate to the domain of real estate and the pertinent human activities. The palpable objects are pieces of land and buildings, documents, data stores and archives, as well as persons in their diverse roles as owners, holders of assets, experts, and holders of authority. More subtle objects are rights and restrictions, which relate persons through enforceable rules and commitments. The objective of this fabric of complex relations is to provide a stable and yet flexible frame for legal-economic dispositions that are related to land. The paper advances the position that cadastral modeling has to include not only the physical objects, agents, and information sets of the domain, but also the objectives or requirements of cadastral systems.

Stubkjær, Erik

2005-01-01

369

Objects in Motion  

Science.gov (United States)

One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

Damonte, Kathleen

2004-01-01

370

Media Objectives for Teachers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this book is to provide a compendium of instructional objectives concerning instructional media and materials. It is useful for either teacher training programs or college level media courses. Each objective is stated behaviorally, such as "list the important features of a tape recorder." Objectives are arranged by medium. The media…

Arrasjid, Harun, Ed.; Arrasjid, Dorine, Ed.

371

Shared Recoverable Objects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This document describes an implementation of recoverable objects that can be accessed concurrently. After a brief description of the possible uses of recoverable objects and after reviewing some of the new features of Ada 95 used in the implementation, the design issues are discussed and the interface of the recoverable object class is presented. An example application using multitasking demonstrates its applicability.

Kienzle, Jo?rg; Strohmeier, Alfred; Harbour, Michael Gonzalez; La Puente, Juan A.

1999-01-01

372

AN OBJECTIVE MEASURE OF STRUCTURAL COMPLEXITY IN CHILDREN'S WRITING.  

Science.gov (United States)

AN INSTRUMENT FOR MEASURING LANGUAGE MATURITY SHOULD BE EASILY ADMINISTRABLE AND SCOREABLE AND SHOULD BE BASED ON VALID INDICES OF LANGUAGE MATURITY. A RECENT STUDY BY KELLOG W. HUNT SUGGESTED THAT THESE INDICES BE BASED ON A NEW SYNTACTIC UNIT, THE T-UNIT, CONSISTING OF 1 MAIN CLAUSE TOGETHER WITH ANY CLAUSES SUBORDINATED TO IT. COORDINATED MAIN…

O'DONNELL, ROY C.

373

Mechanism for Learning Object retrieval supporting adaptivity  

CERN Document Server

In todayâ??s world designing adaptable course material requires new technical knowledge which involves a need for a uniform protocol that allows organizing resources with emphasis on quality and Learning. This can be achieved by bundling the resources in a known and prescribed fashion called Learning objects. Learning Objects are composed of two aspects namely â??Learning â?? and â??Objectâ?. The Learning aspect of Learning objects refers to Education. Since Education is a process so the primary aim of learning objects tends to be facilitating acquisition, assessment and conversion of content into Learning objects while fostering the assimilation of these Learning objects into learning modules and instruction. The Object part of Learning objects relates to the Digital Electronic format of the resources i.e. to say that it deals with the physical resource that forms the Learning objects. The objects in LOs are analogous to objects used in object-oriented modeling (OOM). The analogy helps visual...

Chawla, Sonal

2010-01-01

374

Object perception and object naming in early development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among our most fundamental capacities are those that allow us to perceive, categorize and name objects. Recently, controversy has surrounded the question of how young children learn names for objects, in particular, the relative roles of perception and higher-level world knowledge. It is well known that adults depend strongly on conceptual knowledge in a variety of categorization tasks, including object naming. We argue, however, that perception may play a special role in early object naming and, in particular, that certain kinds of world knowledge known to guide adult naming may come to guide naming only rather late in development. Building early mechanisms of naming on a perceptual foundation that may be encapsulated, and thus shut off from more reflective processes, may explain in part why young children can easily and rapidly learn names for things from the adults around them, despite the fact that adults and children may possess very different conceptual organizations. PMID:21244958

Landau, B; Smith, L; Jones, S

1998-01-01

375

Case marking in infinitive (ad-form) clauses in Old Georgian  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A specific feature of both Modern and Old Georgian is that case marking of subjects and objects is sensitive to the choice of tense/aspect. This paper focuses on a construction that was found in complementation in Old Georgian (5th-11th centuries) where alongside with finite forms, an infinitive began to develop. Generally, this was a verb-noun in the adverbial case (-(a)d): tesva ‘sowing’ –> tesva-d ‘sow’. As the infinitive lacks expression of tense/aspect it is not able to assi...

