WorldWideScience
1

Effects of Local and Global Context on Processing Sentences with Subject and Object Relative Clauses  

Science.gov (United States)

An eye tracking study investigated the effects of local and global discourse context on the processing of subject and object relative clauses, whereby the contexts favored either a subject relative clause interpretation or an object relative clause interpretation. The fixation data replicated previous studies showing that object relative clause

Yang, Fang; Mo, Lun; Louwerse, Max M.

2013-01-01

2

Cláusulas relativas con duplicación del objeto (Relative clauses with duplicated object  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El presente trabajo se ocupa del análisis de la variación que se registra en los siguientes ejemplos: (1 “una concepción que no la tiene consciente” versus (2 “una concepción que no tiene consciente”. El ejemplo (1 presenta en la cláusula relativa, a diferencia de (2, un clítico (llamado “reasuntivo” o “pleonástico” por otros autores que retoma de manera explícita el antecedente. Se propone que el hablante señala el antecedente nuevamente con el clítico cuando ha colocado un tema y todavía no está seguro de lo que quiere decir al respecto, porque va a introducir información nueva y/o producir algún contraste. En esos casos el hablante redistribuye la progresión Tema/Rema de la cláusula relativa, recreando la distribución de la información propia de la oración. Sobre un cuerpo de datos auténticos se hace un análisis cuantitativo y cualitativo. (This paper analyzes the variation between the following sentences: (1 “una concepción que no la tiene consciente” and (2 “una concepción que no tiene consciente”. Case (1, unlike (2, shows a relative clause with a clitic (called “reassumptive” or “pleonastic” that explicitly retrieves the antecedent. We propose the speaker reiterates the antecedent with the clitic, when having established the theme, he is not yet sure about what he wants to say, because he intends to introduce new information, or because he intends to produce a contrast. In those cases, the speaker distributes again the Theme/Rheme progression of the relative clause recreating the informative progression of a sentence. We make a quantitative and qualitative analysis of authentic data.

Claudia Borzi

2009-06-01

3

Processing relative clauses in supportive contexts  

OpenAIRE

Results from two self-paced reading experiments in English are reported in which subject- and object-extracted relative clauses (SRCs and ORCs, respectively) were presented in contexts that support both types of relative clauses (RCs). Object-extracted versions were read more slowly than subject-extracted versions across both experiments. These results are not consistent with a decay-based working memory account of dependency formation where the amount of decay is a function of the number of ...

Fedorenko, Evelina G.; Piantadosi, Steven Thomas; Gibson, Edward A.

2011-01-01

4

Relative Clause Processing in Mandarin: Evidence from the Maze Task  

Science.gov (United States)

Contradictory results have been found in Chinese as to whether subject relative clauses are easier to process than object relative clauses. One major disagreement concerns the region where the difficulty arises. In this study, a "maze" task was used to localise processing difficulty by requiring participants to make a choice between two…

Qiao, Xiaomei; Shen, Liyao; Forster, Kenneth

2012-01-01

5

Taiwanese EFL Learners’ English Relative Clauses Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Relative clause processing in Chinese is different from English. However, Chinese EFL learners face difficulty when they produce relative clauses. In order to help EFL learners be familiar with their writing skills and ease their anxiety, making a clear concept is necessary. Therefore, contrastive analysis (CA, a rule of a comparison between Chinese and English relative clauses is employed in this study. In the experiment, the treatment group had a positive evaluation of the contrastive analysis approach. Students felt that CA approach could really help them learn English clauses. They were willing to apply the method in the learning procedure. In addition, EFL learners also suggested that EFL teachers need to provide more illustrations and interpretations about the CA approach in the learning process.

Ching-Ying Lin

2014-07-01

6

Rethinking Child Difficulty: The Effect of NP Type on Children's Processing of Relative Clauses in Hebrew  

Science.gov (United States)

Children find object relative clauses difficult. They show poor comprehension that lags behind production into their fifth year. This finding has shaped models of relative clause acquisition, with appeals to processing heuristics or syntactic preferences to explain why object relatives are more difficult than subject relatives. Two studies here…

Arnon, Inbal

2010-01-01

7

A lexical-functional analysis of Swahili relative clauses  

OpenAIRE

After an overview of Swahili's linguistic situation and a basic description of its nominal morphology, verbal morphology, and syntax, I focus on a description of relative clauses. The two basic relative clause formation strategies (the first utilizing the '-o of Reference' as a verbal infix, and the second involving 'amba-') are examined, along with their use in various semantic contexts. I then examine canonical examples of relative clauses from the literature and from corpora in order to hi...

Lipps, Jonathan; Dalrymple, Mary

2011-01-01

8

The Acquisition of Relative Clauses by Tamil Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports the findings of a cross-sectional study that investigated the acquisition of relative clauses by 27 Tamil-speaking children who ranged in age from 2 years and 11 months to 6 years and 6 months. A picture-cued production task was used to elicit relative clauses from the child subjects. (Author/VWL)

Lakshmanan, Usha

2000-01-01

9

The acquisition of German relative clauses: A case study  

OpenAIRE

This paper investigates the development of relative clauses in the speech of one German-speaking child aged 2;0 to 5;0. The earliest relative clauses we found in the data occur in topicalization constructions that are only a little different from simple sentences: they contain a single proposition, express the actor prior to other participants, assert new information and often occur with main-clause word order. In the course of the development, more complex relative constructions emerge, in w...

Brandt, Silke; Diessel, Holger; Tomasello, Michael

2008-01-01

10

48 CFR 952.211 - Clauses related to contract delivery or performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Clauses related to contract delivery or performance. 952.211 Section...System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS...SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of...contract delivery or...

2010-10-01

11

The acquisition of relative clauses in spontaneous child speech in Mandarin Chinese.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT This study investigates the developmental trajectory of relative clauses (RCs) in Mandarin-learning children's speech. We analyze the spontaneous production of RCs by four monolingual Mandarin-learning children (0;11 to 3;5) and their input from a longitudinal naturalistic speech corpus (Min, 1994). The results reveal that in terms of the syntactic role of the head noun in the matrix clause, isolated noun phrase RCs dominate, followed by those that modify the subject or object of the matrix clauses and predicate nominal relatives. This pattern differs from those observed in English (Diessel & Tomasello, 2000), German (Brandt, Diessel & Tomasello, 2008), and Japanese (Ozeki & Shirai, 2007). Regarding the syntactic role of the head noun inside the RC (i.e. subject, object, or oblique relatives), the early RCs are dominated by object relatives. This pattern also differs from those observed in English and Japanese. We propose a multifactorial usage-based learning account for the developmental patterns. PMID:24650755

Chen, Jidong; Shirai, Yasuhiro

2015-03-01

12

Elicited Production of Relative Clauses in Children with Williams Syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

Relative clauses have been implicated alternately as a strength and a weakness in the language of people with Williams Syndrome (WS). To clarify the facts, an elicited production test was administered to 10 people with WS (age 10-16 years), 10 typically developing children (age 4-7 years), and 12 typically developing adults. Nearly every WS…

Zukowski, Andrea

2009-01-01

13

Processing relative clauses by Hungarian typically developing children  

OpenAIRE

Hungarian is a language with morphological case marking and relatively free word order. These typological characteristics make it a good ground for testing the crosslinguistic validity of theories on processing sentences with relative clauses. Our study focussed on effects of structural factors and processing capacity. We tested 43 typically developing children in two age groups (ages of 4;11–7;2 and 8;2–11;4) in an act-out task. Differences in comprehension difficulty between different w...

Kas, Bence; Luka?cs, A?gnes

2012-01-01

14

Relative clause reading in hearing impairment: different profiles of syntactic impairment  

OpenAIRE

Children with hearing impairment show difficulties in sentences derived by Wh-movement, such as relative clauses and Wh-questions. This study examines the nature of this deficit in 48 hearing impaired children aged 9–12 years and 38 hearing controls. The task involved reading aloud and paraphrasing of object relatives that include a noun-verb heterophonic homograph. The correct pronunciation of the homograph in these sentences depended upon the correct construction of the syntactic structur...

Szterman, Ronit; Friedmann, Naama

2014-01-01

15

Number Dissimilarities Facilitate the Comprehension of Relative Clauses in Children with (Grammatical) Speci?c Language Impairment  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates whether number dissimilarities on subject and object DPs facilitate the comprehension of subject- and object-extracted centre-embedded relative clauses in children with Grammatical Specific Language Impairment (G-SLI). We compared the performance of a group of English-speaking children with G-SLI (mean age: 12;11) with that…

Adani, Flavia; Forgiarini, Matteo; Guasti, Maria Teresa; Van Der Lely, Heather K. J.

2014-01-01

16

Profiling relative clause constructions in children with specific language impairment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study highlights the importance of error analysis in providing a comprehensive profile of an individual's grammatical ability with regard to relative clause (RC) constructions. The aim was to identify error patterns in the production of RCs by English-speaking, school-aged children with specific language impairment (SLI) and to relate them to their level of competence with these structures. Children with SLI (mean age?=?6;10, n?=?32) and two control groups - a typically developing group matched for age (mean age?=?6;11, n?=?32) and a younger typically developing group (mean age?=?4;9, n?=?20), repeated sentences containing RCs that represented a range of syntactic roles. Data are presented on three distinct error patterns - the provision of simple sentences, obligatory relativizer omission and RC conversions. Each is related to the level of competence on RCs that each child has achieved. PMID:24521402

Frizelle, Pauline; Fletcher, Paul

2014-06-01

17

Second Language Relative Clause Acquisition: An Examination of Cross-Linguistic Influences  

Science.gov (United States)

English is a Right Branching Direction (RBD) language in which relative clauses appear to the right of the head noun. In contrast, Chinese primarily relies on a Left Branching Direction (LBD) in which relative clauses premodify the head. Many studies have provided evidence that the differences in principal branching directions between the two…

Chang, Yuh-Fang

2004-01-01

18

FDA’s Contradictory Decisions Related to the Delaney Clause  

OpenAIRE

This paper will focus on FDA regulation under the Delaney Clause, and particularly regulations that have led to contradictory results. It first will examine the history and basic requirements of the Delaney Clause. It next will discuss cancer: statistics regarding the frequency, types, and causes of cancer. Then it will examine some foods and food additives that have been associated with some level of carcinogenicity and how FDA has handled them. It will conclude by discussing the inhere...

Klimko, Katheryn

2011-01-01

19

48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free...environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and...

2010-10-01

20

Restrictive relative clauses in Balochi and the marking of the antecedent : linguistic influence from Persian?  

OpenAIRE

An interesting morphosyntactic feature that has been observed in e.g. New Persian and Balochi is that the same suffix that marks indefinite restrictive selection out of a generic unit or a plurality (the so-called y?-ye va?dat) is also attached to head nouns of restrictive relative clauses. The purpose of the article is to investigate whether an extension of the use of the suffix denoting indefinite selection to mark antecedents of restrictive relative clauses similar to the one observed i...

Jahani, Carina

2008-01-01

21

The order of clauses  

OpenAIRE

The position of a dependant consecutive clause in relation to the main clause, or in other words, the possibility of their inversion, is one of those frequently asked questions in Croatian linguistics that is considered answered, although nobody has ever studied it properly and systematically. It is unanimously and without exception considered that the order of clauses in some complex sentences (as in those expressing consequence) main clause – subordinate clause is fixed and non-invertible...

Vukojevic?, Luka

2011-01-01

22

Transfer in L3 Sentence Processing: Evidence from Relative Clause Attachment Ambiguities  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigates transfer effects in two groups of German learners of French for ambiguous relative clause (RC) constructions. The first learner group had started to learn French before English, whereas the second group had started to learn English before French. The RC attachment ambiguity is interesting to study possible transfer…

Rah, Anne

2010-01-01

23

Rethinking the Acquisition of Relative Clauses in Italian: Towards a Grammatically Based Account  

Science.gov (United States)

In a number of studies, the acquisition of restrictive relative clauses (RCs) shows contrasting findings regarding comprehension and production, with the former usually delayed up to the age of five. As previously claimed in the literature, we suggest that this delay is a task artifact and we present a new procedure for the assessment of…

Adani, Flavia

2011-01-01

24

The Effect of Mechanical and Meaningful Production of Output on Learning English Relative Clauses  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined the effectiveness of mechanical and meaningful production of output on the learning of English relative clauses by Iranian EFL learners. The study involved two groups of learners (N = 36) who completed a pre-test, three activities and a post-test over an 8-week period. The collaborative dialogue of the participants was…

Abadikhah, Shirin

2012-01-01

25

Some modifications of temporal relation in the sentence with the temporal clause  

OpenAIRE

The subject matter of this paper is the modification of temporal relation in the complex sentence with the temporal clause. At the functional different Serbian language corpus the author notices the next types of modified temporality: excepted locational simultaneity complete or partial, and excepted locationalorientational posteriority formalized by the structure V SAMO/JEDINO/OSIM/SEM/IZUZEV(ONDA) KAD VSub, and excepted locational simultaneity/excepted te...

Antoni? Ivana N.

2013-01-01

26

WH-extractions and relative clauses in Brazilian Portuguese  

OpenAIRE

This paper aims to describe and explain WH-extraction patterns out of island contexts in Brazilian Portuguese (BP), by means of the principles established by Generative Theory. I claim that BP uses a strategy for the extraction of subjects which involves a special case of Agreement. Extractions out of relative islands are possible when the extracted WH-phrase ends up in the specifier position of the higher CP and from there it behaves as the subject of the predication. The subject-predicate r...

Negra?o, Esmeralda Vailati

2000-01-01

27

On L2 Grammar and Processing: The Case of Oblique Relative Clauses and the Null-Prep Phenomenon  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation investigates the acquisition of oblique relative clauses in L2 Spanish by English and Moroccan Arabic speakers in order to understand the role of previous linguistic knowledge and its interaction with Universal Grammar on the one hand, and the relationship between grammatical knowledge and its use in real-time, on the other hand.…

Perpinan-Hinarejos, Silvia

2010-01-01

28

Visualizing abstract objects and relations  

CERN Document Server

Pictorial representations are very useful for humans to understand complicated relations or structures. This is the reason that the user interface of information systems is strongly required to visualize many kinds of information in a wide variety of graphical forms. At present, however, only some very specialized visualization techniques have been developed probably because the generality in the visualization has not been appreciated correctly. This book presents a visualization framework for translating abstract objects and relations, typically represented in textual forms, into pictorial re

Kamada, Tomihisa

1989-01-01

29

Object relations in Harry Potter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Good fiction helps children address their emotional dilemmas by evoking repressed content, and offering strategies and meaningful values that help them work towards resolutions. Because certain fundamental conflicts continue to be revisited and reworked throughout adulthood, it follows that masterful children's literature might enthrall adults as well. Given the extraordinary, worldwide success of the Harry Potter stories with both children and adults, it might be inferred that they, indeed, are among such literature. Common object relations themes, as well as other intrapsychic processes, are presented in such an imaginative and resonant way that the unconscious is readily engaged. The character of Harry Potter, specifically, embodies such universal (repressed) torments as the agony of destroying and losing the mother; the ominous perception of good and bad objects at war within the self; and the earnest reparative efforts offered to save the self from eternal separation from the beloved other. PMID:14535615

Lake, Suzanne

2003-01-01

30

The performance of relational and object-relational SQL queries when using Oracle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents a study in which the performance of several queries involving GROUP BY clause, sub-queries (using IN and EXISTS clauses and loins are measured and compared by means of specific queries. The behaviour of relational and oblect-relational models is also shown.

Francisco Javier Moreno Arboleda

2010-07-01

31

As relativas que são fáceis na aquisição do português brasileiro The acquisition of relative clauses in Brazilian portuguese  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A aquisição das orações relativas por duas crianças brasileiras (entre os 2;0 e os 5;0 de idade aprendendo o Português Brasileiro como primeira língua é discutida, com o objetivo de descrever e explicar as primeiras relativas produzidas pelos sujeitos de estudos naturalistas, observacionais, à luz da teoria da sintaxe gerativa. Os resultados mostram que ao redor dos 3;0: a a criança começa a construir as relativas como modificadoras do N; b as clivadas antecedem a aquisição das relativas, e c as primeiras relativas ilustram a estratégia vernacular de relativização do Português Brasileiro já identificada por outros estudos com dados de adultos.The acquisition of Portuguese by two Brazilian children (aged 2;0 -5;0 is discussed in an attempt to describe and explain the first relative clauses produced in naturalistic, observational studies, according to the framework of generative syntax theory. The results show that at around 3;0: a the child starts to deal with relative clauses as modifiers of N; b cleft sentences appear before relative clauses, and c the first relatives confirm the prevalence of the vernacular strategy of relativization in Brazilian Portuguese identified by other studies based on adult data.

Maria Cecília PERRONI

2001-01-01

32

As relativas que são fáceis na aquisição do português brasileiro / The acquisition of relative clauses in Brazilian portuguese  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A aquisição das orações relativas por duas crianças brasileiras (entre os 2;0 e os 5;0 de idade) aprendendo o Português Brasileiro como primeira língua é discutida, com o objetivo de descrever e explicar as primeiras relativas produzidas pelos sujeitos de estudos naturalistas, observacionais, à luz [...] da teoria da sintaxe gerativa. Os resultados mostram que ao redor dos 3;0: a) a criança começa a construir as relativas como modificadoras do N; b) as clivadas antecedem a aquisição das relativas, e c) as primeiras relativas ilustram a estratégia vernacular de relativização do Português Brasileiro já identificada por outros estudos com dados de adultos. Abstract in english The acquisition of Portuguese by two Brazilian children (aged 2;0 -5;0) is discussed in an attempt to describe and explain the first relative clauses produced in naturalistic, observational studies, according to the framework of generative syntax theory. The results show that at around 3;0: a) the c [...] hild starts to deal with relative clauses as modifiers of N; b) cleft sentences appear before relative clauses, and c) the first relatives confirm the prevalence of the vernacular strategy of relativization in Brazilian Portuguese identified by other studies based on adult data.

Maria Cecília, PERRONI.

33

Some modifications of temporal relation in the sentence with the temporal clause  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is the modification of temporal relation in the complex sentence with the temporal clause. At the functional different Serbian language corpus the author notices the next types of modified temporality: excepted locational simultaneity complete or partial, and excepted locationalorientational posteriority formalized by the structure V SAMO/JEDINO/OSIM/SEM/IZUZEV(ONDA KAD VSub, and excepted locational simultaneity/excepted terminativity formalized by the structure V SAMO DOK (Neg VSub; sutuational locational simultaneity complete or partial formalized by the structure V U SITUACIJI / U SLU?AJU KAD VSub, with the posibility to be exceptivly modified in the structure V IZUZEV U SITUACIJI / U SLU?AJU KAD VSub; situational-concessive locational simultaneity complete or partial formalized by the structure V (?AK I (ONDA KAD VSub; situational-conditional locational-orientational posteriority formalized by the structure V TEK (ONDA KAD VSub, and situational-conditional orientational posteriority formalized by the structure V TEK POŠTO VSub or V TEK NAKON ŠTO VSub and situational-conditional orientational quantified posteriority formalized by the structure V Quant TEK POŠTO VSub, and finaly situational-conditional terminativity formalized by the structure (Neg V SVE DOK Neg VSub. It can ocure sporadically supstitutiv temporality formalized by the structure V DetTemp (UMESTO KAD VSub, and consecutive-adversative temporality formalized by the structure KAD VSub A (ONDA V. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178004: Sintaksi?ka, semanti?ka i pragmati?ka istraživanja standardnog srpskog jezika

Antoni? Ivana N.

2013-01-01

34

Fundamentals of Object Databases Object-Oriented and Object-Relational Design  

CERN Document Server

Object-oriented databases were originally developed as an alternative to relational database technology for the representation, storage, and access of non-traditional data forms that were increasingly found in advanced applications of database technology. After much debate regarding object-oriented versus relational database technology, object-oriented extensions were eventually incorporated into relational technology to create object-relational databases. Both object-oriented databases and object-relational databases, collectively known as object databases, provide inherent support for object

Dietrich, Suzanne

2010-01-01

35

Problems in Relational Object Oriented Requirement Engineering  

OpenAIRE

The goal of relational object oriented requirement engineering is to achieve higher quality and productivity with lower cost. There are so many problems related to relational object oriented requirement engineering. In this paper, we present a review of the various problematic issues specifically in requirements engineering of object oriented concepts and we mention some existing research attempts to deal with such issues

Anand Mahajan

2012-01-01

36

Bulk oil clauses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Institute Bulk Oil Clauses produced by the London market and the American SP-13c Clauses are examined in detail in this article. The duration and perils covered are discussed, and exclusions, adjustment clause 15 of the Institute Bulk Oil Clauses, Institute War Clauses (Cargo), and Institute Strikes Clauses (Bulk Oil) are outlined. (UK)

37

Development of Relativization in Korean as a Foreign Language: The Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy in Head-Internal and Head-External Relative Clauses  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines how Keenan and Comrie's (1977) noun phrase accessibility hierarchy (NPAH) intersects with the typological characteristics of Korean in the acquisition of relative clauses (RCs). Korean has two types of RC constructions: head-external and head-internal. The head-external relative has its head to the right of the RC, whereas the…

Jeon, K. Seon; Kim, Hae-Young

2007-01-01

38

The complex clause in Boruca  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the complex clause in Boruca, a Chibchan language once spoken in the southern territories on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The present study concentrates on the behavior of complex clauses, following a major distinction between paratactic and hypotactic constructions. Paratactic constructions are divided into asyndetic and syndetic constructions. The latter are quite frequent and it is common to find the syndetons: mang, ní, ihchí and iné in the combination of sentences in regular speech. Hypotactic constructions also have asyndetic and syndetic constructions usually functioning as object complements. There is also evidence for reported speech, indirect questions and adverbial clauses (classified at least into seven different types.

Castro Damaris

2010-12-01

39

WH-extractions and relative clauses in Brazilian Portuguese Extrações-WH e orações relativas no português brasileiro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to describe and explain WH-extraction patterns out of island contexts in Brazilian Portuguese (BP, by means of the principles established by Generative Theory. I claim that BP uses a strategy for the extraction of subjects which involves a special case of Agreement. Extractions out of relative islands are possible when the extracted WH-phrase ends up in the specifier position of the higher CP and from there it behaves as the subject of the predication. The subject-predicate relationship established under agreement makes Comp a proper governor for traces in subject position under its scope. The analysis proposed makes a distinction between two processes of relative clause formation. One in which que is an operator that transforms sentences into predicates and sits in the Comp position of a CP whose specifier can be occupied by a QP functioning as the subject of the predication. The other, in which que is a WH-word, traditionally treated as a pronoun, occupying the specifier position of a QP and introducing relative clauses as we know them.Este artigo tem por objetivo descrever e buscar uma explicação para o comportamento de extrações de sintagmas QU-- do português brasileiro (PB para fora de contextos que ficaram conhecidos pelo nome de ilhas, utilizando os princípios da Teoria Gerativa que explicam as propriedades dessas construções nesta e em outras línguas. Argumenta-se que o PB utiliza uma versão da estratégia de concordância em CP, estabelecida por meio de uma relação de predicação, para a extração de sintagmas QU-- a partir da posição de sujeito. A análise proposta para essas extrações evidenciou a existência de dois processos sintáticos diferenciados na construção das orações relativas. Um em que que é um operador que transforma sentenças em predicados, ocupa a posição de núcleo de CP em cujo especificador pode-se encontrar o sintagma que funciona como sujeito da predicação. Outro em que que é um elemento QU--, o que tradicionalmente poderia ser caracterizado como um pronome, que ocupa a posição de especificador de um sintagma quantificado, e introduz as relativas tal como tradicionalmente descritas.

Esmeralda Vailati NEGRÃO

2000-01-01

40

WH-extractions and relative clauses in Brazilian Portuguese / Extrações-WH e orações relativas no português brasileiro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este artigo tem por objetivo descrever e buscar uma explicação para o comportamento de extrações de sintagmas QU-- do português brasileiro (PB) para fora de contextos que ficaram conhecidos pelo nome de ilhas, utilizando os princípios da Teoria Gerativa que explicam as propriedades dessas construçõe [...] s nesta e em outras línguas. Argumenta-se que o PB utiliza uma versão da estratégia de concordância em CP, estabelecida por meio de uma relação de predicação, para a extração de sintagmas QU-- a partir da posição de sujeito. A análise proposta para essas extrações evidenciou a existência de dois processos sintáticos diferenciados na construção das orações relativas. Um em que que é um operador que transforma sentenças em predicados, ocupa a posição de núcleo de CP em cujo especificador pode-se encontrar o sintagma que funciona como sujeito da predicação. Outro em que que é um elemento QU--, o que tradicionalmente poderia ser caracterizado como um pronome, que ocupa a posição de especificador de um sintagma quantificado, e introduz as relativas tal como tradicionalmente descritas. Abstract in english This paper aims to describe and explain WH-extraction patterns out of island contexts in Brazilian Portuguese (BP), by means of the principles established by Generative Theory. I claim that BP uses a strategy for the extraction of subjects which involves a special case of Agreement. Extractions out [...] of relative islands are possible when the extracted WH-phrase ends up in the specifier position of the higher CP and from there it behaves as the subject of the predication. The subject-predicate relationship established under agreement makes Comp a proper governor for traces in subject position under its scope. The analysis proposed makes a distinction between two processes of relative clause formation. One in which que is an operator that transforms sentences into predicates and sits in the Comp position of a CP whose specifier can be occupied by a QP functioning as the subject of the predication. The other, in which que is a WH-word, traditionally treated as a pronoun, occupying the specifier position of a QP and introducing relative clauses as we know them.

Esmeralda Vailati, NEGRÃO.

41

Cláusulas relativas con duplicación del objeto (Relative clauses with duplicated object)  

OpenAIRE

El presente trabajo se ocupa del análisis de la variación que se registra en los siguientes ejemplos: (1) “una concepción que no la tiene consciente” versus (2) “una concepción que no tiene consciente”. El ejemplo (1) presenta en la cláusula relativa, a diferencia de (2), un clítico (llamado “reasuntivo” o “pleonástico” por otros autores) que retoma de manera explícita el antecedente. Se propone que el hablante señala el antecedente nuevamente con el clítico cuando h...

Claudia Borzi; Mabel Morano

2009-01-01

42

Desempeño de consultas SQL relacionales y objeto-relacionales en Oracle / The performance of relational and object-relational SQL queries when using Oracle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo se muestra por medio de consultas específicas el comportamiento del modelo relacional y objeto-relacional, y se presenta así un estudio en el que se mide y a la vez se compara la eficiencia (tiempo, uso de recursos del sistema) de operaciones que involucran cláusulas GROUP BY, subco [...] nsultas (con las cláusulas IN y EXISTS), y reuniones (joins). Abstract in english This article presents a study in which the performance of several queries involving GROUP BY clause, sub-queries (using IN and EXISTS clauses) and joins are measured and compared by means of specific queries. The behaviour of relational and object-relational models is also shown. [...

Francisco Javier, Moreno; Guillermo, Ospina Romero; Rafael, Larios Restrepo.

2005-12-01

43

48 CFR 247.270-4 - Contract clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 247.270-4 Section 247.270-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...Transportation or for Transportation-Related Services 247.270-4 Contract clauses. Use the...

2010-10-01

44

Saving clauses in international contracts concerning the nuclear fuel cycle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper concerns saving clauses in international contracts relating to the fuel cycle. It deals in particular with economic upheavals affecting those contracts and the usual clauses to protect the financial interests of the co-contractors. The paper also examines such economic upheavals in the context of clauses intended to preserve the contracts. (NEA)

45

A COMPARISON OF THE TURKIC TYPE RELATIVE CLAUSE TYPOLOGY WITH JAPANESE, KOREAN AND HUNGRAIAN TYPOLOGIES
TÜRK D?L? SIFAT-F??LL? YAPI T?POLOJ?S?N?N JAPON, KORE VE MACAR T?POLOJ?LER? ?LE KAR?ILA?TIRILMASI
 

OpenAIRE

In this present study, we dealt with relative clause typologies in the world languages in general and Turkic Type Relative Clause typology in particular. By doing this, we compared Turkish relative clause construction with Japanese, Korean and Hungarian ones, which are all considered in Uralic and Altaic Language Family. In doing this, we made use of Chomskian theories called Generative-Transformational Grammar and Governement and Binding Thoery. As is known, Chomsky declared that all languag...

Karabulut, Ferhat; Ulutas?, I?smail

2011-01-01

46

Learning in Organizations - an Object Relations Perspective  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Learning in organizations – an object relations perspective As a researcher with a primary interest in the study of learning environments in organizations I have conducted a number of empirical research projects primarily concerning work places in the state sector. The aim of the research has been to qualify the understanding of learning conditions in working life and to develop a multifaceted theoretical and methodological basis for the analysis focussing on action- and behaviour, symbolic interaction and discourse (Andersen & Andersen 2007; Andersen & Trojaborg 2007). The aim of this paper is to supplement this analytical basis with an analysis based on psychoanalytical theory. I shall present and clarify some theoretical and methodological ideas about the discovery and understanding of psychodynamic defence mechanisms in organizations. My intention is to achieve a better understanding of organizations as learning environments for the employees. Theoretically I draw on object relations theory. Within this tradition the theoretical point of departure is twofold: the study of work conditions in hospitals carried out by Menzies (1975) and Hinschelwood & Skogstad (2000). With regard to the first mentioned, Menzies combines two types of analysis. In the first type she understands the development of work organizations as the development of psycho-social defence systems. Psycho-social defence systems are composed of many specific defence techniques that are developed by the staff during a long period of time as institutionalized work practices. In the second type of analysis she reflects on the different defence techniques from a psychoanalytical theoretical point of view: Which kind of unconscious ‘rationality’ do they possess, which consequences do they have for the quality of work and which positive and negative impact do they have with respect to the staff itself? With regard to Hinschelwood & Skogstad (2000) they are introduced to further develop and contrast Menzies’ theoretical ideas. Instead of only emphasizing the connection between the work organization and the defence techniques applied unconsciously by the staff, Hinschelwood & Skogstad also emphasize the need to understand how the organizational culture is co-produced by psychodynamic defence mechanisms, how the defence techniques are underpinned by defensive myths and how the defence mechanisms contribute to the creation of specific atmospheres in organizations. In the empirical part of the paper I shall combine my inspiration from Menzies (defence systems and defence techniques) with my inspiration from Hinschelwood & Skogstad (defensive myths and specific atmospheres) to demonstrate different aspects of psycho-social defence that may be elicited by applying different perspectives of understanding and different empirical methods. The case for the empirical analyses will be the learning environment amongst teachers at HTX, a general and technical degree for students in their last three years of high school. The case study aims to uncover the social learning environment in an organization marked by extensive organizational and pedagogical transformation processes. I conclude the paper by discussing some advantages and disadvantages of the psychoanalytical organizational research tradition focussing on the empirical analysis of learning environments in contrast to other theoretical and methodological paradigms. References Andersen, A. S. & Andersen, V. (2007): Learning Environments for Academic Employees: Possibilities and Hurdles. Human Ressource Development Review (HRDR). Andersen, A. S. & Trojaborg, R. S. (2007). Life History and Learning in Working Life. In West, L.; Alheit, P.; Andersen, A. S. & Merrill, B. (eds.), Using Biographical and Life History Approaches in the Study of Adult and Lifelong Learning: European Perspectives. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang – Europäischer Verlag der Wissenschaften. Hinshelwood, R. D. & Skogstad, W. (2000),Observing Organisations – Anxiety, defence and culture in health care. Great Britain: Routledge. Menzies, I.

Andersen, Anders Siig

47

Assessing Object Relations and Social Cognitive Correlates of Eating Disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigated relation between eating disorder and disturbances in object relations and cognitive structure in undergraduate female college students (n=183). Results indicated that eating disorder was predicted by measures of object relations disturbance and cognitive structure. (Author/ABL)

Heesacker, Roberta S.; Neimeyer, Greg J.

1990-01-01

48

Covered Clause Elimination  

CERN Document Server

Generalizing the novel clause elimination procedures developed in [M. Heule, M. J\\"arvisalo, and A. Biere. Clause elimination procedures for CNF formulas. In Proc. LPAR-17, volume 6397 of LNCS, pages 357-371. Springer, 2010.], we introduce explicit (CCE), hidden (HCCE), and asymmetric (ACCE) variants of a procedure that eliminates covered clauses from CNF formulas. We show that these procedures are more effective in reducing CNF formulas than the respective variants of blocked clause elimination, and may hence be interesting as new preprocessing/simplification techniques for SAT solving.

Heule, Marijn; Biere, Armin

2010-01-01

49

Determinación del patrón prosódico de las oraciones ambiguas con adjunción alta de la cláusula de relativo (Prosodic pattern of ambiguous sentences with high attachment of the relative clause  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La estructura prosódica y la sintáctica corresponden a distintos planos de análisis en una lengua; no obstante, existe una relación entre ambas que constituye una herramienta potente a la hora de enfrentar oraciones sintácticamente ambiguas (Price et al. 1991:1. Existe evidencia robusta respecto a la preferencia de adjunción alta en oraciones ambiguas con cláusula relativa en el español. La mayor parte de la investigación respecto a la ambigüedad en español se centra en el estudio de la lectura en silencio con tareas on-line y off-line, observando el funcionamiento de la memoria operativa en este contexto. Pocos autores han incorporado el estudio de patrones melódicos subyacentes a este tipo de oraciones. El presente trabajo describe el patrón prosódico que subyace a las oraciones ambiguas con adjunción alta de la cláusula de relativo (CR producidas por hablantes del español de Concepción. Los enunciados fueron etiquetados con sistema ToBI y sometidos a una evaluación perceptual para confirmar el patrón melódico descrito de la adjunción alta de la CR como soporte fonético-fonológico que acompaña a dicha adjunción. (Prosodic and syntactic structures correspond to different levels of analysis of language; however, there is a relation between them that constitutes a powerful tool when facing syntactically ambiguous sentences (Price et al. 1991:1. Robustevidence has been found in Spanish of the preference for high-attachment of the relative clause in syntactically ambiguous sentences. Most of the research concerning the topic has focused on finding out how people disambiguates these sentences when reading in silence with on-line or off-line tasks and how the working memory operates in doing so. Few researchers have incorporated the study of the underlying melody patterns in this type of sentences. The presentresearch describes the underlying prosodic pattern of ambiguous sentences with high attachment of relative clause produced by native speakers of Spanish from Concepcion. The recorded utterances were labelled with ToBI system and submitted to perceptual judgement to confirm the prosodic pattern of high-attachment preference of the relative clause as the phonetic-phonologic support that aids listeners to disambiguate this type of sentences.

Yasna Pereira Reyes

2007-12-01

50

Fuzzy Object retrieval by using histogram of fuzzy Allen relations  

OpenAIRE

Relative position of object description are widely used in event understanding and computer vision tasks especially in object recognition. Use of low level features cannot give satisfactory results when high level concepts is not easily expressible in low level contents. Mostly researchers are concentrating on spatio- temporal relationship between objects or regions of an object in images. Object retrieval which is taken into account the relative position of objects in images become important...

Salamat, Nadeem; Zahzah, El-hadi

2009-01-01

51

TRANSFORMING OBJECT ORIENTED DATA MODEL TO RELATIONAL DATA MODEL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The object oriented and relational technologies are originated in distinct paradigms. The object-oriented technology is universally accepted approach for the development of business applications since it offers more appropriate methods and facilities for modelling of the real world objects. Meanwhile, relational database is still used to preserve the persistence of enterprise data. Connecting these two paradigms is not a straightforward task and necessitates a systematic mapping from one to another. Mapping from object model to relational database demands special attention because it would yield an object-relational impedance mismatch. One of the essential concepts in object technology is the idea of inheritance, and unfortunately relational database does not support this notion. This paper seeks to address various approaches in mapping from inheritance to tables and demonstrates how object-relational tool could be used to help software developers.

Mohd Khalid Awang

2012-01-01

52

TRANSFORMING OBJECT ORIENTED DATA MODEL TO RELATIONAL DATA MODEL  

OpenAIRE

The object oriented and relational technologies are originated in distinct paradigms. The object-oriented technology is universally accepted approach for the development of business applications since it offers more appropriate methods and facilities for modelling of the real world objects. Meanwhile, relational database is still used to preserve the persistence of enterprise data. Connecting these two paradigms is not a straightforward task and necessitates a systematic mapping from one to a...

Mohd Khalid Awang; Nur Lian Labadu

2012-01-01

53

Guideline No. 3 under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978: automatic adjustment clauses standard  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On April 24, 1980, the Department of Energy (DOE) issued a Notice of Proposed Voluntary Guideline for the Automatic Adjustment Clauses Standard Under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (45 FR 29234, May 1, 1980). This Notice discusses in the Preamble the public comments DOE received and presents the guideline in its final form as the Appendix. The objective of an automatic adjustment clause is to mitigate the effect on utility revenues of relatively volatile cost items which a utility purchases on a continual basis. The most important of such cost items is fuel, and this guideline focuses primarily on an automatic fuel-adjustment clause. The following are discussed: provision of incentives for effective fuel and power procurement practices; provision of incentives for economic and efficient generation of electricity; incorporation of automatic-adjustment charges into the rate structure; incentives for displacement of scarce fossil fuels in the generation mix; accounting and management audits; design of an automatic-adjustment clause; and need for an automatic-adjustment clause.

None

1980-12-01

54

The complementarity of object-relations and instinct theory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Object-relations theory implicitly assumes primary drives to cope with the fact that some kinds of transaction with objects are not gratifying but are feared and avoided. Fairbairn's conception of motivation assumes that there is an independent primary drive which may be called 'need for love', independent of other gratifications. Such an instinctual-drive concept is defined solely by its direction towards a goal, and rests on an arbitrary intuition as to the 'real' goal of observed behaviour. As Freud pointed out, what is required for the objective identification of a drive is the discovery of its physiological source. Freud recognised that a drive can be gratified only by a 'specific action' performed upon a suitable object, and that object relations set up in very early life are especially long-lasting. The concept of fixation can bridge the gap between infantile instinctual reactions and adult object relations. PMID:8344767

Maze, J R

1993-06-01

55

Object-Oriented Translation for Programmable Relational System (DRAFT)  

OpenAIRE

The paper introduces the principles of object-oriented translation for target machine which provides executing the sequences of elementary operations on persistent data presented as a set of relations (programmable relational system). The language of this target machine bases on formal operations of relational data model. An approach is given to convert both the description of complex object-oriented data structures and operations on these data, into a description of relatio...

Grigoriev, Evgeniy

2013-01-01

56

Object-Oriented Querying of Existing Relational Databases  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we present algorithms which allow an object-oriented querying of existing relational databases. Our goal is to provide an improved query interface for relational systems with better query facilities than SQL. This seems to be very important since, in real world applications, relational systems are most commonly used and their dominance will remain in the near future. To overcome the drawbacks of relational systems, especially the poor query facilities of SQL, ...

Keim, Daniel A.; Kriegel, Hans-peter; Miethsam, Andreas

1993-01-01

57

WH-extractions and relative clauses in Brazilian Portuguese Extrações-WH e orações relativas no português brasileiro  

OpenAIRE

This paper aims to describe and explain WH-extraction patterns out of island contexts in Brazilian Portuguese (BP), by means of the principles established by Generative Theory. I claim that BP uses a strategy for the extraction of subjects which involves a special case of Agreement. Extractions out of relative islands are possible when the extracted WH-phrase ends up in the specifier position of the higher CP and from there it behaves as the subject of the predication. The subject-predicate r...

Negra?o, Esmeralda Vailati

2000-01-01

58

Object-specific and relational learning in pigeons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract or relational stimulus processing requires an organism to appreciate the interrelations between or among two or more stimuli (e.g., same or different, less than or greater than). In the current study, we explored the role of concrete and abstract information processing in pigeons performing a visual categorization task which could be solved by attending to either the specific objects presented or the relation among the objects. In Experiment 1, we gave pigeons three training phases in which we gradually increased the variability (that is, the number of object arrays) in the training set. In Experiment 2, we trained a second group of pigeons with an even larger number of object arrays from the outset. We found that, the larger the variability in the training exemplars, the lesser the pigeons' attention to object-specific information and the greater their attention to relational information; nevertheless, the contribution of object-specific information to categorization performance was never completely eliminated. This pervasive influence of object-specific information is not peculiar to animals, but has been observed in young children and human adults as well. PMID:25092492

Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A; Fagot, Joël; Maugard, Anaïs

2015-01-01

59

Object relations and real life relationships: a cross method assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the relationship between the psychoanalytic concept of object relations and real life behavior of being in an intimate relationship among heterosexual women. In a multi-method approach we used two different measures; the self-report Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory (BORRTI; Bell, Billington & Becker, 1986) and the performance based Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Social Cognition & Object Relations Scale- Global Rating Method SCORS-G (Westen, 1995) to measure the object relations of 60 women. The Alienation subscale of the BORRTI and understanding of social causality subscale of the SCORS-G explained 34.8% of variance of the intimate relationship variable. Thus, women involved in a romantic relationship reported lower rates of alienation on the BORRTI and produced TAT narratives that were more adaptive with regard to understanding of social causality as measured by the SCORS-G than those not currently in a relationship. Results are discussed with reference to the relationship between object relations and real life measures of healthy individuals and in light of the need for a multi-method approach of assessment. PMID:24506278

Handelzalts, Jonathan E; Fisher, Shimrit; Naot, Rachel

2014-04-01

60

Relative recency influences object-in-context memory.  

Science.gov (United States)

In two experiments rats received training on an object-in-context (OIC) task, in which they received preexposure to object A in context x, followed by exposure to object B in context y. In a subsequent test both A and B are presented in either context x or context y. Usually more exploration is seen of the object that has not previously been paired with the test context, an effect attributed to the ability to remember where an object was encountered. However, in the typical version of this task, object A has also been encountered less recently than object B at test. This is precisely the arrangement in tests of 'relatively recency' (RR), in which more remotely presented objects are explored more than objects experienced more recently. RR could contaminate performance on the OIC task, by enhancing the OIC effect when animals are tested in context y, and masking it when the test is in context x. This possibility was examined in two experiments, and evidence for superior performance in context y was obtained. The implications of this for theoretical interpretations of recognition memory and the procedures used to explore it are discussed. PMID:25546721

Tam, Shu K E; Bonardi, Charlotte; Robinson, Jasper

2015-03-15

61

The Relation between Infants' Activity with Objects and Attention to Object Appearance  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors examined the relation between infants' motor skills and attention to objects features in events in which a hand acted on an object (e.g., squeezed it) that then produced a sound (e.g., squeaking). In this study, 6- to 7-month-old infants (N = 41) were habituated to a single event and then tested with changes in appearance and action.…

Perone, Sammy; Madole, Kelly L.; Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Carey, Maeve; Oakes, Lisa M.

2008-01-01

62

Background connection, a necessary object in general relativity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that in Einstein's theory of gravity (ETG), an important geometrical object has been lost while introducing the concept of the energy pseudotensor of the gravitational field. This object found at present is the affine connection, on whose background the gravitational field should be considered. That loss made the ETG contradictory to Einstejn's general principle of relativity. To remove the contradiction, it suffices to introduce a primitive affine connection. However, nothing prevents us from considering the background object being not primitive but an arbitrary affine connection without torsion. Under this condition we may rather easily vary both the gravitational field gab and the affine connection independent of gab. Owing to restoration of the lost object, the ETG becomes a perfectly geometrical theory in which all physical objects are geometrical ones. 8 refs

63

Migration from Relational Database into Object Oriented Database  

OpenAIRE

Object-Oriented Technology is an important discipline in the field of software engineering in general and it is, therefore, natural to ask whether it is relevant to the field of database management in particular and what that relevance is. There is, however, no consensus on answer to these questions. Some authorities believe that object oriented database systems will take over the world replacing relational system whereas others believe that they are suited only to certain very specific probl...

