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1

Relative Clauses in Hong Kong English.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses relative clauses in Hong Kong English and considers questions about its morphosyntactic feature system, comparing relevant attestations from local data to those found in other varieties of English. Examines ways relative constructions in Cantonese may affect how relative clauses in Hong Kong English are formed and how the relative clause…

Gisborne, Nikolas

2000-01-01

2

Semantic Bias in the Acquisition of Relative Clauses in Japanese  

Science.gov (United States)

This study analyzes the acquisition of relative clauses in Japanese to determine the semantic and functional characteristics of children's relative clauses in spontaneous speech. Longitudinal data from five Japanese children are analyzed and compared with English data (Diessel & Tomasello, 2000). The results show that the relative clauses produced…

Ozeki, Hiromi; Shirai, Yasuhiro

2010-01-01

3

The Syntactic Derivations of Split Antecedent Relative Clause Constructions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, I propose a syntactic derivation for Split Antecedent Relative Clause Constructions such as Mary met a man and John met a woman who knew each other well. I claim that the two antecedents of such a construction are originally two conjuncts of a coordinate nominal. Then each has undergone a sideward movement, landed in a new working site, and been selected by a verb. After that, a coordinate clausal complex is constructed. In the old working site, a complex nominal is also constructed, in which the relative clause takes the remnant coordinate nominal as its antecedent. Finally, the complex nominal adjoins to the coordinate clausal complex. This analysis shows how the freedom in the selection of the landing site gained from sideward movement makes the syntactic derivations of this special type of relative clause construction possible, while at the same time avoiding the problems of the alternative three-dimensional analysis.

Niina Ning Zhang

2007-01-01

4

Processing Relative Clauses by Hungarian Typically Developing Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Hungarian is a language with morphological case marking and relatively free word order. These typological characteristics make it a good ground for testing the crosslinguistic validity of theories on processing sentences with relative clauses. Our study focused on effects of structural factors and processing capacity. We tested 43 typically…

Kas, Bence; Lukacs, Agnes

2012-01-01

5

Annoying Danish Relatives : Comprehension and production of relative clauses by children with and without SLI  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI and to compare errors with those produced by TD children. Eighteen children with SLI, eighteen TD age-matched (AM) and nine TD language-matched (LM) Danish-speaking children participated in a comprehension and in a production task. All children performed better on the comprehension compared with the production task, as well as on SRCs compared to ORCs and produced various avoidance strategies. In the ORC context, children with SLI produced more reversal errors than the AM children, who opted for passive ORCs. These results are discussed within current theories of SLI and indicate a deficiency with the assignment of thematic roles rather than with the structural make-up of RCs.

Jensen de López, Kristine M.; Sundahl Olsen, Lone

2013-01-01

6

Object and complement fronting in the english clause  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main aim of this study is to examine object and complement fronting constructions in Contemporary English, focusing on the constituent placed in initial position to carry out a formal and a discourse pragmatic analysis. The research is based on examples taken from online documents and samples fr...

Caballero Benito, Laura

7

Relative clause formation in King Alfred's translation of Gregory's Pastoral Care  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, relative clauses in King Alfred’s Old English translation of Gregory the Great’s Pastoral Care were examined using relative frequency as a tool to determine whether or not certain factors influenced the choice of relativization strategy. These factors include antecedent case, antecede...

Duff, Shawn

8

Rethinking the Acquisition of Relative Clauses in Italian: Towards a Grammatically Based Account  

Science.gov (United States)

In a number of studies, the acquisition of restrictive relative clauses (RCs) shows contrasting findings regarding comprehension and production, with the former usually delayed up to the age of five. As previously claimed in the literature, we suggest that this delay is a task artifact and we present a new procedure for the assessment of…

Adani, Flavia

2011-01-01

9

The Acquisition of English Restrictive Relative Clauses by Chinese, Japanese, and Korean Adult Native Speakers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined the comprehension of English restrictive relative clauses containing three universal factors (interruption, word order rearrangement, and parallel function) by Chinese, Japanese, and Korean students at American universities studying English as a Second Language. The findings support the dominance of language universals in the course of…

Sadighi, Firooz

1994-01-01

10

Meaning through syntax: language comprehension and the reduced relative clause construction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new explanation is proposed for a long standing question in psycholinguistics: Why are some reduced relative clauses so difficult to comprehend? It is proposed that the meanings of some verbs like race are incompatible with the meaning of the reduced relative clause and that this incompatibility makes sentences like The horse raced past the barn fell unacceptable. In support of their hypotheses, the authors show that reduced relatives of The horse raced past the barn fell type occur in naturally produced sentences with a near-zero probability, whereas reduced relatives with other verbs occur with a probability of about 1 in 20. The authors also support the hypotheses with a number of psycholinguistic experiments and corpus studies.