Kock-kobaidze, Manana; Vamling, Karina

1997-01-01

376

Abstract Objects of Verbs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which these objects represent non-objectual entities in contexts from which they are excluded by type restrictions. Thus these objects are "abstract'' in a functional rather than in an ontological sense: they function as representatives of other entities but they are otherwise quite normal objects. Three examples of such a representation are considered: the denotations of that-phrases are objects representing propositions, generic noun phrases denote objects standing for sorts, and infinitivals are viewed as denoting objects representing attributes, i.e., the "ordinary'' meanings of verb phrases.

Robering, Klaus

2014-01-01

377

Concept Generation from Relational Structure  

Science.gov (United States)

Discovery learning, which acquires new concepts or knowledge, is one of the most advanced forms of machine learning. Few systems have been proposed for discovery learning in practical use, and most of them are based on various heuristics. Discovery learning is considered to consist of two processes: inductive acquisition of general structure(relational structure) from existing knowledge base, and application of the relational structure to a domain knowledge for acquiring new concepts in the domain. In this paper we mainly focus on the application process, and propose a method of generating new concepts, that is, new predicates which do not occur in the domain knowledge, by applying the relational structure. We prove that the new generated clauses including the new predicates are consistent with the domain knowledge, and propose an algorithm for approximate calculating the new clauses from the relational structure and the domain owledge in finite steps. We give proof of some useful theorems for this algorithm. In addition, we discuss the the method for the acquisition of relational structure from an existing knowledge base.

Kanamori, Katsutoshi; Nobesawa, Shiho; Tahara, Ikuo

378

Collective Action Clauses before they had airplanes: Bondholder committees and the London Stock Exchange in the 19th Century (1827-1868)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper unpacks the operation of foreign debt bondholder committees before the creation of the British Corporation of Foreign Bondholders (CFB) in 1868. I argue that many ideas about this period need to be revisited. In particular, my evidence (which uses archival work to describe market microstructures) shows the importance of the London Stock Exchange as a Court of Arbitration. I show how the LSE General Purpose Committee set up a system of Collective Action Clauses, requiring majority a...

2013-01-01

379

Syntactic Variation in the Swedish of Adolescents in Multilingual Urban Settings : Subject-verb Order in Declaratives, Questions and Subordinate Clauses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis investigates the use of word order variation, in particular the variable use of subject-verb inversion and non-inversion in main declarative clauses, among adolescents in contemporary multilingual settings in Sweden. The use of non-inversion in contexts that in standard Swedish require inversion is sometimes claimed to be characteristic of varieties of Swedish spoken among adolescents in multilingual urban areas. The present study includes a wide range of data, both spontaneous an...

Ganuza, Natalia

2008-01-01

380

Federal Court jurisdiction according to ineffective price adjustment clauses in district heating contracts... to be continued: Repayment claims of district heating customers; BGH-Rechtsprechung zu unwirksamen Preisanpassungsklauseln im Fernwaermelieferungsvertrag... Fortsetzung folgt: Rueckforderungsansprueche der Fernwaermekunden  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently, the Federal Court (Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany) had declared price adjustment clauses in contracts for district heating supply ineffective. The Federal Court did not comment on whether customers are entitled to recover the payments from the energy supplier due to the ineffective price adjustment clause. So far, the prospects of recovery due to the ineffective price adjustment clauses have been discussed mainly in the natural gas sector. By contrast, tere exists any jurisdiction in the area of district heating. With this in mind, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on whether and to what extent customers of district heating suppliers are entitled to repayment due to ineffective price adjustment clauses. The authors also examine the question of how such a desire to recover is to be treated legally at all.