Mansaf Alam; Wason, S. K.

2006-01-01

64

Learning Spatial Relations between Objects From 3D Scenes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ongoing cognitive development during the first years of human life may be the result of a set of developmental mechanisms which are in continuous operation [1]. One such mechanism identified is the ability of the developing child to learn effective preconditions for their behaviours. It has been suggested [2] that through the application of behaviours involving more than one object, infants begin to learn about the relations between objects.

Fichtl, Severin; Alexander, John

2013-01-01

65

Kernberg's object-relations theory: a critical evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kernberg's rapprochement between Freudian instinct theory and object-relations theory obscures the differences between these two competing theories without taking any recognition of their differences. Rather, Kernberg uses the language of Freudian metapsychology while at the same time purging it of its well-defined meaning, and he fills the resulting theoretical vaccum with ideas taken from the British school of object relations. In so doing Kernberg avoids any serious discussion of the differing concept of the innate postulated by object-relation theorists as opposed to Freudian theory, and the concomitant difference in the importance these two theories ascribe to the mother-infant dyad. His dismissal of the work of Bowlby, Fairbairn, Guntrip and Winnicott is not based on any scientific discussion of their theories but on the fact that these theories reject Freudian motivational theory. Similarly Kernberg ignores the fact that Freud too had an object-relations theory, but implies instead that Freud never fully worked out this aspect of his theory. Kernberg remains unclear as to what he considers to be the importance of the mother-infant dyad. He presupposes the existence of "internalized object relations", and so he never bothers to explain the origins and motives of how this internalization occurs. Thus his "theory" avoids theorizing about what is the crux of the matter--what is it about the external world that is so important to the infant's nature that it becomes transformed into the psyche and perpetuated for a lifetime so that it influences subsequent object interactions and feelings about oneself. PMID:7275483

Klein, M; Tribich, D

1981-01-01

66

Visual appearance of wireframe objects in special relativity  

Science.gov (United States)

The visual appearance of a moving object in special relativity can be constructed in a straightforward manner when representing the surface of the object, or at least a wire frame model of it, as a point cloud. The apparent position of each individual point is then found by intersecting its worldline with the observer?s backward light cone. In this paper, we present a complete derivation of the apparent position of a point and some more complex geometric objects for general parameter settings (configurations). We implemented our results in python and asymptote and used these tools to generate scripts that create the figures in this paper. These scripts are directly applicable in an undergraduate course to special relativity and can also serve as the basis for student projects with the aim to study more complex sceneries.

Müller, Thomas; Boblest, Sebastian

2014-11-01

67

Visual appearance of wireframe objects in special relativity  

CERN Document Server

The visual appearance of a moving object in special relativity can be constructed in a straightforward manner when representing the surface of the object, or at least a wire frame model of it, as a point cloud. The apparent position of each individual point is then found by intersecting its worldline with the observer's backward light cone. In this paper, we present a complete derivation of the apparent position of a point and some more complex geometric objects for general parameter settings (configurations). We implemented our results in python and asymptote and used these tools to generate scripts that create the figures in this paper. These scripts are directly applicable in an undergraduate course to special relativity and can also serve as the basis for student projects with the aim to study more complex sceneries.

Müller, Thomas

2014-01-01

68

How Experiential Education Relates to College Goals And Objectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

Undergraduate education objectives related to experiential learning were identified in college brochures and through interviews with college personnel. A survey indicated that faculty did not agree with experiential learning goals and were unwilling to endorse off-campus learning experiences. A student survey found that fieldwork helped to focus…

Gore, Jane S.; Nelson, Helen Y.

1984-01-01

69

[Psychotherapy based on object relation with object and psychodynamic attitude to treatment of eating disorders].  

Science.gov (United States)

The article presents a proposal of integrating the basic concepts of object relations theory with the psychodramatic techniques by Moreno in treatment of eating disorders (anorexia and bulimia nervosa). The author pays attention to the common elements and also on the differences in psychopathology of eating disorder from a medical perspective, psychoanalytic and psychodynamic paradigm and moreover psychodrama by Moreno. Moreover she points to common elements and the possibility of applying psychodramatic and psychodynamic therapeutic techniques in individual and group psychotherapy in persons with eating disorders. The presented attempt of integrating psychotherapy based on relation with object and psychodramatic techniques by Moreno can enlarge the repertoir of therapeutic techniques which intensify the recovery process in the group of persons with eating disorders (anorexia and bulimia nervosa). PMID:21452503

Izydorczyk, Bernadetta

2010-01-01

70

48 CFR 223.303 - Contract clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 223.303 Section...TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE...Identification and Material Safety Data 223.303 Contract clause. Use the clause...

2010-10-01

71

Nasazení Object Relation Mapping nástroj? nad legacy datovým modelem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When modernizing an information system it is necesssary to deal with problems and questions modernization brings. The new system is inovated by new technologies and must preserve data which controls. It happends very often that old system cannot be shutdown and replaced by new system in single step. Then it’s necessary to share one database among various systems and transfer responsibilities to the new system continually. This solution brings problematic situations which are discussed in this paper. Transactional access using object relation mapping is presented together with non-transactional relation/procedural access with shared database objects. Other presented restriction is that number of database changes should be as small as possible.

Ond?ej Berger

2012-12-01

72

An object oriented relational database for assessing radioactive material transport  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

EnviroView is an object oriented relational database used for inventory control and monitoring locations of radioactive and toxic materials. Visual images of local sites, building locations, floor plans, and room interiors can be accessed by the user. In the event of a release to the environment, analytical, finite element, and boundary element based dispersion models are available to calculate atmospheric transport, groundwater transport, and/or transport within a building interior. The software runs on 386/486 PCs and workstations

73

Object/image relations and vision metrics: I.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper and its sequel, we will examine two fundamental problems related to object recognition for the generalized weak perspective model of image formation. We offer a complete solution to both problems for configurations of point features. Geometric Constraints (Object/Image Equations): The problem of single view recognition is central to many image understanding and computer vision tasks. The results in this paper provide a way to understand the relationship that exists between the 3D geometry and its "residual" in a 2D image. This relationship is completely characterized (for a particular combination of features) by a set of fundamental equations in the 3D and 2D shape coordinates. These equations are know as object/image relations. They can be used to test for the geometric consistency between an object and an image. For example, by fixing point features on a known object, we get constraints on the 2D shape coordinates of possible images of those features. Conversely, if we have specific 2D features in an image, we will get constraints on the 3D shape coordinates of objects capable of producing that image. This yields a test for which object is being viewed. The object/image equations are thus fundamental tools for the identification/recognition problem. In this paper we give the complete solution, and find explicitly, the object/image equations for point features in the generalized weak perspective case. This entails working on spaces known as Grasssmannians and exploiting certain incidence correspondences and the so-called Plucker relations. Vision Metrics: We would like to know if two configurations of a fixed number of points in 2D or 3D are the same if we allow affine transformations. If they are, then we want a distance of zero, and if not, we want a distance that expresses their dissimilarity - always recognizing that we can transform the points. The Procrustes metric, described in the shape theory literature [2], provides such a notion of distance for similarity transformmations. However, it does not allow for weak perspective or perspective transformations and is fixed in a particular dimension. By the later we mean that it cannot be regarded as giving us a notion of "distance" between, say, a 3D configuration of points and a 2D configuration of points, where zero distance corresponds to the 2D points being, say, a generalized weak perspective projection of the 3D points. In the sequel to this paper, we show that generalizations of the Procrustes metric exist in the above cases. Moreover these new metrics are quite natural in the context of the algebro-geometric formulation of the object/image equations mentioned above. These metrics also provide a rigorous foundation for error and statistical analysis in the object recognition problem.

Stiller, Peter F.

2004-01-01

74

Database Independent Migration of Objects into an Object-Relational Database  

CERN Document Server

CERN's (European Organization for Nuclear Research) WISDOM project [1] deals with the replication of data between homogeneous sources in a Wide Area Network (WAN) using the extensible Markup Language (XML). The last phase of the WISDOM (Wide-area, database Independent Serialization of Distributed Objects for data Migration) project [2], indicates the future directions for this work to be to incorporate heterogeneous sources as compared to homogeneous sources as described by [3]. This work will become essential for the CERN community once the need to transfer their legacy data to some other source, other then Objectivity [4], arises. Oracle 9i - an Object-Relational Database (including support for abstract data types, ADTs) appears to be a potential candidate for the physics event store in the CERN CMS experiment as suggested by [4] & [5]. Consequently this database has been selected for study. As a result of this work the HEP community will get a tool for migrating their data from Objectivity to Oracle9i.

Ali, A; Munir, K; Waseem-Hassan, M; Willers, I

2002-01-01

75

Object-relational database infrastructure for interactive multimedia service  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern interactive multimedia services, such as the video-on-demand, electronic library, and etc. tend to involve large-scale media archives of audio records, video clips, image banks, and text documents. Thus, these services impose many challenges on designing and implementing new generation database systems. In this paper, we first introduce a new multimedia data model, which could accommodate sophisticated media types, as well as complex relationships among different media entities. Thereafter, an object-relationship media types, as well as complex relationships among different media entities. Thereafter, an object-relational database infrastructure is proposed, to support applications of the data model developed in our project. The infrastructure is designated both as a framework for designing and implementing multimedia databases, and as a reference model to compare and evaluate different database systems. Features of the proposed infrastructure, as well as its implementation into a prototype multimedia database system, are also discussed in the paper.

Hu, Michael J.; Chunyan, Miao

1997-10-01

76

Fundamentals for the Automation of Object-Relational Database Design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the market there is a wide amount of CASE tools for the design of relational databases. Object-relational database management system (ORDBMS emerged at the end of the 90s to incorporate the object technology into the relational databases, allowing the treatment of more complex data and relationships than its predecessor. The design for this database model is not straightforward. Most of the works proposed in the literature fail because they do not provide consistent transformation formalization such that the mappings from the conceptual model to the logical schema can be automated to generate an ORDB design toolkit. This is one of the goals of this paper. For this purpose, UML class diagram metamodel for the conceptual design and SQL:2003 standard metamodel for logical schemas are considered. A characterization of the components involved in the ORDB design is made in order to propose mapping rules that can be further automated. The architecture of a CASE tool prototype is presented. Model Driven Architecture for software design and XML for the model definitions and transformations are employed.

Maria Fernanda Golobisky

2011-05-01

77

Chemical Compositions of RV Tauri Stars and Related Objects  

CERN Document Server

We have undertaken a comprehensive abundance analysis for a sample of relatively unexplored RV Tauri and RV Tauri like stars to further our understanding of post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB) evolution. From our study based on high resolution spectra and grid of model atmospheres, we find indications of mild s-processing for V820 Cen and IRAS 06165+3158. On the other hand, SU Gem and BT Lac exhibit the effects of mild dust-gas winnowing. We have also compiled the existing abundance data on RV Tauri objects and find that a large fraction of them are afflicted by dust-gas winnowing and now added by the present work, we find a small group of two RV Tauris showing mild s-process enhancement in our Galaxy. With two out of three reported s-process enhanced objects belonging to RV Tauri spectroscopic class C, these intrinsically metal-poor objects appear to be promising candidates to analyse the possible s-processing in RV Tauri stars.

Rao, S Sumangala

2013-01-01

78

The role of action representations in thematic object relations.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recent studies assessing the role of associative/event-based (thematic and categorical (taxonomic relations in the organization of object representations suggest that thematic relationships may influence the perceived similarity of manipulable artifacts. At the same time, evidence suggests that action knowledge is an important component of manipulable artifact representations. However, the role that action plays in processing thematic relationships between objects is unclear. In this study, we assessed healthy and left hemisphere stroke participants to explore three questions: 1. Do participants favor thematic relations involving action (Th+A, e.g., wine bottle – corkscrew, thematic relationships without action (Th-A, e.g., wine bottle – cheese, or taxonomic relationships (Tax, e.g., wine bottle – water bottle when choosing between them in an association judgment task? 2. Do the underlying constructs of event, action, and categorical relatedness implicitly determine the choices that participants make? 3. Does degraded action knowledge and/or damage to temporo-parietal cortex (a region of the brain associated with action representations reduce the influence of action on the choice task? Experiment 1 showed that explicit ratings of event, action, and categorical relatedness differentially predicted healthy participants’ choices, with action relatedness determining choices between Th+A and Th-A associations above and beyond event and categorical ratings. Experiment 2 focused more specifically on these Th+A vs. Th-A choices and demonstrated that participants with left temporo-parietal lesions, a brain region known to be involved in sensorimotor processing, were less likely than controls, and tended to be less likely than patients with lesions sparing that region, to implicitly use action knowledge in determining their choices. We conclude that action knowledge plays a critical role in processing of thematic relations for manipulable artifacts.

Konstantinos Tsagkaridis

2014-03-01

79

PRINCIPLE OF AVAILABILITY IN THE MATTER OF THE REDUCIBILITY OF THE PENALTY CLAUSE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Being receptive to doctrinaire advocacies prior to October 1st 2011 and taking into consideration the social and economical realities of the last decades, the Romanian legislator, in art. 1541 of the civil Code gives the court the power to reduce the evidently excessive penalty clause in relation to the prejudice that could have been foreseen by the parties at the date on which the contract was signed. Amid the silence of the legislator and taking into account the disposition right of the parties over the object of the civil trial, we propose to find whether the court can diminish the obviously excessive penalty clause only when invested with such request or whether this prerogative can be exercised ex officio.

Maria DUMITRU

2013-12-01

80

Object-Relational Management of Multiply Represented Geographic Entities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Multiple representation occurs when information about the same geographic entity is represented electronically more than once. This occurs frequently in practice, and it invariably results in the occurrence of inconsistencies among the different representations. We propose to resolve this situation by introducing a multiple representation management system (MRMS), the schema of which includes rules that specify how to identify representations of the same entity, rules that specify consistency requirements, and rules used to restore consistency when necessary. In this paper, we demonstrate by means of a prototype and a realworld case study that it is possible to implement a multiple representation schema language on top of an object-relational database management system. Specifically, it is demonstrated how it is possible to map the constructs of the language used for specifying the multiple representation schema to functionality available in Oracle. Though some limitations exist, Oracle has proven to be a suitable platform for implementing an MRMS.

Friis-Christensen, Anders; Jensen, Christian SØndergaard

2003-01-01

81

The complex clause in Boruca  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes the complex clause in Boruca, a Chibchan language once spoken in the southern territories on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The present study concentrates on the behavior of complex clauses, following a major distinction between paratactic and hypotactic constructions. Paratactic constructions are divided into asyndetic and syndetic constructions. The latter are quite frequent and it is common to find the syndetons: mang, ní, ihchí and iné in the combination of sente...

Castro Damaris

2010-01-01

82

Size-l Object Summaries for Relational Keyword Search  

CERN Document Server

A previously proposed keyword search paradigm produces, as a query result, a ranked list of Object Summaries (OSs). An OS is a tree structure of related tuples that summarizes all data held in a relational database about a particular Data Subject (DS). However, some of these OSs are very large in size and therefore unfriendly to users that initially prefer synoptic information before proceeding to more comprehensive information about a particular DS. In this paper, we investigate the effective and efficient retrieval of concise and informative OSs. We argue that a good size-l OS should be a stand-alone and meaningful synopsis of the most important information about the particular DS. More precisely, we define a size-l OS as a partial OS composed of l important tuples. We propose three algorithms for the efficient generation of size-l OSs (in addition to the optimal approach which requires exponential time). Experimental evaluation on DBLP and TPC-H databases verifies the effectiveness and efficiency of our ap...

Fakas, Georgios J; Mamoulis, Nikos

2011-01-01

83

Chemical compositions of RV tauri stars and related objects  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Hemos emprendido un análisis de las abundancias químicas para una muestra de estrellas RV Tauri poco estudiadas, para mejorar nuestro entendimiento de la evolución estelar post-secuencia asintótica de las gigantes (post-AGB).Nuestro estudio se basa en espectros de alta resolución y en una malla de m [...] odelos atmosféricos. Encontramos indicaciones de un leve proceso-s para V820 Cen y IRAS 06165+3158. Por otra parte, SU Gem y BT Lac muestran los efectos de una ligera separación polvo-gas. Hemos reunido los datos existentes sobre las abundancias de objetos RV Tauri, y encontramos que una gran parte de ellos muestra efectos de separación polvo-gas. En nuestro estudio encontramos un pequeño grupo de estrellas RV Tauri galácticas con evidencia del proceso-s ligeramente aumentado. Dos de tres objetos con evidencia de proceso-s aumentado pertenecen a la clase C de objetos RV Tauri. Estos objetos, pobres en metales, son candidatos prometedores para el estudio del proceso-s en las estrellas RV Tauri. Abstract in english We have undertaken a comprehensive abundance analysis for a sample of relatively unexplored RV Tauri and RV Tauri like stars to further our understanding of post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB) evolution. From our study based on high resolution spectra and a grid of model atmospheres, we find ind [...] ications of mild s-processing for V820 Cen and IRAS 06165+3158. On the other hand, SU Gem and BT Lac exhibit the effects of mild dust-gas winnowing. We have also compiled the existing abundance data on RV Tauri objects and find that a large fraction of them are afflicted by dust-gas winnowing and aided by the present work, we find a small group of two RV Tauris showing mild s-process enhancement in our Galaxy. With two out of three reported s-process enhanced objects belonging to RV Tauri spectroscopic class C, these intrinsically metal-poor objects appear to be promising candidates to analyse the possible s-processing in RV Tauri stars.

S., Sumangala Rao; Sunetra, Giridhar.

2014-04-01

84

The Relative Effectiveness of Varied Visual Testing Formats in Retrieving Information Related to Different Educational Objectives  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to: (1) examine the relative effectiveness with which different types of visual test formats facilitated information retrieval on tests measuring different educational objectives; (2) measure the effect that prior knowledge had on information retrieval; and (3) to determine whether an interaction existed between prior…

Williams, Jaison; Dwyer, Francis

2004-01-01

85

Action-related properties of objects shape object representations in the ventral stream  

OpenAIRE

The principles driving the organization of the ventral object-processing stream remain unknown. Here we show that stimulus-specific repetition suppression (RS) in one region of the ventral stream is biased according to motor-relevant properties of objects. Quantitative analysis confirmed that this result was not confounded with similarity in visual shape. A similar pattern of biases in RS according to motor-relevant properties of objects was observed in dorsal stream regions in the left hemis...

Mahon, Bradford Z.; Milleville, Shawn C.; Negri, Gioia A. L.; Rumiati, Raffaella I.; Caramazza, Alfonso; Martin, Alex

2007-01-01

86

Object Interference in Subject-Verb Agreement: The Role of Intermediate Traces of Movement  

Science.gov (United States)

The research presented here uses theoretical constructs of formal syntax to account for performance data in agreement production. The phenomenon examined is object interference in French, i.e., incorrect agreement of the verb with the object. In the first experiment, interference is shown to occur in object relative clauses despite the absence of…

Franck, Julie; Soare, Gabriela; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H.; Rizzi, Luigi

2010-01-01

87

La influencia del contexto referencial en la resolución de ambigüedades oración completiva/oración de relativo: Evidencia en español The influence of referential context in solving ambiguities in complete sentences/relative clause: Evidence from Spanish  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza la resolución de ambigüedades sintácticas en español. De manera más específica, compara el procesamiento de oraciones con ambigüedad estructural (parsing entre oración de relativo y oración completiva, con y sin contexto referencial, utilizando una metodología de tiempos de lectura autoadministrada. El objetivo era comprobar si los resultados encontrados en lectores de habla inglesa se obtenían también en español. Los tiempos de lectura para las frases que contenían tanto oraciones completivas como oraciones de relativo fueron significativamente menores cuando iban precedidas de un contexto referencial. Estos resultados aportan evidencia congruente con los modelos referenciales (Crain & Steedman, 1985; Altmann & Steedman, 1988, que apuestan por un procesamiento basado en el uso de múltiples fuentes de información a la hora de resolver ambigüedades, y no solo en información de tipo estructural, tal y como sugieren los modelos modulares (Frazier, 1987; Mitchell, 1994; Mitchell, Cuetos, Corley & Brysbaert, 1995; Cuetos, Mitchell & Corley, 1996; Frazier & Clifton, 1996; Carreiras & Meseguer, 1999.This paper analyzes the resolution of syntactic ambiguities in Spanish. Specifically, it compares the processing of sentences with structural ambiguity between relative clause and complete sentences, with and without referential context, using different methods of self-administered reading times. The aim was to check whether the results found in English-speaking readers is also obtained in Spanish. The reading times for sentences containing both complete sentences and relative clauses were significantly smaller when they were preceded by a referential context. These results provide evidence consistent with referential models (Crain & Steedman, 1985; Altmann & Steedman, 1988 supporting a process based on the use of multiple sources of information when solving ambiguities, and not just on structural information as suggested by modular models (Frazier, 1987; Mitchell, 1994; Mitchell, Cuetos, Corley & Brysbaert, 1995; Cuetos, Mitchell & Corley, 1996; Frazier & Clifton, 1996; Carreiras & Meseguer, 1999.

Laura Alonso

2011-12-01

88

48 CFR 19.1308 - Contract clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 19.1308 Section 19.1308 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL...Underutilized Business Zone (HUBZone) Program 19.1308 Contract clauses. (a) The contracting...

2010-10-01

89

48 CFR 316.307 - Contract clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 316.307 Section 316.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH...TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-reimbursement Contracts 316.307 Contract clauses. (a) If a contract...

2010-10-01

90

48 CFR 1223.303 - Contract clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 1223.303 Section...ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE...Identification and Material Safety Data 1223.303 Contract clause. The...

2010-10-01

91

48 CFR 822.305 - Contract clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

...GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act 822...clause at 852.222-70, Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—nursing...clause at 52.222-4, Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards...

2010-10-01

92

48 CFR 523.303 - Contract clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 523.303 Section...CONSERVATION, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE ...Materials Identification and Material Safety Data 523.303 Contract clause. (a) Insert...

2010-10-01

93

48 CFR 1823.7101 - Contract clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 true Contract clause. 1823.7101...TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE...Authorization 1823.7101 Contract clause. The contracting...in solicitations and contracts calling for developing, producing,...

2010-10-01

94

48 CFR 1842.7202 - Contract clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

...AND AUDIT SERVICES NASA Contractor Financial Management Reporting 1842.7202 Contract clause. The contracting...clause at 1852.242-73, NASA Contractor Financial Management Reporting, in solicitations and contracts when any of...

2010-10-01

95

48 CFR 3.1004 - Contract clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 3.1004 Contract clauses. ...Insert the clause at FAR 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct, in solicitations and...

2010-10-01

96

48 CFR 203.1004 - Contract clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 203.1004 Contract clauses...include the FAR clause 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct. (b)(2)(ii) Insert...

2010-10-01

97

48 CFR 11.304 - Contract clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

...FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Acceptable Material 11.304 Contract clause. Insert the clause at 52.211-5, Material Requirements, in solicitations and contracts for...

2010-10-01

98

A relação entre tipo de predicado e tipo de oração em narrativas orais e em narrativas escritas do português - DOI: 10.4025/actascihumansoc.v26i1.1562 The relation between type of predicate and type of clause in portuguese oral and written narratives - DOI: 10.4025/actascihumansoc.v26i1.1562  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Na teoria da gramática funcional, a estrutura subjacente da oração tem no predicado sua camada mais fundamental. Aplicado a um certo número de termos, o predicado forma o segundo nível da estrutura subjacente da oração, a predicação, que, por sua vez, designa um estado de coisas, ou seja, a concepção de algo que pode existir ou ocorrer em algum mundo. Os estados de coisas podem ser divididos, de acordo com seis tipos de parâmetros semânticos, em predicados de ação, predicados de situação e predicados de processo. Neste trabalho, pretende-se investigar a relação entre tipo de estado de coisas do predicado e tipo de oração, em um corpus formado por dez narrativas orais e dez narrativas escritas do português. A análise revelou uma maior freqüência de ocorrência de orações independentes para codificar predicados de situação, de orações paratáticas para codificar predicados de ação e de orações hipotáticas adverbiais para codificar predicados de processoAccording to the theory of functional grammar, the predicate is the most fundamental layer of the underlying structure of the clause. Applied to a given number of terms, the predicate builds the second layer of the underlying structure of the clause, the predication, which designates a set of states of affairs, i.e., the conception of something that may exist or occur in a world. States of affairs can be divided, according to six types of semantic patterns, into action predicates, situation predicates and process predicates. The aim of this article is to verify the relation between type of state of affairs of the predicate and type of clause in a corpus of 10 oral narratives and 10 written narratives in Portuguese. The analysis presented a higher frequency of independent clauses to code situation predicates, of paratactic clauses to code action predicates and of adverbial hypotactic clauses to code process predicates

Juliano Desiderato Antonio

2004-06-01

99

Vision metrics and object/image relations II: Discrimination metrics and object/image duality  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we will be concerned with the recognition of 3D objects from a single 2D view obtained via a generalized weak perspective projection. Our methods will be independent of camera/sensor position and any camera/sensor parameters, as well as independent of the choice of coordinates used to express the feature point locations on the object or in the image. Our focus will be on certain natural metrics on the associated shape spaces (which are called object space and image space, respectively). These metrics provide a distance between two object shapes or between two image shapes and are a generalization of the Procrustes metrics of Statistical Shape Theory. They can be shown to be induced from the L2 metric on the space of all n-tuples of feature points via a modified orbit metric, i.e. as the minimum distance between two orbits under the action of the affine group, modified to account for scale and shear. Finally we will define two notions of "distance" between an object and an image (with distance zero being a match under some weak perspective projection). This makes use of the object-image equations and computes the distance entirely in either the object space or in the image space. A Metric Duality Theory shows these two notions of "distance" are the same. Ultimately, we would like to know if two configurations of a fixed number of points in 2D or 3D are the same if we allow affine transformations. If they are, then we want a distance of zero, and if not, we want a distance that expresses their dissimilarity - always recognizing that we can transform the points. The Procrustes metric, described in the shape theory literature [4], provides such a notion of distance for similarity transformations. However, it does not allow for weak perspective or perspective transformations and is fixed in a particular dimension. By the later we mean that it cannot be regarded as giving us a notion of "distance" between, say, a 3D configuration of points and a 2D configuration of points, where zero distance corresponds to the 2D points being, say, a generalized weak perspective projection of the 3D points. In this paper, we show that generalizations of the Procrustes metric exist in the above cases. Moreover these new metrics are quite natural in the context of the algebro-geometric formulation of the object/image equations discussed in Part I of this paper and reviewed below. These metrics also provide a rigorous foundation for error and statistical analysis in the object recognition problem.

Stiller, Peter F.

2004-04-01

100

78 FR 22795 - EPAAR Clause for Printing  

Science.gov (United States)

...EPA-HQ-OARM-2012-0196; FRL-9800-6] EPAAR Clause for Printing AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...outdated information previously in the EPAAR Printing clause. DATES: This final rule is effective...reviewed EPAAR clause 1552.208-70, Printing. Review was performed to...

2013-04-17

101

Penalty Clauses and the CISG  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Commercial agreements often provide for “fixed sums” payable upon a specified breach. Such agreements are generally enforced in civil law jurisdictions. In contrast, the common law distinguishes between “liquidated damages” and “penalty” clauses, enforcing the former, while invalidating the latter as a penalty. The UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG does not directly address the payment of “fixed sums” as damages, and the validity of “penalty” clauses has, traditionally, been relegated to otherwise applicable domestic national law under CISG Article 4. This traditional orthodoxy has recently been challenged—suggesting that the fate of a penalty clause should be determined by reference to the general principles of the CISG and that such a clause should generally be enforced. The validity of fixed sums, as penalties, is currently under consideration by the CISG Advisory Council, so further exploration of the issue would seem particularly timely. This article examines the basis for the traditional view, along with two distinct challenges to that view—ultimately concluding that these challenges fail to support their respective solutions to the issue and suggesting the continuing vitality of the traditional view.

Jack Graves

2012-06-01

102

Relating Things and Stuff via Object Property Interactions.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last few years, substantially different approaches have been adopted for segmenting and detecting "things" (object categories that have a well defined shape such as people and cars) and "stuff" (object categories which have an amorphous spatial extent such as grass and sky). While things have been typically detected by sliding window or Hough transform based methods, detection of stuff is generally formulated as a pixel or segment-wise classification problem. This paper proposes a framework for scene understanding that models both things and stuff using a common representation while preserving their distinct nature by using a property list. This representation allows us to enforce sophisticated geometric and semantic relationships between thing and stuff categories via property interactions in a single graphical model. We use the latest advances made in the field of discrete optimization to efficiently perform maximum a posteriori (MAP) inference in this model. We evaluate our method on the Stanford dataset by comparing it against state-of-the-art methods for object segmentation and detection. We also show that our method achieves competitive performances on the challenging PASCAL'09 segmentation dataset. PMID:24101332

Sun, Min; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kohli, Pushmeet; Savarese, Silvio

2013-10-01

103

Proposed Framework which Uses Object Oriented Principles in Relational Systems: Structure and Formating (Part 2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Our approach tries to overcome the limitations of so called “flat nature” of relational systems, in the actual context of actual relational database theories, database systems technologies and object oriented methodologies by proposing an MDA framework to map an object oriented (UML formalized model to object-relational structures of today’s database systems.

Catalin STRIMBEI

2006-01-01

104

Proposed Framework which Uses Object Oriented Principles in Relational Systems: Structure and Formating (Part 2)  

OpenAIRE

Our approach tries to overcome the limitations of so called “flat nature” of relational systems, in the actual context of actual relational database theories, database systems technologies and object oriented methodologies by proposing an MDA framework to map an object oriented (UML formalized) model to object-relational structures of today’s database systems.

Strimbei, Catalin

2006-01-01

105

Factors Related to Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Preschool Children  

OpenAIRE

This study examined correlates of objectively measured physical activity (PA) in a diverse sample of preschool children (age 3–5 years; n=331). Accelerometer min·hr?1 of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and non-sedentary activity (NSA) were the outcome measures. Correlations among potential correlates and PA ranged from r= ? .12–0.26. Correlates in the final MVPA model were age, race, sex, BMI Z score, and parent perception of athletic competence, explaining 37% of the v...

Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Mciver, Kerry L.; Pate, Russell R.

2009-01-01

106

Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the safeguard clause notified by Greece on genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Following a request of the European Commission, the European Food Safety Authority’s Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (EFSA GMO Panel evaluated the documentation submitted by Greece in support of its request for the prohibition of the placing on the market of the genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC. The EFSA GMO Panel notes that the majority of the publications referred to by Greece were already addressed by the EFSA GMO Panel in previous scientific outputs on maize MON 810 or other related insect-resistant genetically modified maize transformation events. In the remaining evidence provided by Greece, the EFSA GMO Panel could not identify any new data subject to scientific scrutiny or scientific information that would invalidate its previous risk assessments of maize MON 810. With regard to issues related to management and monitoring of maize MON 810, the EFSA GMO Panel refers to its recent recommendations for management and monitoring measures of maize MON 810. In conclusion, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that, based on the documentation submitted by Greece, there is no specific scientific evidence, in terms of risk to human and animal health or the environment, that would support the notification of a safeguard clause under Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC and that would invalidate the GMO Panel’s previous risk assessments of maize MON 810.

EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

2012-09-01

107

CazDataProvider : a solution to the object-relational mismatch  

OpenAIRE

Today, most software applications require mechanisms to store information persistently. For decades, Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMSs) have been the most common technology to provide efficient and reliable persistence. Due to the object-relational paradigm mismatch, object oriented applications that store data in relational databases have to deal with Object Relational Mapping (ORM) problems. Since the emerging of new ORM frameworks, there has been an attempt to lure developers ...

Esteves, Miguel Dos Santos

2012-01-01

108

Stellar debris clouds in quasars and related objects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The density and velocity dispersion in the stellar debris cloud produced by the tidal break-up of stars by the central black hole in a galactic nucleus are consistent with these clouds being the origin of the observed forbidden lines in quasars. The debris cloud is gravitationally bound to the central black hole. The accretion disk around the black hole produced enough ionizing photons to keep the debris cloud completely ionized. Collisions among the broken-up stars in the debris cloud cause them to lose energy and to fall towards the central black hole and its accretion disk. Most of this material impacts the accretion disk in the vicinity of the tidal radius of the black hole. The high-temperature gas produced by this impact may be responsible for the high-energy X-rays observed in the more luminous quasars and in radio galaxies. The relative scarcity of strong radio emitters among the normal quasars may be due to the fact that free-free absorption in the debris cloud prevents radio emission from reaching the observer from the dense inner part of the debris cloud and to the severe energy loss the relativistic particles have suffered by the time they have travelled sufficiently far from the centre of the debris cloud for their radio emission to be observable. Only after the black hole has seriously reduced the density of stars in the galactic nucleus and the luminosity of the quasar has begun to drop does the density in the debris cloud decrease sufficiently to allowebris cloud decrease sufficiently to allow the relativistic particles to escape without considerable energy loss. The giant radio galaxies have a number of properties which suggest that they are old quasars which have evolved past their maximum luminosity phase. Most Seyferts are also likely to be old quasars. (author)

109

Santa Claus, Ga./Ind.  

Science.gov (United States)

The towns of Santa Claus, Ga., (top) and Santa Claus, Ind. (bottom), are shown in these two images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite. They are the only two Santa Claus towns in the United States with post offices and zip codes, although there are 11 towns with this name in the United States. Santa Claus, Ga. is located in Toombs County, and has a population of 237. Santa Claus, Ind. is located in Spencer County, and has a population of 2,041. Its name was accepted by the United States Postal Service in 1856. The images were acquired on July 3, 2000 (top) and June 16, 2001 (bottom), respectively.With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the technologies needed to explore the universe and search for life beyond our home planet.Size: 10.5 by 6.75 kilometers (6.5 by 4.2 miles) Location: 32.2 degrees North latitude, 82.3 degrees West longitude; and 38.1 degrees North latitude, 86.9 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1, 2 and 3 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: June 16, 2001 and July 3, 2000

2002-01-01

110

Constraint Specialisation in Horn Clause Verification  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query-answer transformation of a given set of clauses and a goal. The effect is to propagate the constraints from the goal top-down and propagate answer constraints bottom-up. Our approach does not unfold the clauses at all; we use the constraints from the model to compute a specialised version of each clause in the program. The approach is independent of the abstract domain and the constraints theory underlying the clauses. Experimental results on verification problems show that this is an effective transformation, both in our own verification tools (convex polyhedra analyser) and as a pre-processor to other Horn clause verification tools.

Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

2015-01-01

111

Complete transformations of object models to relational database schemas in UML CASE tools  

OpenAIRE

The goal of the current work – creation of complete transformation algorithms from object models to relational databases and their implementation in UML CASE tools. OOP has enabled the creation of tools for object oriented software and databases. One of the main aims of such tools is to create the object model of software and also a database for storing information about these objects. Most tools of software engineering enable the creation of object oriented software model and its transform...

Maslauskas, Raimondas

2007-01-01

112

Revisiting the Learned Clauses Database Reduction Strategies  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we revisit an important issue of CDCL-based SAT solvers, namely the learned clauses database management policies. Our motivation takes its source from a simple observation on the remarkable performances of both random and size-bounded reduction strategies. We first derive a simple reduction strategy, called Size-Bounded Randomized strategy (in short SBR), that combines maintaing short clauses (of size bounded by k), while deleting randomly clauses of size grea...

Jabbour, Said; Lonlac, Jerry; Sais, Lakhdar; Salhi, Yakoub

2014-01-01

113

Material Adverse Effect Clause – Proper Legal Work or Contribution to False Sense of Security?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Regardless of whether you are a buyer or a seller, and regardless what the object of the contract is, it is essentially important that you seek to protect your rights through various clauses that must aim to provide clearness to contractual obligations, defini- tions of breach, and consequences thereof. The article addresses a number of interest- protective legal mechanisms and necessity of their explicit incorporation in the contract. With emphasis on Material Adverse Effect clause the paper focuses on its exigency and applicability.

Fomcenco, Alex

2014-01-01

114

48 CFR 247.207 - Solicitation provisions, contract clauses, and special requirements.  

Science.gov (United States)

...provisions, contract clauses, and special requirements. 247.207 Section 247.207 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE...Transportation or for Transportation-Related Services 247.207 Solicitation provisions, contract...

2010-10-01

115

48 CFR 247.271-3 - Solicitation provisions, schedule formats, and contract clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...provisions, schedule formats, and contract clauses. 247.271-3 Section 247.271-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...Transportation or for Transportation-Related Services 247.271-3 Solicitation provisions, schedule...

2010-10-01

116

32 CFR 173.3 - Profit reduction clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

...1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Profit reduction clause. 173.3 Section 173...CONTRACTING COMPETITIVE INFORMATION CERTIFICATE AND PROFIT REDUCTION CLAUSE § 173.3 Profit reduction clause. The following...

2010-07-01

117

Coordinate and subordinate clauses in the Slavic languages  

OpenAIRE

This article provides a survey of major findings on complex sentences in the Slavic languages. It treats coordinate and subordinate clauses, together with their conjunction. As for the subordinate clauses, it deals with complement clauses.

Kordi? Snježana

2008-01-01

118

Coordinate and subordinate clauses in the Slavic languages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article provides a survey of major findings on complex sentences in the Slavic languages. It treats coordinate and subordinate clauses, together with their conjunction. As for the subordinate clauses, it deals with complement clauses.

Kordi? Snježana

2008-01-01

119

Incorporating the Scale-Relativity Principle in String Theory and Extended Objects  

OpenAIRE

First steps in incorporating Nottale's scale-relativity principle to string theory and extended objects are taken. Scale Relativity is to scales what motion Relativity is to velocities. The universal, absolute, impassible, invariant scale under dilatations, in Nature, is taken to be the Planck scale which is not the same as the string scale. Starting with Nambu-Goto actions for strings and other extended objects, we show that the principle of scale-relativity invariance of t...

Castro, Carlos

1996-01-01

120

Relative hardness measurement of soft objects by a new fiber optic sensor  

Science.gov (United States)

The measurement of relative hardness of soft objects enables replication of human finger tactile perception capabilities. This ability has many applications not only in automation and robotics industry but also in many other areas such as aerospace and robotic surgery where a robotic tool interacts with a soft contact object. One of the practical examples of interaction between a solid robotic instrument and a soft contact object occurs during robotically-assisted minimally invasive surgery. Measuring the relative hardness of bio-tissue, while contacting the robotic instrument, helps the surgeons to perform this type of surgery more reliably. In the present work, a new optical sensor is proposed to measure the relative hardness of contact objects. In order to measure the hardness of a contact object, like a human finger, it is required to apply a small force/deformation to the object by a tactile sensor. Then, the applied force and resulting deformation should be recorded at certain points to enable the relative hardness measurement. In this work, force/deformation data for a contact object is recorded at certain points by the proposed optical sensor. Recorded data is used to measure the relative hardness of soft objects. Based on the proposed design, an experimental setup was developed and experimental tests were performed to measure the relative hardness of elastomeric materials. Experimental results verify the ability of the proposed optical sensor to measure the relative hardness of elastomeric samples.

Ahmadi, Roozbeh; Ashtaputre, Pranav; Abou Ziki, Jana; Dargahi, Javad; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran

2010-06-01

121

Relational and Object-Relational Database Concepts in Geographic Information Systems  

OpenAIRE

The management of spatial data in relational databases provides a number of advantages compared to traditional (separated) approaches where geometry and metadata are kept in file systems as opposed to alphanumeric data that reside in relational databases. Above all relational databases ensure efficient spatial data management by providing multi-user support and better control of spatial data quality. In addition relational database approaches lead to significant improvements for wide usage an...

Scheugenpflug, Stefan Johannes

2007-01-01

122

Effects of Transference Work in the Context of Therapeutic Alliance and Quality of Object Relations  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Transference interpretation is considered as a core active ingredient in dynamic psychotherapy. In common clinical theory, it is maintained that more mature relationships, as well as a strong therapeutic alliance, may be prerequisites for successful transference work. In this study, the interaction between quality of object relations,…

Hoglend, Per; Hersoug, Anne Grete; Bogwald, Kjell-Petter; Amlo, Svein; Marble, Alice; Sorbye, Oystein; Rossberg, Jan Ivar; Ulberg, Randi; Gabbard, Glen O.; Crits-Christoph, Paul

2011-01-01

123

Qualitative Differences in the Representation of Spatial Relations for Different Object Classes  

Science.gov (United States)

Two experiments investigated whether the representations used for animal, produce, and object recognition code spatial relations in a similar manner. Experiment 1 tested the effects of planar rotation on the recognition of animals and nonanimal objects. Response times for recognizing animals followed an inverted U-shaped function, whereas those…

Cooper, Eric E.; Brooks, Brian E.

2004-01-01

124

Reduced object related negativity response indicates impaired auditory scene analysis in adults with autistic spectrum disorder  

OpenAIRE

Auditory Scene Analysis provides a useful framework for understanding atypical auditory perception in autism. Specifically, a failure to segregate the incoming acoustic energy into distinct auditory objects might explain the aversive reaction autistic individuals have to certain auditory stimuli or environments. Previous research with non-autistic participants has demonstrated the presence of an Object Related Negativity (ORN) in the auditory event related potential that indexes pre-attentive...

Veema Lodhia; Jon Brock; Johnson, Blake W.; Hautus, Michael J.

2014-01-01

125

Multiple objective fractional programming involving semilocally type I-preinvex and related functions  

Science.gov (United States)

Sufficient optimality conditions are obtained for a nonlinear multiple objective fractional programming problem involving [eta]-semidifferentiable type I-preinvex and related functions. Furthermore, a general dual is formulated and duality results are proved under the assumptions of generalized semilocally type I-preinvex and related functions. Our result generalize the results of Preda [V. Preda, Optimality and duality in fractional multiple objective programming involving semilocally preinvex and related functions, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 288 (2003) 365-382] and Stancu-Minasian [I.M. Stancu-Minasian, Optimality and duality in fractional programming involving semilocally preinvex and related functions, J. Inform. Optim. Sci. 23 (2002) 185-201].

Mishra, S. K.; Wang, S. Y.; Lai, K. K.