McKoon G; Ratcliff R

2003-07-01

11

MAPPING OBJECTS TO RELATIONAL DATABASE FOR OBJECT PERSISTENCE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Object to relational mapping is necessary because there is a mismatch between the object and relational database paradigm to achieve object persistence. Object to relational mapping is the process of transforming between object and relational modelling approaches and systems that support those approaches. This paper discusses the concept of mapping object to relational database and ORM (Object to Relational Mapping) frameworks.

P.PRABHU

2013-01-01

12

Multiple Object Tracking with Relations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Dealing with multi-object tracking raises several issues; an essential point is to model possible interactions between objects. Indeed, while reliable algorithms for tracking multiple non-interacting objects in constrained scenarios exist, tracking of multiple interacting objects in uncontrolled scenarios is still a challenge. The multiple-object tracking problem can be broken down into two subtasks: the detection of target objects, and the association between objects along time. Interaction between objects can yield erroneous associations that cause the interchange of object identities, therefore, the explicit recognition of the relationships between interacting objects in the scene can be useful to better detect the targets and understand their dynamics, making tracking more accurate. To make inference in relational domains we have developed an extension of particle filter, called relational particle filter, able to track simultaneously the objects in the domain and the evolution of their relationships. Experimental results show that our method can follow the targets’ path more closely than standard methods, being able to better predict their behaviours while decreasing the complexity of the tracking.

Manfredotti, Cristina Elena; cattelani, luca

2012-01-01

13

Relações retóricas estabelecidas por orações gerundiais adverbiais/ Rhetorical relations held by adverbial gerund clauses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho é propor critérios para identificação das relações implícitas estabelecidas por orações gerundiais adverbiais em um corpus formado por elocuções formais (aulas) e entrevistas. Para isso, tomam-se como fundamento teórico da pesquisa duas teorias funcionalistas, a Teoria da Estrutura Retórica do Texto (RST) e a Gramática Discursivo-Funcional (GDF). Na visão da RST, além do conteúdo explícito veiculado pelas orações de um texto, (more) há proposições implícitas que surgem das relações que se estabelecem entre partes do texto. Foram utilizados os parâmetros da GDF, factualidade, pressuposição, e as camadas dos níveis representacional e interpessoal em que ocorrem as orações para a identificação das relações retóricas estabelecidas pelas orações gerundiais adverbiais. Foram encontradas relações de meio, de resultado, de condição e de propósito, o que não significa que não se reconheça, neste trabalho, que outras relações como tempo (anterioridade, posterioridade, simultaneidade), concessão, causa, dentre outras, podem ser estabelecidas por orações gerundiais adverbiais. Os parâmetros da GDF demonstraram ser eficientes na identificação das relações. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to set up criteria to identify the implicit relations held by adverbial gerund clauses in formal speeches (university lectures) and oral interviews in Brazilian Portuguese. The theoretical framework consists of two functional linguistic theories: Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST) and Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG). According to RST, besides the explicit content conveyed by text sentences, there are implicit relations that connect text segments (more) . In this study, the identification of such relations was based on the FDG parameters of factuality and presupposition, and the layers of the representational and interpersonal levels. Means, result, condition, and purpose rhetorical relations were attested in the corpus. Other rhetorical relations such circumstance (anteriority, posteriority, simultaneity), concession, and cause may also be attested in further research. FDG parameters have shown to be efficient for the identification of rhetorical relations.

Antonio, Juliano Desiderato

2012-01-01

14

Visualizing abstract objects and relations  

CERN Multimedia

Pictorial representations are very useful for humans to understand complicated relations or structures. This is the reason that the user interface of information systems is strongly required to visualize many kinds of information in a wide variety of graphical forms. At present, however, only some very specialized visualization techniques have been developed probably because the generality in the visualization has not been appreciated correctly. This book presents a visualization framework for translating abstract objects and relations, typically represented in textual forms, into pictorial re

Kamada, Tomihisa

1989-01-01

15

As relativas que são fáceis na aquisição do português brasileiro The acquisition of relative clauses in Brazilian portuguese  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A aquisição das orações relativas por duas crianças brasileiras (entre os 2;0 e os 5;0 de idade) aprendendo o Português Brasileiro como primeira língua é discutida, com o objetivo de descrever e explicar as primeiras relativas produzidas pelos sujeitos de estudos naturalistas, observacionais, à luz da teoria da sintaxe gerativa. Os resultados mostram que ao redor dos 3;0: a) a criança começa a construir as relativas como modificadoras do N; b) as clivadas antecedem a aquisição das relativas, e c) as primeiras relativas ilustram a estratégia vernacular de relativização do Português Brasileiro já identificada por outros estudos com dados de adultos.The acquisition of Portuguese by two Brazilian children (aged 2;0 -5;0) is discussed in an attempt to describe and explain the first relative clauses produced in naturalistic, observational studies, according to the framework of generative syntax theory. The results show that at around 3;0: a) the child starts to deal with relative clauses as modifiers of N; b) cleft sentences appear before relative clauses, and c) the first relatives confirm the prevalence of the vernacular strategy of relativization in Brazilian Portuguese identified by other studies based on adult data.