Lietz, Franziska [Oberlandesgerichtsbezirk Celle (Germany); Krafczyk, Wolfgang

2011-12-15

 
 
 
 
381

Workshop; Goals and objectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the objectives of the workshop was to improve awareness of the international illicit nuclear trafficking information exchange mechanism, i.e. IAEA illicit nuclear trafficking database programme, its goals and objectives, reporting requirements and participation. Other objectives are: to enhance awareness of global and regional risk trends and patterns, share knowledge and assessment of regional developments, share methodology of the illicit nuclear trafficking information analysis and discuss ways for improving national and international illicit trafficking information management and coordination

2010-05-10

382

Object Duplicate Detection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the technological evolution of digital acquisition and storage technologies, millions of images and video sequences are captured every day and shared in online services. One way of exploring this huge volume of images and videos is through searching a particular object depicted in images or videos by making use of object duplicate detection. Therefore, need of research on object duplicate detection is validated by several image and video retrieva...

Vajda, Pe?ter

2011-01-01

383

The Interpretation of Jurisdictional Clauses in Human Rights Treaties / La interpretación de las cláusulas jurisdiccionales en los tratados de derechos humanos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este documento analiza los métodos por los que las cláusulas jurisdiccionales contenidas en tratados de derechos humanos deben ser interpretados. El trabajo rechaza la idea de que existan reglas especiales para interpretar las reglas de derechos humanos por lo que las posturas que defienden tal idea [...] no pueden ser extendidas a la interpretación de las cláusulas jurisdiccionales contenidas en tratados en derechos humanos. Sin embargo, el autor sostiene que los valores protegidos por los derechos humanos pueden ser utilizados para interpretar una cláusula jurisdiccional, siempre y cuando sean incorporados dentro del método contenido en el artículo 31 de la Convención de Viena sobre el Derecho de los Tratados. Abstract in english This paper assesses the methods by which jurisdictional clauses contained in human rights treaties shall be interpreted by international tribunals in order to determine their jurisdiction over them. The work rejects the idea that special rules for interpreting human rights rules and consequently pos [...] tures that defend this idea cannot be extended to the interpretation of human rights jurisdictional clauses. Nevertheless, the author concludes that values protected by human rights can indeed be used to interpret a jurisdictional clause, as long as they are incorporated in the method of interpretation contained in article 31 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties.

Luis, Jardón.

384

New instrumentation for validating performance warranty clauses and obtaining MTBF and maintenance scheduling data  

Science.gov (United States)

Curtis Instruments has used advances in CMOS-EEPROM technology to upgrade the state of the art in measuring elapsed-use time and events. The resulting devices, how they work, and applications relative to logistics responsibilities are described. In-application parameters are discussed. Real-world application experience is set forth in a manner that can be related to most electronic, electromechanical, and mechanical equipment. Qualification status is reviewed. Data gathering is addressed to illustrate capabilities for computerized data acquisition. References throughout Department of Defense documentation are cited for the desirability of the discussed tamper-proof acquisition of data to determine warranty status for both performance and mean time between failure (MTBF) incentive programs.

Story, James K.

385

Learning Objects for Electronics  

Science.gov (United States)

This web site, hosted by Gateway Technical College, houses several learning objects and lectures using Flash animations and Camtasia videos in the following electronics topic areas: DC/AC ciruits, digital electronics, electronic devices, transistor fundamentals, op amp fundamentals, electronic workbench fundamentals, electronic circuit analysis and multi-simulation. This is a great fundamental source for learn objects in the field of electronics.

2011-03-01

386

Tunnels in digital objects  

CERN Multimedia

An important concept in digital geometry for computer imagery is that of tunnel. In this paper we obtain a formula for the number of tunnels as a function of the number of the object vertices, pixels, holes, connected components, and 2x2 grid squares. It can be used to test for tunnel-freedom a digital object, in particular a digital curve.

Brimkov, V

2005-01-01

387

Objectivity and Multivariate Statistics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Issues the author has explored in his work on the philosophy of statistics are reviewed. Indeterminacy, the place of empiricism, questions of causation and causality, and explorations of language have preceded the study of objectivity. The relationship between objectivity and multivariate statistics is examined. (SLD)

Mulaik, Stanley A.