2005-10-01

126

Dynamical relations in the system of two objects with internal degrees of freedom  

CERN Document Server

A system of $N$ interacting objects with internal degrees of freedom is considered. Derivation of system of equations for the description of two interacting objects with spin is given. Relations between the parameters describing subsystems and the parameters describing the system as a whole are obtained. In particular, relation between energies of subsystems and energy of system is found, on the basis of which the assumption is made that energy of subsystem should be oscillatory functions of time, so that interaction between objects is reduced to permanent energy exchange

Tarakanov, Alexander N

2013-01-01

127

A case Study of Applying Object-Relational Persistence in Astronomy Data Archiving  

Science.gov (United States)

The NOAO Science Archive (NSA) team is developing a comprehensive domain model to capture the science data in the archive. Java and an object model derived from the domain model weil address the application layer of the archive system. However, since RDBMS is the best proven technology for data management, the challenge is the paradigm mismatch between the object and the relational models. Transparent object-relational mapping (ORM) persistence is a successful solution to this challenge. In the data modeling and persistence implementation of NSA, we are using Hibernate, a well-accepted ORM tool, to bridge the object model in the business tier and the relational model in the database tier. Thus, the database is isolated from the Java application. The application queries directly on objects using a DBMS-independent object-oriented query API, which frees the application developers from the low level JDBC and SQL so that they can focus on the domain logic. We present the detailed design of the NSA R3 (Release 3) data model and object-relational persistence, including mapping, retrieving and caching. Persistence layer optimization and performance tuning will be analyzed. The system is being built on J2EE, so the integration of Hibernate into the EJB container and the transaction management are also explored.

Yao, S. S.; Hiriart, R.; Barg, I.; Warner, P.; Gasson, D.

2005-12-01

128

48 CFR 23.303 - Contract clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

...TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE...Identification and Material Safety Data 23.303 Contract clause. (a) The...Identification and Material Safety Data, in solicitations and contracts if the contract...

2010-10-01

129

48 CFR 1223.7000 - Contract clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1223.7000 Section 1223...RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Safety Requirements for Selected DOT Contracts 1223.7000 Contract...

2010-10-01

130

48 CFR 1652.000 - Applicable clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01...Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF...BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS...for Defective Cost or Pricing Data. 52.215-24Subcontractor...For Electronic Funds Transfer Payment....

2010-10-01

131

48 CFR 3.1004 - Contract clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...REGULATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS...OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 3.1004 Contract clauses...203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct, in solicitations...

2010-10-01

132

It's Not Just the "Heavy NP": Relative Phrase Length Modulates the Production of Heavy-NP Shift  

Science.gov (United States)

Heavy-NP shift is the tendency for speakers to place long direct object phrases at the end of a clause rather than next to the verb. Though some analyses have focused on length of the direct object phrase alone, results from two experiments demonstrate that the length of the direct object relative to that of other phrases, and not the length of…

Stallings, Lynne M.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

2011-01-01

133

A COMPARISON OF THE TURKIC TYPE RELATIVE CLAUSE TYPOLOGY WITH JAPANESE, KOREAN AND HUNGRAIAN TYPOLOGIES TÜRK D?L? SIFAT-F??LL? YAPI T?POLOJ?S?N?N JAPON, KORE VE MACAR T?POLOJ?LER? ?LE KAR?ILA?TIRILMASI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this present study, we dealt with relative clause typologies in the world languages in general and Turkic Type Relative Clause typology in particular. By doing this, we compared Turkish relative clause construction with Japanese, Korean and Hungarian ones, which are all considered in Uralic and Altaic Language Family. In doing this, we made use of Chomskian theories called Generative-Transformational Grammar and Governement and Binding Thoery. As is known, Chomsky declared that all languages have the same typolgy in the Deep Structure. The changes among languages are witnessed in Surface Structure. There is a transformation between deep structure and surface structure. It means that, a noun pharse can be moved to another place leaving an empty place behind by constructing a chain between the empty place and its antecedents (moved element. When we compared Turkic type relative clause typology with Japanese, Korean and Hungarian, we amasingly saw that the strategies are the same in these langauges. Bu çal??mada, dünya dillerinde önemli bir yere sahip olan s?fat-fiilli yap?lar?n tipolojilerini inceledik. Bunu yapmaktaki amac?m?z, Türk Dili Tipi S?fat-fiilli Yap? tipolojinsin dünya dilleri aras?ndaki yerini tespit etmek ve benzer tipolojiler ile kar??la?t?rmakt?r. Türk dili ile akraba oldu?u varsay?lan Japon, Kore ve Macar dillerini, s?fat-fiil tipolojileri aç?s?nda analiz ederek Türk Dili Tipolojisi ile olan benzerlikleri ortaya koymaya çal??t?k. S?fat-fiil tipolojisini analiz ederken, Chomsky’nin Üretken-Dönü?ümlü Dil Bilgisi ve Yönetim ve Ba?lama Kuram?’ndan faydaland?k. Dilin yap?sal olarak incelenmesi gerekti?ini ileri süren Chomsky, derin yap? ve yüzey yap? kavramlar? ile ta??n?m ve dönü?ümün bütün diller için kaç?n?lmaz bir gerçeklik oldu?unu gösterdi. Biz de bu çal??mada ad öbe?i ta??n?m? ve bo?luk kuram? ?????nda, s?fat-fiilli yap? tipolojilerini kar??la?t?rmal? olarak ele ald?k ve Türk, Japon, Kore ve Macar dilleri aras?ndaki ?a??rt?c? benzerli?i, öbek yap? ve söz dizimi seviyesinde tespit ettik.

Ferhat KARABULUT

2011-01-01

134

Catalogue of cataclysmic binaries, low-mass X-ray binaries and related objects (Seventh edition)  

OpenAIRE

The catalogue lists coordinates, apparent magnitudes, orbital parameters, and stellar parameters of the components and other characteristc properties of 472 cataclysmic binaries, 71 low-mass X-ray binaries and 113 related objects with known or suspected orbital periods together with a comprehensive selection of the relevant recent literature. In addition, the catalogue contains a list of references to published finding charts for 635 of the 656 objects, and a cross-reference list of alias obj...

Ritter, H.; Kolb, U.

2003-01-01

135

Legal briefing: conscience clauses and conscientious refusal.  

Science.gov (United States)

This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to conscience clauses and conscientious refusal. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it has also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions. Over the past several months, conscientious refusal disputes have had an unusually high profile not only in courthouses, but also in legislative and regulatory halls across the United States. Healthcare providers' own moral beliefs have been obstructing and are expected to increasingly obstruct patients' access to medical services. For example, some providers, on ethical or moral grounds, have denied: (1) sterilization procedures to pregnant patients, (2) pain medications in end-of-life situations, and (3) information about emergency contraception to rape victims. On the other hand, many healthcare providers have been forced to provide medical treatment that is inconsistent with their moral beliefs. There are two fundamental types of conscientious objection laws. First, there are laws that permit healthcare workers to refuse providing - on ethical, moral, or religious grounds healthcare services that they might otherwise have a legal or employer-mandated obligation to provide. Second, there are laws directed at forcing healthcare workers to provide services to which they might have ethical, moral, or religious objections. Both types of laws are rarely comprehensive, but instead target: (1) certain types of healthcare providers, (2) specific categories of healthcare services, (3) specific patient circumstances, and (4) certain conditions under which a right or obligation is triggered. For the sake of clarity, I have grouped recent legal developments concerning conscientious refusal into eight categories: 1. Abortion: right to refuse 2. Abortion: duty to provide 3. Contraception: right to refuse 4. Contraception: duty to provide 5. Sterilization: right to refuse 6. Fertility, HIV, vaccines, counseling 7. End-of-life measures: right to refuse 8. Comprehensive laws: right to refuse. PMID:20866024

Pope, Thaddeus Mason

2010-01-01

136

Comparative performance measures of relational and object-oriented databases using High Energy Physics data  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The major experiments at the SSC are expected to produce up to 1 Petabyte of data per year. The use of database techniques can significantly reduce the time it takes to access data. The goal of this project was to test which underlying data model, the relational or the object-oriented, would be better suited for archival and accessing high energy data. We describe the relational and the object-oriented data model and their implementation in commercial database management systems. To determine scalability we tested both implementations for 10-MB and 100-MB databases using storage and timing criteria

137

Cataclysmic binaries and related objects in the context of stellar evolution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cataclysmic binaries (CBs) and related objects are discussed in the context of stellar evolution. Present knowledge about these objects and present theories about their formation are reviewed. Problems relating to the secondary components, including mass loss and the possibility of evolved secondaries, are addressed. Theoretical predictions of the mass spectrum of white dwarfs are compared with observations, and the formation of massive white dwarfs in CBs is discussed. The theoretical possibility that white dwarfs in CBs are continuously accreting is addressed, and the reason for the secondary's mass loss and its implications for the evolution of CBs are considered

138

Variability in Hot Subdwarfs and Related Objects from the Palomar-Green Catalog  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a selection of objects chosen from the Palomar-Green (PG) Catalog of Ultraviolet Excess Stellar Objects to search for variability. Variability could be from eclipsing binaries, cataclysmic variables, the irradiation effect and many others. The PG catalog used the Palomar 18 inch telescope to look for stars that were brighter in the ultraviolet than normal stars. One result of the PG catalog was a discovery of hot subdwarfs (sd) that dominated the sky. We chose 988 stars because they were classified in the PG catalog as sd stars or as related objects and present an analysis of 475. We used the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey and the UBVRI photometric standard stars from Landolt to find that approximately 60 of these objects show evidence of being variable.

Blacketer, Melissa; Ringwald, Fred

2014-06-01

139

MODEL OF STORAGE XML DATABASE BASED ON THE RELATIONAL-OBJECT MODEL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work is to define a model of storage represented strictly in XML, this model is based on the structure of the relational model using the types of the model object. We suggest then creating our database according to this model by requests SQL3. We thus realize a framework of management and administration ofdatabases XML based on requests object relational SQL3. We analyze at first the mapping since a request SQL towards a structure of a document XML. We shall describe the mapping by using the language XML SCHEMA because the data must be validated in every operation on the database. The database structure, types and tables definitions will be transformed in an equivalent XML SCHEMA which will be used to store the valid XML data.

Laila Alami Kasri

2010-11-01

140

Adding new clauses for faster local search  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A primary concern when using local search methods for CNF satisfiability is how to get rid of local minimas. Among many other heuristics, Weighting by Morris and Selman and Kautz works overwhelmingly better than others. Weighting increases the weight of each clause which is unsatisfied at a local minima. This paper introduces a more sophisticated weighting strategy, i.e., adding new clauses (ANC) that are unsatisfied at the local minima. As those new clauses, we choose resolvents of the clauses unsatisfied at the local minima and randomly selected neighboring clauses. The idea is that ANC is to make the slope of search space more smooth than the simple weighting. Experimental data show that ANC is faster than simple weighting: (1) When the number of variables is 200 or more, ANC is roughly four to ten times as fast as weighting in terms of the number of search steps. (2) It might be more important that the divergence of computation time for each try is much smaller in ANC than in weighting. (3) There are several possible reasons for ANC`s superiority, one of which is that ANC returns the same local minima much less frequently than weighting.

Cha, Byungki; Iwama, Kazuo [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

1996-12-31

141

Managing XML Data to optimize Performance into Object-Relational Databases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper propose some possibilities for manage XML data in order to optimize performance into object-relational databases. It is detailed the possibility of storing XML data into such databases, using for exemplification an Oracle database and there are tested some optimizing techniques of the queries over XMLType tables, like indexing and partitioning tables.

Iuliana BOTHA

2011-06-01

142

Object-Relational Databases: An Area with Some Theoretical Promises and Few Practical Achievements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper tries to point out some of the promises, quarrels, achievements, and perspectives of the forced marriage between the relational and object-oriented data models, from both theoretical and implementation perspectives. As practical O-R achievements, the latest SQL standards (SQL:1999-2008 and Oracle implementation are discussed.

Marin Fotache

2009-12-01

143

Translating Circumstantial Clause of Arabic into Malay  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the function of circumstantial clause of Arabic for its translation into Malay. Circumstantial clause is among functional syntax in Arabic sentence structure. It is formed from the words or phrase in the sentence. This pattern does not seem to exist in the Malay grammar. In such circumstances, there is the difficulty to understand the meaning contained in a sentence correctly. Descriptive approach was used to analyze the circumstantial clause in Arabic. Comparative analysis is carried out on selected data of Arabic language with its translation in Malay. It is expected that there exist a need to understand the differences of these patterns in the work of the Arabic translation into Malay language.

Azman Che Mat

2014-06-01

144

Determinants of Institutional Objectives and Risk Identification: Relative Relationship – Case of a University  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the determinants of institutional Objectives and institutional-wide risk identification. In this study, guided by both qualitative and quantitative methods, the researcher uses content analysis and Speraman’s ranked correlation analysis to investigate relationship between determinants of institutional Objectives and institutional-wide risk identification. The researcher also controls for other determinant using partial correlation analysis. The results were in two folds. Firstly -the University under investigation does not identify and prioritise its risks to a sufficient standard- that the University’s’ key risks are not linked to its strategic objectives- that the University does not ensure that the awareness of the institution’s key risks is cascaded downward, upward or horizontally through out the university employees. Secondly, the findings indicated that - there was strong, positive correlation between F1 (clientele base-institutional objectives and risk identification activity- in contrast, there was no relationship between F2 (opportunity for learning and risk identification- meanwhile, there was evidence to suggest good agreement between F3 (sources of risk and risk identification- finally, there was a strong, negative correlation between F4 (alumina related institutional objective and risk identification.

Anass BAYAGA

2010-04-01

145

Investigation of Inlet Gas Streams Effect on the Modified Claus Reaction Furnace  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this paper is to model the main reactions that take place in the Claus reactor furnace and compare it with actual data and simulated process. Since the most important point is the selection of suitable reaction conditions to increase the reactor performance, the model is formulated to predict the performance of

Reza Rezazadeh; Sima Rezvantalab

2013-01-01

146

48 CFR 970.2307-2 - Contract clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.2307-2...MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Environment, Energy...Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2307-2 Contract clause. Link to an...

2010-10-01

147

48 CFR 970.2304-2 - Contract clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.2304-2...MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Environment, Energy...Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2304-2 Contract clause. Link to an...

2010-10-01

148

48 CFR 970.5001-4 - Contract clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.5001-4 Section...REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Extraordinary Contractual Actions and the Safety Act 970.5001-4 Contract clause. When use of the...

2010-10-01

149

48 CFR 50.104-4 - Contract clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 50.104-4...ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY...CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS AND THE SAFETY ACT Extraordinary Contractual...Actions 50.104-4 Contract clause. The...

2010-10-01

150

48 CFR 3023.9000 - Contract clause (USCG).  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause (USCG). 3023.9000 Section...ENVIRONMENT, CONSERVATION, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Safety Requirements for USCG Contracts 3023.9000 Contract clause...

2010-10-01

151

48 CFR 970.5070-3 - Contract clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 970.5070-3 Section...REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Extraordinary Contractual Actions and the Safety Act 970.5070-3 Contract clauses. (a) The...

2010-10-01

152

48 CFR 511.204 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS...the clause 552.211-87, Export Packing, in solicitations...clause 552.211-88, Vehicle Export Preparation, in solicitations...Wood Packaging Material for Export, in solicitations and...

2010-10-01

153

48 CFR 3437.270 - Consulting services reporting clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consulting services reporting clause. 3437.270...CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Consulting Services 3437.270 Consulting services reporting clause. The...

2010-10-01

154

48 CFR 245.107-70 - Contract clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Contract clause. Use the clause at 252.245-7000, Government-Furnished Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy Property, in solicitations and contracts when mapping, charting, and geodesy property is to be...

2010-10-01

155

48 CFR 2109.409 - Certification and contract clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

... true Certification and contract clause. 2109.409 Section 2109.409 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE... Debarment, Suspension, and Ineligibility 2109.409 Certification and contract clause. (a)...

2010-10-01

156

48 CFR 1827.409-70 - NASA contract clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 true NASA contract clause. 1827.409-70 Section 1827.409-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL...COPYRIGHTS Rights in Data and Copyrights 1827.409-70 NASA contract clause. The contracting...

2010-10-01

157

Regulating damage clauses in (labor) contracts  

OpenAIRE

We analyze the role of damage clauses in labor contracts using a model in which a worker may want to terminate his current employment relationship and work for another firm. We show that the initial parties to a contract have an incentive to stipulate excessive damage clauses, which leads to ex post inefficiencies. This result is due to rent seeking motives a) between the contracting parties vis-à-vis third parties and b) among the contracting parties themselves. We then show that, by imposi...

Muehlheusser, Gerd

2006-01-01

158

A Faster Clause-Shortening Algorithm for SAT with No Restriction on Clause Length  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We give a randomized algorithm for testing satisfiability of Boolean formulas in conjunctive normal form with no restriction on clause length. This algorithm uses the clause-shortening approach proposed by Schuler. The running time of the algorithm is O(2^(n(1?1/? where ? = ln(m/n + O(ln ln m and n, m are respectively the number of variables and the number of clauses in the input formula. This bound is asymptotically better than the previously best known 2^(n(1?1/ log(2m bound for SAT.

Evgeny Dantsin

2005-11-01

159

THE UNPREDICTABILITY CLAUSE IN TRANSPORT CONTRACTS, ACCORDING TO THE NEW CIVIL CODE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Until the enforcement of the highly controversial transport law, transport companies must already observe the provisions of the new Civil Code1 in their transport business. One of the novelties in the new Civil Code, that came into force on October 1, 2011, refers to the unpredictability clause: recurring to this clause, in certain situations to be precisely analysed by courts, parties may even be exempted from certain contractual obligations, when the court decides to rescind the contract based on objective criteria, not imputable to the party that no longer can properly fulfil the obligations that had been undertaken when the contract had been made. However, this solution only is provided after all means of negotiation and mediation between parties are exhausted. The clause meets current market requirements, under which many companies have to deal with bad paying partners.

Adriana Elena BELU

2014-05-01

160

Advantages Of Object-Oriented Over Relational Databases On Real-Life Applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Business, manufacturing and other kinds of databases have been implemented by the relational database technology. The transition from one generation to the next has always been necessitated by the ever-increasing complexity of database applications and the cost of implementing, maintaining, and extending these applications. Accordingly, whatever the application areas of the relational database technology are, the basic shortcomings and weaknesses of this discipline are valid. On the other hand, the object-oriented database technology forms a good basis for all kinds of database applications, e.g., CAD/CAM/CASE/CIM systems, knowledge management systems, and others, due to its flexible, effective, and extensible data modeling and application formalism. In this study, two popular database technologies, the relational and object-oriented, are briefly introduced and their general characteristics are discussed. The purpose of this study is to point-out and compare the important features of relational and object-oriented databases, for the sake of understanding the pros and cons of these technologies before implementing them. 

Hakan Butuner

2013-09-01

161

Clause Structure in Old English: Evidence from Negative Concord.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper deals with the clause structure of Old English. It is argued that the clause structure of Old English contains a head-initial functional projection whose head can be the landing site of verb movement in subordinate clauses. (41 references) (JL)

Haeberli, Eric; Haegeman, Liliane

1995-01-01

162

Universal charge-radius relation for subatomic and astrophysical compact objects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Electron-positron pair creation in supercritical electric fields limits the net charge of any static, spherical object, such as superheavy nuclei, strangelets, and Q balls, or compact stars like neutron stars, quark stars, and black holes. For radii between 4 x 10(2) and 10(4) fm the upper bound on the net charge is given by the universal relation Z=0.71R(fm), and for larger radii (measured in femtometers or kilometers) Z=7 x 10(-5)R_(2)(fm)=7 x 10(31)R_(2)(km). For objects with nuclear density the relation corresponds to Z approximately 0.7A(1/3)( (10(8)10(12)), where A is the baryon number. For some systems this universal upper bound improves existing charge limits in the literature. PMID:18518093

Madsen, Jes

2008-04-18

163

The relation between energy efficiency and other general objectives from a socioeconomic perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An important question in the analysis of energy efficiency programs and their consequences is: How are objectives and instruments defined? E.g. if the objective is reduced carbon dioxide emissions and energy efficiency is the means to reach the objective, then it is not certain that increased energy efficiency will give the result as expected (1). Furthermore, energy efficiency measures will probably be an inefficient way of reaching the goal (2). (1) due to the rebound effects, and (2) since the measures are applied indiscriminately, energy use with only weak couplings to the objective are also affected. Energy efficiency is a partial and relative measure, and does not give much information studied in isolation. It should rather be studied from the perspective of total resource efficiency. Economic policy ought to have the goal of securing a socioeconomic exploitation of all resources (of which energy is one). An instrument working in this direction is internalizing of external effects e.g. through environmental taxes, so that the prices reflect the socioeconomic costs for using the resources. Early foreign studies indicates that a rebound effect exists, usually, however, the technological efficiency potentials can be realized. In a recent study of Swedish conditions, the rebound effect seems to be important. It totally negates the initial effect, at in the end the emissions have increased compared to the starting point. The results show the energy efficiency measures can be in direct conflict with climate and other environmental objectives.

164

Attention to Maternal Multimodal Naming by 6- to 8-Month-Old Infants and Learning of Word-Object Relations  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined whether mothers' use of temporal synchrony between spoken words and moving objects, and infants' attention to object naming, predict infants' learning of word-object relations. Following 5 min of free play, 24 mothers taught their 6- to 8-month-olds the names of 2 toy objects, "Gow" and "Chi," during a 3-min play episode. Infants were…

Gogate, Lakshmi J.; Bolzani, Laura H.; Betancourt, Eugene A.

2006-01-01

165

Adding Hierarchical Objects to Relational Database General-Purpose XML-Based Information Managements  

Science.gov (United States)

NETMARK is a flexible, high-throughput software system for managing, storing, and rapid searching of unstructured and semi-structured documents. NETMARK transforms such documents from their original highly complex, constantly changing, heterogeneous data formats into well-structured, common data formats in using Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) and/or Extensible Markup Language (XML). The software implements an object-relational database system that combines the best practices of the relational model utilizing Structured Query Language (SQL) with those of the object-oriented, semantic database model for creating complex data. In particular, NETMARK takes advantage of the Oracle 8i object-relational database model using physical-address data types for very efficient keyword searches of records across both context and content. NETMARK also supports multiple international standards such as WEBDAV for drag-and-drop file management and SOAP for integrated information management using Web services. The document-organization and -searching capabilities afforded by NETMARK are likely to make this software attractive for use in disciplines as diverse as science, auditing, and law enforcement.

Lin, Shu-Chun; Knight, Chris; La, Tracy; Maluf, David; Bell, David; Tran, Khai Peter; Gawdiak, Yuri

2006-01-01

166

Claus Achton Friis : Skrift og brugsgrafik  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Grafiker, professor Claus Achton Friis 1917-1999 er en central skikkelse i det 20.århundredes danske brugsgrafik. Han er ophavsmand til en mængde emballager, frimærker og heraldik og desuden formgiver af en række fremragende skrifter. Han var elev af grafikeren professor Gunnar Biilmann Petersen og blev selv, i en sen alder, professor på Kunstakademiets Afdeling for Grafisk Design.

Ejlers, Steen

1996-01-01

167

48 CFR 2152.070 - Applicable clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01...Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF...FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS...for Defective Cost or Pricing Data 52.215-12Subcontractor...by Electronic Funds Transfer—Central...

2010-10-01

168

'That'-clauses as existential quantifiers  

OpenAIRE

Following Panaccio, 'John believes that p' is analysed as 'For some x such that x is true if and only if p, John believes x'. On this view the complement clause 'that p' acts as a restricted existential quantifier ('For some x such that x is true if and only if p') and it contributes a higher-order property.

Recanati, Franc?ois

2004-01-01

169

Clause structure and verb series  

OpenAIRE

This article argues that in V1-XP-V2 and V1-V2-XP series, V1 merges in the functional domain of the lexical verb (V2). V2 introduces the (internal) argument and is embedded under an AspP whose head is endowed with an EPP feature. Surface word order variations in Kwa (and Khoisan) result from the EPP licensing that triggers V2-object inversion, sometimes followed by V2 movement past the shifted object.

Aboh, E. O.

2009-01-01

170

Reduced object related negativity response indicates impaired auditory scene analysis in adults with autistic spectrum disorder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Auditory Scene Analysis provides a useful framework for understanding atypical auditory perception in autism. Specifically, a failure to segregate the incoming acoustic energy into distinct auditory objects might explain the aversive reaction autistic individuals have to certain auditory stimuli or environments. Previous research with non-autistic participants has demonstrated the presence of an Object Related Negativity (ORN in the auditory event related potential that indexes pre-attentive processes associated with auditory scene analysis. Also evident is a later P400 component that is attention dependent and thought to be related to decision-making about auditory objects. We sought to determine whether there are differences between individuals with and without autism in the levels of processing indexed by these components. Electroencephalography (EEG was used to measure brain responses from a group of 16 autistic adults, and 16 age- and verbal-IQ-matched typically-developing adults. Auditory responses were elicited using lateralized dichotic pitch stimuli in which inter-aural timing differences create the illusory perception of a pitch that is spatially separated from a carrier noise stimulus. As in previous studies, control participants produced an ORN in response to the pitch stimuli. However, this component was significantly reduced in the participants with autism. In contrast, processing differences were not observed between the groups at the attention-dependent level (P400. These findings suggest that autistic individuals have difficulty segregating auditory stimuli into distinct auditory objects, and that this difficulty arises at an early pre-attentive level of processing.

Veema Lodhia

2014-02-01

171

Animacy Affects the Processing of Subject-Object Ambiguities in the Second Language: Evidence from Self-Paced Reading with German Second Language Learners of Dutch  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of a self-paced reading study with German second language (L2) learners of Dutch showed that noun animacy affected the learners' on-line commitments when comprehending relative clauses in their L2. Earlier research has found that German L2 learners of Dutch do not show an on-line preference for subject-object word order in temporarily…

Jackson, Carrie N.; Roberts, Leah

2010-01-01

172

Prefrontal and striatal activity related to values of objects and locations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The value of an object acquired by a particular action often determines the motivation to produce that action. Previous studies found neural signals related to the values of different objects or goods in the orbitofrontal cortex, while the values of outcomes expected from different actions are broadly represented in multiple brain areas implicated in movement planning. However, how the brain combines the values associated with various objects and the information about their locations is not known. In this study, we tested whether the neurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and striatum in rhesus monkeys might contribute to translating the value signals between multiple frames of reference. Monkeys were trained to perform an oculomotor intertemporal choice in which the color of a saccade target and the number of its surrounding dots signaled the magnitude of reward and its delay, respectively. In both DLPFC and striatum, temporally discounted values associated with specific target colors and locations were encoded by partially overlapping populations of neurons. In the DLPFC, the information about reward delays and temporally discounted values of rewards available from specific target locations emerged earlier than the corresponding signals for target colors. Similar results were reproduced by a simple network model built to compute temporally discounted values of rewards in different locations. Therefore, DLPFC might play an important role in estimating the values of different actions by combining the previously learned values of objects and their present locations.

DaeyeolLee

2012-07-01

173

Mechanical objects and the engineering learner: An experimental study of how the presence of objects affects students' performance on engineering related tasks  

Science.gov (United States)

People display varying levels of interaction with the mechanical objects in their environment; engineers in particular as makers and users of these objects display a higher level of interaction with them. Investigating the educational potential of mechanical objects in stimulating and supporting learning in engineering is warranted by the fact that practicing engineers work with mechanical objects as they design, test and improve devices. It is possible that mechanical objects can facilitate learning by providing opportunities to authenticate the teaching and learning experience. More importantly, mechanical objects can serve as an instrument in transferring the knowledge of abstract concepts to practical applications. What remains unclear is how individual differences in interests and aptitudes are related to these interactions in engineering students. This study investigated how individual differences related to thing orientation and mechanical aptitude affect interaction with mechanical objects in engineering education instruction. The study introduces a task designed to replicate a real-world engineering application and uses this task to examine the effect of these aptitudes, interests, and direct manipulation of mechanical objects on performance.

Bairaktarova, Diana N.

174

Modelling with Relational Calculus of Object and Component Systems - rCOS  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This chapter presents a formalization of functional and behavioural requirements, and a refinement of requirements to a design for CoCoME using the Relational Calculus of Object and Component Systems (rCOS). We give a model of requirements based on an abstraction of the use cases described in Chapter 3.2. Then the refinement calculus of rCOS is used to derive design models corresponding to the top level designs of Chapter 3.4. We demonstrate how rCOS supports modelling different views and their relationships of the system and the separation of concerns in the development.

Chen, Zhenbang; Hannousse, Abdel Hakim

2008-01-01

175

Ontology-Based Retrieval of Spatially Related Objects for Location Based Services  

Science.gov (United States)

Advanced Location Based Service (LBS) applications have to integrate information stored in GIS, information about users' preferences (profile) as well as contextual information and information about application itself. Ontology engineering provides methods to semantically integrate several data sources. We propose an ontology-driven LBS development framework: the paper describes the architecture of ontologies and their usage for retrieval of spatially related objects relevant to the user. Our main contribution is to enable personalised ontology driven LBS by providing a novel approach for defining personalised semantic spatial relationships by means of ontologies. The approach is illustrated by an industrial case study.

Haav, Hele-Mai; Kaljuvee, Aivi; Luts, Martin; Vajakas, Toivo

176

Hippocampal 5-HT1A receptor binding is related to object-location memory in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal studies suggest that serotonin, mediated by the 5-HT1A receptor, plays a key role in spatial learning and memory. The role of serotonin in spatial memory in humans has, however, been less well studied. This study examined the relationship between serotonin receptor density in the human brain and spatial learning and memory using the 5-HT1A receptor ligand (18)F-4-(2'-methoxyphenyl)-1-[2'-(N-2-pyridinyl)-p-fluorobenzamido]-ethyl-piperazine ([(18)F] MPPF) and positron emission tomography (PET). Ten neurologically healthy individuals underwent two [(18)F] MPPF PET scans, one while performing a task which involves processing of high-level spatial information ('house scan'), and one while performing a task which involves processing of low-level spatial information ('tunnel scan'). Navigation, recall of arbitrary associations between objects and their spatial location, and ability to draw a plan of the environment were tested following the house scan. 5-HT1A receptor binding did not differ significantly between processing high and low levels of spatial information. Hippocampal asymmetry in [(18)F] MPPF binding, however, was associated with memory for object-location associations; lower right than left hippocampal binding potential (BPND) was related to better memory performance. We conclude that hippocampal serotonergic function plays a role in a fundamental component of human spatial memory, the ability to recall the location of encountered objects. PMID:24807817

Glikmann-Johnston, Yifat; Saling, Michael M; Chen, Jian; O'Keefe, Graeme; Gong, Sylvia; Tochon-Danguy, Henri; Mulligan, Rachel; Reutens, David C

2015-01-01

177

Risks for Host States of the Entwining of Investment Treaty and Contract Claims: Dispute Resolution Clauses, Umbrella Clauses, and Forks-in-the-Road  

SCPinfonet

...of Investment Treaty and Contract Claims: Dispute Resolution Clauses, Umbrella Clauses, and Forks-in-the-Road Search Publications Search IISD    IISD Home Our Knowledge About IISD ...of Investment Treaty and Contract Claims: Dispute Resolution Clauses, Umbrella Clauses, and Forks-in-the-Road » Fiona Marshall, IISD, 2009. Paper, 33 ...that they contain some form of umbrella clause and lack an effective fork-in-the-road clause. This leaves capital-importing States that are party to these ...of Investment Treaty and Contract Claims: Dispute Resolution Clauses, Umbrella Clauses, and Forks-in-the-RoadIISD Publication Twitter Facebook StumbleUpon Digg Delicious LinkedIn Highlighted Report Collaboration and ...

178

A Comparative Study Between the Performance of Relational & Object Oriented Database in Data Warehousing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A data warehouse is a repository of subjectively selected and adapted operational data which cansuccessfully answer any ad hoc, statistical, complex or analytical queries. Data warehousing technology isbecoming essential for effective business intelligence, business strategy formulation and implementation ina globally competitive environment where in larger and larger amounts of data are required to beprocessed faster and faster for comprehension of its real meaning and impact. A warehouse is a subjectoriented,integrated, time-variant and non-volatile collection of data in support of management's decisionmaking process”. Data that gives information about a particular subject instead of about a company'songoing operations. It is integrated as data that is gathered into the data warehouse from a variety ofsources and merged into a coherent whole. Data warehouse system is time variant as all data in the datawarehouse is identified with a particular time period This paper discusses in detail two existing databasemodels used for data warehousing, the relational database and object oriented database and does ananalysis of the benefits of Object Oriented databases over the conventional relational database in Datawarehousing.

Pushpa Suri

2011-05-01

179

Advanced SQL 1999 understanding object-relational and other advanced features  

CERN Document Server

Advanced SQL:1999 - Understanding Object-Relational and Other Advanced Features is the practitioner''s handbook to the standard''s advanced features. It is not a re-presentation of the standard, but rather an authoritative, in-depth guide to its practical application. Like its companion, SQL:1999 - Understanding Relational Language Components, which explained the standard''s basic features, this book will show you how to make your applications both effective and standard-compliant. This handy reference has a modular format so you can explore specific topics with ease. It is equally useful to those upgrading from earlier versions of SQL and those with no previous experience. Written by the standard''s distinguished editor, Advanced SQL:1999 will complete your knowledge and support your skills like no other book can.* Focuses entirely on the issues that matter to programmers who are connecting applications to databases.* Details SQL:1999''s object facilities, including structured user-defined types, typed tab...

Melton, Jim

2002-01-01

180

A Tool for Testing of Inheritance Related Bugs in Object Oriented Software  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Object oriented software development different from traditional development products. In object oriented software polymorphism, inheritance, dynamic binding are the important features. An inheritance property is the main feature. The compilers usually detect the syntax oriented errors only. Some of the property errors may be located in the product. Data flow testing is an appropriate testing method for testing program futures. This test analysis structure of the software and gives the flow of property. This study is designed to detect the hidden errors with reference to the inheritance property. Inputs of the tool are set of classes and packages. Outputs of the tools are hierarchies of the classes, methods, attributes and a set of inheritance related bugs like naked access, spaghetti inheritance bugs are automatically detected by the tool. The tool is developed as three major modules. They are code analysis, knowledge base preparation and bugs analysis. The code analysis module is designed to parse extract details from the code. The knowledge base preparation module is designed to prepare the knowledge base about the program details. The bug's analysis module is designed to extract bugs related information from the database. It is a static testing. This study focused on Java programs.

B. G. Geetha

2008-01-01

181

Collective action clauses in sovereign bonds  

OpenAIRE

The universal adoption of collective action clauses (CACs) was the most promising reform proposal in recent debates on sovereign debt crisis management. Academics and the public sector had been promoting CACs since 1995, yet market practice did not begin to change until 2003. This delay is often attributed to the opposition of investors and sovereign borrowers to CACs. This article evaluates the publicly stated as well as the suspected private motives of the two sides to block the sprea...

Ha?seler, So?nke

2011-01-01

182

A New Approach in Consistency of Object Oriented Model and Relational Model in Distributed Systems Base on Heterogeneous Databases  

OpenAIRE

According to application a database is designed to be object-oriented model or relational model but the important point is distribution and heterogeneity. So a model should be provided which work with different types of database and also be able to work disruption, and heterogeneity So one of the great challenges in the use of distributed database technologies is integrating object-oriented databases with relational databases because the platform-independent technologies have an object-orient...

Tahereh kheradmandan; Hamidreza Hamidi; Shokoh Kermanshahani

2011-01-01

183

Proposed Framework wWhich Use the Object Oriented Principles in Relational Systems. General Aspects and Principles (Part I)  

OpenAIRE

There are some significant theoretical and technological approaches on the issue of object-relational "impedance mismatch" between applications' abstract model and database structures. Two characteristics of those approaches we think that are questionable: first of all it is so called “flat” nature of relational systems and model, and then there is the drawback of the storage of (object oriented) semantics on the application level, thus severe limiting the data (object) sharing and, at th...

Strimbei, Catalin

2006-01-01

184

Sensory Processing Relates to Attachment to Childhood Comfort Objects of College Students  

Science.gov (United States)

The author tested the hypothesis that attachment to comfort objects is based on the sensory processing characteristics of the individual. Fifty-two undergraduate students with and without a childhood comfort object reported sensory responses and performed a tactile threshold task. Those with a comfort object described their object and rated their…

Kalpidou, Maria

2012-01-01

185

Object Substitution Masking in Schizophrenia: An Event-Related Potential Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Schizophrenia patients exhibit deficits on visual processing tasks, including visual backward masking, and these impairments are related to deficits in higher-level processes. In the current study we used electroencephalography techniques to examine successive stages and pathways of visual processing in a specialized masking paradigm, four-dot masking, which involves masking by object substitution. Seventy-six schizophrenia patients and 66 healthy controls had event-related potentials (ERPs recorded during four-dot masking. Target visibility was manipulated by changing stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA between the target and mask, such that performance decreased with increasing SOA. Three SOAs were used: 0, 50, and 100 ms. The P100 and N100 perceptual ERPs were examined. Additionally, the visual awareness negativity (VAN to correct vs. incorrect responses, an index of reentrant processing, was examined for SOAs 50 and 100 ms. Results showed that patients performed worse than controls on the behavioral task across all SOAs. The ERP results revealed that patients had significantly smaller P100 and N100 amplitudes, though there was no effect of SOA on either component in either group. In healthy controls, but not patients, N100 amplitude correlated significantly with behavioral performance at SOAs where masking occurred, such that higher accuracy correlated with a larger N100. Healthy controls, but not patients, exhibited a larger VAN to correct vs. incorrect responses. The results indicate that the N100 appears to be related to attentional effort in the task in controls, but not patients. Considering that the VAN is thought to reflect reentrant processing, one interpretation of the findings is that patients’ lack of VAN response and poorer performance may be related to dysfunctional reentrant processing.

KristopherIanMathis

2013-02-01

186

48 CFR 227.7203-6 - Contract clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...computer software documentation. Do not use the clause...deliverable items are technical data (other than computer software documentation), commercial computer...computer software documentation (technical data). The...

2010-10-01

187

Relative object detectability (ROD): a new metric for comparing x-ray image detector performance for a specified object of interest  

Science.gov (United States)

Relative object detectability (ROD) quantifies the relative performance of two image detectors for a specified object of interest by taking the following ratio: the integral of detective quantum efficiency of a detector weighted by the frequency spectrum of the object divided by that for a second detector. Four different detectors, namely the microangiographic fluoroscope (MAF), the Dexela Model 1207 (Dex) and Hamamatsu Model C10901D-40 (Ham) CMOS xray detectors, and a flat-panel detector (FPD) were compared. The ROD was calculated for six pairs of detectors: (1) Dex/FPD, (2) MAF/FPD, (3) Ham/FPD, (4) Dex/Ham, (5) MAF/Ham and (6) MAF/Dex for wires of 5 mm fixed length, solid spheres ranging in diameter from 50 to 600 microns, and four simulated iodine-filled blood vessels of outer diameters 0.4 and 0.5 mm, each with wall thicknesses of 0.1 and 0.15 mm. Marked variation of ROD for the wires and spheres is demonstrated as a function of object size for the various detector pairs. The ROD of all other detectors relative to the FPD was much greater than one for small features and approached 1.0 as the diameter increased. The relative detectability of simulated small iodine-filled blood vessels for all detector pairs was seen to be independent of the vessel wall thickness for the same inner diameter. In this study, the ROD is shown to have the potential to be a useful figure of merit to evaluate the relative performance of two detectors for a given imaging task.

Singh, V.; Jain, A.; Bednarek, D. R.; Rudin, S.

2014-03-01

188

Age-related changes in feature-based object memory retrieval as measured by event-related potentials.  

Science.gov (United States)

To investigate neural mechanisms that support semantic functions in aging, we recorded scalp EEG during an object retrieval task in 22 younger and 22 older adults. The task required determining if a particular object could be retrieved when two visual words representing object features were presented. Both age groups had comparable accuracy although response times were longer in older adults. In both groups a left fronto-temporal negative potential occurred at around 750ms during object retrieval, consistent with previous findings (Brier, Maguire, Tillman, Hart, & Kraut, 2008). In only older adults, a later positive frontal potential was found peaking between 800 and 1000ms during no retrieval. These findings suggest younger and older adults employ comparable neural mechanisms when features clearly facilitate retrieval of an object memory, but when features yield no retrieval, older adults use additional neural resources to engage in a more effortful and exhaustive search prior to making a decision. PMID:24911552

Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Mudar, Raksha A; Spence, Jeffrey S; Pudhiyidath, Athula; Eroh, Justin; DeLaRosa, Bambi; Kraut, Michael A; Hart, John

2014-07-01

189

Subjective and objective wine quality in Central Mediterranean in relation to large scale climate patterns  

Science.gov (United States)

Subjective wine ranking is based on three factors: appearance (eye), smell (nose) and taste (palate); this kind of subjective ranking is often preferred over that based on technical objective means. Wine quality depends on its composition, which is a function of a number of factors: grapevine variety, soil type, cultivation techniques, and climate conditions. Between them, the soil is the main fixed factor; the positive trend is determined by a combination of improved cultural techniques and of warming related to climate change; while the climate variability is the main factor in determining the year-to-year wine quality variations. Therefore, the analysis of the grape composition before harvest is crucial for establishing the quality-climate correlations. In this work, 40 years of objective and subjective wine quality data collected in Italy are analyzed in relation to the climate conditions. Results show that the year-to-year quality variation of wines produced in North and Central Italy depends on the large scale climate variability, and that the wine quality improvement in the last four decades is partially due to an increase of temperature and to a decrease of the precipitations in West and Central Mediterranean Europe (WME; CME). In addition, wine quality is positively correlated with air temperature throughout the entire active period of the grapevine; weakly negatively correlated with precipitation in spring, and well negatively correlated in summer and fall. The month-to-month composites of the NAO anomaly show that, in years of good quality wine, this anomaly is negative in late spring, oscillates around zero in summer, and is positive in early fall; while, in years of bad quality wine, it is positive in late spring and summer, and negative in early fall; i.e. its polarity has an opposite sign in spring and fall in good versus bad years. The composite seasonal maps show that good wines are produced when the spring jet stream over Atlantic diverts most of the weather perturbations towards North Europe, still providing a sufficient amount of rainwater to CME; when summer warming induced by southerly winds is balanced by the cooling induced by westerly winds; and when a positive geopotential anomaly over WME shelters CME from fall Atlantic storms. Bad quality wines are produced when the jet stream favors the intrusion of the Atlantic weather perturbations into the Mediterranean. Results suggest that the persistence of atmospheric patterns can be used as precursor for wine quality forecast.

Baldi, Marina; Dalu, John David; Dalla Marta, Anna; Orlandini, Simone; Maracchi, Gianpiero; Dalu, Giovannangelo; Grifoni, Daniele; Mancini, Marco

2013-04-01

190

Comparative analysis of the symptomatology of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction in relation to objective data  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical presentation of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) relating to objective examination data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four children (36 girls and 8 boys with mean age of 6.8 years) with LUTD were prospectively assessed through a specific questionnaire that analyzed clinical presentation of those patients. These data were then compared to objective data, such as micturition diary and uroflowmetry with electromyography. RESULTS: A urinary t...

Barroso Jr. Ubirajara; Nova Thiago; Dultra Anderson; Lordelo Patricia; Andrade Juarez; Vinhaes Antonio J.

2006-01-01

191

Timed Definite Clause Omega-Grammars  

OpenAIRE

We propose timed context-free grammars (TCFGs) and show how parsers for such grammars can be developed using definite clause grammars (DCGs) coupled with constraints over reals (CLP(R)). Timed context-free grammars describe timed context-free languages (TCFLs). We next extend timed context-free grammars to timed context-free omega-grammars (omega-TCFGs for brevity) and incorporate co-inductive logic programming in DCGs to obtain parsers for them. Timed context-free omega-grammars describe tim...

