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Sample records for object relative clauses

  1. Appendix : Relative Clause Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This questionnaire is intended as an aid to eliciting different relative clause types – restrictive, non-restrictive, free, cleft. We have taken care to include examples where the head plays a variety of grammatical functions in the relative clause (subject, object, indirect object, possessor, adjunct). We have also taken care to include examples where the relative clause is in different positions in the sentence: initial, medial and extraposed. The questionnaire is intended as a guide, only,...

  2. Chinese Relative Clauses Processing in Supportive Context Removing Ambiguity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jian; LI, Qiang; Yue, Wei

    2010-01-01

    There is a controversy about the difficulty in processing subject- and object-extraction relative clause. The current experiment examined the reading time of each relative clause in subject- and object-modifying conditions with a supportive context to remove the possible ambiguity. The results showed that at Head Noun position subject-extracted relative clauses were processed faster, yet no significant difference was found at other positions. Memory-based theories such as Dependency Locality ...

  3. Relative clauses in Gavião of Rondônia

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    Denny Moore

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The language of the Gavião of Rondônia constructs relative clauses by syntactic nominalization, using either of two particles, mát 'concrete nominalization' or méne 'abstract nominalization', which are derived diachronically from discourse pronouns. The resulting nominal clause may or may not have an internal head, which, if it occurs, is not marked, leading to a certain degree of ambiguity. The nominalized clause can modify a following noun stem, which serves as an external head. Relative clauses and complement clauses are not distinct constructions in this language. The typological significance of these constructions is discussed.

  4. Taiwanese EFL Learners’ English Relative Clauses Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ching-Ying Lin; Shu-Yuan Chuang

    2014-01-01

    Relative clause processing in Chinese is different from English. However, Chinese EFL learners face difficulty when they produce relative clauses. In order to help EFL learners be familiar with their writing skills and ease their anxiety, making a clear concept is necessary. Therefore, contrastive analysis (CA), a rule of a comparison between Chinese and English relative clauses is employed in this study. In the experiment, the treatment group had a positive evaluation of the contrastive anal...

  5. Anticipating Explanations in Relative Clause Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Rohde, H; R Levy; Kehler, A.

    2011-01-01

    We show that comprehenders’ expectations about upcoming discourse coherence relations influence the resolution of local structural ambiguity. We employ cases in which two clauses share both a syntactic relationship and a discourse relationship, and hence in which syntactic and discourse processing might be expected to interact. An off-line sentence-completion study and an on-line self-paced reading study examined readers’ expectations for high/low relative clause attachments following implici...

  6. Anticipating Explanations in Relative Clause Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, H.; Levy, R.; Kehler, A.

    2011-01-01

    We show that comprehenders' expectations about upcoming discourse coherence relations influence the resolution of local structural ambiguity. We employ cases in which two clauses share both a syntactic relationship and a discourse relationship, and hence in which syntactic and discourse processing might be expected to interact. An off-line…

  7. The syntactic complexity of Russian relative clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Roger; Fedorenko, Evelina; Gibson, Edward

    2013-11-01

    Although syntactic complexity has been investigated across dozens of studies, the available data still greatly underdetermine relevant theories of processing difficulty. Memory-based and expectation-based theories make opposite predictions regarding fine-grained time course of processing difficulty in syntactically constrained contexts, and each class of theory receives support from results on some constructions in some languages. Here we report four self-paced reading experiments on the online comprehension of Russian relative clauses together with related corpus studies, taking advantage of Russian's flexible word order to disentangle predictions of competing theories. We find support for key predictions of memory-based theories in reading times at RC verbs, and for key predictions of expectation-based theories in processing difficulty at RC-initial accusative noun phrase (NP) objects, which corpus data suggest should be highly unexpected. These results suggest that a complete theory of syntactic complexity must integrate insights from both expectation-based and memory-based theories. PMID:24711687

  8. Production of relative clauses in monolingual Turkish children

    OpenAIRE

    Ozge, Duygu; Marinis, Theodoros; Zeyrek, Deniz

    2010-01-01

    Research on the production of relative clauses (RCs) has shown that in English, although children start using intransitive RCs at an earlier age, more complex, bi-propositional object RCs appear later (Hamburger & Crain, 1982; Diessel and Tomasello, 2005), and children use resumptive pronouns both in acceptable and unacceptable ways (McKee, McDaniel, & Snedeker, 1998; McKee & McDaniel, 2001). To date, it is unclear whether or not the same picture emerges in Turkish, a language ...

  9. Rethinking child difficulty: the effect of NP type on children's processing of relative clauses in Hebrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Inbal

    2010-01-01

    Children find object relative clauses difficult. They show poor comprehension that lags behind production into their fifth year. This finding has shaped models of relative clause acquisition, with appeals to processing heuristics or syntactic preferences to explain why object relatives are more difficult than subject relatives. Two studies here suggest that children (age 4 ; 6) do not find all object relatives difficult: a corpus study shows that children most often hear and produce object relatives with pronominal subjects. But they are most often tested on ones with lexical-NP subjects (e.g. The nurse that the girl is drawing). When tested on object relatives with pronominal subjects (e.g. The nurse that I am drawing), similar to those they actually hear and produce, Hebrew speakers aged 4 ; 6 show good comprehension (85% accuracy) that matches their production ability. This suggests a different path of relative clause acquisition, one that is sensitive to fine-grained distributional information. PMID:19327196

  10. Visual Salience Modulates Structure Choice in Relative Clause Production

    OpenAIRE

    Montag, Jessica L; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2014-01-01

    The role of visual salience on utterance form was investigated in a picture description study. Participants heard spoken questions about animate or inanimate entities in a picture and produced a relative clause in response. Visual properties of the scenes affected production choices such that less salient inanimate entities tended to yield longer initiation latencies and to be described with passive relative clauses more than visually salient inanimates. We suggest that the participants’ ques...

  11. Children's Comprehension of Relative Clauses in an Ergative Language: The Case of Basque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Mangado, M. Juncal

    2011-01-01

    The investigation of the comprehension of L1 relative clauses across different languages has shown that subject relatives (SRs) are acquired earlier and responded to more accurately than object relatives (ORs). Most of this work has been based on SVO nominative-absolutive languages. In this article we present the results obtained in a binary…

  12. Subject Relative Clauses Are Not Universally Easier to Process: Evidence from Basque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiras, Manuel; Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Vergara, Marta; de la Cruz-Pavia, Irene; Laka, Itziar

    2010-01-01

    Studies from many languages consistently report that subject relative clauses (SR) are easier to process than object relatives (OR). However, Hsiao and Gibson (2003) report an OR preference for Chinese, a finding that has been contested. Here we report faster OR versus SR processing in Basque, an ergative, head-final language with pre-nominal…

  13. Grammatical feature dissimilarities make relative clauses easier: A comprehension study with Italian children

    OpenAIRE

    Adani, Flavia; VAN DER LELY, HEATHER K. J.; FORGIARINI, MATTEO; Guasti, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The Relativized Minimality approach to A?-dependencies (Friedmann et al., 2009) predicts that headed object relative clauses (RCs) and which—questions are the most difficult, due to the presence of a lexical restriction on both the subject and the object DP which creates intervention. We investigated comprehension of center-embedded headed object RCs with Italian children, where Number and Gender feature values on subject and object DPs are manipulated. We found that, Number conditions are al...

  14. Annoying Danish Relatives : Comprehension and production of relative clauses by children with and without SLI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen de López, Kristine M.; Sundahl Olsen, Lone

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI and to compare errors with those produced by TD children. Eighteen children with SLI, eighteen TD age-matched (AM) and nine TD language-matched (LM) Danish-speaking children participated in a comprehension and in a production task. All children performed better on the comprehension compared with the production task, as well as on SRCs compared to ORCs and produced various avoidance strategies. In the ORC context, children with SLI produced more reversal errors than the AM children, who opted for passive ORCs. These results are discussed within current theories of SLI and indicate a deficiency with the assignment of thematic roles rather than with the structural make-up of RCs.

  15. The Distribution of Relative Clauses in Chinese Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Ming-Ming

    2007-01-01

    The particular forms of relative clauses (RCs) in Mandarin Chinese lead to particular cognitive, semantic, pragmatic, and discourse constraints on speakers and writers. In this study, analyses of oral and written Mandarin Chinese narratives demonstrate that SS structures (subject head noun phrase [NP] modified by a subject RC) are produced more…

  16. Children's relative clause markers in two non-mainstream dialects of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetting, Janna B; Newkirk, Brandi L

    2011-08-01

    We examined children's productions of mainstream and non-mainstream relative clause markers (e.g. that, who, which, what, where, Ø) in African American English (AAE) and Southern White English (SWE) as a function of three linguistic variables (syntactic role of the marker, humanness of the antecedent and adjacency of the noun phrase head). The data were language samples from 99 typically developing 4-6-year-olds: 61 spoke AAE and 38 spoke SWE. The majority of the children's relative clauses included mainstream markers. Non-mainstream markers were rare, with 3-6% involving Ø subjects and 2% involving what. The children produced who exclusively as subjects and with human antecedents, where exclusively as locatives and with non-human antecedents and Ø and what primarily as direct objects or objects of prepositions and with non-human antecedents. Although AAE- and SWE-speaking children produce some non-mainstream relative markers, the majority of their markers are mainstream. Their use of relative markers is also influenced by linguistic variables in ways that are consistent with a wide range of mainstream and non-mainstream English dialects. These findings show across-dialect similarity in children's relative clauses, even though characterisation of relative clauses as a contrastive dialect structure remains justified. PMID:21453062

  17. The Production of Turkish Relative Clauses in Second Language Acquisition: Overcoming Student Difficulties

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    Anjel Toczu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on teaching relative clauses (R.Cs in Turkish, a left-branching language, and discusses the relative difficulty of producing RCs in Turkish by English-speaking learners by investigating whether the production of subject relative clauses in Turkish is easier than that of the object relative clauses. It also offers suggestions as to how to help learners overcome these difficulties. Turkish and English belong to two different language families, Altaic and Inda-European respectively. This study lends further insight that Turkish does not have RCs similar to those found in Inda-European languages. Instead, in Turkish RCs comprise nominalized verbs and participles. The characteristics of Turkish are also explained such as its word order, agglutinating morphology, vowel and consonant harmony rules as well as case markers indicating grammatical relations between sentence constituents, which shed light to our understanding of RCs in Turkish. Data was collected through written and oral tasks from students enrolled in a military intensive Turkish language training program in the United States. Moreover, their performance was studied through classroom observations and one-on-one speaking activities.

  18. Visual salience modulates structure choice in relative clause production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Jessica L; MacDonald, Maryellen C

    2014-06-01

    The role of visual salience on utterance form was investigated in a picture description study. Participants heard spoken questions about animate or inanimate entities in a picture and produced a relative clause in response. Visual properties of the scenes affected production choices such that less salient inanimate entities tended to yield longer initiation latencies and to be described with passive relative clauses more than visually salient inanimates. We suggest that the participants' question-answering task can change as a function of visual salience of entities in the picture. Less salient entities require a longer visual search of the scene, which causes the speaker to notice or attend more to the non-target competitors in the picture. As a result, it becomes more important in answering the question for the speaker to contrast the target item with a salient competitor. This effect is different from other effects of visual salience, which tend to find that more salient entities take more prominent grammatical roles in the sentence. We interpret this discrepancy as evidence that visual salience does not have a single effect on sentence production, but rather its effect is modulated by task and linguistic context. PMID:25102604

  19. Syntactic and Thematic Constraint Effects on Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent Signal Correlates of Comprehension of Relative Clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Caplan, David; Stanczak, Louise; Waters, Gloria

    2008-01-01

    The effects of plausibility of thematic role assignment and syntactic structure on blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal were studied using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging by orthogonally varying syntactic structure (subject- vs. object-extracted relative clauses) and the plausibility of nouns playing thematic roles (constrained vs. unconstrained sentences) in a plausibility judgment task. In plausible sentences, BOLD signal increased for object-compared to subje...

  20. Objects, properties and relations:

    OpenAIRE

    Koutamanis, M.

    2008-01-01

    The paper takes a fundamental look at the composition of digital design representations, in particular at the objects they comprise, the properties of these objects and relations between objects. It proposes that the clarity of domain principles underlying such representation should be matched by explicit, flexible implementations that not only fit design actions and transactions rather than institutional classifications and prescriptive views of architectural information but also challenge f...

  1. Šalutiniai pažyminio sakiniai: kod?l vaikams sunku juos suprasti? | Relative clauses: why children have difficulties to comprehend them?

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    Ineta Dabašinskien?

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to describe and interpret the results of testing the speech of Lithuanian children in order to find out whether language-specific features of Lithuanian as a highly inflected language help children grasp the complex syntactic relations between the subject and the object in relative clauses. The investigation has been aimed to test the hypothesis to the effect that depending on the language type, object relative clauses are more difficult to acquire than subject relative clauses (Guasti, Cardinaletti 2003; Utzeri 2007; Brandt, Diessel, Tomasello 2008; O’Grady, Kim, Lee et al. 2011; Ben?ea 2012. The findings of the research support the hypothesis that relative clauses as objects (the OO type are more difficult to grasp than those that function as subjects (OS. This claim has been statistically confirmed in the group of 3 – 4.5 year-olds, which had a big difficulty in perceiving the difference between relative clauses functioning as subjects or objects. These findings are in line with claims related to other languages, which demonstrate that children in early childhood, distinguishing between OS or OO, misinterpret the OO type more often (Guasti, Stavrakaki, Arosio 2008. However, when an unusual, strange situation is described, or an unfamiliar verb is used, children tend to assign the same syntactic function to the head noun and the relative pronoun; in such cases the OS clause is interpreted as the OO type. This tendency also supports the parallel-function hypothesis advanced by Tavakolian (1981. In later years children already perceive the difference between the OS and OO type relative clauses, but in a pre-school period misinterpretations of the OO type are quite numerous. Children of schooling age, on the other hand, have no difficulty in interpreting this difference correctly. The results of the present study confirm the assertion that older children grasp the functions of relative clauses and interpret complex structures more easily: they gradually realize that there are two different propositions conveyed in the main and the subordinate clause. It is assumed that children understand and start using relative clauses when their language processing skills have improved, and this happens while they are getting older. In addition to language processing skills, it is important to pay due attention to the frequency of usage principle. Our research findings show that subject relative clauses are more frequent in child-directed speech, and they also appear earlier in a spontaneous child language than object clauses; this is exactly what influences an easier perception of subject relative clauses. Semantic and pragmatic factors have to be mentioned as well: while acquiring a language, children master those grammatical structures where a particular form correlates with a particular meaning more easily (Diessel, Tomassello 2000. It might be assumed that an inflectional system of Lithuanian enables children to easier interpret the syntactic relationship between the main and the relative clause (see, e.g. Arnon 2010; however, the findings of this study allow us to claim that the structure of relative clauses is complex and multilayered, encompassing not only morphological but also semantic and pragmatic factors, which should be investigated more thoroughly in the future. It has also to be stressed that while researching child language it is important to evaluate the influence of adult language, which provides the necessary environment for the child to hear and to understand syntactic constructions of different complexity. Moreover, the assumption that a rich morphological system of a language makes it easier to grasp the complex syntactic functions of sentence elements is corroborated only in part – the findings of the study show that it takes time for Lithuanian children to master correct usage of relative clauses.

  2. SHORT CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT THE PRECIPUT CLAUSE IN RELATION TO MATRIMONIAL CONVENTIONS

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    Gabriela FIERBIN?EANU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The preciput clause is a subject of dispute since the new Civil Code entered into force.Several question arise in this field: is this clause a liberality or a donation, which matrimonial regime is compatible with the preciput clause, for what reason the legislature choose to regulate preciput as a clause and not as an agreement and the expressed doubts can be continued as regard to the new civil law.The authors of this article are not having in mind to put an end to all those debates they are just proposing an investigation of the preciput clause under two aspects:legal nature and aplicability as related to the matrimonial regimes – legal community, separation of assets and conventional community with accents on the normative evolution as a result of social and economic changes.

  3. The Acquisition of Relative Clauses in Cypriot Greek: Production and Comprehension

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eleni, Theodorou; Kleanthes K., Grohmann.

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the development of relative clauses in Cypriot Greek (CG) - in particular, young children’s comprehension and production of subject relatives (SRs) and object relatives (ORs). A total of thirty-three monolingual children aged between 5 and 9 years acquiring CG as their native [...] language (variety) participated in this study. Two different tasks were used to examine the acquisition of restrictive relative clauses: (i) a Picture Pointing Task, modified from Friedmann and Novogrodsky (2004), was used to investigate the auditory comprehension of SRs and ORs, and (ii) a Preference Task, modified from Novogrodsky and Friedmann (2006), was employed to examine the production of SRs and ORs. Crosslinguistic research provides evidence that children experience difficulties in the acquisition of ORs, whereas this does not seem to be the case for SRs (McKee and McDaniel, 2001; Stathopoulou, 2007). The on-going study on the acquisition of SRs and ORs in CG, the first in the literature for this language variety, so far appears to confirm the difficulty attested for other languages that children display in the acquisition of ORs.

  4. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... false Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free...environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and...

  5. Accusative resumptive pronoun in the Czech relative clauses with absolute relativizer co.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fried, Mirjam

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 1, ?. 1 (2010), s. 16-29. ISSN 1804-137X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90610518 Keywords : relative clauses * relativizer * resumptive pronoun * corpus analysis Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  6. Thematic orders and the comprehension of subject-extracted relative clauses in Mandarin Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Jer Charles

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the comprehension of three kinds of subject-extracted relative clauses (SRs) in Mandarin Chinese: standard SRs, relative clauses involving the disposal ba construction (“disposal SRs”), and relative clauses involving the long passive bei constructions (“passive SRs”). In a self-paced reading experiment, the regions before the relativizer (where the sentential fragments are temporarily ambiguous) showed reading patterns consistent with expectation-based incremental processing: standard SRs, with the highest constructional frequency and the least complex syntactic structure, were processed faster than the other two variants. However, in the regions after the relativizer and the head noun where the existence of a relative clause is unambiguously indicated, a top-down global effect of thematic ordering was observed: passive SRs, whose thematic role order conforms to the canonical thematic order of Chinese, were read faster than both the standard SRs and the disposal SRs. Taken together, these results suggest that two expectation-based processing factors are involved in the comprehension of Chinese relative clauses, including both the structural probabilities of pre-relativizer constituents and the overall surface thematic orders in the relative clauses. PMID:26441697

  7. Thematic orders and the comprehension of subject-extracted relative clauses in Mandarin Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Jer Charles

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the comprehension of three kinds of subject-extracted relative clauses (SRs) in Mandarin Chinese: standard SRs, relative clauses involving the disposal ba construction ("disposal SRs"), and relative clauses involving the long passive bei constructions ("passive SRs"). In a self-paced reading experiment, the regions before the relativizer (where the sentential fragments are temporarily ambiguous) showed reading patterns consistent with expectation-based incremental processing: standard SRs, with the highest constructional frequency and the least complex syntactic structure, were processed faster than the other two variants. However, in the regions after the relativizer and the head noun where the existence of a relative clause is unambiguously indicated, a top-down global effect of thematic ordering was observed: passive SRs, whose thematic role order conforms to the canonical thematic order of Chinese, were read faster than both the standard SRs and the disposal SRs. Taken together, these results suggest that two expectation-based processing factors are involved in the comprehension of Chinese relative clauses, including both the structural probabilities of pre-relativizer constituents and the overall surface thematic orders in the relative clauses. PMID:26441697

  8. Impact of explicit instruction on EFL learners’ implicit and explicit knowledge: A case of English relative clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Nezakat-Alhossaini, Marzieh; Youhanaee, Manijeh; Moinzadeh, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The present study sought to investigate the effect of explicit instruction (direct proactive explicit instruction) on the acquisition of English passive objective relative clauses. Two groups of participants were involved in the study; a group of advanced EFL learners (n = 16) and a group of intermediate EFL learners (n = 37) who were randomly divided to two groups of experimental (n = 22) and control (n = 15). The experimental group received 4 sessions of explicit instruction on the target s...

  9. Cláusulas relativas em Gavião de Rondônia / Relative clauses in Gavião of Rondônia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Denny, Moore.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A língua dos Gavião de Rondônia constrói cláusulas relativas por meio de nominalização sintática, usando uma de duas partículas, mát 'nominalização concreta' ou méne 'nominalização abstrata', que são derivadas diacronicamente de pronomes de discurso. As cláusulas nominais assim construídas podem ou [...] não ter um núcleo interno, que, se ocorre, não é marcado como tal, criando uma certa ambigüidade. A cláusula nominalizada pode modificar um radical nominal seguinte, que funciona como núcleo externo. Cláusulas relativas e cláusulas complementos não são construções distintas nesta língua. A significação tipológica destas construções é discutida. Abstract in english The language of the Gavião of Rondônia constructs relative clauses by syntactic nominalization, using either of two particles, mát 'concrete nominalization' or méne 'abstract nominalization', which are derived diachronically from discourse pronouns. The resulting nominal clause may or may not have a [...] n internal head, which, if it occurs, is not marked, leading to a certain degree of ambiguity. The nominalized clause can modify a following noun stem, which serves as an external head. Relative clauses and complement clauses are not distinct constructions in this language. The typological significance of these constructions is discussed.

  10. Portuguese spoken in Almoxarife, Sao Tome: relative clauses with “ku” and “com” [with

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    Carlos Filipe Guimarães Figueiredo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relative clauses with “ku” [substrate relativizer] and “com” [with] in the Portuguese of Almoxarife, spoken by the community of Almoxarife, São Tome island, aiming to uncover what the motivations are that trigger the use of those relativizers.

  11. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational...

  12. Effects of Form-Focused Instruction on the Learning of Relative Clauses

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    Seyed Jalal Abdolmanafi (Rokni

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Relativization is an important grammatical sub-system for second language learners. This study intended to explore the effects of different types of L2 instruction on the learning of English relative clauses by Persian learners.Purpose: The differential effects of the three types of treatment (i.e., Focus on FormS, Focus on Meaning, Focus on Form on the learning of English relativization was investigated.Methods: Intact university classes of English learners were divided into three groups receiving different forms of instruction. Accuracy of the target form was measured by two distinct tasks of sentence combining test and grammaticality judgment test.Findings and Results: The results of the two tests show improvement of all three groups, the focus on form treatment group outperformed the other two on both tests, however. This study also suggests that learners’ attention to detailed analysis of form facilitates the learning of relative clauses in this context.

  13. Restrictive relative clauses in English and Korean learners' second language Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xiaoling; Liu, Chuanping

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This study investigates the second language (L2) acquisition of restrictive relative clauses (RRCs) in Chinese by two groups of learners speaking typologically different first languages (L1s): English and Korean. English RRCs, unlike those of Chinese, are head-initial whereas Korean RRCs, like those of Chinese, are head-final. The difference could be predicted to hinder English learners' acquisition of L2 RRCs but facilitate it for Korean learners. This prediction was not ...

  14. The on-line resolution of the sentence complement/relative clause ambiguity: evidence from Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demestre, Josep; García-Albea, José E

    2004-01-01

    Two self-paced reading experiments investigated syntactic ambiguity resolution in Spanish. The experiments examined the way in which Spanish subjects initially interpret sentences that are temporarily ambiguous between a sentence complement and a relative clause interpretation. Experiment 1 examined whether the sentence complement preference found in English is observed in Spanish speaking subjects. In Experiment 2, verbal mood was manipulated in order to study the influence of verb-specific information on sentence processing. Since subcategorization for a subjunctive complement clause is generally assumed to be a lexical property of some verbs, the manipulation of the mood of the embedded verb affords us an interesting and novel way to examine the influence of lexical information on syntactic ambiguity resolution. Experiment 1 showed that Spanish speakers initially interpret the ambiguous that-clause as a sentence complement. Experiment 2 showed that verb-specific information, in particular, the information that specificies that a verb subcategorizes for a subjunctive complement, is accessed and used rapidly and affects the ambiguity resolution process. The results are discussed in relation to current models of sentence processing. PMID:14959507

  15. Visualizing abstract objects and relations

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    Kamada, Tomihisa

    1989-01-01

    Pictorial representations are very useful for humans to understand complicated relations or structures. This is the reason that the user interface of information systems is strongly required to visualize many kinds of information in a wide variety of graphical forms. At present, however, only some very specialized visualization techniques have been developed probably because the generality in the visualization has not been appreciated correctly. This book presents a visualization framework for translating abstract objects and relations, typically represented in textual forms, into pictorial re

  16. Avoidance in Processing English Non-restrictive Relative Clauses in Thai EFL Learners’ Interlanguage

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    Sonthaya Rattanasak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the acquisition of English non-restrictive relative clauses (NRCs by L1 Thai learners, focusing on avoidance strategies applied in the learners’ interlanguage. The theoretical frameworks of the Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy (NPAH and the Perceptual Difficulty Hypothesis (PDH were the main hypotheses predicting avoidance behavior employed by the learners. The research participants were 80 Thai EFL high school students of high and low proficiency levels. The data were elicited through a sentence combination task and a Thai-English translation task. The findings, overall, suggested that Thai EFL learners, by and large, avoided using the more marked NRC types in the NPAH. The learners’ avoidance was evident in the tasks from the shifting of more marked types to less marked ones. The findings also showed that the more advanced learners tended to employ more avoidance behavior with regard to the NPAH, which may be attributed to their greater exposure to the L2 rules and more knowledge of the differences between the L1 and L2 structures; this resulted in the use of alternative ways to complete the given tasks more easily. The center-embedded NRCs, more precisely, were found to be problematic for learners, which supports the prediction of the PDH that clauses embedded after the subject positions may interrupt the processing of a complex structure of RCs. The learners, therefore, avoided center embedding and changed it to right embedding with little awareness of the ungrammaticality of the NRC sentences.

  17. Object relations in Harry Potter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Suzanne

    2003-01-01

    Good fiction helps children address their emotional dilemmas by evoking repressed content, and offering strategies and meaningful values that help them work towards resolutions. Because certain fundamental conflicts continue to be revisited and reworked throughout adulthood, it follows that masterful children's literature might enthrall adults as well. Given the extraordinary, worldwide success of the Harry Potter stories with both children and adults, it might be inferred that they, indeed, are among such literature. Common object relations themes, as well as other intrapsychic processes, are presented in such an imaginative and resonant way that the unconscious is readily engaged. The character of Harry Potter, specifically, embodies such universal (repressed) torments as the agony of destroying and losing the mother; the ominous perception of good and bad objects at war within the self; and the earnest reparative efforts offered to save the self from eternal separation from the beloved other. PMID:14535615

  18. The performance of relational and object-relational SQL queries when using Oracle

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    Francisco Javier Moreno Arboleda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a study in which the performance of several queries involving GROUP BY clause, sub-queries (using IN and EXISTS clauses and loins are measured and compared by means of specific queries. The behaviour of relational and oblect-relational models is also shown.

  19. Review of Hendery (2012), Relative Clauses in Time and Space: A Case Study in the Methods of Diachronic Typology

    OpenAIRE

    Pat-El, Na'ama; The University of Texas, Austin/Swedish Collegium for Advanced Studies, Uppsala, Sweden

    2013-01-01

    Review of Hendery, Rachel. 2012. Relative Clauses in Time and Space: A case study in the methods of diachronic typology. (Typological Studies in Language.) Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 281 pp. Hardbound: ISBN 978 90 272 0682 4 | €95.00 / $143.00 | e-Book: ISBN 978 90 272 7368 0 | €95.00 / $143.00

  20. Syntactic and Prosodic Computations in the Resolution of Relative Clause Attachment Ambiguity by English-French Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekydtspotter, Laurent; Donaldson, Bryan; Edmonds, Amanda C.; Fultz, Audrey Liljestrand; Petrush, Rebecca A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the manner in which syntax, prosody, and context interact when second- and fourth-semester college-level English-French learners process relative clause (RC) attachment to either the first noun phrase (NP1) or the second noun phrase (NP2) in complex nominal expressions such as "le secretaire du psychologue qui se promene"…

  1. Infant Object Categorization Transcends Diverse Object-Context Relations

    OpenAIRE

    BORNSTEIN, MARC H.; Arterberry, Martha E.; Mash, Clay

    2009-01-01

    Infants’ categorization of objects in different object-context relations was investigated. The experiment used a multiple-exemplar habituation-categorization procedure where 92 6-month-olds formed categories of animals and vehicles embedded in congruent, incongruent, and homogeneous object-context relations. Across diverse object-context relations, infants habituated to multiple exemplars within a category and categorized novel members of both animal and vehicle categories. Infants showed a s...

  2. Fundamentals of Object Databases Object-Oriented and Object-Relational Design

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Object-oriented databases were originally developed as an alternative to relational database technology for the representation, storage, and access of non-traditional data forms that were increasingly found in advanced applications of database technology. After much debate regarding object-oriented versus relational database technology, object-oriented extensions were eventually incorporated into relational technology to create object-relational databases. Both object-oriented databases and object-relational databases, collectively known as object databases, provide inherent support for object

  3. Optional Clauses in the Individual Working Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA TOFAN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Labor Code, that is Law no. 53 from 2003 in Romanian legal framework, mainly rules the individual working contract. This is the first time when the working contract is established to have not only general clauses, but also some particular clauses. The employers and employees may now negotiate special rights and liabilities, such us competitions clause, mobility clause, confidentiality clause and the clause concerning continuous professional forming. Besides these clauses that are in the Labor Code, the parts may also agree on different clauses that are not in a specific law, but are permitted and used in practice, such as the clause of conscience, the objective clause and the clause concerning intellectual property rights.

  4. PROCESAMIENTO DE CLÁUSULAS RELATIVAS ANIDADAS, MEMORIA OPERATIVA Y ENVEJECIMIENTO / NESTED RELATIVES CLAUSES PROCESSING, WORKING MEMORY, AND AGING

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    BEATRIZ, ARANCIBIA GUTIÉRREZ; MÓNICA, VÉLIZ; BERNARDO, RIFFO; RUBÉN, ROA-URETA.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio examina los efectos del envejecimiento, la memoria operativa y la complejidad sintáctica en el procesamiento de oraciones. Con este propósito se compara el desempeño de adultos mayores y adultos jóvenes en una tarea de lectura autoadministrada de oraciones con anidamiento de cláusulas d [...] e relativo sujeto y objeto. Se efectuó un análisis de efectos mixtos para los tiempos de lectura, el acierto a preguntas y tiempos de respuesta, que toma en cuenta el hecho de tener observaciones repetidas en los individuos y la distribución de probabilidad correcta para las variables observadas. Los resultados muestran efectos de la edad en el procesamiento, pero no respaldan la hipótesis de un declive en el procesamiento sintáctico como efecto de una menor capacidad de memoria operativa en los adultos mayores. Además, el análisis confirma la complejidad de las relativas objeto en comparación con las relativas sujeto en español. Abstract in english This study examines the effects of age, working memory and syntactic complexity on sentence processing. For this purpose we compare the performance of younger and older adults in a self-administered reading task of sentences with subject and object nested relatives clauses. A mixed effects analysis [...] was carried for reading times, accuracy and response times, which took into account that observations were repeated inside individuals and the correct probability distribution of the observed variables. The results show effects of age in processing, but they do not support the hypothesis of syntactic processing decline as an effect of less working memory capacity in older adults. In addition, the data analysis confirms the complexity of object relatives processing compared to subject relatives processing in Spanish.

  5. Relações retóricas estabelecidas por orações gerundiais adverbiais / Rhetorical relations held by adverbial gerund clauses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliano Desiderato, Antonio.

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é propor critérios para identificação das relações implícitas estabelecidas por orações gerundiais adverbiais em um corpus formado por elocuções formais (aulas) e entrevistas. Para isso, tomam-se como fundamento teórico da pesquisa duas teorias funcionalistas, a Teoria da E [...] strutura Retórica do Texto (RST) e a Gramática Discursivo-Funcional (GDF). Na visão da RST, além do conteúdo explícito veiculado pelas orações de um texto, há proposições implícitas que surgem das relações que se estabelecem entre partes do texto. Foram utilizados os parâmetros da GDF, factualidade, pressuposição, e as camadas dos níveis representacional e interpessoal em que ocorrem as orações para a identificação das relações retóricas estabelecidas pelas orações gerundiais adverbiais. Foram encontradas relações de meio, de resultado, de condição e de propósito, o que não significa que não se reconheça, neste trabalho, que outras relações como tempo (anterioridade, posterioridade, simultaneidade), concessão, causa, dentre outras, podem ser estabelecidas por orações gerundiais adverbiais. Os parâmetros da GDF demonstraram ser eficientes na identificação das relações. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to set up criteria to identify the implicit relations held by adverbial gerund clauses in formal speeches (university lectures) and oral interviews in Brazilian Portuguese. The theoretical framework consists of two functional linguistic theories: Rhetorical Structure Theory [...] (RST) and Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG). According to RST, besides the explicit content conveyed by text sentences, there are implicit relations that connect text segments. In this study, the identification of such relations was based on the FDG parameters of factuality and presupposition, and the layers of the representational and interpersonal levels. Means, result, condition, and purpose rhetorical relations were attested in the corpus. Other rhetorical relations such circumstance (anteriority, posteriority, simultaneity), concession, and cause may also be attested in further research. FDG parameters have shown to be efficient for the identification of rhetorical relations.

  6. Problems in Relational Object Oriented Requirement Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Mahajan

    2012-01-01

    The goal of relational object oriented requirement engineering is to achieve higher quality and productivity with lower cost. There are so many problems related to relational object oriented requirement engineering. In this paper, we present a review of the various problematic issues specifically in requirements engineering of object oriented concepts and we mention some existing research attempts to deal with such issues

  7. Relations among Early Object Recognition Skills: Objects and Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Elaine; Jones, Susan S.; Smith, Linda B.; Longfield, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Human visual object recognition is multifaceted and comprised of several domains of expertise. Developmental relations between young children's letter recognition and their 3-dimensional object recognition abilities are implicated on several grounds but have received little research attention. Here, we ask how preschoolers' success in recognizing…

  8. General Relativity and Compact Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Patrick Das

    2015-01-01

    Starting with the conceptual foundation of general relativity (GR) - equivalence principle, space-time geometry and special relativity, I train cross hairs on two characteristic predictions of GR - black holes and gravitational waves. These two consequences of GR have played a significant role in relativistic astrophysics, e.g. compact X-ray sources, quasars, blazars, coalescing binary pulsars, etc. With quantum theory wedded to GR, particle production from vacuum becomes a generic feature whenever event horizons are present. In this paper, I shall briefly discuss the fate of a `black hole atom' when Hawking radiation is taken into account. In the context of gravitational waves, I shall focus on the possible consequences of gravitational and electromagnetic radiation from highly magnetized and rapidly spinning white dwarfs. The discovery of RX J0648.0-4418 system - a WD in a binary with mass slightly over 1.2 $ M_{\\odot}$, and rotating with spin period as short as 13.2 s, provides an impetus to revisit the pr...

  9. Working memory for relations among objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevenger, Pamela E; Hummel, John E

    2014-10-01

    Across many areas of study in cognition, the capacity of working memory (WM) is widely agreed to be roughly three to five items: three to five objects (i.e., bound collections of object features) in the literature on visual WM or three to five role bindings (i.e., objects in specific relational roles) in the literature on memory and reasoning. Three experiments investigated the capacity of observers' WM for the spatial relations among objects in a visual display, and the results suggest that the "items" in WM are neither simply objects nor simply role bindings. The results of Experiment 1 are most consistent with a model that treats an "item" in visual WM as an object, along with the roles of all its relations to one other object. Experiment 2 compared observers' WM for object size with their memory for relative size and provided evidence that observers compute and store objects' relations per se (rather than just absolute size) in WM. Experiment 3 tested and confirmed several more nuanced predictions of the model supported by Experiment 1. Together, these findings suggest that objects are stored in visual WM in pairs (along with all the relations between the objects in a pair) and that, from the perspective of WM, a given object in one pair is not the same "item" as that same object in a different pair. PMID:24379151

  10. Some modifications of temporal relation in the sentence with the temporal clause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni? Ivana N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is the modification of temporal relation in the complex sentence with the temporal clause. At the functional different Serbian language corpus the author notices the next types of modified temporality: excepted locational simultaneity complete or partial, and excepted locationalorientational posteriority formalized by the structure V SAMO/JEDINO/OSIM/SEM/IZUZEV(ONDA KAD VSub, and excepted locational simultaneity/excepted terminativity formalized by the structure V SAMO DOK (Neg VSub; sutuational locational simultaneity complete or partial formalized by the structure V U SITUACIJI / U SLU?AJU KAD VSub, with the posibility to be exceptivly modified in the structure V IZUZEV U SITUACIJI / U SLU?AJU KAD VSub; situational-concessive locational simultaneity complete or partial formalized by the structure V (?AK I (ONDA KAD VSub; situational-conditional locational-orientational posteriority formalized by the structure V TEK (ONDA KAD VSub, and situational-conditional orientational posteriority formalized by the structure V TEK POŠTO VSub or V TEK NAKON ŠTO VSub and situational-conditional orientational quantified posteriority formalized by the structure V Quant TEK POŠTO VSub, and finaly situational-conditional terminativity formalized by the structure (Neg V SVE DOK Neg VSub. It can ocure sporadically supstitutiv temporality formalized by the structure V DetTemp (UMESTO KAD VSub, and consecutive-adversative temporality formalized by the structure KAD VSub A (ONDA V. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178004: Sintaksi?ka, semanti?ka i pragmati?ka istraživanja standardnog srpskog jezika

  11. 48 CFR 370.701 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...the Leadership Act 370.701 Contract clause. The Contracting Officer shall insert the clause in 352.270-8, Prostitution and Related Activities, in solicitations, contracts, and orders, and in existing contracts and orders...

  12. Structural conflict and object relations conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorpat, T L

    1976-01-01

    A hierarchical model of the mind is required for a more integrated understanding of psychic conflict. At a higher developmental level, the hierarchical model includes the tripartite model, and at a lower level it includes an object-relations model. Psychic conflicts may be classified into object relations conflicts and structural conflicts. The object-relations class of psychic conflict covers the phase of psychic development prior to id-ego-superego differentiation. The earlier psychoanalytic writings tended to ascribe all kinds of symptoms, conflicts, and disorders to structural conflicts. Logical and empirical evidence against the universality of structural conflicts in various disorders and symptoms, even psychoneurotic symptoms, has been summarized and discussed. PMID:1033218

  13. Claus Bonderup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Anna Marie; Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen

    2012-01-01

    Ever since I was a young student and met Claus Bonderup for the first time, I have been fascinated by his work. I still remember how we turned up for a lecture of his at the Aarhus School of Architecture in the beginning of the 1980s brimming with excitement; a lecture that would end up being very short as my professor ejected him from the auditorium. Claus was not merely a classic innovative architect but also very provocative in his holistic architecture. Back then, his works were too radical ...

  14. Meaning through Syntax is Insufficient to Explain Comprehension of Sentences with Reduced Relative Clauses: Comment on McKoon and Ratcliff (2003)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Ken; Hare, Mary; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2005-01-01

    The authors argue that the meaning through syntax (MTS) model proposed by G. McKoon and R. Ratcliff fails to account for the comprehension of sentences with reduced relative clauses. First, the theory's core assumptions regarding verb-based event representations and how they link to constructions are incompatible with well-established analyses…

  15. Learning in Organizations - an Object Relations Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Siig

    2013-01-01

    Learning in organizations – an object relations perspective As a researcher with a primary interest in the study of learning environments in organizations I have conducted a number of empirical research projects primarily concerning work places in the state sector. The aim of the research has been to qualify the understanding of learning conditions in working life and to develop a multifaceted theoretical and methodological basis for the analysis focussing on action- and behaviour, symbolic inte...

  16. Desempeño de consultas SQL relacionales y objeto-relacionales en Oracle / The performance of relational and object-relational SQL queries when using Oracle

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco Javier, Moreno; Guillermo, Ospina Romero; Rafael, Larios Restrepo.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se muestra por medio de consultas específicas el comportamiento del modelo relacional y objeto-relacional, y se presenta así un estudio en el que se mide y a la vez se compara la eficiencia (tiempo, uso de recursos del sistema) de operaciones que involucran cláusulas GROUP BY, subco [...] nsultas (con las cláusulas IN y EXISTS), y reuniones (joins). Abstract in english This article presents a study in which the performance of several queries involving GROUP BY clause, sub-queries (using IN and EXISTS clauses) and joins are measured and compared by means of specific queries. The behaviour of relational and object-relational models is also shown. [...

  17. PODI AND ODI IN CLAUSE CONSTRUCTION OF KEMAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Budiarta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reveals podi and odi in clause construction of Kemak. Specifically, this article is aimed at finding out in what construction  podi and odi appear. Moreover, this article is also aimed at finding out the function of podi and odi in the clause construction of Kemak. Before exploring podi and odi in clause construction, the first discussion will examine the morphology of the verb of Kemak to find out how the verbs are formed in Kemak as they have the main role to fill the predicate. The discussion continues to examine the clause with nonverbal (verbless and verbal predicate. Clause with nonvebral (verbless predicate will begin the discussion on clause construction in Kemak. Then, the discussion goes to clause with verbal predicate. The clause with verbal predicate includes intransitive and transtive. The disscussion of transitive clause covers monotransitive and  ditransitive clause. The  study on transitive clause is related to the presence of podi and odi in the construction.The result shows that all verbs are basic verbs. Verbs in Kemak are morphologically unmarked (no affixes and there is no agreement between the verb and its arguments. The clause with nonverbal predicate in Kemak is filled by  noun, adjective, numeral, and prepositional phrase. Clause with nonverbal predicate requires one argument  functioning as grammatical subject. As cluase with nonverbal predicate, intransitive clause in Kemak also requires one argument  functioning as grammatical subject. Meanwhile, monotransitive clause requires two arguments, preverbal and postverbal argument. Ditranstive clause requires three arguments, one preverbal and two postverbal argument. Moreover, it was found that  podi appears in ditransitive clause (applicative/benefactive construction. Podi has the function to increase the verb valence from monotransitive into ditransitive. Meanwhile, odi appears in monotransitive clause  The presence of odi in monotrasitive is as the alternation result from ditransitive clause into monotransitive clause. Moreover, odi has the function to decrease the number of core argument, from three core arguments to two core arguments.

  18. Internally Headed Relative Clauses in Japanese and E-Type Anaphora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, Junko

    1999-01-01

    Examines the so-called internally headed relative construction in Japanese, with particular focus on new data that involve quantificational noun phrases and wh-phrases. Data provide arguments for representations in which the internal head remains internal at LF, and it is also shown that the interpretation of this construction involves E-type…

  19. Learning in Organizations - an Object Relations Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Siig

    Learning in organizations – an object relations perspective As a researcher with a primary interest in the study of learning environments in organizations I have conducted a number of empirical research projects primarily concerning work places in the state sector. The aim of the research has been to qualify the understanding of learning conditions in working life and to develop a multifaceted theoretical and methodological basis for the analysis focussing on action- and behaviour, symbolic interaction and discourse (Andersen & Andersen 2007; Andersen & Trojaborg 2007). The aim of this paper is to supplement this analytical basis with an analysis based on psychoanalytical theory. I shall present and clarify some theoretical and methodological ideas about the discovery and understanding of psychodynamic defence mechanisms in organizations. My intention is to achieve a better understanding of organizations as learning environments for the employees. Theoretically I draw on object relations theory. Within this tradition the theoretical point of departure is twofold: the study of work conditions in hospitals carried out by Menzies (1975) and Hinschelwood & Skogstad (2000). With regard to the first mentioned, Menzies combines two types of analysis. In the first type she understands the development of work organizations as the development of psycho-social defence systems. Psycho-social defence systems are composed of many specific defence techniques that are developed by the staff during a long period of time as institutionalized work practices. In the second type of analysis she reflects on the different defence techniques from a psychoanalytical theoretical point of view: Which kind of unconscious ‘rationality’ do they possess, which consequences do they have for the quality of work and which positive and negative impact do they have with respect to the staff itself? With regard to Hinschelwood & Skogstad (2000) they are introduced to further develop and contrast Menzies’ theoretical ideas. Instead of only emphasizing the connection between the work organization and the defence techniques applied unconsciously by the staff, Hinschelwood & Skogstad also emphasize the need to understand how the organizational culture is co-produced by psychodynamic defence mechanisms, how the defence techniques are underpinned by defensive myths and how the defence mechanisms contribute to the creation of specific atmospheres in organizations. In the empirical part of the paper I shall combine my inspiration from Menzies (defence systems and defence techniques) with my inspiration from Hinschelwood & Skogstad (defensive myths and specific atmospheres) to demonstrate different aspects of psycho-social defence that may be elicited by applying different perspectives of understanding and different empirical methods. The case for the empirical analyses will be the learning environment amongst teachers at HTX, a general and technical degree for students in their last three years of high school. The case study aims to uncover the social learning environment in an organization marked by extensive organizational and pedagogical transformation processes. I conclude the paper by discussing some advantages and disadvantages of the psychoanalytical organizational research tradition focussing on the empirical analysis of learning environments in contrast to other theoretical and methodological paradigms. References Andersen, A. S. & Andersen, V. (2007): Learning Environments for Academic Employees: Possibilities and Hurdles. Human Ressource Development Review (HRDR). Andersen, A. S. & Trojaborg, R. S. (2007). Life History and Learning in Working Life. In West, L.; Alheit, P.; Andersen, A. S. & Merrill, B. (eds.), Using Biographical and Life History Approaches in the Study of Adult and Lifelong Learning: European Perspectives. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang – Europäischer Verlag der Wissenschaften. Hinshelwood, R. D. & Skogstad, W. (2000),Observing Organisations – Anxiety, defence and culture in health care. Great Britain: Routledge. Menzies, I.

  20. / The use of the Afrikaans conjunction "wanneer" (when) in subordinate clause embedding / Die gebruik van die voegwoord wanneer in bysinsinlywing

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Johanna J.E., Messerschmidt.

    Full Text Available The Afrikaans conjunction "wanneer" (when) originated in Dutch with the meaning "at which time". This paper describes the use of "wanneer" in subordinate clause embedding. A follow-up article will discuss hypotactic combining. The description follows the cognitive grammar paradigm. In accordance wit [...] h that paradigm real examples of actual usage are quoted. Relationships between form and meaning are explored with the understanding that there are no clear boundaries between syntactic and semantic categories. A wide variety of examples was obtained by examining a large corpus of documents obtained from the Internet. Table 1 specifies the usage categories observed. Two important categories, i.e. embedding of a subordinate clause AS: a constituent in the main clause and embedding IN: a constituent are discussed in depth. As background the usage of "wanneer" as adverb and the transition from adverb to conjunction are briefly discussed. Examples are quoted where "wanneer" is a pure adverb and further examples where "wanneer" is transformed into a conjunction. For example, by using reported speech or by answering questions "wanneer" can be transformed from an adverb to a conjunction. As a conjunction "wanneer" is a typical subordinating conjunction that is followed by the typical Afrikaans subordinate clause ordering. Syntactically "wanneer" introduces a subordinate clause, but semantically the subordination is not always valid as is the case with other subordinating conjunctions. The difference between embedding and hypotactic combining is explained following Taylor, using "participants" and "circumstances". Participants are inherent entities that are complements of the main verb. Circumstances are optional modifiers; they can be omitted in a sentence. In embedding AS: constituent the subordinate clause introduced by "wanneer" is a complement of the main verb. It is therefore a participant and cannot be omitted. In the corpus the following types of incorporation AS: a constituent were observed: object, subject, predicate and complement of an intransitive verb. Subordinate "wanneer" clauses as objects of transitive verbs were observed following "communication" verbs. When "wanneer" clauses were observed as subjects the use of an empty "dit" (it) as temporary subject was also seen. In copula constructions, "wanneer" clauses were found as copulative predicates. Sometimes an author mixes the references to time and space, using time as a metaphoric space. Complements of intransitive verbs using "wanneer" were found in sentences with verbs like "plaasvind" (take place), "gebeur" (happen), "ontstaan" (originate) and "voorkom" (occur). Huddleston and Pullum describe a similar phenomenon in English with the verbs "happen", "live", "occur" and "take place" which take complements of temporal location. Embedding IN: a constituent represents a deeper kind of embedding. The "wanneer" clause now forms a post qualifier to a plethora of words or word groups. This article discusses nouns, noun clauses, prepositions, comparatives and infinitives. "Wanneer" clauses used as post qualifiers to nouns, show similarities to relative clauses. Following Ponelis they can be called adverbial relative clauses. The "wanneer" clause can be restrictive or appositional. The antecedent of the restrictive "wanneer" clause is a time indicator like "dag" (day), "maand" (month), "jaar" (year), "geleentheid" (occasion), "oomblik" (instant), "moment" (moment), "punt" (point) and "dag en datum" (day and age). In some cases "wanneer" can be replaced by "waarop" (whereupon). An appositional adverbial subordinate clause provides further information about the antecedent. The connection between the main clause and the subordinate clause is weaker and is usually reflected by punctuation. Sometimes the "wanneer" clause is separated from the antecedent by the verb. There is a range of looseness between appositional subordinate clauses and their antecedents from immediate to parenthetical. Typical antecedents are adverbials like "later" (later). "Wanne

  1. Grammatical relations typology

    OpenAIRE

    Bickel, Balthasar

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, the term "grammatical relation" (GR) refers to the morphosyntactic properties that relate an argument to a clause, as, for example, its subject or its object. Alternative terms are "syntactic function" or "syntactic role", and they highlight the fact that GRs are defined by the way in which arguments are integrated syntactically into a clause, i.e. by functioning as subject, object etc. Whatever terminology one prefers, what is crucial about the traditional notion of GRs is (a)...