Maria Cecília PERRONI

2001-01-01

16

Object relations in Harry Potter.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Good fiction helps children address their emotional dilemmas by evoking repressed content, and offering strategies and meaningful values that help them work towards resolutions. Because certain fundamental conflicts continue to be revisited and reworked throughout adulthood, it follows that masterful children's literature might enthrall adults as well. Given the extraordinary, worldwide success of the Harry Potter stories with both children and adults, it might be inferred that they, indeed, are among such literature. Common object relations themes, as well as other intrapsychic processes, are presented in such an imaginative and resonant way that the unconscious is readily engaged. The character of Harry Potter, specifically, embodies such universal (repressed) torments as the agony of destroying and losing the mother; the ominous perception of good and bad objects at war within the self; and the earnest reparative efforts offered to save the self from eternal separation from the beloved other.

Lake S

2003-01-01

17

Object relations in Harry Potter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Good fiction helps children address their emotional dilemmas by evoking repressed content, and offering strategies and meaningful values that help them work towards resolutions. Because certain fundamental conflicts continue to be revisited and reworked throughout adulthood, it follows that masterful children's literature might enthrall adults as well. Given the extraordinary, worldwide success of the Harry Potter stories with both children and adults, it might be inferred that they, indeed, are among such literature. Common object relations themes, as well as other intrapsychic processes, are presented in such an imaginative and resonant way that the unconscious is readily engaged. The character of Harry Potter, specifically, embodies such universal (repressed) torments as the agony of destroying and losing the mother; the ominous perception of good and bad objects at war within the self; and the earnest reparative efforts offered to save the self from eternal separation from the beloved other. PMID:14535615

Lake, Suzanne

2003-01-01

18

Representing objects, relations, and sequences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vector symbolic architectures (VSAs) are high-dimensional vector representations of objects (e.g., words, image parts), relations (e.g., sentence structures), and sequences for use with machine learning algorithms. They consist of a vector addition operator for representing a collection of unordered objects, a binding operator for associating groups of objects, and a methodology for encoding complex structures. We first develop constraints that machine learning imposes on VSAs; for example, similar structures must be represented by similar vectors. The constraints suggest that current VSAs should represent phrases ("The smart Brazilian girl") by binding sums of terms, in addition to simply binding the terms directly. We show that matrix multiplication can be used as the binding operator for a VSA, and that matrix elements can be chosen at random. A consequence for living systems is that binding is mathematically possible without the need to specify, in advance, precise neuron-to-neuron connection properties for large numbers of synapses. A VSA that incorporates these ideas, Matrix Binding of Additive Terms (MBAT), is described that satisfies all constraints. With respect to machine learning, for some types of problems appropriate VSA representations permit us to prove learnability rather than relying on simulations. We also propose dividing machine (and neural) learning and representation into three stages, with differing roles for learning in each stage. For neural modeling, we give representational reasons for nervous systems to have many recurrent connections, as well as for the importance of phrases in language processing. Sizing simulations and analyses suggest that VSAs in general, and MBAT in particular, are ready for real-world applications.

Gallant SI; Okaywe TW

2013-08-01

19

Bulk oil clauses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Institute Bulk Oil Clauses produced by the London market and the American SP-13c Clauses are examined in detail in this article. The duration and perils covered are discussed, and exclusions, adjustment clause 15 of the Institute Bulk Oil Clauses, Institute War Clauses (Cargo), and Institute Strikes Clauses (Bulk Oil) are outlined. (UK).

1993-01-01

20

Fundamentals of Object Databases Object-Oriented and Object-Relational Design  

CERN Multimedia

Object-oriented databases were originally developed as an alternative to relational database technology for the representation, storage, and access of non-traditional data forms that were increasingly found in advanced applications of database technology. After much debate regarding object-oriented versus relational database technology, object-oriented extensions were eventually incorporated into relational technology to create object-relational databases. Both object-oriented databases and object-relational databases, collectively known as object databases, provide inherent support for object

Dietrich, Suzanne

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

The complex clause in Boruca  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the complex clause in Boruca, a Chibchan language once spoken in the southern territories on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The present study concentrates on the behavior of complex clauses, following a major distinction between paratactic and hypotactic constructions. Paratactic constructions are divided into asyndetic and syndetic constructions. The latter are quite frequent and it is common to find the syndetons: mang, ní, ihchí and iné in the combination of sentences in regular speech. Hypotactic constructions also have asyndetic and syndetic constructions usually functioning as object complements. There is also evidence for reported speech, indirect questions and adverbial clauses (classified at least into seven different types).