Saeedloei, Neda; Gupta, Gopal

2010-01-01

192

A Perpetual Search for the Idealized Lost Loved Object: An Object-relations Reading of Ian McEwan’s Enduring Love  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper attempts to present the journey of mental suffering in Jed Parry, one of the major characters in Enduring Love. In this regard, it is noted that this journey begins and questions the borders of Self and Other in life and boundaries of love. Jed Parry is perceived as a religious fanatic and what comes next is Jed’s obsession with Joe and his attempt to convince him that they are in love, and at the same time Joe is preoccupied with the idea that Jed is obsessed with him. We present a close reading of Enduring Love by elucidating some of the psychoanalytical reflections on Jed via the lens of child-mother conceptual theory. Specifically, we explore the psychic anxieties and the influence of this early female figure on Jed’s interactions in light of Object Relations Theory of the psychoanalysis attributable to the Fairbairnian, Kleinnian, and Winnicottian analytic traditions. We trace the psychoanalytical origins of Jed’s anxieties and tensions into childhood and also highlight a much earlier female (mother influence. We will show how deprivation from the establishment of a satisfying contact with this primary love object (mother can wreak havoc in the character’s psyche and cause his ego to move towards establishing relations with his internal objects instead of natural, real objects in his external world.

Roohollah Reesi Sistani

2014-08-01

193

Bi-Objective Optimization Based on Compromise Method for Horizontal Fragmentation in Relational Data Warehouses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Generally, research that dealt with the selection problems for optimization techniques or structures in relational data ware houses supports these problems by considering only a single criterion of optimization. The optimization criteria may be the response time of query execution, the number of inputs/outputs between the main memory and the disk, the space allocated to store the index or materialized views, or the number fragments required by the administrator of the data warehouse when using the fragmentation technique. The present work deals with the problem of selecting the horizontal fragmentation technique while considering both the number of I/O between memory and disk during decisional queries and the number of fragments, as two objective functions to minimize. To reduce the scope of choice solutions, we are based on a scalar method, called compromise method. The method is complemented by the principle of Pareto front to infer the best solutions. The study has been experimented on APB1 benchmark of data warehouse.

Mohamed Barr

2013-06-01

194

CRUD-DOM : a model for bridging the gap between the object-oriented and the relational paradigms  

OpenAIRE

Object-oriented programming is the most successful programming paradigm. Relational database management systems are the most successful data storage components. Despite their individual successes and their desirable tight binding, they rely on different points of view about data entailing difficulties on their integration. Some solutions have been proposed to overcome these difficulties, such as Embedded SQL, object/relational mappings (O/RM), language extensions and e...

Pereira, O?scar M.; Aguiar, Rui L.; Santos, Maribel Yasmina

2010-01-01

195

Flatness of the Energy Landscape for Horn Clauses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Little-Hopfield neural network programmed with Horn clauses is studied. We argue that the energy landscape of the system, corresponding to the inconsistency function for logical interpretations of the sets of Horn clauses, has minimal ruggedness. This is supported by computer simulations.

Saratha Sathasivam

2007-12-01

196

Flatness of the Energy Landscape for Horn Clauses  

CERN Document Server

The Little-Hopfield neural network programmed with Horn clauses is studied. We argue that the energy landscape of the system, corresponding to the inconsistency function for logical interpretations of the sets of Horn clauses, has minimal ruggedness. This is supported by computer simulations.

Sathasivam, Saratha

2008-01-01

197

37 CFR 401.13 - Administration of patent rights clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Administration of patent rights clauses. 401.13 Section 401.13...TECHNOLOGY POLICY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RIGHTS TO INVENTIONS MADE BY NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS... § 401.13 Administration of patent rights clauses. (a) In the event a...

2010-07-01

198

37 CFR 401.14 - Standard patent rights clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Standard patent rights clauses. 401.14 Section 401.14...TECHNOLOGY POLICY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RIGHTS TO INVENTIONS MADE BY NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS...AGREEMENTS § 401.14 Standard patent rights clauses. (a) The following is...

2010-07-01

199

The Event as an Object-Relational Database: Avoiding the Dependency Nightmare  

OpenAIRE

With the use of object-oriented languages for HEP, many experiments have designed their data objects to contain direct references to other objects in the event (e.g., tracks and electromagnetic showers have references to each other to denote matches). Unfortunately this creates tremendous dependencies between packages which lead to brittle development systems (e.g., if the electromagnetic code has a problem you may not be able to compile the tracking code) and makes the stor...

Jones, C. D.

2003-01-01

200

A Survey of Health Management User Objectives Related to Diagnostic and Prognostic Metrics  

OpenAIRE

One of the most prominent technical challenges to effective deployment of health management systems is the vast difference in user objectives with respect to engineering development. In this paper, a detailed survey on the objectives of different users of health management systems is presented. These user objectives are then mapped to the metrics typically encountered in the development and testing of two main systems health management functions: diagnosis and prognosis. Using this mapping, t...

Poll, Scott D.; Wheeler, Kevin R.; Tolga Kurtoglu

2010-01-01

201

Proposed Framework wWhich Use the Object Oriented Principles in Relational Systems. General Aspects and Principles (Part I  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are some significant theoretical and technological approaches on the issue of object-relational "impedance mismatch" between applications' abstract model and database structures. Two characteristics of those approaches we think that are questionable: first of all it is so called “flat” nature of relational systems and model, and then there is the drawback of the storage of (object oriented semantics on the application level, thus severe limiting the data (object sharing and, at the same time, virtually broking the data independence principle of database systems architecture. In this paper we will try to outline an approach to address to some in a concrete manner.

Catalin STRIMBEI

2006-01-01

202

Comparison of time adjustment clauses between DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article examines time adjustment clauses, as they relate to time adjustment between standard terms of construction contracts. DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC were compared on the basis of how risks are allocated, how this may impact on the contractor’s pricing, and ease of understanding for each clause. ASTCC was found to be the most easily interpreted contract, followed by AS4000 and then NZS3910. These assessments were based on the following: a whether each contract contains words with multiple meanings, b the number of words used per sentence, c the amount of internal cross-referencing, and d the clarity of the contract structure. The allowable pre-conditions for the contractor to claim a time adjustment are similar for all three contracts, and none of them expressly state which party is to bare the risk of buildability, or address the risk of a designer’s disclaimer clause. All of the contracts adopt the principle of contra preferentum which means that the employer bares the risk of variance if there are any ambiguities in the design documentation. Due to their similarities of risk allocation, all of the contracts provide the employer with a similar amount of price surety. AS4000 is the only contract to contain a stringent time-bar clause, limiting a contractor’s time adjustment claim. ASTCC requires the contractor to apply ‘immediately’ and DZ3910 provides a time-bar of 20 working days or as soon as practicable. None of the contracts clarify whether their timing requirements take precedence over the prevention principle, or over any other ground for claiming a time adjustment. The effect of DZ3910’s pre-notification clause 5.19.3 is discussed, and an alternative contents structure is recommended for DZ3910, using a project management method. 

David Finnie

2013-03-01

203

Discerning Technological Systems Related to Everyday Objects: Mapping the Variation in Pupils' Experience  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding technology today implies more than being able to use the technological objects present in our everyday lives. Our society is increasingly integrated with technological systems, of which technological objects, and their function, form a part. Technological literacy in that context implies understanding how knowledge is constituted in…

Svensson, Maria; Ingerman, Ake

2010-01-01

204

On the relation between atmospheric and internal motions in an astrophysical object  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The equations of the flow of a perfect fluid in a relativistic spacetime are considered, as well as their first-order approximations when the velocity is small as compared with the speed of light. In particular we study how frame-dragging effects in the atmosphere of a massive object may yield some clues as to the motion of fluids within the object

205

Over a barrel : exiting from NAFTA's proportionality clause  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural gas exports to the United States are locked in by the proportionality clause of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The authors state that although both conventional oil and gas have peaked in Canada, the proportionality clause requires Canada to maintain its current share of energy exports to the United States, even if Canadians experience shortages. The unique clause guarantees the United States' access to Canada's energy resources. The authors cautioned that NAFTA limits Canada's options for managing its energy future and recommended options for regaining Canadian energy security. With NAFTA and the energy proportionality clause back on the political agenda for the first time since the 1993 federal election, this document explored 3 scenarios under which the proportionality clause could be invoked. The scenarios demonstrated how the clause could prevent Canada from reducing exports to conserve oil; prioritizing natural gas for petrochemicals; or, substituting Canadian oil for volatile foreign imports. The exercise demonstrated how under certain circumstances, proportionality could result in energy shortages for Canadians. The authors suggested that if NAFTA were to be renegotiated, Canada's first priority should be to end the proportionality clause because it stands in the way of Canada developing an effective energy security plan. 51 refs., 3 tabs

206

Operant behavior can be triggered by the position of the rat relative to objects rotating on an inaccessible platform  

OpenAIRE

The present study describes a task testing the ability of rats to trigger operant behavior by their relative spatial position to inaccessible rotating objects. Rats were placed in a Skinner box with a transparent front wall through which they could observe one or two adjacent objects fixed on a slowly rotating arena (d = 1 m) surrounded by an immobile black cylinder. The direction of arena rotation was alternated at a sequence of different time intervals. Rats were reinforced for the first ba...

Pastalkova, E.; Kelemen, E.; Bures?, J.

2003-01-01

207

A New Approach in Consistency of Object Oriented Model and Relational Model in Distributed Systems Base on Heterogeneous Databases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to application a database is designed to be object-oriented model or relational model but the important point is distribution and heterogeneity. So a model should be provided which work with different types of database and also be able to work disruption, and heterogeneity So one of the great challenges in the use of distributed database technologies is integrating object-oriented databases with relational databases because the platform-independent technologies have an object-oriented approach But today databases are usualy designed and implemented base on relational model. Hence this paper tries to offer a model that could bring further coordination and integration between these two exsisting database models

Tahereh kheradmandan

2011-02-01

208

Optimum relative speed discretisation for detection of moving objects in wide band SAR  

OpenAIRE

Here, Ground moving target indication (GMTI) using synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is considered. SAR GMTI requires that relative speed between the target and the SAR platform is included in the detection algorithm. A separation between the true relative speed and the relative speed used in the SAR process will cause unfocused targets, and decrease detectability. Blind hypotheses of relative speeds are used in the detection phase of moving targets in SAR. The step size ...

Pettersson, Mats

2007-01-01

209

Spectral energy distribution and generalized Wien's law for photons, cosmic string loops and related physical objects  

CERN Document Server

Physical objects with energy $u_w(l) \\sim l^{-3w}$ with $l$ a characteristic length and $w$ a numerical constant ($-1 \\leq w \\leq 1$), lead to an equation of state $p=w\\rho$, with $p$ the pressure and $\\rho$ the energy density. Special objects with this property are, for instance, photons ($u = hc/l$, with $l$ the wavelength) with $w = 1/3$, and some models of cosmic string loops ($u = (c^4/aG)l$, with $l$ the length of the loop and $a$ a numerical constant), with $w = -1/3$, and maybe other kinds of objects as, for instance, hypothetical cosmic membranes with lateral size $l$ and energy proportional to the area, i.e. to $l^2$, for which $w = -2/3$, or the yet unknown constituents of dark energy, with $w = -1$. Here, we discuss the general features of the spectral energy distribution of these systems and the corresponding generalization of Wien's law, which has the form $Tl_{mp}^{3w}=constant$, being $l_{mp}$ the most probable size of the mentioned objects.

Jou, David; Sciacca, Michele

2013-01-01

210

Subjective Poverty and Its Relation to Objective Poverty Concepts in Hungary  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper analyzes subjective poverty in Hungary and compares it to the objective poverty concepts. Subjective poverty is defined by examining who people consider to be poor. Based on the Easterlin paradox, the initial hypothesis states that subjective and absolute poverty concepts are highly correlated. Taking into account that Hungary is a…

Nandori, Eszter Siposne

2011-01-01

211

A Meta-Relational Approach for the Definition and Management of Hybrid Learning Objects  

Science.gov (United States)

Electronic learning objects (LOs) are commonly conceived of as digital units of information used for teaching and learning. To facilitate their classification for pedagogical planning and retrieval purposes, LOs are complemented with metadata (e.g., the author). These metadata are usually restricted by a set of predetermined tags to which the…

Navarro, Antonio; Fernandez-Pampillon, Ana Ma.; Fernandez-Chamizo, Carmen; Fernandez-Valmayor, Alfredo

2013-01-01

212

THE COMPLEX CLAUSE IN BORUCA LA ORACIÓN COMPLEJA EN LA LENGUA BORUCA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the complex clause in Boruca, a Chibchan language once spoken in the southern territories on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The present study concentrates on the behavior of complex clauses, following a major distinction between paratactic and hypotactic constructions. Paratactic constructions are divided into asyndetic and syndetic constructions. The latter are quite frequent and it is common to find the syndetons: mang, ní, ihchí and iné in the combination of sentences in regular speech. Hypotactic constructions also have asyndetic and syndetic constructions usually functioning as object complements. There is also evidence for reported speech, indirect questions and adverbial clauses (classified at least into seven different types.El artículo describe la oración compleja del boruca, una lengua chibcha que se habló en los territorios del Pacífico Sur en Costa Rica. El estudio se centra en el comportamiento de las proposiciones complejas, a partir de la distinción principal entre construcciones paratácticas e hipotácticas. Las construcciones paratácticas se dividen en sindéticas y asindéticas. Estas últimas son bastante frecuentes, y el uso de los conectores mang, ní, ihchí e iné es también bastante utilizado en la combinación de frases del lenguaje común. Las construcciones hipotácticas también presentan asindesis y sindesis, las cuales suelen funcionar como complementos de objeto. Hay también evidencia de discurso directo e indirecto, preguntas indirectas y construcciones adverbiales (clasificadas en siete tipos diferentes.

Damaris Castro

2010-12-01

213

THE COMPLEX CLAUSE IN BORUCA / LA ORACIÓN COMPLEJA EN LA LENGUA BORUCA  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish El artículo describe la oración compleja del boruca, una lengua chibcha que se habló en los territorios del Pacífico Sur en Costa Rica. El estudio se centra en el comportamiento de las proposiciones complejas, a partir de la distinción principal entre construcciones paratácticas e hipotácticas. Las [...] construcciones paratácticas se dividen en sindéticas y asindéticas. Estas últimas son bastante frecuentes, y el uso de los conectores mang, ní, ihchí e iné es también bastante utilizado en la combinación de frases del lenguaje común. Las construcciones hipotácticas también presentan asindesis y sindesis, las cuales suelen funcionar como complementos de objeto. Hay también evidencia de discurso directo e indirecto, preguntas indirectas y construcciones adverbiales (clasificadas en siete tipos diferentes). Abstract in english This paper describes the complex clause in Boruca, a Chibchan language once spoken in the southern territories on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The present study concentrates on the behavior of complex clauses, following a major distinction between paratactic and hypotactic constructions. Paratac [...] tic constructions are divided into asyndetic and syndetic constructions. The latter are quite frequent and it is common to find the syndetons: mang, ní, ihchí and iné in the combination of sentences in regular speech. Hypotactic constructions also have asyndetic and syndetic constructions usually functioning as object complements. There is also evidence for reported speech, indirect questions and adverbial clauses (classified at least into seven different types).

Damaris, Castro.

2010-12-01

214

48 CFR 970.2303-3 - Contract clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Environment, Energy...Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place 970.2303-3 Contract clauses. (a) When...enforce radiological safety and health standards...to provisions of the contract or subcontract...

2010-10-01

215

37 CFR 401.13 - Administration of patent rights clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...clauses. (a) In the event a subject invention is made under funding agreements...any information disclosing a subject invention for a reasonable time in order...be filed. With respect to subject inventions of contractors that are...

2010-07-01

216

37 CFR 401.14 - Standard patent rights clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Act (7 U.S.C. 2321 et seq. ). (2) Subject invention means any invention of the contractor conceived...title, and interest throughout the world to each subject invention subject to the provisions of this clause and 35...

2010-07-01

217

48 CFR 3027.404 - Basic rights in data clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

...SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Data and Copyrights 3027.404 Basic rights in data clause. (f)(1)(iii) The DHS will use Alternate IV of the (FAR) 48...

2010-10-01

218

48 CFR 727.404 - Basic rights in data clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

...INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Data and Copyrights 727.404 Basic rights in data clause. (a) through (f) [Reserved] (g) When the contract includes a...

2010-10-01

219

48 CFR 247.574 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. 247.574 Section 247.574 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE...TRANSPORTATION Ocean Transportation by U.S.-Flag Vessels 247.574 Solicitation provisions and contract...

2010-10-01

220

48 CFR 511.204 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

... (11) The contracting officer shall include the clause 552.211-92, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) using Passive Tags, in solicitations and contracts for supplies when deliveries may be made to military activities and the...

2010-10-01

221

48 CFR 1527.409 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. 1527.409 Section 1527.409 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL...COPYRIGHTS Rights in Data and Copyrights 1527.409 Solicitation provisions and contract...

2010-10-01

222

48 CFR 527.409 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. 527.409 Section 527.409 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES...AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Data and Copyrights 527.409 Solicitation provisions and contract...

2010-10-01

223

48 CFR 727.409 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. 727.409 Section 727.409 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR...AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Data and Copyrights 727.409 Solicitation provisions and contract...

2010-10-01

224

48 CFR 970.0370-2 - Contract clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.0370-2...System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY...MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Improper Business...at 970.5203-2, Performance Improvement and Collaboration...management and operating...

2010-10-01

225

48 CFR 915.408-70 - Key personnel clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

...System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY...management and operating contract) shall insert the clause...215-70, Key Personnel, in contracts under which performance is largely...

2010-10-01

226

Direct Stakeholder's Perception of PPA Clauses In The Nepalese Environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper analyses the perceptions of the stakeholders regarding the key issues in Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs in the Nepalese Environment. A total of 90 questionnaires representing sponsors, utility, lenders and government officials were used for the study. The questionnaire sought the perception of the stakeholders regarding the significance (importance of the clauses and the likelihood of inclusion of the clauses in PPAs. Comparison of the ranks of means was conducted by Kruskal-Wallis tests to see the significance of the differences in responses of the stakeholders and Mann-Whitney tests to see the significance of the differences of the pairs of stakeholders. Data analysis showed clauses where the prime stakeholders have similar stand and clauses where the perceptions are divergent. The findings of this paper will help the stakeholders in negotiating PPAs.

R.B. Shrestha

2007-12-01

227

A critical analysis of exclusionary clauses in medical contracts  

OpenAIRE

This thesis examines the validity of exclusionary clauses in medical contracts, more especially, hospital contracts in which the healthcare provider exonerates itself against edictal liability arising from the negligent conduct of its staff, resulting in the patient suffering damages. In assessing whether these types of clauses should be outlawed by our courts, this thesis attempts to synthesize six major traditional areas of law, namely, the law of delict, the law of contract, medical law an...

Lerm, Henry

2009-01-01

228

Mechanical objects and the engineering learner: An experimental study of how the presence of objects affects students' performance on engineering related tasks  

OpenAIRE

People display varying levels of interaction with the mechanical objects in their environment; engineers in particular as makers and users of these objects display a higher level of interaction with them. Investigating the educational potential of mechanical objects in stimulating and supporting learning in engineering is warranted by the fact that practicing engineers work with mechanical objects as they design, test and improve devices. It is possible that mechanical objects can facilitat...

Bairaktarova, Diana N.

2013-01-01

229

From pauses to clauses: prosody facilitates learning of syntactic constituency.  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning to parse the speech stream into syntactic constituents is a crucial prerequisite to adult-like sentence comprehension, and prosody is one source of information that could be used for this task. To test the role of prosody in facilitating constituent learning, 19-month-olds were familiarized with non-word sentences with 1-clause (ABCDEF) or 2-clause (ABC, DEF) prosody and were then tested on sentences that represent a grammatical (DEF, ABC) or ungrammatical (EFA, BCD) 'movement' of the clauses from the 2-clause familiarization sentences. If infants in the 2-clause group are able to use prosody to group words into cohesive chunks, they should discriminate between grammatical and ungrammatical movements in the test items, even though the test sentences have a new prosodic contour. The 1-clause, control, group should not discriminate. Results support these predictions and suggest that infants treat prosodically-grouped words as more cohesive and constituent-like than words that straddle a prosodic boundary. A follow-up experiment suggests that these results do not merely reflect recognition of words in boundary positions or acoustic similarity of words across the familiarization and test phases. PMID:25151251

Hawthorne, Kara; Gerken, LouAnn

2014-11-01

230

Assisted suicide and the savings clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

In December 1994, the Michigan Supreme Court decided a group of cases comprising constitutional challenges to a Michigan statute against assisted suicide and prosecutions of Dr. Jack Kevorkian for his role in two incidents of suicide. The court rejected arguments that the statute infringed a right of "personal autonomy" under the Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution; it noted that, although US Supreme Court opinions indicate that decisions to withdraw or reject life-sustaining treatment are constitutionally protected, a legal difference exists between permitting death to occur by natural means and taking affirmative steps to end life. The Michigan court also decided that Kevorkian could not be charged with murder for supplying only the means by which suicide occurred, but he could be charged with a common law crime of assisting in suicide although the statute outlawing such actions became effective only after the suicides occurred. Because suicide was a crime under the prerevolutionary English Common Law, which forms the foundation of Michigan law, assisting in suicide is also a residual crime under the "savings clause" of the Michigan statutes, which incorporates common law crimes into the law of that state when no superseding statute exists. PMID:7776723

Helminski, F

1995-06-01

231

Apparatus and method for simultaneously displaying relative displacements of a fluctuating biological object  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a method for producing discrete images of a human organ in fluctuating motion, e.g., the heart and related vessels, images derived at selected times related to the cardiac cycle are independently presented on respective discrete areas within a common image plane. A source of X-rays irradiates the organ. A physiological synchronizer produces timing signals within the cardiac cycle for controlling the periods of transmission of the X-ray beam through the organ during, for example, end diastole and end systole. An antiscattering, masking frame has alternate parallel slits and bars at equal intervals exposing substantially half the area of presentation of an X-ray sensitive film in alternate, equally spaced area strips during, e.g., diastole. The frame is repositioned in response to a signal from the synchronizer for displacing it relative to the film such that the bars then cover the sensitized areas of the film and expose substantially the remaining half of the film during systole. The image elements are interdigitally juxtaposed to present the diastolic and systolic images in an interlaced pattern. Relative displacements of the organ during a cardiac cycle may be determined from the juxtaposed image elements. (author)

232

OBJECTIVES AND REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO THE SUSTAINABILITY OF ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to the EU Sustainable Development Strategy, whose foundations were laid in Gothenburg 2001, sustainability requires simultaneous and impartial consideration of economic, social and environmental consequences of any decision taken, so at this point, stating that “the EU to become the world whose economy is highly efficient use of resources with a high quality of life of its citizens and where socio-economic development of environmentally”. As a result, international organizations, European and national support implementation of projects and strategies to change unsustainable consumption patterns. In this sense, sustainable solutions and increased use of renewable energy resources, practice on a larger scale organic farming and intelligent management of urban waste are major objectives of not only environmental policies, but also the quality of life.

Elena Cofas

2013-05-01

233

Minor planets and related objects. XIX - Shape and pole orientation of /39/ Laetitia  

Science.gov (United States)

Results are reported for analyses of UBV photoelectric photometric data and light curves of the asteroid Laetitia. The pole orientation is determined using a technique for reducing the scatter in the magnitude-phase relation. No significant variations in color are found over the surface, and the light curves are found to indicate topographic elements (peaks, scarps, or depressions) approximately 10 km in radius. It is shown that the light-curve amplitudes as well as the wide scatter in observed magnitude and phase relation can be explained by a triaxial ellipsoidal figure with a dimensional ratio of about 15:9:5. It is concluded that the size, shape, and composition of this asteroid are highly suggestive of a major collisional fragment from a substantially more massive differentiated parent body.

Sather, R. E.

1976-01-01

234

Pontrjagin forms and invariant objects related to the Q-curvature  

CERN Document Server

We clarify the conformal invariance of the Pontrjagin forms by giving them a manifestly conformally invariant construction; they are shown to be the Pontrjagin forms of the conformally invariant tractor connection. The Q-curvature is intimately related to the Pfaffian. Working on even-dimensional manifolds, we show how the $k$-form operators $Q_k$ of \\cite{ddd}, which generalise the Q-curvature, retain a key aspect of the $Q$-curvature's relation to the Pfaffian, by obstructing certain representations of natural operators on closed forms. In a closely related direction, we show that the $Q_k$ give rise to conformally invariant quadratic forms $\\Theta_k$ on cohomology that interpolate, in a suitable sense, between the integrated metric pairing (at $k=n/2$) and the Pfaffian (at $k=0$). Using a different construction, we show that the $Q_k$ operators yield a generalisation of the period map which maps conformal structures to Lagrangian subspaces of the direct sum $H^k\\oplus H_k$ (where $H_k$ is the dual of the d...

Branson, T; Branson, Thomas

2005-01-01

235

Discussion of related problems in herbal prescription science based on objective indications of herbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Herbal prescription science is a bridge between basic and clinical subjects in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. In studying the doctrines in the general textbook Herbal Prescription Science and applying them to clinical practice, it was found that they are imprecise and inapplicable. Based on the analysis of Suanzaoren Decoction, Xiaoqinglong Decoction, Jichuan Decoction, etc., the authors point out that this problem is due to the current pathogenesis-based research approach of the herbal prescription science. It is proposed that correspondence between formula and syndrome is the core of the herbal prescription science. In order to solve such a problem, searching for corresponding relationship between an herb or a formula and the signs and symptoms of a syndrome or disease should be the most important task in research of herbal prescription science, for emphasis on attention to the objective indications and evidence in clinical utilization of herbal formulas is the major feature of the herbal prescription science according to medication experience in the long history of TCM.

Xing-jiang XIONG

2010-01-01

236

Algorithm for relative radiometric consistency process of remote sensing images based on object-oriented smoothing and contourlet transforms  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional relative radiometric normalization methods generally depend on global statistical linear parameters, do not consider two-dimensional radiometric distribution, and do not eliminate foreground objects in an image. Thus, we present a method for relative radiometric consistency process based on object-oriented smoothing and contourlet transforms. Object-level smoothing is applied to both the reference image and the image to be normalized so as to reduce the influence of foreground objects on background radiation extraction. Then, high-frequency and low-frequency sections of an image are separated by contourlet transforms to preserve high-frequency texture information of the image to be normalized, with low-pass filtering applied to the low-frequency sections to gather the background radiation difference. Finally, contourlet reverse transforms are used to reconstruct the radiometrically normalized images. Test results show that the proposed method is effective for radiometric normalization of images with both large-scale and small-scale radiometric characteristics. The proposed method can not only normalize linear and nonlinear radiation differences at the same time, but also maximally preserve image texture information. It can improve the visual effects of normalized images and increase change detection accuracy.

Li, Wenzhuo; Sun, Kaimin; Zhang, Hongya

2014-01-01

237

The novel object recognition test in rodents in relation to cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Novel object recognition (NOR) in rodents is analogous in some ways to human declarative (episodic) memory, one of the seven cognitive domains which are abnormal in schizophrenia. Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia (CIS) accounts for the largest proportion of the poor functional outcomes in this complex syndrome, with psychosis and negative symptoms accounting for much of the rest. Current atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs) e.g. amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, lurasidone, olanzapine and risperidone, and typical APDs as well, significantly improve some, but not all aspects of CIS, including declarative memory, but not in all patients, and rarely restore normal function. Thus, finding new ways to prevent or treat CIS is a major goal of current schizophrenia research, with animal models as an essential tool. NOR in rodents is valuable in this regard because of its relationship to declarative memory, the extensive knowledge of its underlying circuitry, and the ease and reliability of assessment. Sub-chronic administration of an N-methyl-Daspartate receptor (NMDAR) non-competitive antagonist, e.g. phencyclidine (PCP), dizocilpine (MK-801) or ketamine, is a favored means to study NOR as a model of CIS, because it produces deficient glutamatergic and GABAergic function, both of which have been implicated in the development of CIS. Transgenic mice and anti-cholinergic-induced deficits in NOR have received less attention. We review here NOR studies in rodents that bear upon CIS, including the evidence that atypical, but not typical APDs, as well as specific ligands, e.g. 5-HT1A partial agonists, 5-HT7 antagonists, D1 agonists, among others, can restore NOR following sub-chronic NMDAR antagonist treatment, and can also prevent the impairment in NOR produced by sub-chronic NMDAR antagonists. We discuss how well these findings translate to the bedside. PMID:24345269

Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Massey, Bill W; Huang, Mei; Oyamada, Yoshihiro; Meltzer, Herbert Y

2014-01-01

238

Assessment of disease-related cognitive impairments using the novel object recognition (NOR) task in rodents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The novel object recognition test (NOR) test is a two trial cognitive paradigm that assesses recognition memory. Recognition memory is disturbed in a range of human disorders and NOR is widely used in rodents for investigating deficits in a variety of animal models of human conditions where cognition is impaired. It possesses several advantages over more complex tasks that involve lengthy training procedures and/or food or water deprivation. It is quick to administer, non-rewarded, provides data quickly, cost effective and most importantly, ethologically relevant as it relies on the animal's natural preference for novelty. A PubMed search revealed over 900 publications in rats and mice using this task over the past 3 years with 34 reviews in the past 10 years, demonstrating its increasing popularity with neuroscientists. Although it is widely used in many disparate areas of research, no articles have systematically examined this to date, which is the subject of our review. We reveal that NOR may be used to study recognition memory deficits that occur in Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia, where research is extensive, in Parkinson's disease and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) where we observed markedly reduced numbers of publications. In addition, we review the use of NOR to study cognitive deficits induced by traumatic brain injury and cancer chemotherapy, not disorders per se, but situations in which cognitive deficits dramatically reduce the quality of life for those affected, see Fig. 1 for a summary. Our review reveals that, in all these animal models, the NOR test is extremely useful for identification of the cognitive deficits observed, their neural basis, and for testing the efficacy of novel therapeutic agents. Our conclusion is that NOR is of considerable value for cognitive researchers of all disciplines and we anticipate that its use will continue to increase due to its versatility and several other advantages, as detailed in this review. PMID:25447293

Grayson, Ben; Leger, Marianne; Piercy, Chloe; Adamson, Lisa; Harte, Michael; Neill, Joanna C

2014-10-29

239

EROs found behind lensing clusters. I. Stellar populations and dust properties of optical dropout EROs and comparison with related objects  

Science.gov (United States)

Context: On the nature, redshift, stellar populations and dust properties of optically faint or non-detected extremely red objects. Aims: Determining the nature, redshift, stellar populations and dust properties of optically faint or non-detected, extremely red objects (ERO) found from our survey of the lensing clusters A1835 and AC114 (Richard et al. 2006, A&A, 456, 861). Comparison with properties of related galaxies, such as IRAC selected EROs and a z 6.5 post-starburst galaxy candidate from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. Methods: Using an updated version of Hyperz (Bolzonella et al. 2000, A&A, 363, 476) and a large number of spectral templates we perform broad-band SED fitting. The photometric observations, taken from Hempel et al. (2007, A&A, submitted), include deep optical, ACS/HST, ISAAC/VLT, IRAC/Spitzer data, and for some objects 24 ?m MIPS/Spitzer and sub-mm data as well. Results: For most of the lensed EROs we find photometric redshifts showing a strong degeneracy between “low-z” (z 1-3) and high-z (z 6-7). Although formally best fits are often found at high-z, their resulting bright absolute magnitudes, the number density of these objects, and in some cases Spitzer photometry or longer wavelength observations, suggest strongly that all of these objects are at “low-z”. The majority of these objects are best fitted with relatively young (?0.5-0.7 Gyr) and dusty starbursts. Three of our objects show indications for strong extinction, with AV 2.4-4. The typical stellar masses of our objects are M_star (0.5-5)×1010 M? after correction for lensing; for the most extreme ERO in our sample, the sub-mm galaxy SMMJ14009+0252 most likely at z_fit 3, we estimate M_star ˜ 6.×1011 M?. For dusty objects star formation rates (SFR) have been estimated from the bolometric luminosity determined after fitting of semi-empirical starburst, ERO, and ULIRG templates.Typically we find SFR (1-18) M? yr-1. Again, SMMJ14009+0252 stands out as a LIRG with SFR 1000 M? yr-1. Finally, we predict the mid-IR to sub-mm SED of the dusty objects for comparison with future observations with APEX, Herschel, and ALMA. Concerning the comparison objects, we argue that the massive post-starburst z 6.5 galaxy candidate HUDF-J2 showing observed properties very similar to our EROs, is more likely a dusty starburst at z 2.3-2.6. This interpretation also naturally explains the observed 24 ?m emission from this object and we predict its IR to sub-mm SED. Both empirically and from our SED fits we find that the IRAC selectec EROs from Yan et al. (2004, ApJ, 616, 63) show very similar properties to our lensed EROs. Reasonable fits are found for most of them with relatively young and dusty stellar populations. Based on observations collected at the Very Large Telescope (Antu/UT1), European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO Programs 69.A-0508, 70.A-0355, 73.A-0471), the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute which is operated by AURA under NASA contract NAS5-26555, the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407, and the Chandra satellite.

Schaerer, D.; Hempel, A.; Egami, E.; Pelló, R.; Richard, J.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Kneib, J.-P.; Wise, M.; Boone, F.

2007-07-01

240

An experiential thinking style: its facets and relations with objective and subjective criterion measures.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Study 1, an experiential factor divided into the following 3 factors when 3 or more factors were extracted: intuition, emotionality, and imagination; whereas a rational factor retained its coherence. In Study 2, an experiential but not a rational thinking style was positively associated with performance measures of creativity, humor, aesthetic judgment, and intuition and with self-report measures of empathy and social popularity. A rational thinking style was associated with several measures of adjustment. Both thinking styles were positively related to personal growth. Support was provided from several sources for the discriminant validity of the experiential facets. In a third study, the independence of the 2 thinking styles and of gender differences in self-reported data were verified by observations by others of participants' thinking styles. The importance of identifying facets of an experiential thinking style and of discovering previously unrecognized favorable attributes of this thinking style was discussed. PMID:21241307

Norris, Paul; Epstein, Seymour

2011-10-01

241

Arab Students' Problems with the English Relative Clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of errors collected from English essays of native Arabic-speaking university students and their translations from Arabic into English identified 14 error classifications, with the vast majority of errors attributable to negative transfer or interference from Arabic. (CB)

Kharma, Nayef N.

1987-01-01

242

Terrasar-X and Rapideye Data for the Parameterisation of Relational Characteristics of Urban Atkis Dlm Objects  

Science.gov (United States)

This work presents a multi-sensor data analysis concept for the parameterisation of urban landuse in comparison to ATKIS DLM reference objects (digital landscape model). An object based top-down approach is implemented and the potential of multisensor data for a primary urban landcover object classification is assessed. Urban landuse structure is developed based on relational features applied to land cover objects and compared to an aggregated DLM class legend. For a better imperviousness description an advanced imperviousness measure - the build-up impervious intensity ratio is developed that takes building height and derived floor area (based on LiDAR data) and the amount of vegetation within a search radius to every building into account. The developed concept is parameterized with test areas in Rostock and transferability is investigated with data coverage in Cologne (Germany). The work is linked to the urban work package of the DLR funded ENVILAND-2 project that aims to develop operational concepts for the use of TerraSAR-X and Rapideye data in urban mapping scenarios.

Hese, S.; Lindner, M.; Voltersen, M.; Berger, C.

2011-09-01

243

Promoting the demoted : The distribution and semantics of “main clause word order” in spoken Danish complement clauses  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this article, we investigate a hypothesis regarding the distinction between the word orders ‘finite verb, adverb’ (V>Adv, in Scandinavian linguistics often considered an instance of V2, also in subject initial clauses) and ‘adverb, finite verb’ (Adv>V, sometimes referred to as V3) in Mainland Scandinavian complement clauses. The hypothesis is semantico-pragmatic and reads that V>Adv signals foregrounding of the subordinate clause, i.e. that its content is the main point of the utterance. Our results, based upon detailed coding of the LANCHART corpus of spoken Danish, are readily interpretable as supporting the semantico-pragmatic hypothesis. Our results show that V>Adv is much more frequent in subordinate clauses than commonly assumed, and that complement clauses in Danish are not in general characterized by having Adv>V word order, but only by the possibility of having this word order. Results seemingly in conflict with predictions of the semantico-pragmatic hypothesis are discussed with respect to possible norm conflicts and shifts in communicative strategy during speech production.

Jensen, Torben Juel; Christensen, Tanya Karoli

2013-01-01

244

Incorporating Clause Learning in Grid-Based Randomized SAT Solving  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Computational Grids provide a widely distributed computing environment suitable for randomized SAT solving. This paper develops techniques for incorporating clause learning, known to yield significant speed-ups in the sequential case, in such a distributed framework. The approach exploits existing state-of-the-art clause learning SAT solvers by embedding them with virtually no modifications. The paper presents an algorithmic framework for learning-enhanced randomized SAT solving in Grid environments. With a substantial amount of controlled experiments it is demonstrated that this approach enables a form of clause learning which is not directly available in the underlying sequential SAT solver. Finally, an implementation of the algorithm is run in a production level Grid where it solves several problems not solved in the SAT 2007 solver competition.

Antti E.J. Hyvaerinen

2009-06-01

245

Fault tree developed by an object-based method improves requirements specification for safety-related systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fault tree analysis is frequently used to improve system reliability and safety. To be suitable for analysis of software in computerised safety-related systems, it has to be modified accordingly. This paper presents a new application: the fault trees developed by an object-based method. The object-based method integrates structural and behavioural models of a system. The developed fault tree includes information on structure and the failure behaviours of classes of the system. Away from traditional use of the fault tree, which for traditional systems emphasises qualitative and quantitative results, the result of the new application emphasises the process of fault tree development and its qualitative results. Such fault tree application reduces the probability of failures in the requirements specification phase within the software life cycle, which increases the reliability of its product; however, it does not confirm this in a quantitative manner

246

48 CFR 970.2305-4 - Solicitation provision and contract clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Solicitation provision and contract clause. 970.2305-4...DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Environment, Energy and...Technologies, Occupational Safety and Drug-Free Work Place... Solicitation provision and contract clause. (a) The...

2010-10-01

247

21 CFR 70.51 - Advisory committee on the applicability of the anticancer clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01...the applicability of the anticancer clause. 70.51 Section 70.51 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...applicability of the anticancer clause. All...

2010-04-01

248

Delaney Anti-Cancer Clause: Scientists Debate on Article of Faith  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews past and present arguments for and against the Delaney Clause'' of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The clause prohibits use, in food, of any amount of any substance that has caused cancer in man or animals. (AL)

Wade, Nicholas

1972-01-01

249

Writing Objectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

The general procedures used to develop educational objectives for the National Assessment of Educational Progress are outlined, as are the procedures used to develop writing objectives. Four objectives related to writing skills are stated: "write to communicate adequately in a social situation"; "write to communicate adequately in a business or…

Norris, Eleanor L.

250

The Description Of Noun Clauses Found In The Jakarta Post Magazine.  

OpenAIRE

A working paper entitled “The Description of Noun Clauses Found in The Jakarta Post Magazine” is about the use of noun clause in sentences contained in the articles The Jakarta Post magazine. According to Jayanthi, noun clause is a group of words which contains a subject and predicate of its own and does the work of a noun. According to Suryadi and Junaida, noun clause can be classified into four kinds, namely: statement, question, request, and exclamation, where question i...

Utami, Erlina

2011-01-01

251

Children's preference for body or external object on a task requiring transposition and discrimination of right-left relations.  

Science.gov (United States)

First graders were tested on trials requiring the discrimination and transposition of right-left relations, with stimuli similar to (dolls) or different from (toy planes) the body. On an initial series of training and practice trials children were allowed to respond to body and external objects as referents providing right-left cues. A later series of test trials was then used to determine the referent the child actually preferred. Results of the test trials indicated that 24 children tested with the dolls preferred the body as referent, while 24 children tested with planes preferred the external referent. The results were interpreted as suggesting two alternative systems through which children develop an understanding of right-left relations and possibly other concepts as well. PMID:1178422

Winer, G A

1975-08-01

252

Numerical relativity reaching into post-Newtonian territory: a compact-object binary simulation spanning 350 gravitational-wave cycles  

CERN Document Server

We present the first numerical-relativity simulation of a compact-object binary whose gravitational waveform is long enough to cover the entire frequency band of advanced gravitational-wave detectors, such as LIGO, Virgo and KAGRA, for mass ratio 7 and total mass as low as $45.5\\,M_\\odot$. We find that effective-one-body models, either uncalibrated or calibrated against substantially shorter numerical-relativity waveforms at smaller mass ratios, reproduce our new waveform remarkably well, with a negligible loss in detection rate due to modeling error. In contrast, post-Newtonian inspiral waveforms and existing calibrated phenomenological inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms display greater disagreement with our new simulation. The disagreement varies substantially depending on the specific post-Newtonian approximant used.

Szilagyi, Bela; Buonanno, Alessandra; Taracchini, Andrea; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A; Chu, Tony; Kidder, Lawrence E; Pan, Yi

2015-01-01

253

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Science Archive: Migrating a Multi-Terabyte Astronomical Archive from Object to Relational DBMS  

CERN Document Server

The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Science Archive is the first in a series of multi-Terabyte digital archives in Astronomy and other data-intensive sciences. To facilitate data mining in the SDSS archive, we adapted a commercial database engine and built specialized tools on top of it. Originally we chose an object-oriented database management system due to its data organization capabilities, platform independence, query performance and conceptual fit to the data. However, after using the object database for the first couple of years of the project, it soon began to fall short in terms of its query support and data mining performance. This was as much due to the inability of the database vendor to respond our demands for features and bug fixes as it was due to their failure to keep up with the rapid improvements in hardware performance, particularly faster RAID disk systems. In the end, we were forced to abandon the object database and migrate our data to a relational database. We describe below the technical issu...

Thakar, A R; Kunszt, Peter Z; Gray, J; Thakar, Aniruddha R.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Kunszt, Peter Z.; Gray, Jim

2004-01-01

254

Aspects of royalty clauses inside freehold oil and gas leases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the most common royalty clauses currently used are discussed with particular emphasis on the CAPL 88 and the CAPL 91 petroleum and natural gas lease forms and the provisions regarding lessors and lessees. The problems regarding their practical applications are described. The legal status of a royalty inside a freehold oil and gas lease is also examined. 4 refs

255

Professor Volker Claus: vom o. Professor zum e-Professor  

Science.gov (United States)

Der Beitrag würdigt das Wirken von Professor Claus auf Gebieten des rechnerunterstützten Lehrens. Dabei wird ein Bogen von den frühen Systemen des rechnerunterstützten Lehrens über moderne Lernplattformen im Internet zu neuen Anwendungen web-basierter Systeme für das lebenslange Lehren und Lernen gespannt.

Gunzenhäuser, Rul; Taras, Christiane; Wörner, Michael

256

48 CFR 727.404 - Basic rights in data clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Basic rights in data clause. 727...INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS...DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Data and Copyrights...officers will assert such a right in limited circumstances in accordance with the principles as stated in (48...