  2. O-ODM Framework for Object-Relational Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Rombaldo Jr

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Object-Relational Databases introduce new features which allow manipulating objects in databases. At present, many DBMS offer resources to manipulate objects in database, but most application developers just map class to relations tables, failing to exploit the O-R model strength. The lack of tools that aid the database project contributes to this situation. This work presents O-ODM (Object-Object Database Mapping, a persistent framework that maps objects from OO applications to database objects. Persistent Frameworks have been used to aid developers, managing all access to DBMS. This kind of tool allows developers to persist objects without solid knowledge about DBMSs and specific languages, improving the developers’ productivity, mainly when a different DBMS is used. The results of some experiments using O-ODM are shown.

  3. The Assessment of Object Relations Phenomena in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Eric Wayne

    Recent attempts to empirically validate psychoanalytic theory and its contemporary object relational constructs have turned to measuring the concepts with a variety of recently developed assessment scales. This paper reviews the 27 research studies which utilize instruments designed to assess object relations phenomena in subjects diagnosed with…

  4. Fundamentals for the Automation of Object-Relational Database Design

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Fernanda Golobisky; Aldo Vecchietti

    2011-01-01

    In the market there is a wide amount of CASE tools for the design of relational databases. Object-relational database management system (ORDBMS) emerged at the end of the 90s to incorporate the object technology into the relational databases, allowing the treatment of more complex data and relationships than its predecessor. The design for this database model is not straightforward. Most of the works proposed in the literature fail because they do not provide consistent transformation formali...

  5. Covered Clause Elimination

    CERN Document Server

    Heule, Marijn; Biere, Armin

    2010-01-01

    Generalizing the novel clause elimination procedures developed in [M. Heule, M. J\\"arvisalo, and A. Biere. Clause elimination procedures for CNF formulas. In Proc. LPAR-17, volume 6397 of LNCS, pages 357-371. Springer, 2010.], we introduce explicit (CCE), hidden (HCCE), and asymmetric (ACCE) variants of a procedure that eliminates covered clauses from CNF formulas. We show that these procedures are more effective in reducing CNF formulas than the respective variants of blocked clause elimination, and may hence be interesting as new preprocessing/simplification techniques for SAT solving.

  6. Object-related generativity in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Deborah J; Will, Elizabeth; Daunhauer, Lisa A; Gerlach-McDonald, Brianne; Visootsak, Jeannie

    2014-12-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) show challenges in some aspects of goal-directed behavior when compared to developmentally matched children (Daunhauer et al., 2014; Lee et al., 2011), particularly in the area of goal-directed action on objects (Fidler et al., 2005a,b). In this study, we examined one aspect of goal-directed action on objects, object-related generativity, in school-aged children with DS (n = 52), a developmentally matched group of children with intellectual disability, but not Down syndrome (DD; n = 21), and a group of chronologically younger, but developmentally matched typically developing children (TD; n = 34). We administered the Leiter-R, the Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS), and an Object-Related Generativity Task, which involved 2 min of unstructured play with a variety of objects that have divergent usages. Children with DS generated significantly fewer instances of initiating actions on new objects than children in both comparison groups, were less likely to produce novel functional action on any object (new or familiar) than TD children, and they showed fewer instances of novel functional object engagement with new objects overall than TD children. Frequency of acts on new objects in DS was associated with Leiter-R Form Completion and Repeated Patterns Raw Scores and OWLS Listening Comprehension Raw Scores. These findings contribute to the growing knowledge base regarding goal-directed behavior and self-regulation in individuals with Down syndrome. Implications for education and intervention are discussed. PMID:25194513

  7. Object-specific and relational learning in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A; Fagot, Joël; Maugard, Anaïs

    2015-01-01

    Abstract or relational stimulus processing requires an organism to appreciate the interrelations between or among two or more stimuli (e.g., same or different, less than or greater than). In the current study, we explored the role of concrete and abstract information processing in pigeons performing a visual categorization task which could be solved by attending to either the specific objects presented or the relation among the objects. In Experiment 1, we gave pigeons three training phases in which we gradually increased the variability (that is, the number of object arrays) in the training set. In Experiment 2, we trained a second group of pigeons with an even larger number of object arrays from the outset. We found that, the larger the variability in the training exemplars, the lesser the pigeons' attention to object-specific information and the greater their attention to relational information; nevertheless, the contribution of object-specific information to categorization performance was never completely eliminated. This pervasive influence of object-specific information is not peculiar to animals, but has been observed in young children and human adults as well. PMID:25092492

  8. DEPENDENT VERBLESS CLAUSE: ITS STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Petrlikova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The term “clause” is not only applied to structures which comply with formal prerequisites,containing a subject and a predicate conveyed by a finite verb, but also to such structures which are analysable into clause elements. The verbless clause is a structure containing no verb element at all (either finite or nonfinite, usually having a covert subject, but containing other expressions which can be identified as a part of predicate (subject complement or adverbial. The verbless subordinate clause is joined to its superordinate clause syndetically or asyndetically (a supplementive verbless clause, or by the prepositions with or without. As an optional clause element, it functions as an adverbial, expressing a range of semantic roles, usually suggested by the introductory conjunction, or as an “optional subject/object adjunct” (supplementive verbless clauses, conveying a twofold relationship: to the predication and, at the same time, to the subject or object of its superordinate clause. Considered one of the means of sentence condensation, it is mainly used in written language.

  9. The effects of relative performance objectives on financial markets

    OpenAIRE

    Igan, Deniz; Pinheiro, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the implications of linking the compensation of fund managers to the return of their portfolio relative to that of a benchmark. In the presence of such relative-performance-based objectives, investors have reduced expected utility but markets are typically more informative and deeper. Furthermore, in a multiple asset/market framework we show that (i) relative performance concerns lead to an increase in the correlation between markets (financial contagion); (ii) benchmark inclusi...

  10. Migration from Relational Database into Object Oriented Database

    OpenAIRE

    Mansaf Alam; S. K. Wason

    2006-01-01

    Object-Oriented Technology is an important discipline in the field of software engineering in general and it is, therefore, natural to ask whether it is relevant to the field of database management in particular and what that relevance is. There is, however, no consensus on answer to these questions. Some authorities believe that object oriented database systems will take over the world replacing relational system whereas others believe that they are suited only to certain very specific probl...

  11. Iterative Relative Fuzzy Connectedness for Multiple Objects with Multiple Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Ciesielski, Krzysztof Chris; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Saha, Punam K.; Zhuge, Ying

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a new theory and an algorithm for image segmentation based on a strength of connectedness between every pair of image elements. The object definition used in the segmentation algorithm utilizes the notion of iterative relative fuzzy connectedness, IRFC. In previously published research, the IRFC theory was developed only for the case when the segmentation was involved with just two segments, an object and a background, and each of the segments was indicated by a singl...

  12. Learning Spatial Relations between Objects From 3D Scenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fichtl, Severin; Alexander, John

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing cognitive development during the first years of human life may be the result of a set of developmental mechanisms which are in continuous operation [1]. One such mechanism identified is the ability of the developing child to learn effective preconditions for their behaviours. It has been suggested [2] that through the application of behaviours involving more than one object, infants begin to learn about the relations between objects.

  13. The role of action representations in thematic object relations.

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos Tsagkaridis; Steven Andrew Jax

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies assessing the role of associative/event-based (thematic) and categorical (taxonomic) relations in the organization of object representations suggest that thematic relationships may influence the perceived similarity of manipulable artifacts. At the same time, evidence suggests that action knowledge is an important component of manipulable artifact representations. However, the role that action plays in processing thematic relationships between objects is unclear. In this study,...

  14. Contrast source inversion method applied to relatively high contrast objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a contrast source inversion method for microwave tomography with improved performance with respect to the popular multiplicative regularized contrast source inversion (MR-CSI) method when the contrast of the object under study is relatively high. More precisely, some shortcomings of MR-CSI which may prevent it from performing adequately on higher contrast objects are outlined. The proposed method does not suffer from such shortcomings, but necessitates the tuning of parameters. However, a unique set of parameters can be used in a wide variety of experimental conditions related to a given application. Simple guidelines to determine their values are provided

  15. Least Generalizations and Greatest Specializations of Sets of Clauses

    CERN Document Server

    Nienhuys-Cheng, S H

    1996-01-01

    The main operations in Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) are generalization and specialization, which only make sense in a generality order. In ILP, the three most important generality orders are subsumption, implication and implication relative to background knowledge. The two languages used most often are languages of clauses and languages of only Horn clauses. This gives a total of six different ordered languages. In this paper, we give a systematic treatment of the existence or non-existence of least generalizations and greatest specializations of finite sets of clauses in each of these six ordered sets. We survey results already obtained by others and also contribute some answers of our own. Our main new results are, firstly, the existence of a computable least generalization under implication of every finite set of clauses containing at least one non-tautologous function-free clause (among other, not necessarily function-free clauses). Secondly, we show that such a least generalization need not exist un...

  16. Reasoning about Object Capabilities with Logical Relations and Effect Parametricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devriese, Dominique; Piessens, Frank; Birkedal, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Object capabilities are a model for fine-grained privilege separation in programming languages and systems. However,formal characterisations of the model do not fully capturecapability-safety of a programming language and are not sufficient for verifying typical uses of the model. Using state-of-the-art techniques from programming languages research, we define a logical relation for a core calculus of JavaScript that better characterises capability-safety. The relation is powerful enough to reas...

  17. Visual appearance of wireframe objects in special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The visual appearance of a moving object in special relativity can be constructed in a straightforward manner when representing the surface of the object, or at least a wire frame model of it, as a point cloud. The apparent position of each individual point is then found by intersecting its worldline with the observer's backward light cone. In this paper, we present a complete derivation of the apparent position of a point and some more complex geometric objects for general parameter settings (configurations). We implemented our results in python and asymptote and used these tools to generate scripts that create the figures in this paper. These scripts are directly applicable in an undergraduate course to special relativity and can also serve as the basis for student projects with the aim to study more complex sceneries. (paper)

  18. Medieval English root clauses

    OpenAIRE

    H. W. Broekman

    1993-01-01

    The movement operation Verb Second moves the finite verb from its base-generated position in VP to C via the I node within the Chomsky (1986) framework. As the finite verb and the complementiser are in complementary distribution, the above predicts that, contrary to fact, Verb Second is not possible in embedded clauses. However, in Frisian and Swedish Verb Second does occur in embedded clauses. This entails that a lexical complementiser does not always prevent a finite verb from undergoing Ve...

  19. Golden Era of Cataclysmic Variables and Related Objects: concluding remarks.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 83, ?. 2 (2012), s. 883-890. ISSN 0037-8720. [Workshop on the golden age of cataclysmic variables and related objects. Palermo, 12.09.2011-17.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA205/08/1207 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : stars * variable stars * cataclysmic variables Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  20. Observing cataclysmic variables and related objects with different techniques.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimon, Vojt?ch

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 83, ?. 2 (2012), s. 675-682. ISSN 0037-8720. [Workshop on the golden age of cataclysmic variables and related objects. Palermo, 12.09.2011-17.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA205/08/1207 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : X- rays * binaries * circumstellar matter Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  1. The Relationships between Grammatical Sensitivity, Noticing of Recasts and Learning of Korean Object Relative Clauses through Conversational Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Seongmee

    2012-01-01

    Within the input and interaction research paradigm, how learners' individual differences play a role in using learning opportunities during interaction has become one of the main areas of investigation. Recasts have also received much attention in interaction research. This paper explores the extent to which individual differences in grammatical…

  2. Migration from Relational Database into Object Oriented Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansaf Alam

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Object-Oriented Technology is an important discipline in the field of software engineering in general and it is, therefore, natural to ask whether it is relevant to the field of database management in particular and what that relevance is. There is, however, no consensus on answer to these questions. Some authorities believe that object oriented database systems will take over the world replacing relational system whereas others believe that they are suited only to certain very specific problems and will never capture more than a small fraction of the overall market. Object-Oriented technology represents real world very well, focusing on data rather than procedure and gives more security to data. Also, it is safe from unauthorized use of data because it provides three access specifiers viz. private, public and protected and strictly provides security to data in database. This technology also provides function as well as data together so that the data can be manipulated by the given function. In this paper, we show that how the data is more secure in object-oriented database than in relational database and also why do we migrate from RDBMS into OODBMS.

  3. Nasazení Object Relation Mapping nástroj? nad legacy datovým modelem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ond?ej Berger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When modernizing an information system it is necesssary to deal with problems and questions modernization brings. The new system is inovated by new technologies and must preserve data which controls. It happends very often that old system cannot be shutdown and replaced by new system in single step. Then it’s necessary to share one database among various systems and transfer responsibilities to the new system continually. This solution brings problematic situations which are discussed in this paper. Transactional access using object relation mapping is presented together with non-transactional relation/procedural access with shared database objects. Other presented restriction is that number of database changes should be as small as possible.

  4. The role of action representations in thematic object relations

    OpenAIRE

    Tsagkaridis, Konstantinos; Watson, Christine E.; Jax, Steven A.; Buxbaum, Laurel J.

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have explored the role of associative/event-based (thematic) and categorical (taxonomic) relations in the organization of object representations. Recent evidence suggests that thematic information may be particularly important in determining relationships between manipulable artifacts. However, although sensorimotor information is on many accounts an important component of manipulable artifact representations, little is known about the role that action may play during the ...

  5. Connective Polysemy and Clause Linkage Typology in Korean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jisup

    2012-01-01

    Clause connectives are linguistic forms that convey relations between clauses in a sentence. They are typically compared, whether within a language or across languages, on the basis of a shared syntactic category, such as coordination and subordination, or a semantic one, such as sequence, cause, or addition. While the inadequacy of the…

  6. Nonnativeness in Near-Native Child L2 Starters of Japanese: Age and the Acquisition of Relative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Tomomi

    2014-01-01

    Many age-related second language (L2) studies have confirmed that young children have a better chance to become nativelike in L2 acquisition than adults. The current study investigated whether age effects exist in the L2 acquisition of Japanese and whether nativelike proficiency is guaranteed for early child L2 starters after constant target…

  7. Fundamentals for the Automation of Object-Relational Database Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Golobisky

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the market there is a wide amount of CASE tools for the design of relational databases. Object-relational database management system (ORDBMS emerged at the end of the 90s to incorporate the object technology into the relational databases, allowing the treatment of more complex data and relationships than its predecessor. The design for this database model is not straightforward. Most of the works proposed in the literature fail because they do not provide consistent transformation formalization such that the mappings from the conceptual model to the logical schema can be automated to generate an ORDB design toolkit. This is one of the goals of this paper. For this purpose, UML class diagram metamodel for the conceptual design and SQL:2003 standard metamodel for logical schemas are considered. A characterization of the components involved in the ORDB design is made in order to propose mapping rules that can be further automated. The architecture of a CASE tool prototype is presented. Model Driven Architecture for software design and XML for the model definitions and transformations are employed.

  8. Chemical Compositions of RV Tauri Stars and Related Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, S Sumangala

    2013-01-01

    We have undertaken a comprehensive abundance analysis for a sample of relatively unexplored RV Tauri and RV Tauri like stars to further our understanding of post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB) evolution. From our study based on high resolution spectra and grid of model atmospheres, we find indications of mild s-processing for V820 Cen and IRAS 06165+3158. On the other hand, SU Gem and BT Lac exhibit the effects of mild dust-gas winnowing. We have also compiled the existing abundance data on RV Tauri objects and find that a large fraction of them are afflicted by dust-gas winnowing and now added by the present work, we find a small group of two RV Tauris showing mild s-process enhancement in our Galaxy. With two out of three reported s-process enhanced objects belonging to RV Tauri spectroscopic class C, these intrinsically metal-poor objects appear to be promising candidates to analyse the possible s-processing in RV Tauri stars.

  9. Optional Clauses in the Individual Working Contract

    OpenAIRE

    MIHAELA TOFAN

    2006-01-01

    The Labor Code, that is Law no. 53 from 2003 in Romanian legal framework, mainly rules the individual working contract. This is the first time when the working contract is established to have not only general clauses, but also some particular clauses. The employers and employees may now negotiate special rights and liabilities, such us competitions clause, mobility clause, confidentiality clause and the clause concerning continuous professional forming. Besides these clauses that are in the...

  10. The role of action representations in thematic object relations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Tsagkaridis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies assessing the role of associative/event-based (thematic and categorical (taxonomic relations in the organization of object representations suggest that thematic relationships may influence the perceived similarity of manipulable artifacts. At the same time, evidence suggests that action knowledge is an important component of manipulable artifact representations. However, the role that action plays in processing thematic relationships between objects is unclear. In this study, we assessed healthy and left hemisphere stroke participants to explore three questions: 1. Do participants favor thematic relations involving action (Th+A, e.g., wine bottle – corkscrew, thematic relationships without action (Th-A, e.g., wine bottle – cheese, or taxonomic relationships (Tax, e.g., wine bottle – water bottle when choosing between them in an association judgment task? 2. Do the underlying constructs of event, action, and categorical relatedness implicitly determine the choices that participants make? 3. Does degraded action knowledge and/or damage to temporo-parietal cortex (a region of the brain associated with action representations reduce the influence of action on the choice task? Experiment 1 showed that explicit ratings of event, action, and categorical relatedness differentially predicted healthy participants’ choices, with action relatedness determining choices between Th+A and Th-A associations above and beyond event and categorical ratings. Experiment 2 focused more specifically on these Th+A vs. Th-A choices and demonstrated that participants with left temporo-parietal lesions, a brain region known to be involved in sensorimotor processing, were less likely than controls, and tended to be less likely than patients with lesions sparing that region, to implicitly use action knowledge in determining their choices. We conclude that action knowledge plays a critical role in processing of thematic relations for manipulable artifacts.

  11. The role of action representations in thematic object relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagkaridis, Konstantinos; Watson, Christine E; Jax, Steven A; Buxbaum, Laurel J

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have explored the role of associative/event-based (thematic) and categorical (taxonomic) relations in the organization of object representations. Recent evidence suggests that thematic information may be particularly important in determining relationships between manipulable artifacts. However, although sensorimotor information is on many accounts an important component of manipulable artifact representations, little is known about the role that action may play during the processing of semantic relationships (particularly thematic relationships) between multiple objects. In this study, we assessed healthy and left hemisphere stroke participants to explore three questions relevant to object relationship processing. First, we assessed whether participants tended to favor thematic relations including action (Th+A, e.g., wine bottle-corkscrew), thematic relationships without action (Th-A, e.g., wine bottle-cheese), or taxonomic relationships (Tax, e.g., wine bottle-water bottle) when choosing between them in an association judgment task with manipulable artifacts. Second, we assessed whether the underlying constructs of event relatedness, action relatedness, and categorical relatedness determined the choices that participants made. Third, we assessed the hypothesis that degraded action knowledge and/or damage to temporo-parietal cortex, a region of the brain associated with the representation of action knowledge, would reduce the influence of action on the choice task. Experiment 1 showed that explicit ratings of event, action, and categorical relatedness were differentially predictive of healthy participants' choices, with action relatedness determining choices between Th+A and Th-A associations above and beyond event and categorical ratings. Experiment 2 focused more specifically on these Th+A vs. Th-A choices and demonstrated that participants with left temporo-parietal lesions, a brain region known to be involved in sensorimotor processing, were less likely than controls and tended to be less likely than patients with lesions sparing that region to use action relatedness in determining their choices. These data indicate that action knowledge plays a critical role in processing of thematic relations for manipulable artifacts. PMID:24672461

  12. Object-Relational Management of Multiply Represented Geographic Entities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Christensen, Anders; Jensen, Christian SØndergaard

    2003-01-01

    Multiple representation occurs when information about the same geographic entity is represented electronically more than once. This occurs frequently in practice, and it invariably results in the occurrence of inconsistencies among the different representations. We propose to resolve this situation by introducing a multiple representation management system (MRMS), the schema of which includes rules that specify how to identify representations of the same entity, rules that specify consistency requirements, and rules used to restore consistency when necessary. In this paper, we demonstrate by means of a prototype and a realworld case study that it is possible to implement a multiple representation schema language on top of an object-relational database management system. Specifically, it is demonstrated how it is possible to map the constructs of the language used for specifying the multiple representation schema to functionality available in Oracle. Though some limitations exist, Oracle has proven to be a suitable platform for implementing an MRMS.

  13. Perception of Object-Context Relations: Eye-Movement Analyses in Infants and Adults

    OpenAIRE

    BORNSTEIN, MARC H.; Mash, Clay; Arterberry, Martha E.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-eight 4-month-olds’ and 22 20-year-olds’ attention to object-context relations was investigated using a common eye-movement paradigm. Infants and adults scanned both objects and contexts. Infants showed equivalent preferences for animals and vehicles and for congruent and incongruent object-context relations overall, more fixations of objects in congruent object-context relations, more fixations of contexts in incongruent object-context relations, more fixations of objects than context...

  14. 48 CFR 1309.507-2 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...all or some subcontracts, teaming arrangements, and other agreements calling for performance of work related to the contract...contracts. (e) Insert clause 1352.209-75, Title 13 and Non-Disclosure Requirements, in all solicitations and contracts...

  15. Chemical compositions of RV tauri stars and related objects

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S., Sumangala Rao; Sunetra, Giridhar.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemos emprendido un análisis de las abundancias químicas para una muestra de estrellas RV Tauri poco estudiadas, para mejorar nuestro entendimiento de la evolución estelar post-secuencia asintótica de las gigantes (post-AGB).Nuestro estudio se basa en espectros de alta resolución y en una malla de m [...] odelos atmosféricos. Encontramos indicaciones de un leve proceso-s para V820 Cen y IRAS 06165+3158. Por otra parte, SU Gem y BT Lac muestran los efectos de una ligera separación polvo-gas. Hemos reunido los datos existentes sobre las abundancias de objetos RV Tauri, y encontramos que una gran parte de ellos muestra efectos de separación polvo-gas. En nuestro estudio encontramos un pequeño grupo de estrellas RV Tauri galácticas con evidencia del proceso-s ligeramente aumentado. Dos de tres objetos con evidencia de proceso-s aumentado pertenecen a la clase C de objetos RV Tauri. Estos objetos, pobres en metales, son candidatos prometedores para el estudio del proceso-s en las estrellas RV Tauri. Abstract in english We have undertaken a comprehensive abundance analysis for a sample of relatively unexplored RV Tauri and RV Tauri like stars to further our understanding of post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB) evolution. From our study based on high resolution spectra and a grid of model atmospheres, we find ind [...] ications of mild s-processing for V820 Cen and IRAS 06165+3158. On the other hand, SU Gem and BT Lac exhibit the effects of mild dust-gas winnowing. We have also compiled the existing abundance data on RV Tauri objects and find that a large fraction of them are afflicted by dust-gas winnowing and aided by the present work, we find a small group of two RV Tauris showing mild s-process enhancement in our Galaxy. With two out of three reported s-process enhanced objects belonging to RV Tauri spectroscopic class C, these intrinsically metal-poor objects appear to be promising candidates to analyse the possible s-processing in RV Tauri stars.

  16. 48 CFR 217.7104 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Incorporate in solicitations for, and in, job orders, the clauses in the master agreement, and any other clauses on subjects not covered by the master agreement, but applicable to the job order to be awarded. (2) Use the clause at...

  17. Determinants of object choice in adulthood: a test case of object-relations theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, P

    1985-01-01

    A clinical example of the effects of the absence of the father during the early childhood of a male analysand and its consequences for his later object choice is presented. This patient's biological father left the household when the patient was only a few months old, and his mother did not remarry until he was five years of age. Unconscious fantasies of the lost father, with whom the patient had no contact in reality, and longing for him organized the patient's drives and determined his self-identity as well as his later object choice. The patient developed both a positive and negative identification with the lost father. The identification was with a fantasy object not a real one. The case highlights the need to use a precise term in talking of the object, namely the mental representation of the object which may or may not be built up out of experiences with the real object. PMID:3843602

  18. The article in oblique relative clauses [prep.+ (definitive art. + que] in 18th century hispanoamerican texts El artículo en las relativas oblicuas [prep. + (art. definido + que] en textos americanos del siglo XVIII = The article in oblique relative clauses [prep.+ (definitive art. + que] in 18th century hispanoamerican texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha GUZMÁN RIVERÓN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of the article in sentences like la casa en (la que vivo, among other variations, is today less frequently used in Hispanoamerica. Although we know that this structure, documented as early as the 13th century, became more wide-spread in the 18th century, little is known about its evolution at the time in American sources. I study the evolution of this phenomenon, basing myself exclusively on 18th century American texts. I also explore which factors are apparently related to this linguistic development and if the pace of its spread was determined by the preceding prepositions. Aiming at a panoramic view of the spread of the article in the period in question, I also trace the appearance of these relative clauses, with and without article, in the texts collected in the CORDE, and provide detailed analyses of texts from both halves of the century, in order to evaluate the factors that may have influenced this change.El uso del artículo en estructuras como la casa en (la que vivo presenta hoy en día, entre otras variaciones, una frecuencia de uso menor en Hispanoamérica que en España. Aunque sabemos que este uso, documentado desde el siglo XIII, comienza realmente a extenderse justo en el XVIII, poco conocemos de su evolución en la época en fuentes americanas. En este trabajo, basándonos exclusivamente en textos americanos del XVIII, perseguimos investigar cómo evoluciona este fenómeno en documentación de esta procedencia. También intentaremos explorar qué factores están aparentemente en relación con este cambio e investigar si, en diferentes preposiciones, diverge el ritmo de difusión de su uso. Con vistas a obtener una idea general sobre la extensión del artículo en la época, rastrearemos las apariciones de dichas relativas —con y sin artículo— en los textos americanos recogidos en el CORDE. Para evaluar los factores que pueden incidir en él estudiaremos en detalle determinados textos de ambas mitades del siglo.

  19. The relation between energy efficiency and general objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three overall objectives for energy efficiency programs are discussed: Reduction of negative externalities, esp. climatic change; Phase-out of nuclear power while limiting electricity imports; and creating welfare gains by correcting market failures of energy efficiency programs (rebound effects)

  20. Engineering the object-relation database model in O-Raid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Prasun; Vikram, Ashish; Bhargava, Bharat

    1989-01-01

    Raid is a distributed database system based on the relational model. O-raid is an extension of the Raid system and will support complex data objects. The design of O-Raid is evolutionary and retains all features of relational data base systems and those of a general purpose object-oriented programming language. O-Raid has several novel properties. Objects, classes, and inheritance are supported together with a predicate-base relational query language. O-Raid objects are compatible with C++ objects and may be read and manipulated by a C++ program without any 'impedance mismatch'. Relations and columns within relations may themselves be treated as objects with associated variables and methods. Relations may contain heterogeneous objects, that is, objects of more than one class in a certain column, which can individually evolve by being reclassified. Special facilities are provided to reduce the data search in a relation containing complex objects.

  1. Toward a Taxonomy of Educational Objectives in the Relational Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Allan R.

    A taxonomy of educational objectives which conceptualizes interpersonal skills in terms of measurable behavior is described. The categories represent six aspects of leadership capability--one of them cognitive (conceptualization), one of them cognitive-affective (evaluation), and four of them cognitive-affective-behavioral (leading, following,…

  2. The Influence of Object Relative Size on Priming and Explicit Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Uttl, Bob; Graf, Peter; Siegenthaler, Amy L.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects of object relative size on priming and explicit memory for color photos of common objects. Participants were presented with color photos of pairs of objects displayed in either appropriate or inappropriate relative sizes. Implicit memory was assessed by speed of object size ratings whereas explicit memory was assessed by an old/new recognition test. Study-to-test changes in relative size reduced both priming and explicit memory and had large effects for objects dis...

  3. Corporate Human Rights Obligations Under Stabilization Clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Letnar Cernic, Jernej

    2010-01-01

    Lawyers, economists and social scientists alike have for a number of years agreed that foreign investment has the potential to act as a catalyst for the enjoyment of an individual's fundamental human rights, particularly in developing countries. This article discusses and critically analyses corporate human rights obligations and the lack thereof under stabilization clauses in foreign investment contracts. The balance of this article is devoted to exploring three main issues relating to corpo...

  4. Relating Things and Stuff via ObjectProperty Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min Sun; Byung-Soo Kim; Kohli, Pushmeet; Savarese, Silvio

    2014-07-01

    In the last few years, substantially different approaches have been adopted for segmenting and detecting "things" (object categories that have a well defined shape such as people and cars) and "stuff" (object categories which have an amorphous spatial extent such as grass and sky). While things have been typically detected by sliding window or Hough transform based methods, detection of stuff is generally formulated as a pixel or segment-wise classification problem. This paper proposes a framework for scene understanding that models both things and stuff using a common representation while preserving their distinct nature by using a property list. This representation allows us to enforce sophisticated geometric and semantic relationships between thing and stuff categories via property interactions in a single graphical model. We use the latest advances made in the field of discrete optimization to efficiently perform maximum a posteriori (MAP) inference in this model. We evaluate our method on the Stanford dataset by comparing it against state-of-the-art methods for object segmentation and detection. We also show that our method achieves competitive performances on the challenging PASCAL '09 segmentation dataset. PMID:26353309

  5. Factors Related to Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Karin A. Pfeiffer; Dowda, Marsha; McIver, Kerry L.; Pate, Russell R

    2009-01-01

    This study examined correlates of objectively measured physical activity (PA) in a diverse sample of preschool children (age 3–5 years; n=331). Accelerometer min·hr?1 of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and non-sedentary activity (NSA) were the outcome measures. Correlations among potential correlates and PA ranged from r= ? .12–0.26. Correlates in the final MVPA model were age, race, sex, BMI Z score, and parent perception of athletic competence, explaining 37% of the variance. ...

  6. ‘De Regenkoning’ van Hugo Claus

    OpenAIRE

    S. W. van Zuydam

    1986-01-01

    The investigation in this article comprises the analysis of a poem by the Flemish author Hugo Claus, namely "De regenkoning". It is one of the poems in a sequence entitled "De ingewijde" (The initiated) which forms part of his volume of poetry "De Oostakkerse Gedichten” (1955). These poems are extremely esoteric and an attempt is made here to “decode” the "hidden mysteries” in this particular poem. Claus’ method of using a kind of secret language corresponds to a basic feature of (universal) ...

  7. La influencia del contexto referencial en la resolución de ambigüedades oración completiva/oración de relativo: Evidencia en español / The influence of referential context in solving ambiguities in complete sentences/relative clause: Evidence from Spanish

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura, Alonso; José, Antonio León.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza la resolución de ambigüedades sintácticas en español. De manera más específica, compara el procesamiento de oraciones con ambigüedad estructural (parsing) entre oración de relativo y oración completiva, con y sin contexto referencial, utilizando una metodología de tiempos [...] de lectura autoadministrada. El objetivo era comprobar si los resultados encontrados en lectores de habla inglesa se obtenían también en español. Los tiempos de lectura para las frases que contenían tanto oraciones completivas como oraciones de relativo fueron significativamente menores cuando iban precedidas de un contexto referencial. Estos resultados aportan evidencia congruente con los modelos referenciales (Crain & Steedman, 1985; Altmann & Steedman, 1988), que apuestan por un procesamiento basado en el uso de múltiples fuentes de información a la hora de resolver ambigüedades, y no solo en información de tipo estructural, tal y como sugieren los modelos modulares (Frazier, 1987; Mitchell, 1994; Mitchell, Cuetos, Corley & Brysbaert, 1995; Cuetos, Mitchell & Corley, 1996; Frazier & Clifton, 1996; Carreiras & Meseguer, 1999). Abstract in english This paper analyzes the resolution of syntactic ambiguities in Spanish. Specifically, it compares the processing of sentences with structural ambiguity between relative clause and complete sentences, with and without referential context, using different methods of self-administered reading times. Th [...] e aim was to check whether the results found in English-speaking readers is also obtained in Spanish. The reading times for sentences containing both complete sentences and relative clauses were significantly smaller when they were preceded by a referential context. These results provide evidence consistent with referential models (Crain & Steedman, 1985; Altmann & Steedman, 1988) supporting a process based on the use of multiple sources of information when solving ambiguities, and not just on structural information as suggested by modular models (Frazier, 1987; Mitchell, 1994; Mitchell, Cuetos, Corley & Brysbaert, 1995; Cuetos, Mitchell & Corley, 1996; Frazier & Clifton, 1996; Carreiras & Meseguer, 1999).

  8. La influencia del contexto referencial en la resolución de ambigüedades oración completiva/oración de relativo: Evidencia en español The influence of referential context in solving ambiguities in complete sentences/relative clause: Evidence from Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Alonso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza la resolución de ambigüedades sintácticas en español. De manera más específica, compara el procesamiento de oraciones con ambigüedad estructural (parsing entre oración de relativo y oración completiva, con y sin contexto referencial, utilizando una metodología de tiempos de lectura autoadministrada. El objetivo era comprobar si los resultados encontrados en lectores de habla inglesa se obtenían también en español. Los tiempos de lectura para las frases que contenían tanto oraciones completivas como oraciones de relativo fueron significativamente menores cuando iban precedidas de un contexto referencial. Estos resultados aportan evidencia congruente con los modelos referenciales (Crain & Steedman, 1985; Altmann & Steedman, 1988, que apuestan por un procesamiento basado en el uso de múltiples fuentes de información a la hora de resolver ambigüedades, y no solo en información de tipo estructural, tal y como sugieren los modelos modulares (Frazier, 1987; Mitchell, 1994; Mitchell, Cuetos, Corley & Brysbaert, 1995; Cuetos, Mitchell & Corley, 1996; Frazier & Clifton, 1996; Carreiras & Meseguer, 1999.This paper analyzes the resolution of syntactic ambiguities in Spanish. Specifically, it compares the processing of sentences with structural ambiguity between relative clause and complete sentences, with and without referential context, using different methods of self-administered reading times. The aim was to check whether the results found in English-speaking readers is also obtained in Spanish. The reading times for sentences containing both complete sentences and relative clauses were significantly smaller when they were preceded by a referential context. These results provide evidence consistent with referential models (Crain & Steedman, 1985; Altmann & Steedman, 1988 supporting a process based on the use of multiple sources of information when solving ambiguities, and not just on structural information as suggested by modular models (Frazier, 1987; Mitchell, 1994; Mitchell, Cuetos, Corley & Brysbaert, 1995; Cuetos, Mitchell & Corley, 1996; Frazier & Clifton, 1996; Carreiras & Meseguer, 1999.

  9. Perception of Object-Context Relations: Eye-Movement Analyses in Infants and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Mash, Clay; Arterberry, Martha E.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-eight 4-month-olds' and twenty-two 20-year-olds' attention to object-context relations was investigated using a common eye-movement paradigm. Infants and adults scanned both objects and contexts. Infants showed equivalent preferences for animals and vehicles and for congruent and incongruent object-context relations overall, more fixations…

  10. Stellar debris clouds in quasars and related objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The density and velocity dispersion in the stellar debris cloud produced by the tidal break-up of stars by the central black hole in a galactic nucleus are consistent with these clouds being the origin of the observed forbidden lines in quasars. The debris cloud is gravitationally bound to the central black hole. The accretion disk around the black hole produced enough ionizing photons to keep the debris cloud completely ionized. Collisions among the broken-up stars in the debris cloud cause them to lose energy and to fall towards the central black hole and its accretion disk. Most of this material impacts the accretion disk in the vicinity of the tidal radius of the black hole. The high-temperature gas produced by this impact may be responsible for the high-energy X-rays observed in the more luminous quasars and in radio galaxies. The relative scarcity of strong radio emitters among the normal quasars may be due to the fact that free-free absorption in the debris cloud prevents radio emission from reaching the observer from the dense inner part of the debris cloud and to the severe energy loss the relativistic particles have suffered by the time they have travelled sufficiently far from the centre of the debris cloud for their radio emission to be observable. Only after the black hole has seriously reduced the density of stars in the galactic nucleus and the luminosity of the quasar has begun to drop does the density in the debris cloud decrease sufficiently to allow the relativistic particles to escape without considerable energy loss. The giant radio galaxies have a number of properties which suggest that they are old quasars which have evolved past their maximum luminosity phase. Most Seyferts are also likely to be old quasars. (author)

  11. ‘De Regenkoning’ van Hugo Claus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. van Zuydam

    1986-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation in this article comprises the analysis of a poem by the Flemish author Hugo Claus, namely "De regenkoning". It is one of the poems in a sequence entitled "De ingewijde" (The initiated which forms part of his volume of poetry "De Oostakkerse Gedichten” (1955. These poems are extremely esoteric and an attempt is made here to “decode” the "hidden mysteries” in this particular poem. Claus’ method of using a kind of secret language corresponds to a basic feature of (universal initiation ceremonies, namely that everything that takes place is shrouded in secrecy. It was found that the nucleus of traditional initiations, namely sexual and mental maturation, likewise form a fundamental characteristic in Claus’ poem. Yet his "neophyte” is not (reborn into a "new” (sacred world, but initiated into the broken (profane realities of modern society.

  12. Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the safeguard clause notified by Greece on genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request of the European Commission, the European Food Safety Authority’s Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (EFSA GMO Panel evaluated the documentation submitted by Greece in support of its request for the prohibition of the placing on the market of the genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC. The EFSA GMO Panel notes that the majority of the publications referred to by Greece were already addressed by the EFSA GMO Panel in previous scientific outputs on maize MON 810 or other related insect-resistant genetically modified maize transformation events. In the remaining evidence provided by Greece, the EFSA GMO Panel could not identify any new data subject to scientific scrutiny or scientific information that would invalidate its previous risk assessments of maize MON 810. With regard to issues related to management and monitoring of maize MON 810, the EFSA GMO Panel refers to its recent recommendations for management and monitoring measures of maize MON 810. In conclusion, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that, based on the documentation submitted by Greece, there is no specific scientific evidence, in terms of risk to human and animal health or the environment, that would support the notification of a safeguard clause under Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC and that would invalidate the GMO Panel’s previous risk assessments of maize MON 810.

  13. How to combine text-mining methods to validate induced Verb-Object relations?

    OpenAIRE

    Béchet, Nicolas; Chauché, Jacques; Prince, Violaine; Roche, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes methods using Natural Language Processing approaches to extract and validate induced syntactic relations (here restricted to the Verb-Object relation). These methods use a syntactic parser and a semantic closeness measure to extract such relations. Then, their validation is based on two different techniques: A Web Validation system on one part, then a Semantic-Vectorbased approach, and finally different combinations of both techniques in order to rank induced Verb-Object ...

  14. Turn Continuation and Clause Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couper-Kuhlen, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the viability of the analytic distinction between "turn-constructional unit (TCU) continuation" (i.e., continuing a turn beyond a point of possible completion with grammatically dependent material) and "new TCU" (i.e., continuing a turn with grammatically independent material) when hypotactic clause combinations are involved.…

  15. Using a runway paradigm to assess the relative strength of rats' motivations for enrichment objects

    OpenAIRE

    Hanmer, Louise A.; Riddell, Patricia Mary.; Williams, Claire Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory animals should be provided with enrichment objects in their cages; however, it is first necessary to test whether the proposed enrichment objects provide benefits that increase the animals’ welfare. The two main paradigms currently used to assess proposed enrichment objects are the choice test, which is limited to determining relative frequency of choice, and consumer demand studies, which can indicate the strength of a preference but are complex to design. Here, we propos...

  16. Optimization of tardiness related objectives in single machine environments via multirecombined evolutionary algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    De San Pedro, María Eugenia; Villagra, Andrea; Lasso, Marta; Pandolfi, Daniel; Vilanova, Gabriela; Vivar , M. Díaz de; Gallard, Raúl Hector

    2003-01-01

    Tardiness related objectives are of utmost importance in production systems when client satisfaction is a main goal of a company. These objectives measure the system response to the client requirements and rate manager´s performance In scheduling problems with diverse single or multiple objectives and environments Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) were successfully applied. Latest improvements in EAs have been developed by means of multirecombination, a method, which allows multiple exchange of g...

  17. Clause Boundary Identification using Classifier and Clause Markers in Urdu Language

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daraksha, Parveen; Ratna, Sanyal; Afreen, Ansari.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the identification of clause boundary for the Urdu language. We have used Conditional Random Field as the classification method and the clause markers. The clause markers play the role to detect the type of subordinate clause, which is with or within the main clause. If there is [...] any misclassification after testing with different sentences then more rules are identified to get high recall and precision. Obtained results show that this approach efficiently determines the type of sub-ordinate clause and its boundary.

  18. A case Study of Applying Object-Relational Persistence in Astronomy Data Archiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, S. S.; Hiriart, R.; Barg, I.; Warner, P.; Gasson, D.

    2005-12-01

    The NOAO Science Archive (NSA) team is developing a comprehensive domain model to capture the science data in the archive. Java and an object model derived from the domain model weil address the application layer of the archive system. However, since RDBMS is the best proven technology for data management, the challenge is the paradigm mismatch between the object and the relational models. Transparent object-relational mapping (ORM) persistence is a successful solution to this challenge. In the data modeling and persistence implementation of NSA, we are using Hibernate, a well-accepted ORM tool, to bridge the object model in the business tier and the relational model in the database tier. Thus, the database is isolated from the Java application. The application queries directly on objects using a DBMS-independent object-oriented query API, which frees the application developers from the low level JDBC and SQL so that they can focus on the domain logic. We present the detailed design of the NSA R3 (Release 3) data model and object-relational persistence, including mapping, retrieving and caching. Persistence layer optimization and performance tuning will be analyzed. The system is being built on J2EE, so the integration of Hibernate into the EJB container and the transaction management are also explored.

  19. Material Adverse Effect Clause – Proper Legal Work or Contribution to False Sense of Security?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Regardless of whether you are a buyer or a seller, and regardless what the object of the contract is, it is essentially important that you seek to protect your rights through various clauses that must aim to provide clearness to contractual obligations, defini- tions of breach, and consequences thereof. The article addresses a number of interest- protective legal mechanisms and necessity of their explicit incorporation in the contract. With emphasis on Material Adverse Effect clause the paper focuses on its exigency and applicability.

  20. Investigation of Inlet Gas Streams Effect on the Modified Claus Reaction Furnace

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Rezazadeh; Sima Rezvantalab

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to model the main reactions that take place in the Claus reactor furnace and compare it with actual data and simulated process. Since the most important point is the selection of suitable reaction conditions to increase the reactor performance, the model is formulated to predict the performance of the Claus plant. To substantiate the theoretical model, we used actual process condition and feed composition in Shahid Hasheminejad Gas Refinery. Model equations hav...

  1. 37 CFR 401.3 - Use of the standard clauses at § 401.14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...work on behalf of the Government at a Government laboratory under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) pursuant...justification relates to a particular field of use or market, the clause might be modified along...

  2. Late development of metric part-relational processing in object recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jüttner, Martin; Petters, Dean; Wakui, Elley; Davidoff, Jules

    2014-08-01

    Four experiments with unfamiliar objects examined the remarkably late consolidation of part-relational relative to part-based object recognition (Jüttner, Wakui, Petters, Kaur, & Davidoff, 2013). Our results indicate a particularly protracted developmental trajectory for the processing of metric part relations. Schoolchildren aged 7 to 14 years and adults were tested in 3-Alternative-Forced-Choice tasks to judge the correct appearance of upright and inverted newly learned multipart objects that had been manipulated in terms of individual parts or part relations. Experiment 1 showed that even the youngest tested children were close to adult levels of performance for recognizing categorical changes of individual parts and relative part position. By contrast, Experiment 2 demonstrated that performance for detecting metric changes of relative part position was distinctly reduced in young children compared with recognizing metric changes of individual parts, and did not approach the latter until 11 to 12 years. A similar developmental dissociation was observed in Experiment 3, which contrasted the detection of metric relative-size changes and metric part changes. Experiment 4 showed that manipulations of metric size that were perceived as part (rather than part-relational) changes eliminated this dissociation. Implications for theories of object recognition and similarities to the development of face perception are discussed. PMID:24979361

  3. Constraint Specialisation in Horn Clause Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query-answer transformation of a given set of clauses and a goal. The effect is to propagate the constraints from the goal top-down and propagate answer constraints bottom-up. Our approach does not unfold the clauses at all; we use the constraints from the model to compute a specialised version of each clause in the program. The approach is independent of the abstract domain and the constraints theory underlying the clauses. Experimental results on verification problems show that this is an effective transformation, both in our own verification tools (convex polyhedra analyser) and as a pre-processor to other Horn clause verification tools.

  4. Hydrodynamic Interactions between Two Forced Objects of Arbitrary Shape: II Relative Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfriend, Tomer; Witten, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    We study the relative translation of two arbitrarily shaped objects, caused by their hydrodynamic interaction as they are forced through a viscous fluid in the limit of zero Reynolds number. It is well known that in the case of two rigid spheres in an unbounded fluid, the hydrodynamic interaction does not produce relative translation. More generally such an effective pair-interaction vanishes in configurations with spatial inversion symmetry, for example, an enantiomorphic pair in mirror image positions has no relative translation. We show that the breaking of inversion symmetry by boundaries of the system accounts for the interactions between two spheres in confined geometries, as observed in experiments. The same general principle also provides new predictions for interactions in other object configurations near obstacles. We examine the time-dependent relative translation of two self-aligning objects, extending the numerical analysis of our preceding publication [Goldfriend, Diamant and Witten, arXiv:1502....

  5. An early sex difference in the relation between mental rotation and object preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Jillian E.; Udelson, Hallie B.; Jeon, Sung O.; Lourenco, Stella F.

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that males outperform females on mental rotation tasks as early as infancy. Sex differences in object preference have also been shown to emerge early in development and precede sex-typed play in childhood. Although research with adults and older children is suggestive of a relationship between play preferences and visuospatial abilities, including mental rotation, little is known about the developmental origins of this relationship. The present study compared mental rotation ability and object preference in 6- to 13-month-old infants. We used a novel paradigm to examine individual differences in infants’ mental rotation abilities as well as their differential preference for one of two sex-typed objects. A sex difference was found on both tasks, with boys showing an advantage in performance on the mental rotation task and exhibiting greater visual attention to the male-typed object (i.e., a toy truck) than to the female-typed object (i.e., a doll) in comparison to girls. Moreover, we found a relation between mental rotation and object preference that varied by sex. Greater visual interest in the male-typed object was related to greater mental rotation performance in boys, but not in girls. Possible explanations related to perceptual biases, prenatal androgen exposure, and experiential influences for this sex difference are discussed. PMID:26005426

  6. Constraint Specialisation in Horn Clause Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query-answer transformation of a given set of clauses and a goal. The effect is to propagate the constraints from the goal top-down and propagate answer constraints bottom-up. Our approach does not unfold the clauses at all; we use the constraints from the model to compute a specialised version of each clause in the program. The approach ...

  7. Main clause c? ‘that’ in Romanian

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Hill

    2010-01-01

    Romanian c? ‘that’ is the Force head of subordinated clauses (Hill 2004). In this paper I point out that the complementizer c? ‘that’ may occur in root (vs. subordinated) declarative clauses as well, but only in certain environments, which I identify as being the speech act domain promoting the speaker’s point of view. I argue that in such contexts, main clause c? ‘that’ marks the border between various pragmatic sub-fields derived at the left periphery (LP) of clauses, rather than typing the...

  8. The k0 and relative INAA methods to determine elements in entire archaeological pottery objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages of instrumental neutron activation analysis applied to archaeological ceramics have been enhanced through the analysis of entire objects, using both the k 0 method and the relative method, respectively, to determine the concentrations of chemical elements in aliquots of replicate objects used as comparators and in the sample object. Twenty-two chemical elements of archaeological importance were measured in mud figurines from Caral civilization (5000 year BC), irradiated inside a well-characterized radial channel facility of the nuclear research reactor at IPEN, Peru. The results showed less than 10 % of bias for most of the elements. (author)

  9. Cataclysmic binaries and related objects in the context of stellar evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataclysmic binaries (CBs) and related objects are discussed in the context of stellar evolution. Present knowledge about these objects and present theories about their formation are reviewed. Problems relating to the secondary components, including mass loss and the possibility of evolved secondaries, are addressed. Theoretical predictions of the mass spectrum of white dwarfs are compared with observations, and the formation of massive white dwarfs in CBs is discussed. The theoretical possibility that white dwarfs in CBs are continuously accreting is addressed, and the reason for the secondary's mass loss and its implications for the evolution of CBs are considered

  10. 48 CFR 503.1004 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 503.1004 Section 503.1004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 503.1004 Contract clauses. (a) The...

  11. 48 CFR 3.1004 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 3.1004 Section 3.1004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 3.1004 Contract clauses. (a) Insert the...