1993-01-01

388

Beyond Behavioral Objectives: Criteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presentation addresses ways in which appropriate criteria for behavioral objectives with the severely handicapped are developed. Two kinds of criteria--those that established specified units and those that provide a standard to determine when the student has completed work on a specific objective--are identified. Specific considerations in…

Sobsey, Dick

389

Safety objectives for 2014  

CERN Multimedia

This is the third year in which the CERN Management has presented annual safety objectives for the Organization, the “HSE Objectives”.   The HSE objectives for 2014, which were announced by the Director-General at his traditional New Year’s address to the staff and were presented at the first Enlarged Directorate meeting of the year, have been drawn up and agreed in close collaboration between the DSOs, the HSE Unit and the DG himself. From safety in the workplace to radiation and environmental protection, the document emphasises that “Safety is a priority for CERN” and that safety policy is a key element in how the Organization is run. And, like all policies, it generates objectives that “serve as a general framework for action”. The HSE objectives are broken down into the following fields: occupational health and safety on sites and in the workplace, radiation protection, radiation safety, environmental protection, emerge...

HSE Unit

2014-01-01

390

Beginning Objective-C  

CERN Document Server

Objective-C is today's fastest growing programming language, at least in part due to the popularity of Apple's Mac, iPhone and iPad. Beginning Objective-C is for you if you have some programming experience, but you're new to the Objective-C programming language and you want a modern-and fast-way forwards to your own coding projects. Beginning Objective-C offers you a modern programmer's perspective on Objective-C courtesy of two of the best iOS and Mac developers in the field today, and gets you programming to the best of your ability in this important language.  It gets you rolling fast into

Dovey, James

2012-01-01

391

OBJECT ORIENTED DESIGN HEURISTICS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Object-oriented design is a process of identifying relevant objects, factoring them into classes, organizing hierarchically, and establishing dynamic collaborations among the objects. It is a difficult process especially for novice designers. In order to guide the novices, software engineers used some hints, guidelines and tips to communicate design experience from the expert. Design heuristic is common solution to design problems that developers encounter during software development. Heuristic is defined as the use of general knowledge gained by experience. Design heuristics are design experience from object-oriented developers. It is small and simpledesign expertise. This knowledge from the experienced designers is used to guide the novices. The purpose of this paper is to document design heuristics of object-oriented approach from literature study.

DEEPALI GUPTA

2011-01-01

392

Extended objects in quantum systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A quantum field theoretical study of the properties of extended objects appearing in the quantum ordered state is carried out in the framework of boson theory. First the process of creation of the ordered state is studied, and then the creation of extended objects in quantum ordered states. It is found that the spontaneous creation of an ordered state is always caused by a symmetry rearrangement when the symmetry of the Heisenberg fields is global, and that in quantum electrodynamics the dynamic rearrangement of symmetry takes place even when no ordered state is created. The c-number field phi sup(f)(chi) constructed by the boson method becomes the soliton solution of the Euler equations when the Planck constant is ignored, implying that the soliton solution can be regarded as an extended object with quantum origin. Finally the relations between the basic symmetry of the theory and topological charge is analyzed. Although basic symmetry does not restrict the shape of extended objects appearing in the ordered state, it influences which object can be classified by topological quantum number. The condition for topological quantization of an extended object is expressed in terms of the asymptotic behaviour of the boson function

1979-01-01

393

Birth of the Object: Detection of Objectness and Extraction of Object Shape through Object Action Complexes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We describe a process in which the segmentation of objects as well as the extraction of the object shape becomes realized through active exploration of a robot vision system. In the exploration process, two behavioral modules that link robot actions to the visual and haptic perception of objects interact. First, by making use of an object independent grasping mechanism, physical control over potential objects can be gained. Having evaluated the initial grasping mechanism as being successful, a second behavior extracts the object shape by making use of prediction based on the motion induced by the robot. This also leads to the concept of an "object" as a set of features that change predictably over different frames. The system is equipped with a certain degree of generic prior knowledge about the world in terms of a sophisticated visual feature extraction process in an early cognitive vision system, knowledge about its own embodiment as well as knowledge about geometric relationships such as rigid body motion. This prior knowledge allows the extraction of representations that are semantically richer compared to many other approaches.