2010-10-01

257

The Emission-Line Properties of Low-Redshift Quasi-stellar Objects. II. The Relation to Radio Type  

Science.gov (United States)

We present optical spectrophotometry of 45 quasars in the redshift range 0.045-0.592. These data are combined with the sample of 87 low-redshift quasar and QSO spectra obtained by Boroson & Green for a more extensive investigation of the relation of the properties of the broad H?, [O III] ?5007, and optical Fe II emission lines to the objects' radio, optical, and X-ray continuum parameters. We derive a complete correlation matrix for the quasars and perform two-sample tests on the subsamples of flat radio spectrum (FRS) quasars, steep radio spectrum (SRS) quasars, and radio-quiet objects (QSOs). Our principal findings are as follows: 1. We confirm that the width of the H? profile at quarter-maximum and half-maximum points is inversely correlated with the ratio of the 6 cm radio core flux to that measured from the optical continuum at 5500 Å, which has been argued to be an indicator of the orientation of the objects' radio axis under beaming models. The H? profile widths do not correlate strongly with any line or continuum parameter likely to be an indicator of the intrinsic power of the central engine, including the extended radio luminosity. A principal components analysis of the correlation matrix does not reveal any clear trends separate from the dependence of H? profile width on the orientation indicator, and we find no evidence of a decrease in the strength of the profile base component in FRS quasars relative to SRS quasars from a simple line deblending procedure. 2. The two-sample tests reveal several strong differences between the quasar and QSO subsamples, including differences between samples closely matched in optical luminosity. While QSOs are statistically closer to FRS quasars than SRS quasars in their emission-line properties, the FRS quasars still have significantly wider and more redward asymmetric H? profiles, stronger [O III] ?5007 emission, and weaker optical Fe II emission. The variance of the H? profile width and asymmetry parameters is also significantly larger among the combined sample of FRS and SRS quasars than among the QSOs. From the combined quasar and QSO sample, we confirm that there is an inverse correlation between soft X-ray luminosity and the equivalent width of the optical Fe II emission complex in the range ~??4434-4684. 3. The Balmer line profiles of several of the quasars show a division into two components, a core of intermediate (~103 km s-1) velocity width, and a very broad (~104 km s-1) base that is typically redshifted with respect to systemic velocity. This supports evidence that the broad-line region is divided into an inner Very Broad Line Region and an outer Intermediate Line Region. A few objects also display unusually strong emission in He II ?4686 and/or He I ?5876, while in other objects these lines are weak or absent. It is presently unclear whether these differences are intrinsic to the objects or else represent transient events caused by the dynamical evolution of the broad-line gas. The results for the quasar sample are consistent with unified models of FRS and SRS quasars and the interpretation that the change in profile widths arises from differing views of a flattened broad-line region with a strong component of planar motion. Under a unified model we estimate the ratio of planar to random BLR motions to be ~7:1. Assuming that the profile width and asymmetry parameters trace the mass of the central black hole, the distributions of these parameters indicate a larger average hole mass and a larger range of hole masses among the quasars than the QSOs, consistent with the model in which quasar black holes are the rapidly spinning product of the coalescence of two or more black holes at the centers of merged galaxies.

Corbin, Michael R.

1997-12-01

258

Comparative analysis of the symptomatology of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction in relation to objective data  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical presentation of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) relating to objective examination data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four children (36 girls and 8 boys with mean age of 6.8 years) with LUTD were prospectively assessed through a specific questio [...] nnaire that analyzed clinical presentation of those patients. These data were then compared to objective data, such as micturition diary and uroflowmetry with electromyography. RESULTS: A urinary tract infection (UTI) antecedent was observed in 31 cases (70.5%), and of those, 24 cases of UTI were accompanied by fever. All children presented micturition urgency. Daily urinary incontinence was observed in 33 cases (75%) and nocturnal enuresis in 23 (52.3%). As for micturition frequency, 15 (34.1%) had normal frequency 19 (43.2%) presented more than 10 daily micturition episodes and 10 (22.7%) thought they urinated less than 5 times a day. In the uroflowmetry and electromyography examination, 14 (31.8%) experienced lack of coordination during micturition. Of 10 children with infrequent micturition, 5 confirmed this in their micturition diaries and 2 listed more than 5 micturition episodes per day in the diary. Of 19 patients presenting polaciuria, only 5 confirmed this in their micturition diaries, while 7 had less than 10 micturition episodes per day. CONCLUSION: Most children with LUTD presented a previous UTI, and daily incontinence was verified in around 75% of the patients. Complaints of polaciuria or infrequent micturition are not noted completely in the micturition diaries and there is no parameter in the clinical history that offers good sensitivity or specificity for the diagnosis of lack of perineal coordination.

Ubirajara, Barroso Jr; Thiago, Nova; Anderson, Dultra; Patricia, Lordelo; Juarez, Andrade; Antonio J., Vinhaes.

2006-02-01

259

Comparative analysis of the symptomatology of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction in relation to objective data  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical presentation of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD relating to objective examination data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four children (36 girls and 8 boys with mean age of 6.8 years with LUTD were prospectively assessed through a specific questionnaire that analyzed clinical presentation of those patients. These data were then compared to objective data, such as micturition diary and uroflowmetry with electromyography. RESULTS: A urinary tract infection (UTI antecedent was observed in 31 cases (70.5%, and of those, 24 cases of UTI were accompanied by fever. All children presented micturition urgency. Daily urinary incontinence was observed in 33 cases (75% and nocturnal enuresis in 23 (52.3%. As for micturition frequency, 15 (34.1% had normal frequency 19 (43.2% presented more than 10 daily micturition episodes and 10 (22.7% thought they urinated less than 5 times a day. In the uroflowmetry and electromyography examination, 14 (31.8% experienced lack of coordination during micturition. Of 10 children with infrequent micturition, 5 confirmed this in their micturition diaries and 2 listed more than 5 micturition episodes per day in the diary. Of 19 patients presenting polaciuria, only 5 confirmed this in their micturition diaries, while 7 had less than 10 micturition episodes per day. CONCLUSION: Most children with LUTD presented a previous UTI, and daily incontinence was verified in around 75% of the patients. Complaints of polaciuria or infrequent micturition are not noted completely in the micturition diaries and there is no parameter in the clinical history that offers good sensitivity or specificity for the diagnosis of lack of perineal coordination.

Ubirajara Barroso Jr

2006-02-01

260

Iron Abundance in the Prototype PG 1159 Star, GW Vir Pulsator PG 1159-035, and Related Objects  

Science.gov (United States)

We performed an iron abundance determination of the hot, hydrogen deficient post-AGB star PG 1159-035. which is the prototype of the PG 1159 spectral class and the GW Vir pulsators, and of two related objects (PG 1520+525, PG 1144+005), based on the first detection of Fe VIII lines in stellar photospheres. In another PG 1159 star. PG 1424+535. we detect Fe VII lines. In all four stars, each within T(sub eff) = 110,000-150,000 K, we find a solar iron abundance. This result agrees with our recent abundance analysis of the hottest PG 1159 stars (T(sub eff) = 150,000-200,000 K) that exhibit Fe x lines. On the whole, we find that the PG 1159 stars are not significantly iron deficient, in contrast to previous notions.

Werner, K.; Rauch, T.; Kruk, J. W.; Kurucz, R. L.

2011-01-01

261

48 CFR 352.270-8 - Prostitution and related activities.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prostitution and related activities. 352.270-8...Provisions and Clauses 352.270-8 Prostitution and related activities. As prescribed...shall insert the following clause: Prostitution and Related Activities (January...

2010-10-01

262

Claus Bonderup : Conversations with the architect and his unique wife Anne Just, about food, art and architecture  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ever since I was a young student and met Claus Bonderup for the first time, I have been fascinated by his work. I still remember how we turned up for a lecture of his at the Aarhus School of Architecture in the beginning of the 1980s brimming with excitement; a lecture that would end up being very short as my professor ejected him from the auditorium. Claus was not merely a classic innovative architect but also very provocative in his holistic architecture. Back then, his works were too radical for the school. At Aalborg University, initially at the Department of Architecture & Design, and later at the Department of Civil Engineering, I have had the great pleasure of working with Claus for the last 15 years. During this time, I have had the opportunity to observe his skills as a teacher and disseminator, and I have seen the great respect he holds for young, dedicated people and witnessed the students’ confidence in him. In 2008, we wrote a small book, the “old student” and the two “young graduates” from Architecture & Design, who, I would like to emphasise, are two very special young people that have now seriously entered the frame of architectural research and teaching. Now, in the late summer of 2012, we have chosen to republish the first chapter of the book, which is about the DUCK HOUSE Claus created years ago; and we have done so for a very particular reason. A short time ago, I was approached by the director of the 13th International Architecture Exhibition, the highly esteemed British architect, David Chipperfield, and – to put it bluntly – an architect to my and Claus’ liking. Chipperfield has chosen a handful of schools of architecture and architectural universities from all over Europe, which have been invited to gather a group of students and exhibit architectural models; and I have been fortunate enough to be given this opportunity. Chipperfield has chosen to create a response to the prestigious VIP architects’ often staggeringly expensive exhibitions; he wants to make room for the new generation of up and coming architects, for the young, untested and especially talented students of architecture. During July, a group of talented students have therefore built seven architectural models that will be a part of the palette, or installation if you will, which will open in the Italian Pavilion at the end of August. It is quite extraordinary that Aalborg University has received the opportunity to exhibit for the entire period. This occasion must most certainly be marked, and Marie, Tenna and I, along with the students, consequently decided to work with BIRD HOUSES. There are several reasons for this. One of them is that in the coming years, we will launch a number of job-oriented architectural projects within Urban Farming in which the students will initially work with the subject as master’s students, but later, hopefully, as PhD students. Also, I have wished for a long time to give Claus Bonderup the recognition he deserves! His view of architecture, his knowledge and his way of relating to architecture has influenced and inspired generations of students. Claus, if anyone, deserves to be represented at the Biennale. Claus broke many unwritten rules with the Duck House he built for his Anne many years ago. The house has now been measured and reconstructed and has become the MOTHER house that serves as a basis for this project with its unique architectural models for the International Architecture Exhibition. Claus’ Duck House has, thus, in theory and practice alike, become the foundation for the new architectural models, and his thoughts on design have contributed to a fruitful dialogue with the students in their process of creating the architectural models, which can soon be seen at the 13th International Architecture Exhibition in Venice.

Fisker, Anna Marie; Hvejsel, Marie Frier

2012-01-01

263

Orações concessivas independentes à luz da gramática discursivo-funcional / Independent concessive clauses in the light of functional discourse grammar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo investiga, à luz da Teoria da Gramática Discursivo-Funcional (HENGEVELD; MACKENZIE, 2008), a oração concessiva que não é subordinada a outras orações, ou seja, não apresenta relações sintáticas nem semânticas com orações anteriores ou posteriores, a que denominamos Concessiva Independent [...] e. O objetivo deste estudo consiste em descrever as propriedades discursivas, semânticas, morfossintáticas e prosódicas desse tipo de estrutura, mostrando que sua relevância está na construção e organização do discurso. Os resultados apontam que a Concessiva Independente funciona, no discurso, como um parêntese, que interrompe o fio discursivo, sendo, então, destacado por um contorno prosódico especial, aliado à presença de Atos Interativos. Constitui, portanto, um Movimento, a camada mais alta do Nível Interpessoal, nível que se relaciona aos aspectos pragmáticos da gramática de uma língua. O universo de investigação utilizado é o córpus Iboruna, um banco de dados que registra a variedade do português do noroeste paulista. Abstract in english This paper investigates, in light of the theory of Functional Discourse Grammar (HENGEVELD; MACKENZIE, 2008), the concessive clause that is not subordinated to other clauses, i.e., it has no semantic or syntactic relations with clauses before or after it, and which we call Independent Concessive. Th [...] e aim is to describe the discursive properties and the semantic, morphosyntactic and prosodic structure of this type of clause, showing that its relevance is in the construction and organization of discourse. The results indicate that the Independent Concessive works in speech as a parenthesis which interrupts the discursive course and is then highlighted by a special prosodic contour, combined with the presence of Interactive Acts. It is therefore a Move, the highest layer of the Interpersonal Level, the level that relates to the pragmatic aspects of the grammar of a language. The universe of research used is the Iboruna corpus, a database that records a variety of Portuguese from the Northwest of São Paulo.

Talita Storti, Garcia; Erotilde Goreti, Pezatti.

264

CLAUSE 49 AND ITS IMPACT ON PERFORMANCE MEASURES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study attempts to understand the effect of India's adoption of major governance reforms (with reference to Clause 49 which is based on a voluntary 1998 Code of Corporate Governance, developed by the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII, an organization of large Indian public firms.If investors consider the reforms to be valuable (or more valuable for larger firms, firm return in the form of share prices, accounting profit and earning per share should react positively to the key adoption announcement. Over a span period of 10 years before and after the announcement by the Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI, India's principal securities regulator for adoption of Clause 49, the profit after tax and EPS of the listed companies specifically the group of companies selected for this study has shown the positive effect on the above specified components. Average returns had increased considerably and even EPS also present the same picture, but these changes may have been due to factors other than the reforms. These results also supported by statistical testing. Overall, we report evidence consistent with investors expecting the Clause 49 reforms to increase the efficiency of corporates.

Paridhi Saini

2014-04-01

265

Identification of metrics to monitor salt marsh integrity on National Wildlife Refuges in relation to conservation and management objectives  

Science.gov (United States)

Most salt marshes in the US have been degraded by human activities, and threats from physical alterations, surrounding land-use, species invasions, and global climate change persist. Salt marshes are unique and highly productive ecosystems with high intrinsic value to wildlife, and many National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) have been established in coastal areas to protect large tracts of salt marsh and wetland-dependent species. Various management practices are employed routinely on coastal NWRs to restore and enhance marsh integrity and ensure ecosystem sustainability. Prioritizing NWR salt marshes for application of management actions and choosing among multiple management options requires scientifically-based methods for assessing marsh condition. Monitoring is integral to structured decision-making (SDM), a formal process for decomposing a decision into its essential elements. Within a natural resource context, SDM involves identifying management objectives, alternative management actions, and expected management outcomes. The core of SDM is a set of criteria for measuring system performance and evaluating management responses. Therefore, use of SDM to frame natural resource decisions leads to logical selection of monitoring attributes that are linked explicitly to management needs. We used SDM to guide selection of variables for monitoring the ecological integrity of salt marshes within the National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS). Our objectives were to identify indicators of salt marsh integrity that are effective across large geographic regions, responsive to a wide range of threats, and feasible to implement within funding and staffing constraints of the NWRS. In April, 2008, we engaged interdisciplinary experts in a week-long rapid prototyping SDM workshop to define the essential elements of salt marsh management decisions on refuges throughout the northeastern, southwestern, and northwestern US, corresponding to respective Regions 5, 2, and 1 of the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). Through this process we identified measurable attributes for monitoring salt marsh ecosystems that are integrated into conservation practice and target management objectives. The following salt marsh attributes were identified through the SDM process either for describing state condition to determine management needs or for evaluating the achievement of management objectives: historical condition and geomorphic setting; ditch density; surrounding land use; ratio of open water area to vegetation area; rate of pesticide application; environmental contaminant concentration; change in marsh surface elevation relative to sea level rise; tidal range and groundwater level; surface topography; salinity; and species composition and abundance of vegetation, invasive species, invertebrates, nekton, and breeding and wintering birds. The identified attributes were too broadly defined to serve as operational monitoring variables. Therefore, we tested specific metrics for quantifying most of these attributes in summers of 2008 and 2009. The first four attributes in the above list can be characterized by office-based analysis of existing GIS data layers. The remaining attributes require field-based methods for assessment. We were forced to exclude a small number of attributes from field tests due to inconsistent data (pesticide application rate, environmental contaminant concentrations) or requirements that exceeded the scope of this project (change in marsh surface elevation; surface topography; benthic invertebrates; wintering birds). We evaluated potential metrics for evaluating all remaining field attributes. In partnership with NWRS biologists, we tested rapid versus intensive metrics for monitoring field attributes (tidal range and groundwater level; marsh surface elevation; salinity; and species composition and abundance of vegetation, invasive species, nekton, and breeding birds) at coastal refuges throughout FWS Region 5. Seven refuges participated in metric testing in 2008: Rachel Carson (ME), Parker River (MA), Wertheim (NY), E. B. Forsythe

Neckles, Hilary A.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Shriver, W. George; Danz, Nicholas P.; Wiest, Whitney A.; Nagel, Jessica L.; Olker, Jennifer H.

2013-01-01

266

SPINS: standardized protein NMR storage. A data dictionary and object-oriented relational database for archiving protein NMR spectra.  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern protein NMR spectroscopy laboratories have a rapidly growing need for an easily queried local archival system of raw experimental NMR datasets. SPINS (Standardized ProteIn Nmr Storage) is an object-oriented relational database that provides facilities for high-volume NMR data archival, organization of analyses, and dissemination of results to the public domain by automatic preparation of the header files required for submission of data to the BioMagResBank (BMRB). The current version of SPINS coordinates the process from data collection to BMRB deposition of raw NMR data by standardizing and integrating the storage and retrieval of these data in a local laboratory file system. Additional facilities include a data mining query tool, graphical database administration tools, and a NMRStar v2. 1.1 file generator. SPINS also includes a user-friendly internet-based graphical user interface, which is optionally integrated with Varian VNMR NMR data collection software. This paper provides an overview of the data model underlying the SPINS database system, a description of its implementation in Oracle, and an outline of future plans for the SPINS project. PMID:12495027

Baran, Michael C; Moseley, Hunter N B; Sahota, Gurmukh; Montelione, Gaetano T

2002-10-01

267

Orações subordinadas sem o complementizador Que no Português Clássico / Subordinate clauses without Que in Classical Portuguese  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, olharemos para orações subordinadas finitas sem o complementizador que no Português Clássico. Nosso objetivo é investigar, dentro de uma perspectiva gerativista, se esse tipo de construção pode ser interpretado como um CP ou um IP complemento. A partir de fatos relacionados à posição [...] do sujeito, à ordem linear de advérbios e à colocação de clíticos, mostraremos que orações encaixadas sem o complementizador que instanciam movimento de V para C, resultando, portanto, na presença da categoria CP. Abstract in english In this work, we will look at embedded finite clauses without the complementizer que in Classical Portuguese. Our goal is to investigate, within a generative perspective, whether this kind of construction can be interpreted as a CP or an IP complement. Based on facts related to the position of the s [...] ubject, to the ordering of adverbs and to the placement of clitics, we will show that embedded clauses without the complementizer que instantiate V movement to C, resulting, therefore, in the presence of the CP category.

André Luis, ANTONELLI.

2014-12-01

268

Design of relative motion and attitude profiles for three-dimensional resident space object imaging with a laser rangefinder  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper focuses on the aerospace application of a single beam laser rangefinder (LRF) for 3D imaging, shape detection, and reconstruction in the context of a space-based space situational awareness (SSA) mission scenario. The primary limitation to 3D imaging from LRF point clouds is the one-dimensional nature of the single beam measurements. A method that combines relative orbital motion and scanning attitude motion to generate point clouds has been developed and the design and characterization of multiple relative motion and attitude maneuver profiles are presented. The target resident space object (RSO) has the shape of a generic telecommunications satellite. The shape and attitude of the RSO are unknown to the chaser satellite however, it is assumed that the RSO is un-cooperative and has fixed inertial pointing. All sensors in the metrology chain are assumed ideal. A previous study by the authors used pure Keplerian motion to perform a similar 3D imaging mission at an asteroid. A new baseline for proximity operations maneuvers for LRF scanning, based on a waypoint adaptation of the Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire (HCW) equations is examined. Propellant expenditure for each waypoint profile is discussed and combinations of relative motion and attitude maneuvers that minimize the propellant used to achieve a minimum required point cloud density are studied. Both LRF strike-point coverage and point cloud density are maximized; the capability for 3D shape registration and reconstruction from point clouds generated with a single beam LRF without catalog comparison is proven. Next, a method of using edge detection algorithms to process a point cloud into a 3D modeled image containing reconstructed shapes is presented. Weighted accuracy of edge reconstruction with respect to the true model is used to calculate a qualitative “ metric” that evaluates effectiveness of coverage. Both edge recognition algorithms and the metric are independent of point cloud densit- , therefore they are utilized to compare the quality of point clouds generated by various attitude and waypoint command profiles. The RSO model incorporates diverse irregular protruding shapes, such as open sensor covers, instrument pods and solar arrays, to test the limits of the algorithms. This analysis is used to mathematically prove that point clouds generated by a single-beam LRF can achieve sufficient edge recognition accuracy for SSA applications, with meaningful shape information extractable even from sparse point clouds. For all command profiles, reconstruction of RSO shapes from the point clouds generated with the proposed method are compared to the truth model and conclusions are drawn regarding their fidelity.

Nayak, M.; Beck, J.; Udrea, B.

269

Does visual working memory represent the predicted locations of future target objects? An event-related brain potential study.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the maintenance of task-relevant objects in visual working memory, the contralateral delay activity (CDA) is elicited over the hemisphere opposite to the visual field where these objects are presented. The presence of this lateralised CDA component demonstrates the existence of position-dependent object representations in working memory. We employed a change detection task to investigate whether the represented object locations in visual working memory are shifted in preparation for the known location of upcoming comparison stimuli. On each trial, bilateral memory displays were followed after a delay period by bilateral test displays. Participants had to encode and maintain three visual objects on one side of the memory display, and to judge whether they were identical or different to three objects in the test display. Task-relevant memory and test stimuli were located in the same visual hemifield in the no-shift task, and on opposite sides in the horizontal shift task. CDA components of similar size were triggered contralateral to the memorized objects in both tasks. The absence of a polarity reversal of the CDA in the horizontal shift task demonstrated that there was no preparatory shift of memorized object location towards the side of the upcoming comparison stimuli. These results suggest that visual working memory represents the locations of visual objects during encoding, and that the matching of memorized and test objects at different locations is based on a comparison process that can bridge spatial translations between these objects. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. PMID:25445999

Grubert, Anna; Eimer, Martin

2014-10-17

270

A Dynamic Analysis of Licensing: The Boomerang Effect and Grant-Back Clauses  

OpenAIRE

This paper develops an incomplete contract model of the licensing relationship to analyze the dynamic effects of licensing on R&D competition in the innovation market and to examine the rationale for often observed grant-back clauses. Of particular concern are how the consideration of future competition distorts the licensing relationship and how the grant-back clause can mitigate this distortion. I also evaluate the validity of the casual antitrust argument that grant-back clauses may advers...

Choi, Jay Pil

1999-01-01

271

Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal Cognitive Styles in Children and Adolescents: Developmental Trajectories in Relation to Ability  

Science.gov (United States)

A new self-report instrument, the Children's Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire (C-OSIVQ), was designed to assess cognitive styles in younger populations (8-17 years old). The questionnaire was based on the previously developed adult version of the Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire (OSIVQ; Blazhenkova & Kozhevnikov,…

Blazhenkova, Olesya; Becker, Michael; Kozhevnikov, Maria

2011-01-01

272

NON-COMPETITION CLAUSES IN COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We begin with an analysis of areas where rivalry between economic agents can not show (any act of competition committed in this area drawing the liability of the author, we will then analyze competition in relations between the trader and servant or other employees and continue with the analysis of the legal ban on competition in the limited liability companies and joint stock companies. So, the relevant provisions of Law 31/1990 are reviewed, views of legal doctrine and practice of judicial rulings on the nature and purpose of the relevant provisions referred to, their scope, applicability of statutory prohibition against competition in the profile activity of the company, the prohibition in the liquidation phase, procedural methods which can cover damage caused to the creditor’s violated rights, as well as statute of limitations for the right to action and prescription.

MIHAELA IRINA IONESCU

2011-04-01

273

High-resolution imaging of expertise reveals reliable object selectivity in the fusiform face area related to perceptual performance  

OpenAIRE

The fusiform face area (FFA) is a region of human cortex that responds selectively to faces, but whether it supports a more general function relevant for perceptual expertise is debated. Although both faces and objects of expertise engage many brain areas, the FFA remains the focus of the strongest modular claims and the clearest predictions about expertise. Functional MRI studies at standard-resolution (SR-fMRI) have found responses in the FFA for nonface objects of expertise, but high-resol...

Mcgugin, Rankin Williams; Gatenby, J. Christopher; Gore, John C.; Gauthier, Isabel

2012-01-01

274

Criminal Liability for Illegal Reproduction of Literary, Scientific, Artistic Work or Object of Related Rights, Distribution, Transportation or Storage of Illegal Copies Thereof  

OpenAIRE

The dissertation analyses criminal liability for illegal reproduction of literary, scientific, artistic work or object of related rights, distribution, transportation or storage of illegal copies thereof. Conception and attributes of intellectual property, evolution of laws of intellectual property in the world and in Lithuania and legal sources which provides criminal liability for illegal reproduction of literary, scientific or artistic work or object of neighboring rights, distribution, tr...

S?vedas, Pranas

2012-01-01

275

Integrating Conflict Driven Clause Learning to Local Search  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article introduces SatHyS (SAT HYbrid Solver, a novel hybrid approach for propositional satisfiability. It combines local search and conflict driven clause learning (CDCL scheme. Each time the local search part reaches a local minimum, the CDCL is launched. For SAT problems it behaves like a tabu list, whereas for UNSAT ones, the CDCL part tries to focus on minimum unsatisfiable sub-formula (MUS. Experimental results show good performances on many classes of SAT instances from the last SAT competitions.

Gilles Audenard

2009-10-01

276

Public policy: the origin of a general clause in the South African law of contract  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The article relates how the Constitutional Court has chosen public policy as the general clause with which to combat unfairness in contracting. Consequently the historical development of public policy is investigated in the footsteps of Wessels, who was the first South African author to address the [...] role of public policy in the law of contract in a wider sense. The historical sources on contracts in restraint of marriage, marriage brokerage contracts, usurious contracts, contracts in restraint of trade and wagering contracts are analysed with regard to public policy. Although some Roman-law and Roman-Dutch authority can be found in certain instances, the main observation is that public policy and boni mores have not been clearly distinguished by modern writers dealing with these jurisdictions. The conclusion of the paper is that public policy as an open norm is an English transplant.

L, Hawthorne.

2013-02-01

277

The relation of object naming and other visual speech production tasks:A large scale voxel-based morphometric study  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a lesion–symptom mapping analysis of visual speech production deficits in a large group (280) of stroke patients at the sub-acute stage (impairment in general visual–speech production. On the other hand, the unique naming component was potentially associated with the bilateral anterior temporal poles, hippocampus and cerebellar areas. This is in line with the models proposing that object naming relies on a left-lateralised language dominant system that interacts with a bilateral anterior temporal network. Neuropsychological deficits in object naming can reflect both the increased demands specific to the task and the more general difficulties in language processing.

Lau, Johnny King L.; Humphreys, Glyn W.; Douis, Hassan; Balani, Alex; Bickerton, Wai-ling; Rotshtein, Pia

2015-01-01

278

48 CFR 227.7107-1 - Architectural designs and data clauses for architect-engineer or construction contracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

...designs and data clauses for architect-engineer or construction contracts. 227.7107-1...designs and data clauses for architect-engineer or construction contracts. (a...solicitations and contracts for architect-engineer services and for construction...

2010-10-01

279

48 CFR 227.7107-1 - Architectural designs and data clauses for architect-engineer or construction contracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Architectural designs and data clauses for architect-engineer or construction contracts...Architectural designs and data clauses for architect-engineer or construction contracts...in solicitations and contracts for architect-engineer services and for...

2010-10-01

280

Minimal erythema dose and minimal melanogenesis dose relate better to objectively measured skin type than to Fitzpatricks skin type  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fitzpatrick skin type (FST I-IV) is a subjective expression of ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity based on erythema and tanning reactivity after a single exposure. Pigment protection factor (PPF) is an objective measurement of skin sensitivity in all skin types after a single exposure.

Wulf, Hans Christian; Philipsen, Peter A

2010-01-01

281

Healthy Children 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives Related to Mothers, Infants, Children, Adolescents, and Youth.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document is a compendium of approximately 170 national health promotion and disease prevention objectives affecting mothers, infants, children, adolescents, and youth. It offers a vision characterized by reductions of preventable death and disability, enhanced quality of life, and reduced disparities in the health status of the populations in…

Health Resources and Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office for Maternal and Child Health Services.

282

Cause Clue Clauses: Error Localization using Maximum Satisfiability  

CERN Document Server

Much effort is spent everyday by programmers trying to reduce long, failing execution traces to the cause of the error. We present a new algorithm for error cause localization based on a reduction to the maximal satisfiability problem (MAX SAT), which asks what is the maximum number of clauses of a Boolean formula that can be satisfied by an assignment. At an intuitive level, our algorithm takes as input a program and a failing test, and comprises the following three steps. First, as in symbolic execution, we encode a trace of a program as a Boolean trace formula which is satisfiable iff the trace is feasible. Second, for a failing program execution (e.g., one that violates an assertion or a post condition), we construct an unsatisfiable formula by taking the trace formula and additionally asserting that the input is the failing test and that the post-condition holds. Third, using MAX-SAT, we find a maximal set of clauses in this formula that can be satisfied together, and output the complement set as a poten...

Jose, Manu

2010-01-01

283

Clause States Based Configuration Checking in Local Search for Satisfiability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two-mode stochastic local search (SLS) and focused random walk (FRW) are the two most influential paradigms of SLS algorithms for the propositional satisfiability (SAT) problem. Recently, an interesting idea called configuration checking (CC) was proposed to handle the cycling problem in SLS. The CC idea has been successfully used to improve SLS algorithms for SAT, resulting in state-of-the-art solvers. Previous CC strategies for SAT are based on neighboring variables, and prove successful in two-mode SLS algorithms. However, this kind of neighboring variables based CC strategy is not suitable for improving FRW algorithms. In this paper, we propose a new CC strategy which is based on clause states. We apply this clause states based CC (CSCC) strategy to both two-mode SLS and FRW paradigms. Our experiments show that the CSCC strategy is effective on both paradigms. Furthermore, our developed FRW algorithms based on CSCC achieve state-of-the-art performance on a broad range of random SAT benchmarks. PMID:25134096

Luo, Chuan; Cai, Shaowei; Su, Kaile; Wu, Wei

2014-08-12

284

PU Vulpeculae (object Honda-Kuwano 1979) - a possible short-period relative of the symbiotic stars  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

UBV photometry was conducted in Brno and Skalnate Pleso observatories during the 1979 maximum (Chochol et al., 1981) and the authors searched for possible periodicity in the V data, compiled from their own observations as well as from data in the I.A.U. Circulars. The best period found is 76.4 days, but periods up to 80 days are also possible. Over this period, the object changes its V magnitude within about 0m.2-0m.25. (Auth.)

285

Didactic Practice and the Construction of the Personal Relation of Six-Year-Old Pupils to an Object of Knowledge: Numeration  

Science.gov (United States)

Wishing to explore the complexity of the conceptual, didactic and institutional aspects of learning a scientifically defined object of knowledge, we chose to study the link between the personal relation to numeration developed by six-year-old pupils in first grade ("cours preparatoire" the first level of primary school in France), and more…

Menotti, Guilaine; Ricco, Graciela

2007-01-01

286

Rms-flux relation in the optical fast variability data of BL Lacertae object S5 0716+714  

CERN Document Server

The possibility that Bl Lac S5 0716+714 exhibits a linear rms-flux relation in its IntraDay Variability is analyzed. The results may be used as an argument in the existing debate regarding the source of optical IDV in Active Galactic Nuclei. 63 timeseries in different optical bands were used. A linear rms-flux relation at a confidence level higher than 65% was recovered for less than 8% of the cases.

Mocanu, Gabriela Raluca

2012-01-01

287

Disability in major depression related to self-rated and objectively-measured cognitive deficits: a preliminary study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Although major depression (MD is associated with high levels of disability, the relationships between cognitive dysfunction and self-rated disability are poorly understood. This study examined the relationships between self-rated disability in persons with MD and both self-rated and objectively-measured cognitive functioning. Methods Twenty-one persons with MD and 21 control participants underwent neuropsychological assessment and z-scores representing deviations from control performance were calculated and averaged across the domains of psychomotor speed, initial learning, memory retention and executive function. Self-ratings of cognitive deficits (SRCDs were reported on a 6-point scale for overall rating of cognitive change, speed of thinking, concentration, and short-term memory. Disability scores for self-rated physical, mental-health and functional (ie. days out of role disability were computed from the Brief-Disability Questionnaire and the SF-12 'mental component' subscale. Results Persons with MD had a mean age of 53.9 years (SD = 11.0, 76% female and had moderate to high depression severity (mean HDRS 21.7, sd = 4.4. As expected, depression severity was a strong predictor of physical (r = 0.7, p Conclusion While depression severity is associated with disability, the contributions of both self-rated and objectively-measured cognitive deficits are substantial and contribute uniquely and differentially to various forms of disability. Efforts directed at reducing cognitive deficits in depression may have the potential to reduce disability.

Scott Elizabeth M

2007-07-01

288

A kinematic analysis of age-related changes in grasping to use and grasping to move common objects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Grasping is a complex action which requires high-level motor control. Although the impact of aging on grasping has been investigated in some studies, to date little is known as to how the aging process interacts with the purpose of the movement. The aims of the present study were (i) to investigate the effect of aging on grasping movements, and to explore on how this effect is modulated by (ii) the goal of the task, and by (iii) the characteristics of the target such as its location in the visual field, its orientation and its size. Young and elderly adults were asked to grasp to move or to grasp to use objects of different sizes and orientations, presented either in the central or the peripheral visual field. Movement duration did not differ between the two groups. However, elderly participants required a longer approach phase and showed a different grasping strategy, characterized by larger grip aperture and smaller percentage of wrist rotation in comparison to young adults. Elderly adults showed a decrease in accuracy when grasping objects presented in the peripheral, but not in the central visual field. A similar modulation of the kinematic parameters consisting in longer planning and execution phases in the grasp to use in comparison to the grasp to move condition was observed in both groups, suggesting that the effect of aging might be minimized and compensated in more goal-directed tasks. PMID:24977936

Cicerale, Alessandro; Ambron, Elisabetta; Lingnau, Angelika; Rumiati, Raffaella I

2014-09-01

289

Location, location, location: alterations in the functional topography of face- but not object- or place-related cortex in adolescents with autism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In autism, impairments in face processing are a relatively recent discovery, but have quickly become a widely accepted aspect of the behavioral profile. Only a handful of studies have investigated potential atypicalities in autism in the development of the neural substrates mediating face processing. High-functioning individuals with autism (HFA and matched typically developing (TD controls watched dynamic movie vignettes of faces, common objects, buildings, and scenes of navigation while undergoing an fMRI scan. With these data, we mapped the functional topography of category-selective activation for faces bilaterally in the fusiform gyrus, occipital face area, and posterior superior temporal sulcus. Additionally, we mapped category selective activation for objects in the lateral occipital area and for places in the parahippocampal place area in the two groups. Our findings do not indicate a generalized disruption in the development of the entire ventral visual pathway in autism. Instead, our results suggest that the functional topography of face-related cortex is selectively disrupted in autism and that this alteration is present in early adolescence. Furthermore, for those HFA adolescents who do exhibit face-selective activation, this activation tends to be located in traditionally object-related regions, which supports the hypothesis that perceptual processing of faces in autism may be more akin to the perceptual processing of common objects in TD individuals.

BeatrizLuna

2010-03-01

290

Rms-flux relation in the optical fast variability data of BL Lacertae object S5 0716+714  

OpenAIRE

The possibility that BL Lac S5 0716+714 exhibits a linear root mean square (rms)-flux relation in its IntraDay Variability (IDV) is analysed. The results may be used as an argument in the existing debate regarding the source of optical IDV in Active Galactic Nuclei. 63 time series in different optical bands were used. A linear rms-flux relation at a confidence level higher than 65% was recovered for less than 8% of the cases. We were able to check if the magnitude is log-nor...

Mocanu, Gabriela-raluca; Sandor, Bulcsu

2012-01-01

291

Relationalism  

CERN Document Server

This article contributes to the debate of the meaning of relationalism and background independence, which has remained of interest in theoretical physics from Newton versus Leibniz through to foundational issues for today's leading candidate theories of quantum gravity. I contrast and compose the substantially different Leibniz--Mach--Barbour (LMB) and Rovelli--Crane (RC) uses of the word `relational'. Leibniz advocated primary timelessness and Mach that `time is to be abstracted from change'. I consider 3 distinct viewpoints on Machian time: Barbour's, Rovelli's and my own. I provide four expansions on Barbour's taking configuration space to be primary: to (perhaps a weakened notion of) phase space, categorizing, perspecting and propositioning. Categorizing means considering not only object spaces but also the corresponding morphisms and then functors between such pairs. Perspecting means considering the set of subsystem perspectives; this is an arena in which the LMB and Rovelli approaches make contact. By ...

Anderson, Edward

2012-01-01

292

Analysis and Transformation Tools for Constrained Horn Clause Verification  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Several techniques and tools have been developed for verification of properties expressed as Horn clauses with constraints over a background theory (CHC). Current CHC verification tools implement intricate algorithms and are often limited to certain subclasses of CHC problems. Our aim in this work is to investigate the use of a combination of off-the-shelf techniques from the literature in analysis and transformation of Constraint Logic Programs (CLPs) to solve challenging CHC verification problems. We find that many problems can be solved using a combination of tools based on well-known techniques from abstract interpretation, semantics-preserving transformations, program specialisation and query-answer transformations. This gives insights into the design of automatic, more general CHC verification tools based on a library of components.

Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

2014-01-01

293

Tree automata-based refinement with application to Horn clause verification  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we apply tree-automata techniques to refinement of abstract interpretation in Horn clause verification. We go beyond previous work on refining trace abstractions; firstly we handle tree automata rather than string automata and thereby can capture traces in any Horn clause derivations rather than just transition systems; secondly, we show how algorithms manipulating tree automata interact with abstract interpretations, establishing progress in refinement and generating refined clauses that eliminate causes of imprecision. We show how to derive a refined set of Horn clauses in which given infeasible traces have been eliminated, using a recent optimised algorithm for tree automata determinisation. We also show how we can introduce disjunctive abstractions selectively by splitting states in the tree automaton. The approach is independent of the abstract domain and constraint theory underlying the Horn clauses. Experiments using linear constraint problems and the abstract domain of convex polyhedra show that the refinement technique is practical and that iteration of abstract interpretation with tree automata-based refinement solves many challenging Horn clause verification problems. We compare the results with other state of the art Horn clause verification tools.

Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

2015-01-01

294

Over a barrel : exiting from NAFTA's proportionality clause  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Natural gas exports to the United States are locked in by the proportionality clause of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The authors state that although both conventional oil and gas have peaked in Canada, the proportionality clause requires Canada to maintain its current share of energy exports to the United States, even if Canadians experience shortages. The unique clause guarantees the United States' access to Canada's energy resources. The authors cautioned that NAFTA limits Canada's options for managing its energy future and recommended options for regaining Canadian energy security. With NAFTA and the energy proportionality clause back on the political agenda for the first time since the 1993 federal election, this document explored 3 scenarios under which the proportionality clause could be invoked. The scenarios demonstrated how the clause could prevent Canada from reducing exports to conserve oil; prioritizing natural gas for petrochemicals; or, substituting Canadian oil for volatile foreign imports. The exercise demonstrated how under certain circumstances, proportionality could result in energy shortages for Canadians. The authors suggested that if NAFTA were to be renegotiated, Canada's first priority should be to end the proportionality clause because it stands in the way of Canada developing an effective energy security plan. 51 refs., 3 tabs.

Laxer, G.; Dillon, J. [Parkland Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

2008-05-15

295

Role of toluene in hydrogen sulfide combustion under Claus condition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Examined the role of toluene addition in hydrogen sulfide combustion. • Effect of 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 5% of toluene in H2S gas stream was examined. • Toluene addition triggers production of H2 which provides oxidation competition to H2S. • Increased amount of toluene in H2S gas reduced SO2 and increased asymptotic value of H2S. • Toluene addition enhanced the formation of CO and COS. - Abstract: Experimental investigations on the effect of different amounts of toluene addition to H2S combustion in oxygen under Claus condition (? = 3) are presented. Three toluene concentrations of 0.5%, 1% and 5% in H2S are presented and compared with the baseline case of 100% H2S oxygen combustion. Temperature data showed that addition of toluene to H2S gas stream increases the flame temperature because of large heating value associated with toluene. Addition of toluene resulted in the production of H2, which increased with increase in the amounts of toluene addition. Furthermore, increased addition of toluene concentration increased the asymptotic minimum value of hydrogen sulfide due to oxidation competition between the formed H2 and H2S. The results also showed that the presence of CO triggers the formation of COS with toluene addition due to reaction of CO with SO2. The results showed that SO2 mole fraction increased to a maximum value then decayed with distance along the reactor. Addition of toluene increased the rate of SO2 decay. These results have direct impact on sulfur capture in the Claus reactor and its performance

296

GENERAL CLAUSE OF STRICT CIVIL LIABILITY IN CIVIL CODE A CLÁUSULA GERAL DE RESPONSABILIDADE CIVIL OBJETIVA NO CÓDIGO CIVIL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to outline the institute's objective liability, with an emphasis on accountability clause general objective founded in Risk Theory, entered in Civil Codex of 2002. For this we will make a brief presentation on the evolution of the institute, through the rule of responsibility with guilt, until we get to the scene we know today, looking better understand it.O presente trabalho visa delinear o instituto da responsabilidade civil objetiva, com ênfase na cláusula geral de responsabilização objetiva fundada na Teoria do Risco, inserida no Codex Civil de 2002. Para isso, far-se-á uma breve exposição sobre a evolução do instituto, passando pelo império da responsabilidade com culpa, até chegarmos ao cenário que hoje conhecemos, procurando melhor entendê-lo.

Glaucia Rodrigues Torres de Oliveira Mel Rodrigues Torres de Oliveira Mello

2010-08-01

297

Multi-objective optimisation of a capacitated and dynamic multi-item inventory system using physical(-related) metaheuristics  

OpenAIRE

The dissertation is about the optimisation of an inventory control system. On the one hand a forecasting model was developed und with physical optimisation methods a forecast under diverse contraints like capacity or budget restrictions was made. On the other hand the main part of the dissertation was about the optimisation of inventory control policies. Different policies have been evaluated by a cost or energy function and optimised with physical (-related) metaheuristics. Above that analog...

Zizler, Markus Albert

2008-01-01

298

The expressibility of modality in representational complement clauses in Brazilian Portuguese  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

This paper deals with the (impossibility of expressing a variety of modal categories within the context of the layering approach to complementation in Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG.Our hypothesis is that modal expressions in complement clauses only pertain to operator or modifier classes of the highest layer relevant for that type of embedded construction and for all lower levels. In order to test this hypothesis, occurrences of complement clauses in two databases of spoken Brazilian Portuguese are analyzed. The investigation of this hypothesis is restricted to representational complement clauses.

Valéria Vendrame

2007-07-01

299

New R Coronae Borealis and DY Persei Star Candidates and Other Related Objects Found in Photometric Surveys  

CERN Document Server

We have carried out a search for new R Coronae Borealis (RCB) variables using the publicly accessible data from various photometric sky surveys and-whenever available-AAVSO visual data. Candidates were selected from Tisserand`s "Catalogue enriched with R CrB stars" and by a visual inspection of light curves from the ASAS-3, MACHO, NSVS and OGLE surveys. We have identified two new RCB stars, four RCB candidates, and one DY Persei (DYPer) star candidate. Our identification was based mainly on photometric variability, color-color diagrams, and further information drawn from various catalogue sources; spectroscopic classifications were also reported in our analysis whenever available. Additionally, we present a sample of interesting stars which-although showing similar photometric variability-can be ruled out as RCB and DYPer stars or have been rejected as such on spectroscopic grounds in recent studies. Although not useful in the investigation of the aforementioned groups of variables, these objects defy an easy...