Castro Damaris

2010-01-01

22

Sexual decision making and object relations theory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Sexual Decision-Making Inventory (SDMI) was developed to measure levels of sexual decision making based on the developmental concepts of Object Relations Theory. The inventory asks subjects to report on their thoughts and feelings at the time they decided to have sex in their most recent sexual relationship. The inventory was tested in a pilot study involving 45 male and 49 female undergraduates. A factor analysis was performed on the SDMI and six levels of sexual decision making were defined: Object Constancy, Ambivalence, Need for Merger, Need Gratification, Low Self-esteem, and Narcissistic Gratification. Endorsement of items on these subscales was related to perceptions of the relationship. In a second study involving 79 male and 135 female undergraduates, subjects completed the SDMI, the Bell Object Relations Self-report Inventory, and a questionnaire concerning perceptions of the relationship in which the sexual decision was made. Object Constancy was positively correlated to object relations, satisfaction with the relationship, and durability of the relationship; Ambivalence, Need Gratification, and Low Self-esteem were negatively correlated with object relations, satisfaction with the relationship, and durability of the relationship; Narcissistic Gratification was negatively correlated with object relations and most aspects of the relationship with interesting exceptions such as sexual satisfaction. Sex differences demonstrated that females were more likely to endorse items on the Object Constancy subscale; whereas males were more likely to endorse items on the Ambivalence, Need Gratification, and Narcissistic Gratification subscales. There were no sex differences, however, in quality of general object relations.

Randolph BJ; Winstead B

1988-10-01

23

WH-extractions and relative clauses in Brazilian Portuguese Extrações-WH e orações relativas no português brasileiro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to describe and explain WH-extraction patterns out of island contexts in Brazilian Portuguese (BP), by means of the principles established by Generative Theory. I claim that BP uses a strategy for the extraction of subjects which involves a special case of Agreement. Extractions out of relative islands are possible when the extracted WH-phrase ends up in the specifier position of the higher CP and from there it behaves as the subject of the predication. The subject-predicate relationship established under agreement makes Comp a proper governor for traces in subject position under its scope. The analysis proposed makes a distinction between two processes of relative clause formation. One in which que is an operator that transforms sentences into predicates and sits in the Comp position of a CP whose specifier can be occupied by a QP functioning as the subject of the predication. The other, in which que is a WH-word, traditionally treated as a pronoun, occupying the specifier position of a QP and introducing relative clauses as we know them.Este artigo tem por objetivo descrever e buscar uma explicação para o comportamento de extrações de sintagmas QU-- do português brasileiro (PB) para fora de contextos que ficaram conhecidos pelo nome de ilhas, utilizando os princípios da Teoria Gerativa que explicam as propriedades dessas construções nesta e em outras línguas. Argumenta-se que o PB utiliza uma versão da estratégia de concordância em CP, estabelecida por meio de uma relação de predicação, para a extração de sintagmas QU-- a partir da posição de sujeito. A análise proposta para essas extrações evidenciou a existência de dois processos sintáticos diferenciados na construção das orações relativas. Um em que que é um operador que transforma sentenças em predicados, ocupa a posição de núcleo de CP em cujo especificador pode-se encontrar o sintagma que funciona como sujeito da predicação. Outro em que que é um elemento QU--, o que tradicionalmente poderia ser caracterizado como um pronome, que ocupa a posição de especificador de um sintagma quantificado, e introduz as relativas tal como tradicionalmente descritas.

Esmeralda Vailati NEGRÃO

2000-01-01

24

78 FR 48407 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Quality Assurance...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Clauses With Alternates--Quality Assurance (DFARS Case 2013-D004) AGENCY...prescription for each set of quality assurance-related provisions/clauses...overarching prescription for the quality assurance clause with two...

2013-08-08

25

Relating microbiological criteria to food safety objectives and performance objectives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microbiological criteria, food safety objectives and performance objectives, and the relationship between them are discussed and described in the context of risk-based food safety management. A modified method to quantify the sensitivity of attributes sampling plans is presented to show how sampling...

Schothorst, M., van; Zwietering, M.H.; Ross, T.; Buchanan, R.L.; Cole, M.B.