  12. Semantic Relations between Visual Objects Can Be Unconsciously Processed but Not Reported under Change Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Felix; Bernasconi, Fosco; Busch, Niko A

    2015-11-01

    Change blindness-the failure to detect changes in visual scenes-has often been interpreted as a result of impoverished visual information encoding or as a failure to compare the prechange and postchange scene. In the present electroencephalography study, we investigated whether semantic features of prechange and postchange information are processed unconsciously, even when observers are unaware that a change has occurred. We presented scenes composed of natural objects in which one object changed from one presentation to the next. Object changes were either semantically related (e.g., rail car changed to rail) or unrelated (e.g., rail car changed to sausage). Observers were first asked to detect whether any change had occurred and then to judge the semantic relation of the two objects involved in the change. We found a semantic mismatch ERP effect, that is, a more negative-going ERP for semantically unrelated compared to related changes, originating from a cortical network including the left middle temporal gyrus and occipital cortex and resembling the N400 effect, albeit at longer latencies. Importantly, this semantic mismatch effect persisted even when observers were unaware of the change and the semantic relationship of prechange and postchange object. This finding implies that change blindness does not preclude the encoding of the prechange and postchange objects' identities and possibly even the comparison of their semantic content. Thus, change blindness cannot be interpreted as resulting from impoverished or volatile visual representations or as a failure to process the prechange and postchange object. Instead, change detection appears to be limited at a later, postperceptual stage. PMID:26244723

  13. Managing XML Data to optimize Performance into Object-Relational Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana BOTHA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper propose some possibilities for manage XML data in order to optimize performance into object-relational databases. It is detailed the possibility of storing XML data into such databases, using for exemplification an Oracle database and there are tested some optimizing techniques of the queries over XMLType tables, like indexing and partitioning tables.

  14. Information Structure and Direct Object Indexation in Persian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Bahrami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Object indexation is a grammatical phenomenon in which a clitic pronoun, co-referential with the free nominal object, appends to the verb. Optionality of indexation in Persian leads us to consider the role of pragmatic factors in its occurring. The present study aims at investigating the influence of information structure on direct object indexation in Persian. To do this, the data of standard spoken Persian including 540 cases were extracted from various resources and then analyzed within the framework of Role and Reference Grammar. The high frequency of topical direct object indexation confirms the role of information structure in direct object indexation. Analyzing the few cases of focal direct object indexation indicated that all cases of both topical and focal object indexation necessarily involve identifiable referents. Hence, the basic requirement in direct object indexation in Persian is identifiability of its referent. Considering the syntactic position of direct object in Persian clauses shows strong overlap of topical and focal objects. The post-core slot only belongs to the topical direct object and focal object cannot be placed there. Therefore, in order to identify the pragmatic relations of direct object in a clause, considering the context of the discourse is highly important. 

  15. On the nature of escapable relative islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj; Nyvad, Anne Mette

    2014-01-01

    It is generally assumed that universal island constraints block extraction from relative clauses. However, it is well-known that such extractions can be acceptable in the Scandinavian languages. Kush & Lindahl (2011) argue that the acceptability in Swedish is illusory; relative clauses that allow extraction have a different structure (small clause structure) from those that block extraction (true relatives, CPs). We present data from an acceptability survey of relative clause extraction in Danis...

  16. Stock loan model with Automatic termination clause

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Zongxia; Jiang, Shuqing

    2010-01-01

    This paper works out fair values of stock loan model with automatic termination clause. This stock loan is treated as a generalized perpetual American option with an automatic termination clause and possibly negative interest rate. Since it helps a bank to control the risk, banks should charge less service fees compared to stock loans without automatic termination clauses. The automatic termination clause is in fact a stop order set by the bank. We aim at establishing explicitly the value of such a loan and ranges of fair values of key parameters : this loan size, interest rate, fee for providing such a service and quantity of this automatic termination clause and relationships among these parameters as well as the optimal terminable stopping times.

  17. The speed of object recognition from a haptic glance: event-related potential evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtubay-Antolin, Ane; Rodriguez-Herreros, Borja; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2015-05-01

    Recognition of an object usually involves a wide range of sensory inputs. Accumulating evidence shows that first brain responses associated with the visual discrimination of objects emerge around 150 ms, but fewer studies have been devoted to measure the first neural signature of haptic recognition. To investigate the speed of haptic processing, we recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) during a shape discrimination task without visual information. After a restricted exploratory procedure, participants (n = 27) were instructed to judge whether the touched object corresponded to an expected object whose name had been previously presented in a screen. We encountered that any incongruence between the presented word and the shape of the object evoked a frontocentral negativity starting at ?175 ms. With the use of source analysis and L2 minimum-norm estimation, the neural sources of this differential activity were located in higher level somatosensory areas and prefrontal regions involved in error monitoring and cognitive control. Our findings reveal that the somatosensory system is able to complete an amount of haptic processing substantial enough to trigger conflict-related responses in medial and prefrontal cortices in haptic system is a fast recognition device closely interlinked with error- and conflict-monitoring processes. PMID:25744887

  18. Form and function in early clause-combining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustigman, Lyle; Berman, Ruth A

    2016-01-01

    The study characterizes developmental trends in early Hebrew clause-combining (CC) by analyzing the interplay between linguistic form and communicative function in different interactional settings. Analysis applied to all utterances produced by three children aged 2;0-3;0 who combined two or more clauses, either self-initiated or on the basis of adult input. Ten types of CC were analyzed for marking by connectives (e.g. the Hebrew equivalents of 'and', 'that', 'so'). Four shared consecutive developmental phases emerged: non-marking; partial marking by 'and' and 'that'; use of 'but' and 'because', favored significantly in interlocutor-supported contexts; marking of adverbial relations and more varied use of še- 'that'. These CC processes are interpreted as reflecting general properties of language development, in the form of gradually increasing specification of form-function relations under the impact of interlocutor-child interactive support combined with Hebrew-particular typological factors. PMID:25736699

  19. [Perception of objects and scenes in age-related macular degeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, T H C; Boucart, M

    2012-01-01

    Vision related quality of life questionnaires suggest that patients with AMD exhibit difficulties in finding objects and in mobility. In the natural environment, objects seldom appear in isolation. They appear in a spatial context which may obscure them in part or place obstacles in the patient's path. Furthermore, the luminance of a natural scene varies as a function of the hour of the day and the light source, which can alter perception. This study aims to evaluate recognition of objects and natural scenes by patients with AMD, by using photographs of such scenes. Studies demonstrate that AMD patients are able to categorize scenes as nature scenes or urban scenes and to discriminate indoor from outdoor scenes with a high degree of precision. They detect objects better in isolation, in color, or against a white background than in their natural contexts. These patients encounter more difficulties than normally sighted individuals in detecting objects in a low-contrast, black-and-white scene. These results may have implications for rehabilitation, for layout of texts and magazines for the reading-impaired and for the rearrangement of the spatial environment of older AMD patients in order to facilitate mobility, finding objects and reducing the risk of falls. PMID:22221712

  20. The syntactic complexity of Russian relative clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Roger; Fedorenko, Evelina; Gibson, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Although syntactic complexity has been investigated across dozens of studies, the available data still greatly underdetermine relevant theories of processing difficulty. Memory-based and expectation-based theories make opposite predictions regarding fine-grained time course of processing difficulty in syntactically constrained contexts, and each class of theory receives support from results on some constructions in some languages. Here we report four self-paced reading experiments on the onli...

  1. Disjunctive Interpolants for Horn-Clause Verification (Extended Technical Report)

    OpenAIRE

    Rümmer, Philipp; Hojjat, Hossein; Kuncak, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    One of the main challenges in software verification is efficient and precise compositional analysis of programs with procedures and loops. Interpolation methods remain one of the most promising techniques for such verification, and are closely related to solving Horn clause constraints. We introduce a new notion of interpolation, disjunctive interpolation, which solve a more general class of problems in one step compared to previous notions of interpolants, such as tree inte...

  2. Parametric Optimization on Multi-Objective Precision Turning Using Grey Relational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Y. Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, L9(34 orthogonal array of Taguchi experiment is selected for four parameters (speed, cutting depth, feed rate, tool nose runoff with three levels in optimizing the multi-objective (surface roughness, tool wear and material removal rate precision turning on an ECOCA-3807 CNC (Computer Numerical Controlled lathe. Through the examination of surface roughness (Ra, tool wear ratio (mm-2 and the calculation of MRR; the multiple objectives are then received. By using Grey Relational Analysis (GRA, the multiple objectives can additionally be integrated and introduced as the S/N (signal to noise ratio into the Taguchi experiment. The mean effects for S/N ratios are moreover analyzed by MINITAB to achieve the multi-objective turning parameters. Through the verification results, it is shown that both surface roughness and tool wear ratio from present optimum parameters are greatly advanced with minor decrease on the MRR (Material Removal Rate comparing to those from benchmark parameters. This study not only proposes a novel optimization technique using GRA, but also contributes the satisfactory solution for multiple CNC turning objectives with profound insight.

  3. Implicit Memory for Object Locations Depends on Reactivation of Encoding-Related Brain Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Manelis, Anna; Hanson, Catherine; Hanson, Stephen José

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the correspondence between implicit memory and the reactivation of encoding-related brain regions. By using a classification method, we examined whether reactivation reflects only the similarities between study and test or voxels at the reactivated regions are diagnostic of facilitation in the implicit memory task. A simple detection task served as incidental encoding of object–location pairings. A subsequent visual search task served as the indirect (implicit) test of mem...

  4. Using Object-Relational Mapping to Create the Distributed Databases in a Hybrid Cloud Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Lukyanchikov, Oleg; Pluzhnik, Evgeniy; Payain, Simon; Nikulchev, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges currently problems in the use of cloud services is the task of designing of specialized data management systems. This is especially important for hybrid systems in which the data are located in public and private clouds. Implementation monitoring functions querying, scheduling and processing software must be properly implemented and is an integral part of the system. To provide these functions is proposed to use an object-relational mapping (ORM). The a...

  5. Epidemiological perspectives on sleep : health-related outcomes and subjective-objective sleep assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Westerlund, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This thesis aimed to expand knowledge about self-reported habitual sleep in relation to health outcomes and objectively measured sleep. Study I was a cross-sectional analysis of 40,197 Swedish adult volunteers participating in the National March, a fundraising event for the Swedish Cancer Society held in 1997. We compared the entire distribution of BMI between subjects with different sleep patterns. Relative to those who reported 6–8 h or good-quality sleep, the upper tail of the BMI di...

  6. Adding Hierarchical Objects to Relational Database General-Purpose XML-Based Information Managements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Chun; Knight, Chris; La, Tracy; Maluf, David; Bell, David; Tran, Khai Peter; Gawdiak, Yuri

    2006-01-01

    NETMARK is a flexible, high-throughput software system for managing, storing, and rapid searching of unstructured and semi-structured documents. NETMARK transforms such documents from their original highly complex, constantly changing, heterogeneous data formats into well-structured, common data formats in using Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) and/or Extensible Markup Language (XML). The software implements an object-relational database system that combines the best practices of the relational model utilizing Structured Query Language (SQL) with those of the object-oriented, semantic database model for creating complex data. In particular, NETMARK takes advantage of the Oracle 8i object-relational database model using physical-address data types for very efficient keyword searches of records across both context and content. NETMARK also supports multiple international standards such as WEBDAV for drag-and-drop file management and SOAP for integrated information management using Web services. The document-organization and -searching capabilities afforded by NETMARK are likely to make this software attractive for use in disciplines as diverse as science, auditing, and law enforcement.

  7. A COMPARISON OF THE TURKIC TYPE RELATIVE CLAUSE TYPOLOGY WITH JAPANESE, KOREAN AND HUNGRAIAN TYPOLOGIES TÜRK D?L? SIFAT-F??LL? YAPI T?POLOJ?S?N?N JAPON, KORE VE MACAR T?POLOJ?LER? ?LE KAR?ILA?TIRILMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat KARABULUT

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, we dealt with relative clause typologies in the world languages in general and Turkic Type Relative Clause typology in particular. By doing this, we compared Turkish relative clause construction with Japanese, Korean and Hungarian ones, which are all considered in Uralic and Altaic Language Family. In doing this, we made use of Chomskian theories called Generative-Transformational Grammar and Governement and Binding Thoery. As is known, Chomsky declared that all languages have the same typolgy in the Deep Structure. The changes among languages are witnessed in Surface Structure. There is a transformation between deep structure and surface structure. It means that, a noun pharse can be moved to another place leaving an empty place behind by constructing a chain between the empty place and its antecedents (moved element. When we compared Turkic type relative clause typology with Japanese, Korean and Hungarian, we amasingly saw that the strategies are the same in these langauges. Bu çal??mada, dünya dillerinde önemli bir yere sahip olan s?fat-fiilli yap?lar?n tipolojilerini inceledik. Bunu yapmaktaki amac?m?z, Türk Dili Tipi S?fat-fiilli Yap? tipolojinsin dünya dilleri aras?ndaki yerini tespit etmek ve benzer tipolojiler ile kar??la?t?rmakt?r. Türk dili ile akraba oldu?u varsay?lan Japon, Kore ve Macar dillerini, s?fat-fiil tipolojileri aç?s?nda analiz ederek Türk Dili Tipolojisi ile olan benzerlikleri ortaya koymaya çal??t?k. S?fat-fiil tipolojisini analiz ederken, Chomsky’nin Üretken-Dönü?ümlü Dil Bilgisi ve Yönetim ve Ba?lama Kuram?’ndan faydaland?k. Dilin yap?sal olarak incelenmesi gerekti?ini ileri süren Chomsky, derin yap? ve yüzey yap? kavramlar? ile ta??n?m ve dönü?ümün bütün diller için kaç?n?lmaz bir gerçeklik oldu?unu gösterdi. Biz de bu çal??mada ad öbe?i ta??n?m? ve bo?luk kuram? ?????nda, s?fat-fiilli yap? tipolojilerini kar??la?t?rmal? olarak ele ald?k ve Türk, Japon, Kore ve Macar dilleri aras?ndaki ?a??rt?c? benzerli?i, öbek yap? ve söz dizimi seviyesinde tespit ettik.

  8. Reduced object related negativity response indicates impaired auditory scene analysis in adults with autistic spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veema Lodhia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Auditory Scene Analysis provides a useful framework for understanding atypical auditory perception in autism. Specifically, a failure to segregate the incoming acoustic energy into distinct auditory objects might explain the aversive reaction autistic individuals have to certain auditory stimuli or environments. Previous research with non-autistic participants has demonstrated the presence of an Object Related Negativity (ORN in the auditory event related potential that indexes pre-attentive processes associated with auditory scene analysis. Also evident is a later P400 component that is attention dependent and thought to be related to decision-making about auditory objects. We sought to determine whether there are differences between individuals with and without autism in the levels of processing indexed by these components. Electroencephalography (EEG was used to measure brain responses from a group of 16 autistic adults, and 16 age- and verbal-IQ-matched typically-developing adults. Auditory responses were elicited using lateralized dichotic pitch stimuli in which inter-aural timing differences create the illusory perception of a pitch that is spatially separated from a carrier noise stimulus. As in previous studies, control participants produced an ORN in response to the pitch stimuli. However, this component was significantly reduced in the participants with autism. In contrast, processing differences were not observed between the groups at the attention-dependent level (P400. These findings suggest that autistic individuals have difficulty segregating auditory stimuli into distinct auditory objects, and that this difficulty arises at an early pre-attentive level of processing.

  9. Is the Movement Deficit in Syntactic SLI Related to Traces or to Thematic Role Transfer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, N.; Novogrodsky, R.

    2007-01-01

    Children with Syntactic Specific Language Impairment (S-SLI) have difficulties understanding object relative clauses, which have been ascribed to a deficit in syntactic movement. The current study explores the nature of the deficit in movement, and specifically whether it is related to a deficit in the construction of syntactic structure and…

  10. Prefrontal and striatal activity related to values of objects and locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DaeyeolLee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The value of an object acquired by a particular action often determines the motivation to produce that action. Previous studies found neural signals related to the values of different objects or goods in the orbitofrontal cortex, while the values of outcomes expected from different actions are broadly represented in multiple brain areas implicated in movement planning. However, how the brain combines the values associated with various objects and the information about their locations is not known. In this study, we tested whether the neurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and striatum in rhesus monkeys might contribute to translating the value signals between multiple frames of reference. Monkeys were trained to perform an oculomotor intertemporal choice in which the color of a saccade target and the number of its surrounding dots signaled the magnitude of reward and its delay, respectively. In both DLPFC and striatum, temporally discounted values associated with specific target colors and locations were encoded by partially overlapping populations of neurons. In the DLPFC, the information about reward delays and temporally discounted values of rewards available from specific target locations emerged earlier than the corresponding signals for target colors. Similar results were reproduced by a simple network model built to compute temporally discounted values of rewards in different locations. Therefore, DLPFC might play an important role in estimating the values of different actions by combining the previously learned values of objects and their present locations.

  11. Simple Ontology of Manipulation Actions based on Hand-Object Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wörgötter, Florentin; Aksoy, E. E.

    2013-01-01

    Humans can perform a multitude of different actions with their hands (manipulations). In spite of this, so far there have been only a few attempts to represent manipulation types trying to understand the underlying principles. Here we first discuss how manipulation actions are structured in space and time. For this we use as temporal anchor points those moments where two objects (or hand and object) touch or un-touch each other during a manipulation. We show that by this one can define a relatively small tree-like manipulation ontology. We find less than 30 fundamental manipulations. The temporal anchors also provide us with information about when to pay attention to additional important information, for example when to consider trajectory shapes and relative poses between objects. As a consequence a highly condensed representation emerges by which different manipulations can be recognized and encoded. Examples of manipulations recognition and execution by a robot based on this representation are given at theend of this study.

  12. The Role of Objective Numeracy and Fluid Intelligence in Sex-Related Protective Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Nathan F; Peters, Ellen; Leon, Juan; Benavides, Martin; Baker, David P; Norris, Alison

    2015-01-01

    A wealth of studies has indicated that greater cognitive ability is related to healthier behaviors and outcomes throughout the lifespan. In the present paper, we focus on objective numeracy (ability with numbers) and present findings from a study conducted in the Peruvian Highlands that examines the relations among formal education, numeracy, other more general cognitive skills, and a sex-related protective behavior (condom use). Our results show a potential unique protective effect of numeracy on this healthprotective behavior even after accounting for measures of fluid intelligence and potential confounding factors. These results add to a growing literature highlighting the robust protective effect on health behaviors of greater cognitive skills that are enhanced through schooling. Challenges for future research will be identifying the causal mechanisms that underlie these effects and translating this knowledge into effective interventions for improving health. PMID:26149157

  13. 48 CFR 923.7003 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Renewable Energy Technologies, and Occupational...at 952.223-71, Integration of Environment, Safety...clause 952.223-71, Integration of Environment...952.223-71, Integration of Environment...and Other Classified Information and Protection...

  14. 48 CFR 1403.1004 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 1403.1004 Contract clause. (a) In all awards...

  15. 48 CFR 503.1004 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 503.1004 Contract clauses. (a) The FAR...

  16. 48 CFR 8.1104 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...208-6, Marking of Leased Vehicles. (d) A clause substantially...208-7, Tagging of Leased Vehicles, for vehicles leased over 60 days (see subpart...contracts for supplies when a fixed-price contract is contemplated, but...

  17. Modelling with Relational Calculus of Object and Component Systems - rCOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhenbang; Hannousse, Abdel Hakim

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents a formalization of functional and behavioural requirements, and a refinement of requirements to a design for CoCoME using the Relational Calculus of Object and Component Systems (rCOS). We give a model of requirements based on an abstraction of the use cases described in Chapter 3.2. Then the refinement calculus of rCOS is used to derive design models corresponding to the top level designs of Chapter 3.4. We demonstrate how rCOS supports modelling different views and their relationships of the system and the separation of concerns in the development.

  18. Using Object-Relational Mapping to Create the Distributed Databases in a Hybrid Cloud Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Lukyanchikov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges currently problems in the use of cloud services is the task of designing of data management systems. This is especially important for hybrid systems in which the data are located in public and private clouds. Implementation monitoring functions querying, scheduling and processing software must be properly implemented and is an integral part of the system. To provide these functions is proposed to use an object-relational mapping (ORM. The article devoted to presenting the approach of designing databases for information systems hosted in a hybrid cloud infrastructure. It also provides an example of the development of ORM library.

  19. Field-Testing Reusable Learning Objects Related to Sensory Over-Responsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan M. Gee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is an increased need for dynamic, mobile, and relevant parent and caregiver education related to autism spectrum disorders (ASD and Sensory Processing (SP. This need may be due to the increased incidence of the conditions’ co-morbidity and the revision of the diagnostic criteria of ASD. Reusable learning objects (RLOs have been implemented as instructional tools as a part of, or adjunct to, formal health care education programs. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the appropriateness of RLOs as a part of routine patient and caregiver instruction of children with ASD. Method. A semi-structured interview/rating scale was implemented among three practicing occupational therapists to ascertain their opinions regarding six prototype RLOs related to sensory processing for caregivers of children with ASD. Results. The participants’ perspectives revealed that the SP-based prototype RLOs were a viable and valuable option to be included as a resource for parents and caregivers of children with ASD. Conclusion. The findings of this study suggest that RLOs related to SP were valuable, especially related to their subject matter, accessibility, and reusability. Furthermore, the participants indirectly identified the strengths related to the foundational concepts of RLOs and how they could be applied to other therapeutic and behavioral topics for parents and caregivers of children with ASD.

  20. Formalized description of basic structure of representation of matrix universal object-relational databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklyaev Ivan Aleksandrovich

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A formal description of the relational structure of data representation (SRD is expanded by its foreign level, corresponding to a set of databases that allows simultaneous work with several matrix universal object-relational data-bases (MUORDB. In MUORDB the possibility of formation of complex units of information is realized, for this the fifth dimension has been set. This does not contradict the properties of atomicity of relational databases. The concept of MUORDB formation is based first on the layout of the relational SRD in a joint matrix structure, i.e. metadata are represented in the same form as substan-tive information relational SRD. In MUORDB the structure of the tuple is deep-ened by one dimension and its element is extended from two to five compo-nents: a reference to a field (attribute of the table, meaning, the boundaries of time of limited information relevance of the tuple element, the number of the parent element in the tuple, designed for tree-like structure of complex information unit. The fundamental step in creating a MUORDB database is to develop a universal data type. The value of the generic type is placed in a dynamic array of byte type, which hosted at the seventh dimension of the MUORDB matrix. Thus, the final seven-dimensional matrix, consisting of six dynamic arrays and the sixth static array responsible for the tuple element is obtained.

  1. Querying Uncertain Data in Geospatial Object-relational Databases Using SQL and Fuzzy Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ?ura?iová, R.

    2013-12-01

    This paper deals with uncertainty modeling in spatial object-relational databases by the use of Structured Query Language (SQL). The fundamental principles of uncertainty modeling by fuzzy sets are applied in the area of geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial databases. A spatial database system includes types of spatial data and implements the spatial extension of SQL. The implementation of the principles of fuzzy logic to spatial databases brings an opportunity for the efficient processing of uncertain data, which is important, especially when using various data sources (e.g., multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) on the basis of heterogeneous spatial data resources). The modeling and data processing of uncertainties are presented in relation to the applicable International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards (standards of the series 19100 Geographic information) and the relevant specifications of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The fuzzy spatial query approach is applied and tested on a case study with a fundamental database for GIS in Slovakia.

  2. Event-Related Potential (ERP) Indices of Infants' Recognition of Familiar and Unfamiliar Objects in Two and Three Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Leslie J.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Dawson, Geraldine

    2006-01-01

    We measured infants' recognition of familiar and unfamiliar 3-D objects and their 2-D representations using event-related potentials (ERPs). Infants differentiated familiar from unfamiliar objects when viewing them in both two and three dimensions. However, differentiation between the familiar and novel objects occurred more quickly when infants…

  3. A Comparative Study Between the Performance of Relational & Object Oriented Database in Data Warehousing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpa Suri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A data warehouse is a repository of subjectively selected and adapted operational data which cansuccessfully answer any ad hoc, statistical, complex or analytical queries. Data warehousing technology isbecoming essential for effective business intelligence, business strategy formulation and implementation ina globally competitive environment where in larger and larger amounts of data are required to beprocessed faster and faster for comprehension of its real meaning and impact. A warehouse is a subjectoriented,integrated, time-variant and non-volatile collection of data in support of management's decisionmaking process”. Data that gives information about a particular subject instead of about a company'songoing operations. It is integrated as data that is gathered into the data warehouse from a variety ofsources and merged into a coherent whole. Data warehouse system is time variant as all data in the datawarehouse is identified with a particular time period This paper discusses in detail two existing databasemodels used for data warehousing, the relational database and object oriented database and does ananalysis of the benefits of Object Oriented databases over the conventional relational database in Datawarehousing.

  4. 48 CFR 52.301 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). 52.301 Section 52.301 Federal...CONTRACT CLAUSES Provision and Clause Matrix 52.301 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). Note: The FAR matrix is...

  5. 48 CFR 1352.301 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). 1352.301 Section 1352.301...CONTRACT CLAUSES Provisions and Clauses Matrix 1352.301 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). ER08MR10.000...

  6. Legal briefing: conscience clauses and conscientious refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to conscience clauses and conscientious refusal. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it has also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions. Over the past several months, conscientious refusal disputes have had an unusually high profile not only in courthouses, but also in legislative and regulatory halls across the United States. Healthcare providers' own moral beliefs have been obstructing and are expected to increasingly obstruct patients' access to medical services. For example, some providers, on ethical or moral grounds, have denied: (1) sterilization procedures to pregnant patients, (2) pain medications in end-of-life situations, and (3) information about emergency contraception to rape victims. On the other hand, many healthcare providers have been forced to provide medical treatment that is inconsistent with their moral beliefs. There are two fundamental types of conscientious objection laws. First, there are laws that permit healthcare workers to refuse providing - on ethical, moral, or religious grounds healthcare services that they might otherwise have a legal or employer-mandated obligation to provide. Second, there are laws directed at forcing healthcare workers to provide services to which they might have ethical, moral, or religious objections. Both types of laws are rarely comprehensive, but instead target: (1) certain types of healthcare providers, (2) specific categories of healthcare services, (3) specific patient circumstances, and (4) certain conditions under which a right or obligation is triggered. For the sake of clarity, I have grouped recent legal developments concerning conscientious refusal into eight categories: 1. Abortion: right to refuse 2. Abortion: duty to provide 3. Contraception: right to refuse 4. Contraception: duty to provide 5. Sterilization: right to refuse 6. Fertility, HIV, vaccines, counseling 7. End-of-life measures: right to refuse 8. Comprehensive laws: right to refuse. PMID:20866024

  7. The Use of the Rorschach Inkblot Test in the Assessment of Object Relations: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Hope Lynette

    Research in how the Rorschach Inkblot Test has been utilized in the assessment of object relations is reviewed. The review includes a critical examination of six areas: (1) constructs and concepts of object-relations theory represented in the research; (2) relevant Rorschach history and history; (3) characteristics of Rorschach-based,…

  8. Event-related potential (ERP) indices of infants’ recognition of familiar and unfamiliar objects in two and three dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Carver, Leslie J.; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Dawson, Geraldine

    2006-01-01

    We measured infants’ recognition of familiar and unfamiliar 3-D objects and their 2-D representations using event-related potentials (ERPs). Infants differentiated familiar from unfamiliar objects when viewing them in both two and three dimensions. However, differentiation between the familiar and novel objects occurred more quickly when infants viewed the object in 3-D than when they viewed 2-D representations. The results are discussed with respect to infants’ recognition abilities and thei...

  9. THE UNPREDICTABILITY CLAUSE IN TRANSPORT CONTRACTS, ACCORDING TO THE NEW CIVIL CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Elena BELU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Until the enforcement of the highly controversial transport law, transport companies must already observe the provisions of the new Civil Code1 in their transport business. One of the novelties in the new Civil Code, that came into force on October 1, 2011, refers to the unpredictability clause: recurring to this clause, in certain situations to be precisely analysed by courts, parties may even be exempted from certain contractual obligations, when the court decides to rescind the contract based on objective criteria, not imputable to the party that no longer can properly fulfil the obligations that had been undertaken when the contract had been made. However, this solution only is provided after all means of negotiation and mediation between parties are exhausted. The clause meets current market requirements, under which many companies have to deal with bad paying partners.

  10. Signaling Elaboration: Combining French Gerund Clauses with Lexical Cohesion Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Vergez-Couret

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the Elaboration relation and on its automatic identification in French, using the theoretical framework of Segmented Discourse Representation Theory (SDRT. One of the information sources identified by the SDRT framework to infer the Elaboration relation is based on the existence of a potential subsumption link between the eventualities at stake, depending on lexical semantics and world knowledge. We investigate this claim by combining a weak syntactic marker of the Elaboration relation, namely the gerund clause, with lexical cohesion cues. We aim at automatically identifying gerund clauses which are Elaborations by finding cohesive links between the host main clause and the gerund clause. This approach makes it possible to accurately detect few cases of intra-sentential Elaborations in our corpus, confirming the fact that lexical cohesion cues are relevant for this task.Dans cet article, nous nous focalisons sur la relation d’Élaboration en français, telle qu’elle est décrite dans le modèle théorique de la SDRT (Segmented Discourse Representation Theory, et sur son identification automatique. Selon la SDRT, une des sources d’information permettant d’inférer la relation d’Élaboration est basée sur l’existence d’un lien de subsomption entre les types des éventualités des segments à relier, indiquant que le type de la seconde éventualité est un sous-type de celui de la première dans la sémantique lexicale des éventualités ou grâce à des connaissances du monde. Nous proposons de contribuer à cette question en combinant un indice de la relation d’Élaboration, i. e. la construction syntaxique du gérondif, et des indices de cohésion lexicale. Notre objectif est d’identifier automatiquement des propositions gérondives qui sont des Élaborations en repérant des indices de cohésion lexicale entre la proposition principale et la proposition gérondive. Cette approche permet de détecter avec précision des cas d’Élaboration dans notre corpus, validant le fait que les indices de cohésion lexicale sont pertinents pour cette tâche.

  11. Sensory Processing Relates to Attachment to Childhood Comfort Objects of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpidou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The author tested the hypothesis that attachment to comfort objects is based on the sensory processing characteristics of the individual. Fifty-two undergraduate students with and without a childhood comfort object reported sensory responses and performed a tactile threshold task. Those with a comfort object described their object and rated their…

  12. 48 CFR 514.201-7 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 514.201-7 Section 514.201-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 514.201-7 Contract clauses. Stock...

  13. 48 CFR 3.907-7 - Contract Clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Whistleblower Protections for Contractor Employees 3.907-7 Contract Clause. Use the clause at 52.203-15, Whistleblower Protections Under the American Recovery and...

  14. 48 CFR 229.402-70 - Additional clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...the clause at 252.229-7005, Tax Exemptions (Spain), in solicitations...the clause at 252.229-7006, Value Added Tax Exclusion (United Kingdom...229-7009, Relief from Customs Duty and Value Added Tax on Fuel (Passenger...

  15. On the nature of escapable relative islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken RamshØj; Nyvad, Anne Mette

    2014-01-01

    It is generally assumed that universal island constraints block extraction from relative clauses. However, it is well-known that such extractions can be acceptable in the Scandinavian languages. Kush & Lindahl (2011) argue that the acceptability in Swedish is illusory; relative clauses that allow extraction have a different structure (small clause structure) from those that block extraction (true relatives, CPs). We present data from an acceptability survey of relative clause extraction in Danish. In the survey, extraction significantly decreased acceptability but we found no statistically significant effect of the ability of the verb to take a small-clause complement. We also found no difference between som ‘that/who/which’ and der ‘that/who/which’, both of which can head a relative clause while only som can head a small clause. We argue that our results do not warrant the stipulation of a structural contrast between acceptable and unacceptable extractions, and that variation in acceptability stems from processing.

  16. Processing of Japanese Cleft Constructions in Context: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Masataka; Tateyama, Yuki; Sakamoto, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have found "subject gap preference" in relative clauses and cleft constructions in English, French, and other languages. In contrast, previous studies have reported "object gap preference" in cleft constructions in Japanese. However, the effect of integrating a filler and its gap may be influenced by the effect…

  17. Reasoning about Object Capabilities with Logical Relations and Effect Parametricity : Technical Report including Proofs and Details

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devriese, Dominique; Piessens, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Object capabilities are a model for fine-grained privilege separation in programming languages and systems. However,formal characterisations of the model do not fully capturecapability-safety of a programming language and are not sufficient for verifying typical uses of the model. Using state-of-the-art techniques from programming languages research, we define a logical relation for a core calculus of JavaScript that better characterises capability-safety. The relation is powerful enough to reason about typical capability patterns and supports evolvable invariants on shared data structures, capabilities with restricted authority over them and isolated components with restricted communication channels. We use a novel notion of effect parametricity to support deriving properties about primitive effects. We demonstrate that it implies access bound properties that have previously been used to characterise capability-safety. This is a technical report accompanying a paper by the same title, whichcontains an additional section about a binary version of our results, as well as proofs and details for our results

  18. The Hilbert space of conditional clauses

    CERN Document Server

    Francis, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Context. The well known problems of interpretation of quantum mechanics mean that physical law lacks physical basis. Aims. To abstract the formalism of quantum mechanics from assertions about the world with clear physical meaning. Methods. Kets are defined as conditional clauses referring to measurements in a formal language. It is seen that these clauses are elements of a Hilbert space, such that addition is logical disjunction, the dual space consists of consequent clauses, and the inner product is a set of statements in the subjunctive mood. The probability interpretation gives truth values for corresponding future tense statements when the initial state is prepared and the final state is to be measured. Results. The mathematical structure of quantum mechanics is formulated in terms of discrete measurement results at finite level of accuracy and does not depend on an assumption of a substantive, or background, spacetime continuum. A continuum of kets, |x> for x in R^3, is constructed from linear combinatio...

  19. 48 CFR 241.501 - Solicitation provision and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation provision and contract clauses. 241.501 Section 241.501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Solicitation Provision and Contract Clauses 241.501 Solicitation provision and contract clauses. (d)(1) Use...

  20. 48 CFR 541.501 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and contract clauses. 541.501 Section 541.501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES... 541.501 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. In addition to the solicitation terms, provisions and contract clauses at FAR 41.501(c), the contracting officer shall include the following...

  1. Positioning and Relating: Market Boundaries and the Slippery Identity of the Marketing Object

    OpenAIRE

    Finch, John; Geiger, Susi

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel perspective on positioning by identifying goods and services first as market objects and then as marketing objects. As part of their normal marketing activities marketers position market objects and thereby provide means for other market actors to evaluate differences and similarities across an array of goods and services. Hence, marketers help disentangle goods and services in a market space, so formatting them as market objects. At the same time, marketers tend to make...

  2. Comparative analysis of the symptomatology of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction in relation to objective data

    OpenAIRE

    Ubirajara Barroso Jr; Thiago Nova; Anderson Dultra; Patricia Lordelo; Juarez Andrade; Antonio J. Vinhaes

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical presentation of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) relating to objective examination data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four children (36 girls and 8 boys with mean age of 6.8 years) with LUTD were prospectively assessed through a specific questionnaire that analyzed clinical presentation of those patients. These data were then compared to objective data, such as micturition diary and uroflowmetry with electromyography. RESULTS: A urinary t...

  3. Object-relations in maltreated and abused children assessed with the Rorschach inkblots and the Mutuality of Autonomy Scale (Urist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Rivera Carpio

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to observe the quality of the object-relations in maltreated and institutionalized boys and girls, assessed with the Rorschach inkblots and the Mutuality of AutonomyScale (MOA of Urist. The participants were 23 children of both sexes, aged 8 to 10,who had been maltreated in their household and were institutionalized in an orphanage. The results showed that both tools reflect object-relations well. There are significant differences, depending on the sex, time of Separation from their maternal figure and the type of maltreatment they received. Furthermore, the children represent more adaptative, conventional and positive object relations what is related with their resources.

  4. Bi-Objective Optimization Based on Compromise Method for Horizontal Fragmentation in Relational Data Warehouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Barr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Generally, research that dealt with the selection problems for optimization techniques or structures in relational data ware houses supports these problems by considering only a single criterion of optimization. The optimization criteria may be the response time of query execution, the number of inputs/outputs between the main memory and the disk, the space allocated to store the index or materialized views, or the number fragments required by the administrator of the data warehouse when using the fragmentation technique. The present work deals with the problem of selecting the horizontal fragmentation technique while considering both the number of I/O between memory and disk during decisional queries and the number of fragments, as two objective functions to minimize. To reduce the scope of choice solutions, we are based on a scalar method, called compromise method. The method is complemented by the principle of Pareto front to infer the best solutions. The study has been experimented on APB1 benchmark of data warehouse.

  5. Defensive Projection, Superimposed on Simplistic Object Relations, Erodes Patient-Provider Relationships in High-Risk Pregnancy: An Empirical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Shahar, Golan; Porcerelli, John H.; Kamoo, Ray; Epperson, C Neill; Czarkowski, Kathryn A.; Magriples, Urania; Mayes, Linda C.

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to illustrate the relevance of psychoanalytic theory and research to behavior medicine, an empirical investigation was conducted of females treated at a high-risk pregnancy specialty clinic (N = 58). Drawing from psychoanalytic object relations theory, it was hypothesized and confirmed that use of projection as a defense mechanism during pregnancy, superimposed on simplistic object relations, predicted an erosion of patient-provider relationships during the pregnancy/postdeliver...

  6. Quality of object relations modifies the effectiveness of short- and long-term psychotherapy on self-concept

    OpenAIRE

    Olavi Lindfors; Paul Knekt; Esa Virtala

    2013-01-01

    The quality of object relations affects interpersonal behaviour, but it is not known whether it modifies effectiveness on personality functioning in psychotherapies of different mode and length. In this study we estimated the modifying effect of the quality of object relations on the effect of solution-focused therapy (SFT) and shortand long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (SPP and LPP) on self-concept. A total of 326 patients were assessed at baseline with the Quality...

  7. Rights granted in the habendum clause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The habendum clause sets out the conditions for the continuance of a petroleum or natural gas lease during the primary term and during the events or circumstances which will continue the lease beyond the primary term. This paper describes the rights granted in the habendum clause. Typical older forms of freehold leases are compared with the model lease form and with the 1991 form of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Landmen (CAPL) Petroleum and Natural Gas lease. These comparisons were made in an effort to analyse the changes in the nature of the rights granted in the habendum clause. The most significant change is that the 1991 CAPL lease form avoids the 'unless' pitfalls of older forms by creating firstly the 'drill or pay' form of habendum clause, and by introducing the alternatives of paying either a lump sum one time rental or a periodic rental payment. The effect of these changes is that failure to make timely payments does not result in automatic termination of the lease, but rather one which must be made subject of a default notice by the lessor to the lessee.12 refs

  8. Claus Achton Friis : Skrift og brugsgrafik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlers, Steen

    1996-01-01

    Grafiker, professor Claus Achton Friis 1917-1999 er en central skikkelse i det 20.århundredes danske brugsgrafik. Han er ophavsmand til en mængde emballager, frimærker og heraldik og desuden formgiver af en række fremragende skrifter. Han var elev af grafikeren professor Gunnar Biilmann Petersen og blev selv, i en sen alder, professor på Kunstakademiets Afdeling for Grafisk Design.

  9. 15 CFR 8.5 - Nondiscrimination clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nondiscrimination clause. 8.5 Section 8.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY..., color, or national origin; (ii) notify each labor union or representative of workers with which it has...

  10. 48 CFR 1403.1004 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 1403.1004 Section 1403.1004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct...

  11. 48 CFR 203.1004 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 203.1004 Section 203.1004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct...

  12. Licensing Revisited: Open Access Clauses in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Schmidt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Open access increases the visibility and use of research outputs and promises to maximize the return on our public investment in research. However, only a minority of researchers will "spontaneously" deposit their articles into an open access repository. Even with the growing number of institutional and funding agency mandates requiring the deposit of papers into the university repository, deposit rates have remained stubbornly low. As a result, the responsibility for populating repositories often falls onto the shoulders of library staff and/or repository managers. Populating repositories in this way – which involves obtaining the articles, checking the rights, and depositing articles into the repository – is time consuming and resource intensive work.The Confederation of Open Access Repositories (COAR, a global association of repository initiatives and networks, is promoting a new strategy for addressing some of the barriers to populating repositories, involving the use of open access archiving clauses in publisher licenses. These types of clauses are being considered by consortia and licensing agencies around the world as a way of ensuring that all the papers published by a given publisher are cleared for deposit into the institutional repository. This paper presents some use cases of open access archiving clauses, discusses the major barriers to implementing archiving language into licenses, and describes some strategies that organizations can adopt in order to include such clauses into publisher licenses.

  13. Proposed Framework wWhich Use the Object Oriented Principles in Relational Systems. General Aspects and Principles (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin STRIMBEI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are some significant theoretical and technological approaches on the issue of object-relational "impedance mismatch" between applications' abstract model and database structures. Two characteristics of those approaches we think that are questionable: first of all it is so called “flat” nature of relational systems and model, and then there is the drawback of the storage of (object oriented semantics on the application level, thus severe limiting the data (object sharing and, at the same time, virtually broking the data independence principle of database systems architecture. In this paper we will try to outline an approach to address to some in a concrete manner.

  14. The Event as an Object-Relational Database: Avoiding the Dependency Nightmare

    OpenAIRE

    C.D. Jones

    2003-01-01

    With the use of object-oriented languages for HEP, many experiments have designed their data objects to contain direct references to other objects in the event (e.g., tracks and electromagnetic showers have references to each other to denote matches). Unfortunately this creates tremendous dependencies between packages which lead to brittle development systems (e.g., if the electromagnetic code has a problem you may not be able to compile the tracking code) and makes the stor...

  15. Representing Objects using Global 3D Relational Features for Recognition Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Wail

    2015-01-01

    In robotic systems, visual interpretations of the environment compose an essential element in a variety of applications, especially those involving manipulation of objects. Interpreting the environment is often done in terms of recognition of objects using machine learning approaches. For user acceptance, the recognition must be reliable and the learning must be fast, i.e. only few number of training samples should be used. In this thesis, a framework utilized in three recognition tasks is presented. The framework uses a combination of effective learning algorithms and strong visual representations. For representing objects, we derive global descriptors encoding shape using viewpoint-invariant features obtained from multiple sensors observing the scene. Objects are also described using color independently. This allows for combining color and shape when it is required for the task. For more robust color description, color calibration is performed. The framework was used in three recognition tasks: object instance recognition, object category recognition, and object spatial relationship recognition. For the object instance recognition task, we present a system that utilizes color and scale-variant shape representations. We achieve both high performance and learning efficiency. The learning efficiency is expressed in terms of scalability to many objects while requiring only a few training samples. The system has also been applied in real-world application in which its reliability allowed to initiate higher-level semantic interpretations of complex scenes. In the object category recognition task, we present a system that is capable of assigning multiple and nested categories for novel objects using a method developed for this purpose. Integrating this method with other multi-label learning approaches is also investigated. The system uses a scale-invariant shape representation and it is shown to outperform a state-of-the-art method particularly when a few samples are used for training. Both systems are benchmarked using a multi-view object dataset of 100 objects specially created for this purpose. Finally, we show that, by defining global descriptors between objects, the framework can be extended to perform recognition of object spatial relationships. In this task, we show that we can achieve high recognition performance for a number of relationships of objects in a simulated environment.

  16. Linguistic Relativity in Japanese and English: Is Language the Primary Determinant in Object Classification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuka, Reiko; Friedman, Ronald S.

    2000-01-01

    Tested claims by Lucy (1992a, 1992b) that differences between the number marking systems used by Yucatec Maya and English lead speakers of these languages to differentially attend to either the material composition or the shape of objects. Replicated Lucy's critical objects' classification experiments using speakers of English and Japanese.…

  17. The Object-Based Simon Effect: Grasping Affordance or Relative Location of the Graspable Part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dongbin; Proctor, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Reaction time is often shorter when the irrelevant graspable handle of an object corresponds with the location of a keypress response to the relevant attribute than when it does not. This object-based Simon effect has been attributed to an affordance for grasping the handle with the hand to the same side. Because a grasping affordance should…

  18. Issues Related to Measuring and Interpreting Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Xanne; Cliff, Dylan P.

    2015-01-01

    The use of objective measures of sedentary behavior has increased over the past decade; however, as is the case for objectively measured physical activity, methodological decisions before and after data collection are likely to influence the outcomes. The aim of this article is to review the evidence on different methodological decisions made by…

  19. Parametric Optimization on Multi-Objective Precision Turning Using Grey Relational Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, M. Y.; T.S. Lan

    2008-01-01

    In this study, L9(34) orthogonal array of Taguchi experiment is selected for four parameters (speed, cutting depth, feed rate, tool nose runoff) with three levels in optimizing the multi-objective (surface roughness, tool wear and material removal rate) precision turning on an ECOCA-3807 CNC (Computer Numerical Controlled) lathe. Through the examination of surface roughness (Ra), tool wear ratio (mm-2) and the calculation of MRR; the multiple objectives are then received. By using Grey...

  20. Applying the Food Safety Objective and related concepts to thermal inactivation of Salmonella in poultry meat

    OpenAIRE

    Membré, J. M.; Bassett, J.; Gorris, L.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the practicality of designing a heat treatment process in a food manufacturing operation for a product governed by a Food Safety Objective (FSO). Salmonella in cooked poultry meat was taken as the working example. Although there is no FSO for this product in current legislation, this may change in the (near) future. Four different process design calculations were explored by means of deterministic and probabilistic approaches to mathematical data...

  1. How crawling and manual object exploration are related to the mental rotation abilities of 9-month-old infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GudrunSchwarzer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment examined whether the mental rotation ability of 9-month-old infants was related to their abilities to crawl and manually explore objects. Forty-eight 9-month-old infants were tested; half of them had been crawling for an average of 9.3 weeks. The infants were habituated to a video of a simplified Shepard-Metzler object rotating back and forth through a 240° angle around the longitudinal axis of the object. They were tested with videos of the same object rotating through a previously unseen 120° angle and with a mirror image of the display. All of the infants also participated in a manual object exploration task, in which they freely explored 5 toy blocks. The results showed that the crawlers looked significantly longer at the novel (mirror object than at the familiar object, independent of their manual exploration scores. The non-crawlers looking times, in contrast, were influenced by the manual exploration scores. The infants who did not spontaneously explore the toy blocks tended to show a familiarity preference, whereas those who explored the toy blocks preferred to look at the novel object. Thus, all of the infants were able to master the mental rotation task but it seemed to be the most complex process for infants who had no crawling experience and who did not spontaneously explore objects.

  2. A New Approach in Consistency of Object Oriented Model and Relational Model in Distributed Systems Base on Heterogeneous Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh kheradmandan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available According to application a database is designed to be object-oriented model or relational model but the important point is distribution and heterogeneity. So a model should be provided which work with different types of database and also be able to work disruption, and heterogeneity So one of the great challenges in the use of distributed database technologies is integrating object-oriented databases with relational databases because the platform-independent technologies have an object-oriented approach But today databases are usualy designed and implemented base on relational model. Hence this paper tries to offer a model that could bring further coordination and integration between these two exsisting database models

  3. Variability of Extragalactic Objects in Relation to Redshift, Color, Radio Spectral Index and Absorption Lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D. Basu

    2001-12-01

    Optical variability of extragalactic objects, viz., QSOs, BL Lacs and Seyfert galaxies has been monitored systematically over an appreciable period of time and a large amount of data have accumulated. The present work reports results of investigations involving statistical analysis of updated data on relationships between variability and various observed properties of the objects, viz., redshift, color indices, radio spectral index and absorption lines. It is found that at high frequencies (rest frame) radio spectral index does not change significantly with the degree of variability. However, the degree of variability depends on redshifts. On the other hand, presence or absence of absorption lines is significantly associated with variability for QSOs with larger redshifts ( > 1.0), while no such relationship exists for QSOs at smaller redshifts ( < 1.0 or other objects. Correlation between color indices and redshifts depends on the degree of variability and the sample chosen for the color index.

  4. Local tests of general relativity with Gaia and solar system objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestroffer, D.; David, P.; Hees, A.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.

    2015-08-01

    The Gaia mission has been launched by ESA on 2013 December, 19. It aims to survey, in addition to stars, a large number of solar system objects (SSO). Hence, Gaia will provide during its 5 years mission high precision astrometry in an absolute reference frame of about 300 000 asteroids, including many Near-Earth Objects. The very precise orbits Gaia will provide, will enable to determine simultaneously the solar J2 and the PPN parameter beta and other parameters for testing the GR. Improvement from combining Gaia and radar data are also expected.

  5. Aspectual Properties of Spanish Absolute Small Clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Marín Gálvez, Rafael

    1996-01-01

    The major aim of this paper consists in determining the aspectual constraints affecting absolute small clauses (ASCs) headed by a past participle. A detailed analysis of these constructions seems to indicate that there are enough arguments to postulate the existence of two types of ASCs: those having an NP direct internal argument (AASCs), and those in which this NP is phonetically unrealized (PASCs). The different temporal interpretation that these two types of ASCs can receive is one of the...