Otero, Sebastián; Bernhard, Klaus; Soszy?ski, Igor

2014-01-01

300

The Composite OLAP-Object Data Model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, we define an OLAP-Object model that combines the main characteristics of OLAP and Object data models in order to achieve their functionalities in a common framework. We classify three different object classes: primitive, regular and composite. Then, we define a query language which uses the path concept in order to facilitate data navigation and data manipulation. The main feature of the proposed language is an anchor. It allows us to fix dynamically an object class (primitive, regular or composite) along the paths over the OLAP-Object data model for expressing queries. The queries can be formulated on objects, composite objects and combination of both. The power of the proposed query language is investigated through multiple query examples. The semantic of different clauses and syntax of the proposed language are investigated.

Pourabbas, Elaheh; Shoshani, Arie

2005-12-07

301

Sur la validité des clauses de confidentialité en droit du travail  

OpenAIRE

L'article discute des conditions de validité des clauses de confidentialité insérées dans les contrats de travail et envisage la mesure dans laquelle la liberté d'expression des salariés peut être limitée.

Leclerc, Olivier

2005-01-01

302

48 CFR 3011.204-70 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. 3011.204-70 Section 3011.204-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...NEEDS Using and Maintaining Requirements Documents 3011.204-70 Solicitation provisions and...

2010-10-01

303

48 CFR 2015.209-70 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. 2015.209-70 Section 2015.209-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...Solicitation and Receipt of Proposals and Implementation 2015.209-70 Solicitation provisions and...

2010-10-01

304

78 FR 37980 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Solicitation Provisions and Contract Clauses...  

Science.gov (United States)

...was noted that the Federal Register, Background Section II, states ``Further...Use the clause at 252.225-7017, Photovoltaic Devices, as prescribed in 225.7017-4...the provision at 252.225-7018, Photovoltaic Devices-- Certificate, as...

2013-06-25

305

48 CFR 970.1504-5 - Solicitation provision and contract clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Solicitation provision and contract clauses. 970.1504-5...System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY...MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contracting by Negotiation...Base Fee Amount and Performance Fee Amount, in management and operating contracts, and other...

2010-10-01

306

48 CFR 447.305 - Solicitation provisions, contract clauses, and transportation factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

...provisions, contract clauses, and transportation factors. 447.305 Section 447.305 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 447.305 Solicitation provisions, contract...

2010-10-01

307

77 FR 66466 - General Services Administration Regulation; Information Collection; Packing List Clause  

Science.gov (United States)

...3090-0246, Packing List Clause, in all...business confidential information provided. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Deborah Eble...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Purpose GSAR...211-77, Packing List, requires a...

2012-11-05

308

The expressibility of modality in representational complement clauses in Brazilian Portuguese  

OpenAIRE

This paper deals with the (im)possibility of expressing a variety of modal categories within the context of the layering approach to complementation in Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG).Our hypothesis is that modal expressions in complement clauses only pertain to operator or modifier classes of the highest layer relevant for that type of embedded construction and for all lower levels. In order to test this hypothesis, occurrences of complement clauses in two databases of spoken Bra...

Valéria Vendrame; Gisele Cássia de Sousa; Kess Hengeveld; Dalli Aglio Hattnher, Marize M.; Gonc?alves, Sebastia?o Carlos L.; Gasparini Bastos, Sandra D.; Casseb Galva?o, Va?nia C.

2007-01-01

309

THE COMPLEX CLAUSE IN BORUCA LA ORACIÓN COMPLEJA EN LA LENGUA BORUCA  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes the complex clause in Boruca, a Chibchan language once spoken in the southern territories on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The present study concentrates on the behavior of complex clauses, following a major distinction between paratactic and hypotactic constructions. Paratactic constructions are divided into asyndetic and syndetic constructions. The latter are quite frequent and it is common to find the syndetons: mang, ní, ihchí and iné in the combination of sente...

Damaris Castro

2010-01-01

310

THE UNPREDICTABILITY CLAUSE IN TRANSPORT CONTRACTS, ACCORDING TO THE NEW CIVIL CODE  

OpenAIRE

Until the enforcement of the highly controversial transport law, transport companies must already observe the provisions of the new Civil Code1 in their transport business. One of the novelties in the new Civil Code, that came into force on October 1, 2011, refers to the unpredictability clause: recurring to this clause, in certain situations to be precisely analysed by courts, parties may even be exempted from certain contractual obligations, when the court decides to rescind the contract ba...

Belu, Adriana Elena

2014-01-01

311

Visual Jokes about Christmas and Santa Claus on the Internet - Why and Why not?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article analyses a collection of Christmas-related images and video clips found on the Internet. The author started collecting this material in 2005, since that time the material in the form of a PowerPoint presentation has been shown to diverse audiences discussing the context (mainly from the perspective of a folklore researcher while observing the reaction of the audience.The central part of the article is devoted to a brief overview of the most characteristic groups of the jokes (with links to the images, video and descriptions of the traditions: Santa Claus as the bringer of presents, his trip from the northland and his friend Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, arrival through the chimney, different other persons wearing Santa’s hat (politicians, terrorists, women, animals, etc., Santa’s sexuality, drunken Santa, Santa murdered/killed, etc. In addition, the regional version – Ded Moroz and Snegurochka (Father Frost and the Snowgirl – is discussed here. Parodies related to the topic – the Christmas tree, snowmen and figures made of snow, elves, angels, Chinese horoscope’s “animals of the year”.Some hypotheses regarding the differences, functions, selection and perception of the worldwide available jokes in different social situations (western and post-Soviet world are put forward, also considering social groups and situations, the time before and after Christmas. Why would people need such jokes? An attempt is made to explain it by different “levels of joking” – starting with “simply jokes” with their specific context in the tradition of the particular subject matter and the carnival-like sense of the reversed world (also used by the traders, making the originally rather eerie Santa Claus look like a friendly joker in the “shopping mythology” and jokes as a kind of psychological self-defence – trying to compensate, by way of irony and black humour, for the rapidly changing and excessive tediousness, seriousness, sacralisation, or right the opposite – secularisation, commercialisation of the mass media imposed Christmas traditions and the holiday stress.

Guntis Pakalns

2012-04-01

312

Experiencias en la gestión de imágenes por contenido en bases de datos objeto-relacionales / Experiences in Image Management by Content in Object-Relational Databases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo se analizan diversos mecanismos que brinda la tecnología Objeto-Relacional (OR) para el almacenamiento de imágenes en una Base de Datos. El objetivo fue estudiar, mediante la implementación de dos ejemplos en Oracle 10g, el comportamiento de la tecnología OR en el almacenamiento, la [...] formulación de consultas, la recuperación de la información y de las imágenes asociadas. La primera implementación se corresponde con el almacenamiento de imágenes médicas concordantes con el estándar DICOM, utilizando objetos ORDImage propios de ORACLE. En el segundo ejemplo se almacenaron imágenes de un diario digital empleando instancias del UDT SI_StillImage del estándar SQL/MM. Las capacidades provistas por la Base de Datos Objeto-Relacional empleada facilitan la implementación de un servidor de imágenes. Se analizaron también las ventajas y desventajas de emplear objetos del estándar SQL/MM o datos nativos correspondientes a Oracle 10g. Abstract in english In this paper, several alternatives for the storage of still images in databases given by the Object-Relational technology are analyzed. The aim was to study, by means of two examples, implementation in Oracle 10g database, the technology behaviour in the storage, query formulation and image recover [...] y. The first application corresponds to the storage of medical images complying with DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) standard, Oracle 10g ORDImage objects have been used for this case. The second example deals with the storage of images for a digital newspaper for which SI_StillImage of the SQL/MM standard have been employed. The capabilities provided by the Object Relational technology facilitate the implementation of an images server. The advantages and drawbacks of using SQL/MM standard or native objects corresponding to Oracle 10g are also compared.

Carlos E, Alvez; Aldo R, Vecchietti.

2009-11-01

313

BL Lacertae objects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The properties of BL Lacertae objects are discussed including their spectra, variability, and brightness. The historical development of observation, and the conclusion that these objects are possibly quasar-related objects rather than variable stars as originally supposed are treated. The possible mechanisms for the unusual luminosity of these objects are considered

314

Contributos para uma análise semântico-pragmática das causais de enunciação no Português Europeu contemporâneo / Utterance causal clauses in contemporary European Portuguese: some contributions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho é caracterizar as orações causais de enunciação num quadro teórico que postula a existência, no discurso, de distintos domínios da significação - domínio do conteúdo, domínio epistémico e domínio ilocutório-, na convicção de que uma análise semântica destas construções pode [...] rá contribuir para iluminar o seu comportamento sintático peculiar, que tanta controvérsia tem gerado. Defende-se, neste estudo, que as orações causais de enunciação expressam a relação discursiva de Justificação, que envolve sempre a articulação de dois atos ilocutórios, um deles com o estatuto de ato principal, o outro com o estatuto de ato subordinado. Num primeiro momento, analisa-se a articulação entre causais de enunciação e asserções e argumenta-se a favor da inseparabilidade entre os domínios epistémico e ilocutório neste tipo de construções, contrariamente ao que defende Sweetser (1999). Num segundo momento, analisa-se a articulação entre causais de enunciação e outras classes de atos ilocutórios, nomeadamente atos diretivos, compromissivos e expressivos. Abstract in english The main purpose of this paper is to characterize utterance causal clauses within a theoretical framework that assumes different domains of discourse meaning - content, epistemic and speech-act domain. The assumption is that a semantic analysis may provide some explanation for the syntactic behaviou [...] r of the construction under scrutiny. It is argued in this paper that utterance causal clauses illustrate the discourse relation of Justification, which involves the connection between two illocutionary acts, with different hierarchical status. It is also argued, contrary to Sweetser's 1999 account, that utterance causal clauses combined with assertions give rise to an elementary argumentative text, where the epistemic and the illocutionary domain are closely intertwined. The paper also contemplates the connection between utterance causal clauses and other classes of speech acts, namely directive, compromissive and expressive ones.

Ana Cristina Macário, Lopes.

2012-12-01

315

Measurements of magnetism-related forces and torque moments affecting medical instruments, implants, and foreign objects during magnetic resonance imaging at all degrees of freedom.  

Science.gov (United States)

We designed a novel force/torque moment transducer with six degrees of freedom. This new sensor is used for measuring the forces and torque moments exerted by static magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fields on various medical implants, instruments, and ballistic shell fragments. To determine the location of strongest effect the inhomogeneity of the magnetic field between the entrance of the MRI-tube (portal), and the imaging section was measured. Force and torque moments of a sample of 45 objects were measured at two positions, at the portal, and in the center of the imaging section. We classified the objects regarding to the magnetism-related forces measured in the homogeneous part of the MRI tube. About one-third of the objects was non- or weakly magnetic, one-third moderately, and the last third was strongly magnetic. Forces within the inhomogeneous area of the magnetic field at the entrance part of the tube were up to half a magnitude larger than forces inside the homogeneous imaging section. Here the greatest potential risks to patients might occur. PMID:8798170

Planert, J; Modler, H; Vosshenrich, R

1996-06-01

316

Word order variation and foregrounding of complement clauses : Exploring the meaning of sentence adverbials as signals of word order  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Through mixed models analyses of complement clauses in a corpus of spoken Danish we examine the role of sentence adverbials in relation to a word order distinction in Scandinavian signalled by the relative position of sentence adverbials and finite verb (V>Adv vs. Adv>V). The type of sentence adverbial was the third-most important factor in explaining the word order variation: Sentence adverbials categorized as ‘dialogic’ are significantly associated with V>Adv word order. We argue that the results are readily interpretable in the light of the semantico-pragmatic hypothesis that V>Adv signals foregrounded information, and exploit the random intercepts assigned to the individual adverbials for further exploring the functions of sentence adverbials that behave unexpectedly based on the predictions of the model.

Christensen, Tanya Karoli; Jensen, Torben Juel

2015-01-01

317

Left-peripheral Free Relatives in Northern Basque  

OpenAIRE

Left-peripheral relative clauses (also known as correlative clauses) are widely attested in natural languages — in the Indo-European family, both ancient and modern, and outside of that domain too. Such is also the case of Basque, an isolate language spoken in South-Western France and Northern Spain, in which these Left-peripheric Free Relatives (LPFRs), are restricted to the Eastern dialects, i.e. those spoken in France, and the neighbouring subdialects spoken across the boundary, in Spani...

Rebuschi, Georges; Lipta?k, Aniko?

2006-01-01

318

Multi-Objective Optimization of Residential Building Roof Layer Thickness for Minimization of Heat Entering the Room Using FEM and Grey Relational Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, a multi objective optimization on roof layer thickness has been carried out through Taguchi based grey relational analysis technique. Conventional type of residential building roof was changed by a modified pattern of roof having layers namely concrete, phase change material, wood wool and weathering tile and its performance on heat insulation have been studied. In this study, the optimum thickness of roof layers was determined for minimum heat gain through roof by grey relational analysis technique. The thickness of various roof layers were considered as control parameters and varied through five levels of values. For this objective, Taghuchi's L25 orthogonal array has been employed and the performance on heat insulation was studied through finite element analysis (FEA) technique. The FEA simulation on heat transfer across the roof has also been validated with the experimental results and found that it is having a good agreement. The optimized roof reduces the heat gain and temperature by 30 % and 3 °C respectively in comparison with the conventional type of roof. Also from this study, it was identified that the wood wool is the most predominant roof layer that controls the heat gain into the room.

Prakash, D.; Ravikumar, P.

2014-01-01

319

Quantitative assessment of bone marrow attenuation values at MDCT: An objective tool for the detection of bone bruise related to occult sacral insufficiency fractures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To prove the feasibility of using Hounsfield attenuation values at MDCT to detect bone bruises related to sacral insufficiency fractures. Twenty-two patients with acute sacrum trauma and no fracture findings at MDCT were included in our prospective study. Two observers independently reviewed CTs regarding visual signs of bone bruises in 132 defined regions of the sacral alae. Interobserver agreement was tested by ? statistics. Subsequently, HU values were obtained in the same regions, and attenuation differences between the two sides were calculated. Validity and reliability were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. HU differences were subjected to ROC curve analysis to determine sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV. MRI served as standard reference. MRI revealed 19 regions with bone bruises and associated sacral insufficiency fractures. HU measurements demonstrated good validity and reliability (r = 0.989). ROC curve analysis exhibited an ideal cutoff value of 35.7 HU density difference between affected and non-affected regions. Visual evaluation revealed moderate agreement (? = 0.48); diagnostic accuracy was inferior to objective evaluation. Assessment of differences in bone marrow density by HU measurements is an objective and reliable tool for detection of bone bruises associated with occult sacral insufficiency fractures. (orig.)

320

Quantitative assessment of bone marrow attenuation values at MDCT: An objective tool for the detection of bone bruise related to occult sacral insufficiency fractures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To prove the feasibility of using Hounsfield attenuation values at MDCT to detect bone bruises related to sacral insufficiency fractures. Twenty-two patients with acute sacrum trauma and no fracture findings at MDCT were included in our prospective study. Two observers independently reviewed CTs regarding visual signs of bone bruises in 132 defined regions of the sacral alae. Interobserver agreement was tested by {kappa} statistics. Subsequently, HU values were obtained in the same regions, and attenuation differences between the two sides were calculated. Validity and reliability were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. HU differences were subjected to ROC curve analysis to determine sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV. MRI served as standard reference. MRI revealed 19 regions with bone bruises and associated sacral insufficiency fractures. HU measurements demonstrated good validity and reliability (r = 0.989). ROC curve analysis exhibited an ideal cutoff value of 35.7 HU density difference between affected and non-affected regions. Visual evaluation revealed moderate agreement ({kappa} = 0.48); diagnostic accuracy was inferior to objective evaluation. Assessment of differences in bone marrow density by HU measurements is an objective and reliable tool for detection of bone bruises associated with occult sacral insufficiency fractures. (orig.)

Henes, F.O.; Groth, M.; Bley, T.A.; Regier, M.; Ittrich, H.; Adam, G.; Bannas, P. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Nuechtern, J.V. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Trauma, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Treszl, A. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Center for Experimental Medicine, Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Hamburg (Germany)

2012-10-15

321

PAH EMISSION IN STARBURST, SEYFERT, ULIRGS, QSOS AND QUASAR OBJECTS, AND THEIR RELATION WITH THE INFRARED, X-RAY AND RADIO CONTINUUM EMISSION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is a second study in an ongoing work aimed to analyze the star formation activity and its relation with the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs emission. In this way, we have performed a study about the correlation between the ux of the 7.7 -m PAH band and its equivalent width, with the luminosities and uxes observed in JHK photometric bands, IRAS 12, 25, 60 and 100-m, the radio emission at 1.4GHz and X-ray at 2{10 keV, for a sample composed of Seyfert 1-2, QSOs, Quasars, Starburst, and ULIRGs. The results found let us discriminate between objects with more star formation activity from others with more AGN in uence.

M.-A. Higuera-G.

2009-01-01

322

Characterization of catalysts by Moessbauer spectroscopy: An application to the study of Fischer-Tropsch, hydrotreating and super Claus catalysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Moessbauer spectroscopy is an excellent in-situ technique for the identification of phases present in catalysts. Applied to metallic iron catalysts used in the Fischer-Tropsch reaction it reveals a detailed picture of the carburization process and provides insight into the relation between the properties of the catalytic material and its activity. The influence of a support and the effect of alloying iron with an (in)active metal on the catalytic performance is discussed for Fe, Cu-Fe and Ni-Fe systems. In addition, Moessbauer spectroscopy is used for the identification of 'Co-sulfide' species present in sulfided Co and CoMo catalysts applied in one of the largest chemical processes in the world, the hydrotreatment of crude oil. A structural model is proposed. Finally, the contribution of Moessbauer spectroscopic studies to the development of a new catalyst for cleaning of Claus tail gas via selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur is discussed. (orig.)

323

Of men and objects - Sketches for a sociology with objects  

OpenAIRE

This dissertation defines the relations between men and the objects, and sketches a sociology taking objects into account. The core hypothesis of this work, inspired by post-phenomenological approaches, is that objects embody social relations; that they are compulsory mediators of relational processes between human beings.The author starts from the fact that objects are quite absent in social sciences topics. To study the relations to objects, he proposes to consider them as pieces of k...

Blandin, Bernard

2001-01-01

324

46 CFR 308.536 - Declaration where failure to comply with Clause 21 was inadvertent, Form MA-314.  

Science.gov (United States)

...comply with Clause 21 was inadvertent, Form MA-314. 308.536 Section 308.536...comply with Clause 21 was inadvertent, Form MA-314. An Assured that fails inadvertently...Policy shall file this Declaration, Form MA-314, which may be obtained from the...

2010-10-01

325

21 CFR 1210.27 - Permits waiving clauses 2 and 5, section 2 of the Federal Import Milk Act.  

Science.gov (United States)

...clauses 2 and 5, section 2 of the Federal Import Milk Act. 1210.27 Section 1210...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Permit Control § 1210.27...clauses 2 and 5, section 2 of the Federal Import Milk Act. A permit to ship or...

2010-04-01

326

21 CFR 1210.28 - Permits waiving clause 4, section 2 of the Federal Import Milk Act.  

Science.gov (United States)

...waiving clause 4, section 2 of the Federal Import Milk Act. 1210.28 Section 1210...ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Permit Control § 1210.28...waiving clause 4, section 2 of the Federal Import Milk Act. The Secretary, in...

2010-04-01

327

Stage and Individual-level predicates whithin "if" and "when" clauses: what works and what doesn't  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Clauses headed by if and when are very often considered syntactically and semantically equivalent.  Nevertheless, in this paper we show that the type of predicate has an impact both on the grammaticality and the interpretation of the subordinate clause in Spanish. Theses clauses provide evidence for the proposal that stage-level predicates involve an extra-argument that individual-level predicates lack. Following Kratzer (1995, we assume that this is extra-argument is a spatio-temporal argument. While stage-level predicates in the subordinate clause are perfectly grammatical, individual-level predicates yield to ungrammatical sentences, unless an indefinite or a kind-referring NP is involved.  Kratzer´s Prohibition against vacuous quantification provides a sound account for the asymmetry between the two types of predicates.  In addition, a stative verb in the when clause is grammatical, but it forces an epistemic reading. When both predicates are individual-level predicates in the subordinate and the main clause, the if clause may can take a factual reading while the when clause is ungrammatical unless there is some kind of operator involved through a generic, a kind-referring NP or an indefinite pronoun.

Asuncion Martínez-Arbelaiz

2013-04-01

328

Den sene Derrida, eller: Er Claus Beck-Nielsen et spøgelse?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article is about hosting the ghost. In Spectres de Marx (1993) Derrida introduces the ghost which seems to condense in one figure the important themes of his late writings: the address, the other, the ethical turn, the event, the mourning, the reality of immateriality, the guest. The article turns to the paternal ghost from Shakespeare's Hamlet, as well as to the most ghost-like artist on the Danish contemporary art scene: Claus Beck-Nielsen, who some years ago declared himself dead. Is Claus Beck-Nielsen really a ghost? That is the question.

Rösing, Lilian Munk

2009-01-01

329

Non-finite Complementation A Usage-Based Study of Infinitive and -ing Clauses in English  

CERN Document Server

This book presents a comprehensive guide to the way speakers of British English use infinitive and – ing clauses as verbal complements. It contains details of the non-finite complementation patterns of over 300 matrix verbs, with a particular emphasis on verbs that occur with more than one type of non-finite complement. Drawing upon data from the British National Corpus, the author shows that some of the views which are to be found in the existing literature on these sorts of clauses are in conflict with the evidence of actual usage. He also shows that there is actually much more regularity in

Egan, Thomas

2008-01-01

330

Die inisiasiemotief by Hugo Claus, verduidelik aan die hand van 'De ingewijde' en ander gedigte  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The motif of initiation occurs repeatedly in the poetry of Hugo Claus and it can be regarded as an important key to his early work. In the series De ingewijde it is clear that the poems are not simply imitations or embodiments of traditional initiation rituals or ceremonies. In the poems there are almost concealed correspondences, and in order to determine their meaning initiation has to be studied as a universal phenomenon. In the first place one has to study what initiation means as a universal phenomenon, and then initiation in Hugo Claus’s poetry is studied.

S. W. van Zuydam

1987-05-01

331

Object composition  

OpenAIRE

an extension of Java with incomplete objects. This extension is based on the definition of specific annotations (thus the Java grammar is not extended). It provides a preprocessor that, given a program that uses our special annotations (for incomplete classes) and generates standard Java classes. Incomplete Objects The programmer, besides standard classes, can define incomplete classes whose instances are incomplete objects that can be composed in an object-based fashion. Hence, in our langua...

Bono, Viviana; Bettini, Lorenzo

2010-01-01

332

76 FR 16041 - Agency Information Collection (VAAR Sections 809.106-1, 809.504(d), and Clause 852.209-70) Under...  

Science.gov (United States)

...809.504(d), and Clause 852.209-70) Under OMB Review AGENCY: Office of Management...809.504(d), and Clause 852.209-70. OMB Control Number: 2900-0418. Type...section 809.504(d) and Clause 852.209-70 requires VA to determine whether or...

2011-03-22

333

76 FR 2759 - Proposed Information Collection (VAAR Sections 809.106-1, 809.504(d), and Clause 852.209-70...  

Science.gov (United States)

...809.504(d), and Clause 852.209-70) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Office...809.504(d), and Clause 852.209-70. OMB Control Number: 2900-0418. Type...section 809.504(d) and Clause 852.209-70 requires VA to determine whether or...

2011-01-14

334

Price control in contracts of heat supply. May no more index be used in automatic price escalator clauses?; Preiskontrolle in Waermeliefervertraegen.. Darf in automatischen Preisgleitklauseln kein Index mehr genutzt werden?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Automatic price escalator clauses using a price index are AGB legally permissible in heat supply contracts. The fact that such price indices necessarily compound and orient themselves only at its own development of delivery costs is so long innocuous since the selection of these indices essentially can be justified on the basis of objective criteria. However, if the heat supplier as a user of the AGB uses no indices, but passes its costs of acquisition in its price escalator clause simply to 100 %, this evenly can be inadmissible according to paragraph 24 sect. 3, sentence 1 of AVB district heating regulation. This is valid if such a 'servile' passing signifies a neglect of conditions on the market.

Legler, Dirk [Guenther Heidel Wollenteit Hack Goldmann, Hamburg (Germany)

2010-03-15

335

The transformational object.  

Science.gov (United States)

In work with certain kinds of patients in psychoanalysis who hyperbolize a particular form of object seeking, and in our analysis of certain features of western culture, I think we can isolate the trace in the adult of the earliest experience of the object. The infant's first experience of the object is as a process, rather than a thing in itself, but he perceptually identifies his experience of the object (an experience of psycho-somatic transformation) with the maternal object. For this reason I have termed the first object the transformational object, as I want to identify it with the object as process, thus linking our notion of the object with the infant's subjective knowing of it. Before the mother is personalized to the infant as a whole object she has functioned as a source of transformation, and as the infant's own nascent subjectivity is almost completely the experience of the ego's integrations (cognitive, libidinal, affective) the first object is identified with the alterations of the ego's state. This ego experience remains as an unconscious memory in the adult who relives it through his adamant quest for a transformational object: a new partner, a different form of work, a new material acquisition, an ideology or a belief. The most vivid memory of the earliest object relation occurs in the aesthetic moment when the person feels in deep rapport with the aesthetic object. Such moments are notable for their evocation of the affective memory of the earliest object relation. It is important for psychoanalysts to understand that the psychoanalytic setting and process invites the patient to remember the earliest object relation, so that a patient's expectation that the analyst will perform a transformational function is not necessarily either a wish or a resistance to the analytic work, but may, in fact, be the patient's response to the regressive invitation of the psychoanalytic space. PMID:457346

Bollas, C

1979-01-01

336

LES CARACTERISTIQUES DES CONTRATS DE DETTE ET LES CLAUSES RESTRICTIVES COMPTABLES : QUELS LIENS ?  

OpenAIRE

Cette étude examine les facteurs déterminants le recours aux données comptables dans les contrats de dette. Les résultats suggèrent que le recours aux clauses comptables est positivement associé au risque de l'émetteur et aux dettes remboursables, et négativement à la maturité du prêt et la taille de la firme.

Bilodeau, Julien; Cherief, Idir; Labelle, Re?al; Missonier-piera, Franck

2005-01-01

337

29 CFR 4.6 - Labor standards clauses for Federal service contracts exceeding $2,500.  

Science.gov (United States)

...result of arm's-length negotiations...result of arm's-length negotiations...safety and health standards applied under 29...pursuant to the labor standards clause in paragraph...worksite during normal working hours...provisions based upon length of service...

2010-07-01

338

Force majeure clauses and the threat of nuclear disaster. A Japanese case study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Force majeure clauses can be found in any commercial contract. Though more or less clear guidelines for the applicability of force majeure (clauses) exist in the form of international and national law, the applicability and enforceability of force majeure clauses with respect to nuclear incidents or disasters, however, remain ambiguous. Until the Japanese nuclear disaster, no major trade region was affected by any of the historical nuclear incidents. This case-study is based on the events surrounding the Tohoku earthquake, respective tsunami and nuclear incidents, especially at the Daiichi NPP and radiological contamination released there. The applicability and enforceability of force majeure clauses with their wide legal and economical implications are analyzed and evaluated according to the CISG and national domestic Japanese law. It is found that the assertion of force majeure is generally highly fact-specific and circumstance-sensitive. In general, the potential of nuclear disaster as an event triggering the force majeure defence is clearly evident, according to both international and Japanese law. Any claim must, however, be substantiated according to the principles of the different legal regimes under which the contract falls. In consequence, a company located within the evacuated areas will probably be able to successfully assert for majeure, whilst the success of any other claim will depend on the presentation of evidence, such as radiation levels and its effects in hindering performance of contractual obligations.

339

A Shock to the Conscience: The Due Process Clause and Corporal Punishment.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a case involving an injured football player, an 11th Circuit judge viewed a coach's refusal to stop a fight as corporal punishment. Federal courts in five circuits have ruled that excessive corporal punishment violates the Due Process Clause if it is so brutal and harmful that it shocks the court's conscience. (MLH)

Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

2001-01-01

340

18 CFR 35.14 - Fuel cost and purchased economic power adjustment clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...and purchased economic power adjustment clauses...tariffs or service agreements which embody fuel...tariffs, or service agreements: (1) The fuel...and purchased economic power costs per kWh of sales...The total cost of the purchase of economic...

2010-04-01

341

Force majeure clauses and the threat of nuclear disaster. A Japanese case study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Force majeure clauses can be found in any commercial contract. Though more or less clear guidelines for the applicability of force majeure (clauses) exist in the form of international and national law, the applicability and enforceability of force majeure clauses with respect to nuclear incidents or disasters, however, remain ambiguous. Until the Japanese nuclear disaster, no major trade region was affected by any of the historical nuclear incidents. This case-study is based on the events surrounding the Tohoku earthquake, respective tsunami and nuclear incidents, especially at the Daiichi NPP and radiological contamination released there. The applicability and enforceability of force majeure clauses with their wide legal and economical implications are analyzed and evaluated according to the CISG and national domestic Japanese law. It is found that the assertion of force majeure is generally highly fact-specific and circumstance-sensitive. In general, the potential of nuclear disaster as an event triggering the force majeure defence is clearly evident, according to both international and Japanese law. Any claim must, however, be substantiated according to the principles of the different legal regimes under which the contract falls. In consequence, a company located within the evacuated areas will probably be able to successfully assert for majeure, whilst the success of any other claim will depend on the presentation of evidence, such as radiation levels and its effects in hindering performance of contractual obligations.

Guderian, Stephan Michael

2011-07-22

342

SPINS: Standardized ProteIn NMR Storage. A data dictionary and object-oriented relational database for archiving protein NMR spectra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Modern protein NMR spectroscopy laboratories have a rapidly growing need for an easily queried local archival system of raw experimental NMR datasets. SPINS (Standardized ProteIn Nmr Storage) is an object-oriented relational database that provides facilities for high-volume NMR data archival, organization of analyses, and dissemination of results to the public domain by automatic preparation of the header files required for submission of data to the BioMagResBank (BMRB). The current version of SPINS coordinates the process from data collection to BMRB deposition of raw NMR data by standardizing and integrating the storage and retrieval of these data in a local laboratory file system. Additional facilities include a data mining query tool, graphical database administration tools, and a NMRStar v2.1.1 file generator. SPINS also includes a user-friendly internet-based graphical user interface, which is optionally integrated with Varian VNMR NMR data collection software. This paper provides an overview of the data model underlying the SPINS database system, a description of its implementation in Oracle, and an outline of future plans for the SPINS project

343

The physical role of gravitational and gauge degrees of freedom in general relativity II: Dirac versus Bergmann observables and the objectivity of space-time  

Science.gov (United States)

This is the second of a couple of papers in which we aim to show the peculiar capability of the Hamiltonian ADM formulation of metric gravity to grasp a series of conceptual and technical problems that appear to have not been directly discussed so far. In this paper we also propose new viewpoints about issues that, being deeply rooted into the foundational level of Einstein theory, seem particularly worth of clarification in connection with the alternative programs of string theory and loop quantum gravity. The achievements of the present work include: (1) the analysis of the so-called Hole phenomenology in strict connection with the Hamiltonian treatment of the initial value problem. The work is carried through in metric gravity for the class of spatially non-compact Christoudoulou-Klainermann space-times, in which the temporal evolution is ruled by the weak ADM energy. It is crucial to our analysis the re-interpretation of active diffeomorphisms as passive and metric-dependent dynamical symmetries of Einstein's equations, a re-interpretation which enables to disclose their (nearly unknown) connection to gauge transformations on-shell; this is expounded in the first paper (gr-qc/0403081); (2) the utilization of the Bergmann-Komar intrinsic pseudo-coordinates, defined as suitable functionals of the Weyl curvature scalars, as tools for a specific gauge-fixing to the super-hamiltonian and super-momentum constraints; (3) the consequent construction of a physical atlas of 4-coordinate systems for the 4-dimensional mathematical manifold, in terms of the highly non-local degrees of freedom of the gravitational field (its four independent Dirac observables). Such construction embodies the physical individuation of the points of space-time as point-events, both in absence and presence of matter, and associates a non-commutative structure to each gauge fixing or 4-dimensional coordinate system; (4) a clarification of the multiple definition given by Peter Bergmann of the concept of (Bergmann) observable in general relativity. This clarification leads to the proposal of a main conjecture asserting the existence of: i) special Dirac's observables which are also Bergmann's observables, ii) gauge variables that are coordinate independent (namely they behave like the tetradic scalar fields of the Newman-Penrose formalism). A by-product of this achievements is the falsification of a recently advanced argument asserting the absence of (any kind of) change in the observable quantities of general relativity; (5) a proposal showing how the physical individuation of point-events could in principle be implemented as an experimental setup and protocol leading to a standard of space-time more or less like atomic clocks define standards of time. In the end, against the well-known Einstein's assertion according to which general covariance takes away from space and time the last remnant of physical objectivity, we conclude that point-events maintain a peculiar sort of objectivity. Also, besides being operationally essential for building measuring apparatuses for the gravitational field, the role of matter in the non-vacuum gravitational case is also that of participating directly in the individuation process, being involved in the determination of the Dirac observables. Finally, some hints following from our approach for the quantum gravity programme are suggested.

Lusanna, Luca; Pauri, Massimo

2006-02-01

344

Validation of the mothers object relations scales in 2–4 year old children and comparison with the child–parent relationship scale  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The quality of the parent–child relationship has an important effect on a wide range of child outcomes. The evaluation of interventions to promote healthy parenting and family relationships is dependent on outcome measures which can quantify the quality of parent–child relationships. Between the Mothers’ Object Relations – Short Form (MORS-SF) scale for babies and the Child–parent Relationship Scale (C-PRS) there is an age gap where no validated scales are available. We report the development and testing of an adaptation of the MORS-SF; the MORS (Child) scale and its use in children from the age of 2 years to 4 years. This scale aims to capture the nature of the parent–child relationship in a form which is short enough to be used in population surveys and intervention evaluations. Methods Construct and criterion validity, item salience and internal consistency were assessed in a sample of 166 parents of children aged 2–4 years old and compared with that of the C-PRS. The performance of the MORS (Child) as part of a composite measure with the HOME inventory was compared with that of the C-PRS using data collected in a randomised controlled trial and the national evaluation of Sure Start. Results MORS (Child) performed well in children aged 2–4 with high construct and criterion validity, item salience and internal consistency. One item in the C-PRS failed to load on either subscale and parents found this scale slightly more difficult to complete than the MORS (Child). The two measures performed very similarly in a factor analysis with the HOME inventory producing almost identical loadings. Conclusions Adapting the MORS-SF for children aged 2–4 years old produces a scale to assess parent–child relationships that is easy to use and outperforms the more commonly used C-PRS in several respects. PMID:23518176

2013-01-01

345

The Experience of Force: The Role of Haptic Experience of Forces in Visual Perception of Object Motion and Interactions, Mental Simulation, and Motion-Related Judgments  

Science.gov (United States)

Forces are experienced in actions on objects. The mechanoreceptor system is stimulated by proximal forces in interactions with objects, and experiences of force occur in a context of information yielded by other sensory modalities, principally vision. These experiences are registered and stored as episodic traces in the brain. These stored…

White, Peter A.

2012-01-01

346

Object crowding  

OpenAIRE

Crowding occurs when stimuli in the peripheral fields become harder to identify when flanked by other items. This phenomenon has been demonstrated extensively with simple patterns (e.g., Gabors and letters). Here, we characterize crowding for everyday objects. We presented three-item arrays of objects and letters, arranged radially and tangentially in the lower visual field. Observers identified the central target, and we measured contrast energy thresholds as a function of target-to-flanker ...

Wallace, Julian M.; Tjan, Bosco S.

2011-01-01

347

Trusted Objects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

1999-10-27

348

Relativity  

CERN Document Server

The theory of relativity has become a cornerstone of modern physics. Over the course of time it has been scrutinized in a multitude of experiments and has always been verified with high accuracy. The correctness of this theory can no longer be called into question. Right after its discovery by Albert Einstein in 1905, special relativity was only gradually accepted because it made numerous predictions contradicting common sense, fervently castigated by Einstein, and also defied experiment for too long a time. It was only with the advent of particle or high energy physics that matter could be ac

Brewster, Hilary D

2009-01-01

349

Relativity  

CERN Document Server

Time magazine's ""Man of the Century"", Albert Einstein is the founder of modern physics and his theory of relativity is the most important scientific idea of the modern era. In this short book, Einstein explains, using the minimum of mathematical terms, the basic ideas and principles of the theory that has shaped the world we live in today. Unsurpassed by any subsequent books on relativity, this remains the most popular and useful exposition of Einstein's immense contribution to human knowledge.With a new foreword by Derek Raine.

Einstein, Albert

2013-01-01

350

Object oriented programming  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is an introduction to object oriented programming techniques. It tries to explain the concepts by using analogies with traditional programming. The object oriented approach not inherently difficult, but most programmers find a relatively high threshold in learning it. Thus, this paper will attempt to convey the concepts with examples rather than explain the formal theory

351

76 FR 16038 - Agency Information Collection (VAAR Clause 852.236.91, Special Notes) Under OMB Review  

Science.gov (United States)

...Agency Information Collection (VAAR Clause 852.236.91, Special Notes) Under OMB...use of automated collection techniques or the...852.236.91, Special Notes. OMB Control...currently approved collection. Abstract:...

2011-03-22

352

76 FR 2762 - Proposed Information Collection (VAAR Clause 852.236.91, Special Notes) Activity: Comment Request  

Science.gov (United States)

...2900-0623] Proposed Information Collection (VAAR Clause 852.236.91, Special Notes) Activity: Comment...public comment on the proposed collection of certain information by...concerning each proposed collection of information,...

2011-01-14

353

48 CFR 204.470-3 - Contract clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

...fissionable materials (e.g., uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium); (b) Other radiological source materials; or (c) Technologies directly related to nuclear power production, including nuclear or radiological waste...

2010-10-01

354

48 CFR 625.7002 - Solicitation provision and contract clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

...STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Arab League Boycott and Related Provisions 625.7002 Solicitation...with DOSAR 625.7001(c): (a) 652.225-70, Arab League Boycott of Israel; and. (b) 652.225-71,...

2010-10-01

355

45 CFR 650.4 - Standard patent rights clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

...relates to scientific or engineering research unless a special...institution of higher education or an organization...known, the physical, chemical, biological or...alleviate health or safety needs which are not...scientific research or education; and...

2010-10-01

356

Insights into the chemistry of the Claus reaction furnace and waste heat boiler  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Methods to deal with the unwanted by-product of acid-gas combustion in the Claus reaction furnace were presented. The by-product, carbon disulfide (CS2), is disturbing because if it is not converted to H2S in the first catalytic converter, it will appear as a sulfur emission in the tail gas of plants not using reductive clean-up technology. To address this issue, Claus catalysts have been designed specifically for CS2 hydrolysis. Studies have been conducted to determine what type of hydrocarbons lead to CS2 formation. It was concluded that all hydrocarbons result in CS2 production, but that benzene is particularly difficult. Data for a wide range of acid gas compositions and contaminant hydrocarbons at different process conditions was presented. Methods to destroy CS2 in the furnace were also identified

357

Case Checking in Verbless Sentences Functioning as Embedded Clauses in Modern Standard Arabic: A Minimalist Account  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide an account of case checking in verbless sentences functioning as embedded clauses in Modern Standard Arabic with an eye on the recent developments within syntactic theory, namely the Minimalist Program. Using the Checking Theory as a frame of reference, I argue that the predicate in verbless sentences functioning as embedded clauses gets its accusative case under agreement with the subject. The underlying assumption is that verbless sentences are predication phrases (PredPs dominating nominal and adjectival phrases. The PredP mediates agreement between the predicate and the subject of the verbless sentence and thus facilitates the mechanism under which case is checked. Empirical as well as cross-linguistic evidence will be given to support the proposed account.

Maisoun I. Abu-Joudeh

2013-02-01

358

Solving the Resource Constrained Project Scheduling Problem with Generalized Precedences by Lazy Clause Generation  

CERN Document Server

The technical report presents a generic exact solution approach for minimizing the project duration of the resource-constrained project scheduling problem with generalized precedences (Rcpsp/max). The approach uses lazy clause generation, i.e., a hybrid of finite domain and Boolean satisfiability solving, in order to apply nogood learning and conflict-driven search on the solution generation. Our experiments show the benefit of lazy clause generation for finding an optimal solutions and proving its optimality in comparison to other state-of-the-art exact and non-exact methods. The method is highly robust: it matched or bettered the best known results on all of the 2340 instances we examined except 3, according to the currently available data on the PSPLib. Of the 631 open instances in this set it closed 573 and improved the bounds of 51 of the remaining 58 instances.

Schutt, Andreas; Stuckey, Peter J; Wallace, Mark G

2010-01-01

359

The Stance Study of Evaluative That Clauses in English Abstracts of Chinese Master Theses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Employing the model of evaluative that-clause classification by Hyland and Tse (2005, this paper conducts a contrastive study of evaluative that-clauses and its stance functions between Chinese master theses and journal articles. The frequencies, evaluative entities, stance, stance resources, and expressions were explored in two corpora of 320 abstracts from master theses and published research articles. Analysis results show similarities and significant difference between Chinese postgraduate writers and experienced writers. Statistics indicate that Chinese postgraduate writers tend to write with more attitude stance and general writing characteristics. The poor stance constructions of Chinese postgraduate writers are attributed primarily to insufficient consciousness of the linguistic convention of “target community”.

Yu Wang

2012-08-01

360

The Sale with Repurchase Clause / La venta con cláusula de retrocompra  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La venta con cláusula de recompra fue regulada por el Código Civil de 1864, en sus artículos 1371-1387, como una variedad de venta afectada por una condición resolutoria. La venta con cláusula de recompra se utiliza con frecuencia en la práctica con el fin de violar las disposiciones de orden públic [...] o del artículo 1689 del Código Civil rumano, en materia de hipoteca. Teniendo en cuenta que la venta con cláusula de recompra en realidad es una forma de incumplimiento de las disposiciones del artículo 1689 del Código Civil ruman, que origena una gran cantidad de abusos por parte de los acreedores, el legislador rumano decidió prohibir este tipo de venta. También consideramos que, de lege ferenda, la aplicación de una ley nueva de prohibición de la venta con cláusula de recompra es necesario y útil. Abstract in english The sale with repurchase clause was regulated in 1864 by the Civil Code, within the meaning of articles 1371-1387, as a variety of sale affected by a cancellation condition. The sale with repurchase clause was frequently used in practice in order to breach the public provisions of article 1689 of th [...] e Romanian Civil Code, on mortgage matters. Taking into consideration that the sale with repurchase clause was actually a way to breach the provisions of article 1689 of the Romanian Civil Code, giving birth to a lot of abuses on the part of the creditors, the Romanian legislator decided to prohibit this type of sale. We also consider that, de lege ferenda, the implementation of a new prohibition law of the sale with repurchase clause is both necessary and useful.