Kraft, Dirk; Pugeault, Nicolas

2008-01-01

394

Object Format Manager  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main goal of this thesis was a detailed study of the ELF object file format and development of a Java package for mapping the contents of ELF files to Java objects. We reviewed various object file formats and examined the ELF format in greater detail. We studied the possibilities of converting executable files from one file format to another. We made a Java package that enables reading, writing, modifying and creating new ELF files without an existing base. We developed a method for editi...

2012-01-01

395

Methods of Object Tracking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents two methods of object detection/tracking in a video. Thefirst method will use the motion tracking technique combined with density detectionwhich will be described. The second one is based on the SURF algorithm.

Gabriel DANCIU

2009-12-01

396

Radiation from hard objects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The inference of the diameter of hard objects is insensitive to radiation efficiency. Deductions of radiation efficiency from observations are very sensitive - possibly overly so. Inferences of the initial velocity and trajectory vary similarly, and hence are comparably sensitive.

Canavan, G.H.

1997-02-01

397

Object Identification Quality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research and industry has tackled the object identification problem of data integration in many different ways. This paper presents a framework, that allows the evaluation of competing approaches. To this end, complexity measures and data characteristics are introduced, which reflect the hardness of a given object identification problem. All characteristics can be estimated by use of simple SQL queries and simple calculations. Following the principle of benchmark definitions we specify...

2003-01-01

398

CODAS object monitoring service  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The primary Control and Data Acquisition System (CODAS) of JET is based on a TCP/IP network of more than 150 computers. The CODAS computers provide the JET machine control and data acquisition for over 70,000 digital and analog signals. The Object Monitoring Service (OMS) is used by applications for monitoring objects for presentation to the JET machine operators and for the operation of individual software components (such as valve state, access control, mimic definition changes and internal data distribution). Each server typically handles connections from around 60 clients monitoring upwards of 2000 objects. Some servers have over 150 clients and 5000 objects. Acquisition libraries are dynamically linked into a running server as required either to acquire data values for objects or to forward requests to other OMS servers. A mechanism involving dynamic linking allows new libraries to be integrated without stopping or changing running software. OMS provides a very reliable and highly successful 'data-type independent' means of monitoring many different objects. It allows applications to take advantage of new data sources, without the need to change existing code

2001-10-01

399

Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property'. The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in member States, implementing organizations, academia and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. The Nuclear Energy Basic Principles is the highest level publication in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series, and describes the rationale and vision for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It presents eight Basic Principles on which nuclear energy systems should be based to fulfil nuclear energy's potential to help meet growing global energy needs. The Nuclear Energy Series Objectives are the second level publications. They describe what needs to be considered and the specific goals to be achieved at different stages of implementation, all of which are consistent with the Basic Principles. The four Objectives publications include Nuclear General Objectives, Nuclear Power Objectives, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives, and Radioactive Waste management and Decommissioning Objectives. This publication sets out the objectives that need to be achieved in the area of the nuclear fuel cycle to ensure that the Nuclear Energy Basic Principles are satisfied. Within each of these four Objectives publications, the individual topics that make up each area are addressed. The five topics included in this publication are: resources; fuel engineering and performance; spent fuel management and reprocessing; fuel cycles; and the research reactor nuclear fuel cycle

2013-09-01

400

Object-Oriented Type Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late binding. Existing languages employ different type systems, and it can be difficult to compare, evaluate and improve them, since there is currently no uniform theory for such languages. This book provides such a theory. The authors review the type systems of Simula, Smalltalk, C++ and Eiffel and present a type system that generalizes and explains them. The theory is based on an idealized object-oriented language called BOPL (Basic Object Programming Language), containing common features of the above languages. A type system, type inference algorithm, and typings of inheritance and genericity are provided for BOPL. Throughout, the results are related to the languages on which BOPL is based. This text offers advanced undergraduates and professional software developers a sound understanding of the key aspects of object-oriented type systems. All algorithms are implemented in a freely available workbench, adding enormous practical value. Numerous exercises and a clear writing style will enhance its appeal to the student.

Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Hardware Objects for Java  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Java, as a safe and platform independent language, avoids access to low-level I/O devices or direct memory access. In standard Java, low-level I/O it not a concern; it is handled by the operating system. However, in the embedded domain resources are scarce and a Java virtual machine (JVM) without an underlying middleware is an attractive architecture. When running the JVM on bare metal, we need access to I/O devices from Java; therefore we investigate a safe and efficient mechanism to represent I/O devices as first class Java objects, where device registers are represented by object fields. Access to those registers is safe as Javaâ??s type system regulates it. The access is also fast as it is directly performed by the bytecodes getfield and putfield. Hardware objects thus provide an object-oriented abstraction of low-level hardware devices. As a proof of concept, we have implemented hardware objects in three quite different JVMs: in the Java processor JOP, the JIT compiler CACAO, and in the interpretingembedded JVM SimpleRTJ.

Schoeberl, Martin; Thalinger, Christian

2008-01-01

402

Extended objects with edges  

CERN Multimedia

We examine, from a geometrical point of view, the dynamics of a relativistic extended object with loaded edges. In the case of a Dirac-Nambu-Goto [DNG] object with DNG edges, the worldsheet $m$ generated by the parent object is, as in the case without boundary, an extremal timelike surface in spacetime. Using simple variational arguments, we demonstrate that the worldsheet of each edge is a constant mean curvature embedded timelike hypersurface on $m$, which coincides with its boundary, $\\partial m$. The constant is equal in magnitude to the ratio of the bulk to the edge tension. The edge, in turn, exerts a dynamical influence on the motion of the parent through the boundary conditions induced on $m$, specifically that the traces of the projections of the extrinsic curvatures of $m$ onto $\\partial m$ vanish.

Capovilla, R; Capovilla, Riccardo; Guven, Jemal

1997-01-01

403

Secure content objects  

Science.gov (United States)

A secure content object protects electronic documents from unauthorized use. The secure content object includes an encrypted electronic document, a multi-key encryption table having at least one multi-key component, an encrypted header and a user interface device. The encrypted document is encrypted using a document encryption key associated with a multi-key encryption method. The encrypted header includes an encryption marker formed by a random number followed by a derivable variation of the same random number. The user interface device enables a user to input a user authorization. The user authorization is combined with each of the multi-key components in the multi-key encryption key table and used to try to decrypt the encrypted header. If the encryption marker is successfully decrypted, the electronic document may be decrypted. Multiple electronic documents or a document and annotations may be protected by the secure content object.

Evans, William D. (Cupertino, CA) [Cupertino, CA

2009-02-24

404

Estudios Taxonómicos, Ontogenéticos, Ecológicos y Etológicos sobre los Ostrácodos de agua dulce en Colombia - I. Estudio morfológico de una nueva especie colombiana del género heterocypris Claus 1892 (Ostracoda, Podocopa, Cyprididae Estudios Taxonómicos, Ontogenéticos, Ecológicos y Etológicos sobre los Ostrácodos de agua dulce en Colombia - I. Estudio morfológico de una nueva especie colombiana del género heterocypris Claus 1892 (Ostracoda, Podocopa, Cyprididae Estudios Taxonómicos, Ontogenéticos, Ecológicos y Etológicos sobre los Ostrácodos de agua dulce en Colombia - I. Estudio morfológico de una nueva especie colombiana del género heterocypris Claus 1892 (Ostracoda, Podocopa, Cyprididae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In der vorliegenden Studie wird die Morphologie einer neuen Art der Gatrung Heterocypris Claus, 1892, beschrieben (loc. typ.: Kolumbien, Sabana de Bogotá, Bogotá, Parque "El Lago". Die neue Art unterscheidet sich von anderen Arten der Gattung durch die Struktur des Schalen sowie der Furka.The present study gives a description of the morphological structure of a new species of the genus Heterocypris Claus, 1892 (loc. typ.: Colombia, Sabana de Bogotá, Bogotá, Parque "El Lago", recognizable among the remaining species of the genus mainly by the particular structure of the valves and the furcas.El presente estudio da una descripción de la estructura morfológica de una nueva especie del género Heterocypris Claus, 1892 (loc. typ.: Colombia, Sabana de Bogotá, Bogotá, Parque "El Lago" , distinguible de sus congéneres principalmenre por la estructura particular de las valvas y de las furcas.