  6. Subjective Poverty and Its Relation to Objective Poverty Concepts in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandori, Eszter Siposne

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes subjective poverty in Hungary and compares it to the objective poverty concepts. Subjective poverty is defined by examining who people consider to be poor. Based on the Easterlin paradox, the initial hypothesis states that subjective and absolute poverty concepts are highly correlated. Taking into account that Hungary is a…

  7. Post-Modernist Objects: A Relation between the Past and Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurmuehlen, Marilyn

    1992-01-01

    Examines postmodernist art and its impact on architecture and visual art in the United States. States that this genre of art has affected dramatically object art, such as furniture design. Contends that postmodernism can be traced through societal and personal histories. (CFR)

  8. On Translating English Attributive Clauses into Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-min CHEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available
    Translating English attributive clauses into Chinese is one of the most knotty tasks for translators. This paper compares the syntactic differences between English and Chinese, and explores the possible methods of translating English attributive clauses into Chinese. It is suggested that the translator should bear in mind the syntactic differences, correctly grasp the original meaning and conform to the Chinese expressing rules in translation.
    Key words: English attributive clause, syntactic difference, translation
    Résumé: la traduction de la proposition attributive anglaise en chinois est une des tâches les plus épineuses pour les traducteurs. Cet article compare les différences syntaxiques entre l’anglais et le chinois, et explore les méthodes possibles de la traduction de la proposition attributive anglaise en chinois. Il est suggéré que les traducteurs doivent porter en tête les différences syntaxiques, correctement saisir le sens original et conformé aux règles de l’expression chinoise dans la traduction.
    Mots-Clés: proposition attributive anglaise, différence syntaxique, traduction

  9. Use of Geometric Properties of Landmark Arrays for Reorientation Relative to Remote Cities and Local Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Weimin; Nankoo, Jean-François; Zhou, Ruojing; Spetch, Marcia L.

    2014-01-01

    Five experiments investigated how human adults use landmark arrays in the immediate environment to reorient relative to the local environment and relative to remote cities. Participants learned targets' directions with the presence of a proximal 4 poles forming a rectangular shape and an array of more distal poles forming a rectangular shape. Then…

  10. Relating visual to verbal semantic knowledge: the evaluation of object recognition in prosopagnosia

    OpenAIRE

    Barton, Jason J S; Hanif, Hashim; Ashraf, Sohi

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of face specificity in prosopagnosia is hampered by difficulty in gauging pre-morbid expertise for non-face object categories, for which humans vary widely in interest and experience. In this study, we examined the correlation between visual and verbal semantic knowledge for cars to determine if visual recognition accuracy could be predicted from verbal semantic scores. We had 33 healthy subjects and six prosopagnosic patients first rated their own knowledge of cars. They were then...

  11. Minor planets and related objects. XXV - UBV photometry of 145 faint asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degewij, J.; Gradie, J.; Zellner, B.

    1978-01-01

    Magnitudes and colors on the UBV system are presented for 145 minor planets, including 31 objects in the Eos family, 14 in the Koronis family, 6 in the Nysa family, 11 in the Themis family, 4 Hungarias, 7 Hildas, 8 Trojans, and several objects in unusual orbits. Clearly defined color groups for the Eos, Koronis, Nysa, and Themis family members are strongly suggestive of origin from discrete parent bodies. The Nysas apparently show large light-curve amplitudes. The Mars-orbit crossers 1977RA and 1980 = 1950LA, the earth-orbit crosser 1976UA, and several main-belt asteroids are found to show peculiar colors of unknown significance. The Mars-orbit crosser 1916 = 1953RA appears to be a typical S object, while 1474 Beira and 1977VA show neutral colors. Asteroids at semimajor axis in excess of 4 AU (Trojans preceding and following Jupiter, 279 Thule, and 944 Hidalgo) all belong to a color group centered at B-V = 0.72, U-B = 0.24.

  12. Objections raised by the Land government relating to nuclear licensing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The president of the Bavarian Landtag rejected a motion brought in by a parliamentary party, demanding that the Landtag request the Bavarian government..'' to file objections, in matters of the current plan approval procedure for the Schacht Konrad waste repository''. The motion was rejected referring to paragraph 62, sub-section 4 of the GeschOLT, stating the scope of competence of the Bavarian Free State. The Bavarian Constitutional Court decided in this matter as follows: Anyone has the right to raise objections in a plan approval procedure according to paragraph 9 b, sub-section 1 Atomic Energy Act. There is no mandatory restriction of this right to cases involving a personal interest. Land governments thus are equally entitled to raise objections against the licensing of a radwaste with the Ministry of the Environment of Lower Saxony pository. The remotion brought in therefore aims at activities within the legally permitted scope of action in accordance with the Atomic Energy Act. (orig./HSCH)

  13. Multi-objective optimization in WEDM of D3 tool steel using integrated approach of Taguchi method & Grey relational analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivade, Anand S.; Shinde, Vasudev D.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, wire electrical discharge machining of D3 tool steel is studied. Influence of pulse-on time, pulse-off time, peak current and wire speed are investigated for MRR, dimensional deviation, gap current and machining time, during intricate machining of D3 tool steel. Taguchi method is used for single characteristics optimization and to optimize all four process parameters simultaneously, Grey relational analysis (GRA) is employed along with Taguchi method. Through GRA, grey relational grade is used as a performance index to determine the optimal setting of process parameters for multi-objective characteristics. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the peak current is the most significant parameters affecting on multi-objective characteristics. Confirmatory results, proves the potential of GRA to optimize process parameters successfully for multi-objective characteristics.

  14. 77 FR 19128 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Separation of Combined Provisions and Clauses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ...c)(1) Use the clause at 252.229-7003, Tax Exemptions (Italy), in solicitations...solicitations that contain the clause at 252.229- 7003, Tax Exemptions (Italy...use the following clause: TAX EXEMPTIONS...

  15. 76 FR 71922 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Separation of Combined Provisions and Clauses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ...c)(1) Use the clause at 252.229-7003, Tax Exemptions (Italy), in solicitations...solicitations that contain the clause at 252.229- 7003, Tax Exemptions (Italy...use the following clause: Tax Exemptions...

  16. 48 CFR 1509.507-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY ACQUISITION PLANNING... Organizational Conflicts of Interests 1509.507-2...clause requiring conflict of interest certifications during...requires an annual conflict of interest certification...

  17. Advantages Of Object-Oriented Over Relational Databases On Real-Life Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Butuner

    2013-01-01

    Business, manufacturing and other kinds of databases have been implemented by the relational database technology. The transition from one generation to the next has always been necessitated by the ever-increasing complexity of database applications and the cost of implementing, maintaining, and extending these applications. Accordingly, whatever the application areas of the relational database technology are, the basic shortcomings and weaknesses of this discipline are valid. On the other han...

  18. Some Methods of Automatic Control of Relative Motion of Objects in Near-Earth Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazirov, R. R.; Sidorov, I. M.; Frolov, V. A.

    2003-01-01

    The methods of automatic control of motion of a free-flight platform near the orbital space station are considered. The satellite-inspector intended for service of the International Space Station is an example of such objects. The algorithms of control of the platform motion along a trajectory specified by the space station operator are developed, and control of the station keeping mode for visual observation of the state of the space station's external surface is considered. The problem of control of a platform landing on a specially equipped docking unit of the orbital space station is also considered.

  19. Some Common Word Attributes and Their Relations to Objective Frequency Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Jarl

    1976-01-01

    Studies the relationship between subjective word frequency and some of the most common word attributes, familiarity, associability and pronounciability, all measured with the method of magnitude estimation. Also considers how individuals scale words in terms of comprehensibility and at the same time how this dimension is related to the other…

  20. Effect of supersonic relative motion between baryons and dark matter on collapsed objects

    CERN Document Server

    Asaba, Shinsuke; Tashiro, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The first star formation and the Epoch of Reionization are paid great attention to as main targets of planned large radio interferometries (e.g. Square Kilometre Array). Recently, it is claimed that the supersonic relative velocity between baryons and cold dark matter can suppress the abundance of the first stars and impact the cosmological reionization process. Therefore, in order to compare observed results with theoretical predictions it is important to examine the effect of the supersonic relative motion on the small-scale structure formation. In this paper, we investigate the effect on the nonlinear structure formation in the context of the spherical collapse model. We show the evolution of the dark matter sphere with the relative velocity by both using N-body simulations and numerical calculations of the equation of motion for the dark matter mass shell. The effects of the relative motions in the spherical collapse model appear as the delay of the collapse time of dark matter halos and the decrease of t...

  1. Objective and Subjective Responses to Low Relative Humidity in an Office Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagercrantz, Love Per; Wyon, David

    2003-01-01

    The impact of dry indoor air on comfort and health in winter was investigated in a crossover intervention study in two floors of an office building in northern Sweden. The indoor air humidity (normally 10-20% RH) was raised to 23-24% RH, one floor at a time, using steam humidifiers. Questionnaires and objective (clinical) measurements were applied. The following effects of increased humidity were significant, though small: the air was evaluated as less dry (though still on the dry side of neutral), eyes smarted less (by 10% of full scale) eye irritation decreased (by 11%), symptoms of dry throat, mouth, lips and skin were reduced, and it was easier to concentrate. The results confirm similar laboratory findings in 5-hour exposures (Fang et al. 2003, reported at this conference) to 2-week field exposures, but as the effects observed were again small, they do not provide sufficient justification for installing humidifiers.

  2. OBJECTIVES AND REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO THE SUSTAINABILITY OF ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cofas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the EU Sustainable Development Strategy, whose foundations were laid in Gothenburg 2001, sustainability requires simultaneous and impartial consideration of economic, social and environmental consequences of any decision taken, so at this point, stating that “the EU to become the world whose economy is highly efficient use of resources with a high quality of life of its citizens and where socio-economic development of environmentally”. As a result, international organizations, European and national support implementation of projects and strategies to change unsustainable consumption patterns. In this sense, sustainable solutions and increased use of renewable energy resources, practice on a larger scale organic farming and intelligent management of urban waste are major objectives of not only environmental policies, but also the quality of life.

  3. An Algorithmic Structuration of a Type System for an Orthogonal Object/Relational Model

    CERN Document Server

    Benabbou, Amel; Amghar, Youssef

    2010-01-01

    Date and Darwen have proposed a theory of types, the latter forms the basis of a detailed presentation of a panoply of simple and complex types. However, this proposal has not been structured in a formal system. Specifically, Date and Darwen haven't indicated the formalism of the type system that corresponds to the type theory established. In this paper, we propose a pseudo-algorithmic and grammatical description of a system of types for Date and Darwen's model. Our type system is supposed take into account null values; for such intention, we introduce a particular type noted #, which expresses one or more occurrences of incomplete information in a database. Our algebraic grammar describes in detail the complete specification of an inheritance model and the subryping relation induced, thus the different definitions of related concepts.

  4. Comparison of time adjustment clauses between DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Finnie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines time adjustment clauses, as they relate to time adjustment between standard terms of construction contracts. DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC were compared on the basis of how risks are allocated, how this may impact on the contractor’s pricing, and ease of understanding for each clause. ASTCC was found to be the most easily interpreted contract, followed by AS4000 and then NZS3910. These assessments were based on the following: a whether each contract contains words with multiple meanings, b the number of words used per sentence, c the amount of internal cross-referencing, and d the clarity of the contract structure. The allowable pre-conditions for the contractor to claim a time adjustment are similar for all three contracts, and none of them expressly state which party is to bare the risk of buildability, or address the risk of a designer’s disclaimer clause. All of the contracts adopt the principle of contra preferentum which means that the employer bares the risk of variance if there are any ambiguities in the design documentation. Due to their similarities of risk allocation, all of the contracts provide the employer with a similar amount of price surety. AS4000 is the only contract to contain a stringent time-bar clause, limiting a contractor’s time adjustment claim. ASTCC requires the contractor to apply ‘immediately’ and DZ3910 provides a time-bar of 20 working days or as soon as practicable. None of the contracts clarify whether their timing requirements take precedence over the prevention principle, or over any other ground for claiming a time adjustment. The effect of DZ3910’s pre-notification clause 5.19.3 is discussed, and an alternative contents structure is recommended for DZ3910, using a project management method.

  5. Comparison of time adjustment clauses between DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Finnie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines time adjustment clauses, as they relate to time adjustment between standard terms of construction contracts. DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC were compared on the basis of how risks are allocated, how this may impact on the contractor’s pricing, and ease of understanding for each clause. ASTCC was found to be the most easily interpreted contract, followed by AS4000 and then NZS3910. These assessments were based on the following: a whether each contract contains words with multiple meanings, b the number of words used per sentence, c the amount of internal cross-referencing, and d the clarity of the contract structure. The allowable pre-conditions for the contractor to claim a time adjustment are similar for all three contracts, and none of them expressly state which party is to bare the risk of buildability, or address the risk of a designer’s disclaimer clause. All of the contracts adopt the principle of contra preferentum which means that the employer bares the risk of variance if there are any ambiguities in the design documentation. Due to their similarities of risk allocation, all of the contracts provide the employer with a similar amount of price surety. AS4000 is the only contract to contain a stringent time-bar clause, limiting a contractor’s time adjustment claim. ASTCC requires the contractor to apply ‘immediately’ and DZ3910 provides a time-bar of 20 working days or as soon as practicable. None of the contracts clarify whether their timing requirements take precedence over the prevention principle, or over any other ground for claiming a time adjustment. The effect of DZ3910’s pre-notification clause 5.19.3 is discussed, and an alternative contents structure is recommended for DZ3910, using a project management method. 

  6. The Hilbert space of conditional clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Charles

    2015-05-01

    In the absence of a satisfactory interpretation of quantum theory, physical law lacks physical basis. This paper reviews the orthodox, or Dirac-von Neumann interpretation, and makes explicit that Hilbert space describes propositions about measurement results. Kets are defined as conditional clauses referring to measurements in a formal language. It is seen that these clauses are elements of a Hilbert space, such that addition is logical disjunction, the dual space consists of consequent clauses, and the inner product is a set of statements in the subjunctive mood. The probability interpretation gives truth values for corresponding future tense statements when the initial state is actually prepared and the final state is to be measured. The mathematical structure of quantum mechanics is formulated in terms of discrete measurement results at finite level of accuracy and does not depend on an assumption of a substantive, or background, space-time continuum. A continuum of kets, ?x> for x ? ?3, is constructed from linear combinations of kets in a finite basis. The inner product can be expressed either as a finite sum or as an integral. Discrete position functions are uniquely embedded into smooth wave functions in such a way that differential operators are defined. It is shown that the choice of basis has no effect on underlying physics (quantum covariance). The Dirac delta has a representation as a smooth function. Operators do not in general have an integral form. The Schrödinger equation is shown from the requirements of the probability interpretation. It is remarked that a formal construction of quantum electrodynamics (qed) avoiding divergence problems has been completed using finite dimensional Hilbert space. I conclude that quantum mechanics makes statements about the world with clear physical meaning, such that space is emergent from particle interactions and has no fundamental role.

  7. Nano-Objects and Ions in Liquid Crystals: Ion Trapping Effect and Related Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Garbovskiy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of ions in liquid crystals is one of the grand challenges that hinder the application of liquid crystals in various devices, which include advanced 3-D and flexible displays, tunable lenses, etc. Not only do they compromise the overall performance of liquid crystal devices, ions are also responsible for slow response, image sticking, and image flickering, as well as many other negative effects. Even highly purified liquid crystal materials can get contaminated during the manufacturing process. Moreover, liquid crystals can degrade over time and generate ions. All of these factors raise the bar for their quality control, and increase the manufacturing cost of liquid crystal products. A decade of dedicated research has paved the way to the solution of the issues mentioned above through merging liquid crystals and nanotechnology. Nano-objects (guests that are embedded in the liquid crystals (hosts can trap ions, which decreases the ion concentration and electrical conductivity, and improves the electro-optical response of the host. In this paper, we (i review recently published works reporting the effects of nanoscale dopants on the electrical properties of liquid crystals; and (ii identify the most promising inorganic and organic nanomaterials suitable to capture ions in liquid crystals.

  8. Discussion of related problems in herbal prescription science based on objective indications of herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-jiang XIONG

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal prescription science is a bridge between basic and clinical subjects in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. In studying the doctrines in the general textbook Herbal Prescription Science and applying them to clinical practice, it was found that they are imprecise and inapplicable. Based on the analysis of Suanzaoren Decoction, Xiaoqinglong Decoction, Jichuan Decoction, etc., the authors point out that this problem is due to the current pathogenesis-based research approach of the herbal prescription science. It is proposed that correspondence between formula and syndrome is the core of the herbal prescription science. In order to solve such a problem, searching for corresponding relationship between an herb or a formula and the signs and symptoms of a syndrome or disease should be the most important task in research of herbal prescription science, for emphasis on attention to the objective indications and evidence in clinical utilization of herbal formulas is the major feature of the herbal prescription science according to medication experience in the long history of TCM.

  9. Objectives, definition and elaboration of technical scenarios for emergency drills relating to a french PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety measures applied during the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants are such that the occurrence of an accident with unacceptable consequences for the public is a highly improbable event. Despite this low probability, a number of emergency plans have been drawn up to cater for the occurrence of events that might lead to such an accident: on-site emergency plan to protect plant personnel, terminate the accident and mitigate its consequences; short-and long-term emergency plans to protect the general public and prepare for a return to acceptable living conditions. To check that plans are appropriate and ready to be implemented, they must be regularly tested by means of drills. These drills may be directed solely at technical aspects of nuclear units, or they may concern all the players normally involved, i.e. the utility (EdF), all the specialized government departments concerned and stand-ins for the media. The paper describes some aspects of the procedure for choosing objectives and the preparation of drills, which are illustrated by examples from the national EPAULE exercise. From a technical standpoint, the drills demonstrated that current organizational structures are both effective and operational; however, they cannot determine how the public would actually react in the event of a nuclear accident, given the difficulty of assessing the emotional impact of exposure to a danger than cannot be perceived directly and to information reported by the media

  10. 41 CFR 60-300.5 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in the contract. The clause may be made a part of the contract by citation to 41 CFR 60-300.5(a). (e... more other employees; and (d) who has the authority to hire or fire other employees or whose.... 11. The contractor will include the provisions of this clause in every subcontract or purchase...

  11. Flatness of the Energy Landscape for Horn Clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Saratha Sathasivam; Wan Ahmad Tajuddin Wan Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    The Little-Hopfield neural network programmed with Horn clauses is studied. We argue that the energy landscape of the system, corresponding to the inconsistency function for logical interpretations of the sets of Horn clauses, has minimal ruggedness. This is supported by computer simulations.

  12. Flatness of the Energy Landscape for Horn Clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saratha Sathasivam

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Little-Hopfield neural network programmed with Horn clauses is studied. We argue that the energy landscape of the system, corresponding to the inconsistency function for logical interpretations of the sets of Horn clauses, has minimal ruggedness. This is supported by computer simulations.

  13. An Analysis of Hierarchy in English Clause Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarence Green

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The following study presents research into English clause combination that describes how the types of clauses in English are distributed along a hierarchy of grammatical integration, in a much more complex fashion than the traditional coordination/subordination dichotomy suggests. This hierarchy extends and synthesizes previous descriptions of English combined clauses found in the most referenced descriptive grammars of English. A corpus analysis of patterns in the combined clauses that may be a consequence of hierarchy was also conducted. A corpus of 50 examples of each form was coded for tense/aspect continuity, subject continuity and syntactic function. The analysis confirmed that the different formal levels of integration amongst the clauses are reflected in their functional and discourse patterns. The implications of the study are that English clause combination might be beneficially described and taught as hierarchical beyond traditional binary categories, as combined clauses are a range of more or less integrated structures with distinct properties.  For teachers and advanced learners the research may help in an understanding of the relationship in English grammar between function, form, discourse and syntax.Keywords: English grammar, clause combination, corpus linguistics, coordination, subordination

  14. International Reservation of Title Clauses : A study of Dutch, French, and German private international law in the light of European law

    OpenAIRE

    RUTGERS, Jacobien W.

    1999-01-01

    The rules of substantive law relating to the reservation of title clause differ from country to country. This book addresses problems which may arise if a reservation of title clause is employed within international transactions, especially transactions between Germany, France, and the Netherlands. The author seeks the solution in private international law, since other means of addressing the problem, such as harmonization and unification of substantive law rules, have failed so far. This boo...

  15. Fast line and object segmentation in noisy and cluttered environments using relative connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Teutsch, Michael; Schamm, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In applications such as 3D plane segmentation of road traffic environments using u/v-disparity-histograms, line extraction is a key component and has to be as fast and precise as possible. Hough Transform is a good way to detect straight lines but specific line segments limited by start and end points are still to be determined. The Line Patterns Hough Transform (LPHT) introduced by Yip[1] directly delivers potential start and end points using the principle of relative connectivity. But this ...

  16. Autonomy, subject-relativity, and subjective and objective theories of well-being in bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varelius, Jukka

    2003-01-01

    Among the different approaches to questions of biomedical ethics, there is a view that stresses the importance of a patient's right to make her own decisions in evaluative questions concerning her own well-being. This approach, the autonomy-based approach to biomedical ethics, has usually led to the adoption of a subjective theory of well-being on the basis of its commitment to the value of autonomy and to the view that well-being is always relative to a subject. In this article, it is argued that these two commitments need not lead to subjectivism concerning the nature of well-being. PMID:14760866

  17. Las cláusulas de confidencialidad en el contrato de trabajo / Confidentiality Clauses in the Contract of Employment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alfredo, Sierra Herrero.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Quienes se familiarizan normalmente con la información confidencial de una empresa son sus trabajadores, en particular, aquellos que tienen el carácter de exclusiva confianza. Para resguardar el cuidado de dichos antecedentes, la empresa suscribe con dichos trabajadores cláusulas de confidencialidad [...] en los contratos de trabajo. Este artículo analiza tales cláusulas en el ámbito jurídico laboral, en particular, su noción, objetivos principales, requisitos necesarios para que sean consideradas válidas y las consecuencias que se derivan de su incumplimiento. Abstract in english Employees, especially those in exclusively confidential positions, are the usually familiar with the company's confidential information. In order to safeguard that information, the company incorporates confidentiality clauses in the contracts of employment of said employees. This article analyzes sa [...] id clauses in the legal-labor scope, particularly their notion, their main objectives, required to be deemed as valid, and the consequences of non-compliance.

  18. IT Project Management Control and the Control Objectives for IT and Related Technology (CobiT) Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Bernroider, Edward; Ivanov, Milen

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by scarce academic consideration of project management control frameworks, this article explores usage, value and structure of frameworks with a focus on the popular Control Objectives for IT and related Technology (CobiT) construct. We attempt to add to an empirically validated structure of internal control over IT project management by including CobiT's views on the intended domain of content. Results from the empirical survey indicate that the metrics suggested by Cob...

  19. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    OpenAIRE

    AnnemarieBoschloo; Renatede Groot

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness – ‘I feel sleepy during the first hours at school’ – appeared to predict both school grades and self-repor...

  20. Subjective Sleepiness and Sleep Quality in Adolescents are Related to Objective and Subjective Measures of School Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; de Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11–18?years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness – “I feel sleepy during the first hours at school” – appeared to predict both school grades and self-repo...

  1. A systematic review of reliability and objective criterion-related validity of physical activity questionnaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmerhorst Hendrik JF

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Physical inactivity is one of the four leading risk factors for global mortality. Accurate measurement of physical activity (PA and in particular by physical activity questionnaires (PAQs remains a challenge. The aim of this paper is to provide an updated systematic review of the reliability and validity characteristics of existing and more recently developed PAQs and to quantitatively compare the performance between existing and newly developed PAQs. A literature search of electronic databases was performed for studies assessing reliability and validity data of PAQs using an objective criterion measurement of PA between January 1997 and December 2011. Articles meeting the inclusion criteria were screened and data were extracted to provide a systematic overview of measurement properties. Due to differences in reported outcomes and criterion methods a quantitative meta-analysis was not possible. In total, 31 studies testing 34 newly developed PAQs, and 65 studies examining 96 existing PAQs were included. Very few PAQs showed good results on both reliability and validity. Median reliability correlation coefficients were 0.62–0.71 for existing, and 0.74–0.76 for new PAQs. Median validity coefficients ranged from 0.30–0.39 for existing, and from 0.25–0.41 for new PAQs. Although the majority of PAQs appear to have acceptable reliability, the validity is moderate at best. Newly developed PAQs do not appear to perform substantially better than existing PAQs in terms of reliability and validity. Future PAQ studies should include measures of absolute validity and the error structure of the instrument.

  2. A systematic review of reliability and objective criterion-related validity of physical activity questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmerhorst, Hendrik J F; Brage, Søren; Warren, Janet; Besson, Herve; Ekelund, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the four leading risk factors for global mortality. Accurate measurement of physical activity (PA) and in particular by physical activity questionnaires (PAQs) remains a challenge. The aim of this paper is to provide an updated systematic review of the reliability and validity characteristics of existing and more recently developed PAQs and to quantitatively compare the performance between existing and newly developed PAQs.A literature search of electronic databases was performed for studies assessing reliability and validity data of PAQs using an objective criterion measurement of PA between January 1997 and December 2011. Articles meeting the inclusion criteria were screened and data were extracted to provide a systematic overview of measurement properties. Due to differences in reported outcomes and criterion methods a quantitative meta-analysis was not possible.In total, 31 studies testing 34 newly developed PAQs, and 65 studies examining 96 existing PAQs were included. Very few PAQs showed good results on both reliability and validity. Median reliability correlation coefficients were 0.62-0.71 for existing, and 0.74-0.76 for new PAQs. Median validity coefficients ranged from 0.30-0.39 for existing, and from 0.25-0.41 for new PAQs.Although the majority of PAQs appear to have acceptable reliability, the validity is moderate at best. Newly developed PAQs do not appear to perform substantially better than existing PAQs in terms of reliability and validity. Future PAQ studies should include measures of absolute validity and the error structure of the instrument. PMID:22938557

  3. The relation of object substitution masking (OSM) and attention dynamics: A neuro-computational modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuth, Frederik; Hamker, Fred

    2015-09-01

    Although object substitution masking (OSM; DiLollo et al., 2000, J Exp Psychol Gen) has been discussed being affected by attention (Põder, 2012, J Exp Psychol Gen), OSM is not considered emerging from attentive dynamics and there is little overlap between both fields of research. By means of a neuro-computational modeling study, we demonstrate that OSM can be fully explained by attentive dynamics. The model is inspired by previous systems level models of attention (Hamker, 2005, Cerebral Cortex; Zirnsak et al., 2011, Eur J Neurosci) and includes the ventral stream, particularly area V4 and the frontal eye field (FEF). It simulates the firing rates of neurons over time, and models accurate signal timings in the visual system (Schmolesky et al., 1998, J Neurophysiol; Thomson et al., 2002, Cerebral cortex). It is first shown to fit data from common visual attention experiments, like biased competition and visual search. Next we show that the same model reproduces typical OSM data (e.g. DiLollo et al., 2000, J Exp Psychol Gen, and Argyropoulos et al., 2013, J of Exp Psychology). OSM is explained based on two model mechanisms. Similar as in attentional biased competition, the target and mask compete for a visual representation by means of suppressive connections. This competition mechanism accounts for the mask duration dependency in OSM. OSM also requires a high number of distractors (set size effect) like in visual search paradigms. Our model explains this observation by spatially reentrant processing between FEF and V4. We conclude that OSM can be accounted for by well-known attentional mechanisms within a unified model. Contrary to existing theories of OSM, our model is grounded on a large set of physiological and neuroanatomical data. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326917

  4. Assessment of disease-related cognitive impairments using the novel object recognition (NOR) task in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Ben; Leger, Marianne; Piercy, Chloe; Adamson, Lisa; Harte, Michael; Neill, Joanna C

    2015-05-15

    The novel object recognition test (NOR) test is a two trial cognitive paradigm that assesses recognition memory. Recognition memory is disturbed in a range of human disorders and NOR is widely used in rodents for investigating deficits in a variety of animal models of human conditions where cognition is impaired. It possesses several advantages over more complex tasks that involve lengthy training procedures and/or food or water deprivation. It is quick to administer, non-rewarded, provides data quickly, cost effective and most importantly, ethologically relevant as it relies on the animal's natural preference for novelty. A PubMed search revealed over 900 publications in rats and mice using this task over the past 3 years with 34 reviews in the past 10 years, demonstrating its increasing popularity with neuroscientists. Although it is widely used in many disparate areas of research, no articles have systematically examined this to date, which is the subject of our review. We reveal that NOR may be used to study recognition memory deficits that occur in Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia, where research is extensive, in Parkinson's disease and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) where we observed markedly reduced numbers of publications. In addition, we review the use of NOR to study cognitive deficits induced by traumatic brain injury and cancer chemotherapy, not disorders per se, but situations in which cognitive deficits dramatically reduce the quality of life for those affected, see Fig. 1 for a summary. Our review reveals that, in all these animal models, the NOR test is extremely useful for identification of the cognitive deficits observed, their neural basis, and for testing the efficacy of novel therapeutic agents. Our conclusion is that NOR is of considerable value for cognitive researchers of all disciplines and we anticipate that its use will continue to increase due to its versatility and several other advantages, as detailed in this review. PMID:25447293

  5. A coordinated radio and H? survey of southern RS CVn systems and related objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of a search for radio emission at 5 GHz from a selection of 21 southern hemisphere Rs CVn binaries and related late-type emission-line stars. Three of the program stars were detected above the survey limit of 10 mJy, including the previously known RS CVn radio binary HR 1099 and two new radio binaries, HR 4492 (= HD 101379) and HD 195040. A simultaneous program of high-resolution H? spectroscopy revealed significant emission profile variability in both the latter stars. Radio variability on time-scales of approximately 1 day was observed in both HR 1099 and 4492. An increase by a factor of 3 in the observed radio flux density from HR 4492 on 1981 July 18 was accompanied by a significant enhancement of the H? equivalent width by approximately 0.5 A on that date. (author)

  6. Mission Objectives Of The Atmospheric Composition Related Sentinels S5p, S4, And S5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingmann, Paul; Veihelmann, Ben; Langen, Jorg; Meijer, Yasjka

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric chemistry observations from space have been made for over 30 years, in the beginning mainly by US missions. These missions have always been motivated by the concern about a number of environmental issues. At present European instruments like GOME-2 on MetOp/EPS-A and -B and OMI on NASA's Aura are in space and, despite being designed for research purposes, perform routine observations. The space instruments have helped improving our understanding of processes that govern stratospheric ozone depletion, climate change and the transport of pollutants. However, long-term continuous time series of atmospheric trace gas data have been limited to stratospheric ozone and a few related species. According to current planning, meteorological satellites will maintain these observations over the next decade. They will also add some measurements of tropospheric trace gases critical for climate forcing. However, as their measurements have been motivated by meteorology, vertical sensitivities and accuracies are marginal for atmospheric chemistry applications. With the exception of stratospheric ozone, reliable long-term space-based monitoring of atmospheric constituents with quality attributes sufficient to serve atmospheric chemistry applications still need to be established. The need for a GMES atmospheric service (GAS), its scope and high level requirements were laid down in an orientation papers organised by the European Commission and then updated by an Implementation Group (IG) [1], backed by four working groups, advising the Commission on scope, architecture, in situ and space requirements. The goal of GAS is to provide coherent information on atmospheric variables in support of European policies and for the benefit of European citizens. Services cover air quality, climate change/forcing, stratospheric ozone and solar radiation. To meet the needs of the user community atmospheric composition mission concepts for GEO and LEO have been defined usually referred to as Sentinel-4 for GEO and Sentinel-5 for LEO.

  7. Wage bargaining in Germany: The role of works councils and opening clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Ellguth, Peter; Gerner, Hans-Dieter; Stegmaier, Jens

    2012-01-01

    German employment relations are characterized by a distinct dual system: First, working conditions and wages are determined by industry level collective bargaining agreements. Second, on the establishment level the works council is responsible for employer-employee negotiations. But since the mid-1980s more and more areas of regulation were transferred from the industry to the establishment level using so called opening-clauses. Our analysis relies on rich German establishment data and reveal...

  8. Origin and functioning of circumstantial clause linkers: a cross-linguistic study

    OpenAIRE

    Martowicz, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The thesis analyses a variety of clause linkers used in the world’s languages as dedicated markers of four circumstantial relations between states of affairs: anteriority (‘after’), causality (‘because’), purpose (‘in order to’) and conditionality (‘if’). Focusing primarily on the function of the linkers rather than on their formal properties the study scrutinizes the origin and functioning of free-word adverbial subordinators, converbal endings as well as other subordinating a...

  9. Natural syntax : English interrogative main clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Oresnik

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural Syntax is a developing deductive theory, a branch of Naturalness Theory. The naturalnessjudgements are couched in naturalness scales, whichfollow from the basic parameters (or «axioms» listed at the beginning of the paper. The predictions of the theory are calculated in deductions, whose chief components are apair of naturalness scales and the rules governing the alignment of corresponding naturalness values. Parallel and chiastic alignments are distinguished, in complementary distribution. Chiastic alignment is mandatory in deductions limited to unnatural environments.The paper deals with English interrogative main clauses. Within these, only the interrogatives containing wh-words exclusively insitu constitute an extremely unnatural environment and require chiastic alignment. Otherwiseparallel alignment is used.Earlier publications on Natural Syntax: Kavcic 2005a,b, Oresnik 1999, 2000a,b, 200la-f   2002, 2003a-c, 2002/03, 2004. This list cites only works written in English.

  10. Computer Security: a plea to Santa Claus

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    Running pirated software or illegal licences, using cracking tools to bypass software activation measures, sharing music and films – these are problems that academic environments unfortunately have to deal with. All violate the copyright of the software/music/film owners, and copyright owners are not Santa Claus...    CERN, like other research organisations and universities, regularly receives allegations from external companies complaining about laptops or PCs running illegal software or sharing their films, videos or music with peers – and thus violating copyright.  Usually, we then contact the owners of the corresponding devices in order to understand whether these allegations are true. Very often such allegations boil down to a laptop whose owner replies “I confirm that a torrent client was left up and running on my device by mistake” or “This is a file that is stored on my personal hard disk.” As if those allegatio...

  11. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Science Archive: Migrating a Multi-Terabyte Astronomical Archive from Object to Relational DBMS

    CERN Document Server

    Thakar, A R; Kunszt, Peter Z; Gray, J; Thakar, Aniruddha R.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Kunszt, Peter Z.; Gray, Jim

    2004-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Science Archive is the first in a series of multi-Terabyte digital archives in Astronomy and other data-intensive sciences. To facilitate data mining in the SDSS archive, we adapted a commercial database engine and built specialized tools on top of it. Originally we chose an object-oriented database management system due to its data organization capabilities, platform independence, query performance and conceptual fit to the data. However, after using the object database for the first couple of years of the project, it soon began to fall short in terms of its query support and data mining performance. This was as much due to the inability of the database vendor to respond our demands for features and bug fixes as it was due to their failure to keep up with the rapid improvements in hardware performance, particularly faster RAID disk systems. In the end, we were forced to abandon the object database and migrate our data to a relational database. We describe below the technical issu...

  12. Search for HH objects and emission stars in star formation regions. IV. New HH flows and HH objects related with cometary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the observations in the environments of the five cometary nebulae: MacC H12, MacC sH15, GM 1-14, RNO 33, Pars 17, are presented. This search was performed in the frames of the continuing survey of the new HH-objects in the star formation regions. Nine previously unknown HH-objects were found. Nearly all these objects belong to directed outflows, the sources of which are with high probability the central stars of the listed above nebulae. In the cases of MacC H12 and GM 1-14 the outflows have distinct bipolar structure. The position of the sources on J-H/H-K diagram is discussed

  13. A structural equation model relating objective and subjective masticatory function and oral health-related quality of life in patients with removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fueki, K; Yoshida, E; Igarashi, Y

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between objective masticatory function with respect to masticatory performance and food mixing ability, patients' perception of chewing ability and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Partially dentate patients with removable partial dentures (n = 131, mean age 67·1 year) participated in the study. Four tests were performed to evaluate objective and subjective masticatory function and OHRQoL. Masticatory performance and food mixing ability were assessed using peanuts or a two-coloured wax cube as test items. Patients' perception of chewing ability was rated using a food intake questionnaire. OHRQoL was measured using the Japanese version of the oral health impact profile. A structural equation model was constructed based on hypothesis in which objective masticatory function would be related to OHRQoL via perceived chewing ability as a mediator. Structural equation modelling analysis found a statistically significant medium effect of perceived chewing ability on OHRQoL and statistically significant medium or small effects of masticatory performance on perceived chewing ability and OHRQoL (P food mixing ability on perceived chewing ability or OHRQoL was not statistically significant (P > 0·05). A fit index indicated that the model fitted well to the data (Goodness-of-fit index = 0·99). These results suggest that perceived chewing ability is a critical factor for OHRQoL and that masticatory performance rather than food mixing ability is important for perceived chewing ability and OHRQoL in patients with removable partial dentures. PMID:20673294

  14. 48 CFR 970.0370-2 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Improper Business Practices and Personal Conflicts...insert the clause at 970.5203-1, Management Controls, in all management and operating contracts....

  15. 48 CFR 2409.507-2 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION...CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational and Consultant Conflicts...requirements may present an organizational conflict of interest...clause at 2452.209-72, Organizational Conflicts of...

  16. Direct Stakeholder's Perception of PPA Clauses In The Nepalese Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Shrestha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the perceptions of the stakeholders regarding the key issues in Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs in the Nepalese Environment. A total of 90 questionnaires representing sponsors, utility, lenders and government officials were used for the study. The questionnaire sought the perception of the stakeholders regarding the significance (importance of the clauses and the likelihood of inclusion of the clauses in PPAs. Comparison of the ranks of means was conducted by Kruskal-Wallis tests to see the significance of the differences in responses of the stakeholders and Mann-Whitney tests to see the significance of the differences of the pairs of stakeholders. Data analysis showed clauses where the prime stakeholders have similar stand and clauses where the perceptions are divergent. The findings of this paper will help the stakeholders in negotiating PPAs.

  17. Improved Separations of Regular Resolution from Clause Learning Proof Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bonet, Maria Luisa; Buss, Sam; Johannsen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    We prove that the graph tautology formulas of Alekhnovich, Johannsen, Pitassi, and Urquhart have polynomial size pool resolution refutations that use only input lemmas as learned clauses and without degenerate resolution inferences. We also prove that these graph tautology formulas can be refuted by polynomial size DPLL proofs with clause learning, even when restricted to greedy, unit-propagating DPLL search. We prove similar results for the guarded, xor-fied pebbling tautol...

  18. From pauses to clauses: prosody facilitates learning of syntactic constituency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Kara; Gerken, LouAnn

    2014-11-01

    Learning to parse the speech stream into syntactic constituents is a crucial prerequisite to adult-like sentence comprehension, and prosody is one source of information that could be used for this task. To test the role of prosody in facilitating constituent learning, 19-month-olds were familiarized with non-word sentences with 1-clause (ABCDEF) or 2-clause (ABC, DEF) prosody and were then tested on sentences that represent a grammatical (DEF, ABC) or ungrammatical (EFA, BCD) 'movement' of the clauses from the 2-clause familiarization sentences. If infants in the 2-clause group are able to use prosody to group words into cohesive chunks, they should discriminate between grammatical and ungrammatical movements in the test items, even though the test sentences have a new prosodic contour. The 1-clause, control, group should not discriminate. Results support these predictions and suggest that infants treat prosodically-grouped words as more cohesive and constituent-like than words that straddle a prosodic boundary. A follow-up experiment suggests that these results do not merely reflect recognition of words in boundary positions or acoustic similarity of words across the familiarization and test phases. PMID:25151251

  19. Syntaktische Nebensatzklassen im Deutschen / Syntactic classes of subordinate clauses in German

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hardarik, Blühdorn.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo dá uma visão panorâmica das classes de orações subordinadas da língua alemã. Suas funções e estruturas sintáticas são descritas mediante o esquema das posições e dos campos. Três aspectos específicos são tratados mais a fundo: as funções (i) de pronomes e (ii) de partículas de comparação em [...] relação a orações subordinadas e (iii) o papel de orações subordinadas em construções clivadas. O artigo pode ser usado para fins didáticos no meio acadêmico e como ponto de partida para estudos em sintaxe comparativa. Abstract in english This article gives an overview of the syntactic classes of subordinate clauses in German. Their functions and structures are described with the help of the model of linear positions and fields. Three questions are treated in more detail: the functions of (i) pronouns and (ii) comparative particles i [...] n relation to subordinate clauses and (iii) the role of subordinate clauses in cleft constructions. The article can be used in academic teaching and as a starting point for studies in comparative syntax.

  20. Complex Clause Syntax in the Italian Classroom – the Learners Between Transfer and Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Mertelj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When teaching Italian as a foreign language, learners’ insecurities about using conjunctions and tenses in subordinate clauses can be noticed very early. Temporality, relative temporality and modality are signalled by Italian verb forms which function in a largely different (or apparently similar way in comparison to Slovene. If ‘true’ similarities can be exploited in the process of teaching/learning by means of a positive transfer, apparent ‘similarities’ and ‘differences’ between the two language systems should, on the other hand, be clarified to avoid negative transfer (interference. During the whole learning process language awareness should be developed, also through contrastive insights into the linguistic systems concerned. Taking as a starting point a text suitable for level B1, some problematic points are presented, for which a series of tasks can be suggested with the aim of helping the learner master complex clause syntax and develop language awareness.Key words: Italian, foreign/second language, complex clause, syntax, transfer, language awareness

  1. Comparative analysis of the symptomatology of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction in relation to objective data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara Barroso Jr

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical presentation of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD relating to objective examination data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four children (36 girls and 8 boys with mean age of 6.8 years with LUTD were prospectively assessed through a specific questionnaire that analyzed clinical presentation of those patients. These data were then compared to objective data, such as micturition diary and uroflowmetry with electromyography. RESULTS: A urinary tract infection (UTI antecedent was observed in 31 cases (70.5%, and of those, 24 cases of UTI were accompanied by fever. All children presented micturition urgency. Daily urinary incontinence was observed in 33 cases (75% and nocturnal enuresis in 23 (52.3%. As for micturition frequency, 15 (34.1% had normal frequency 19 (43.2% presented more than 10 daily micturition episodes and 10 (22.7% thought they urinated less than 5 times a day. In the uroflowmetry and electromyography examination, 14 (31.8% experienced lack of coordination during micturition. Of 10 children with infrequent micturition, 5 confirmed this in their micturition diaries and 2 listed more than 5 micturition episodes per day in the diary. Of 19 patients presenting polaciuria, only 5 confirmed this in their micturition diaries, while 7 had less than 10 micturition episodes per day. CONCLUSION: Most children with LUTD presented a previous UTI, and daily incontinence was verified in around 75% of the patients. Complaints of polaciuria or infrequent micturition are not noted completely in the micturition diaries and there is no parameter in the clinical history that offers good sensitivity or specificity for the diagnosis of lack of perineal coordination.

  2. Comparison between Face and Object Processing in Youths with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An event related potentials study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Khorrami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Incapability in face perception and recognition is one of the main issues in autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Event related potential (ERP studies have revealed controversial insights on autistic brain responses to faces and objects. The current investigation examined the ERP components of young children with ASD compared to a typically developing (TD group when looking at the upright and inverted images of faces and cars.Fourteen children and adolescents aged between 9 and 17 diagnosed as having ASD were compared with 18 age- gender matched normally developing individuals. All participants' ERPs were recorded while they were seeing the images of human faces and objects in both upright and inverted positions. The ERP components including N170 (latency and amplitude were compared between the two groups in two conditions of upright and inverted using the repeated measure analysis method.The processing speed for upright faces was faster than the inverted faces in the TD group; however, the difference was not significant. A significant difference was observed in terms of N170 latency between the two groups for different stimulus categories such as objects and faces(p<0.05. Moreover, inverted vs. upright stimuli in both groups elicited a greater response in terms of N170 amplitude in both groups, and this effect was significantly prominent in the right hemisphere (p<0.05. The N170 amplitude turned out to be greater for the inverted vs. upright stimuli irrespective of the stimuli type and group.These data suggest youths with ASD have difficulty processing information, particularly in face perception regardless of the stimuli orientation.

  3. Comparative analysis of the symptomatology of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction in relation to objective data

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ubirajara, Barroso Jr; Thiago, Nova; Anderson, Dultra; Patricia, Lordelo; Juarez, Andrade; Antonio J., Vinhaes.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical presentation of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) relating to objective examination data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four children (36 girls and 8 boys with mean age of 6.8 years) with LUTD were prospectively assessed through a specific questio [...] nnaire that analyzed clinical presentation of those patients. These data were then compared to objective data, such as micturition diary and uroflowmetry with electromyography. RESULTS: A urinary tract infection (UTI) antecedent was observed in 31 cases (70.5%), and of those, 24 cases of UTI were accompanied by fever. All children presented micturition urgency. Daily urinary incontinence was observed in 33 cases (75%) and nocturnal enuresis in 23 (52.3%). As for micturition frequency, 15 (34.1%) had normal frequency 19 (43.2%) presented more than 10 daily micturition episodes and 10 (22.7%) thought they urinated less than 5 times a day. In the uroflowmetry and electromyography examination, 14 (31.8%) experienced lack of coordination during micturition. Of 10 children with infrequent micturition, 5 confirmed this in their micturition diaries and 2 listed more than 5 micturition episodes per day in the diary. Of 19 patients presenting polaciuria, only 5 confirmed this in their micturition diaries, while 7 had less than 10 micturition episodes per day. CONCLUSION: Most children with LUTD presented a previous UTI, and daily incontinence was verified in around 75% of the patients. Complaints of polaciuria or infrequent micturition are not noted completely in the micturition diaries and there is no parameter in the clinical history that offers good sensitivity or specificity for the diagnosis of lack of perineal coordination.

  4. Temporal and co-varying clause combining in Austronesian languages : Semantics, morpho-syntax and distributional patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates combined clause constructions for ten distinct semantic relations in a cross-section of Austronesian languages. The relations are of a temporal or co-varying nature, the former commonly expressed in English by such markers as when, then, until, etc. and the latter by if, so, because, etc. The research falls into three main sections. First, the study provides an overview of the semantic domain covered by the relevant relations in the Austronesian languages. Several subd...

  5. Iron Abundance in the Prototype PG 1159 Star, GW Vir Pulsator PG 1159-035, and Related Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, K.; Rauch, T.; Kruk, J. W.; Kurucz, R. L.

    2011-01-01

    We performed an iron abundance determination of the hot, hydrogen deficient post-AGB star PG 1159-035. which is the prototype of the PG 1159 spectral class and the GW Vir pulsators, and of two related objects (PG 1520+525, PG 1144+005), based on the first detection of Fe VIII lines in stellar photospheres. In another PG 1159 star. PG 1424+535. we detect Fe VII lines. In all four stars, each within T(sub eff) = 110,000-150,000 K, we find a solar iron abundance. This result agrees with our recent abundance analysis of the hottest PG 1159 stars (T(sub eff) = 150,000-200,000 K) that exhibit Fe x lines. On the whole, we find that the PG 1159 stars are not significantly iron deficient, in contrast to previous notions.

  6. The interaction between relative, familiar object size and binocular vision cues when perceiving stereoscopic 3D content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hands, Paul; Khushu, Aniketa; Read, Jenny

    2015-09-01

    Stereoscopic 3D television can suffer from a "puppet theater effect", where figures are perceived as unnaturally small. This does not normally affect 2D television, perhaps because viewers interpret the image as being produced by a correctly-sized object viewed from a suitably far distance, whereas the additional binocular cues to distance rule out this interpretation in S3D displays. In this study, we examined the interaction between binocular disparity and perceived size. Viewers were shown a picture of a standard credit card - a familiar everyday object with a definite size - presented on a S3D TV screen with varying physical size and binocular disparity. They reported whether it appeared smaller or larger than a real card. The viewing distance was 50, 100 or 200cm. The credit card was presented in the middle of the screen either on a black background (absolute disparity condition), or on a textured background (relative disparity condition). If a "familiar size" cue dominated, viewers would always perceive the image as being credit-card-sized, so the percentage of "bigger" judgments would not depend on image size or disparity. Alternatively, viewers might base their answers on the size of the physical image on the screen, if they were able to detect this. Thirdly, viewers might combine the binocular information about the distance of the virtual card with the angular subtense of the image, and base their answers on the implied size of the virtual card. Our results indicate that viewers use a mixture of the last two strategies. At all 3 viewing distances, they do take disparity into account, especially when this is more precise (relative disparity condition). However, they are also influenced by the physical size of the image on the screen. We present a mathematical model of how viewers combine size and disparity in this task. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326770

  7. TURKISH PARTICIPLES AND GREEK RELATIVE CLAUSES: TURKISH PARASYNTHEMES AND GREEK SYNTAGMS TÜRK D?L?NDE ORTAÇLAR – YUNAN D?L?NDE ?LG? YANTÜMCELER?: TÜRKÇE’DE PARASENTEMLER, YUNANCA’DA SENTAGMLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni SELLA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkish and Greek differ clearly in terms of both the syntactic processes and the distribution of their units. Indicative of this differentiation are the difficulties faced by the speakers of Greece in acquiring the method and usage of the S?fat Fiil of the Turkish language, particularly the ones denoting relations of specialisation between reference and referent. For this purpose, we decided to examine these relations closely, both according to the principles of the contrastive study of the two structural systems, as well as in terms of error analysis, based on the theoretical premises of A. Martinet's Functional Linguistics.The analysis and interpretation of our students' errors leads to the conclusion that, compared to Modern Greek, which is for the mostpart characterised by syntagms, i.e. with an analytic method of structuring and providing information (and it is in this sense contrasted to Ancient Greek, the hardest problem in Turkish lies in the existence of synthemes and parasynthemes, i.e. a synthetic and concentrated structural method. Indeed, this is a clear difference, one that is hard to overcome in the learning process adopted for Turkish. The co-existence of genetic and typological divergences accounts for the presence of a significant number of gaps, which are due not to the strategy of interference, but rather to the mechanism of simplification and to the principle of least effort. Yunanca ile Türkçe aras?nda hem söz dizimi hem de birimlerin da??l?m? konusunda belirleyici farkl?l?klar vard?r. Bu farkl?l?klar?n ö?renimde sebep olan zorluklar?n aras?nda ana dili Yunanca olanlar?n Türkçe ö?renmelerinde, s?fat–fiil bulunduran tümcelerin söz diziminde (sentaks ve s?fat-fiillerin kullan?m?nda, özellikle de tamlayan ve tamlanan aras?ndaki ili?ki konusunda kar??la?t?klar? güçlükler de gösterilebilir. Bundan dolay?d?r ki, iki dil sistemi Kar??tsal ?nceleme ve de Yanl??lar? ?nceleme kurallar?na dayan?larak incelenip bu zorluklar?n nedenlerini ara?t?rmaya karar verilmi?tir. Bu çal??ma, André Martinet’in ??levsel Dilbilimi’nin teorisine dayan?r. Ö?rencilerin yapt??? yanl??lar?n incelenmesi ve aç?klanmas?ndan, ana dili Yunanca olanlar?n Türkçe ö?renmelerinde en büyük zorluk, Ça?da? Yunancada bildiri?imde (Eski Yunancan?n tersine, daha çok sentagmalar?n – yani verilerin ve bilgilerin ileti?iminde daha ayr?nt?l? bir yap?n?n – Türkçede ise sentem ve parasemtemlerin (birle?kebirim - yani daha yo?un ve bire?imli bir yap?n?n - kullan?lmas?d?r. Bu ay?r?c? farkl?l?ktan kaynaklanan güçlükleri a?mak, Türkçe ö?reniminde oldukça zor bir süreçtir. Genetik ve tipoloj?k farkl?l?klar?n bir araya gelmesi, oldukça büyük say?daki sapmalar?n meydana gelmesinin sebebi olarak gösterilebilir. Bu sapmalar?n, giri?imden çok, basitle?tirme ve en az çaba göstermek dü?üncesinden kaynaklanmaktad?r.