Ilie, Urs.

2010-12-01

361

Drafting force majeure clauses in natural gas purchase/sale contracts -- the practicalities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The place of 'force majeure' provisions, in gas purchase/sale contracts is discussed. This issue, not normally considered to be significant in gas purchase/sale contracts, became a matter of intense interest in the aftermath of the Atcor Ltd v. Continental Energy Marketing case when the trial court, as well as the Alberta Court of Appeals, strongly criticized the wording of the force majeure clause in the contract as containing a 'choice of words that assured litigation'. Force majeure, simply stated, refers to acts of God, (lightning, earthquakes, storms, floods, etc) and acts of war. It is inserted in contracts to limit the liability of parties to the contract in the event of inability to perform due to any of the above acts of God, or acts of war. In this particular case, the force majeure cause included, in addition to the above, a long list of other causes such as strikes, lockouts or other industrial disturbances, insurrections, riots, epidemics, landslides, fires, washouts, explosions of or accidents to plant, machinery or lines of pipe, well blowouts, and pipeline repairs and reconditioning. The trial court found the drafting of the clause archaic, circumventing clarity, and drearily lengthy. In view of the court's decision it is clear that more thought has to go into drafting force majeure decisions in the future. Accordingly, this paper attempts to discuss practical issues of drafting force majeure clauses that clearly reflect the parties' intentions and exply reflect the parties' intentions and expectations so that costly litigations might be avoided, or if litigation is unavoidable, to at least have the outcome of such litigation be more predictable. The focus of the discussion is on legal interpretation issues, forms of gas contract force majeure provisions- events and consequences, and standardization of force majeure provisions. It is recommended that the drafter of such clauses should always keep in mind the potential impact that the strict construction and commercial reasonability concepts may have on the words chosen. 22 refs

362

A technique for solving constraint satisfaction problems using Prolog's definite clause grammars  

Science.gov (United States)

A new technique for solving constraint satisfaction problems using Prolog's definite clause grammars is presented. It exploits the fact that the grammar rule notation can be viewed as a state exchange notation. The novel feature of the technique is that it can perform informed as well as blind search. It provides the Prolog programmer with a new technique for application to a wide range of design, scheduling, and planning problems.

Nachtsheim, Philip R.

1988-01-01

363

A Preprocessor Based on Clause Normal Forms and Virtual Substitutions to Parallelize Cylindrical Algebraic Decomposition  

OpenAIRE

The Cylindrical Algebraic Decomposition (CAD) algorithm is a comprehensive tool to perform quantifier elimination over real closed fields. CAD has doubly exponential running time, making it infeasible for practical purposes. We propose to use the notions of clause normal forms and virtual substitutions to develop a preprocessor for CAD, that will enable an input-level parallelism. We study the performance of CAD in the presence of the preprocessor by extensive experimentatio...

Malladi, Hari Krishna; Dukkipati, Ambedkar

2011-01-01

364

Convex polyhedral abstractions, specialisation and property-based predicate splitting in Horn clause verification  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present an approach to constrained Horn clause (CHC) verification combining three techniques: abstract interpretation over a domain of convex polyhedra, specialisation of the constraints in CHCs using abstract interpretation of query-answer transformed clauses, and refinement by splitting predicates. The purpose of the work is to investigate how analysis and transformation tools developed for constraint logic programs (CLP) can be applied to the Horn clause verification problem. Abstract interpretation over convex polyhedra is capable of deriving sophisticated invariants and when used in conjunction with specialisation for propagating constraints it can frequently solve challenging verification problems. This is a contribution in itself, but refinement is needed when it fails, and the question of how to refine convex polyhedral analyses has not been studied much. We present a refinement technique based on interpolants derived from a counterexample trace; these are used to drive a property-based specialisation that splits predicates, leading in turn to more precise convex polyhedral analyses. The process of specialisation, analysis and splitting can be repeated, in a manner similar to the CEGAR and iterative specialisation approaches.

Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

2014-01-01

365

Activated carbon cleanup of the acid gas feed to Claus sulfur plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the details of a recently developed novel process using activated carbon to remove hydrocarbon contaminants from the acid gas feed to Claus sulfur recovery units. Heavy hydrocarbons, particularly benzene, toluene and xylene (BTX) have been linked to coke formation and catalyst deactivation in Claus converters. This deactivation results in reduced sulfur recovery and increased sulfur emissions from these plants. This effect is especially evident in split flow Claus plants which bypass some of the acid gas feed stream around the initial combustion step because of a low hydrogen sulfide concentration. This new clean-up process was proven to be capable of removing 95% of the BTX and other C{sub 6}{sup +} hydrocarbons from acid gas over a wide range of actual plant conditions. Following the adsorption step, the activated carbon was easily regenerated using low pressure steam. A post regeneration drying step using plant fuel gas also proved beneficial. This technology was extensively pilot tested in Saudi Aramco`s facilities in Saudi Arabia. Full scale commercial units are planned for two plants in the near future with the first coming on-line in 1997. The process described here represents the first application of activated carbon in this service, and a patent has been applied for. The paper will discuss the pilot plant results and the issues involved in scale-up to commercial size.

Harruff, L.G.; Bushkuhl, S.J. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

1996-12-31

366

New concept for quantification of similarity relates entropy and energy of objects: First and Second Law entangled, equivalence of temperature and time proposed  

CERN Document Server

When the difference between changes in energy and entropy at a given temperature is correlated with the ratio between the same changes in energy and entropy at zero average free energy of an ensemble of similar but distinct molecule-sized objects, a highly significant linear dependence results from which a relationship between energy and entropy is derived and the degree of similarity between the distinctly different members within the group of objects can be quantified. This fundamental energy-entropy relationship is likely to be of general interest in physics, most notably in particle physics and cosmology. We predict a consistent and testable way of classifying mini black holes, to be generated in future Large Hadron Collider experiments, by their gravitational energy and area entropy. For any isolated universe we propose absolute temperature and absolute time to be equivalent, much in the same way as energy and entropy are for an isolated ensemble of similar objects. According to this principle, the cosmo...

Zimak, Petr; Strazewski, Peter

2009-01-01

367

Intensional objects  

OpenAIRE

We summarize the interaction between the theory behind intensional programming, as seen in Lucid; and intensional versioning, as seen in Lemur, Intensional HTML, ISE, VMAKE, etc. These two concepts can be seen to be duals of each other, and they rely on dual notions of store, the warehouse for caching values, and the catalog for providing definitions. Catalogs contain intensional objects, which are openable boxes labelled by Lucid contexts. Finally, Lucid contexts are now first-class values.

Kropf, Peter; Plaice, John

2010-01-01

368

Quantum Objects  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we suggest an alternative interpretation for the quantum state vector, which, by considering temporal parts for physical objects, aims to give an intelligible account of measurement problem in quantum mechanics. We examine the capacity of this interpretation as for explaining three measurement problems: the problem of outcome, the problem of statistics and the problem of effect. We argue that, this interpretation of the state vector, while providing a satisfac...

Mansouri, Alireza; Golshani, Mehdi; Karbasizadeh, Amir Ehsan

2013-01-01

369

Syntactic Analysis of pro in Independent Clauses in Arabic Syntax  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work is to investigate the syntactic properties of the empty category pro in Modern Standard Arabic syntax with reference to Chomsky’s (1981-1995 on TGG and Jalabneh’s (2007 Verb -movement. The syntactic properties are represented by the nominative case, case markers, requirement of Extended Projection Principle (EPP, substitution of expletives and deletion at the logical form. The study concludes that pro is assigned the nominative case at S-structure by INFL. It fulfills the requirement of EPP at all levels because of rich Agrs. There are various Agrs markers for pro; it cannot be replaced by expletive entities. It is obligatorily deleted at LF.

Atef Mustafa Jalabneh

2011-06-01

370

Submicron aerosols and issues related to the internal dose monitoring system of the personnel of the object 'Ukryttya' and the exclusion zone  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This publication is dedicated to discussion of the phenomenon of the elevated contribution of submicron aerosol particles inside the object 'Ukryttya', which was observed in many research conducted by different methods and many researches, in context of consideration the whole set of factors of internal exposure of the personnel, which determine the structure of the internal dose monitoring system. It can be noted that recently a lot of attention are paid to the submicron aerosols during consideration of internal dose forming factors for the object 'Ukryttya' personnel. Thus a basic problem is not in absence of approaches, norms or specialists, but in absence of practical realisation. In this context appearance of Protocol of internal dose monitoring the object 'Ukryttya' personnel is a definitely progressive step to construction of an integral system of radiation safety not only for the object 'Ukryttya' but also for the Exclusion zone as a whole. Coming from the aforementioned, a set of high priority technical measures for establishment of an adequate internal dose monitoring system is suggested

371

Treatment-Related Changes in Objectively Measured Parenting Behaviors in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined treatment outcomes for objectively measured parenting behavior in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Five hundred seventy-nine ethnically and socioeconomically diverse children with ADHD-combined type (ages 7.0-9.9 years) and their parent(s) were recruited …

Wells, Karen C.; Chi, Terry C.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Pfiffner, Linda; Nebel-Schwalm, Marie; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Abikoff, Howard B.; Conners, C. Keith; Elliott, Glen R.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Hechtman, Lily; Hoza, Betsy; Jensen, Peter S.; March, John; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Pelham, William E.; Severe, Joanne B.; Swanson, James; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Timothy

2006-01-01

372

Wow!: objects  

OpenAIRE

Nowadays computers have advanced beyond the desktop into many parts of everyday life and objects. To achieve this we have to make the computer invisible, and making a computer invisible is not a matter of size of the hardware, it’s all about how the human perceives the computer. To make this possible, the interaction with the computer has to be done in an alternative way, such that the user doesn’t notice the usual computer interfaces (mouse and keyboard) when using it. Therefore th...

Freitas, Paulo Se?rgio Da Silva

2008-01-01

373

New concept for quantification of similarity relates entropy and energy of objects: First and Second Law entangled, group behavior of micro black holes expected  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract When the free energy of similar but distinct molecule-sized objects is plotted against the temperature at which their energy and entropy contributions cancel, a highly significant linear dependence results from which the degree of similarity between the distinctly different members within the group of objects can be quantified and a relationship between energy and entropy is derived. This energy-entropy relationship entirely reflects the mathematical structure of thermodynamic equations, is in this sense fundamental and therefore does probably not dependent on material nor scale. The energy-entropy relationship is likely to be of general interest in molecular biology, population biology, synthetic biology, biophysics, chemical thermodynamics, systems chemistry and physics, most notably in particle physics and cosmology. In physics we predict a consistent and perhaps testable way of classifying micro black holes, to be generated in future Large Hadron Collider experiments, by their gravitational energy and area entropy.

Zimak Petr

2010-08-01

374

Object-Place Recognition Learning Triggers Rapid Induction of Plasticity-Related Immediate Early Genes and Synaptic Proteins in the Rat Dentate Gyrus  

OpenAIRE

Long-term recognition memory requires protein synthesis, but little is known about the coordinate regulation of specific genes. Here, we examined expression of the plasticity-associated immediate early genes (Arc, Zif268, and Narp) in the dentate gyrus following long-term object-place recognition learning in rats. RT-PCR analysis from dentate gyrus tissue collected shortly after training did not reveal learning-specific changes in Arc mRNA expression. In situ hybridization and immunohistoche...

Jonathan Soulé; Zsuzsa Penke; Tambudzai Kanhema; Maria Nordheim Alme; Serge Laroche; Bramham, Clive R.

2008-01-01

375

Object-Place Recognition Learning Triggers Rapid Induction of Plasticity-Related Immediate Early Genes and Synaptic Proteins in the Rat Dentate Gyrus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Long-term recognition memory requires protein synthesis, but little is known about the coordinate regulation of specific genes. Here, we examined expression of the plasticity-associated immediate early genes (Arc, Zif268, and Narp in the dentate gyrus following long-term object-place recognition learning in rats. RT-PCR analysis from dentate gyrus tissue collected shortly after training did not reveal learning-specific changes in Arc mRNA expression. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were therefore used to assess possible sparse effects on gene expression. Learning about objects increased the density of granule cells expressing Arc, and to a lesser extent Narp, specifically in the dorsal blade of the dentate gyrus, while Zif268 expression was elevated across both blades. Thus, object-place recognition triggers rapid, blade-specific upregulation of plasticity-associated immediate early genes. Furthermore, Western blot analysis of dentate gyrus homogenates demonstrated concomitant upregulation of three postsynaptic density proteins (Arc, PSD-95, and α-CaMKII with key roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and long-term memory.

Clive R. Bramham

2009-01-01

376

Is there no alternative? Conscientious objection by medical students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent survey data gathered from British medical students reveal widespread acceptance of conscientious objection in medicine, despite the existence of strict policies in the UK that discourage conscientious refusals by students to aspects of their medical training. This disconnect demonstrates a pressing need to thoughtfully examine policies that allow conscience objections by medical students; as it so happens, the USA is one country that has examples of such policies. After presenting some background on promulgated US conscience protections and reflecting on their significance for conscience objections by medical students, this paper observes that the dominant approach (following the American Medical Association's conscience clause) is to allow exempted students to instead be evaluated on the basis of alternative curricular activities to learn the associated underlying content. This paper then introduces and discusses an example in which male Muslim students who believe it is wrong to touch members of the opposite sex object to performing physical examinations on female subjects in their medical training. This sort of case, it is argued, causes difficulty for a conscience clause that resolves the dilemma by granting reasonable exemptions in the form of participation in alternative curricular activities: there are cases where one must perform the 'objectionable' activity itself in order to learn the necessary content and underlying principles. PMID:22556313

Card, Robert F

2012-10-01

377

The effectiveness of take-or-pay clauses under the Brazilian courts; A eficacia das clausulas de 'take-or-pay' nos tribunais brasileiros  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The international energy industry, where the sale of their commodities (oil, natural gas, biofuels and its derivatives), typically uses in its long-term contracts clauses take-or-pay. However, questioning about the Brazilian judicial effectiveness of such clauses appears each day. This paper aims to establish a rationale clause of take-or-pay; have terms and typical conditions of one clause of take-or-pay; discuss the existing national law on the subject; list the main questions arising from the applicability of the terms of take-or-pay, and the potential solutions to the current scenario.

Goncalves, Bruno A.; Travassos, Cristiano H. [Tess Advogados, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2008-07-01

378

Unifying theories of objects  

OpenAIRE

We present an approach to modelling Abadi-Cardelli-style object calculi as Unifying Theories of Programming (UTP) designs. Here we provide a core object calculus with an operational small-step evaluation rule semantics, and a corresponding UTP model with a denotational relational predicate semantics. For clarity, the UTP model is defined in terms of an operand stack, which is used to store the results of subprograms. Models of a less operational nature are briefly discussed. The consistency o...

Smith, Ma; Gibbons, J.

2007-01-01

379

Government control over health-related not-for-profit organisations: Agency for International Development v. Alliance for Open Society International Inc 570 US_(2013).  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between government and the not-for-profit (NFP) sector has important implications for society, especially in relation to the delivery of public health measures and the protection of the environment. In key health-related areas such as provision of medical services, welfare, foreign aid and education, governments have traditionally preferred for the NFP sector to act as service partners, with the relationship mediated through grants or funding agreements. This service delivery arrangement is intended to provide a diversity of voices, and encourage volunteerism and altruism, in conjunction with the purposes and objectives of the relevant NGO. Under the pretence of "accountability", however, governments increasingly are seeking to impose intrusive conditions on grantees, which limit their ability to fulfil their mission and advocate on behalf of their constituents. This column examines the United States Supreme Court decision, Agency for International Development v Alliance for Open Society International Inc 570 US_(2013), and compares it to the removal of gag clauses in Australian federal funding rules. Recent national changes to the health-related NFP sector in Australia are then discussed, such as those found in the Charities Act 2013 (Cth) and the Not-for-Profit Sector Freedom to Advocate Act 2013 (Cth). These respectively include the establishment of the Australian Charities and Not-For-Profit Commission, the modernising of the definition of "charity" and statutory blocks on "gag" clauses. This analysis concludes with a survey of recent moves by Australian States to impose new restrictions on the ability of health-related NFPs to lobby against harmful government policy Among the responses considered is the protection afforded by s 51l(xxiiiA) of the Australian Constitution. This constitutional guarantee appears to have been focused historically on preventing medical and dental practitioners and related small businesses being practically coerced into government or large-scale private corporate operations. As such, it may prohibit civil conscription arising not only from "gag clauses" in managed care contracts, but also from "gag clauses" in governmental ideological controls over taxpayer-funded, health-related NFPs. PMID:24597375

Vines, Tim; Donohoo, Angus M; Faunce, Thomas

2013-12-01

380

Conversion of Claus plants of Kirkuk-Iraq to produce hydrogen and sulfur  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

'Full text': Hydrogen production from rich sub-quality natural gas (SQNG) is visible technically with assessment of cost, safety and environmental toxicology analysis of hydrogen sulfide, is summarized. There are two Claus plants in Kirkuk-Iraq, converting hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur capacity of 2200 ton/day. One of these plants is working with only 400 ton/day and it is an old Claus process. The other is a modified Claus sulfur recovery process with a capacity of 1800 ton/day. Both of these plants operate with low efficiency due to lack of maintenance and the present situation in Iraq. Therefore, the agricultural area around Kirkuk is very polluted by this gas. Two pilot plants have been constructed inside the modified Claus plant in Kirkuk The first one is based on the flow system tube furnace reactor containing mixed Titanium oxide/sulfide with a cold trap for sulfur separation and a bath of 30% dithanolamine to separate and recycle H2S from hydrogen. The second pilot plant consists of a thermal diffusion ceramic rod inside a silica column containing Zeolit 5A as a catalyst. This pilot plant also consists of a trap for continuous separation of sulfur and a system for separation of hydrogen from unreacted H2S to recycle. The efficiency of conversion of H2S to hydrogen and sulfur has been optimized as a function of catalyst type and mixture, temperature of furnace, flow rate of gas and reactor materials until the efficiency rd reactor materials until the efficiency reaches more than 97%. The Kirkuk natural gas consists of a mixture of CO2 10% and H2S 12%. We found that these pilot plants were suitable with Cadmium chalcogens catalysts to produce hydrogen, methane, ethane and sulphur, but with lower efficiency than H2S decomposition only. Our aim in the second pilot plant, which consists of a silica column, was to supply the heat by solar energy concentrator instead of electricity as our catalyst needs 450 oC. and the solar intensity is about 1000 w/m2 during the summer. The idea of converting these two Claus plants to produce hydrogen gas fuel and sulfur will be a good achievement to the environment around the oil fields, besides production of a renewable energy source (hydrogen gas). A hydrogen production plant in this part of Iraq will save a large area from polluted sulfur gas, and will demonstrate how utilization of hydrogen from these waste gases is very significant. Our calculations show that these plants can produce about 140 ton / day of hydrogen gas. Different technological options are available and associated costs reported. They are supplied by a range of hydrogen technology suppliers. The price of hydrogen from H2S is now much lower than the price of any other present technology for production of hydrogen. The last report for the price of hydrogen from gas companies by modifications of Claus process and production of CS2 gas is zero dollars cost. (author)

381

Toluene destruction in thermal stage of Claus reactor with oxygen enriched air  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Examined H2S and H2S/C7H8 combustion using O2 enriched air at Claus condition (? = 3). • Oxygen enrichment allowed examination at increased reactor temperatures. • Presence of toluene reduced SO2 formation and increased S2 formation. • Toluene triggered the formation of CS2 and hydrocarbons (methane and acetylene). • Increased O2 enrichment in air helped to mitigate the impact of hydrocarbons and CS2. - Abstract: Results are presented on the toluene destruction using oxygen enriched air as the oxidant with addition of defined amounts of H2S and toluene into H2/air flames under fuel-rich mixture conditions at equivalence ratio of ? = 3 (Claus condition). The oxygen enrichment allowed variation of temperature in the reactor and reduced nitrogen and total volumetric gas flow while maintaining the same equivalence ratio. The formation and destruction of hydrocarbons and other gas phase species during the combustion of H2S and C7H8 mixture are presented with oxygen enrichments (0%, 19.5% and 69.3% O2) to air. Toluene is often present in acid gas consisting of mainly H2S and CO2 so that combustion of H2S/C7H8 is of practical value. The formation of SO2 increased with oxygen enrichment to air. Increased oxygen in air reduced oxidation rate of H2 and increased H2S oxidation rate which enhanced faster rate of SO2 production to result in reduced formation of elemental sulfur. Addition of toluene to H2S reduced the rate of H2 oxidation and increased that of H2S. In contrast to the case of 100% H2S combustion, toluene favored faster increase in mole fractions of SO2 to a peak value but the formed SO2 decomposed with increased distance along the reactor. The decay of SO2 is attributed to the reactions between SO2 and other sulfur containing radicals or hydrocarbons formed (such as methane and acetylene) to produce elemental sulfur and carbon disulfide. Oxygen enrichment to the combustion air enhanced the rate of hydrocarbons decomposition which helped to reduce the amounts of CS2 formed. Formation of CS2 and hydrocarbons adversely impact the performance and efficiency of sulfur capture in a Claus process. These results assist in identifying conditions on the role of oxygen enrichment in designing compact Claus reactors

382

SPECT attenuation related artifacts and their removal by attenuation correction in uniform and non-uniform attenuating objects using iterative reconstruction algorithms  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Photon attenuation is one of the main causes of quantitative errors and artifacts in SPECT. CT based attenuation map is necessary to correct for this effect accurately. A number of attenuation related artifacts are described. A fast and memory efficient algorithm is proposed for attenuation correction. Methods: In our CT based attenuation correction algorithm, attenuated projections of an arbitrary estimation are calculated. These projections are compared with real projections. ...

Faraz Kalantari; Hossein Rajabi; Mohsen Saghari; Alireza Emami

2010-01-01

383

Grammatical Relation Extraction in Arabic Language  

OpenAIRE

Problem statement: Grammatical Relation (GR) can be defined as a linguistic relation established by grammar, where linguistic relation is an association among the linguistic forms or constituents. Fundamentally the GR determines grammatical behaviors such as: placement of a word in a clause, verb agreement and the passivity behavior. The GR of Arabic language is a necessary prerequisite for many natural language processing applications, such as machine translation and information retri...

Mohd Juzaiddin Ab Aziz; Othman Ibrahim Hammadi

2012-01-01

384

This elusive objective existence  

CERN Document Server

Zurek's existential interpretation of quantum mechanics suffers from three classical prejudices, including the belief that space and time are intrinsically and infinitely differentiated. They compel him to relativize the concept of objective existence in two ways. The elimination of these prejudices makes it possible to recognize the quantum formalism's ontological implications - the relative and contingent reality of spatiotemporal distinctions and the extrinsic and finite spatiotemporal differentiation of the physical world - which in turn makes it possible to arrive at an unqualified objective existence. Contrary to a widespread misconception, viewing the quantum formalism as being fundamentally a probability algorithm does not imply that quantum mechanics is concerned with states of knowledge rather than states of Nature. On the contrary, it makes possible a complete and strongly objective description of the physical world that requires no reference to observers. What objectively exists, in a sense that r...

Mohrhoff, U

2004-01-01

385

Comparison of breast cancer-related lymphedema (upper limb swelling) prevalence estimated using objective and subjective criteria and relationship with quality of life.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to investigate lymphedema prevalence using three different measurement/diagnostic criterion combinations and explore the relationship between lymphedema and quality of life for each, to provide evaluation of rehabilitation. Cross-sectional data from 617 women attending review appointments after completing surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy included the Morbidity Screening Tool (MST; criterion: yes to lymphedema); Lymphedema and Breast Cancer Questionnaire (LBCQ; criterion: yes to heaviness and/or swelling); percentage limb volume difference (perometer: %LVD; criterion: 10%+ difference); and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy breast cancer-specific quality of life tool (FACT B+4). Perometry measurements were conducted in a clinic room. Between 341 and 577 participants provided sufficient data for each analysis, with mean age varying from 60 to 62 (SD 9.95-10.03) and median months after treatment from 49 to 51. Lymphedema prevalence varied from 26.2% for perometry %LVD to 20.5% for the MST and 23.9% for the LBCQ; differences were not significant. Limits of agreement analysis between %LVD and the subjective measures showed little consistency, while moderate consistency resulted between the subjective measures. Quality of life differed significantly for women with and without lymphedema only when subjective measurements were used. Results suggest that subjective and objective tools investigate different aspects of lymphedema. PMID:23853774

Bulley, Catherine; Gaal, Susanne; Coutts, Fiona; Blyth, Christine; Jack, Wilma; Chetty, Udi; Barber, Matthew; Tan, Chee-Wee

2013-01-01

386

On Coordinating Collaborative Objects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A collaborative object represents a data type (such as a text document designed to be shared by a group of dispersed users. The Operational Transformation (OT is a coordination approach used for supporting optimistic replication for these objects. It allows the users to concurrently update the shared data and exchange their updates in any order since the convergence of all replicas, i.e. the fact that all users view the same data, is ensured in all cases. However, designing algorithms for achieving convergence with the OT approach is a critical and challenging issue. In this paper, we propose a formal compositional method for specifying complex collaborative objects. The most important feature of our method is that designing an OT algorithm for the composed collaborative object can be done by reusing the OT algorithms of component collaborative objects. By using our method, we can start from correct small collaborative objects which are relatively easy to handle and incrementally combine them to build more complex collaborative objects.

Abdessamad Imine

2010-07-01

387

Objectively measured physical activity, physical activity related personality and body mass index in 6- to 10-yr-old children: a cross-sectional study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence and level of overweight in childhood is rapidly increasing. One potential contributor to the rise in overweight is a decline in physical activity (PA. The purpose of this study was to compare levels and patterns of PA and PA related personality in normal-weight (NW and overweight (OW 6- to 10-yr-old children. Methods Subjects were grouped into OW (N = 59, BMI = 24.2 ± 4.8 kg/m2 or NW (N = 61, BMI = 15.7 ± 1.5 kg/m2 according to International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. PA was assessed by accelerometry. Parents filled in a questionnaire on PA and sedentary behaviour and PA related personality of their child (born tired, moves slowly, is often tired, lacks energy, avoids physical efforts, prefers watching playing children instead of joining them, is always active, needs to let himself/herself go, has a lot of energy. Results NW children spent on average 77 min/day in MVPA, whereas OW children only 57 min/day (p = .001. OW children had fewer 5, 10 and 20 min bouts of MVPA (p = .01. OW and NW children showed identical PA patterns on both week days and weekends, although at different levels. According to parents' report, a greater percentage of OW children was not engaged in any sport (46% versus 23%, chi2 = 6.3, p = .01. OW children had a less active personality (p Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that NW children spent on average 20 min per day more in MVPA. PA patterns were similar in NW versus OW children, although at different levels. Greatest differences in PA according to weight status were found in the afternoon during after school hours. This is the first study to show distinct PA related personality traits in OW children compared to NW peers.

De Bourdeaudhuij Ilse

2009-05-01

388

Objectively measured physical activity, physical activity related personality and body mass index in 6- to 10-yr-old children: a cross-sectional study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The prevalence and level of overweight in childhood is rapidly increasing. One potential contributor to the rise in overweight is a decline in physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to compare levels and patterns of PA and PA related personality in normal-weight (NW) and overweight (OW) 6- to 10-yr-old children. Methods Subjects were grouped into OW (N = 59, BMI = 24.2 ± 4.8 kg/m2) or NW (N = 61, BMI = 15.7 ± 1.5 k...

Bourdeaudhuij Ilse; Deforche Benedicte; Hondt Eva, D.; Cardon Greet

2009-01-01

389

Objectively measured physical activity, physical activity related personality and body mass index in 6- to 10-yr-old children: a cross-sectional study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The prevalence and level of overweight in childhood is rapidly increasing. One potential contributor to the rise in overweight is a decline in physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to compare levels and patterns of PA and PA related personality in normal-weight (NW) and overweight (OW) 6- to 10-yr-old children. Methods Subjects were grouped into OW (N = 59, BMI = 24.2 ± 4.8 kg/m2) or NW (N = 61, BMI = 15.7 ± 1.5 kg/m2) according to International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. PA was assessed by accelerometry. Parents filled in a questionnaire on PA and sedentary behaviour and PA related personality of their child (born tired, moves slowly, is often tired, lacks energy, avoids physical efforts, prefers watching playing children instead of joining them, is always active, needs to let himself/herself go, has a lot of energy). Results NW children spent on average 77 min/day in MVPA, whereas OW children only 57 min/day (p = .001). OW children had fewer 5, 10 and 20 min bouts of MVPA (p = .01). OW and NW children showed identical PA patterns on both week days and weekends, although at different levels. According to parents' report, a greater percentage of OW children was not engaged in any sport (46% versus 23%, chi2 = 6.3, p = .01). OW children had a less active personality (p < .001), watched more TV during weekend (p < .01), but no differences were found in outside play or non-active play. BMI of mother and father explained 29% of the variance in children's BMI z-score (p < .001). PA related personality, screen behaviour during weekend and MVPA explained an additional 12% (p < 0.01). Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that NW children spent on average 20 min per day more in MVPA. PA patterns were similar in NW versus OW children, although at different levels. Greatest differences in PA according to weight status were found in the afternoon during after school hours. This is the first study to show distinct PA related personality traits in OW children compared to NW peers. PMID:19442293

Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; D'hondt, Eva; Cardon, Greet

2009-01-01

390

SPECT attenuation related artifacts and their removal by attenuation correction in uniform and non-uniform attenuating objects using iterative reconstruction algorithms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Photon attenuation is one of the main causes of quantitative errors and artifacts in SPECT. CT based attenuation map is necessary to correct for this effect accurately. A number of attenuation related artifacts are described. A fast and memory efficient algorithm is proposed for attenuation correction. Methods: In our CT based attenuation correction algorithm, attenuated projections of an arbitrary estimation are calculated. These projections are compared with real projections. The error due to comparison updates the first arbitrary image. This iterative procedure continues till there is no difference between mathematical and real projections. To consider the effect of Poisson noise during reconstruction, EM statistical reconstruction is used. The effect of attenuation is enrolled in both projection and backprojection steps. To accelerate the reconstruction algorithm, a rotating image in a fix grid with bilinear interpolation is used to simplify ray tracing for creating mathematical projections. OSEM with much faster convergence rate is also used instead of MLEM as iterative algorithm. Different phantom configurations with uniform and non-uniform attenuation map are used to evaluate the accuracy of this algorithm. Projections free from the effect of attenuation were also simulated. Reconstructed image from these attenuation free projections is considered as reference image. Normalized mean square error between reference and corrected image and image contrast were used for quantitative evaluation of this algorithm. Results: contrast of central hot spot reduced to about half of its real contrast due to attenuation. Non-uniformities, like hot skin, bright long related spots and colds bone related spots were also created in non-corrected images due to attenuation. All attenuation related artifacts removed after attenuation correction. NMSE is reduced from 1 in non-corrected images to 0.1 in corrected images. Much better fit in line profile of corrected images and reference images were also observed. Conclusion: By using more suitable models for image formation it is possible to reconstruct images with much higher quantitative and qualitative accuracy which is essential in both diagnostic and image guided therapy procedures.

Faraz Kalantari

2010-10-01

391

The Identification of Objects and Roles - object identifiers revisited -  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we investigate the relation between object identifiers (oid’s), object classification and class change. We give a precise definition of a concept of oid that solves the problems with DB merges and with the representation of historical informati on. We also extensively treat the differences between these oid’s, keys, surrogates and pseudo-oid’s, which are the object identifiers often used in practice. We distinguish object classes from role classes by defining roles (instan...

Wieringa, Roel; Jonge, Wiebren

1991-01-01

392

Licensing-In Fosters Rapid Invention! : The Effect of the Grant-Back Clause and Technological Unfamiliarity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Drawing on contractual economics and innovation management, licensing-in is hypothesized to accelerate licensees' invention process. Studying a matched dataset of licensees and non-licensees, licensees are shown to be faster at inventing, but the effect is negated if the license includes a grant-back clause, shifting incentives from licensee to licensor. Also, the effect is significantly reduced if the licensee is unfamiliar with the licensed technology. The effect of the grant-back clause is offset if the licensee is unfamiliar with the licensed technology, suggesting that the licensee retains the incentives to invent under these circumstances

Reichstein, Toke

2012-01-01

393

Resolution Trees with Lemmas: Resolution Refinements that Characterize DLL Algorithms with Clause Learning  

CERN Document Server

Resolution refinements called w-resolution trees with lemmas (WRTL) and with input lemmas (WRTI) are introduced. Dag-like resolution is equivalent to both WRTL and WRTI when there is no regularity condition. For regular proofs, an exponential separation between regular dag-like resolution and both regular WRTL and regular WRTI is given. It is proved that DLL proof search algorithms that use clause learning based on unit propagation can be polynomially simulated by regular WRTI. More generally, non-greedy DLL algorithms with learning by unit propagation are equivalent to regular WRTI. A general form of clause learning, called DLL-Learn, is defined that is equivalent to regular WRTL. A variable extension method is used to give simulations of resolution by regular WRTI, using a simplified form of proof trace extensions. DLL-Learn and non-greedy DLL algorithms with learning by unit propagation can use variable extensions to simulate general resolution without doing restarts. Finally, an exponential lower bound fo...

Buss, Samuel R; Johannsen, Jan

2008-01-01

394

Lazy Clause Generation: Combining the Power of SAT and CP (and MIP?) Solving  

Science.gov (United States)

Finite domain propagation solving, the basis of constraint programming (CP) solvers, allows building very high-level models of problems, and using highly specific inference encapsulated in complex global constraints, as well as programming the search for solutions to take into account problem structure. Boolean satisfiability (SAT) solving allows the construction of a graph of inferences made in order to determine and record effective nogoods which prevent the searching of similar parts of the problem, as well as the determination of those variables which form a tightly connected hard part of the problem, thus allowing highly effective automatic search strategies concentrating on these hard parts. Lazy clause generation is a hybrid of CP and SAT solving that combines the strengths of the two approaches. It provides state-of-the-art solutions for a number of hard combinatorial optimization and satisfaction problems. In this invited talk we explain lazy clause generation, and explore some of the many design choices in building such a hybrid system, we also discuss how to further incorporate mixed integer programming (MIP) solving to see if we can also inherit its advantages in combinatorial optimization.

Stuckey, Peter J.

395

Frecuencia y mecanismos de exposición accidental a productos biológicos potencialmente infecciosos en personal de salud / Sharp object related accident involving health personnel in a pediatric hospital  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. Los accidentes por material punzocortante constituyen un riesgo al que está sometido el personal de salud. Objetivo: describir la frecuencia y mecanismos de exposición a productos biológicos infecciosos en el personal de salud. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio observacional y [...] descriptivo, de los reportes del programa de vigilancia epidemiológica a la exposición a productos biológicos infecciosos en el personal de salud del Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez de la Ciudad de México, ocurridos del 1 de enero de 1991 al 31 de diciembre de 2004. Resultados. Se presentaron 848 accidentes de trabajo durante el período estudiado. El promedio de accidentes por 100 camas/año fue de 29.9 con una variación de 4.6 a 56.4. Hubo 8.29 accidentes por 1 000 egresos/año, con un límite de 1.6 a 14.4. Los eventos se presentaron principalmente en personal de enfermería con 345 episodios (40.6%), seguido de médicos residentes con 220 eventos (25.9%). El mecanismo más frecuente fue el piquete con aguja en 616 ocasiones (72.6%), siendo las manos el sitio anatómico más comúnmente afectado en 677 casos (79.8%). Los servicios donde hubo más accidentes fueron: Urgencias con 109 eventos (12.8%), UTIP con 96 (11.3%), y UCIN con 80 (9.4%), siendo el turno matutino donde hubo el de mayor número, 507 eventos (59.7%). Las medidas de precaución realizadas por el personal lesionado fueron las siguientes: uso de guantes 488 (57.5%), lavado de manos 404 (47.6%), uso de cubrebocas 304 (35.8%), uso de bata 253 (29.8%), uso de lentes 134 (15.8%), ninguna 144 (16.9%). Con respecto al antecedente de administración de vacuna contra hepatitis B, sólo 445 (52.4%) se habían aplicado al menos una dosis y 403 (47.5%) ninguna dosis. Conclusiones. La exposición ocupacional a productos biológicos infecciosos es un problema importante en el personal de salud, especialmente en hospitales que dan atención a pacientes pediátricos, debido a las dificultades que implica el atender niños. Reforzar las estrategias educativas sobre el uso de las precauciones estándar en la toma apropiada de las muestras y utilizar material de bioseguridad podría ayudar a reducir la frecuencia de los accidentes con objetos punzocortantes. Abstract in english Introduction. The needle-stick and sharp device injuries constitute a risk to which health personnel is exposed. Objective. To describe the frequency and mechanisms of exposition to infectious biological products in health care personnel. Material and methods. It was an observational and descriptive [...] study from the reports of the epidemiological surveillance program concerning to the exposition to infectious biological products in the health care personnel from Hospital Infantil de Mexico Federico Gomez in Mexico City, happened from January 1, 1991, to December 31, 2004. Results. We observed 848 laboral accidents during this period. The average of accidents per 100 beds/ year was 29.9 with a variation from 4.6 to 56.4. There were 8.29 accidents for 1 000 outcomes/year, with a limit from 1.6 to 14.4. The events appeared mainly in the nursery personnel with 345 episodes (40.6%), followed by resident doctors with 220 events (25.9%). The most frequent mechanism was needle pinch in 616 (72.6%), being the hands the anatomical site most commonly affected in 677 cases (79.8%). The areas most affected were: Emergency with 109 events (12.8%), Pediatric Intensive Care Unit with 96 (11.3%), and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with 80 (9.4%), being in the matutinal turn the greater number of accidents, 507 events (59.7%). The standard precautions made by the injured personnel were: use of gloves 488 (57.5%); hand washing 404 (47.6%), use of mouth covers 304 (35.8%), use of gown 253 (29.8%), use of lenses 134 (15.8%), none 144 (16.9%). Concerning to the background of vaccine administration against hepatitis B, only 445 (52.4%) had been applied at least one dose and 403 (47.5%) none. Conclusions. The occupational

José Juan, Morales-Aguirre.

2006-08-01

396

Retinal Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Early Atrophic Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD and a New Metric for Objective Evaluation of the Efficacy of Ocular Nutrition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: A challenge in ocular preventive medicine is identification of patients with early pathological retinal damage that might benefit from nutritional intervention. The purpose of this study is to evaluate retinal thinning (RT in early atrophic age-related macular degeneration (AMD against visual function data from the Zeaxanthin and Visual Function (ZVF randomized double masked placebo controlled clinical trial (FDA IND #78973. Methods: Retrospective, observational case series of medical center veterans with minimal visible AMD retinopathy (AREDS Report #18 simplified grading 1.4/4.0 bilateral retinopathy. Foveal and extra-foveal four quadrant SDOCT RT measurements were evaluated in n = 54 clinical and ZVF AMD patients. RT by age was determined and compared to the OptoVue SD OCT normative database. RT by quadrant in a subset of n = 29 ZVF patients was correlated with contrast sensitivity and parafoveal blue cone increment thresholds. Results: Foveal RT in AMD patients and non-AMD patients was preserved with age. Extrafoveal regions, however, showed significant slope differences between AMD patients and non-AMD patients, with the superior and nasal quadrants most vulnerable to retinal thinning (sup quad: ?5.5 ?m/decade thinning vs. Non-AMD: ?1.1 ?m/decade, P < 0.02; nasal quad: ?5.0 ?m/decade thinning vs. Non-AMD: ?1.0 ?m/decade, P < 0.04. Two measures of extrafoveal visual deterioration were correlated: A significant inverse correlation between % RT and contrast sensitivity (r = ?0.33, P = 0.01, 2 Tailed Paired T and an elevated extrafoveal increment blue cone threshold (r = +0.34, P = 0.01, 2 Tailed T. Additional SD OCT RT data for the non-AMD oldest age group (ages 82–91 is needed to fully substantiate the model. Conclusion: A simple new SD OCT clinical metric called “% extra-foveal RT” correlates well with functional visual loss in early AMD patients having minimal visible retinopathy. This metric can be used to follow the effect of repleting ocular nutrients, such as zinc, antioxidants, carotenoids, n-3 essential fats, resveratrol and vitamin D.

Stuart Richer

2012-11-01

397

Sintaxe das orações complexas em português: uma proposta de descrição e ensino / Syntax of complex clauses in Portuguese: a proposal of description and teaching  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, a partir de uma discussão acerca de problemas relacionados ao ensino de gramática, pretende-se fazer uma proposta de descrição e ensino de algumas orações subordinadas substantivas sob uma perspectiva interdiscursiva. Com base nos pressupostos da teoria da Gramática Discursivo-Funcio [...] nal (HENGEVELD; MACKENZIE, 2008), observaram-se aspectos subjetivos codificados na sintaxe dessas orações, motivados pelas intenções do falante. Verificou-se que as construções complexas estudadas, do ponto de vista pragmático, compreendem estratégias de que o falante dispõe para demonstrar maior ou menor comprometimento com o que diz, preservando sua face, e também para garantir a confiabilidade da informação asseverada; do ponto de vista do sistema da língua, revelam adaptações que a língua sofre em função das necessidades comunicativas do falante (BYBEE, 2010). Acredita-se que o ensino dessas orações, a partir de sua funcionalidade, pode tornar a prática em sala de aula mais eficiente, melhorando o desempenho linguístico dos alunos. Abstract in english In this paper, motivated by problems related to grammar teaching, we propose a description of some noun subordinate clauses from an interdiscursive perspective. Based on the principles of the Functional Discourse Grammar theory (HENGEVELD; MACKENZIE, 2008), we observed some subjective aspects encode [...] d by these syntactic constructions, motivated by the Speaker's communicative intentions. In pragmatic terms, the complement clauses we studied correspond to the Speaker's strategies to demonstrate his commitment degree with what he's saying, protecting his/her face, and also assuring the information's reliability; in linguistic terms, they show the language suffers some adaptations (BYBEE, 2010) to serve the Speaker's communicative needs. We believe that the focus in the functionality of these constructions can make its teaching richer and more efficient, and so the students' language performance.

Ana Carolina, Sperança-Criscuolo.

398

Making CORBA objects persistent: The object database adapter approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In spite of its remarkable successes in promoting standards for distributed object systems, the Object Management Group (OMG) has not yet settled the issue of object persistence in the Object Request Broker (ORB) environment. The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) specification briefly mentions an Object-Oriented Database Adapter that makes objects stored in an object-oriented database accessible through the ORB. This idea is pursued in the Appendix B of the ODMG standard, which identifies a number of issues involved in using an Object Database Management System (ODBMS) in a CORBA environment, and proposes an Object Database Adapter (ODA) to realize the integration of the ORB with the ODBMS. This paper discusses the design and implementation of an ODA that integrates an ORB and an ODBMS with C++ bindings. For the author`s purposes, an ODBMS is a system with programming interfaces. It may be a pure object-oriented DBMS (an OODBMS), or a combination of a relational DBMS and an object-relational mapper.

Reverbel, F.C.R.