26

Sulphur condensation influence in Claus catalyst performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Claus process is an efficient way of removing H(2)S from acid gas streams and this is widely practised in industries such as natural gas processing, oil refining and metal smelting. Increasingly strict pollution control regulations require maximum sulphur recovery from the Claus unit in order to minimise sulphur-containing effluent. The most widely used Claus catalyst in sulphur recovery units is non-promoted spherical activated alumina. Properties associated with optimum non-promoted Claus catalyst performance include high surface area, appropriate pore size distribution and enhanced physical properties. The objective of this paper is to outline a procedure in order to estimate Claus catalyst effectiveness after pore plugging due to sulphur condensation. Catalyst deactivation due to pore plugging by sulphur is modelled employing a Bethe lattice and its corresponding performance is described by means of a modified effectiveness factor. Model results show an improvement in the modified effectiveness factor due to modifications in catalyst porous structure.

Mora RL

2000-12-01

27

REBOL: Relative Expression-Based Object Language  

Science.gov (United States)

REBOL, the Relative Expression-Based Object Language, is a fascinating new scripting language developed at REBOL Technologies by Carl Sassenrath, the architect of the Amiga operating system. REBOL is intended to be used for Internet programming and, among its many features, it contains very easy-to-use networking capabilities. An example is this tiny line of REBOL code which retrieves a web page and emails it to a (fictitious) email address: "send fred@cs.wisc.edu read

Sassenrath, Carl.

28

Covered Clause Elimination  

CERN Multimedia

Generalizing the novel clause elimination procedures developed in [M. Heule, M. J\\"arvisalo, and A. Biere. Clause elimination procedures for CNF formulas. In Proc. LPAR-17, volume 6397 of LNCS, pages 357-371. Springer, 2010.], we introduce explicit (CCE), hidden (HCCE), and asymmetric (ACCE) variants of a procedure that eliminates covered clauses from CNF formulas. We show that these procedures are more effective in reducing CNF formulas than the respective variants of blocked clause elimination, and may hence be interesting as new preprocessing/simplification techniques for SAT solving.

Heule, Marijn; Biere, Armin

2010-01-01

29

Two types of Temporal when clauses in Hausa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hausa has simple temporal clauses, introduced by the conjunction dà ‘when', that many researchers derive from temporal relative clauses introduced by lookàcin dà ‘time that', through the deletion of the pseudo head word lookàcii ‘time'. This paper shows that this analysis, however natural it may app...

Abdoulaye, Mahamane L.

30

Development of Information Technology of Object-relational Databases Design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article is concerned with the development of information technology of object-relational databases design and study of object features infological and logical database schemes entities and connections.

Valentyn A. Filatov; Elena B. Chaplanova

2012-01-01

31

Identifying extended entity-relationship object structures in relational schemas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the main goals of database design is to capture the structural semantics of information systems. This goal can be achieved by using an object-oriented data model for specifying the structure of an information system in terms of objects and object connections, and then translating such a specification into a relational database definition (schema). In previous papers the authors have investigated the problem of representing object structures using relational constructs in the context of an extended entity-relationship (EER) model. In this paper they address the reverse problem, namely of identifying EER object structures in relational schemas. They consider relational schemas consisting of relation-schemes, key dependencies, and key-based inclusion dependencies (referential integrity constraints). Schemas of this form are said to be EER-convertible if they can be associated with an EER schema. A procedure that determines whether a relational schema is EER-convertible if they can be associated with an EER schema. A procedure that determines whether a relational schema is EER-convertible is developed. They propose a normal form for relational schemas representing EER object structures. For EER-convertible relational schemas they present the corresponding normalization procedure. The procedures presented in this paper can be used for analyzing the semantics of existing relational databases, and for converting relational database schemas into object-oriented database schemas.

Markowitz, V.M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science Research); Makowsky, J.A. (Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel). Dept. of Computer Science)

1990-08-01

32

Expression of cause, evidence, justify and motivation rhetorical relations by causal hypotactic clauses in Brazilian Portuguese=Expressão das relações retóricas de causa, evidência, justificativa e motivação por meio de orações hipotáticas adverbiais causais no português brasileiro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims at investigating the expression of cause, evidence, justify and motivation rhetorical relations by means of causal hypotactic clauses in formal oral discourse (university lectures and interviews with academic researchers) in Brazilian Portuguese. The investigation is based on Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST), a theory of text organization which describes the implicit relations that arise from the combination of parts of texts. The identification of these relations was based on a parameter from Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG): layers of representational and interpersonal levels. From interpersonal level, layers move and discourse act were used. From representational level, layers propositional content and states of affairs were employed. Non-volitional cause relations are established by clauses conveying states of affairs, volitional cause relation is established by clauses conveying propositional contents. Justify relation and evidence relation are established by clauses conveying discourse acts (in evidence relation an instance of what was stated in the nucleus portion is provided in the satellite portion). Finally, motivation relation is established by clauses conveying a motivation subsidiary discourse act.O objetivo deste trabalho é investigar a expressão das relações retóricas de causa, evidência, justificativa e motivação por meio de orações hipotáticas adverbiais causais em elocuções formais (aulas) e entrevistas no português brasileiro. A investigação se baseia na Teoria da Estrutura Retórica do Texto (RST), uma teoria da organização textual que descreve as relações implícitas que surgem da combinação de partes do texto. A identificação dessas relações se baseou em parâmetros da Gramática Discursivo-Funcional (GDF): camadas dos níveis representacional e interpessoal. Do nível interpessoal, utilizaram-se as camadas movimento e ato discursivo. Do nível representacional utilizaram-se as camadas estados-de-coisas e conteúdo proposicional. A relação de causa não-volitiva é estabelecida por orações contendo estados-de-coisas, a relação de causa volitiva é estabelecida por orações contendo conteúdos proposicionais, as relações de evidência e de justificativa são estabelecias por orações contendo atos discursivos (na relação de evidência, um exemplo do que foi dito na porção nuclear é apresentado na porção satélite). Finalmente, a relação de motivação é estabelecida por orações contendo um ato discursivo subsidiário.