  8. From a set of parts to an indivisible whole. Part III: Holistic space of multi-object relations

    OpenAIRE

    Andreev, Leonid

    2008-01-01

    The previously described methodology for hierarchical grouping of objects through iterative averaging has been used for simulation of cooperative interactions between objects of a system with the purpose of investigation of the conformational organization of the system. Interactions between objects were analyzed within the space of an isotropic field of one of the objects (drifter). Such an isotropic field of an individual object can be viewed as a prototype of computer ego....

  9. 48 CFR 745.106 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY ...funds were obligated under a Strategic Objective agreement (or...already obligated under a Strategic Objective agreement...

  10. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnnemarieBoschloo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness – ‘I feel sleepy during the first hours at school’ – appeared to predict both school grades and self-reported school performance. Sleep quality on the other hand – as a measure of (uninterrupted sleep and/or problems falling asleep or waking up – predicted parent-reported school performance. Self- and parent-reported school performance correlated only moderately with school grades. So it turns out that the measures used to measure either sleep or school performance impacts whether or not a relation is found. Further research on sleep and school performance should take this into account. The findings do underscore the notion that sleep in adolescence can be important for learning. They are compatible with the hypothesis that a reduced sleep quality can give rise to sleepiness in the first hours at school which results in lower school performance. This notion could have applied value in counseling adolescents and their parents in changing adolescents’ sleep behavior.

  11. Immediate compensation for variations in self-generated Coriolis torques related to body dynamics and carried objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeon, Pascale; Dizio, Paul; Lackner, James R

    2013-09-01

    We have previously shown that the Coriolis torques that result when an arm movement is performed during torso rotation do not affect movement trajectory. Our purpose in the present study was to examine whether torso motion-induced Coriolis and other interaction torques are counteracted during a turn and reach (T&R) movement when the effective mass of the hand is augmented, and whether the dominant arm has an advantage in coordinating intersegmental dynamics as predicted by the dynamic dominance hypothesis (Sainburg RL. Exp Brain Res 142: 241-258, 2002). Subjects made slow and fast T&R movements in the dark to just extinguished targets with either arm, while holding or not holding a 454-g object. Movement endpoints were equally accurate at both speeds, with either hand, and in both weight conditions, but subjects tended to angularly undershoot and produce more variable endpoints for targets requiring greater torso rotation. There were no changes in endpoint accuracy or trajectory deviation over repeated movements. The dominant right arm was more stable in its control of trajectory direction across targets, whereas the nondominant left arm had an improved ability to stop accurately on the target for higher levels of interaction torques. The trajectories to more eccentric targets were straighter when performed at higher speeds but slightly more deviated when subjects held the weight. Subjects did not slow their torso velocity or change the timing of the arm and torso velocities when holding the weight, although there was a slight decrease in their hand velocity relative to the torso. The delay between the onsets of torso and finger movements was almost twice as large for the right arm than the left, suggesting the right arm was better able to account for torso rotation in the arm movement. Holding the weight increased the peak Coriolis torque by 40% at the shoulder and 45% at the elbow and, for the most eccentric target, increased the peak net torque by 12% at the shoulder and 34% at the elbow. In accordance with Sainburg's dynamic dominance hypothesis, the right arm exhibited an advantage for coordinating intersegmental dynamics, showing a more stable finger velocity in relation to the torso across targets, decreasing error variability with movement speed, and more synchronized peaks of finger relative and torso angular velocities in conditions with greater joint torque requirements. The arm used had little effect on the movement path and the magnitude of the joint torques in any of the conditions. These results indicate that compensations for forthcoming Coriolis torque variations take into account the dynamic properties of the body and of external objects, as well as the planned velocities of the torso and arm. PMID:23803330

  12. Assisted suicide and the savings clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helminski, F

    1995-06-01

    In December 1994, the Michigan Supreme Court decided a group of cases comprising constitutional challenges to a Michigan statute against assisted suicide and prosecutions of Dr. Jack Kevorkian for his role in two incidents of suicide. The court rejected arguments that the statute infringed a right of "personal autonomy" under the Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution; it noted that, although US Supreme Court opinions indicate that decisions to withdraw or reject life-sustaining treatment are constitutionally protected, a legal difference exists between permitting death to occur by natural means and taking affirmative steps to end life. The Michigan court also decided that Kevorkian could not be charged with murder for supplying only the means by which suicide occurred, but he could be charged with a common law crime of assisting in suicide although the statute outlawing such actions became effective only after the suicides occurred. Because suicide was a crime under the prerevolutionary English Common Law, which forms the foundation of Michigan law, assisting in suicide is also a residual crime under the "savings clause" of the Michigan statutes, which incorporates common law crimes into the law of that state when no superseding statute exists. PMID:7776723

  13. 48 CFR 352.270-8 - Prostitution and related activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prostitution and related activities. 352.270-8...Provisions and Clauses 352.270-8 Prostitution and related activities. As prescribed...shall insert the following clause: Prostitution and Related Activities (January...

  14. The exceptional clauses in the contractual activity on the public administration: freedom of choice or legislative imposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor David Osorio Moreno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The contracting activity of public administration in Colombia has generally allowed, by order of constitutional and legislative norms, the application of the principle of autonomy, so that those subjects within a public legal transaction can build and establish the conditions governing their contract. The scope of the principle of autonomy must be analyzed and subjected to reflection, especially considering the institution of exception clauses in common law used by State agencies and their legal relationship with contractors. The existence of exception clauses has been justified by the interests of the State (and in particular the public interest without strictly analyzing the essence of the figure. The application of this institution in contractual relations of the State has advanced greatly, but it is still uncertain if the true nature of the figure is caused by the autonomy of the parties in order to celebrate the contract, or if it comes as privileges conferred and imposed by the legislator as a way to concise the principle of legality. This paper concludes that exception clauses in common law, clearly applied in contractual activity within public administration, consist of special privileges imposed by the legislator to State entities, and are therefore opposed to the essence of the clause and the principle of autonomy.

  15. For a relational approach to modern literary Arabic conditional clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Sartori, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    À partir d'œuvres romanesques écrites en arabe littéraire moderne publiées entre 1963 et 2005 et issues de l'ensemble du monde arabe, cet article tend à montrer en quoi les systèmes hypothétiques de cette variété de la langue ne correspondent plus au modèle "classiquement" établi. Précisément, il indique que les grammaires dites de l'arabe moderne se révèlent, confrontées à la réalité des textes, descriptivement inadéquates. Il montre ensuite en quoi la conditionnelle moderne arabe, dans son ...

  16. Identification of metrics to monitor salt marsh integrity on National Wildlife Refuges in relation to conservation and management objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckles, Hilary A.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Shriver, W. George; Danz, Nicholas P.; Wiest, Whitney A.; Nagel, Jessica L.; Olker, Jennifer H.

    2013-01-01

    Most salt marshes in the US have been degraded by human activities, and threats from physical alterations, surrounding land-use, species invasions, and global climate change persist. Salt marshes are unique and highly productive ecosystems with high intrinsic value to wildlife, and many National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) have been established in coastal areas to protect large tracts of salt marsh and wetland-dependent species. Various management practices are employed routinely on coastal NWRs to restore and enhance marsh integrity and ensure ecosystem sustainability. Prioritizing NWR salt marshes for application of management actions and choosing among multiple management options requires scientifically-based methods for assessing marsh condition. Monitoring is integral to structured decision-making (SDM), a formal process for decomposing a decision into its essential elements. Within a natural resource context, SDM involves identifying management objectives, alternative management actions, and expected management outcomes. The core of SDM is a set of criteria for measuring system performance and evaluating management responses. Therefore, use of SDM to frame natural resource decisions leads to logical selection of monitoring attributes that are linked explicitly to management needs. We used SDM to guide selection of variables for monitoring the ecological integrity of salt marshes within the National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS). Our objectives were to identify indicators of salt marsh integrity that are effective across large geographic regions, responsive to a wide range of threats, and feasible to implement within funding and staffing constraints of the NWRS. In April, 2008, we engaged interdisciplinary experts in a week-long rapid prototyping SDM workshop to define the essential elements of salt marsh management decisions on refuges throughout the northeastern, southwestern, and northwestern US, corresponding to respective Regions 5, 2, and 1 of the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). Through this process we identified measurable attributes for monitoring salt marsh ecosystems that are integrated into conservation practice and target management objectives. The following salt marsh attributes were identified through the SDM process either for describing state condition to determine management needs or for evaluating the achievement of management objectives: historical condition and geomorphic setting; ditch density; surrounding land use; ratio of open water area to vegetation area; rate of pesticide application; environmental contaminant concentration; change in marsh surface elevation relative to sea level rise; tidal range and groundwater level; surface topography; salinity; and species composition and abundance of vegetation, invasive species, invertebrates, nekton, and breeding and wintering birds. The identified attributes were too broadly defined to serve as operational monitoring variables. Therefore, we tested specific metrics for quantifying most of these attributes in summers of 2008 and 2009. The first four attributes in the above list can be characterized by office-based analysis of existing GIS data layers. The remaining attributes require field-based methods for assessment. We were forced to exclude a small number of attributes from field tests due to inconsistent data (pesticide application rate, environmental contaminant concentrations) or requirements that exceeded the scope of this project (change in marsh surface elevation; surface topography; benthic invertebrates; wintering birds). We evaluated potential metrics for evaluating all remaining field attributes. In partnership with NWRS biologists, we tested rapid versus intensive metrics for monitoring field attributes (tidal range and groundwater level; marsh surface elevation; salinity; and species composition and abundance of vegetation, invasive species, nekton, and breeding birds) at coastal refuges throughout FWS Region 5. Seven refuges participated in metric testing in 2008: Rachel Carson (ME), Parker River (MA), Wertheim (NY), E. B. Forsythe

  17. SPINS: standardized protein NMR storage. A data dictionary and object-oriented relational database for archiving protein NMR spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Michael C; Moseley, Hunter N B; Sahota, Gurmukh; Montelione, Gaetano T

    2002-10-01

    Modern protein NMR spectroscopy laboratories have a rapidly growing need for an easily queried local archival system of raw experimental NMR datasets. SPINS (Standardized ProteIn Nmr Storage) is an object-oriented relational database that provides facilities for high-volume NMR data archival, organization of analyses, and dissemination of results to the public domain by automatic preparation of the header files required for submission of data to the BioMagResBank (BMRB). The current version of SPINS coordinates the process from data collection to BMRB deposition of raw NMR data by standardizing and integrating the storage and retrieval of these data in a local laboratory file system. Additional facilities include a data mining query tool, graphical database administration tools, and a NMRStar v2. 1.1 file generator. SPINS also includes a user-friendly internet-based graphical user interface, which is optionally integrated with Varian VNMR NMR data collection software. This paper provides an overview of the data model underlying the SPINS database system, a description of its implementation in Oracle, and an outline of future plans for the SPINS project. PMID:12495027

  18. Pairs and Groups of Genetically Related Long-Period Comets and Probable Identity of the Mysterious Lick Object of 1921

    CERN Document Server

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    2015-01-01

    We present the history of investigation of the dynamical properties of pairs and groups of genetically related long-period comets (other than the Kreutz sungrazing system). Members of a comet pair or group move in nearly identical orbits and their origin as fragments of a common parent comet is unquestionable. The only variable is the time of perihelion passage, which differs from member to member considerably due primarily to an orbital-momentum increment acquired during breakup. Meter-per-second separation velocities account for gaps of years or tens of years, thanks to the orbital periods of many millennia. The physical properties of individual members may not at all be alike, as illustrated by the trio of C/1988 A1, C/1996 Q1, and C/2015 F3. We exploit orbital similarity to examine whether the celebrated and as yet unidentified object, discovered from the Lick Observatory near the Sun at sunset on 1921 August 7, happened to be a member of such a pair and to track down the long-period comet to which it cou...

  19. Multi-Objective Optimization of Hole Drilling Electrical Discharge Micromachining Process Using Grey Relational Analysis Coupled with Principal Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porwal, R. K.; Yadava, V.; Ramkumar, J.

    2013-10-01

    Optimization of performance characteristics and quality characteristics during hole drilling-electrical discharge micromachining (HD-EDMM) is necessarily multi-objective in nature and needs considerable attention for finding preferred operating values and levels for a desired output responses. A hybrid method comprising of grey relational analysis (GRA) coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) is used in this paper for the determination of preferred combination of input parameters of HD-EDMM for maximization of material removal rate and minimization of other three output parameters such as tool wear rate, hole taper and hole overcut simultaneously. The micromachining parameters used are gap voltage at six levels, capacitance of capacitor at three levels and spindle speed at three levels. Eighteen sets of experiments are conducted as per L18 orthogonal array and GRA coupled with PCA is used for finding optimal parameter combination of the HD-EDMM process. Optimal combination of the process parameters for the multi-performance characteristics of the HD-EDMM has been found as gap voltage 140 V, capacitance of capacitor 10 nF, and 110 rpm of tool electrode.

  20. 78 FR 37980 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Solicitation Provisions and Contract Clauses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ...229-7003, Tax Exemptions (Italy...229-7003, Tax Exemptions (Italy). If...solicitation includes the clause at FAR 52.204-7...229-7005, Tax Exemptions (Spain). If...solicitation includes the clause at FAR...

  1. 48 CFR 970.2703-2 - Patent rights clause provisions for management and operating contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights clause provisions for management and... DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2703-2 Patent rights clause provisions for management...

  2. 48 CFR 1616.7002 - Clause-contracts based on cost analysis (experience rated).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Clause-contracts based on cost analysis (experience rated). 1616.7002 Section 1616...contracts based on cost analysis (experience rated). The clause at section...FEHBP contracts based on cost analysis (experience...

  3. Design of relative motion and attitude profiles for three-dimensional resident space object imaging with a laser rangefinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, M.; Beck, J.; Udrea, B.

    This paper focuses on the aerospace application of a single beam laser rangefinder (LRF) for 3D imaging, shape detection, and reconstruction in the context of a space-based space situational awareness (SSA) mission scenario. The primary limitation to 3D imaging from LRF point clouds is the one-dimensional nature of the single beam measurements. A method that combines relative orbital motion and scanning attitude motion to generate point clouds has been developed and the design and characterization of multiple relative motion and attitude maneuver profiles are presented. The target resident space object (RSO) has the shape of a generic telecommunications satellite. The shape and attitude of the RSO are unknown to the chaser satellite however, it is assumed that the RSO is un-cooperative and has fixed inertial pointing. All sensors in the metrology chain are assumed ideal. A previous study by the authors used pure Keplerian motion to perform a similar 3D imaging mission at an asteroid. A new baseline for proximity operations maneuvers for LRF scanning, based on a waypoint adaptation of the Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire (HCW) equations is examined. Propellant expenditure for each waypoint profile is discussed and combinations of relative motion and attitude maneuvers that minimize the propellant used to achieve a minimum required point cloud density are studied. Both LRF strike-point coverage and point cloud density are maximized; the capability for 3D shape registration and reconstruction from point clouds generated with a single beam LRF without catalog comparison is proven. Next, a method of using edge detection algorithms to process a point cloud into a 3D modeled image containing reconstructed shapes is presented. Weighted accuracy of edge reconstruction with respect to the true model is used to calculate a qualitative “ metric” that evaluates effectiveness of coverage. Both edge recognition algorithms and the metric are independent of point cloud densit- , therefore they are utilized to compare the quality of point clouds generated by various attitude and waypoint command profiles. The RSO model incorporates diverse irregular protruding shapes, such as open sensor covers, instrument pods and solar arrays, to test the limits of the algorithms. This analysis is used to mathematically prove that point clouds generated by a single-beam LRF can achieve sufficient edge recognition accuracy for SSA applications, with meaningful shape information extractable even from sparse point clouds. For all command profiles, reconstruction of RSO shapes from the point clouds generated with the proposed method are compared to the truth model and conclusions are drawn regarding their fidelity.

  4. Incorporating Clause Learning in Grid-Based Randomized SAT Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti E.J. Hyvaerinen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Computational Grids provide a widely distributed computing environment suitable for randomized SAT solving. This paper develops techniques for incorporating clause learning, known to yield significant speed-ups in the sequential case, in such a distributed framework. The approach exploits existing state-of-the-art clause learning SAT solvers by embedding them with virtually no modifications. The paper presents an algorithmic framework for learning-enhanced randomized SAT solving in Grid environments. With a substantial amount of controlled experiments it is demonstrated that this approach enables a form of clause learning which is not directly available in the underlying sequential SAT solver. Finally, an implementation of the algorithm is run in a production level Grid where it solves several problems not solved in the SAT 2007 solver competition.

  5. Differentiating spatial and object-based effects on attention: an event-related brain potential study with peripheral cueing.

    OpenAIRE

    He, X.; Humphreys, G; Fan, S; Chen, L; Han, S.

    2008-01-01

    Do spatial attention and object attention modulate visual processing in similar ways? Previously we have found a dissociation between these two forms of attention on ERP measures of sensory processing under conditions of peripheral cueing, with spatial attention effects associated with changes over anterior scalp regions and object attention effects associated with changes over posterior regions (He, X., Fan, S., Zhou, K., Chen, L., 2004. Cue validity and object-based attention. J. Cogn. Neur...

  6. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets can be used in many application systems for structural and content analysis. An example of the use the hybrid sets for logistics systems modeling is shown.

  7. 48 CFR 52.301 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Clause Matrix 52.301 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). Note: The FAR matrix is not carried in the CFR. It is available in the loose-leaf edition. ... and contract clauses (Matrix). 52.301 Section 52.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  8. 48 CFR 1852.301 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). 1852.301 Section 1852.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... and Clause Matrix 1852.301 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix)....

  9. Bei: Intraclausal Coherence Relations Illustrated with a German Preposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabski, Michael; Stede, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    Coherence relations are typically taken to link two clauses or larger units and to be signaled at the text surface by conjunctions and certain adverbials. Relations, however, also can hold within clauses, indicated by prepositions like despite, due to, or in case of, when these have an internal argument denoting an eventuality. Although these…

  10. Objective civil liability for work-related health damages Responsabilidade civil objetiva pelos danos à saúde do trabalhador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Caravieri Martins Gambá

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The environment, including that of work , is considered a basic right guaranteed by Magna Carta (article 7º, XXII, section 225, caption and article 200, VIII . The social value of work represents the pillars of Economic Order (article 170, CF and Social Order (article 193, CF, which offers full health and physical integrity protection to workers in their working environment. Thus, the question of work-related damages suffered by employees due to industrial accidents and occupational hazards must be analyzed within the work environment protection legal context , adopting the objective civil liability theory, by means of a teleologic logical-systematic interpretation of constitutional and infra-constitutional rules. This interpretation evidences the compatibility of the economic activity and the free initiative according to the Democratic State of Right, in order to build a more just and united society , thus reducing social inequalities.O meio ambiente, incluído o do trabalho, é considerado um direito fundamental, estando expressamente previsto no artigo 7º, inciso XXII, no artigo 225, caput e artigo 200, inciso VIII, todos da Carta Magna. Ademais, os valores sociais do trabalho representam pilares da Ordem Econômica (artigo 170 da CF e da Ordem Social (artigo 193 da CF, impondo plena proteção à saúde e à integridade física do trabalhador no meio ambiente onde exerce suas atividades. Desse modo, a questão da reparação dos danos sofridos pelos empregados em função dos acidentes de trabalho e das doenças ocupacionais deve ser analisada dentro do contexto jurídico da proteção ao meio ambiente do trabalho, adotando-se a teoria da responsabilidade civil objetiva, mediante uma interpretação lógico-sistemática e teleológica das normas constitucionais e infraconstitucionais. Essa interpretação evidencia a compatibilização da atividade econômica e da livre iniciativa com os fundamentos do Estado Democrático de Direito, no intuito de se construir uma sociedade mais justa e solidária, reduzindo as desigualdades sociais.

  11. Assessment of subjective and objective cognitive function in bipolar disorder : Correlations, predictors and the relation to psychosocial function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Kirsa M; Vinberg, Maj

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is prevalent in bipolar disorder (BD). However, the evidence regarding the association between subjective cognitive complaints, objective cognitive performance and psychosocial function is sparse and inconsistent. Seventy seven patients with bipolar disorder who presented cognitive complaints underwent assessment of objective and subjective cognitive function and psychosocial functioning as part of their participation in two clinical trials. We investigated the association between global and domain-specific objective and subjective cognitive function and between global cognitive function and psychosocial function. We also identified clinical variables that predicted objective and subjective cognitive function and psychosocial functioning. There was a significant, however weak, correlation between objective and subjective measures of global cognitive function but not within the individual cognitive domains, and a moderate correlation between subjective cognitive function and psychosocial function. Increased depression severity predicted greater subjective cognitive dysfunction globally (memory, attention and executive function) and in attention as well as lower psychosocial functioning. In conclusion, subjective cognitive difficulties seem to reflect general objective deficits in bipolar disorder but not individual cognitive domains. Cognitive complaints are associated with impaired psychosocial function and both are predicted by greater depression severity. Subjective cognitive complaints seem clinically useful as a threshold marker aiming for further objective cognitive assessment.

  12. Identification of Metrics to Monitor Salt Marsh Integrity on National Wildlife Refuges In Relation to Conservation and Management Objectives

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We used SDM to guide selection of variables for monitoring the ecological integrity of salt marshes within the National Wildlife Refuge System NWRS. Our objectives...

  13. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 573 - Sample Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL... personal information about you to the following types of third parties: • Financial service providers, such... the confidentiality and security of nonpublic personal information. Sample Clause A-7: We...

  14. Professor Volker Claus: vom o. Professor zum e-Professor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzenhäuser, Rul; Taras, Christiane; Wörner, Michael

    Der Beitrag würdigt das Wirken von Professor Claus auf Gebieten des rechnerunterstützten Lehrens. Dabei wird ein Bogen von den frühen Systemen des rechnerunterstützten Lehrens über moderne Lernplattformen im Internet zu neuen Anwendungen web-basierter Systeme für das lebenslange Lehren und Lernen gespannt.

  15. From Sound to Syntax: The Prosodic Bootstrapping of Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Kara

    2013-01-01

    It has long been argued that prosodic cues may facilitate syntax acquisition (e.g., Morgan, 1986). Previous studies have shown that infants are sensitive to violations of typical correlations between clause-final prosodic cues (Hirsh-Pasek et al., 1987) and that prosody facilitates memory for strings of words (Soderstrom et al., 2005). This…

  16. The relation of object naming and other visual speech production tasks:A large scale voxel-based morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny King L. Lau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a lesion–symptom mapping analysis of visual speech production deficits in a large group (280 of stroke patients at the sub-acute stage (<120 days post-stroke. Performance on object naming was evaluated alongside three other tests of visual speech production, namely sentence production to a picture, sentence reading and nonword reading. A principal component analysis was performed on all these tests' scores and revealed a ‘shared’ component that loaded across all the visual speech production tasks and a ‘unique’ component that isolated object naming from the other three tasks. Regions for the shared component were observed in the left fronto-temporal cortices, fusiform gyrus and bilateral visual cortices. Lesions in these regions linked to both poor object naming and impairment in general visual–speech production. On the other hand, the unique naming component was potentially associated with the bilateral anterior temporal poles, hippocampus and cerebellar areas. This is in line with the models proposing that object naming relies on a left-lateralised language dominant system that interacts with a bilateral anterior temporal network. Neuropsychological deficits in object naming can reflect both the increased demands specific to the task and the more general difficulties in language processing.

  17. Claus Bonderup : Conversations with the architect and his unique wife Anne Just, about food, art and architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Anna Marie; Hvejsel, Marie Frier

    2012-01-01

    Ever since I was a young student and met Claus Bonderup for the first time, I have been fascinated by his work. I still remember how we turned up for a lecture of his at the Aarhus School of Architecture in the beginning of the 1980s brimming with excitement; a lecture that would end up being very short as my professor ejected him from the auditorium. Claus was not merely a classic innovative architect but also very provocative in his holistic architecture. Back then, his works were too radical for the school. At Aalborg University, initially at the Department of Architecture & Design, and later at the Department of Civil Engineering, I have had the great pleasure of working with Claus for the last 15 years. During this time, I have had the opportunity to observe his skills as a teacher and disseminator, and I have seen the great respect he holds for young, dedicated people and witnessed the students’ confidence in him. In 2008, we wrote a small book, the “old student” and the two “young graduates” from Architecture & Design, who, I would like to emphasise, are two very special young people that have now seriously entered the frame of architectural research and teaching. Now, in the late summer of 2012, we have chosen to republish the first chapter of the book, which is about the DUCK HOUSE Claus created years ago; and we have done so for a very particular reason. A short time ago, I was approached by the director of the 13th International Architecture Exhibition, the highly esteemed British architect, David Chipperfield, and – to put it bluntly – an architect to my and Claus’ liking. Chipperfield has chosen a handful of schools of architecture and architectural universities from all over Europe, which have been invited to gather a group of students and exhibit architectural models; and I have been fortunate enough to be given this opportunity. Chipperfield has chosen to create a response to the prestigious VIP architects’ often staggeringly expensive exhibitions; he wants to make room for the new generation of up and coming architects, for the young, untested and especially talented students of architecture. During July, a group of talented students have therefore built seven architectural models that will be a part of the palette, or installation if you will, which will open in the Italian Pavilion at the end of August. It is quite extraordinary that Aalborg University has received the opportunity to exhibit for the entire period. This occasion must most certainly be marked, and Marie, Tenna and I, along with the students, consequently decided to work with BIRD HOUSES. There are several reasons for this. One of them is that in the coming years, we will launch a number of job-oriented architectural projects within Urban Farming in which the students will initially work with the subject as master’s students, but later, hopefully, as PhD students. Also, I have wished for a long time to give Claus Bonderup the recognition he deserves! His view of architecture, his knowledge and his way of relating to architecture has influenced and inspired generations of students. Claus, if anyone, deserves to be represented at the Biennale. Claus broke many unwritten rules with the Duck House he built for his Anne many years ago. The house has now been measured and reconstructed and has become the MOTHER house that serves as a basis for this project with its unique architectural models for the International Architecture Exhibition. Claus’ Duck House has, thus, in theory and practice alike, become the foundation for the new architectural models, and his thoughts on design have contributed to a fruitful dialogue with the students in their process of creating the architectural models, which can soon be seen at the 13th International Architecture Exhibition in Venice.

  18. Object visibility alters the relative contribution of ventral visual stream and mirror neuron system to goal anticipation during action observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thioux, Marc; Keysers, Christian

    2015-01-15

    We used fMRI to study the effect of hiding the target of a grasping action on the cerebral activity of an observer whose task was to anticipate the size of the object being grasped. Activity in the putative mirror neuron system (pMNS) was higher when the target was concealed from the view of the observer and anticipating the size of the object being grasped requested paying attention to the hand kinematics. In contrast, activity in ventral visual areas outside the pMNS increased when the target was fully visible, and the performance improved in this condition. A repetition suppression analysis demonstrated that in full view, the size of the object being grasped by the actor was encoded in the ventral visual stream. Dynamic causal modeling showed that monitoring a grasping action increased the coupling between the parietal and ventral premotor nodes of the pMNS. The modulation of the functional connectivity between these nodes was correlated with the subject's capability to detect the size of hidden objects. In full view, synaptic activity increased within the ventral visual stream, and the connectivity with the pMNS was diminished. The re-enactment of observed actions in the pMNS is crucial when interpreting others' actions requires paying attention to the body kinematics. However, when the context permits, visual-spatial information processing may complement pMNS computations for improved action anticipation accuracy. PMID:25462688

  19. Pratique des relations internationales en francais. Premiere partie: Objectifs et implications didactiques (The Practice of International Relations in French. Part One: Instructional Objectives and Implications).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelides, Maro

    1985-01-01

    Outlines the development of a French second language program based on the communicative needs and professional objectives of individuals conducting diplomatic affairs in France. Two examples of discourse analysis are given: one of a number of telephone conversations recorded in an embassy and the other of a collection of notes. (MSE)

  20. Orações concessivas independentes à luz da gramática discursivo-funcional / Independent concessive clauses in the light of functional discourse grammar

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Talita Storti, Garcia; Erotilde Goreti, Pezatti.

    Full Text Available Este artigo investiga, à luz da Teoria da Gramática Discursivo-Funcional (HENGEVELD; MACKENZIE, 2008), a oração concessiva que não é subordinada a outras orações, ou seja, não apresenta relações sintáticas nem semânticas com orações anteriores ou posteriores, a que denominamos Concessiva Independent [...] e. O objetivo deste estudo consiste em descrever as propriedades discursivas, semânticas, morfossintáticas e prosódicas desse tipo de estrutura, mostrando que sua relevância está na construção e organização do discurso. Os resultados apontam que a Concessiva Independente funciona, no discurso, como um parêntese, que interrompe o fio discursivo, sendo, então, destacado por um contorno prosódico especial, aliado à presença de Atos Interativos. Constitui, portanto, um Movimento, a camada mais alta do Nível Interpessoal, nível que se relaciona aos aspectos pragmáticos da gramática de uma língua. O universo de investigação utilizado é o córpus Iboruna, um banco de dados que registra a variedade do português do noroeste paulista. Abstract in english This paper investigates, in light of the theory of Functional Discourse Grammar (HENGEVELD; MACKENZIE, 2008), the concessive clause that is not subordinated to other clauses, i.e., it has no semantic or syntactic relations with clauses before or after it, and which we call Independent Concessive. Th [...] e aim is to describe the discursive properties and the semantic, morphosyntactic and prosodic structure of this type of clause, showing that its relevance is in the construction and organization of discourse. The results indicate that the Independent Concessive works in speech as a parenthesis which interrupts the discursive course and is then highlighted by a special prosodic contour, combined with the presence of Interactive Acts. It is therefore a Move, the highest layer of the Interpersonal Level, the level that relates to the pragmatic aspects of the grammar of a language. The universe of research used is the Iboruna corpus, a database that records a variety of Portuguese from the Northwest of São Paulo.

  1. Disability in major depression related to self-rated and objectively-measured cognitive deficits: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Elizabeth M; Longley Wendy A; Naismith Sharon L; Hickie Ian B

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Although major depression (MD) is associated with high levels of disability, the relationships between cognitive dysfunction and self-rated disability are poorly understood. This study examined the relationships between self-rated disability in persons with MD and both self-rated and objectively-measured cognitive functioning. Methods Twenty-one persons with MD and 21 control participants underwent neuropsychological assessment and z-scores representing deviations from con...

  2. The concept of sign in the work of Vygotsky, Winnicott and Bakhtin: further integration of object relations theory and activity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiman, M

    1992-09-01

    In a recent paper Ryle introduced the idea of integrating object relations theory and activity theory, a conceptual tradition originated by Vygotsky and developed by a number of Soviet psychologists during the previous decades. A specific aspect of this integrative perspective will be examined, implied in Ryle's paper but not elaborated by him. It is the issue of sign mediation which was Vygotsky's primary contribution to the methodological problems of modern psychology. The aim is to show that object relations theory, especially the work of Winnicott, may bring fresh understanding into Vygotsky's early notions. It is further claimed that, by introducing the contribution of Mikhail Bakhtin and his circle to the notion of sign mediation, the profundity in Winnicott's understanding of the transitional object and of the potential space may be more fully appreciated. At the same time the ideas of Winnicott and Bakhtin will jointly clarify the limitations in Vygotsky's sign conception. PMID:1390355

  3. Orações subordinadas sem o complementizador Que no Português Clássico / Subordinate clauses without Que in Classical Portuguese

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André Luis, ANTONELLI.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, olharemos para orações subordinadas finitas sem o complementizador que no Português Clássico. Nosso objetivo é investigar, dentro de uma perspectiva gerativista, se esse tipo de construção pode ser interpretado como um CP ou um IP complemento. A partir de fatos relacionados à posição [...] do sujeito, à ordem linear de advérbios e à colocação de clíticos, mostraremos que orações encaixadas sem o complementizador que instanciam movimento de V para C, resultando, portanto, na presença da categoria CP. Abstract in english In this work, we will look at embedded finite clauses without the complementizer que in Classical Portuguese. Our goal is to investigate, within a generative perspective, whether this kind of construction can be interpreted as a CP or an IP complement. Based on facts related to the position of the s [...] ubject, to the ordering of adverbs and to the placement of clitics, we will show that embedded clauses without the complementizer que instantiate V movement to C, resulting, therefore, in the presence of the CP category.

  4. Disability in major depression related to self-rated and objectively-measured cognitive deficits: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Elizabeth M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although major depression (MD is associated with high levels of disability, the relationships between cognitive dysfunction and self-rated disability are poorly understood. This study examined the relationships between self-rated disability in persons with MD and both self-rated and objectively-measured cognitive functioning. Methods Twenty-one persons with MD and 21 control participants underwent neuropsychological assessment and z-scores representing deviations from control performance were calculated and averaged across the domains of psychomotor speed, initial learning, memory retention and executive function. Self-ratings of cognitive deficits (SRCDs were reported on a 6-point scale for overall rating of cognitive change, speed of thinking, concentration, and short-term memory. Disability scores for self-rated physical, mental-health and functional (ie. days out of role disability were computed from the Brief-Disability Questionnaire and the SF-12 'mental component' subscale. Results Persons with MD had a mean age of 53.9 years (SD = 11.0, 76% female and had moderate to high depression severity (mean HDRS 21.7, sd = 4.4. As expected, depression severity was a strong predictor of physical (r = 0.7, p Conclusion While depression severity is associated with disability, the contributions of both self-rated and objectively-measured cognitive deficits are substantial and contribute uniquely and differentially to various forms of disability. Efforts directed at reducing cognitive deficits in depression may have the potential to reduce disability.

  5. Location, location, location: alterations in the functional topography of face- but not object- or place-related cortex in adolescents with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Luna

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In autism, impairments in face processing are a relatively recent discovery, but have quickly become a widely accepted aspect of the behavioral profile. Only a handful of studies have investigated potential atypicalities in autism in the development of the neural substrates mediating face processing. High-functioning individuals with autism (HFA and matched typically developing (TD controls watched dynamic movie vignettes of faces, common objects, buildings, and scenes of navigation while undergoing an fMRI scan. With these data, we mapped the functional topography of category-selective activation for faces bilaterally in the fusiform gyrus, occipital face area, and posterior superior temporal sulcus. Additionally, we mapped category selective activation for objects in the lateral occipital area and for places in the parahippocampal place area in the two groups. Our findings do not indicate a generalized disruption in the development of the entire ventral visual pathway in autism. Instead, our results suggest that the functional topography of face-related cortex is selectively disrupted in autism and that this alteration is present in early adolescence. Furthermore, for those HFA adolescents who do exhibit face-selective activation, this activation tends to be located in traditionally object-related regions, which supports the hypothesis that perceptual processing of faces in autism may be more akin to the perceptual processing of common objects in TD individuals.

  6. Integrating Conflict Driven Clause Learning to Local Search

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles Audenard; Jean-Marie Lagniez; Bertrand Mazure; Lakhdar Saïs

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces SatHyS (SAT HYbrid Solver), a novel hybrid approach for propositional satisfiability. It combines local search and conflict driven clause learning (CDCL) scheme. Each time the local search part reaches a local minimum, the CDCL is launched. For SAT problems it behaves like a tabu list, whereas for UNSAT ones, the CDCL part tries to focus on minimum unsatisfiable sub-formula (MUS). Experimental results show good performances on many classes of SAT instances from the las...

  7. Integrating Conflict Driven Clause Learning to Local Search

    OpenAIRE

    Audenard, Gilles; Lagniez, Jean-Marie; Mazure, Bertrand; Saïs, Lakhdar

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces SatHyS (SAT HYbrid Solver), a novel hybrid approach for propositional satisfiability. It combines local search and conflict driven clause learning (CDCL) scheme. Each time the local search part reaches a local minimum, the CDCL is launched. For SAT problems it behaves like a tabu list, whereas for UNSAT ones, the CDCL part tries to focus on minimum unsatisfiable sub-formula (MUS). Experimental results show good performances on many classes of SAT inst...

  8. Analysis and Transformation Tools for Constrained Horn Clause Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Several techniques and tools have been developed for verification of properties expressed as Horn clauses with constraints over a background theory (CHC). Current CHC verification tools implement intricate algorithms and are often limited to certain subclasses of CHC problems. Our aim in this work is to investigate the use of a combination of off-the-shelf techniques from the literature in analysis and transformation of Constraint Logic Programs (CLPs) to solve challenging CHC verification probl...

  9. ASPECTS REGARDING THE COMPETITIVE OFFER CLAUSE IN INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Marlena BOANC? IVAN

    2013-01-01

    The competitive offer clause allows one contracting party (usually the buyer) to get from the other contracting party (usually the seller) conditions that are more favorable than those from the current contract, namely those offered by a third party. The promissory party has the possibility to accept the adaptation of the contract or to refuse it. If the seller accepts to align to the competition tariff, the contract continues under the new conditions. The acceptance of the promissory party c...

  10. German clause-embedding predicates : an extraction and classification approach

    OpenAIRE

    Lapshinova-Koltunski, Ekaterina

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes a semi-automatic approach to the analysis of subcategorisation properties of verbal, nominal and multiword predicates in German. We semi-automatically classify predicates according to their subcategorisation properties by means of extracting them from German corpora along with their complements. In this work, we concentrate exclusively on sentential complements, such as dass, ob and w-clauses, although our methods can be also applied for other complement types. Our ai...

  11. With hands I don't centre! Action- and object-related effects of hand-cueing in the line bisection.

    OpenAIRE

    Ranzini, Mariagrazia; Borghi, Anna M.; Nicoletti, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    A variety of studies have shown action- and object-related visuo-motor priming in behavioural tasks. The peculiarity of this study lies in using a hand-cued line bisection task to explore the main properties of the motor effects evoked by action and object processing. In five experiments it is shown that flanking a line (thin vs. thick line) with images of hands (biological vs. non-biological hand) representing different actions (power vs. precision grip) biases performance towards the action...

  12. Traditional breeding objectives and practices of goat, sheep and cattle smallholders in The Gambia and implications in relation to the design of breeding interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejlertsen, Maria; Poole, Jane; Marshall, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the traditional breeding objectives and practices of West African Dwarf goat, Djallonke sheep, and N'dama cattle keepers in The Gambia and discusses the implications of these on the design of breeding-related interventions to improve livestock productivity. Data were collected via surveys implemented within three study sites in The Gambia, where traditional mixed crop-livestock smallholder farming predominates. The surveys comprised a participatory rural appraisal conducted in nine communities and a household questionnaire targeting 238 households. Livestock-keeping households were classified as 'poorer' or 'wealthier' based on the number of cattle owned. The most important objectives for keeping all species of livestock for the poorer groups (0 to 10 cattle) was 'savings and insurance', followed by 'income' and 'ceremonial/dowry' for the small ruminants and 'manure' and 'draught' for both cows and bulls. In contrast, for the wealthier group (more than 10 cattle), savings and insurance was the fourth to seventh ranked production objective (depending on species), with the most important production objectives being ceremonial/dowry for goats, income for sheep and manure for cows and bulls. An analysis of breeding practices indicated that breeding animals are selected on criteria which partially align to the breeding objectives, animals are rarely purchased for the purpose of breed improvement, knowledge of the cause and consequence of inbreeding is low and breeding decision makers may not necessarily be the livestock owner, particularly if the livestock owner is a women. Given this, it is suggested that capacity building on breeding-related issues, particularly in relation to the selection of breeding animals and specifically targeted at the different socioeconomic groups of livestock keepers, may be an appropriate, effective and relatively low-cost breeding intervention. PMID:22706889

  13. CLAUSE 49 AND ITS IMPACT ON PERFORMANCE MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paridhi Saini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to understand the effect of India's adoption of major governance reforms (with reference to Clause 49 which is based on a voluntary 1998 Code of Corporate Governance, developed by the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII, an organization of large Indian public firms.If investors consider the reforms to be valuable (or more valuable for larger firms, firm return in the form of share prices, accounting profit and earning per share should react positively to the key adoption announcement. Over a span period of 10 years before and after the announcement by the Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI, India's principal securities regulator for adoption of Clause 49, the profit after tax and EPS of the listed companies specifically the group of companies selected for this study has shown the positive effect on the above specified components. Average returns had increased considerably and even EPS also present the same picture, but these changes may have been due to factors other than the reforms. These results also supported by statistical testing. Overall, we report evidence consistent with investors expecting the Clause 49 reforms to increase the efficiency of corporates.

  14. Relationalism

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This article contributes to the debate of the meaning of relationalism and background independence, which has remained of interest in theoretical physics from Newton versus Leibniz through to foundational issues for today's leading candidate theories of quantum gravity. I contrast and compose the substantially different Leibniz--Mach--Barbour (LMB) and Rovelli--Crane (RC) uses of the word `relational'. Leibniz advocated primary timelessness and Mach that `time is to be abstracted from change'. I consider 3 distinct viewpoints on Machian time: Barbour's, Rovelli's and my own. I provide four expansions on Barbour's taking configuration space to be primary: to (perhaps a weakened notion of) phase space, categorizing, perspecting and propositioning. Categorizing means considering not only object spaces but also the corresponding morphisms and then functors between such pairs. Perspecting means considering the set of subsystem perspectives; this is an arena in which the LMB and Rovelli approaches make contact. By ...

  15. Specification of Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten U.

    1997-01-01

    Concurrent objects are named concurrent processes that interact by invoking each other's operations. We describe how such concurrent objects can be specified, how objects can be composed, and how it can be shown that one object refines another.First a model is defined, based on a transition relation over two objects and an event. In the model, objects can be composed by parallel composition, encapsulation, and hiding of operations. Refinement between objects is defined as fair trace inclusion.A ...

  16. 40 CFR 66.5 - Savings clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Proceedings under these regulations for imposition of a penalty under section 120 are in addition to any other proceedings related to permits, orders, payments, sanctions or other requirements of State or Federal...

  17. Convex polyhedral abstractions, specialisation and property-based predicate splitting in Horn clause verification

    OpenAIRE

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John P.

    2014-01-01

    We present an approach to constrained Horn clause (CHC) verification combining three techniques: abstract interpretation over a domain of convex polyhedra, specialisation of the constraints in CHCs using abstract interpretation of query-answer transformed clauses, and refinement by splitting predicates. The purpose of the work is to investigate how analysis and transformation tools developed for constraint logic programs (CLP) can be applied to the Horn clause verification p...

  18. Tree automata-based refinement with application to Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we apply tree-automata techniques to refinement of abstract interpretation in Horn clause verification. We go beyond previous work on refining trace abstractions; firstly we handle tree automata rather than string automata and thereby can capture traces in any Horn clause derivations rather than just transition systems; secondly, we show how algorithms manipulating tree automata interact with abstract interpretations, establishing progress in refinement and generating refined claus...

  19. Convex polyhedral abstractions, specialisation and property-based predicate splitting in Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2014-01-01

    We present an approach to constrained Horn clause (CHC) verification combining three techniques: abstract interpretation over a domain of convex polyhedra, specialisation of the constraints in CHCs using abstract interpretation of query-answer transformed clauses, and refinement by splitting predicates. The purpose of the work is to investigate how analysis and transformation tools developed for constraint logic programs (CLP) can be applied to the Horn clause verification problem. Abstract inte...

  20. Object-oriented image analysis and change detection of land-use on Tenerife related to socio-economic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Simone; Siegmund, Alexander

    2004-10-01

    The island Tenerife is characterized by an increasing tourism, which causes an enormous change of the socio-economic situation and a rural exodus. This development leads - beside for example sociocultural issues - to fallow land, decreasing settlements, land wasting etc., as well as to an economic and ecological problem. This causes to a growing interest in geoecological aspects and to an increasing demand for an adequate monitoring database. In order to study the change of land use and land cover, the technology of remote sensing (LANDSAT 3 MSS and 7 ETM+, orthophotos) and geographical information systems were used to analyze the spatial pattern and its spatial temporal changes of land use from end of the 70s to the present in different scales. Because of the heterogeneous landscape and the unsatisfactory experience with pixel-based classification of the same area, object-oriented image analysis techniques have been applied to classify the remote sensed data. A post-classification application was implemented to detect spatial and categorical land use and land cover changes, which have been clipped with the socio-economic data within GIS to derive the driving forces of the changes and their variability in time and space.

  1. New R Coronae Borealis and DY Persei Star Candidates and Other Related Objects Found in Photometric Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Otero, Sebastián; Bernhard, Klaus; Soszy?ski, Igor

    2014-01-01

    We have carried out a search for new R Coronae Borealis (RCB) variables using the publicly accessible data from various photometric sky surveys and-whenever available-AAVSO visual data. Candidates were selected from Tisserand`s "Catalogue enriched with R CrB stars" and by a visual inspection of light curves from the ASAS-3, MACHO, NSVS and OGLE surveys. We have identified two new RCB stars, four RCB candidates, and one DY Persei (DYPer) star candidate. Our identification was based mainly on photometric variability, color-color diagrams, and further information drawn from various catalogue sources; spectroscopic classifications were also reported in our analysis whenever available. Additionally, we present a sample of interesting stars which-although showing similar photometric variability-can be ruled out as RCB and DYPer stars or have been rejected as such on spectroscopic grounds in recent studies. Although not useful in the investigation of the aforementioned groups of variables, these objects defy an easy...

  2. Efficient transformation of use case main success scenario steps into bussiness object relation (BORM) diagrams for effective bussiness process requirement analysis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podaras, A.; Moravec, J.; Papík, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 2, ?. 1 (2012), s. 86-88. ISSN 1804-7890 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Business process requirement Analysis * UCBTA Algorithm * UCBTA Transition Rules * Use Case Main Success Scenario Steps * BORM Diagrams Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/ZOI/papik-efficient transformation of use case main success scenario steps into bussiness object relation (borm) diagrams for effective bussiness process requirement analysis .pdf

  3. The Composite OLAP-Object Data Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourabbas, Elaheh; Shoshani, Arie

    2005-12-07

    In this paper, we define an OLAP-Object model that combines the main characteristics of OLAP and Object data models in order to achieve their functionalities in a common framework. We classify three different object classes: primitive, regular and composite. Then, we define a query language which uses the path concept in order to facilitate data navigation and data manipulation. The main feature of the proposed language is an anchor. It allows us to fix dynamically an object class (primitive, regular or composite) along the paths over the OLAP-Object data model for expressing queries. The queries can be formulated on objects, composite objects and combination of both. The power of the proposed query language is investigated through multiple query examples. The semantic of different clauses and syntax of the proposed language are investigated.

  4. Sex-related preferences for real and doll’s faces versus real and toy objects in young infants and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Escudero, Paola; Robbins, Rachel A.; Johnson, Scott P

    2013-01-01

    Findings of previous studies demonstrate sex-related preferences for toys in 6-month-old infants: Boys prefer non-social or mechanical toys such as cars, while girls prefer social toys such as dolls. Here, we explored the innate versus learned nature of this sex-related preferences using multiple pictures of doll and real faces (of men and women) as well as pictures of toy and real objects (cars and stoves). Forty-eight 4- and 5-month-old infants (24 girls) and 48 young adults (24 women) saw ...