1997-05-01

399

Learning Sentence-internal Temporal Relations  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we propose a data intensive approach for inferring sentence-internal temporal relations. Temporal inference is relevant for practical NLP applications which either extract or synthesize temporal information (e.g., summarisation, question answering). Our method bypasses the need for manual coding by exploiting the presence of markers like after", which overtly signal a temporal relation. We first show that models trained on main and subordinate clauses connected with a temporal marker achieve good performance on a pseudo-disambiguation task simulating temporal inference (during testing the temporal marker is treated as unseen and the models must select the right marker from a set of possible candidates). Secondly, we assess whether the proposed approach holds promise for the semi-automatic creation of temporal annotations. Specifically, we use a model trained on noisy and approximate data (i.e., main and subordinate clauses) to predict intra-sentential relations present in TimeBank, a corpus anno...

Lapata, M; 10.1613/jair.2015

2011-01-01

400

A constraint-based bottom-up counterpart to definite clause grammars  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A new grammar formalism, CHR Grammars (CHRG), is proposed that provides a constraint-solving approach to language analysis, built on top of the programming language of Constraint Handling Rules in the same way as Definite Clause Grammars (DCG) on Prolog. CHRG works bottom-up and adds the following features when compared with DCG: (i) An inherent treatment of ambiguity without backtracking. (ii) Robust parsing; do not give up in case of errors but return the recognized phrases. (iii)~A flexibility to produce and consume arbitrary hypotheses making it straight\\-forward to deal with abduction, integrity constraints, operators a la assumption grammars, and to incorporate other constraint solvers. (iv)~Context-sensitive rules that apply for disambiguation, coordination in natural language and tagger-like rules.

Christiansen, Henning

2004-01-01

401

Designing institutions for global democracy: flexibility through escape clauses and sunset provisions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How can advocates of global democracy grapple with the empirical conditions that constitute world politics? I argue that flexibility mechanisms—;commonly used to advance international cooperation—should be employed to make the institutional design project of global democracy more tractable. I highlight three specific reasons underpinning this claim. First, flexibility provisions make bargaining over different institutional designs more manageable. Second, heightened flexibility takes seriously potential concerns about path-dependent institutional development. Finally, deliberately shortening the time horizons of agents by employing flexibility provisions has cognitive benefits as it forces designers to focus specifically on issues of feasibility as well as desirability. I discuss a range of flexibility mechanisms and highlight the utility of sunset provisions and escape clauses. From this analysis, I build an argument for the usage of small-scale democratic experiments through which citizens (or their representatives have a say in global policy making.

Jonathan W. Kuyper

2013-12-01

402

The Meaning of Mood – Embedded Clauses in Spanish as a Case in Point  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mental space theory is a cognitive framework that explains the interpretation of linguistic expressions: it explains how interlocutors get from input to output. Whereas in traditional semantics words are taken to possess a static, prefabricated meaning, cognitive frameworks take meaning to be the result of an interpretive process. This article explains how mental space theory can be used in an analysis of mood in embedded clauses in Spanish. It starts from the assumption that the meaning of mood is constructed by interlocutors in an interpretive process on the basis of information from the modal morphemes combined with information from the linguistic as well as the extra-linguistic context. The interpretive process is represented as a sequence of mental spaces which are linked and structured on the basis of information from language and context

Jensen, Helle Dam

2011-01-01

403

GENPRO: automatic generation of Prolog clause files for knowledge-based systems in the biomedical sciences.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the increasing interest in using knowledge-based approaches for protein structure prediction and modelling, there is a requirement for general techniques to convert molecular biological data into structures that can be interpreted by artificial intelligence programming languages (e.g. Prolog). We describe here an interactive program that generates files in Prolog clausal form from the most commonly distributed protein structural data collections. The program is flexible and enables a variety of clause structures to be defined by the user through a general schema definition system. Our method can be extended to include other types of molecular biological database or those containing non-structural information, thus providing a uniform framework for handling the increasing volume of data available to knowledge-based systems in biomedicine. PMID:2702815

Saldanha, J; Eccles, J R

1989-03-01

404

Object-oriented numerical computing C++  

Science.gov (United States)

An object oriented language is one allowing users to create a set of related types and then intermix and manipulate values of these related types. This paper discusses object oriented numerical computing using C++.

Vanrosendale, John

1994-01-01

405

Advances in computational modeling of catalytic systems used in Claus sulfur recovery  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This poster session discussed advances in computation modeling of catalytic systems used in Claus sulfur recovery, focusing on the hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S) and sulphur dioxide (S{sub O}2) absorption of non-alumina Claus active metal oxides, such as titanium oxide and vanadium oxide. These metal oxides were chosen because they promote carbon disulphide (CS{sub 2}) conversion and have a potential use in olefin chemistry. The redox process of H{sub 2}S dissociation on vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 2}) can take place in single-site reaction or multiple site reactions. Both mechanisms lead to the production of V{sub 2}O{sub 4}S, water (H{sub 2}O) and other species. The overall process of forming VO{sub 4}S is neutral, but kinetics is a controlling factor. The surface sulfidation to form V{sub 2}O{sub 3}S{sub 2} requires a small energy cost but possesses a huge reaction barrier. The formation of H{sub 2}S{sub 2} is energetically favorable. The silica (SiO{sub 2})-supported V{sub 2}O{sub 2} catalyst was described. A proposed mechanism of H{sub 2}S conversion to H{sub 2}O and V=S group was presented along with another reaction route in which the dissociative absorption of H{sub 2}S takes place on O-bridges instead of V=O. Two vanadia catalysts were compared: V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2}. 7 figs.

Clark, P.D.; Lo, J. [Alberta Sulphur Research Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Center for Applied Catalysis and Industrial Sulfur Chemistry

2010-01-15

406

ASPECTUAL INFLUENCE ON TEMPORAL RELATIONS: A CASE STUDY OF THE EXPERIENTIAL GUO IN MANDARINE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines how the temporal relation between a clause containing the experiential guo and an adjacent clause is determined. Mandarin is a language not morphologically marked for tenses (e.g., Lin 2006, and therefore, tenses cannot help in determining temporal relations in Mandarin. However, Mandarin has a rich aspectual system. This paper argues that the experiential guo indirectly influences temporal relations via rhetorical relations by either specifying a default rhetorical relation, or by constraining the circumstances under which a certain rhetorical relation can connect a clause with guo to an adjacent clause. This paper also argues that the default rhetorical relation and the constraints are determined by the aspectual properties of the experiential marker. Other information, such as discourse connectors, lexical information, etc., can override the default rhetorical relation indicated by guo and specifies a rhetorical relation. Therefore, this paper concludes that in Mandarin aspect markers can indirectly affect temporal relations by means of rhetorical relations, a result consistent with Wu’s (2005b paper on the perfective marker le in Mandarin, and Wu’s (2007b, 2004 work on the progressive marker zai and the durative marker zhe.

Jiun-Shiung Wu

2009-12-01

407

Object-oriented object recognition system  

Science.gov (United States)

Pattern recognition systems have been developed using a variety of technologies from many disciplines. With the development of new technologies in these disciplines comes the possibility for improving pre-existing recognition systems. Such is the case of using object-oriented programming concepts from computer science in object recognition applications. Efficient object recognition imposes new requirements to the library (database) of objects. The library has to go beyond the role of a simple storage medium and provide efficient retrieval and management capabilities for the objects' information. An entity can be stored in an object structure along with its descriptive attributes or features. In identifying an unknown object, the object recognition system queries the database by the passage of messages checking the similarities of the unknown object to each of the objects in the database on a feature basis. The only interface the database shares with the object recognition system is through the passing of messages which allows for flexibility in how the database processes the messages. This is only one of many advantages of the use of an object-oriented database in an object recognition system. An object recognition system utilizing object-oriented concepts is developed in detail.

Garcia, David J.

1994-06-01

408

PRESERVATION OF DIGITAL OBJECTS INFORMATION  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this article is to indicate theadvantages and disadvantages of digitalpreservation strategies discussed in the scientificliterature to assist practitioners and users ofinformation in the conservation of collections orprivate collections contained in the objects andtheir digital media. The methodological approachadopted was to literature. The results describethe strategies of digital preservation, someproblems related to the preservation of physicalmedia, such as technological...

Joana D’arc Pereira de Jesus

2010-01-01

409

Grammatical relations, agreement, and genetic stability  

OpenAIRE

Languages vary in whether or not primary grammatical relations (PGRs) are sensitive to information from clause-level case or phrase structures. This variation correlates with a difference between verb agreement systems based on feature unification and systems based on feature composition. The choice between different PGR and agreement principles is found to be highly stable genetically and to characterize Indo-European as systematically different from Sino-Tibetan. Although the choice is part...

Bickel, Balthasar

2010-01-01

410

Romanian restrictive relatives: A head raising analysis?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper investigates the syntax of restrictive relative clauses from a mainly descriptive viewpoint. It offers a critical view of the head raising analysis (Kayne 1994 and shows that no conclusive evidence supports the application of this analysis to Romanian. I suggest that a different theoretical approach, provided by the Matching Analysis (Chomsky 1965, Sauerland 1998, might instead account for the empirical facts I will bring to attention. However, I leave for future research the details concerning its implementation.

Anca Sevcenco

2010-01-01

411

Take-or-Pay clauses in the natural gas industry. An economic-legal analysis; Take-or-Pay-Klauseln in der Gaswirtschaft. Eine oekonomisch-juristische Analyse  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author of the book under consideration reports on the take-or-pay clauses (ToP clauses) in the gas industry. First of all, the author describes the gas industry. Natural gas is introduced as an energy supplier. The various players in the gas industry are designated. The development of the liberalization of the gas market is described. The focus is on long-term gas supply contracts. Then, the ToP clause in the gas industry is reviewed for their compatibility with the competition law. In this connection, the delimitation of the market is a focus of this review. Furthermore, the ToP clause also is reviewed by means of the contract law.

Sorge, Sarah

2012-11-01

412

Exemption clauses and the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008: An assessment of Naidoo v Birchwood Hotel 2012 6 SA 170 (GSJ)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Exemption clauses are a rule rather than an exception particularly in standard-form contracts. Consumers are usually forced to accept such terms on a "take-it-or-leave-it" basis. This state of affairs shows that freedom of contract is theoretical and could lead to injustices. In Naidoo v Birchwood H [...] otel 2012 6 SA 170 (GSJ) the Court refused to uphold the exemption clauses based on the fact that it would have been unfair and unjust to the plaintiff who had sustained serious bodily injuries during his stay at the hotel. The article discusses this court decision in the light of the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA) against the background of the previous jurisprudence regarding exemption clauses, including the position of exemption clauses in a new constitutional dispensation.

Y, Mupangavanhu.

2014-09-01

413

Learning Object Repositories  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter looks at the development and nature of learning objects, meta-tagging standards and taxonomies, learning object repositories, learning object repository characteristics, and types of learning object repositories, with type examples. (Contains 1 table.)

Lehman, Rosemary

2007-01-01

414

The emergence of complex sentences in a French child's language from 0;10 to 4;01: causal adverbial clauses and the concertina effect.  

OpenAIRE

This article tests Diessel's 'integration' path of development of adverbial clauses (cf. Diessel, 2004), with special focus on the acquisition of 'causal' adverbial clauses, in the context of the overall development of grammatical/semantic complexification in a French child's longitudinal corpus of spontaneous speech (Madeleine, Paris Corpus) from 10 months to 4;01 years old. Three main patterns are retrieved in the child's uses of parce que constructions in interactional contexts. Linguistic...

Sekali, Martine

2012-01-01

415

On the Interplay between the Semantics of Java's Finally Clauses and the JML Run-Time Checker  

OpenAIRE

This paper discusses how a subtle interaction between the semantics of Java and the implementation of the JML run-time checker can cause the latter to fail to report errors. This problem is due to the well-known capability of finally clauses to implicitly override exceptions. We give some simple examples of annotation violations that are not reported by the run-time checker because the errors are caught within the program text; even without any explicit reference to them...

Huisman, M.

2009-01-01

416

The Equivalence and Shift in the Persian Translation of English Complex Sentences with wh-Subordinate Clauses  

OpenAIRE

The main purpose of this research is to find the types of equivalence and shifts in the Persian translation of English complex sentences with wh-subordinate clauses. This study uses a qualitative descriptive method. The English fictions and their Persian translations considered as source of the data. The researcher classifies the data into two main categories: the equivalence and shift. The equivalence is subcategorized into formal and dynamic equivalence based on Nida's theory....

Parisa Farrokh

2011-01-01

417

‘Abominable crime': examining the constitutionality of the Jamaican sodomy law through the lens of the general savings law clause  

OpenAIRE

In jurisdictions where the criminalization of sodomy has been invalidated by judicial order, this has generally been achieved through a determination that an identified right is infringed and that there is justification for that infringement. However, in Jamaica, a modified approach is required owing to the existence of the General Savings Law Clause (GSLC), which shields laws existing before the entry into force of the Constitution of Jamaica from invalidity with the fundamental rights provi...

Wheatle, Se-shauna; Mccrudden, Christopher

2011-01-01

418

A Diachronic Study of Relative Markers in Spoken and Written English.  

Science.gov (United States)

Focuses on factors governing the choice of relative markers in restrictive relative clauses with relativized subjects from the 16th century to the present, using spoken and written data and including non-standard and regional varieties. The study addresses claims by Romaine (1982) that the "wh"-strategy has not affected spoken English, and that no…

Ball, Catherine N.

1996-01-01

419

Children and Objects: Affection and Infection  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper considers young children's (aged 3-5 years) relations with objects, and in particular objects that are brought from home to school. We begin by considering the place of objects within early years classrooms and their relationship to children's education before considering why some objects are often separated from their owners on entry…

Jones, Liz; MacLure, Maggie; Holmes, Rachel; MacRae, Christina

2012-01-01

420

Using definite clause grammars to build a global system for analyzing collections of documents  

Science.gov (United States)

Collections of documents are sets of heterogeneous documents, like a specific ancient book series, having proper structural and semantic properties linking them. A particular collection contains document images with specific physical layouts, like text pages or full-page illustrations, appearing in a specific order. Its contents, like journal articles, may be shared by several pages, not necessary following, producing strong dependencies between pages interpretations. In order to build an analysis system which can bring contextual information from the collection to the appropriate recognition modules for each page, we propose to express the structural and the semantic properties of a collection with a definite clause grammar. This is made possible by representing collections as streams of document images, and by using extensions to the formalism we present here. We are then able to automatically generate a parser dedicated to a collection. Beside allowing structural variations and complex information flows, we also show that this approach enables the design of analysis stages, on a document or a set of documents. The interest of context usage is illustrated with several examples and their appropriate formalization in this framework.

Chazalon, Joseph; Coüasnon, Bertrand

2010-01-01

421

Choice of Court Clauses and Lis Pendens under Brussels I Regulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The principle of party autonomy, known not only in the common law legal system but also in the civil law system, provides parties contracting in civil and commercial matters with the right to establish their own rules, as long as these rules do not contradict mandatory law. This right is presumed to be protected by the force of law. It follows, that when a choice of court clause is included in the contract, disputes are supposed to be solved by the court chosen by the parties. This principle is not compromised by the Brussels I Regulation (or previously, the Brussels Convention. Moreover, it is repeated in its Articles 1 and 23. At the same time, the rule of lis pendens, provided for by its Article 27, aims to preclude subsequent actions in other Member States if a court is already seized and allows the appearance 'on the legal scene' of a court other than the court chosen by the parties. And the lis pendens rule prescribes the latter to stay proceedings until the court not chosen, but first seized, examines and declines its jurisdiction.

Ekaterina Ivanova

2010-08-01

422

Effect of reaction parameters on the quality of captured sulfur in Claus process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Examined quality of collected sulfur deposits under different reaction conditions. ? All sulfur deposits were analyzed and proved to be of cyclo-S8 (?-sulfur) allotrope. ? Equivalence ratio did not show significant effect on the quality of sulfur deposits. ? Carbon dioxide did not show considerable effect on sulfur deposits quality as well. ? Methane and propane caused sulfur deposits to contain considerable amounts of carbon. - Abstract: Quality of sulfur deposits collected from hydrogen sulfide combustion has been examined. Experimental conditions representing selected practical systems have been investigated. Combustion of hydrogen sulfide was allowed to occur under the different conditions with sulfur deposits collected for analysis. Experimental conditions represented effect of equivalence ratio of rich (Claus) conditions and stoichiometric conditions; effect of contaminants, other than H2S, in the acid gas stream; combustion of H2S with hydrocarbon fuels (methane and propane). Sulfur deposits from H2S combustion under various conditions were captured and analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) diagnostics. X-ray powder diffraction was used to determine the type of deposited sulfur allotrope, while LIBS was used to identify the elemental analysis of deposited sulfur

423

Picturing Objects in Infancy  

Science.gov (United States)

Infants' transfer of information from pictures to objects was tested by familiarizing 9-month-olds (N = 31) with either a color or black-and-white photograph of an object and observing their preferential reaching for the real target object versus a distractor. One condition tested object recognition by keeping both objects visible, and the…

Shinskey, Jeanne L.; Jachens, Liza J.

2014-01-01

424

The Zoo Trip: Objecting to Objectives  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, the author objects to what curricularists and teachers often believe that meaningful activities in school have to be scripted, planned to the nth degree and assigned learning objectives and goals ahead of time, or they have no educational worth. Instead, he used Elliot Eisner's classic curriculum text, "The Educational…

Poetter, Thomas S.

2006-01-01

425

The subjective experience of object recognition: comparing metacognition for object detection and object categorization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Perceptual decisions seem to be made automatically and almost instantly. Constructing a unitary subjective conscious experience takes more time. For example, when trying to avoid a collision with a car on a foggy road you brake or steer away in a reflex, before realizing you were in a near accident. This subjective aspect of object recognition has been given little attention. We used metacognition (assessed with confidence ratings) to measure subjective experience during object detection and object categorization for degraded and masked objects, while objective performance was matched. Metacognition was equal for degraded and masked objects, but categorization led to higher metacognition than did detection. This effect turned out to be driven by a difference in metacognition for correct rejection trials, which seemed to be caused by an asymmetry of the distractor stimulus: It does not contain object-related information in the detection task, whereas it does contain such information in the categorization task. Strikingly, this asymmetry selectively impacted metacognitive ability when objective performance was matched. This finding reveals a fundamental difference in how humans reflect versus act on information: When matching the amount of information required to perform two tasks at some objective level of accuracy (acting), metacognitive ability (reflecting) is still better in tasks that rely on positive evidence (categorization) than in tasks that rely more strongly on an absence of evidence (detection). PMID:24554231

Meuwese, Julia D I; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Fahrenfort, Johannes J

2014-05-01

426

Cadastral Modeling : Grasping the objectives  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Modeling is a term that refers to a variety of efforts, including data and process modeling. The domain to be modeled may be a department, an organization, or even an industrial sector. E-business presupposes the modeling of an industrial sector, a substantial task. Cadastral modeling compares to the modeling of an industrial sector, as it aims at rendering the basic concepts that relate to the domain of real estate and the pertinent human activities. The palpable objects are pieces of land and buildings, documents, data stores and archives, as well as persons in their diverse roles as owners, holders of assets, experts, and holders of authority. More subtle objects are rights and restrictions, which relate persons through enforceable rules and commitments. The objective of this fabric of complex relations is to provide a stable and yet flexible frame for legal-economic dispositions that are related to land. The paper advances the position that cadastral modeling has to include not only the physical objects, agents, and information sets of the domain, but also the objectives or requirements of cadastral systems.

Stubkjær, Erik

2005-01-01

427

Object as subject  

OpenAIRE

Object as subject Artists: Mc Kenzie Bassant, John Mitchell and Laura White. Curated by David Waterworth. Three artists took found objects as a starting point for making their work. The exhibition compares different approaches towards the found object. In the work of Laura White toys with the sculptural notion of what an object is and how to make objects in a world full of them.

White, Laura; Mitchell, John; Bassant, Mckenzie

2010-01-01

428

Matching Objects with Patterns  

OpenAIRE

Data in object-oriented programming is organized in a hierarchy of classes. The problem of *object-oriented pattern matching* is how to explore this hierarchy from the outside. This usually involves classifying objects by their run-time type, accessing their members, or determining some other characteristic of a group of objects. In this paper we compare six different pattern matching techniques: object-oriented decomposition, visitors, type-tests/type-casts, typecase, case classes, and ext...

Emir, Burak; Odersky, Martin; Williams, John

2006-01-01

429

Object-to-object color mapping by image segmentation  

Science.gov (United States)

An object-to-object color mapping strategy depending on the image color contents is proposed. Pictorial color image is segmented into different object areas with clustered color distributions. Euclidian or Mahalanobis color distance measures, and Bayesian decision rule based on maximum likelihood principle, are introduced to the image segmentation. After the image segmentation each segmented pixels are projected onto principal component space by Hotelling transform and the color mapping s are performed for the principal components to be matched in between the individual objects of original and printed images. Experimental results in automatic color correction for inkjet prints are reported. The paper discusses on the color correction effects by PCA matching and reproduction errors in relation to the segmentation methods.

Kotera, Hiroaki; Chen, Hung-Shing; Morimoto, Tetsuro

1998-12-01

430

The good, the bad, and the ugly: how the due process clause may limit comprehensive health care reform.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines atopic which has receivedlittle attention from the media or other scholarly publications: The due process concerns that arise when engaging in comprehensive federal health care reform and regulation. First, the article provides a background discussion detailing the factors necessitating health care reform in the United States. Second, it analyzes whether a constitutionally protected right to make personal health care decisions exists under the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments' Due Process Clauses. Finally, the article analyzes the susceptibility of government-sponsored health care-specifically proposals which include a public option-to due process challenges and makes suggestions to avoid any potential fundamental rights violations. PMID:21539177

Singleton, J Paul

2011-01-01

431

Where Do Objects Become Scenes?  

Science.gov (United States)

Regions tuned to individual visual categories, such as faces and objects, have been discovered in the later stages of the ventral visual pathway in the cortex. But most visual experience is composed of scenes, where multiple objects are interacting. Such interactions are readily described by prepositions or verb forms, for example, a bird perched on a birdhouse. At what stage in the pathway does sensitivity to such interactions arise? Here we report that object pairs shown as interacting, compared with their side-by-side depiction (e.g., a bird besides a birdhouse), elicit greater activity in the lateral occipital complex, the earliest cortical region where shape is distinguished from texture. Novelty of the interactions magnified this gain, an effect that was absent in the side-by-side depictions. Scene-like relations are thus likely achieved simultaneously with the specification of object shape. PMID:21148087

Biederman, Irving

2011-01-01

432

Logics for the Relational Syllogistic  

CERN Document Server

The Aristotelian syllogistic cannot account for the validity of many inferences involving relational facts. In this paper, we investigate the prospects for providing a relational syllogistic. We identify several fragments based on (a) whether negation is permitted on all nouns, including those in the subject of a sentence; and (b) whether the subject noun phrase may contain a relative clause. The logics we present are extensions of the classical syllogistic, and we pay special attention to the question of whether reductio ad absurdum is needed. Thus our main goal is to derive results on the existence (or non-existence) of syllogistic proof systems for relational fragments. We also determine the computational complexity of all our fragments.

Pratt-Hartmann, Ian

2008-01-01

433

Object-Oriented Performance Improvement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a framework to support an object-oriented approach to performance analysis and instructional design that includes collaboration, automation, visual modeling, and reusable Web-based repositories of analysis knowledge. Relates the need for a new framework to the increasing concern with the cost effectiveness of student and employee…

Douglas, Ian; Schaffer, Scott P.

2002-01-01

434

Combinatorial Object Server (COS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Specify a type of combinatorial object, together with specific parameter values, and COS will return to you a list of 200 such objects. Generation pages: permutations, combinations, various types of trees, unlabelled graphs, linear extensions of posets, pentomino puzzle solutions, numerical partitions, and a host of other objects. This server is designed for researchers and educators; the corresponding version for K12 students and educators runs on Canada's SchoolNet, and is called The Amazing Mathematical Object Factory.

Ruskey, Frank

2007-12-24

435

Objects in Motion  

Science.gov (United States)

One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

Damonte, Kathleen

2004-01-01

436

Learning Objects and Gerontology  

Science.gov (United States)

Virtual AGE (vAGE) is an asynchronous educational environment that utilizes learning objects focused on gerontology and a learning anytime/anywhere philosophy. This paper discusses the benefits of asynchronous instruction and the process of creating learning objects. Learning objects are "small, reusable chunks of instructional media" Wiley…

Weinreich, Donna M.; Tompkins, Catherine J.

2006-01-01

437

Presentation on Instructional Objectives  

Science.gov (United States)

"Learning can be defined as change in a student's capacity for performance as a result of experience" (Kenneth D. Moore). The intended changes should be specified in instructional objectives. Viewed in this context, an objective can be defined as a clear and unambiguous description of your instructional intent. An objective is not a statement of…

Naz, Bibi Asia

2009-01-01

438

Detecting a Moving Object  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Object tracking in video aims at detecting the appearances of an object and also the position of a moving object in a video sequence. Complex and dynamic scenes in video and television broadcasting have been a challenge for computerization of both in terms of storage and interaction. Scenes can be complex wherein there are many cluttered objects with different sizes, shapes, colors and can be dynamic with multiple interacting moving objects in a constantly changing background. Examples of such videos abound in applications like sports, air traffic, car traffic and cloud transformations etc.

Archana Sidhanti

2013-02-01

439

Dissociations between object knowledge and everyday action.  

OpenAIRE

We report the case of a patient, MC, with Alzheimer's disease, who showed poor ability to name visually presented objects and poor visual access to the concepts of objects relative to a group of control patients (also with dementia). She performed well when words instead of objects were used in the various tasks. The data suggest that she has impaired access to semantic knowledge from vision. Surprisingly, she performed well when asked to perform everyday tasks with the same objects that had ...

Riddoch, Mj; Humphreys, Gw; Heslop, J.; Castermans, E.

2002-01-01

440

Grasping Objects with Environmentally Induced Position Uncertainty  

OpenAIRE

Due to noisy motor commands and imprecise and ambiguous sensory information, there is often substantial uncertainty about the relative location between our body and objects in the environment. Little is known about how well people manage and compensate for this uncertainty in purposive movement tasks like grasping. Grasping objects requires reach trajectories to generate object-fingers contacts that permit stable lifting. For objects with position uncertainty, some trajectories are more effic...

Christopoulos, Vassilios N.; Schrater, Paul R.

2009-01-01

441

Words without Objects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resolution of the problem of mass nouns depends on an expansion of our semantic/ontological taxonomy. Semantically, mass nouns are neither singular nor plural; they apply to neither just one object, nor to many objects, at a time. But their deepest kinship links them to the plural. A plural phrase — 'the cats in Kingston' — does not denote a single plural thing, but merely many distinct things. Just so, 'the water in the lake' does not denote a single aggregate — it is not ONE, but rather MUCH. The world is not the totality of singular objects, plural objects, and mass objects; for there are no plural or mass objects. It is the totality of single objects and (just stuff.

Henry Laycock

1998-12-01

442

Abstract Objects of Verbs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Verbs do often take arguments of quite different types. In an orthodox type-theoretic framework this results in an extreme polysemy of many verbs. In this article, it is shown that this unwanted consequence can be avoided when a theory of "abstract objects" is adopted according to which these objects represent non-objectual entities in contexts from which they are excluded by type restrictions. Thus these objects are "abstract'' in a functional rather than in an ontological sense: they function as representatives of other entities but they are otherwise quite normal objects. Three examples of such a representation are considered: the denotations of that-phrases are objects representing propositions, generic noun phrases denote objects standing for sorts, and infinitivals are viewed as denoting objects representing attributes, i.e., the "ordinary'' meanings of verb phrases.

Robering, Klaus

2014-01-01

443

Object oriented platform to RDBMS stored procedures  

OpenAIRE

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is the most successful paradigm used in programming environments. Some difficulties arise when it is necessary to deal with data stored in a relational database because relational databases do not provide an object-oriented interface to their entities. The most common solution consists in developing a specific interface that guarantees some specific requirements. Here, we explain a methodology to implement an application-side object-oriented platform in or...

Pereira, O?scar Narciso Morta?gua; Pinto, Joaquim Manuel Henriques Sousa; Anjo, Anto?nio Jose? Batel

2005-01-01

444

Beyond the Object  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Object orientation (OO is regained not only in all components of integrate development media but it remarks in the rest of software world from operating system to last application domain - of course, with different intensity and success. A clear prove of OO application in all situations is the development of a wide range of industrial applications. OO technology allows drawing of relation between the geometry, topology and dimensions of data on a class hierarchy; thus, the observation of the amount of data gained by research in many scientific domains is facilitated through class libraries both for graphic primitives and for events examination. In conformity to all waiting, OO asserts in every distributive system, there are very important the applications for making open systems customer-server and dis-tributed applications in Java. Finally OO application in robot's programming and modeling needn't be omitted. However, far to be panacea, OO has also shades which will be researched so on.

2007-01-01

445

Numerical Relativity  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advances in numerical relativity have fueled an explosion of progress in understanding the predictions of Einstein's theory of gravity, General Relativity, for the strong field dynamics, the gravitational radiation wave forms, and consequently the state of the remnant produced from the merger of compact binary objects. I will review recent results from the field, focusing on mergers of two black holes.

Baker, John G.

2009-01-01

446

77 FR 427 - EPAAR Clause for Compliance With EPA Policies for Information Resources Management  

Science.gov (United States)

...terminology and Web site links related to EPA policies for information...FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Donna S. Blanding...management of information and related resources such as personnel...equipment, software, or related services. (4)...

2012-01-05

447

Workshop; Goals and objectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the objectives of the workshop was to improve awareness of the international illicit nuclear trafficking information exchange mechanism, i.e. IAEA illicit nuclear trafficking database programme, its goals and objectives, reporting requirements and participation. Other objectives are: to enhance awareness of global and regional risk trends and patterns, share knowledge and assessment of regional developments, share methodology of the illicit nuclear trafficking information analysis and discuss ways for improving national and international illicit trafficking information management and coordination

448

Objects in the Sky  

Science.gov (United States)

What are objects that can be seen in the sky during the day? Alabama Course of Study Science Gr K Objective 10: Identify objects observed in the day sky with the unaided eye, including the sun, clouds, moon, and rainbows. What can you see during the day? clouds 1, clouds 2 writeInsertLink('projectBody','clouds 2'); Moon writeInsertLink('projectBody','Moon'); Rainbow writeInsertLink('projectBody','Rainbow'); sunrise writeInsertLink('projectBody','sunrise'); ...

Saltsman, Miss

2010-04-01

449

Modal Object Diagrams  

OpenAIRE

While object diagrams (ODs) are widely used as a means to document object-oriented systems, they are expressively weak, as they are limited to describe specific possible snapshots of the system at hand. In this paper we introduce modal object diagrams (MODs), which extend the classical OD language with positive/negative and example/invariant modalities. The extended language allows the designer to specify not only positive example models but also negative examples, ones that...

Maoz, Shahar; Ringert, Jan Oliver; Rumpe, Bernhard

2014-01-01

450

Objective-C  

CERN Document Server

A soup-to-nuts guide on the Objective-C programming language. Objective-C is the language behind Cocoa and Cocoa Touch, which is the Framework of applications written for the Macintosh, iPod touch, iPhone, and iPad platforms. Part of the Developer Reference series covering the hottest Apple topics, this book covers everything from the basics of the C language to advanced aspects of Apple development. You'll examine Objective-C and high-level subjects of frameworks, threading, networking, and much more.: Covers the basics of the C language and then quickly moves onto Objective-C and more advanc

DeVoe, Jiva

2011-01-01

451

PRESERVATION OF DIGITAL OBJECTS INFORMATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this article is to indicate theadvantages and disadvantages of digitalpreservation strategies discussed in the scientificliterature to assist practitioners and users ofinformation in the conservation of collections orprivate collections contained in the objects andtheir digital media. The methodological approachadopted was to literature. The results describethe strategies of digital preservation, someproblems related to the preservation of physicalmedia, such as technological obsolescence, themain storage media of digital objects and someconcerns about his durability. We conclude that itis of great importance to knowledge andapplication of strategies to support professionalsand users of information in making decisionsrelated to digital preservation, according to eachtype of collection or private collections. Throughthis study it is clear that it is also essential todisseminate these strategies to enable futuregenerations to access to knowledge producedtoday.

Joana D’arc Pereira de Jesus

2010-12-01

452

The significance of the clause requiring precautionary measures to assure waste disposal in partial licenses granted under the Atomic Energy Law  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This development raises the question as to what extent a waste disposal provision clause of the first few partial construction permits has to be adapted to the factual situation that has changed. Thus the clause is factually outdated according to which the granting of an operating licence for a nuclear power station cannot be expected until the first partial construction permit for the German fuel-cycle centre is in hand. It is not only conceivable that a first partial construction permit for the German fuel-cycle centre will not be in hand at the time when the authorities will decide on a (first) operating licence to be granted for a nuclear power station under construction, but add to this the crucial fact that the condition given in the above-mentioned provision clause on waste disposal is no longer in keeping with the factual situation and the thereto adapted provision principles governing waste management. Special attention has to be given to the significance and impact of this waste disposal provision clause since the situation has changed. (orig./HP)

453

Exploring the Boomerang Effect : The Role of Core Technologies and Uncertainty in Explaining the Use of the Grant-Back Clause in Technology Licensing  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Licensing is one of the most commonly observed inter-firm contractual agreements.Drawing on the resource-based view of the firm and contract economics, we argue that the inclusion of a grant-back clause in licensing agreements emerges as a consequence of the licensor and licensee firms’ requirements to balance the need to protect their technological resources with the need to learn through internal and external processes. We argue that licensing agreements are increasingly likely to contain a grant-back clause (i) the closer the licensed technology is to the core of the licensor’s patent portfolio, and (ii) the higher the uncertainty of the licensed technology. In contrast, we conjecture decreasing likelihood of a grant-back clause, the closer the licensed technology is to the core of the licensee’s patent portfolio. Technological uncertainty is conjectured to positively moderate the results both when the licensed technology is part of the core technology of the licensee and the licensor. We test our hypotheses using a sample of 404 licensed technologies over the period 1984-2004. We employ a hierarchical nested decision model to account for the inclusion of a grant-back clause in a licensing contract nested in the decision about which technologies to license out. We find broad support for our theoretical arguments

Laursen, Keld; Leone, M. Isabella

454

Querying moving objects detected by sensor networks  

CERN Document Server

Declarative query interfaces to Sensor Networks (SN) have become a commodity. These interfaces allow access to SN deployed for collecting data using relational queries. However, SN are not confined to data collection, but may track object movement, e.g., wildlife observation or traffic monitoring. While rational approaches are well suited for data collection, research on ""Moving Object Databases"" (MOD) has shown that relational operators are unsuitable to express information needs on object movement, i.e., spatio-temporal queries. ""Querying Moving Objects Detected by Sensor Networks"" studi

Bestehorn, Markus

2012-01-01

455

An Heuristic Approach To Object Oriented Paradigm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Quality of software is increasingly important and testing related issues are becoming crucial for software. In order to measure and understand quality, it is necessary to relate it to measurable quantities. Heuristics provide a link between sets of abstract design principles and quantitative software metrics. The aim of object oriented software metrics is to predict quality and improve productivity of the software products. Object-orientation (OO allows software to be structured in a way that helps to manage complexity and change. This paper shows role of heuristics in object oriented software engineering and how object oriented paradigm differentiate from conventional function oriented paradigm.

Deepali Gupta

2011-07-01

456

Object-Oriented Type Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Object-Oriented Type Systems Jens Palsberg and Michael I. Schwartzbach Aarhus University, Denmark Type systems are required to ensure reliability and efficiency of software. For object-oriented languages, typing is an especially challenging problem because of inheritance, assignment, and late binding. Existing languages employ different type systems, and it can be difficult to compare, evaluate and improve them, since there is currently no uniform theory for such languages. This book provides such a theory. The authors review the type systems of Simula, Smalltalk, C++ and Eiffel and present a type system that generalizes and explains them. The theory is based on an idealized object-oriented language called BOPL (Basic Object Programming Language), containing common features of the above languages. A type system, type inference algorithm, and typings of inheritance and genericity are provided for BOPL. Throughout, the results are related to the languages on which BOPL is based. This text offers advanced undergraduates and professional software developers a sound understanding of the key aspects of object-oriented type systems. All algorithms are implemented in a freely available workbench, adding enormous practical value. Numerous exercises and a clear writing style will enhance its appeal to the student.

Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

1994-01-01

457

Object Detection Using Edge Direction Histogram Features  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In In this study, we propose an object detection approach using edge direction histogram features. Since edge points are related to shape information closely, Edge Direction Histogram (EDH is a very simple and direct way to characterize shape information of an object. We divide an object into several parts and employ edge direction histogram method to extract the EDH features. The EDH descriptor is designed to decouple variations of the object due to affine warps and other forms of shape deformations. We further train a support vector machine classifier for each object part and apply a generalized Hough voting scheme to generate object locations and scales. We evaluate the proposed approach on two different kinds of objects: Car and h. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is efficient and robust in object detection.

Guangwei Wang

2013-01-01

458

Learning Object and Metadata Lifecycle  

OpenAIRE

To allow multiple professionals to design, realise, share, use and improve a specific learning object (LO) by using a repository that store and index its successive evolutions, we need to represent the different steps followed by a LO and its metadata throughout its lifecycle. Here, we study various initiatives related to this issue and notice significant differences between them in the terms of terminology and sequences. Thus, we infer a generic representation that can be applied to any give...

Catteau, Olivier

2008-01-01

459

Effects of Immediate and Cumulative Syntactic Experience in Language Impairment: Evidence from Priming of Subject Relatives in Children with SLI  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the production of subject relative clauses (SRc) in Italian pre-school children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and age-matched typically-developing children (TD) controls. In a structural priming paradigm, children described pictures after hearing the experimenter produce a bare noun or an SRc description, as part of a…

Garraffa, Maria; Coco, Moreno I.; Branigan, Holly P.

2015-01-01

460

Nuclear Energy General Objectives  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way it achieves this objective is to issue publications in various series. Two of these series are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III, paragraph A.6, of the IAEA Statute, the IAEA safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are primarily written in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own activities. The principal users are Member State regulatory bodies and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series consists of reports designed to encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia and politicians, among others. The information is presented in guides, reports on the status of technology and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The series complements the IAEA's safety standards, and provides detailed guidance, experience, good practices and examples on the fivce, good practices and examples on the five areas covered in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series. The Nuclear Energy Basic Principles is the highest level publication in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and describes the rationale and vision for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It presents eight Basic Principles on which nuclear energy systems should be based to fulfil nuclear energy's potential to help meet growing global energy needs. The Nuclear Energy Series Objectives are the second level publications. They describe what needs to be considered and the specific goals to be achieved at different stages of implementation, all of which are consistent with the Basic Principles. The four Objectives publications include Nuclear General Objectives, Nuclear Power Objectives, Nuclear Fuel Cycle Objectives, and Radioactive Waste Management and Decommissioning Objectives. All four Objectives publications follow the same structure. For each topic in the area, the objectives are described in accordance with the sequence in the Basic Principles publication. Within each of these four Objectives publications, the individual topics that make up each area are addressed. The topics included in Nuclear General Objectives are Energy Systems Analysis and Development of Strategies for Nuclear Energy, Economics, Infrastructure, Management Systems, Human Resources and Knowledge Management. The diversity of the topics contained in Nuclear General Objectives necessitated incorporating some repetition in order to simplify access to the relevant information for the various interested audiences.

461

The Equivalence and Shift in the Persian Translation of English Complex Sentences with wh-Subordinate Clauses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to find the types of equivalence and shifts in the Persian translation of English complex sentences with wh-subordinate clauses. This study uses a qualitative descriptive method. The English fictions and their Persian translations considered as source of the data. The researcher classifies the data into two main categories: the equivalence and shift. The equivalence is subcategorized into formal and dynamic equivalence based on Nida's theory. In this research, four categories of shift, based on Catford's classification, which involve structure shifts, unit shifts, rank shifts and intra-system shifts, have been found. Based on 160 data, the results of this research indicated that in the Persian translation of these sentences, the shifts occur more than the equivalence, with the percentage of 86.25% and the equivalence with the percentage of 13.75%.

Parisa Farrokh

2011-11-01

462

[Achievement of therapeutic objectives].  

Science.gov (United States)

Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. PMID:25043543

Mantilla, Teresa

2014-07-01

463

Perceived shape similarity among unfamiliar objects and the organization of the human object vision pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

Humans rely heavily on shape similarity among objects for object categorization and identification. Studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have shown that a large region in human occipitotemporal cortex processes the shape of meaningful as well as unfamiliar objects. Here, we investigate whether the functional organization of this region as measured with fMRI is related to perceived shape similarity. We found that unfamiliar object classes that are rated as having a similar shape were associated with a very similar response pattern distributed across object-selective cortex, whereas object classes that were rated as being very different in shape were associated with a more different response pattern. Human observers, as well as object-selective cortex, were very sensitive to differences in shape features of the objects such as straight versus curved versus "spiky" edges, more so than to differences in overall shape envelope. Response patterns in retinotopic areas V1, V2, and V4 were not found to be related to perceived shape. The functional organization in area V3 was partially related to perceived shape but without a stronger sensitivity for shape features relative to overall shape envelope. Thus, for unfamiliar objects, the organization of human object-selective cortex is strongly related to perceived shape, and this shape-based organization emerges gradually throughout the object vision pathway. PMID:18829969

Op de Beeck, Hans P; Torfs, Katrien; Wagemans, Johan

2008-10-01

464

Anthropological Objects Conservation  

Science.gov (United States)

This online article introduces students to the Objects Conservation Laboratory run by the museum's Anthropology Division. It discusses the main activities of the lab's conservators what that process involves.

465

Protected Objects in Java  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present an implementation of Ada 95's notion of protected objects in Java. The implementation comprises a class library supporting entry queues and a (pre-) compiler translating slightly decorated Java classes to pure Java classes utilizing the library.

LØvengreen, Hans Henrik; Schwarzer, Jens Christian

1998-01-01

466

On Coordinating Collaborative Objects  

OpenAIRE

A collaborative object represents a data type (such as a text document) designed to be shared by a group of dispersed users. The Operational Transformation (OT) is a coordination approach used for supporting optimistic replication for these objects. It allows the users to concurrently update the shared data and exchange their updates in any order since the convergence of all replicas, i.e. the fact that all users view the same data, is ensured in all cases. However, designin...

Abdessamad Imine

2010-01-01

467

Object-Oriented Databases  

OpenAIRE

Object-oriented databases result from the integration of database technology with the object-oriented paradigm developed in the programming languages and software engineering areas. They have been developed to meet the requirements imposed by applications characterized by highly structured data, long transactions, data types for storing images and texts, and nonstandard, application-specific operations. Examples of such applications, which have requirements and characteristics different from ...

Bertino, Elisa; Guerrini, Giovanna

2008-01-01

468

Near Earth Objects  

OpenAIRE

The word planet comes from Greek planetes, wanderers, because the planets appear to wander across the celestial sphere, contrary to the fixed stars. This thesis presents several methods for using this motion to distinguish between stars and solar system objects in order to detect and track NEOs, Near Earth Objects: Asteroids and comets following paths that bring them near the Earth. NEOs have collided with the Earth since its formation, some causing local devastation, some causing global ...

Wolff, Stefan

2008-01-01

469

Collaboratively Filtering Learning Objects  

OpenAIRE

This chapter describes and discusses the application of collaborative filtering techniques to the design of metadata structures for learning objec