Juliano Desiderato Antonio

2012-01-01

33

Action relations facilitate the identification of briefly-presented objects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The link between perception and action allows us to interact fluently with the world. Objects which 'afford' an action elicit a visuomotor response, facilitating compatible responses. In addition, positioning objects to interact with one another appears to facilitate grouping, indicated by patients with extinction being better able to identify interacting objects (e.g. a corkscrew going towards the top of a wine bottle) than the same objects when positioned incorrectly for action (Riddoch, Humphreys, Edwards, Baker, & Willson, Nature Neuroscience, 6, 82-89, 2003). Here, we investigate the effect of action relations on the perception of normal participants. We found improved identification of briefly-presented objects when in correct versus incorrect co-locations for action. For the object that would be 'active' in the interaction (the corkscrew), this improvement was enhanced when it was oriented for use by the viewer's dominant hand. In contrast, the position-related benefit for the 'passive' object was stronger when the objects formed an action-related pair (corkscrew and bottle) compared with an unrelated pair (corkscrew and candle), and it was reduced when spatial cues disrupted grouping between the objects. We propose that these results indicate two separate effects of action relations on normal perception: a visuomotor response to objects which strongly afford an action; and a grouping effect between objects which form action-related pairs.

Roberts KL; Humphreys GW

2011-02-01

34

Effects of action relations on the configural coding between objects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Configural coding is known to take place between the parts of individual objects but has never been shown between separate objects. We provide novel evidence here for configural coding between separate objects through a study of the effects of action relations between objects on extinction. Patients showing visual extinction were presented with pairs of objects that were or were not co-located for action. We first confirmed the reduced extinction effect for objects co-located for action. Consistent with prior results showing that inversion disrupts configural coding, we found that inversion disrupted the benefit for action-related object pairs. This occurred both for objects with a standard canonical orientation (e.g., teapot and teacup) and those without, but where grasping and using the objects was made more difficult by inversion (e.g., spanner and nut). The data suggest that part of the affordance effect may reflect a visuo-motor response to the configural relations between stimuli. Experiment 2 showed that distorting the relative sizes of the objects also reduced the advantage for action-related pairs. We conclude that action-related pairs are processed as configurations. PMID:21463088

Riddoch, M J; Pippard, B; Booth, L; Rickell, J; Summers, J; Brownson, A; Humphreys, G W

2011-04-01

35

Effects of action relations on the configural coding between objects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Configural coding is known to take place between the parts of individual objects but has never been shown between separate objects. We provide novel evidence here for configural coding between separate objects through a study of the effects of action relations between objects on extinction. Patients showing visual extinction were presented with pairs of objects that were or were not co-located for action. We first confirmed the reduced extinction effect for objects co-located for action. Consistent with prior results showing that inversion disrupts configural coding, we found that inversion disrupted the benefit for action-related object pairs. This occurred both for objects with a standard canonical orientation (e.g., teapot and teacup) and those without, but where grasping and using the objects was made more difficult by inversion (e.g., spanner and nut). The data suggest that part of the affordance effect may reflect a visuo-motor response to the configural relations between stimuli. Experiment 2 showed that distorting the relative sizes of the objects also reduced the advantage for action-related pairs. We conclude that action-related pairs are processed as configurations.

Riddoch MJ; Pippard B; Booth L; Rickell J; Summers J; Brownson A; Humphreys GW

2011-04-01

36

O-ODM Framework for Object-Relational Databases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Object-Relational Databases introduce new features which allow manipulating objects in databases. At present, many DBMS offer resources to manipulate objects in database, but most application developers just map class to relations tables, failing to exploit the O-R model strength. The lack of tools that aid the database project contributes to this situation. This work presents O-ODM (Object-Object Database Mapping), a persistent framework that maps objects from OO applications to database objects. Persistent Frameworks have been used to aid developers, managing all access to DBMS. This kind of tool allows developers to persist objects without solid knowledge about DBMSs and specific languages, improving the developers’ productivity, mainly when a different DBMS is used. The results of some experiments using O-ODM are shown.