  5. Sound objects – Auditory objects – Musical objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The auditory system transforms patterns of sound energy into perceptual objects but the precise definition of an ‘auditory object’ is much debated. In the context of music listening, Pierre Schaeffer argued that ‘sound objects’ are the fundamental perceptual units in ‘musical objects’. In this paper, I review recent neurocognitive research suggesting that the auditory system is sensitive to structural information about real-world objects. Instead of focusing solely on perceptual sound features as determinants of auditory objects, I propose that real-world object properties are inherent in the organization of the auditory system and as such in music perception as well.

  6. NON-COMPETITION CLAUSES IN COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    MIHAELA IRINA IONESCU

    2011-01-01

    We begin with an analysis of areas where rivalry between economic agents can not show (any act of competition committed in this area drawing the liability of the author), we will then analyze competition in relations between the trader and servant or other employees and continue with the analysis of the legal ban on competition in the limited liability companies and joint stock companies. So, the relevant provisions of Law 31/1990 are reviewed, views of legal doctrine and practice of judicial...

  7. Public policy: the origin of a general clause in the South African law of contract

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L, Hawthorne.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article relates how the Constitutional Court has chosen public policy as the general clause with which to combat unfairness in contracting. Consequently the historical development of public policy is investigated in the footsteps of Wessels, who was the first South African author to address the [...] role of public policy in the law of contract in a wider sense. The historical sources on contracts in restraint of marriage, marriage brokerage contracts, usurious contracts, contracts in restraint of trade and wagering contracts are analysed with regard to public policy. Although some Roman-law and Roman-Dutch authority can be found in certain instances, the main observation is that public policy and boni mores have not been clearly distinguished by modern writers dealing with these jurisdictions. The conclusion of the paper is that public policy as an open norm is an English transplant.

  8. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 229 - Model Availability Policy Disclosures, Clauses, and Notices; Model Substitute Check Policy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...Clauses, and Notices; Model Substitute Check Policy Disclosure and Notices C Appendix...AVAILABILITY OF FUNDS AND COLLECTION OF CHECKS (REGULATION CC) Pt. 229, App. C...Clauses, and Notices; Model Substitute Check Policy Disclosure and Notices This...

  9. 48 CFR 227.7107-1 - Architectural designs and data clauses for architect-engineer or construction contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Architectural designs and data clauses for architect-engineer or construction contracts...Architectural designs and data clauses for architect-engineer or construction contracts...in solicitations and contracts for architect-engineer services and for...

  10. NON-COMPETITION CLAUSES IN COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA IRINA IONESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We begin with an analysis of areas where rivalry between economic agents can not show (any act of competition committed in this area drawing the liability of the author, we will then analyze competition in relations between the trader and servant or other employees and continue with the analysis of the legal ban on competition in the limited liability companies and joint stock companies. So, the relevant provisions of Law 31/1990 are reviewed, views of legal doctrine and practice of judicial rulings on the nature and purpose of the relevant provisions referred to, their scope, applicability of statutory prohibition against competition in the profile activity of the company, the prohibition in the liquidation phase, procedural methods which can cover damage caused to the creditor’s violated rights, as well as statute of limitations for the right to action and prescription.

  11. The Verb Always Leaves IP in V2 Clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Bonnie D.; Vikner, Sten

    2007-01-01

    The verb second (V2) phenomenon, as it is found in the Germanic languages, has been the focus of much attention within recent syntactic research. In most of the literature on V2, it is assumed that the verb in all V2 clauses has moved to a head position outside IP, e.g. Cº. In Schwartz & Vikner (1989) we claimed that all V2 clauses were CPs, and we referred to this analysis as the 'traditional' analysis. In this paper we shall call it the 'V2 outside IP' analysis, and by using this term we want to convey that although in what follows we will adhere to the view that the verb moves to Cº, any analysis in which the verb moves into an Xº which is the sister of IP may be compatible with what we say here. Various alternatives to this analysis have been explored in the literature, and here we will address two in particular: One alternative is that there is an asymmetry between subject-initial and non-subject-initial V2 clauses, the former being only IPs and the latter CPs, as suggested by Travis (1984, 1986, 1991)and Zwart (1990, 1991). Below we will refer to this analysis as the 'V2 asymmetry' analysis. The other alternative analysis is that V2 takes place inside IP, as suggested by Diesing (1988, 1990), and also in slightly different forms by Rögnvaldsson & Thr insson (1990), by Reinholtz (1989) and by Santorini (1989), and accordingly we shall group these under the term the 'V2 inside IP' analysis.

  12. A Comparative Analysis of the Frequency and Function of If-clauses in Applied Linguistics and Chemistry Articles

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar Hesabi; Morteza Raei Dehaghi; Mohammadtaghi Shahnazari-Dorcheh

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the differences and similarities between form and function of if-clauses as one type of conditional clauses within the applied linguistics and chemistry published academic Articles. These articles were examined and after determining the frequency of if-clauses, they were analyzed based on the model proposed by Sweetser (1990). According to the findings, if-clauses were more frequent in applied linguistics than chemistry articles. Results of function analysis indicated ...

  13. Objective becoming

    CERN Document Server

    Skow, Bradford

    2015-01-01

    Bradford Skow presents an original defense of the 'block universe' theory of time, often said to be a theory according to which time does not pass. Along the way, he provides in-depth discussions of alternative theories of time, including those in which there is 'robust passage' of time or 'objective becoming': presentism, the moving spotlight theory of time, the growing block theory of time, and the 'branching time' theory of time. Skow explains why the moving spotlight theory is the best of these arguments, and rebuts several popular arguments against the thesis that time passes. He surveys the problems that the special theory of relativity has been thought to raise for objective becoming, and suggests ways in which fans of objective becoming may reconcile their view with relativistic physics. The last third of the book aims to clarify and evaluate the argument that we should believe that time passes because, somehow, the passage of time is given to us in experience. He isolates three separate arguments thi...

  14. Integrating Conflict Driven Clause Learning to Local Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Audenard

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces SatHyS (SAT HYbrid Solver, a novel hybrid approach for propositional satisfiability. It combines local search and conflict driven clause learning (CDCL scheme. Each time the local search part reaches a local minimum, the CDCL is launched. For SAT problems it behaves like a tabu list, whereas for UNSAT ones, the CDCL part tries to focus on minimum unsatisfiable sub-formula (MUS. Experimental results show good performances on many classes of SAT instances from the last SAT competitions.

  15. A competitive analysis of most favored nations clauses in contracts between health care providers and insurers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celnicker, A

    1991-12-01

    A most favored nations (MFN) clause is a contractual agreement between a buyer and a seller stating that the price paid by the buyer will be at least as low as the price paid by other buyers who purchase the same commodities from the seller. During the past decade the anticompetitive impact of MFN clauses in the health care industry has been challenged under federal antitrust laws. The cases have considered MFN clauses included in contracts between large third-party payers, specifically Blue Cross and Blue Shield (BCBS) plans, and providers of health care. The clauses prohibit providers from selling their medical services to BCBS's competitors at a price lower than the price at which they sell to BCBS. The cases have challenged these clauses on the grounds that they limit selective discounting to the competitors thereby making it difficult for the competitors to attract subscribers from dominant BCBS plans by lowering premiums. In this Article, Professor Celnicker asserts that MFN clauses have significant anticompetitive potential. The Article examines the competitive consequences of MFN clauses used in the health care industry. The Article's analysis draws heavily from the economic criticisms of the Robinson-Patman Act, which prohibits a seller from discriminating in price between customers in certain circumstances. The Article concludes that in certain circumstances, MFN clauses discourage discounting, facilitate oligopolistic pricing, and deter entry or expansion by more efficient distribution systems. PMID:10115476

  16. An Improved Separation of Regular Resolution from Pool Resolution and Clause Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Bonet, Maria Luisa

    2012-01-01

    We prove that the graph tautology principles of Alekhnovich, Johannsen, Pitassi and Urquhart have polynomial size pool resolution refutations that use only input lemmas as learned clauses and without degenerate resolution inferences. We also prove that these graph tautology principles can be refuted by polynomial size DPLL proofs with clause learning, even when restricted to greedy DPLL search.

  17. An Improved Separation of Regular Resolution from Pool Resolution and Clause Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bonet, Maria Luisa; Buss, Sam

    2012-01-01

    We prove that the graph tautology principles of Alekhnovich, Johannsen, Pitassi and Urquhart have polynomial size pool resolution refutations that use only input lemmas as learned clauses and without degenerate resolution inferences. We also prove that these graph tautology principles can be refuted by polynomial size DPLL proofs with clause learning, even when restricted to greedy, unit-propagating DPLL search.

  18. 48 CFR 1352.301 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). 1352.301 Section 1352.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Matrix 1352.301 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). ER08MR10.000 ER08MR10.001...

  19. Sustainability clauses in international supply chain contracts : Regulation, enforceability and effects of ethical requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterkova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    Our current society is not successful in mitigation of global social and environmental challenges. States lack legal tools, and sometimes also the will, to secure social and environmental interests transnationally and the existing soft and private regulation is criticized for its weak legitimacy, effectiveness and enforcement. Regardless of this regulatory gap, companies who do not comply with the globally accepted sustainability standards run reputational risks that can lead to long-term negative economic effects. Moreover, stakeholders expect companies not only to follow the standards themselves but also to do business exclusively with socially responsible partners. Unawareness, either intentional or negligent, of unethical behaviour within a company’s supply chain may lead to an assumption that the company is complicit in such a conduct. The paper discusses a hypothesis that sustainability contractual clauses (SCCs) in international supply chain agreements may help to overcome the regulatory gap in relation to global sustainability while concurrently protect companies against potential social, economic and legal risks threatening in connection to unethical behaviour of their suppliers. As parts of enforceable business contracts, SCCs are considered to overcome the heavily criticized softness of other CSR regulation and, therefore, to be more successful in fostering ethical behaviour of suppliers who are legally independent but often in economic and business terms dependent on the sourcing companies. However, this hardening function is questionable face-to-face the lack of case law or another proof of SCCs’ formal enforcement. This article aims to shed a light on the question whether SCCs can be the efficient regulatory solution for global challenges we are looking for or whether they are yet another corporate social responsibility tool ‘without teeth’. The central questions are: why SCCs are presumed to be effective regulatory means for global sustainability, how these clauses are seen through the lenses of international contract law and whether they can actually contribute to a positive change in suppliers’ social and environmental performance. Based on the analysis of SCCs’ features and the underlying regulatory framework, the author concludes that while SCCs would not be enforceable by courts in most cases, they can still be successful in regulating global sustainability. Their positive effects on suppliers’ behaviour will depend on how companies draft and use such clauses. It is suggested that the full potential of private contracting could be triggered by adequate governmental regulation.

  20. Experiencias en la gestión de imágenes por contenido en bases de datos objeto-relacionales / Experiences in Image Management by Content in Object-Relational Databases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos E, Alvez; Aldo R, Vecchietti.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizan diversos mecanismos que brinda la tecnología Objeto-Relacional (OR) para el almacenamiento de imágenes en una Base de Datos. El objetivo fue estudiar, mediante la implementación de dos ejemplos en Oracle 10g, el comportamiento de la tecnología OR en el almacenamiento, la [...] formulación de consultas, la recuperación de la información y de las imágenes asociadas. La primera implementación se corresponde con el almacenamiento de imágenes médicas concordantes con el estándar DICOM, utilizando objetos ORDImage propios de ORACLE. En el segundo ejemplo se almacenaron imágenes de un diario digital empleando instancias del UDT SI_StillImage del estándar SQL/MM. Las capacidades provistas por la Base de Datos Objeto-Relacional empleada facilitan la implementación de un servidor de imágenes. Se analizaron también las ventajas y desventajas de emplear objetos del estándar SQL/MM o datos nativos correspondientes a Oracle 10g. Abstract in english In this paper, several alternatives for the storage of still images in databases given by the Object-Relational technology are analyzed. The aim was to study, by means of two examples, implementation in Oracle 10g database, the technology behaviour in the storage, query formulation and image recover [...] y. The first application corresponds to the storage of medical images complying with DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) standard, Oracle 10g ORDImage objects have been used for this case. The second example deals with the storage of images for a digital newspaper for which SI_StillImage of the SQL/MM standard have been employed. The capabilities provided by the Object Relational technology facilitate the implementation of an images server. The advantages and drawbacks of using SQL/MM standard or native objects corresponding to Oracle 10g are also compared.

  1. SU-E-I-29: Generalized Relative Object Detectability (G-ROD): A Metric for Comparing X-Ray Imaging Detector Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the relative task-specific performance of two x-ray imaging detectors including the effect of other components of the imaging chain. Methods: The relative object detectability (ROD) was defined as the ratio of the integral of the detective-quantum efficiency (DQE) of a detector weighted by the square of the Fourier Transform (or frequency spectrum) of the object to the same integral for a second detector. The generalized ROD (G-ROD) is calculated by replacing DQE by the generalized DQE (GDQE) which includes geometric unsharpness and scatter to evaluate the total imaging chain. The G-ROD was calculated for the micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF) relative to a flat-panel detector (FPD) for low (1.05) and high (1.2) magnifications with two focal-spot sizes, small (0.3 mm) and medium (0.5 mm), and for the same value of scatter fraction. Solid spheres from 50 to 600 microns were simulated as the objects for this evaluation. The G-ROD results were compared with those of the ROD which considers the detectors alone. Results: For 50-micron spheres, the ROD is 7.93 and, for the small [medium] focus, the G-ROD is 6.74 [5.22] at low magnification and 3.03 [1.66] at high magnification, indicating superior performance of the MAF particularly at low magnification. Both ROD and G-ROD decrease monotonically with size and remain around one above 400-microns. The G-ROD decreases more dramatically with low compared to high magnification for both focal spots. Conclusion: In all cases, the MAF performs better than the FPD and the decreasing trend of the G-ROD indicates that the performance of both detectors becomes similar as the object size increases and becomes nearly equal above 400-micron diameter sphere size. Finally, increased magnification and focal-spot size decrease the G-ROD, indicting that they degrade the performance of the MAF more than that of the FPD for a small-object viewing task. Supported by NIH Grant: 2R01EB002873 and an equipment grant from Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation

  2. 14 CFR 91.23 - Truth-in-leasing clause requirement in leases and conditional sales contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Truth-in-leasing clause requirement in leases... § 91.23 Truth-in-leasing clause requirement in leases...therein a written truth-in-leasing clause as a concluding paragraph...this section is commercial or financial information obtained...

  3. Phraseological Patterns in Reporting Clauses Used in Citation: A Corpus-Based Study of Theses in Two Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Maggie

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the phraseological patterning that occurs in reporting clauses used to make references to others' research. It examines finite reporting clauses with "that"-clause complement and draws upon two corpora of theses written by native speakers in contrasting disciplines: approximately 190,000 words in politics/international…

  4. [Abortion and conscientious objection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarkowski, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Polish laws specify the parties responsible for lawful medical care in the availability of abortion differently than the Resolution of the Council of Europe. According to Polish regulations they include all Polish doctors while according to the Resolution, the state. Polish rules should not discriminate against anyone in connection with his religion or belief, even more so because the issue of abortion is an example of an unresolved ethical dispute. The number of lawful abortion in Poland does not exceed 1000 per year and can be carried out by only a few specialists contracted by the National Health Fund. Sufficient information and assistance should be provided to all pregnant women by the National Health Fund. The participation of all physicians in the informing process is not necessary, as evidenced by the lack of complaints to provide information on where in vitro fertilization treatment can be found - until recently only available when paid for by the individual and performed in much larger numbers than abortion. Entities performing this paid procedure made sure to provide information on their own. The rejection of the right to the conscientious objection clause by negating the right to refuse information may lead some to give up the profession or cause the termination of certain professionals on the basis of the professed worldview. Meanwhile, doctors are not allowed to be discriminated against on the basis of their conscience or religion. PMID:25815623

  5. ASPECTS REGARDING THE COMPETITIVE OFFER CLAUSE IN INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena BOANC? IVAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The competitive offer clause allows one contracting party (usually the buyer to get from the other contracting party (usually the seller conditions that are more favorable than those from the current contract, namely those offered by a third party. The promissory party has the possibility to accept the adaptation of the contract or to refuse it. If the seller accepts to align to the competition tariff, the contract continues under the new conditions. The acceptance of the promissory party can intervene also within new negotiations between parties, a situation when the contract adaptation will be made not necessarily under the terms of the competitive offer, but anyway under more advantageous conditions for the beneficiary.Otherwise, the parties most frequently stipulate for the suspension of the contract at a given time, allowing the establishment of a contractual relationship between the clause beneficiary and the more competitive party. If the promissory party refuses expressly or by silence the adaptation of the contract, the parties stipulate for the termination of the contract as a solution, each contracting party regaining his freedom to conclude new contracts (including with the third party that makes the most favourable offer, without being encumbered by the obligations in the original contract.

  6. Understanding of subordinate clauses in the language of dysphasic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarevi? Emilija

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the research of peculiarities of syntactic development, as an element of language structure on the grammatical level of children suffering from developmental dysphasia, after the completed speech pathology treatment of many years. Syntactic level at younger school age was studied by assessing language competence in the accomplishment of communicative sentence with subordinate clause. The research was performed on the samples of children at school age in regular primary schools in Belgrade. The sample comprised 160 respondents who were divided in two groups: target and comparative. The target group consisted of 60 respondents (children suffering from developmental dysphasia after the completed speech pathology treatment of many years, and the comparative group consisted of 100 respondents from regular primary school "Gavrilo Princip" in Zemun. Research results show that grammatical development of children suffering from developmental dysphasia takes place at a considerably slower rate and entails substantially more difficulties in accomplishing predication in subordinate clauses. This paper discusses the consequences which the difficulties in grammatical development can have on school achievement.

  7. Approaching the Post-Newtonian Regime with Numerical Relativity: A Compact-Object Binary Simulation Spanning 350 Gravitational-Wave Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, Béla; Blackman, Jonathan; Buonanno, Alessandra; Taracchini, Andrea; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A; Chu, Tony; Kidder, Lawrence E; Pan, Yi

    2015-07-17

    We present the first numerical-relativity simulation of a compact-object binary whose gravitational waveform is long enough to cover the entire frequency band of advanced gravitational-wave detectors, such as LIGO, Virgo, and KAGRA, for mass ratio 7 and total mass as low as 45.5M_{?}. We find that effective-one-body models, either uncalibrated or calibrated against substantially shorter numerical-relativity waveforms at smaller mass ratios, reproduce our new waveform remarkably well, with a negligible loss in detection rate due to modeling error. In contrast, post-Newtonian inspiral waveforms and existing calibrated phenomenological inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms display greater disagreement with our new simulation. The disagreement varies substantially depending on the specific post-Newtonian approximant used. PMID:26230780

  8. GENERAL CLAUSE OF STRICT CIVIL LIABILITY IN CIVIL CODE A CLÁUSULA GERAL DE RESPONSABILIDADE CIVIL OBJETIVA NO CÓDIGO CIVIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Rodrigues Torres de Oliveira Mel Rodrigues Torres de Oliveira Mello

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to outline the institute's objective liability, with an emphasis on accountability clause general objective founded in Risk Theory, entered in Civil Codex of 2002. For this we will make a brief presentation on the evolution of the institute, through the rule of responsibility with guilt, until we get to the scene we know today, looking better understand it.O presente trabalho visa delinear o instituto da responsabilidade civil objetiva, com ênfase na cláusula geral de responsabilização objetiva fundada na Teoria do Risco, inserida no Codex Civil de 2002. Para isso, far-se-á uma breve exposição sobre a evolução do instituto, passando pelo império da responsabilidade com culpa, até chegarmos ao cenário que hoje conhecemos, procurando melhor entendê-lo.

  9. Objective thermomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Fülöp, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    An irreversible thermodynamical theory of solids is presented where the kinematic quantities are defined in an automatically objective way. Namely, auxiliary elements like reference frame, reference time and reference configuration are avoided by formulating the motion of the continuum on spacetime directly, utilizing the Weyl-Matolcsi description of spacetime. This restricts the range of definable kinematic quantities heavily. Solids are distinguished from fluids by possessing not only an instantaneous metric tensor but a relaxed metric, too, that represents the natural geometric structure of the solid. The comparison of the instantaneous metric to the relaxed one is the basis of the definition of the elastic state variable, the elastic deformedness tensor. Thermal expansion is conceived as the temperature dependence of the relaxed metric. As opposed to this reversible type of change, plasticity means an irreversible change in the relaxed metric, and is describable via a plastic change rate tensor. The relat...

  10. Left-peripheral Free Relatives in Northern Basque

    OpenAIRE

    Rebuschi, Georges; Lipták, Anikó

    2006-01-01

    Left-peripheral relative clauses (also known as correlative clauses) are widely attested in natural languages — in the Indo-European family, both ancient and modern, and outside of that domain too. Such is also the case of Basque, an isolate language spoken in South-Western France and Northern Spain, in which these Left-peripheric Free Relatives (LPFRs), are restricted to the Eastern dialects, i.e. those spoken in France, and the neighbouring subdialects spoken across the boundary, in Spanish...

  11. Tree automata-based refinement with application to Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we apply tree-automata techniques to refinement of abstract interpretation in Horn clause verification. We go beyond previous work on refining trace abstractions; firstly we handle tree automata rather than string automata and thereby can capture traces in any Horn clause derivations rather than just transition systems; secondly, we show how algorithms manipulating tree automata interact with abstract interpretations, establishing progress in refinement and generating refined clauses that eliminate causes of imprecision. We show how to derive a refined set of Horn clauses in which given infeasible traces have been eliminated, using a recent optimised algorithm for tree automata determinisation. We also show how we can introduce disjunctive abstractions selectively by splitting states in the tree automaton. The approach is independent of the abstract domain and constraint theory underlying the Horn clauses. Experiments using linear constraint problems and the abstract domain of convex polyhedra show that the refinement technique is practical and that iteration of abstract interpretation with tree automata-based refinement solves many challenging Horn clause verification problems. We compare the results with other state of the art Horn clause verification tools.

  12. Object oriented methods

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Ian

    1994-01-01

    This book is a revision of Ian Graham's successful survey of the whole area of object technology. It covers object- oriented programming, object-oriented design, object- oriented analysis, object-oriented databases and treats several related technologies. New to this edition are more applications of object-oriented methods and more coverage of object-oriented database products available. Graham has also doubled the design and analysis material that examines over 60 different approaches - making this the most comprehensive book on the market. Also new is the foreword by Grady Booch.

  13. Syntactic Behavior of Subordinate Clauses of Time and Condition in Zubairi Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Abdulatif Ibrahim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Of all outstanding areas of syntax, subordinate clauses of time and condition play a great role in arising linguists' interests. These types of clauses are of idiosyncratic nature in general and in Zubairi Arabic in particular, since they tend to be difficult and complex in comparison with other languages and dialects. The present study is an attempt to examine how conditional and time clauses behave syntactically in Zubairi Arabic. It is based mainly on conversation of two Zubairi Speakers from. Looking at this type of conversational speech illustrates a wider range of syntactic structures, and some speakers have more conservative dialect than others, but generally all are Zubairi in character.

  14. Quantitative assessment of bone marrow attenuation values at MDCT: An objective tool for the detection of bone bruise related to occult sacral insufficiency fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henes, F.O.; Groth, M.; Bley, T.A.; Regier, M.; Ittrich, H.; Adam, G.; Bannas, P. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Nuechtern, J.V. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Trauma, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Treszl, A. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Center for Experimental Medicine, Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    To prove the feasibility of using Hounsfield attenuation values at MDCT to detect bone bruises related to sacral insufficiency fractures. Twenty-two patients with acute sacrum trauma and no fracture findings at MDCT were included in our prospective study. Two observers independently reviewed CTs regarding visual signs of bone bruises in 132 defined regions of the sacral alae. Interobserver agreement was tested by {kappa} statistics. Subsequently, HU values were obtained in the same regions, and attenuation differences between the two sides were calculated. Validity and reliability were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. HU differences were subjected to ROC curve analysis to determine sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV. MRI served as standard reference. MRI revealed 19 regions with bone bruises and associated sacral insufficiency fractures. HU measurements demonstrated good validity and reliability (r = 0.989). ROC curve analysis exhibited an ideal cutoff value of 35.7 HU density difference between affected and non-affected regions. Visual evaluation revealed moderate agreement ({kappa} = 0.48); diagnostic accuracy was inferior to objective evaluation. Assessment of differences in bone marrow density by HU measurements is an objective and reliable tool for detection of bone bruises associated with occult sacral insufficiency fractures. (orig.)

  15. Assessing students' epistemic logic using clause topics during problem comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateycik, Fran; Sheaffer, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Physics courses ideally facilitate both students understanding of fundamental physical principles, as well as strengthen students' problem solving repertoire. In this study we look at how students divide and/or aggregate various elements of problem statements and how useful distinct principles and concepts, formulae, and general problem contexts are for pairing problems assigned in the same week. Students in an algebra-based physics course were asked to choose two problems from each of their homework assignments which they found to be most similar. The two problems selected were then explicitly compared and contrasted in writing. The written statements were then divided by clause topics and further categorized into levels of epistemic reasoning. This paper presents the qualitative analysis used and provides observed trends that appear in students' homework responses.

  16. Analysis and Transformation Tools for Constrained Horn Clause Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Several techniques and tools have been developed for verification of properties expressed as Horn clauses with constraints over a background theory (CHC). Current CHC verification tools implement intricate algorithms and are often limited to certain subclasses of CHC problems. Our aim in this work is to investigate the use of a combination of off-the-shelf techniques from the literature in analysis and transformation of Constraint Logic Programs (CLPs) to solve challenging CHC verification problems. We find that many problems can be solved using a combination of tools based on well-known techniques from abstract interpretation, semantics-preserving transformations, program specialisation and query-answer transformations. This gives insights into the design of automatic, more general CHC verification tools based on a library of components.

  17. Role of toluene in hydrogen sulfide combustion under Claus condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Examined the role of toluene addition in hydrogen sulfide combustion. • Effect of 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 5% of toluene in H2S gas stream was examined. • Toluene addition triggers production of H2 which provides oxidation competition to H2S. • Increased amount of toluene in H2S gas reduced SO2 and increased asymptotic value of H2S. • Toluene addition enhanced the formation of CO and COS. - Abstract: Experimental investigations on the effect of different amounts of toluene addition to H2S combustion in oxygen under Claus condition (? = 3) are presented. Three toluene concentrations of 0.5%, 1% and 5% in H2S are presented and compared with the baseline case of 100% H2S oxygen combustion. Temperature data showed that addition of toluene to H2S gas stream increases the flame temperature because of large heating value associated with toluene. Addition of toluene resulted in the production of H2, which increased with increase in the amounts of toluene addition. Furthermore, increased addition of toluene concentration increased the asymptotic minimum value of hydrogen sulfide due to oxidation competition between the formed H2 and H2S. The results also showed that the presence of CO triggers the formation of COS with toluene addition due to reaction of CO with SO2. The results showed that SO2 mole fraction increased to a maximum value then decayed with distance along the reactor. Addition of toluene increased the rate of SO2 decay. These results have direct impact on sulfur capture in the Claus reactor and its performance

  18. Ownership and Object History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Ori; Neary, Karen R.; Defeyter, Margaret A.; Malcolm, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate behavior in relation to an object often requires judging whether it is owned and, if so, by whom. The authors propose accounts of how people make these judgments. Our central claim is that both judgments often involve making inferences about object history. In judging whether objects are owned, people may assume that artifacts (e.g.,…

  19. 48 CFR 3052.216-70 - Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...amount for an economic price adjustment. Offers may...Increase the stipulated ceiling; (2) limit the downward...3) delete the economic price adjustment clause. If the offer stipulates a ceiling lower than that...

  20. 48 CFR 1252.216-70 - Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...amount for an economic price adjustment being added...which: (1) Increase the ceiling stipulated; (2) limit...3) delete the economic price adjustment clause. If the offer stipulates a ceiling lower than that...

  1. 77 FR 50454 - Department of the Treasury Acquisition Regulations; Contract Clause on Minority and Women...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ...342 applies to ``all contracts * * * for services of...section does not define the term ``contract.'' Treasury proposes...the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs...of this clause, the terms...

  2. 75 FR 32642 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ground and Flight Risk Clause (DFARS Case 2007...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... FR 69177 on December 7, 2007. This final rule revises and combines the two clauses into a single...); freezing; or mechanical, structural, or electrical breakdown or failure, unless these are the result...

  3. Understanding Original Intent and Stare Decisis: Two Methods of Interpreting the Establishment Clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seigler, Timothy John

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how school administrators can use the legal concepts of original intent and "stare decisis" to interpret the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment when faced with issues involving religion in the schools. (Contains 34 references.)(PKP)

  4. THE UNPREDICTABILITY CLAUSE IN TRANSPORT CONTRACTS, ACCORDING TO THE NEW CIVIL CODE

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Elena BELU

    2014-01-01

    Until the enforcement of the highly controversial transport law, transport companies must already observe the provisions of the new Civil Code1 in their transport business. One of the novelties in the new Civil Code, that came into force on October 1, 2011, refers to the unpredictability clause: recurring to this clause, in certain situations to be precisely analysed by courts, parties may even be exempted from certain contractual obligations, when the court decides to rescind the contract ba...

  5. Principles of Linguistic Composition Below and Beyond the Clause—Elements of a semantic combinatorial system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Peer

    2006-01-01

    The present investigation challenges the traditional distinction between cohesion and coherence; i.e., the distinction between the syntactical rules governing the composition of lexical units within the scope of the clause and the semantic-pragmatic rules guiding the composition of text units beyond the scope of the clause. To this end it exposes two major principles of semantic combination that are active through all levels of linguistic composition: viz. frame-schematic structure and narrative...

  6. The validity of automatic termination clauses in employment contracts / by L. Tonkin.

    OpenAIRE

    Tonkin, Liechen

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to establish the validity of automatic termination clauses in employment contracts. An automatic termination clause in an employment contract is a mechanism that has the effect that the expiry of an employment contract cannot constitute a dismissal. In terms of the common law a fixed term contract of employment is terminated automatically as soon as the agreed terms have been reached and it therefore does not constitute a dismissal. The common law therefore created a gap f...

  7. Win shift lose stay: An experimental test of non-compete clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Bünstorf, Guido; Engel, Christoph; Fischer, Sven; Güth, Werner

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally test the effect of enforceable non-compete clauses on working efforts. The employee can invest into the probability of making a profitable innovation. After a successful innovation (Win) the employee may want to leave the firm (Shift) whereas after an innovation failure (Lose) he may remain (Stay) . In the treatments with non-compete clause, but not in the baseline, the employer can prevent successful innovators from leaving the firm. With standard preferences, effort should...

  8. Visual Jokes about Christmas and Santa Claus on the Internet - Why and Why not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guntis Pakalns

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses a collection of Christmas-related images and video clips found on the Internet. The author started collecting this material in 2005, since that time the material in the form of a PowerPoint presentation has been shown to diverse audiences discussing the context (mainly from the perspective of a folklore researcher while observing the reaction of the audience.The central part of the article is devoted to a brief overview of the most characteristic groups of the jokes (with links to the images, video and descriptions of the traditions: Santa Claus as the bringer of presents, his trip from the northland and his friend Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, arrival through the chimney, different other persons wearing Santa’s hat (politicians, terrorists, women, animals, etc., Santa’s sexuality, drunken Santa, Santa murdered/killed, etc. In addition, the regional version – Ded Moroz and Snegurochka (Father Frost and the Snowgirl – is discussed here. Parodies related to the topic – the Christmas tree, snowmen and figures made of snow, elves, angels, Chinese horoscope’s “animals of the year”.Some hypotheses regarding the differences, functions, selection and perception of the worldwide available jokes in different social situations (western and post-Soviet world are put forward, also considering social groups and situations, the time before and after Christmas. Why would people need such jokes? An attempt is made to explain it by different “levels of joking” – starting with “simply jokes” with their specific context in the tradition of the particular subject matter and the carnival-like sense of the reversed world (also used by the traders, making the originally rather eerie Santa Claus look like a friendly joker in the “shopping mythology” and jokes as a kind of psychological self-defence – trying to compensate, by way of irony and black humour, for the rapidly changing and excessive tediousness, seriousness, sacralisation, or right the opposite – secularisation, commercialisation of the mass media imposed Christmas traditions and the holiday stress.

  9. SPINS: Standardized ProteIn NMR Storage. A data dictionary and object-oriented relational database for archiving protein NMR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern protein NMR spectroscopy laboratories have a rapidly growing need for an easily queried local archival system of raw experimental NMR datasets. SPINS (Standardized ProteIn Nmr Storage) is an object-oriented relational database that provides facilities for high-volume NMR data archival, organization of analyses, and dissemination of results to the public domain by automatic preparation of the header files required for submission of data to the BioMagResBank (BMRB). The current version of SPINS coordinates the process from data collection to BMRB deposition of raw NMR data by standardizing and integrating the storage and retrieval of these data in a local laboratory file system. Additional facilities include a data mining query tool, graphical database administration tools, and a NMRStar v2.1.1 file generator. SPINS also includes a user-friendly internet-based graphical user interface, which is optionally integrated with Varian VNMR NMR data collection software. This paper provides an overview of the data model underlying the SPINS database system, a description of its implementation in Oracle, and an outline of future plans for the SPINS project

  10. This study has for objective to study the theoretical relation of the hydraulic jump by sill, evolving in an U-shaped channel, with a rough bed. Functional relations, in non-dimensional form, relating the jump characteristics, seeming the effect of the be

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghomri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study has for objective to study the theoretical relation of the hydraulic jump by sill, evolving in an U-shaped channel, with a rough bed. Functional relations, in non-dimensional form, relating the jump characteristics, seeming the effect of the bed's roughness, are obtained. A comparative study with the hydraulic jump in U-shaped channel, with smooth bed is proposed.

  11. Processing of temporary syntactic ambiguity in Italian "who"-questions: a study with event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penolazzi, Barbara; De Vincenzi, Marica; Angrilli, Alessandro; Job, Remo

    2005-03-29

    This study investigated the processing of direct Italian "who"-questions, containing a temporary ambiguity of the syntactic role (subject/object) of the initial pronoun. To this aim we measured event-related potentials (ERPs) evoked by the disambiguating verbal agreement word and by the following ones. Results showed two positive deflections, corresponding to a P300 and to a P600, only at the target verb of the object-first extraction, the condition which has been demonstrated to be less preferred by speakers. The functional meaning of this positive complex, similar to patterns already reported for German subject/object ambiguous relative clauses, was discussed with reference both to results obtained in other languages using similar sentences and to psycholinguistic parsing models. PMID:15740843

  12. Word order variation and foregrounding of complement clauses : Exploring the meaning of sentence adverbials as signals of word order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tanya Karoli; Jensen, Torben Juel

    2015-01-01

    Through mixed models analyses of complement clauses in a corpus of spoken Danish we examine the role of sentence adverbials in relation to a word order distinction in Scandinavian signalled by the relative position of sentence adverbials and finite verb (V>Adv vs. Adv>V). The type of sentence adverbial was the third-most important factor in explaining the word order variation: Sentence adverbials categorized as ‘dialogic’ are significantly associated with V>Adv word order. We argue that the results are readily interpretable in the light of the semantico-pragmatic hypothesis that V>Adv signals foregrounded information, and exploit the random intercepts assigned to the individual adverbials for further exploring the functions of sentence adverbials that behave unexpectedly based on the predictions of the model.

  13. Proportionality and the limitation clauses of the South African Bill of Rights

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    IM, Rautenbach.

    Full Text Available "Proportionality" is a contemporary heavy-weight concept which has been described as an element of a globalised international grammar and as a foundational element of global constitutionalism. The article firstly describes the elements of proportionality as they are generally understood in foreign s [...] ystems, namely whether the limitation pursues a legitimate aim, whether the limitation is capable of achieving this aim, whether the act impairs the right as little as possible and the so-called balancing stage when it must be determined whether the achievement of the aim outweighs the limitation imposed. The German academic Alexy (Theorie der Grundrechte (1986)) developed what he called a mathematical weight formula to deal with the balancing stage. An overview is provided of how the elements of proportionality were dealt with in the text of the South African interim Constitution of 1994, the early jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court, and in the text of the final Constitution of 1996. Contemporary South African academic criticism of the use of the concept is also analysed. The article then endeavours to relate the elements of Alexy's weight formula to both the elements of the South African general limitation clause in section 36 of the Constitution and to the appearance of such elements in the formulation of specific rights in the Bill of Rights. Although the levels of abstraction reached in the debates on the Alexy formula are so daunting that it is most unlikely that South African courts and practitioners will ever use it, certain valuable insights can be gained from it for the purposes of dealing with proportionality within the context of the limitation of rights in South Africa. Despite opposition from certain academics, proportionality is a prominent feature of the application of the limitation clauses in the South African Constitution. The elements of proportionality provides a useful tool for the application, within the context of the limitation of rights, of general and wide concepts such as "fairness", "reasonableness", "rationality", "public interest" and, somewhat surprisingly, also of the general concept "proportionality" as such. South Africa's participation in the global recognition and application of this way of dealing with the limitation of rights is worthwhile.

  14. Reachability for Finite-state Process Algebras Using Horn Clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrypnyuk, Nataliya; Nielson, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present an algorithm for solving the reachability problem in finite systems that are modelled with process algebras. Our method is based on Static Analysis, in particular, Data Flow Analysis, of the syntax of a process algebraic system with multi-way synchronisation. The results of the Data Flow Analysis are used in order to build a set of Horn clauses whose least model corresponds to an overapproximation of the reachable states. The computed model can be refined after each transition, and the algorithm runs until either a state whose reachability should be checked is encountered or it is not in the least model for all constructed states and thus is definitely unreachable. The advantages of the algorithm are that in many cases only a part of the Labelled Transition System will be built which leads to lower time and memory consumption. Also, it is not necessary to save all the encountered states which leads to further reduction of the memory requirements of the algorithm.

  15. Trusted Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  16. Causes and Consequences of Faulty Arbitration Clauses / Cláusulas de arbitramento defectuosas: sus causas y consecuencias

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Alfonso, Gómez Domínguez.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available En vista de la relación que existe entre la cláusula de arbitramento y el proceso arbitral, antes que todo, este artículo tiene como objeto analizar las cláusulas de arbitramento. Porqué razón estas cláusulas son a veces inaplicables y las consecuencias de las deficiencias en su redacción. Para dete [...] rminar las razones que generan cláusulas de arbitraje defectuosas un estudio casuístico fue aplicado a la investigación. Este método fue escogido debido a que en lo atinente a cuestiones legales no es posible encontrar dos casos idénticos, puede hallarse casos con similares circunstancias, pero las razones que llevaron a las partes para hacer el contrato y la intención, suelen variar significativamente de un contrato a otro. A lo largo de la investigación es expresada frecuentemente una idea. Esta es en pocas palabras: "No hay cláusula perfecta, es casi imposible encontrar una cláusula aplicable a toda situación, puesto que cada contrato es firmado atendiendo a diferentes necesidades, circunstancias y requisitos." Una vez concluida la investigación, fue encontrado que las cláusulas de arbitraje inaplicables pueden ser causadas por errores de redacción o son derivadas de limitaciones propias del arbitramento, puesto que algunas veces simplemente no es el mecanismo idóneo para resolver cierta clase de conflictos. Las consecuencias varían dependiendo de la magnitud del error. Abstract in english Taking into account the link between arbitration clauses and the process of arbitration, this article first aims to analyse arbitration clauses, why these clauses are sometimes unconscionable and what are the consequences of such deficiencies. Companies have to consider that if the arbitration claus [...] e is drafted without a reasonable attention, this provision itself could be the cause of conflict. Furthermore, unconscionable, invalid and abusive clauses may lead to companies losing money and credibility. To determine the reasons that prompt faulty arbitration clauses a multi-case study was applied to the research. This approach was chosen owing to the fact that with regard to law it is not possible to find two identical cases. There may be similarities, but the reasons for making the deal and the intention of the parties, can vary significantly from one contract to another. During the research a particular comment was frequently encountered: "There is no perfect clause; it is impossible to find a perfect clause because every contract is executed according to different needs, circumstances and requirements." Once the research was concluded, it was found that faulty arbitration clauses can be prompted by drafting mistakes and limitations particular to the arbitration itself. The consequences may vary depending on the magnitude of the error.

  17. Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Brewster, Hilary D

    2009-01-01

    The theory of relativity has become a cornerstone of modern physics. Over the course of time it has been scrutinized in a multitude of experiments and has always been verified with high accuracy. The correctness of this theory can no longer be called into question. Right after its discovery by Albert Einstein in 1905, special relativity was only gradually accepted because it made numerous predictions contradicting common sense, fervently castigated by Einstein, and also defied experiment for too long a time. It was only with the advent of particle or high energy physics that matter could be ac

  18. Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Time magazine's ""Man of the Century"", Albert Einstein is the founder of modern physics and his theory of relativity is the most important scientific idea of the modern era. In this short book, Einstein explains, using the minimum of mathematical terms, the basic ideas and principles of the theory that has shaped the world we live in today. Unsurpassed by any subsequent books on relativity, this remains the most popular and useful exposition of Einstein's immense contribution to human knowledge.With a new foreword by Derek Raine.

  19. An audit questionnaire that examines specifically the management of technical activities clauses in ISO 15189.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, T F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design an audit questionnaire that focuses on the management of the technical activities in a Diagnostic Pathology Laboratory. The ISO 15189 Standard is written in such a way that it continually moves back and forth from topics where the auditor needs to question bench level staff, to topics where the auditor needs to question Technical Management Staff. This makes for a disjointed audit process - both Bench Staff and Technical Managers are repeatedly interrupted. The solution was to do a clause by clause analysis of the Standard and assign the major responsibility for the compliance to each clause to either Technical Managers or Bench Staff. The Clauses were then grouped under four topic headings regardless of whether they were a Section 4 or Section 5 Clause. Two questionnaires have emerged - the one described in this work and one directed primarily towards the activities of bench staff. There are 95 questions and it takes approximately two hours to complete. PMID:23105892

  20. Clause/Term Resolution and Learning in the Evaluation of Quantified Boolean Formulas

    CERN Document Server

    Giunchiglia, E; Tacchella, A; 10.1613/jair.1959

    2011-01-01

    Resolution is the rule of inference at the basis of most procedures for automated reasoning. In these procedures, the input formula is first translated into an equisatisfiable formula in conjunctive normal form (CNF) and then represented as a set of clauses. Deduction starts by inferring new clauses by resolution, and goes on until the empty clause is generated or satisfiability of the set of clauses is proven, e.g., because no new clauses can be generated. In this paper, we restrict our attention to the problem of evaluating Quantified Boolean Formulas (QBFs). In this setting, the above outlined deduction process is known to be sound and complete if given a formula in CNF and if a form of resolution, called Q-resolution, is used. We introduce Q-resolution on terms, to be used for formulas in disjunctive normal form. We show that the computation performed by most of the available procedures for QBFs --based on the Davis-Logemann-Loveland procedure (DLL) for propositional satisfiability-- corresponds to a tree...

  1. 48 CFR 1828.371 - Clauses for cross-waivers of liability for Space Shuttle services, Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...shall be inserted in the contract to designate the particular launches to which this clause applies. If a payload is being launched by use of an ELV in support of the Space Station program, the contracting officer shall insert the clause prescribed by...

  2. Non-finite Complementation A Usage-Based Study of Infinitive and -ing Clauses in English

    CERN Document Server

    Egan, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive guide to the way speakers of British English use infinitive and – ing clauses as verbal complements. It contains details of the non-finite complementation patterns of over 300 matrix verbs, with a particular emphasis on verbs that occur with more than one type of non-finite complement. Drawing upon data from the British National Corpus, the author shows that some of the views which are to be found in the existing literature on these sorts of clauses are in conflict with the evidence of actual usage. He also shows that there is actually much more regularity in

  3. Den sene Derrida, eller: Er Claus Beck-Nielsen et spøgelse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2009-01-01

    This article is about hosting the ghost. In Spectres de Marx (1993) Derrida introduces the ghost which seems to condense in one figure the important themes of his late writings: the address, the other, the ethical turn, the event, the mourning, the reality of immateriality, the guest. The article turns to the paternal ghost from Shakespeare's Hamlet, as well as to the most ghost-like artist on the Danish contemporary art scene: Claus Beck-Nielsen, who some years ago declared himself dead. Is Claus Beck-Nielsen really a ghost? That is the question.

  4. Utilities objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The policy of French and german utilities is to make use of nuclear energy as a long term, competitive and environmentally friendly power supply. The world electricity generation is due to double within the next 30 years. In the next 20 to 30 years the necessity of nuclear energy will be broadly recognized. More than for most industries, to deal properly with nuclear energy requires the combination of a consistent political will, of a proper institutional framework, of strong and legitimate control authorities, of a sophisticated industry and of operators with skilled management and human resources. One of the major risk facing nuclear energy is the loss of competitiveness. This can be achieved only through the combination of an optimized design, a consistent standardization, a proper industrial partnership and a stable long term strategy. Although the existing plants in Western Europe are already very safe, the policy is clearly to enhance the safety of the next generation of nuclear plants which are designing today. The French and German utilities have chosen an evolutionary approach based on experience and proven technologies, with an enhanced defense in depth and an objective of easier operation and maintenance. The cost objective is to maintain and improve what has been achieved in the best existing power plants in both countries. This calls for rational choices and optimized design to meet the safety objectives, a strong standardization policy, short construction times, high availability and enough flexibility to enable optimization of the fuel cycle throughout the lifetime of the plants. The conceptual design phase has proven that the French and German teams from industry and from the utilities are able to pursue both the safety and the cost objectives, basing their decision on a rational approach which could be accepted by the safety authorities. (J.S.)

  5. Treatment-Related Changes in Objectively Measured Parenting Behaviors in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Karen C.; Chi, Terry C.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Pfiffner, Linda; Nebel-Schwalm, Marie; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Abikoff, Howard B.; Conners, C. Keith; Elliott, Glen R.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Hechtman, Lily; Hoza, Betsy; Jensen, Peter S.; March, John; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Pelham, William E.; Severe, Joanne B.; Swanson, James; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined treatment outcomes for objectively measured parenting behavior in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Five hundred seventy-nine ethnically and socioeconomically diverse children with ADHD-combined type (ages 7.0-9.9 years) and their parent(s) were recruited …

  6. La posición del sujeto pronominal en las cláusulas no declarativas (The placement of pronominal subjects in non-declarative clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Serrano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de la colocación variable del sujeto en español permite observar la relevancia de los factores discursivo-cognitivos en la variación sintáctica y demostrar que todos los efectos comunicativos de una elección formal pueden relacionarse con dichos factores. El presente trabajo analiza los sujetos explícitos de primera y segunda persona en dos tipos de cláusulas no declarativas (interrogativas e imperativas, tomando como base dos corpus textualmente diversificados. Se descubre que la variación formal obedece a principios icónicos muy similares en ambos contextos gramaticales. La posposición del sujeto al verbo es la variante menos marcada, lo que establece una diferencia con la cláusula declarativa, que tiende al orden SVO. Por la misma razón, la anteposición del sujeto en aquellos contextos permite generar valores discursivo-pragmáticos especiales; estos se concretan, sobre todo, en una mayor asertividad o presuposición acerca del contenido del enunciado. Las proyecciones comunicativas de estos valores básicos se ilustran a través de la observación de diversos ejemplos. (The variable placement of Spanish subjects offers an illustration of the relevance of discursive-cognitive factors in explaining syntactic variation, as well as a demonstration of the fact that all communicative effects of formal choices can be related to such factors. In the present paper, first- and secondperson overt subjects are analyzed within two types of non-declarative clauses (interrogative and imperative ones and across two textually diversified corpora. Formal variation is discovered to follow very similar iconic principles in both grammatical contexts. The placing of the subject after the verb is the less-marked variant, which makes a difference with declarative clauses, where SVO is the preferred order. Due to this, subject preposition in the former contexts triggers the generation of special discursive-pragmatic values, particularly of higher assertiveness or presupposition regarding the content of utterances. The communicative projections of these basic values are then illustrated through the analysis of a variety of examples.

  7. Lecture Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaglione, Giosue; Bousdira, Nora; Goldfarb, Steven; Neal, Homer A.; Severance, Charles; Storr, Mick

    A new software architectural model for the archival of slide-based presentations on the Internet is proposed. This architecture is based on the concept of the ``lecture object,'' a persistent format, independent of the lecture production and viewing technology. The work has been undertaken in the context of the Web Lecture Archive Project, a collaboration of the CERN HR Division Training and Development group and the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. To date some 250 lectures have been archived and are viewable worldwide using standard Web browsers and freely available video player software.

  8. Quantum Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Mansouri, Alireza; Karbasizadeh, Amir Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest an alternative interpretation for the quantum state vector, which, by considering temporal parts for physical objects, aims to give an intelligible account of measurement problem in quantum mechanics. We examine the capacity of this interpretation as for explaining three measurement problems: the problem of outcome, the problem of statistics and the problem of effect. We argue that, this interpretation of the state vector, while providing a satisfactory account, as rationally plausible as its rivals, for the measurement problem, shows yet another limitation of our perceptual experience, i.e. our inability to perceive unsharp reality.

  9. Surviving Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Murjas, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Surviving Objects (2012) is a devised multi-media practice-as-research performance based on extensive interviews conducted with my elderly mother and recorded on a hand-held device. Our conversations concern her experiences as a child refugee following violent deportation by the Soviet Army from Eastern Poland to Siberia (1941), and her subsequent route, via Persia, to a British-run refugee camp in Northern Rhodesia, where she remained for 6 years before arriving in the UK. In order to aid my...