Roessler Ewald W.

1982-04-01

405

Light Travels Through Objects  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners investigate and explore how light waves travel through various transparent objects such as prisms and lenses. Learners explore with light waves to investigate how light absorbs, refracts, transmits, and reflects and discover that some materials absorb light waves better than others. This activity is best if completed in small groups of 2-4 students.

Houston, Children'S M.

2008-01-01

406

Algorithm of object recognition ???????? ????????????? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The second important problem to be resolved to the algorithm and its software, that comprises an automatic design of a complex closed circuit television system, represents object recognition, by virtue of which an image is transmitted by the video camera. Since imaging of almost any object is dependent on many factors, including its orientation in respect of the camera, lighting conditions, parameters of the registering system, static and dynamic parameters of the object itself, it is quite difficult to formalize the image and represent it in the form of a certain mathematical model. Therefore, methods of computer-aided visualization depend substantially on the problems to be solved. They can be rarely generalized. The majority of these methods are non-linear; therefore, there is a need to increase the computing power and complexity of algorithms to be able to process the image. This paper covers the research of visual object recognition and implementation of the algorithm in the view of the software application that operates in the real-time mode?????? ??????? ??? ???????? ????????? ? ???????????? ??????????? ??????????????????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????? ??????????????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ???????, ??????????? ???????? ?????????? ????? ???????????. ????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????: ??? ?????????? ?? ????????? ? ??????, ????????????, ?????????? ????????????, ??????????? ? ???????????? ?????????? ?????? ???????, ?? ??????????? ?????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ? ???? ???????????? ?????????????? ??????. ??????? ?????? ?????????? ????????????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????? ? ????? ????????? ?????????, ??????????? ???? ??????? ???????? ???????????, ??? ?????? ?? ????????????? ?????????? ?????????????? ???????? ??? ? ????????? ?????????? ??? ????????? ??????????? ?? ??????????? ??????? ???????????. ?????? ?????? ????????? ???????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???????? ? ?????????? ??????????? ????????? ? ???? ???????????? ??????????, ??????????? ? ?????? ????????? ???????.

Loktev Alexey Alexeevich

2012-05-01

407

Subject and object  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The intrinsic ambiguous approximate nature of quantum mechanics is discussed. The theory is fundamentally about the results of 'measurements', and therefore presupposes in addition to the 'system' (or object) a 'measurer' (or subject). The problems arising from this fact are investigated. (K.A.)

1995-01-01

408

Superconducting hybrid extended objects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The equations of motion for a relativistic extended object loaded with a superconducting edge are found in terms of geometrical quantities defined on the worldsheet. The results are applied to the study of a domain wall bounded by a superconducting string. Several cases for attaining equilibrium configurations are discussed. (author)

Cordero, Ruben; Queijeiro, Alfonso [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del IPN Edificio 9, Mexico DF (Mexico)

2001-04-27

409

An architecture for identifying objects in multidatabases  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A multidatabase consists of a collection of independent databases that share and exchange data while preserving their autonomy. Databases contain data about objects and object connections. In this paper we examine the problem of sharing data on objects in a multidatabase, and present an architecture for identifying and referencing objects across databases of a relational multidatabase. This architecture involves associating every database of a relational multidatabase with two relations that contain the identifiers of local and foreign objects, respectively, and enforcing inner and inter database referential integrity constraints. The proposed architecture has no effect on the original organization and manipulation of data in databases. We examine the main aspects of implementing this architecture with relational database management systems. 16 refs.

Markowitz, V.M.

1991-02-01

410

Part Objects and Their Location  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The notion of location of part objects is introduced, yielding a reference to the containing object. Combined with locally defined objects and classes (block structure), singularly defined part objects, and references to part objects, it is a powerful language mechanism for defining objects with different aspects or roles. The use of part objects for inheritance of code is also explored.

Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

1992-01-01

411

Jelly Views: Extending Relational Database Systems toward Deductive Database Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper regards the Jelly View technology, which provides a new, practical methodology for knowledge decomposition, storage, and retrieval within Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS). Intensional Knowledge clauses (rules) are decomposed and stored in the RDBMS founding reusable components. The results of the rule-based processing are visible as regular views, accessible through SQL. From the end-user point of view the processing capability becomes unlimited (arbitrarily complex q...