Carlos Alberto Rombaldo Jr; Solange N. Alves Souza; Luiz Sergio de Souza

2012-01-01

37

Subordinate clauses in Karajá  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Karajá, a Macro-Jê language spoken in Central Brazil, presents a typologically uncommon device to signal relativization: stress shift. Despite its productivity, such mechanism is not mentioned in any of the previous descriptive or theoretical works dealing with Karajá grammar. In describing relativization (and subordination in general) in Karajá, this paper presents an overview of the language's grammar, including the semantic properties of postpositions (which play an essencial role in the creation of adverbial clauses, including converbs), lexical nominalization, and inflectional morphology.

Eduardo Rivail Ribeiro

2006-01-01

38

Moral Objectivity, Jurgen Habermas's Discourse Ethics, and Public Relations.  

Science.gov (United States)

States that while increasing attention is being paid by people in public relations to ethical theory, the predominant ethical perspective is still situational. Analyzes the applicability of the Discourse Ethics theory of Jurgen Habermas to public relations ethics. Concludes that Discourse Ethics holds the potential of a new, more objective…

Leeper, Roy V.

1996-01-01

39

Action-related objects influence the distribution of visuospatial attention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous studies have shown that attention is drawn to the location of manipulable objects and is distributed across pairs of objects that are positioned for action. Here, we investigate whether central, action-related objects can cue attention to peripheral targets. Experiment 1 compared the effect of uninformative arrow and object cues on a letter discrimination task. Arrow cues led to spatial-cueing benefits across a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs: 0 ms, 120 ms, 400 ms), but object-cueing benefits were slow to build and were only significant at the 400-ms SOA. Similar results were found in Experiment 2, in which the targets were objects that could be either congruent or incongruent with the cue (e.g., screwdriver and screw versus screwdriver and glass). Cueing benefits were not influenced by the congruence between the cue and target, suggesting that the cueing effects reflected the action implied by the central object, not the interaction between the objects. For Experiment 3 participants decided whether the cue and target objects were related. Here, the interaction between congruent (but not incongruent) targets led to significant cueing/positioning benefits at all three SOAs. Reduced cueing benefits were obtained in all three experiments when the object cue did not portray a legitimate action (e.g., a bottle pointing towards an upper location, since a bottle cannot pour upwards), suggesting that it is the perceived action that is critical, rather than the structural properties of individual objects. The data suggest that affordance for action modulates the allocation of visual attention.

Roberts KL; Humphreys GW

2011-04-01

40

Action-related objects influence the distribution of visuospatial attention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies have shown that attention is drawn to the location of manipulable objects and is distributed across pairs of objects that are positioned for action. Here, we investigate whether central, action-related objects can cue attention to peripheral targets. Experiment 1 compared the effect of uninformative arrow and object cues on a letter discrimination task. Arrow cues led to spatial-cueing benefits across a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs: 0 ms, 120 ms, 400 ms), but object-cueing benefits were slow to build and were only significant at the 400-ms SOA. Similar results were found in Experiment 2, in which the targets were objects that could be either congruent or incongruent with the cue (e.g., screwdriver and screw versus screwdriver and glass). Cueing benefits were not influenced by the congruence between the cue and target, suggesting that the cueing effects reflected the action implied by the central object, not the interaction between the objects. For Experiment 3 participants decided whether the cue and target objects were related. Here, the interaction between congruent (but not incongruent) targets led to significant cueing/positioning benefits at all three SOAs. Reduced cueing benefits were obtained in all three experiments when the object cue did not portray a legitimate action (e.g., a bottle pointing towards an upper location, since a bottle cannot pour upwards), suggesting that it is the perceived action that is critical, rather than the structural properties of individual objects. The data suggest that affordance for action modulates the allocation of visual attention. PMID:21113857

Roberts, Katherine L; Humphreys, Glyn W

2010-11-26

 
 
 
 
41

Background connection, a necessary object in general relativity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown that in Einstein's theory of gravity (ETG), an important geometrical object has been lost while introducing the concept of the energy pseudotensor of the gravitational field. This object found at present is the affine connection, on whose background the gravitational field should be considered. That loss made the ETG contradictory to Einstejn's general principle of relativity. To remove the contradiction, it suffices to introduce a primitive affine connection. However, nothing prevents us from considering the background object being not primitive but an arbitrary affine connection without torsion. Under this condition we may rather easily vary both the gravitational field gab and the affine connection independent of gab. Owing to restoration of the lost object, the ETG becomes a perfectly geometrical theory in which all physical objects are geometrical ones. 8 refs.