  10. Wow!: objects

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Paulo Sérgio da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays computers have advanced beyond the desktop into many parts of everyday life and objects. To achieve this we have to make the computer invisible, and making a computer invisible is not a matter of size of the hardware, it’s all about how the human perceives the computer. To make this possible, the interaction with the computer has to be done in an alternative way, such that the user doesn’t notice the usual computer interfaces (mouse and keyboard) when using it. Therefore this t...

  11. New concept for quantification of similarity relates entropy and energy of objects: First and Second Law entangled, group behavior of micro black holes expected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimak Petr

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract When the free energy of similar but distinct molecule-sized objects is plotted against the temperature at which their energy and entropy contributions cancel, a highly significant linear dependence results from which the degree of similarity between the distinctly different members within the group of objects can be quantified and a relationship between energy and entropy is derived. This energy-entropy relationship entirely reflects the mathematical structure of thermodynamic equations, is in this sense fundamental and therefore does probably not dependent on material nor scale. The energy-entropy relationship is likely to be of general interest in molecular biology, population biology, synthetic biology, biophysics, chemical thermodynamics, systems chemistry and physics, most notably in particle physics and cosmology. In physics we predict a consistent and perhaps testable way of classifying micro black holes, to be generated in future Large Hadron Collider experiments, by their gravitational energy and area entropy.

  12. Knee Confidence as it Relates to Self-Reported and Objective Correlates of Knee Osteoarthritis : A Cross-Sectional Study of 220 Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, SØren T; Rasmussen, Sten

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Objective Little is known about correlates of lack of knee confidence in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). The objective was to validate, if possible, previously reported associations, and investigate other potential associations, between knee confidence and various self-reported and objective measures, in independent patient cohorts. Methods Baseline data from 220 patients with knee OA was applied in ordinal regression analyses with knee confidence, assessed using the item Q3 from the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, as the dependent variable and self-reported (pain on walking, general health, fear of movement, self-efficacy, function and previous serious injury) and objective measures (muscle strength, 20-meter walk time and radiographic severity of tibiofemoral OA) as predictor variables. Results Most (95%) of the participants reported lack of knee confidence, and 54% experienced severe or extreme lack of knee confidence. Fear of movement (Odds Ratio(OR) 2.06, 95% Confidence Intervals [95% CI] 1.15-3.68), pain on walking (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.09-1.34) and general health (OR 0.024, 95% CI 0.002-0.259) explained 19% of the variance in knee confidence (P<0.001). Conclusion Severe lack of knee confidence is a common finding in knee OA. Pain on walking was confirmed as a correlate of knee confidence while muscle strength was not. Fear of movement and poor general health were new variables associated with lack of knee confidence. The none-existing or poor correlations with other tested variables suggest lack of knee confidence may represent an independent treatment target in knee OA of importance to improve mobility. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 24 Aug 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5864.

  13. Subjective and Objective Binge Eating in Relation to Eating Disorder Symptomatology, Depressive Symptoms, and Self-Esteem Among Treatment-Seeking Adolescents with Bulimia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Ciao, Anna C.; Accurso, Erin C.; Pisetsky, Emily M.; Peterson, Carol B.; Byrne, Catherine E.; LE GRANGE, DANIEL

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the importance of the distinction between objective (OBE) and subjective binge eating (SBE) among 80 treatment-seeking adolescents with bulimia nervosa (BN). We explored relationships among OBEs, SBEs, eating disorder (ED) symptomatology, depression, and self-esteem using two approaches. Group comparisons showed that OBE and SBE groups did not differ on ED symptoms or self-esteem; however, the SBE group had significantly greater depression. Examining continuous variabl...

  14. Knee Confidence as It Relates to Self-reported and Objective Correlates of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Cross-sectional Study of 220 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skou, Søren T; Rasmussen, Sten; Simonsen, Ole; Roos, Ewa M

    2015-10-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Objective The objective was to validate, if possible, previously reported associations and to investigate other potential associations between knee confidence and various self-reported and objective measures in an independent cohort of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Background Lack of knee confidence is a frequent symptom in patients with knee OA, but little is known of associations between knee confidence and other common correlates of knee OA. Methods Baseline data from 220 patients with knee OA were applied in ordinal regression analyses, with knee confidence, assessed using item Q3 of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, as the dependent variable and self-reported (pain on walking, general health, fear of movement, self-efficacy, function, and previous serious injury) and objective measures (muscle strength, 20-m walk time, and radiographic severity of tibiofemoral OA) as predictor variables. Results Most (95%) of the participants reported lack of knee confidence, and 54% experienced severe or extreme lack of knee confidence. Fear of movement (odds ratio [OR] = 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15, 3.68), pain on walking (OR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.34), and general health (OR = 0.024; 95% CI: 0.002, 0.259) explained 19% of the variance in knee confidence (PFear of movement and poor general health were new variables associated with lack of knee confidence. The noncorrelations or poor correlations with other tested variables suggest that a lack of knee confidence may represent an independent treatment target in knee OA of importance to improve mobility. Trials registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01410409 and NCT01535001). J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(10):765-771. Epub 24 Aug 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5864. PMID:26304646

  15. 12 CFR Appendix H to Part 226 - Closed-End Model Forms and Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... changes in the interest rate. • [For example, on a $10,000, 30-year loan with an initial interest rate of... contain information about your interest rates, payment amount and loan balance.] [Example The example... Forms and Clauses H-1—Credit Sale Model Form (§ 226.18) H-2—Loan Model Form (§ 226.18)...

  16. Force majeure clauses and the threat of nuclear disaster. A Japanese case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Force majeure clauses can be found in any commercial contract. Though more or less clear guidelines for the applicability of force majeure (clauses) exist in the form of international and national law, the applicability and enforceability of force majeure clauses with respect to nuclear incidents or disasters, however, remain ambiguous. Until the Japanese nuclear disaster, no major trade region was affected by any of the historical nuclear incidents. This case-study is based on the events surrounding the Tohoku earthquake, respective tsunami and nuclear incidents, especially at the Daiichi NPP and radiological contamination released there. The applicability and enforceability of force majeure clauses with their wide legal and economical implications are analyzed and evaluated according to the CISG and national domestic Japanese law. It is found that the assertion of force majeure is generally highly fact-specific and circumstance-sensitive. In general, the potential of nuclear disaster as an event triggering the force majeure defence is clearly evident, according to both international and Japanese law. Any claim must, however, be substantiated according to the principles of the different legal regimes under which the contract falls. In consequence, a company located within the evacuated areas will probably be able to successfully assert for majeure, whilst the success of any other claim will depend on the presentation of evidence, such as radiation levels and its effects in hindering performance of contractual obligations.

  17. Trojan Ponies: Undermining the Establishment Clause in the Name of "Child Benefit Theory."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurau-Gray, Lisa H.

    1998-01-01

    Two cases illustrate that whenever the schools or courts abandon the Establishment Clause and embrace "child benefit theory," religious schoolchildren are the only winners. Application of "child benefit theory" has engendered religious strife, increased public funds for religious schools, increased sectarian control of public funding, and…

  18. Reaction Mechanism for m-Xylene Oxidation in the Claus Process by Sulfur Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sourab; Raj, Abhijeet; Al Shoaibi, Ahmed S; Chung, Suk Ho

    2015-09-24

    In the Claus process, the presence of aromatic contaminants such benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX), in the H2S feed stream has a detrimental effect on catalytic reactors, where BTX form soot particles and clog and deactivate the catalysts. Among BTX, xylenes are proven to be most damaging contaminant for catalysts. BTX oxidation in the Claus furnace, before they enter catalyst beds, provides a solution to this problem. A reaction kinetics study on m-xylene oxidation by SO2, an oxidant present in Claus furnace, is presented. The density functional theory is used to study the formation of m-xylene radicals (3-methylbenzyl, 2,6-dimethylphenyl, 2,4-dimethylphenyl, and 3,5-dimethylphenyl) through H-abstraction and their oxidation by SO2. The mechanism begins with SO2 addition on the radicals through an O-atom rather than the S-atom with the release of 180.0-183.1 kJ/mol of reaction energies. This exothermic reaction involves energy barriers in the range 3.9-5.2 kJ/mol for several m-xylene radicals. Thereafter, O-S bond scission takes place to release SO, and the O-atom remaining on aromatics leads to CO formation. Among four m-xylene radicals, the resonantly stabilized 3-methylbenzyl exhibited the lowest SO2 addition and SO elimination rates. The reaction rate constants are provided to facilitate Claus process simulations to find conditions suitable for BTX oxidation. PMID:26334187

  19. Force majeure clauses and the threat of nuclear disaster. A Japanese case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guderian, Stephan Michael

    2011-07-22

    Force majeure clauses can be found in any commercial contract. Though more or less clear guidelines for the applicability of force majeure (clauses) exist in the form of international and national law, the applicability and enforceability of force majeure clauses with respect to nuclear incidents or disasters, however, remain ambiguous. Until the Japanese nuclear disaster, no major trade region was affected by any of the historical nuclear incidents. This case-study is based on the events surrounding the Tohoku earthquake, respective tsunami and nuclear incidents, especially at the Daiichi NPP and radiological contamination released there. The applicability and enforceability of force majeure clauses with their wide legal and economical implications are analyzed and evaluated according to the CISG and national domestic Japanese law. It is found that the assertion of force majeure is generally highly fact-specific and circumstance-sensitive. In general, the potential of nuclear disaster as an event triggering the force majeure defence is clearly evident, according to both international and Japanese law. Any claim must, however, be substantiated according to the principles of the different legal regimes under which the contract falls. In consequence, a company located within the evacuated areas will probably be able to successfully assert for majeure, whilst the success of any other claim will depend on the presentation of evidence, such as radiation levels and its effects in hindering performance of contractual obligations.

  20. 29 CFR 471.2 - What employee notice clause must be included in Government contracts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What employee notice clause must be included in Government...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR NOTIFICATION OF EMPLOYEE RIGHTS UNDER FEDERAL LABOR LAWS OBLIGATIONS...CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS; NOTIFICATION OF EMPLOYEE RIGHTS UNDER FEDERAL LABOR LAWS...

  1. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Text of Employee Notice Clause

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Text of Employee Notice Clause A Appendix A to Subpart...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR NOTIFICATION OF EMPLOYEE RIGHTS UNDER FEDERAL LABOR LAWS OBLIGATIONS...CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS; NOTIFICATION OF EMPLOYEE RIGHTS UNDER FEDERAL LABOR LAWS...

  2. A Shock to the Conscience: The Due Process Clause and Corporal Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2001-01-01

    In a case involving an injured football player, an 11th Circuit judge viewed a coach's refusal to stop a fight as corporal punishment. Federal courts in five circuits have ruled that excessive corporal punishment violates the Due Process Clause if it is so brutal and harmful that it shocks the court's conscience. (MLH)

  3. Retail electric rates: drawing the line between federal and state authority under the Commerce Clause

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, A.J.

    1983-10-27

    A review of the Commerce Clause explains the impact of recent Supreme Court decisions in their balancing approach to defining the jurisdiction of federal and state authority over retail electric rates. Although the Mississippi and Arkansas decisions blur the traditional distinction of authority, there remains a clear division in the wholesale-retail areas which the Court has yet to clarify. (DCK)

  4. On the Development of the Complementation System in English and its Relation to Switch-Reference

    OpenAIRE

    Bonneau, José; Pica, Pierre

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we show that many of the dramatic changes that took place in the course of the history of the English complementation system are the result of a simple morphological Change in the determiner system. We propose that Old English (OE) evolved from a system in which 'complements' clauses, relative clauses and DP were interpreted as adverbials to a system in which they are interpreted as arguments of the verb. As the determiner acquired certain certain type of morphological feature ...

  5. Knee Confidence as It Relates to Self-reported and Objective Correlates of Knee Osteoarthritis : A Cross-sectional Study of 220 Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, SØren T; Rasmussen, Sten

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Objective The objective was to validate, if possible, previously reported associations and to investigate other potential associations between knee confidence and various self-reported and objective measures in an independent cohort of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Background Lack of knee confidence is a frequent symptom in patients with knee OA, but little is known of associations between knee confidence and other common correlates of knee OA. Methods Baseline data from 220 patients with knee OA were applied in ordinal regression analyses, with knee confidence, assessed using item Q3 of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, as the dependent variable and self-reported (pain on walking, general health, fear of movement, self-efficacy, function, and previous serious injury) and objective measures (muscle strength, 20-m walk time, and radiographic severity of tibiofemoral OA) as predictor variables. Results Most (95%) of the participants reported lack of knee confidence, and 54% experienced severe or extreme lack of knee confidence. Fear of movement (odds ratio [OR] = 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15, 3.68), pain on walking (OR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.34), and general health (OR = 0.024; 95% CI: 0.002, 0.259) explained 19% of the variance in knee confidence (P<.001). Conclusion Severe lack of knee confidence is a common finding in individuals with knee OA. Pain on walking was confirmed as a correlate of knee confidence, whereas muscle strength was not. Fear of movement and poor general health were new variables associated with lack of knee confidence. The noncorrelations or poor correlations with other tested variables suggest that a lack of knee confidence may represent an independent treatment target in knee OA of importance to improve mobility. Trials registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01410409 and NCT01535001). J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(10):765-771. Epub 24 Aug 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5864.

  6. Influência da textura na preensão de indivíduos com Síndrome de Down / Influence of the object texture related to the grip in individuals with Down Syndrome

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anna Carolyna Lepesteur, Gianlorenço; Daniela, Ide; Lígia Maria Presumido, Braccialli.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Diversos estudos disponibilizam evidências sobre características do desempenho motor e cognitivo de indivíduos com Síndrome de Down (SD), porém poucos estudos analisam a força muscular nestes indivíduos. As alterações apresentadas por indivíduos com SD podem manifestar-se funcionalmente [...] e interferir na sua capacidade de desempenhar de forma independente diversas atividades e tarefas da rotina diária. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a influência da textura do objeto na força de preensão palmar em indivíduos com Síndrome de Down. Participaram do estudo dez indivíduos com SD, com idade entre 4 e 30 anos. MÉTODO: A análise da força de preensão palmar foi mensurada por meio de um transdutor de força. A tarefa proposta para a coleta dos dados foi realizar a preensão do transdutor, revestido com diferentes texturas, transportá-lo até um ponto previamente demarcado, e posteriormente o retorno à posição inicial. Os dados obtidos foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva e não-paramétrica. RESULTADOS: Os dados da estatística descritiva permitiram observar que a textura áspera foi a que exigiu menor força de preensão palmar dos participantes neste estudo, no entanto a análise não-paramétrica indicou não haver diferença estatisticamente significativa. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados deste estudo indicam que textura do objeto não influenciou a força de preensão palmar executada pelos indivíduos com Síndrome de Down. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Many studies show evidences about characteristics of the motor and cognitive performance of subjects with Down Syndrome (DS). However, there is lack of studies that analyze the muscular force in these individuals. The alterations found in subjects with DS can impair their function and [...] interfere in the capacity of the subjects to perform many activities and tasks of the daily routine independently. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of object's texture on grip force in subjects with DS. Ten individuals with diagnosis of DS were selected, with age between 4 and 30 years. METHODS: The grip force was measured with a transducer with two different textures. The proposed task for data collection was to hold the transducer, covered with two different textures, and carry it until a point previously demarcated, and later return it to the initial position. The data were analyzed through descriptive and nonparametric statistics. RESULTS: It was possible to observe that the rough texture was the one that demanded minor amount of grip force; however the nonparametric analysis indicated that there was no significant difference in grip force among textures. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicated that the object's texture did not influence the grip force carried out by individuals with DS.

  7. Objectively measured physical activity, physical activity related personality and body mass index in 6- to 10-yr-old children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Bourdeaudhuij Ilse

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence and level of overweight in childhood is rapidly increasing. One potential contributor to the rise in overweight is a decline in physical activity (PA. The purpose of this study was to compare levels and patterns of PA and PA related personality in normal-weight (NW and overweight (OW 6- to 10-yr-old children. Methods Subjects were grouped into OW (N = 59, BMI = 24.2 ± 4.8 kg/m2 or NW (N = 61, BMI = 15.7 ± 1.5 kg/m2 according to International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. PA was assessed by accelerometry. Parents filled in a questionnaire on PA and sedentary behaviour and PA related personality of their child (born tired, moves slowly, is often tired, lacks energy, avoids physical efforts, prefers watching playing children instead of joining them, is always active, needs to let himself/herself go, has a lot of energy. Results NW children spent on average 77 min/day in MVPA, whereas OW children only 57 min/day (p = .001. OW children had fewer 5, 10 and 20 min bouts of MVPA (p = .01. OW and NW children showed identical PA patterns on both week days and weekends, although at different levels. According to parents' report, a greater percentage of OW children was not engaged in any sport (46% versus 23%, chi2 = 6.3, p = .01. OW children had a less active personality (p Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that NW children spent on average 20 min per day more in MVPA. PA patterns were similar in NW versus OW children, although at different levels. Greatest differences in PA according to weight status were found in the afternoon during after school hours. This is the first study to show distinct PA related personality traits in OW children compared to NW peers.

  8. Objectively measured physical activity, physical activity related personality and body mass index in 6- to 10-yr-old children: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    de Bourdeaudhuij Ilse; Deforche Benedicte; D'hondt Eva; Cardon Greet

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The prevalence and level of overweight in childhood is rapidly increasing. One potential contributor to the rise in overweight is a decline in physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to compare levels and patterns of PA and PA related personality in normal-weight (NW) and overweight (OW) 6- to 10-yr-old children. Methods Subjects were grouped into OW (N = 59, BMI = 24.2 ± 4.8 kg/m2) or NW (N = 61, BMI = 15.7 ± 1.5 kg/m2) according to International Obesity Tas...

  9. Complex Syntax in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Study of Relative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrleman, Stephanie; Hippolyte, Loyse; Zufferey, Sandrine; Iglesias, Katia; Hadjikhani, Nouchine

    2015-01-01

    Background: The few studies that have evaluated syntax in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have yielded conflicting findings: some suggest that once matched on mental age, ASD and typically developing controls do not differ for grammar, while others report that morphosyntactic deficits are independent of cognitive skills in ASD. There is a need for…

  10. Surprisal, the PDC, and the primary locus of processing difficulty in relative clauses

    OpenAIRE

    EdwardGibson; RogerLevy

    2013-01-01

    Of the ambitious purview of MacDonald's (2013) article, we find the part fleshed out in most concrete detail—the comprehension consequences of her Production-Distribution-Comprehension (PDC) theory, the easiest to comment upon. Such a theory as she has sketched out would be extraordinarily compelling: a theory that, in contrast with accounts relying on “innate parsing biases,” posits that “comprehension results reflect distributional regularities in the language” that “comprehenders are gener...

  11. A Study of Syntactic Transfer in Relative Clause Learning of Chinese College English Majors

    OpenAIRE

    Lili Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Language transfer has long been a central issue in applied linguistics, second language acquisition (SLA) and language teaching. In the last few decades, its importance in second language acquisition has been reassessed several times. Based on the theoretical and empirical research findings in transfer literature, this thesis makes a study of syntactic transfer in English learning of Chinese learners. The research focuses on discussing the question: Are there any differences or similarities c...

  12. Auto-avaliação de saúde bucal em idosos: análise com base em modelo multidimensional / Objective and subjective factors related to self-rated oral health among the elderly

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima, Martins; Sandhi Maria, Barreto; Isabela Almeida, Pordeus.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Propôs-se investigar fatores associados à auto-avaliação negativa da saúde bucal. Idosos, participantes do inquérito de saúde bucal do Ministério da Saúde, 2002-2003, que auto-avaliaram sua saúde bucal como ruim/péssima foram comparados aos que a auto-avaliaram como ótima/boa/regular usando-se razõe [...] s de prevalências (RP) com base na regressão de Poisson. A minoria (870 - 17%) auto-avaliou sua saúde bucal negativamente. A auto-avaliação negativa foi menor entre aqueles com 1-9 dentes e edentados, maior entre pardos/negros/índios, que nunca usaram serviços, que apresentavam alterações de tecidos moles, que relataram pouca e média/muita dor, que auto-avaliaram sua aparência e mastigação como regular ou ruim/péssima, entre os que relataram seus relacionamentos sociais pouco ou muito afetados pelas condições bucais e entre os que avaliavam necessitar de tratamento bucal. Apesar das precárias condições bucais, a maioria auto-avaliou positivamente sua saúde bucal. Condições subjetivas estiveram mais fortemente associadas do que as objetivas. Os resultados sugerem iniqüidade e permitem orientar políticas públicas que objetivem saúde bucal e qualidade de vida. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with negative self-rated oral health. Elderly subjects from the Brazilian Ministry of Health's oral health survey (2002-2003) who rated their own oral health as bad or very bad were compared to those who rated their oral health as excellent [...] , good, or fair, using prevalence ratios based on Poisson regression. The minority (870; 17%) gave their own oral health a negative rating. Negative self-rated oral health was less prevalent among those with 1-9 teeth and the edentulous, and more prevalent among blacks, mixed-race, and indigenous, those who had never used dental service, with soft tissue alterations, who reported little pain or medium to intense pain, rated their own appearance and chewing as fair or bad or very bad, reported that their oral health limited their social interaction a little or considerably, and reported needing dental treatment (PR = 1,47; 95%CI: 1.20-1.79). Despite their precarious oral conditions, the majority gave their oral health a positive rating. Subjective conditions were more heavily associated with self-rated oral health than were objective conditions. The findings suggest unequal oral health conditions and allow orienting public policies aimed at oral health and quality of life.

  13. A linearized DPLL calculus with clause learning (2nd, revised version)

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Holger

    2009-01-01

    Many formal descriptions of DPLL-based SAT algorithms either do not include all essential proof techniques applied by modern SAT solvers or are bound to particular heuristics or data structures. This makes it difficult to analyze proof-theoretic properties or the search complexity of these algorithms. In this paper we try to improve this situation by developing a nondeterministic proof calculus that models the functioning of SAT algorithms based on the DPLL calculus with clause learning. T...

  14. Drafting force majeure clauses in natural gas purchase/sale contracts -- the practicalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The place of 'force majeure' provisions, in gas purchase/sale contracts is discussed. This issue, not normally considered to be significant in gas purchase/sale contracts, became a matter of intense interest in the aftermath of the Atcor Ltd v. Continental Energy Marketing case when the trial court, as well as the Alberta Court of Appeals, strongly criticized the wording of the force majeure clause in the contract as containing a 'choice of words that assured litigation'. Force majeure, simply stated, refers to acts of God, (lightning, earthquakes, storms, floods, etc) and acts of war. It is inserted in contracts to limit the liability of parties to the contract in the event of inability to perform due to any of the above acts of God, or acts of war. In this particular case, the force majeure cause included, in addition to the above, a long list of other causes such as strikes, lockouts or other industrial disturbances, insurrections, riots, epidemics, landslides, fires, washouts, explosions of or accidents to plant, machinery or lines of pipe, well blowouts, and pipeline repairs and reconditioning. The trial court found the drafting of the clause archaic, circumventing clarity, and drearily lengthy. In view of the court's decision it is clear that more thought has to go into drafting force majeure decisions in the future. Accordingly, this paper attempts to discuss practical issues of drafting force majeure clauses that clearly reflect the parties' intentions and expectations so that costly litigations might be avoided, or if litigation is unavoidable, to at least have the outcome of such litigation be more predictable. The focus of the discussion is on legal interpretation issues, forms of gas contract force majeure provisions- events and consequences, and standardization of force majeure provisions. It is recommended that the drafter of such clauses should always keep in mind the potential impact that the strict construction and commercial reasonability concepts may have on the words chosen. 22 refs

  15. A constraint-based bottom-up counterpart to definite clause grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2004-01-01

    A new grammar formalism, CHR Grammars (CHRG), is proposed that provides a constraint-solving approach to language analysis, built on top of the programming language of Constraint Handling Rules in the same way as Definite Clause Grammars (DCG) on Prolog. CHRG works bottom-up and adds the following features when compared with DCG: (i) An inherent treatment of ambiguity without backtracking. (ii) Robust parsing; do not give up in case of errors but return the recognized phrases. (iii)~A flexibilit...

  16. The Meaning of Mood – Embedded Clauses in Spanish as a Case in Point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Dam

    2011-01-01

    Mental space theory is a cognitive framework that explains the interpretation of linguistic expressions: it explains how interlocutors get from input to output. Whereas in traditional semantics words are taken to possess a static, prefabricated meaning, cognitive frameworks take meaning to be the result of an interpretive process. This article explains how mental space theory can be used in an analysis of mood in embedded clauses in Spanish. It starts from the assumption that the meaning of mood...

  17. Deciding the SHOQ(D-Satisfiability with a Fully Tiered Clause Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huamao Gu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available SHOQ(D is one of the fundamental theories In Description Logics due to its support to concrete datatypes and named individuals. At present, deciding the satisfiability of SHOQ(D-concepts is mainly completed by enhancing Tableau algorithm with blocking. However, there is still much to be desired in performance as there are tremendous description overlaps in completion forest, thus causing great spatial waste as a result. To tackle this problem, this paper presented a new approach to check the satisfiability of acyclic SHOQ(D-concepts——FTC(Fully Tiered Clauses algorithm. This calculus can make a direct judgement on the satisfiability of acyclic SHOQ(D-concept by translating its description into a fully tiered clause group whose satisfiability is directly available, and reusing clauses to block unnecessary extensions. FTC algorithm eliminates description overlaps to the largest extent as it works on concept description directly. Therefore, FTC algorithm has notably better performance than Tableau by saving a lot of spatial costs.

  18. Convex polyhedral abstractions, specialisation and property-based predicate splitting in Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2014-01-01

    We present an approach to constrained Horn clause (CHC) verification combining three techniques: abstract interpretation over a domain of convex polyhedra, specialisation of the constraints in CHCs using abstract interpretation of query-answer transformed clauses, and refinement by splitting predicates. The purpose of the work is to investigate how analysis and transformation tools developed for constraint logic programs (CLP) can be applied to the Horn clause verification problem. Abstract interpretation over convex polyhedra is capable of deriving sophisticated invariants and when used in conjunction with specialisation for propagating constraints it can frequently solve challenging verification problems. This is a contribution in itself, but refinement is needed when it fails, and the question of how to refine convex polyhedral analyses has not been studied much. We present a refinement technique based on interpolants derived from a counterexample trace; these are used to drive a property-based specialisation that splits predicates, leading in turn to more precise convex polyhedral analyses. The process of specialisation, analysis and splitting can be repeated, in a manner similar to the CEGAR and iterative specialisation approaches.

  19. Frecuencia y mecanismos de exposición accidental a productos biológicos potencialmente infecciosos en personal de salud / Sharp object related accident involving health personnel in a pediatric hospital

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Juan, Morales-Aguirre.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Los accidentes por material punzocortante constituyen un riesgo al que está sometido el personal de salud. Objetivo: describir la frecuencia y mecanismos de exposición a productos biológicos infecciosos en el personal de salud. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio observacional y [...] descriptivo, de los reportes del programa de vigilancia epidemiológica a la exposición a productos biológicos infecciosos en el personal de salud del Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez de la Ciudad de México, ocurridos del 1 de enero de 1991 al 31 de diciembre de 2004. Resultados. Se presentaron 848 accidentes de trabajo durante el período estudiado. El promedio de accidentes por 100 camas/año fue de 29.9 con una variación de 4.6 a 56.4. Hubo 8.29 accidentes por 1 000 egresos/año, con un límite de 1.6 a 14.4. Los eventos se presentaron principalmente en personal de enfermería con 345 episodios (40.6%), seguido de médicos residentes con 220 eventos (25.9%). El mecanismo más frecuente fue el piquete con aguja en 616 ocasiones (72.6%), siendo las manos el sitio anatómico más comúnmente afectado en 677 casos (79.8%). Los servicios donde hubo más accidentes fueron: Urgencias con 109 eventos (12.8%), UTIP con 96 (11.3%), y UCIN con 80 (9.4%), siendo el turno matutino donde hubo el de mayor número, 507 eventos (59.7%). Las medidas de precaución realizadas por el personal lesionado fueron las siguientes: uso de guantes 488 (57.5%), lavado de manos 404 (47.6%), uso de cubrebocas 304 (35.8%), uso de bata 253 (29.8%), uso de lentes 134 (15.8%), ninguna 144 (16.9%). Con respecto al antecedente de administración de vacuna contra hepatitis B, sólo 445 (52.4%) se habían aplicado al menos una dosis y 403 (47.5%) ninguna dosis. Conclusiones. La exposición ocupacional a productos biológicos infecciosos es un problema importante en el personal de salud, especialmente en hospitales que dan atención a pacientes pediátricos, debido a las dificultades que implica el atender niños. Reforzar las estrategias educativas sobre el uso de las precauciones estándar en la toma apropiada de las muestras y utilizar material de bioseguridad podría ayudar a reducir la frecuencia de los accidentes con objetos punzocortantes. Abstract in english Introduction. The needle-stick and sharp device injuries constitute a risk to which health personnel is exposed. Objective. To describe the frequency and mechanisms of exposition to infectious biological products in health care personnel. Material and methods. It was an observational and descriptive [...] study from the reports of the epidemiological surveillance program concerning to the exposition to infectious biological products in the health care personnel from Hospital Infantil de Mexico Federico Gomez in Mexico City, happened from January 1, 1991, to December 31, 2004. Results. We observed 848 laboral accidents during this period. The average of accidents per 100 beds/ year was 29.9 with a variation from 4.6 to 56.4. There were 8.29 accidents for 1 000 outcomes/year, with a limit from 1.6 to 14.4. The events appeared mainly in the nursery personnel with 345 episodes (40.6%), followed by resident doctors with 220 events (25.9%). The most frequent mechanism was needle pinch in 616 (72.6%), being the hands the anatomical site most commonly affected in 677 cases (79.8%). The areas most affected were: Emergency with 109 events (12.8%), Pediatric Intensive Care Unit with 96 (11.3%), and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with 80 (9.4%), being in the matutinal turn the greater number of accidents, 507 events (59.7%). The standard precautions made by the injured personnel were: use of gloves 488 (57.5%); hand washing 404 (47.6%), use of mouth covers 304 (35.8%), use of gown 253 (29.8%), use of lenses 134 (15.8%), none 144 (16.9%). Concerning to the background of vaccine administration against hepatitis B, only 445 (52.4%) had been applied at least one dose and 403 (47.5%) none. Conclusions. The occupational exposition to biological product is an important probl

  20. 'Koloniseren is een smaak die je moet leren' - Hugo Claus en Het leven en de werken van Leopold II (1970) / Hugo Claus and Het leven en de werken van Leopold II (1970)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yves, T' Sjoen.

    Full Text Available The première of Claus' play Het leven en de werken van Leopold II (The Life and Works of Leopold II), in November 1970 (by the company Nederlandse Comedie), was directed by the author himself. After a second and again rather unsuccessful run (1972 - 1973, Arena, director: J. Tummers) it disappeared [...] from the stage for nearly thirty years: there was no other production of Claus' play in the Low Countries until the autumn of 2002 (KVS, director: R. Ruëll). Undoubtedly Het leven en de werken van Leopold II is one of the lesser-known plays by the Flemish author Hugo Claus (1929-2008). While writing it, at the end of the sixties, Claus was simultaneously working on two poetry collections. Van horen zeggen contains accessible poems, sometimes rather anecdotal, with many references to the contemporary political situation. These poems show a clear affinity with the neo-realistic poetry that was dominant in Dutch-language literature in the sixties. Also in 1970, on the same day as Van horen zeggen, Claus published Heer Everzwijn (Lord Wild Boar), manneristic poetry showing another poeta faber. Given Claus' interest in the history of the Congo Free State (see also the novel De geruchten [The rumours]) and the way he caricatures King Leopold II and his government in Het leven en de werken, it is worth investigating the political and social perspectives articulated in both his drama and his poetry. What are the similarities between the poet and the playwright? How can we explain his interest in the way Leopold mistreated the people of the Congo? In this essay I present the ideological and social points of view adopted by Claus in a broad literary and political context, studying his play on Leopold's atrocities in what would later (in 1908) become a Belgian colony, alongside the poetry he produced in the same period.

  1. The effectiveness of take-or-pay clauses under the Brazilian courts; A eficacia das clausulas de 'take-or-pay' nos tribunais brasileiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Bruno A.; Travassos, Cristiano H. [Tess Advogados, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The international energy industry, where the sale of their commodities (oil, natural gas, biofuels and its derivatives), typically uses in its long-term contracts clauses take-or-pay. However, questioning about the Brazilian judicial effectiveness of such clauses appears each day. This paper aims to establish a rationale clause of take-or-pay; have terms and typical conditions of one clause of take-or-pay; discuss the existing national law on the subject; list the main questions arising from the applicability of the terms of take-or-pay, and the potential solutions to the current scenario.

  2. The Object Databases Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Tavac

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with the transformation of a relationaldatabase to an object database. It suggests a new so-lution based on database and model-driven engineeringintegration. In the first part it is discussed in generalissues of relational database transformation into objectone, some problematic areas are identified. Subsequently,depending on detailed analyze of the database reverse en-gineering processes, the whole process is defined as a se-quence of models and transformation among them b...

  3. Learning Sentence-internal Temporal Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Lapata, M; 10.1613/jair.2015

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a data intensive approach for inferring sentence-internal temporal relations. Temporal inference is relevant for practical NLP applications which either extract or synthesize temporal information (e.g., summarisation, question answering). Our method bypasses the need for manual coding by exploiting the presence of markers like after", which overtly signal a temporal relation. We first show that models trained on main and subordinate clauses connected with a temporal marker achieve good performance on a pseudo-disambiguation task simulating temporal inference (during testing the temporal marker is treated as unseen and the models must select the right marker from a set of possible candidates). Secondly, we assess whether the proposed approach holds promise for the semi-automatic creation of temporal annotations. Specifically, we use a model trained on noisy and approximate data (i.e., main and subordinate clauses) to predict intra-sentential relations present in TimeBank, a corpus anno...

  4. Vertigo and object relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinodoz, D

    1990-01-01

    Vertigo appeared to me in analysis to be an expression of separation anxiety; we can observe the vicissitudes of the object relationship by way of the development of this symptom in the treatment. I identify different forms of vertigo according to the particular stage reached by the patient, from fusion-related vertigo via vertigo about being dropped, vertigo associated with aspiration, vertigo connected with the alternation of prison and escape and vertigo related to the attraction of the void, to competition-related vertigo which appears in an oedipal context. They correspond to different moments in the constitution of relational space: first, the two-dimensional world in which even the void is inconceivable; then, the sensation of the void manifesting a disavowal of the absence of relationship; next, the constitution of a three-dimensional space in which the patient initially feels carried by the object but then discovers that he can carry himself; and, finally, the constitution of the internal space which allows internalization of the feeling of 'buoyancy'. PMID:2332297

  5. Medienanalytische betrachtungen zu Claus Peymanns Verfilmung der ,,Hermannsschlacht" nach Heinrich von Kleist / A media-analytic view on Claus Peymann's film about Heinrich von Kleist's "Hermannsschlacht"

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hans W., Giessen.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes interpretations of Heinrich von Kleist's Hermannsschlacht (title in English: The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest). Historically there have been four different types of interpretation: those that praise both content and form, those that express dislike of both con-tent and form, t [...] hose that praise the content but dislike the form, and those that inversely express dislike for the content but admiration for the form. It is argued here that Claus Peymann's inter-pretation, as seen in his film, goes contrary to these traditional ways of dealing with Hermannsschlacht, since Peymann's interpretation obviously respects Kleist's text but inter-prets Hermansschlacht as a text in favor of peace, not war.

  6. A Comparative Analysis of the Frequency and Function of If-clauses in Applied Linguistics and Chemistry Articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Hesabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the differences and similarities between form and function of if-clauses as one type of conditional clauses within the applied linguistics and chemistry published academic Articles. These articles were examined and after determining the frequency of if-clauses, they were analyzed based on the model proposed by Sweetser (1990. According to the findings, if-clauses were more frequent in applied linguistics than chemistry articles. Results of function analysis indicated that, content is the major function in both applied and chemistry articles and comparing two genres, it is more frequent in applied linguistics articles. Next function in the line is epistemic, and it is again more frequent in applied linguistics articles and speech act was the last function that was more frequent in applied linguistics articles too. In addition, the verb forms of if-clauses were analyzed. Findings indicated that present + present pattern was the most predominant pattern across these two disciplines and it was more frequent in applied linguistics articles, therefore, there can be a relationship between verb pattern and function.

  7. Salient Object Detection: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Borji, Ali; Cheng, Ming-Ming; Jiang, Huaizu; LI, JIA

    2014-01-01

    Detecting and segmenting salient objects in natural scenes, also known as salient object detection, has attracted a lot of focused research in computer vision and has resulted in many applications. However, while many such models exist, a deep understanding of achievements and issues is lacking. We aim to provide a comprehensive review of the recent progress in this field. We situate salient object detection among other closely related areas such as generic scene segmentatio...

  8. Semantic Features of the Object

    OpenAIRE

    Grici?t?, Salom?ja

    2012-01-01

    The present paper analyzes the features of the object in traditional and semantic syntax. A special attention is payed to the processes and the ways of expressing the object in each of them, namely, in material, mental, verbal, relational, existential and happening processes. The examples were taken from the novel "The Great Gatsby" by F. Scott Fitzgerald.

  9. Conversion of Claus plants of Kirkuk-Iraq to produce hydrogen and sulfur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text': Hydrogen production from rich sub-quality natural gas (SQNG) is visible technically with assessment of cost, safety and environmental toxicology analysis of hydrogen sulfide, is summarized. There are two Claus plants in Kirkuk-Iraq, converting hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur capacity of 2200 ton/day. One of these plants is working with only 400 ton/day and it is an old Claus process. The other is a modified Claus sulfur recovery process with a capacity of 1800 ton/day. Both of these plants operate with low efficiency due to lack of maintenance and the present situation in Iraq. Therefore, the agricultural area around Kirkuk is very polluted by this gas. Two pilot plants have been constructed inside the modified Claus plant in Kirkuk The first one is based on the flow system tube furnace reactor containing mixed Titanium oxide/sulfide with a cold trap for sulfur separation and a bath of 30% dithanolamine to separate and recycle H2S from hydrogen. The second pilot plant consists of a thermal diffusion ceramic rod inside a silica column containing Zeolit 5A as a catalyst. This pilot plant also consists of a trap for continuous separation of sulfur and a system for separation of hydrogen from unreacted H2S to recycle. The efficiency of conversion of H2S to hydrogen and sulfur has been optimized as a function of catalyst type and mixture, temperature of furnace, flow rate of gas and reactor materials until the efficiency reaches more than 97%. The Kirkuk natural gas consists of a mixture of CO2 10% and H2S 12%. We found that these pilot plants were suitable with Cadmium chalcogens catalysts to produce hydrogen, methane, ethane and sulphur, but with lower efficiency than H2S decomposition only. Our aim in the second pilot plant, which consists of a silica column, was to supply the heat by solar energy concentrator instead of electricity as our catalyst needs 450 oC. and the solar intensity is about 1000 w/m2 during the summer. The idea of converting these two Claus plants to produce hydrogen gas fuel and sulfur will be a good achievement to the environment around the oil fields, besides production of a renewable energy source (hydrogen gas). A hydrogen production plant in this part of Iraq will save a large area from polluted sulfur gas, and will demonstrate how utilization of hydrogen from these waste gases is very significant. Our calculations show that these plants can produce about 140 ton / day of hydrogen gas. Different technological options are available and associated costs reported. They are supplied by a range of hydrogen technology suppliers. The price of hydrogen from H2S is now much lower than the price of any other present technology for production of hydrogen. The last report for the price of hydrogen from gas companies by modifications of Claus process and production of CS2 gas is zero dollars cost. (author)

  10. Hybrid architecture: object, landscape, infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto de Freitas, Rita

    2011-01-01

    The concept of "hybrid architecture" developed in this study considers hybrid all architecture that is at once object, landscape and infrastructure. Hybrid architecture, pushed by the fact that it concentrates in a single architectural intervention a triple object-, landscape- and infrastructure-related nature, generates architectural answers with very specific features, and its study achieves following goals: 1: Clarify the term hybrid related to architectural intervention; 2: Tran...

  11. Completeness and Decidability Results for First-order Clauses with Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Kersani, Abdelkader; Peltier, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    We define a proof procedure that allows for a limited form of inductive reasoning. The first argument of a function symbol is allowed to belong to an inductive type. We will call such an argument an index. We enhance the standard superposition calculus with a loop detection rule, in order to encode a particular form of mathematical induction. The satisfiability problem is not semi-decidable, but some classes of clause sets are identified for which the proposed procedure is complete and/or ter...

  12. A SIMPLE MOLAR FLOW MODELING AND SIMULATION OF CATALYTIC BEDS IN CLAUS PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Koolivand Salooki; R Abedini

    2010-01-01

    The Claus process has been known and used in the industry for over 100 years. It involves thermaloxidation of hydrogen sulfide and its reaction with sulfur dioxide to form sulfur and water vapor.This process is equilibrium-limited and usually achieves efficiencies in the range of 94-97%, whichhave been regarded as acceptable in the past years. First bed operates at the temperature of 573K, second and third beds operate at 523K and 473K. Outlet of each bed enters the condenser.Operating temper...

  13. Modeling and simulation of condensed sulfur in catalytic beds of CLAUS process: rapid estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Abedini; Mehdi Koolivand Salooki; Samaneh Ghasemian

    2010-01-01

    The Claus process has been known and used in the industry for over 100 years. It involves thermal oxidation of hydrogen sulfide and its reaction with sulfur dioxide to form sulfur and water vapor. This process is equilibrium-limited and usually achieves efficiencies in the range of 94-97%, which have been regarded as acceptable in the past years. First bed operates at the temperature of 573 K, second and third beds operate at 523K and 473K. Outlet of each bed enters the condenser. Operating t...

  14. Die inisiasiemotief by Hugo Claus, verduidelik aan die hand van 'De ingewijde' en ander gedigte

    OpenAIRE

    S. W. van Zuydam

    1987-01-01

    The motif of initiation occurs repeatedly in the poetry of Hugo Claus and it can be regarded as an important key to his early work. In the series De ingewijde it is clear that the poems are not simply imitations or embodiments of traditional initiation rituals or ceremonies. In the poems there are almost concealed correspondences, and in order to determine their meaning initiation has to be studied as a universal phenomenon. In the first place one has to study what initiation means as a unive...

  15. ASPECTUAL INFLUENCE ON TEMPORAL RELATIONS: A CASE STUDY OF THE EXPERIENTIAL GUO IN MANDARINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Shiung Wu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how the temporal relation between a clause containing the experiential guo and an adjacent clause is determined. Mandarin is a language not morphologically marked for tenses (e.g., Lin 2006, and therefore, tenses cannot help in determining temporal relations in Mandarin. However, Mandarin has a rich aspectual system. This paper argues that the experiential guo indirectly influences temporal relations via rhetorical relations by either specifying a default rhetorical relation, or by constraining the circumstances under which a certain rhetorical relation can connect a clause with guo to an adjacent clause. This paper also argues that the default rhetorical relation and the constraints are determined by the aspectual properties of the experiential marker. Other information, such as discourse connectors, lexical information, etc., can override the default rhetorical relation indicated by guo and specifies a rhetorical relation. Therefore, this paper concludes that in Mandarin aspect markers can indirectly affect temporal relations by means of rhetorical relations, a result consistent with Wu’s (2005b paper on the perfective marker le in Mandarin, and Wu’s (2007b, 2004 work on the progressive marker zai and the durative marker zhe.

  16. Claus Bonderup : Conversations with the architect and his unique wife Anne Just, about food, art and architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Fisker, Anna Marie; Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen

    2012-01-01

    Ever since I was a young student and met Claus Bonderup for the first time, I have been fascinated by his work. I still remember how we turned up for a lecture of his at the Aarhus School of Architecture in the beginning of the 1980s brimming with excitement; a lecture that would end up being very short as my professor ejected him from the auditorium. Claus was not merely a classic innovative architect but also very provocative in his holistic architecture. Back then, his works were too radic...

  17. Price adjustment clauses with seal of quality. Regal verification; Preisanpassungsklauseln mit 'Guetesiegel'. Rechtliche Ueberpruefung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donner, Oliver; Ottersbach, Joerg [BET Buero fuer Energiewirtschaft und Technische Planung GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Thomale, Hans-Christoph [FPS Rechtsanwaelte und Notare, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2013-03-11

    Actually, district heating suppliers see themselves to be exposed to the general suspicion of the claim of increased prices from their customers. Partly, the existing price adjustment clauses really do not correspond to the legal requirements. This often was complaint by the customers, and resulted in legal disputes. Under this aspect, the BET bureau for energy industry and technical planning GmbH (Aachen, Federal Republic of Germany) and FPS Attorney/Notaries (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) analyse and develop price models with price adjustment clauses in order to meet the resulting, often considerable risks.

  18. Invariant object recognition enhanced by object persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurgin, Mark; Flombaum, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    The same object can look different to an observer because of changes in viewpoint, lighting, and other parameters. This makes object recognition that is invariant to viewing condition a staggering challenge. It has been suggested that spatiotemporal association can support invariant learning; combining information gained during distinct encounters can improve one's estimates of an object's true features. But spatiotemporal association is insufficient; one needs to know whether spatiotemporally close encounters include the same object. We hypothesized that spatiotemporal association should therefore be constrained by the rules of object persistence, the object physics thought to make up core knowledge in infants and known to guide online perception of token identity. We tested this hypothesis with an incidental-encoding paradigm followed by a recognition test. During each encoding trial a single object appeared twice, via an apparent motion manipulation, in a way that made it look like encounters with two distinct individuals (discontinuous motion) or that made it look like two encounters with the same individual (continuous motion). Participants then judged test objects each as old, similar, or new. Signal detection measures of recognition were used to compare performance as a function of motion continuity. In Experiment 1, encoding involved encounters with an object embedded each time in independent noise. In Experiment 2, encoding occurred without noise, but test images were embedded in varying degrees of noise. And in Experiment 3, each encoding encounter included the object oriented differently, with old objects at test appearing at a third, never-before-seen orientation. (Additional control and extension experiments were run as well). In all three experiments, objects encountered through continuous motion were recognized significantly better than objects encountered through discontinuous motion. These results demonstrate how invariant object learning is supported by constraints from object physics that control the online perception of token identity. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26325927

  19. LA OPULENCIA EN LA ESCASEZ. INTERCAMBIOS DE OBJETOS, RELACIONES SOCIALES Y AMBIGÜEDADES EN INSTITUTOS CORRECCIONALES DE CÓRDOBA / Opulence on scarcity. Exchange of objects, social relations and ambiguities in correctional institutes of Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela María Tedesco

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se propone reflexionar sobre las relaciones sociales que se entrelazan durante el proceso de dar, recibir, intercambiar distintos objetos en institutos correccionales de la ciudad de Córdoba. A través del análisis de situaciones como “la visita”, “el arreglo de las habitaciones”, “el fumar y compartir en el sector”; se analizan formas de tejer vínculos con el afuera, actualizar recuerdos sobre la calle, y de producir intercambios y reforzar ciertos valores dentro del grupo que convive en el instituto. La descripción de estas situaciones implica asimismo, indagar los mecanismos y circuitos a través de los cuales se incorporan distintos sentidos a los objetos, así como también, el modo en que éstos configuran la subjetividad de las personas. De esta manera, el artículo busca mostrar la dinámica que lleva a que, en contextos institucionales marcados por privación y escasez, los jóvenes generen diversos intercambios y utilicen la ambigüedad como un medio para un construir abundancia y poder.Palabras clave: jóvenes, institutos correccionales, relaciones sociales, objetosAbstractThis article proposes to reflect on the social relations that are intertwined in the process of giving, receiving, exchanging various objects in correctional institutes in the city of Córdoba. Across the analysis of situations as “the visit”, “the arrangement of the bedroom”, “to smoke and share in the sector”; discusses ways to weave ties to the outside, upgrade memory on the street and produce exchanges and strengthen certain values within the group that lives in institute. The description of these situations also means, investigate the mechanisms and circuits through which incorporate different meanings to objects, and also, they shape the subjectivity of people. Thus, the article shows the dynamics means that, in institutional contexts marked by deprivation and scarcity, young men exchanges and use the ambiguity, as a way for one to construct abundance and power.Keywords: young people, correctional institutes, social relationships, objects

  20. Preschool children's interpretation of object-initial sentences: neural correlates of their behavioral performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipke, Christine S; Knoll, Lisa J; Friederici, Angela D; Oberecker, Regine

    2012-11-01

    The acquisition of the function of case-marking is a key step in the development of sentence processing for German-speaking children since case-marking reveals the relations between sentential arguments. In this study, we investigated the development of the processing of case-marking and argument structures in children at 3, 4;6 and 6 years of age, as well as its processing in adults. Using EEG, we measured event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to object-initial compared to subject-initial German sentences including transitive verbs and case-marked noun phrases referring to animate arguments. We also tested children's behavioral competence in a sentence-picture matching task. Word order and case-marking were manipulated in German main clauses. Adults' behavioral performance was close to perfect and their ERPs revealed a negativity for the processing of the topicalized accusative marked noun phrase (NP1) and no effect for the second NP (NP2) in the object-initial structure. Children's behavioral data showed a significant above-chance outcome in the subject-initial condition for all age groups, but not for the object-initial condition. In contrast to adults, the ERPs of 3-year-olds showed a positivity at NP1, indicating difficulties in processing the non-canonical object-initial structures. Children at the age of 4;6 did not differ in the processing patterns of object-initial vs. subject-initial sentences at NP1 but showed a slight positivity at NP2. This positivity at NP2, which implies syntactic integration difficulties, is more pronounced in 6-year-olds but is absent in adults. At NP1, however, 6-year-olds show the same negativity as adults. In sum, the behavioral and electrophysiological findings demonstrate that children in each age group use different strategies, which are indicative of their developmental stage. While 3-year-olds merely detect differences in the two sentence structures without being able to use this information for sentence comprehension, 4;6-year-olds proceed to use mainly a word-order strategy, processing NP1 in both conditions in the same manner, which leads to processing difficulties upon detecting case-marking cues at NP2. At the age of 6, children are able to use case-marking cues for comprehension but still show enhanced effort for correct thematic-role assignment. PMID:23106730

  1. Sintaxe das orações complexas em português: uma proposta de descrição e ensino / Syntax of complex clauses in Portuguese: a proposal of description and teaching

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Carolina, Sperança-Criscuolo.