Igor Wojnicki

2004-01-01

412

Relational Knowledge Extraction from Attribute-Value Learners  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bottom Clause Propositionalization (BCP) is a recent propositionalization method which allows fast relational learning. Propositional learners can use BCP to obtain accuracy results comparable with Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) learners. However, differently from ILP learners, what has been learned cannot normally be represented in first-order logic. In this paper, we propose an approach and introduce a novel algorithm for extraction of first-order rules from propositional rule learners, ...

Franc?a, Manoel V. M.; Garcez, Artur S. D.; Zaverucha, Gerson

2013-01-01

413

Objectives and Outcomes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

I have recently become involved in the ABET certification process under the new system - ABET 2000. This system relies heavily on concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM). It encourages each institution to define its objectives in terms of its own mission and then create a coherent program based on it. The prescribed steps in setting up the new system at an engineering institution are: o identification of constituencies G definition of mission. It is expected that the department's mission will be consistent with that of the overall institution, but containing some higher resolution language appropriate to that particular discipline of the engineering profession. o statement of objectives consistent with the mission 3G~~\\vED " enumeration of desired, and preferably measurable, outcomes of the process that would ~ `=. verify satisfaction of the objectives. ~~~ 07 !398 o establish performance standards for each outcome. o creation of appropriate feedback loops to assure that the objectives are still consistent with Q$YT1 the mission, that the outcomes remain consistent with the objectives, and that the curriculum and the teaching result in those outcomes. It is my assertion that once the institution verbalizes a mission, enumerated objectives naturally flow from that mission. (We shall try to demonstrate by example.) Further, if the mission uses the word "engineer", one would expect that word also to appear in at least one of the objectives. The objective of producing engineers of any sort must -by decree - involve the presence of the ABET criteria in the outcomes list. In other words, successful satisfaction of the ABET items a-k are a necessary subset of the measure of success in producing engineers. o We shall produce bachelor level engineers whose training in the core topics of chemical (or electrical, or mechanical) engineering is recognized to be among the best in the nation. o We shall provide an opportunity for our students to gain a significant exposure to biomedical topics and the integration of those topics with chemical (electrical or mechanical) engineering. o We shall provide unique opportunities for our students to work with clinicians and researchers in hospitals and other medical institutions. combined criteria a-k of ABET and 1-6 of AICHE (or IEEE or ASME) in some sensible manner. Here I have just estimated the number of distinct criteria that would be extracted from the AICHE paragraphs. These criteria are necessarily included because of the objective to producing chemical (electrical or mechanical) engineers. every student who desires an internship or independent study at a medical institution will be placed. a majority of our students will take either the FE exam or the M-CAT exam. demonstrating a commitment to professionalism and to life-long learning. a majority of our students will go on to graduate school or other post-graduate school. (I do not assert that this sort of outcome is appropriate to all excellent schools. In the case of this hypothetical school though, this outcome might be a reasonable expectation.) medical schools will rank our school as among the best from which to admit

Segalman, D.J.

1998-11-30

414

Polynomial Bridgeland Stable Objects and Reflexive Sheaves  

CERN Document Server

On a smooth projective threefold, we show that there are only two isomorphism types for the moduli of stable objects with respect to Bayer's standard polynomial Bridgeland stability - the moduli of Gieseker-stable sheaves and the moduli of PT-stable objects - under the following assumptions: no two of the stability vectors are collinear, and the degree and rank of the objects are relatively prime. We also describe a close relation between the intersection of the moduli spaces of PT-stable and dual-PT-stable objects, and the moduli of reflexive sheaves.

Lo, Jason

2011-01-01

415

Querying moving objects detected by sensor networks  

CERN Multimedia

Declarative query interfaces to Sensor Networks (SN) have become a commodity. These interfaces allow access to SN deployed for collecting data using relational queries. However, SN are not confined to data collection, but may track object movement, e.g., wildlife observation or traffic monitoring. While rational approaches are well suited for data collection, research on ""Movi