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, a partir de uma discussão acerca de problemas relacionados ao ensino de gramática, pretende-se fazer uma proposta de descrição e ensino de algumas orações subordinadas substantivas sob uma perspectiva interdiscursiva. Com base nos pressupostos da teoria da Gramática Discursivo-Funcio [...] nal (HENGEVELD; MACKENZIE, 2008), observaram-se aspectos subjetivos codificados na sintaxe dessas orações, motivados pelas intenções do falante. Verificou-se que as construções complexas estudadas, do ponto de vista pragmático, compreendem estratégias de que o falante dispõe para demonstrar maior ou menor comprometimento com o que diz, preservando sua face, e também para garantir a confiabilidade da informação asseverada; do ponto de vista do sistema da língua, revelam adaptações que a língua sofre em função das necessidades comunicativas do falante (BYBEE, 2010). Acredita-se que o ensino dessas orações, a partir de sua funcionalidade, pode tornar a prática em sala de aula mais eficiente, melhorando o desempenho linguístico dos alunos. Abstract in english In this paper, motivated by problems related to grammar teaching, we propose a description of some noun subordinate clauses from an interdiscursive perspective. Based on the principles of the Functional Discourse Grammar theory (HENGEVELD; MACKENZIE, 2008), we observed some subjective aspects encode [...] d by these syntactic constructions, motivated by the Speaker's communicative intentions. In pragmatic terms, the complement clauses we studied correspond to the Speaker's strategies to demonstrate his commitment degree with what he's saying, protecting his/her face, and also assuring the information's reliability; in linguistic terms, they show the language suffers some adaptations (BYBEE, 2010) to serve the Speaker's communicative needs. We believe that the focus in the functionality of these constructions can make its teaching richer and more efficient, and so the students' language performance.

  2. Children and Objects: Affection and Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Liz; MacLure, Maggie; Holmes, Rachel; MacRae, Christina

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers young children's (aged 3-5 years) relations with objects, and in particular objects that are brought from home to school. We begin by considering the place of objects within early years classrooms and their relationship to children's education before considering why some objects are often separated from their owners on entry…

  3. Graspable objects shape number processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariagrazia Ranzini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The field of numerical cognition represents an interesting case for action-based theories of cognition, since number is a special kind of abstract concept. Several studies have shown that within the parietal lobes adjacent neural regions code numerical magnitude and grasping-related information. This anatomical proximity between brain areas involved in number and sensorimotor processes may account for interactions between numerical magnitude and action. In particular, recent studies has demonstrated a causal role of action perception on numerical magnitude processing. If objects are represented in terms of actions (affordances, the causal role of action on number processing should extend to the case of objects affordances. This study investigates the relationship between numbers and objects affordances in two experiments, without (Experiment 1 or with (Experiment 2 a motor action execution (i.e., participants were asked to hold an object in their hands during the task. The task consisted in repeating aloud the odd or even digit within a pair depending on the type of the preceding or following object. Order of presentation (object-number vs. number-object, object type (graspable vs. ungraspable, object size (small vs. large, and Numerical magnitude (small vs. large were manipulated for each experiment. Experiment 1 showed a facilitation – in terms of quicker responses - for graspable over ungraspable objects preceded by numbers, and an effect of numerical magnitude after the presentation of graspable objects. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the action execution enhanced overall the sensitivity to numerical magnitude, however interfering with the effects of objects affordances on number processing. Overall, these findings demonstrate that numbers and graspable objects communicate with each other, supporting the view that abstract concepts may be grounded in motor experience.

  4. Pricing objectives in nonprofit hospitals.

    OpenAIRE

    Bauerschmidt, A D; Jacobs, P.

    1985-01-01

    This article reports on a survey of 60 financial managers of nonprofit hospitals in the eastern United States relating to the importance of a number of factors which influence their pricing decisions and the pricing objectives which they pursue. Among the results uncovered by the responses: that trustees are the single most important body in the price-setting process (doctors play a relatively unimportant role); that hospital pricing goals are more related to target net revenue than profit ma...

  5. Mechanism for Learning Object retrieval supporting adaptivity

    CERN Document Server

    Chawla, Sonal

    2010-01-01

    In todayâ??s world designing adaptable course material requires new technical knowledge which involves a need for a uniform protocol that allows organizing resources with emphasis on quality and Learning. This can be achieved by bundling the resources in a known and prescribed fashion called Learning objects. Learning Objects are composed of two aspects namely â??Learning â?? and â??Objectâ?. The Learning aspect of Learning objects refers to Education. Since Education is a process so the primary aim of learning objects tends to be facilitating acquisition, assessment and conversion of content into Learning objects while fostering the assimilation of these Learning objects into learning modules and instruction. The Object part of Learning objects relates to the Digital Electronic format of the resources i.e. to say that it deals with the physical resource that forms the Learning objects. The objects in LOs are analogous to objects used in object-oriented modeling (OOM). The analogy helps visual...

  6. Letters to Santa Claus: Elementary School-Age Children's Sex-Typed Toy Preferences in a Natural Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, A. Chris

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of children's letters to Santa Claus indicated that: (1) girls requested more toys than boys; (2) children requested neutral toys more often than sex-typed toys; (3) girls were more likely to ask for neutral toys, while boys often asked for neutral or masculine toys; and (4) children preferred sex appropriate to sex inappropriate toys.…

  7. The intelligibility objection against underdetermination

    OpenAIRE

    Rogério Passos Severo

    2012-01-01

    One of the objections against the thesis of underdetermination of theories by observations is that it is unintelligible. Any two empirically equivalent theories — so the argument goes—are in principle intertranslatable, hence cannot count as rivals in any non-trivial sense. Against that objection, this paper shows that empirically equivalent theories may contain theoretical sentences that are not intertranslatable. Examples are drawn from a related discussion about incommensurability that sho...

  8. Impact of Predicate on Object Oriented Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ahmer Munir Khan; Rita Chhikara

    2012-01-01

    A programming language is an artificial language designed to express computations that can be performed by a machine, particularly a computer. Object Oriented programming work around object to relate real world entity on computer. Object is the main active body in real world. Object having a set of attributes and perform some task according to their behavior. The methods in object oriented language are defined to give them behavior of actions. If we provide constraints and logic predicate in ...

  9. What captivates the subject? : an investigation of the concepts 'object' and 'identification' in the works of Lacan with a view to establishing approaches for the analysis of relations of power and structures of authority

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porsgaard, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    What can Jacques Lacan tell us about relations of power and figures of authority? – That is the guiding question of "What Captivates the Subject?" The dissertation answers this question by providing a close study of Lacanian texts and seminars from 1953 to 1973, seeking to present not only the strong conceptual coherency of Lacan’s theory, but also its fundamental underpinnings in the work of Sigmund Freud. The dissertation thus attempts to pave the way for a renewed engagement between Lacanian theory and social theory in general. This engagement has already proven exceptionally fruitful in recent years, where research emerging from Slovenia has been developing a new Lacanian approach to the analysis of a wide range of social products and political affairs. The dissertation follows in the wake of this new movement but pursues its own line of reasoning in so far as it undertakes to account for two concepts central to the technical psychoanalytical vocabulary: identification and the object. Identifications and the relation to libidinal objects were acknowledged by Freud as the most fundamental mechanisms in the social life of any human being, just as he regarded them as fundamental to the establishment and maintenance of power structures, not least within the psychoanalytic clinic itself. Yet his accounts of the concepts remain blurry and tentative throughout his career, and it took a Lacan to finally build a rigorous theoretical framework around these concepts. Throughout the dissertation, close readings of Lacan are followed by short interventions into questions of social or political theory, so that the potential of Lacan’s theory for clarifying issues or bringing to light novel perspectives is demonstrated. For instance, not only can Lacan tell us about the inherent paradoxes of authority and power in a classroom, he can also tell us why the most powerful figure of authority may be the one who shows clear signs of weakness, or why the most unshakeable way of identifying with a framework of social values is by identifying while maintaining a distance to it.

  10. Objectives of the symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author defined the objectives of the symposium as follows: to present and examine the recent evidence associating clusters of leukemia with sources of ionizing radiation; to examine the statistical basis for the analysis of clustering; to examine the underlying assumptions in epidemiological studies that clusters must have an environmental cause; to examine the extent to which we can take into account the biological causes of non-randomness in populations, particularly those of geographic and genetic origin; to evaluate the relative merits of different kinds of epidemiological studies for yielding significant information concerning clustering; to consider the potential utility of combining the results from existing studies, and whether new epidemiological studies might be helpful; to consider what other directions, including application of the technologies of molecular biology, are likely to help clarify the underlying mechanisms or causes

  11. Objectivity Data Migration

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, M; Valassi, Andrea; Lubeck, M; Geppert, D; Geppert, Dirk

    2003-01-01

    In this article we describe the migration of event data collected by the COMPASS and HARP experiments at CERN. Together these experiments have over 300TB of physics data stored in Objectivity/DB that had to be transferred to a new data management system by the end of Q1 2003 and Q2 2003 respectively. To achieve this, data needed to be processed with a rate close to 100MB/s, employing 14 tape drives and a cluster of 30 Linux servers. The new persistency solution to accommodate the data is built upon relational databases for metadata storage and standard "flat" files for the event data. The databases contain collections of 109 events and allow generic queries or direct navigational access to the data, preserving the original C++ user API. The central data repository at CERN is implemented using several Oracle9i servers on Linux and the CERN Mass Storage System CASTOR.

  12. The Object Databases Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Tavac

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the transformation of a relationaldatabase to an object database. It suggests a new so-lution based on database and model-driven engineeringintegration. In the first part it is discussed in generalissues of relational database transformation into objectone, some problematic areas are identified. Subsequently,depending on detailed analyze of the database reverse en-gineering processes, the whole process is defined as a se-quence of models and transformation among them basedon model driven architecture (MDA. Some of the modelsare based on generally accepted standards. The proposedapproach comes also with its own models. The paper de-fines not only their exact structure but also abstracts itsown algorithms used during their development. The finalpart contains an experimental verification of the proposedprocedures with a particular example and summary of theresults.

  13. Paradigms in object recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)

  14. Long-term contracts and take-or-pay clauses in natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical and empirical research on long-term contracts inspired by the American experience are surveyed, with emphasis on the analysis of the role of take-or-pay clauses and price indexation rules, and whether regulation distorts optimal contract duration. The underlying motivation is to analyze the economic fundamentals of the European Union provisions on long-term contracts in the natural gas industry, and to highlight the features that differentiate them from the American experience. The impacts of long term contracts in the opening to competition of the European Union natural gas sector, and the apparent confusion between contract duration and flexibility as applied to long-term contracts in the European Union, are also explored. 29 refs., 2 tabs

  15. Modeling and simulation of condensed sulfur in catalytic beds of CLAUS process: rapid estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Abedini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Claus process has been known and used in the industry for over 100 years. It involves thermal oxidation of hydrogen sulfide and its reaction with sulfur dioxide to form sulfur and water vapor. This process is equilibrium-limited and usually achieves efficiencies in the range of 94-97%, which have been regarded as acceptable in the past years. First bed operates at the temperature of 573 K, second and third beds operate at 523K and 473K. Outlet of each bed enters the condenser. Operating temperature of each condenser is about 413K which sulfur condenses in them. In this study catalytic bed process of sulfur recovery unit has been mathematically modeled and by MATLAB software simulated, and then output conditions of compounds has been calculated.

  16. Designing institutions for global democracy: flexibility through escape clauses and sunset provisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan W. Kuyper

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available How can advocates of global democracy grapple with the empirical conditions that constitute world politics? I argue that flexibility mechanisms—;commonly used to advance international cooperation—should be employed to make the institutional design project of global democracy more tractable. I highlight three specific reasons underpinning this claim. First, flexibility provisions make bargaining over different institutional designs more manageable. Second, heightened flexibility takes seriously potential concerns about path-dependent institutional development. Finally, deliberately shortening the time horizons of agents by employing flexibility provisions has cognitive benefits as it forces designers to focus specifically on issues of feasibility as well as desirability. I discuss a range of flexibility mechanisms and highlight the utility of sunset provisions and escape clauses. From this analysis, I build an argument for the usage of small-scale democratic experiments through which citizens (or their representatives have a say in global policy making.

  17. Regionlets for Generic Object Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Yang, Ming; Zhu, Shenghuo; Lin, Yuanqing

    2015-10-01

    Generic object detection is confronted by dealing with different degrees of variations, caused by viewpoints or deformations in distinct object classes, with tractable computations. This demands for descriptive and flexible object representations which can be efficiently evaluated in many locations. We propose to model an object class with a cascaded boosting classifier which integrates various types of features from competing local regions, each of which may consist of a group of subregions, named as regionlets. A regionlet is a base feature extraction region defined proportionally to a detection window at an arbitrary resolution (i.e., size and aspect ratio). These regionlets are organized in small groups with stable relative positions to be descriptive to delineate fine-grained spatial layouts inside objects. Their features are aggregated into a one-dimensional feature within one group so as to be flexible to tolerate deformations. The most discriminative regionlets for each object class are selected through a boosting learning procedure. Our regionlet approach achieves very competitive performance on popular multi-class detection benchmark datasets with a single method, without any context. It achieves a detection mean average precision of 41.7 percent on the PASCAL VOC 2007 dataset, and 39.7 percent on the VOC 2010 for 20 object categories. We further develop support pixel integral images to efficiently augment regionlet features with the responses learned by deep convolutional neural networks. Our regionlet based method won second place in the ImageNet Large Scale Visual Object Recognition Challenge (ILSVRC 2013). PMID:26353185

  18. Uma concepção psicanalítica de personalidade: teoria das relações objetais de Fairbairn Una concepción psicoanalítica de la personalidad: la teoría de las relaciones objetales de Fairbairn A psychoanalytical conception of personality: Fairbairn's object-relations theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto M. Celes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como propósito maior desenvolver a idéia de que a teoria das relações de objeto, introduzida no movimento psicanalítico em oposição à teoria da sexualidade como base da constituição psíquica, significou uma radical mudança na concepção psicanalítica dos sujeitos. Tal mudança se expressa no abandono da pulsionalidade como fundamento subjetivo em direção à apreensão e compreensão dos sujeitos como personalidade, isto é, algo substantivamente estruturado. Metodologicamente, opta-se pela análise e exposição da principal obra de Willian Ronald D. Fairbairn (1889-1964, tomada como paradigmática das teorias das relações de objeto. Busca-se expor a evolução do pensamento fairbairniano, desde seus estudos sobre a esquizoidia - e a contradição que isso trouxe para a teoria da libido da época - até as modificações e superações que o autor se propõe a realizar na teoria psicanalítica em função da concepção da meta libidinal como sendo o objeto.Este artículo tiene como objetivo mayor el de desarrollar la idea de que la teoría de las relaciones de objeto, introducida en el movimiento psicoanalítico en oposición a la teoría de la sexualidad como base de la constitución psíquica, significó un cambio radical en la concepción psicoanalítica de los sujetos. Dicho cambio se expresa en el abandono de la pulsionalidad como fundamento subjetivo hacia la aprensión y comprensión de los sujetos como personalidad, es decir, como algo sustantivamente estructurado. Metodológicamente, se elije el análisis y exposición de la obra principal de Willian Ronald D. Fairbairn (1889-1964, tomada como paradigmática para las teorías de las relaciones de objeto. Se busca exponer la evolución del pensamiento fairbairniano, desde sus estudios sobre la esquizoidía - y la contradicción que dicho estudio trajo para la teoría de la libido de la época - hasta las modificaciones y superaciones que el autor se propone realizar en la teoría psicoanalítica en función de la concepción de la meta libidinal como sujeto.The main purpose of this essay is to develop the idea that the object-relations theory, introduced in the psychoanalytical movement as an opposition to the libido theory as basis to psychic constitution, produced a radical change in the psychoanalytical concept of subjects. Change is represented by the quitting of the drive as a subject foundation and by the apprehension and comprehension of subjects as personalities, or rather, substantially structured. In terms of methodology, the main work by William Ronald D. Fairbairn (1889-1964 was analyzed and taken as paradigmatic for all object-relations theories. The evolution of Fairbairn's thoughts, from his studies on schizophrenia - and the contradiction it brought to the contemporary libido theory - to the changes and overcoming the author proposed to accomplish in psychoanalytical theory, as a result of his finding that the libidinal goal is an object, are presented.

  19. Uma concepção psicanalítica de personalidade: teoria das relações objetais de Fairbairn / A psychoanalytical conception of personality: Fairbairn's object-relations theory / Una concepción psicoanalítica de la personalidad: la teoría de las relaciones objetales de Fairbairn

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Augusto M., Celes; Karen Cristina Martins, Alves; Ana Caroline Galli dos, Santos.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como propósito maior desenvolver a idéia de que a teoria das relações de objeto, introduzida no movimento psicanalítico em oposição à teoria da sexualidade como base da constituição psíquica, significou uma radical mudança na concepção psicanalítica dos sujeitos. Tal mudança se expre [...] ssa no abandono da pulsionalidade como fundamento subjetivo em direção à apreensão e compreensão dos sujeitos como personalidade, isto é, algo substantivamente estruturado. Metodologicamente, opta-se pela análise e exposição da principal obra de Willian Ronald D. Fairbairn (1889-1964), tomada como paradigmática das teorias das relações de objeto. Busca-se expor a evolução do pensamento fairbairniano, desde seus estudos sobre a esquizoidia - e a contradição que isso trouxe para a teoria da libido da época - até as modificações e superações que o autor se propõe a realizar na teoria psicanalítica em função da concepção da meta libidinal como sendo o objeto. Abstract in spanish Este artículo tiene como objetivo mayor el de desarrollar la idea de que la teoría de las relaciones de objeto, introducida en el movimiento psicoanalítico en oposición a la teoría de la sexualidad como base de la constitución psíquica, significó un cambio radical en la concepción psicoanalítica de [...] los sujetos. Dicho cambio se expresa en el abandono de la pulsionalidad como fundamento subjetivo hacia la aprensión y comprensión de los sujetos como personalidad, es decir, como algo sustantivamente estructurado. Metodológicamente, se elije el análisis y exposición de la obra principal de Willian Ronald D. Fairbairn (1889-1964), tomada como paradigmática para las teorías de las relaciones de objeto. Se busca exponer la evolución del pensamiento fairbairniano, desde sus estudios sobre la esquizoidía - y la contradicción que dicho estudio trajo para la teoría de la libido de la época - hasta las modificaciones y superaciones que el autor se propone realizar en la teoría psicoanalítica en función de la concepción de la meta libidinal como sujeto. Abstract in english The main purpose of this essay is to develop the idea that the object-relations theory, introduced in the psychoanalytical movement as an opposition to the libido theory as basis to psychic constitution, produced a radical change in the psychoanalytical concept of subjects. Change is represented by [...] the quitting of the drive as a subject foundation and by the apprehension and comprehension of subjects as personalities, or rather, substantially structured. In terms of methodology, the main work by William Ronald D. Fairbairn (1889-1964) was analyzed and taken as paradigmatic for all object-relations theories. The evolution of Fairbairn's thoughts, from his studies on schizophrenia - and the contradiction it brought to the contemporary libido theory - to the changes and overcoming the author proposed to accomplish in psychoanalytical theory, as a result of his finding that the libidinal goal is an object, are presented.

  20. Object models and object representation Tutorial 4

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Mahey, Mahendra

    2007-01-01

    This tutorial will provide a practical overview of current practices in modelling complex or compound digital objects. It will examine some of the key scenarios around creating complex objects and will explore a number of approaches to packaging and transport. Taking research papers, or scholarly works, as an example, the tutorial will explore the different ways in which these, and their descriptive metadata, can be treated as complex objects. Relevant application profiles and metadata formats will be introduced and compared, such as Dublin Core, in particular the DCMI Abstract Model, and MODS, alongside content packaging standards, such as METS MPEG 21 DIDL and IMS CP. Finally, we will consider some future issues and activities that are seeking to address these. The tutorial will be of interest to librarians and technical staff with an interest in metadata or complex objects, their creation, management and re-use.

  1. Birth of the Object: Detection of Objectness and Extraction of Object Shape through Object Action Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Dirk; Pugeault, Nicolas; Baseski, Emre; Popovic, Mila; Kragic, Danica; Kalkan, Sinan; Wörgötter, Florentin; Krüger, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    We describe a process in which the segmentation of objects as well as the extraction of the object shape becomes realized through active exploration of a robot vision system. In the exploration process, two behavioral modules that link robot actions to the visual and haptic perception of objects interact. First, by making use of an object independent grasping mechanism, physical control over potential objects can be gained. Having evaluated the initial grasping mechanism as being successful, a s...

  2. Object as subject

    OpenAIRE

    White, Laura; Mitchell, John; Bassant , McKenzie

    2010-01-01

    Object as subject Artists: Mc Kenzie Bassant, John Mitchell and Laura White. Curated by David Waterworth. Three artists took found objects as a starting point for making their work. The exhibition compares different approaches towards the found object. In the work of Laura White toys with the sculptural notion of what an object is and how to make objects in a world full of them.

  3. Spoken language production in adults: examining age-related differences in syntactic complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A; Cramond, Paige M; Hayward-Mayhew, Christine

    2014-03-01

    The use of complex syntax in the spoken discourse of young, middle-aged, and older adults was examined. The purpose of the study was to determine if syntactic complexity would show an age-related decline. Language samples were elicited from healthy adults in their 20?s, 40?s, and 60?s (n=20 per group) using a conversational (CON) task and a peer conflict resolution (PCT) task. Each sample was transcribed, segmented into utterances, and coded for main clauses and all types of finite and non-finite subordinate clauses. The results indicated that all groups produced greater syntactic complexity during the PCR task than the CON task as measured by mean length of utterance, clausal density, and the use of left-branching clauses. Additionally, the groups did not differ on any syntactic measures for either task. It is concluded that syntactic complexity in spoken discourse remains stable during the years that span early, middle, and later adulthood. PMID:24093162

  4. Santa Claus contra los Reyes Magos: influencias trasnacionales en el consumo infantil en México (1950-1960)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Susana, Sosenski.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analiza la inserción de la figura de Santa Claus en la sociedad mexicana a mediados del siglo XX. Santa Claus, en un primer momento, fue visto como un "extranjero indeseable", portador de una cultura ajena y una modernidad vinculada estrechamente a la sociedad de consumo. Fue vis [...] to como "el otro", tuvo que lidiar con las tradiciones católicas mexicanas y se halló confrontado con las figuras de los Reyes Magos. Las discusiones en torno a su figura se centraron en discutir su inmoralidad, sus afanes modernizadores, su función en la "americanización" de las costumbres mexicanas y su relación con los intentos de crear una "cultura comercial". La celebración del día de Reyes Magos tuvo que coexistir con esta nueva "tradición", importada y divulgada por medios de comunicación, como el cine y la prensa, a través de sus anuncios publicitarios, sus fotos y sus artículos de opinión, así como por las tiendas departamentales. En suma, en este texto se analizan las discusiones que generó el establecimiento de Santa Claus en México en la década de 1950, las diversas estrategias culturales que se utilizaron para promover este personaje y las producciones culturales que se encargaron de promocionarlo. Abstract in english This paper analyzes the inclusion of the figure of Santa Claus in Mexican society in the mid-20th Century. Initially, Santa Claus was seen as an "undesirable alien," having an alien culture and being closely linked to the modern consumer society. He was seen as "the other," and had to deal with Mexi [...] can Catholic traditions as well as being in competition with the figures of the Three Wise Men. Discussions on him focused on his immorality, his modernizing desires, his role in the "Americanization" of Mexican customs, and on his attempts to create a "business culture." The celebration of the Three Wise Men had to coexist with this new "tradition," imported and disseminated through film and print media, advertisements, photos and opinion pieces, as well as in department stores. To conclude, this paper analyzes the discussions regarding the establishment of Santa Claus in Mexico during the 1950s, the various cultural strategies used to promote his character and the cultural productions created to the same end.

  5. Exemption clauses and the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008: An assessment of Naidoo v Birchwood Hotel 2012 6 SA 170 (GSJ)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Y, Mupangavanhu.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Exemption clauses are a rule rather than an exception particularly in standard-form contracts. Consumers are usually forced to accept such terms on a "take-it-or-leave-it" basis. This state of affairs shows that freedom of contract is theoretical and could lead to injustices. In Naidoo v Birchwood H [...] otel 2012 6 SA 170 (GSJ) the Court refused to uphold the exemption clauses based on the fact that it would have been unfair and unjust to the plaintiff who had sustained serious bodily injuries during his stay at the hotel. The article discusses this court decision in the light of the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA) against the background of the previous jurisprudence regarding exemption clauses, including the position of exemption clauses in a new constitutional dispensation.

  6. Exemption Clauses and the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008: An Assessment of Naidoo v Birchwood Hotel 2012 6 SA 170 (GSJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeukai Mupangavanhu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Exemption clauses are a rule rather than an exception particularly in standard-form contracts. Consumers are usually forced to accept such terms on a "take-it-or-leave-it" basis. This state of affairs shows that freedom of contract is theoretical and could lead to injustices. In Naidoo v Birchwood Hotel 2012 6 SA 170 (GSJ the Court refused to uphold the exemption clauses based on the fact that it would have been unfair and unjust to the plaintiff who had sustained serious bodily injuries during his stay at the hotel. The article discusses this court decision in the light of the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA against the background of the previous jurisprudence regarding exemption clauses, including the position of exemption clauses in a new constitutional dispensation.

  7. Eye Movements of Young and Older Adults during Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Kemper, Susan; Liu, Chiung-ju

    2007-01-01

    The eye movements of young and older adults were tracked as they read sentences varying in syntactic complexity. In Experiment 1, cleft object and object relative clause sentences were more difficult to process than cleft subject and subject relative clause sentences; however, older adults made many more regressions, resulting in increased regression path fixation times and total fixation times, than young adults while processing cleft object and object relative clause sentences. In Experimen...

  8. Object Function Facilitates Infants' Object Individuation in a Manual Search Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingo, Osman S.; Krojgaard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the importance of object function (action-object-outcome relations) on object individuation in infancy. Five experiments examined the ability of 9.5- and 12-month-old infants to individuate simple geometric objects in a manual search design. Experiments 1 through 4 (12-month-olds, N = 128) provided several combinations of…

  9. Where do objects become scenes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiye G; Biederman, Irving

    2011-08-01

    Regions tuned to individual visual categories, such as faces and objects, have been discovered in the later stages of the ventral visual pathway in the cortex. But most visual experience is composed of scenes, where multiple objects are interacting. Such interactions are readily described by prepositions or verb forms, for example, a bird perched on a birdhouse. At what stage in the pathway does sensitivity to such interactions arise? Here we report that object pairs shown as interacting, compared with their side-by-side depiction (e.g., a bird besides a birdhouse), elicit greater activity in the lateral occipital complex, the earliest cortical region where shape is distinguished from texture. Novelty of the interactions magnified this gain, an effect that was absent in the side-by-side depictions. Scene-like relations are thus likely achieved simultaneously with the specification of object shape. PMID:21148087

  10. 1'300 MW repowering project Claus C. A way for cleaner and increasing power production converting an existing steam plant into combined cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turina, Simone; Gross, Thomas; Davies, Mike [Alstom Power AG, Baden (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    In June 2008, Alstom signed a contract with the Dutch utility Essent Energy to build a 1'300 MW combined cycle power plant in Maasbracht, located in the South East of the Netherlands. The project consists of converting the existing 640 MW Claus B unit, a conventional steam power plant (STPP) burning natural gas, into a combined cycle power plant (CCPP), named Claus C, this conversion is called ''repowering''. The output of the unit will increase to 1'304 MW net, CO{sub 2} emissions will be reduced by 40%, while efficiency will increase from around 38% to 59% net (exactly 58.95%), bringing it in line with the most efficient new combined-cycle power plants available today. Alstom has designed and is building Claus C next to the existing power plant, providing 3 x GT26 gas turbines along with the turbogenerators, 3 x HRSG (heat recovery steam generators) and the relevant auxiliary equipment including an ALSPA Distributed Control System. The old gas fired boiler of Claus B will be replaced by three new GT26 gas turbines, which, for the first time, are being designed as 3-on-1 configuration, namely three (3) GT26 are feeding steam into a single steam turbine (ST). In this particular case the ST is one of two existing ST from the old Claus station, composed by A and B units. This non-Alstom 640 MW ST will be retrofitted by Alstom and integrated into Claus C. Additionally, the steam turbine generator of Claus B will be re-used, as well as existing civil structures, cooling system and BoP systems. Claus C will be both the first 3-on-1 configuration KA 26 plant and the biggest combined cycle power plant ever build by Alstom as a single block within the last 20 years. (orig.)

  11. Generic Object Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Hegazy, Doaa; Denzler, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    The object recognition problem has challenged the computer vision community for long time due to the huge change in the scale, occlusion and lighting conditions which have a great effect on the appearance of the objects. The problem of generic object recognition (GOR) has the previously mentioned difficulties in addition to the intra-class and inter-class variability problems. Despite the difficulties of the generic object recognition problem many approaches appeared trying to provide a solut...

  12. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  13. Objects in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  14. Logics for the Relational Syllogistic

    CERN Document Server

    Pratt-Hartmann, Ian

    2008-01-01

    The Aristotelian syllogistic cannot account for the validity of many inferences involving relational facts. In this paper, we investigate the prospects for providing a relational syllogistic. We identify several fragments based on (a) whether negation is permitted on all nouns, including those in the subject of a sentence; and (b) whether the subject noun phrase may contain a relative clause. The logics we present are extensions of the classical syllogistic, and we pay special attention to the question of whether reductio ad absurdum is needed. Thus our main goal is to derive results on the existence (or non-existence) of syllogistic proof systems for relational fragments. We also determine the computational complexity of all our fragments.

  15. Detecting a Moving Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Sidhanti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Object tracking in video aims at detecting the appearances of an object and also the position of a moving object in a video sequence. Complex and dynamic scenes in video and television broadcasting have been a challenge for computerization of both in terms of storage and interaction. Scenes can be complex wherein there are many cluttered objects with different sizes, shapes, colors and can be dynamic with multiple interacting moving objects in a constantly changing background. Examples of such videos abound in applications like sports, air traffic, car traffic and cloud transformations etc.

  16. Creation of 'Ukrytie' objects computer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A partial computer model of the 'Ukrytie' object was created with the use of geoinformation technologies. The computer model makes it possible to carry out information support of the works related to the 'Ukrytie' object stabilization and its conversion into ecologically safe system for analyzing, forecasting and controlling the processes occurring in the 'Ukrytie' object. Elements and structures of the 'Ukryttia' object were designed and input into the model

  17. Mechanisms underlying selecting objects for action

    OpenAIRE

    Wulff, Melanie; Laverick, Rosanna; Humphreys, Glyn W.; Wing, Alan M.; Rotshtein, Pia

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the factors which affect the selection of objects for action, focusing on the role of action knowledge and its modulation by distracters. Fourteen neuropsychological patients and 10 healthy aged-matched controls selected pairs of objects commonly used together among distracters in two contexts: with real objects and with pictures of the same objects presented sequentially on a computer screen. Across both tasks, semantically related distracters led to slower responses and more err...

  18. Analysis of flexibility clauses to adapt work time to demand in the automotive industry in continental Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Olivella Nadal, Jordi

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to describe and analyse the use of flexibility clauses instead of overtime to adapt work time to demand in the automotive industry in continental Europe. Flexibility to adapt to demand has become critical in the automobile manufacturing industry. Variability of the number of hours worked by existing staff is an indispensable component of manufacturing flexibility. Outside continental Europe, work time flexibility is obtains basically by using overtime. In continental Europe, t...

  19. Sulfur Recovery from Acid Gas Using the Claus Process and High Temperature Air Combustion (HiTAC Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Sassi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur-bearing compounds are very detrimental to the environment and to industrial process equipment. They are often obtained or formed as a by-product of separation and thermal processing of fuels containing sulfur, such as coal, crude oil and natural gas. The two sulfur compounds, which need special attention, are: hydrogen sulfide (H2S and sulfur dioxide (SO2. H2S is a highly corrosive gas with a foul smell. SO2 is a toxic gas responsible for acid rain formation and equipment corrosion. Various methods of reducing pollutants containing sulfur are described in this paper, with a focus on the modified Claus process, enhanced by the use of High Temperature Air Combustion (HiTAC technology in the Claus furnace. The Claus process has been known and used in the industry for over 100 years. It involves thermal oxidation of hydrogen sulfide and its reaction with sulfur dioxide to form sulfur and water vapor. This process is equilibrium-limited and usually achieves efficiencies in the range of 94-97%, which have been regarded as acceptable in the past years. Nowadays strict air pollution regulations regarding hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide emissions call for nearly 100% efficiency, which can only be achieved with process modifications. High temperature air combustion technology or otherwise called flameless (or colorless combustion is proposed here for application in Claus furnaces, especially those employing lean acid gas streams, which cannot be burned without the use of auxiliary fuel or oxygen enrichment under standard conditions. With the use of HiTAC it has been shown, however, that fuel-lean, Low Calorific Value (LCV fuels can be burned with very uniform thermal fields without the need for fuel enrichment or oxygen addition. The uniform temperature distribution favors clean and efficient burning with an additional advantage of significant reduction of NOx, CO and hydrocarbon emission.

  20. The Acquisition of Neg-V and V-Neg Order in Embedded Clauses in Swedish: A Microparametric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the acquisition of embedded verb placement in Swedish children, focusing on Neg-V and V-Neg order. It is proposed that a principle of economy of movement creates an overuse of V-Neg order in embedded clauses and that the low frequency of the target-consistent Neg-V order in child-directed speech obstructs children from…

  1. Beyond the Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Object orientation (OO is regained not only in all components of integrate development media but it remarks in the rest of software world from operating system to last application domain - of course, with different intensity and success. A clear prove of OO application in all situations is the development of a wide range of industrial applications. OO technology allows drawing of relation between the geometry, topology and dimensions of data on a class hierarchy; thus, the observation of the amount of data gained by research in many scientific domains is facilitated through class libraries both for graphic primitives and for events examination. In conformity to all waiting, OO asserts in every distributive system, there are very important the applications for making open systems customer-server and dis-tributed applications in Java. Finally OO application in robot's programming and modeling needn't be omitted. However, far to be panacea, OO has also shades which will be researched so on.

  2. Solid-object digitizing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunthankar, S.

    1990-08-01

    This paper describes a method concerned with the design and construction of a systeL to measure and record discrete surface locations from actual physical objects. It also investigates different image processing techniques, compaction of graphical data algorithms and 3-D object reconstruction and manipulation, from a laser scanner for the reconstruction of the human soft tissue of the face out of the skull. It is a robotic laser ranging system that automatically generates three dimensional surface co-ordinates starting from homemorphic surfaced objects. The principle of the digitising process is based on triangulation between a laser point, illuminated on the surface of the object and two custom-built light sensors. Given the geometry of the system, one of the light sensors detects the small spot on the object and then calculates a representative point in Euclidean three space. A two degree-offreedom electro-mechanical system translates the laser and rotates the object in order to discretise the entire object. Representations of complex real objects have been generated in a relatively short time with very good resolution. For example, a human skull can be digitised, representing over 5000 surface points, in a little over one hour. The data representations can then be viewed and manipulated in real time on high performance graphics devices or viewed and then animated as a realistic image on raster graphics. The principal aim of this project is to develop Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge based system techniques to infer the depth of the soft tissue and its associated relationship with the skull.

  3. Freud: objects and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, A

    1986-01-01

    This paper, part of a series exploring the development of Freud's object concept, deals with the concepts of objects and psychic structure in the period from 1915 to 1938. In connection with the increased prominence of object loss and hostility in his clinical material, the role of objects in the building of psychic structure via identification assumed increased importance from 1917 on. After introduction of the ego-id-superego model, Freud asserted for the first time that object choice does take place as early as the oedipal period, and interpolated the phallic-oedipal phase into his sequence of developmental phases. The prominence of structure formation through identification continued, but no new object concepts are discerned. PMID:3760444

  4. Object Duplicate Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Vajda, Péter

    2011-01-01

    With the technological evolution of digital acquisition and storage technologies, millions of images and video sequences are captured every day and shared in online services. One way of exploring this huge volume of images and videos is through searching a particular object depicted in images or videos by making use of object duplicate detection. Therefore, need of research on object duplicate detection is validated by several image and video retrieva...

  5. Abstract Objects of Verbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robering, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which these objects represent non-objectual entities in contexts from which they are excluded by type restrictions. Thus these objects are "abstract'' in a functional rather than in an ontological sense: they function ...

  6. Workshop; Goals and objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the objectives of the workshop was to improve awareness of the international illicit nuclear trafficking information exchange mechanism, i.e. IAEA illicit nuclear trafficking database programme, its goals and objectives, reporting requirements and participation. Other objectives are: to enhance awareness of global and regional risk trends and patterns, share knowledge and assessment of regional developments, share methodology of the illicit nuclear trafficking information analysis and discuss ways for improving national and international illicit trafficking information management and coordination

  7. Objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a definition of the electromagnetic chirality of an object and show that it has an upper bound. The upper bound is attained if and only if the object is transparent for fields of one handedness (helicity). Additionally, electromagnetic duality symmetry, i.e. helicity preservation upon scattering, turns out to be a necessary condition for reciprocal scatterers to attain the upper bound. We use these results to provide requirements for the design of such extremal scatterers. The requirements can be formulated as constraints on the polarizability tensors for dipolar scatterers or as material constitutive relations. We also outline two applications for objects of maximum electromagnetic chirality: A twofold resonantly enhanced and background free circular dichroism measurement setup, and angle independent helicity filtering glasses.

  8. Tilblivelselsen af det Ny Nordiske Køkken : Claus Meyer som institutionel entreprenør

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian; Scheuer, John Damm

    2009-01-01

    Denne artikel er en analyse af en organisatorisk transformations indledende fase. Konkret den fase, hvor en institutionel entreprenør undfanger en idé, der bryder med eksisterende logikker i et organisatorisk felt og derved skaber et potentiale for forandring ved at udfordre eksisterende logikker. Analysens gennemgående empiriske forankringspunkt er det gastronomiske felt i Danmark og i Norden og mere specifikt; kokken og entreprenøren Claus Meyers ambitioner om at virkeliggøre en madpolitisk vision. Artiklens teoretiske bidrag er en begrebsliggørelse, præcisering og nuancering af hvordan en institutionel entreprenør kan initiere forandring i et organisatorisk felt, samt en afprøvning af et begrebsapparat opstillet af Svejenova et al. (2007). Analysen knytter an til agens/struktur problematikken. Hvor neo-institutionelle analyser, samt andre sociologisk orienterede analyser enten undereksponerer aktørens skabende sider eller reducerer aktørens aktive skabende sider til "utilitaristisk mekanik", nuancerer artiklen det handlerum, som findes mellem forenklede forestillinger om fri handling og social determinerethed. Dette finder sted via analyse af nogle empiriske observationer, samt via en argumentation for, at humane aktører, der er socialt indlejrede i organisatoriske felter på trods heraf, kan skabe potentialet for forandringer af disse felter og indlejringer.   Udgivelsesdato: December

  9. Tilblivelsen af det ny nordiske køkken : Claus Meyer som institutionel entreprenør

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm; Nickelsen, Niels Christian

    2009-01-01

    Denne artikel er en analyse af en organisatorisk transformations indledende fase. Konkret den fase, hvor en institutionel entreprenør undfanger en idé, der bryder med eksisterende logikker i et organisatorisk felt og derved skaber et potentiale for forandring ved at udfordre eksisterende logikker. Analysens gennemgående empiriske forankringspunt er det gastronomiske felt i Danmark og i Norden og mere specifikt; kokken og entreprenøren Claus Meyers ambitioner om at virkeliggøre en madpolitisk vision. Artiklens teoretiske bidrag er en begrebsliggørelse, præcisering og nuancering af, hvordan en institutionel entreprenør kan initiere forandring i et organisatorisk felt, samt en afprøvning af et begrebsapparat opstillet af Svejenova et al. (2007). Analysen knytter an til agens/struktur problematikken. Hvor neo-institutionelle analyser samt andre sociologisk orienterede analyser enten undereksponerer aktørens skabende sider eller reducerer aktørens aktive skabende sider til "utilitaristisk mekanik" nuancerer artiklen det handlerum, som findes mellem forenklede forestillinger om fri handling og social determinerethed. Dette finder sted via analyse af nogle empiriske observationer, samt via en argumentation for, at humane aktører, der er socialt indlejrede i organisatoriske felter på trods heraf, kan skabe potentialet for forandringer af disse felter og indlejringer.

  10. Benzene destruction in claus process by sulfur dioxide: A reaction kinetics study

    KAUST Repository

    Sinha, Sourab

    2014-07-02

    Benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) are present as contaminants in the H 2S gas stream entering a Claus furnace. The exhaust gases from the furnace enter catalytic units, where BTX form soot particles. These particles clog and deactivate the catalysts. A solution to this problem is BTX oxidation before the gases enter catalyst beds. This work presents a theoretical investigation on benzene oxidation by SO2. Density functional theory is used to develop a detailed mechanism for phenyl radical -SO2 interactions. The mechanism begins with SO2 addition to phenyl radical after overcoming an energy barrier of 6.4 kJ/mol. This addition reaction is highly exothermic, where a reaction energy of 182 kJ/mol is released. The most favorable pathway involves O-S bond breakage, leading to the release of SO. A remarkable similarity between the pathways for phenyl radical oxidation by O2 and its oxidation by SO2 is observed. The reaction rate constants are also evaluated to facilitate process simulations. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  11. Toluene destruction in the Claus process by sulfur dioxide: A reaction kinetics study

    KAUST Repository

    Sinha, Sourab

    2014-10-22

    The presence of aromatics such as benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) as contaminants in the H2S gas stream entering Claus sulfur recovery units has a detrimental effect on catalytic reactors, where BTX forms soot particles and clogs and deactivates the catalysts. BTX oxidation, before they enter catalyst beds, can solve this problem. A theoretical investigation is presented on toluene oxidation by SO2. Density functional theory is used to study toluene radical (benzyl, o-methylphenyl, m-methylphenyl, and p-methylphenyl)-SO2 interactions. The mechanism begins with SO2 addition on the radical through one of the O atoms rather than the S atom. This exothermic reaction involves energy barriers of 4.8-6.1 kJ/mol for different toluene radicals. Thereafter, O-S bond scission takes place to release SO. The reaction rate constants are evaluated to facilitate process simulations. Among four toluene radicals, the resonantly stabilized benzyl radical exhibited lowest SO2 addition rate. A remarkable similarity between toluene oxidation by O2 and by SO2 is observed.

  12. WordNet Ontology Based Query Reformulation and Optimization using Disjunctive Clause Elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Amshakala

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Data integration systems attempt to provide users with seamless and flexible access to information from multiple autonomous, distributed and heterogeneous data sources through a unified query interface. Besides data are continuously growing, maintained by different organizations and managed autonomously,querying data from heterogeneous data sources faces new challenges. As data integration has been automated, the ambiguity in concept interpretation also known as semantic heterogeneity has become oneof the main obstacles to this process. Introduction of the Semantic Web Vision [5] and the shift towards machine-understandable web resources have underscored the importance of automatic semantic integration of data elements. Ontologies[7] have been widely accepted as the model of choice for modeling heterogeneous data sources by various communities including the areas of databases, Knowledge representation and Information retrieval. WordNet ontology[3] is a large lexical database that is used in many schema matching algorithms to match schemas based on the semantics of attributes. In this paper ontology based semantic query reformulation technique is followed to improve the recall of the query. The reformulated query is optimized by removing disjunctive clauses in the query to reduce the computational cost of the semantic query execution. Experimental results show that the proposed optimization technique improves recall with minimal execution time.

  13. Effect of oxygen enrichment in air on acid gas combustion under Claus conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Salisu

    2013-09-01

    Results are presented to examine the combustion of acid gas (H2S and CO2) in hydrogen-fueled flames using a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen under Claus conditions (? = 3). Specifically the effect of oxygen enrichment in the above flames is examined. The compositions of acid gas examined are100% H2S and 50% H2S/50% CO2 with different percentages of oxygen enrichment (0%, 19.3% and 69.3%) in the oxygen/nitrogen mixtures. The results revealed that combustion of acid gas formed SO2 wherein the mole fraction of SO2 increased to an asymptotic value at all the oxygen concentrations examined. In addition, increase in oxygen enrichment of the air resulted in increased amounts of SO2 rather than the formation of more desirable elemental sulfur. In case of 50% H2S/50% CO2 acid gas, carbon monoxide mole fraction increased with oxygen enrichment which is an indicator to the availability of additional amounts of oxygen into the reaction pool. This gas mixture resulted in the formation of other sulfurous–carbonaceous compounds (COS and CS2) due to the presence of carbon monoxide. The results showed that the rate of COS formation increased with oxygen enrichment due to the availability of higher amounts of CO while that of CS2 reduced. The global reactions responsible for this observed phenomenon are presented.

  14. Reversing the Hierarchy of Priorities in EU-Mediterranean Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Cassarino, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Respect for human rights and democratic principles have been regularly cited as an “essential element” of cooperation and relations between the European Union (EU) and non-EU countries in the Mediterranean. Since the 1990s onwards, numerous communications from the European Commission (EC) have stressed the need to integrate the so-called “essential-element” clause into the various agreements concluded with Mediterranean non-EU countries. When concluding their association agreements with the ...

  15. Jelly Views: Extending Relational Database Systems toward Deductive Database Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Wojnicki

    2004-01-01

    This paper regards the Jelly View technology, which provides a new, practical methodology for knowledge decomposition, storage, and retrieval within Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS). Intensional Knowledge clauses (rules) are decomposed and stored in the RDBMS founding reusable components. The results of the rule-based processing are visible as regular views, accessible through SQL. From the end-user point of view the processing capability becomes unlimited (arbitrarily complex q...

  16. Programs as Data Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second Symposium on Programs as Data Objects, PADO 2001, held in Aarhus, Denmark, in May 2001. The 14 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 30 submissions. Various aspects of looking at programs as data objects are covered from the point of view of program analysis, program transformation, computational complexity, etc.

  17. Uniqueness of Intentional Objects.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hvorecký, Juraj

    Bratislava : Filozofický ústav SAV, 2006, s. 179-188 ISBN 80-967225-6-5. [Sémantika verzus pragmatika - kde sú hranice?. Stará Lesná ve Vysokých Tatrách (SK), 12.09.2005-14.09.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : intentional object * emotions * formal object Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  18. Face as multimedia object

    OpenAIRE

    DiPaola, Steve; Arya, Ali

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes the Face Multimedia Object (FMO), and iFACE as a framework for implementing the face object within multimedia systems. FMO encapsulates all the functionality and data required for face animation. iFACE implements FMO and provides necessary interfaces for a variety of applications in order to access FMO services.

  19. Querying moving objects detected by sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bestehorn, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Declarative query interfaces to Sensor Networks (SN) have become a commodity. These interfaces allow access to SN deployed for collecting data using relational queries. However, SN are not confined to data collection, but may track object movement, e.g., wildlife observation or traffic monitoring. While rational approaches are well suited for data collection, research on ""Moving Object Databases"" (MOD) has shown that relational operators are unsuitable to express information needs on object movement, i.e., spatio-temporal queries. ""Querying Moving Objects Detected by Sensor Networks"" studi

  20. Safety objectives for 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    This is the third year in which the CERN Management has presented annual safety objectives for the Organization, the “HSE Objectives”.   The HSE objectives for 2014, which were announced by the Director-General at his traditional New Year’s address to the staff and were presented at the first Enlarged Directorate meeting of the year, have been drawn up and agreed in close collaboration between the DSOs, the HSE Unit and the DG himself. From safety in the workplace to radiation and environmental protection, the document emphasises that “Safety is a priority for CERN” and that safety policy is a key element in how the Organization is run. And, like all policies, it generates objectives that “serve as a general framework for action”. The HSE objectives are broken down into the following fields: occupational health and safety on sites and in the workplace, radiation protection, radiation safety, environmental protection, emerge...