1988-01-01

42

Iterative Specialisation of Horn Clauses  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We present a generic algorithm for solving Horn clauses through iterative specialisation. The algorithm is generic in the sense that it can be instantiated with any decidable fragment of Horn clauses, resulting in a solution scheme for general Horn clauses that guarantees soundness and termination, and furthermore, it presents sufficient criteria for completeness. We then demonstrate the use of the framework, by creating an instance of it, based on the decidable class ${\\mathcal{H}_1}$, capable of solving a non-trivial protocol analysis problem based on the Yahalom protocol.

Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Nielson, Flemming

2008-01-01

43

Modeling Spatial Data within Object Relational-Databases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spatial data can refer to elements that help place a certain object in a certain area. These elements are latitude, longitude, points, geometric figures represented by points, etc. However, when translating these elements into data that can be stored in a computer, it all comes down to numbers. The interesting part that requires attention is how to memorize them in order to obtain fast and various spatial queries. This part is where the DBMS (Data Base Management System) that contains the database acts in. In this paper, we analyzed and compared two object-relational DBMS that work with spatial data: Oracle and PostgreSQL.

Iuliana BOTHA; Anda VELICANU; Adela BARA

2011-01-01

44

Termination for Convenience Clauses and Good Faith  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article considers the legal validity of so-called termination for convenience clauses, which allow at least one party to the contract to terminate the contract without cause. Such rights are in contrast to more traditional approaches to contractual termination, which distinguished between breaches of condition and breaches of warranty, allowing termination only for the former. Specifically, it will be asked whether such termination for convenience clauses are consistent with requirements of good faith in contracting, the existence of which is itself contentious. As a result, it will be necessary to consider the current state of the law in Australia and elsewhere in relation to the extent to which good faith is and should be a feature of contracting.

Anthony Gray

2012-01-01

45

Database Independent Migration of Objects into an Object-Relational Database  

CERN Multimedia

CERN's (European Organization for Nuclear Research) WISDOM project [1] deals with the replication of data between homogeneous sources in a Wide Area Network (WAN) using the extensible Markup Language (XML). The last phase of the WISDOM (Wide-area, database Independent Serialization of Distributed Objects for data Migration) project [2], indicates the future directions for this work to be to incorporate heterogeneous sources as compared to homogeneous sources as described by [3]. This work will become essential for the CERN community once the need to transfer their legacy data to some other source, other then Objectivity [4], arises. Oracle 9i - an Object-Relational Database (including support for abstract data types, ADTs) appears to be a potential candidate for the physics event store in the CERN CMS experiment as suggested by [4] & [5]. Consequently this database has been selected for study. As a result of this work the HEP community will get a tool for migrating their data from Objectivity to Oracle9i.

Ali, A; Munir, K; Waseem-Hassan, M; Willers, I

2002-01-01

46

Migration from Relational Database into Object Oriented Database  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Object-Oriented Technology is an important discipline in the field of software engineering in general and it is, therefore, natural to ask whether it is relevant to the field of database management in particular and what that relevance is. There is, however, no consensus on answer to these questions. Some authorities believe that object oriented database systems will take over the world replacing relational system whereas others believe that they are suited only to certain very specific problems and will never capture more than a small fraction of the overall market. Object-Oriented technology represents real world very well, focusing on data rather than procedure and gives more security to data. Also, it is safe from unauthorized use of data because it provides three access specifiers viz. private, public and protected and strictly provides security to data in database. This technology also provides function as well as data together so that the data can be manipulated by the given function. In this paper, we show that how the data is more secure in object-oriented database than in relational database and also why do we migrate from RDBMS into OODBMS.

Mansaf Alam; S. K. Wason

2006-01-01

47

Fundamentals for the Automation of Object-Relational Database Design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the market there is a wide amount of CASE tools for the design of relational databases. Object-relational database management system (ORDBMS) emerged at the end of the 90s to incorporate the object technology into the relational databases, allowing the treatment of more complex data and relationships than its predecessor. The design for this database model is not straightforward. Most of the works proposed in the literature fail because they do not provide consistent transformation formalization such that the mappings from the conceptual model to the logical schema can be automated to generate an ORDB design toolkit. This is one of the goals of this paper. For this purpose, UML class diagram metamodel for the conceptual design and SQL:2003 standard metamodel for logical schemas are considered. A characterization of the components involved in the ORDB design is made in order to propose mapping rules that can be further automated. The architecture of a CASE tool prototype is presented. Model Driven Architecture for software design and XML for the model definitions and transformations are employed.

Maria Fernanda Golobisky; Aldo Vecchietti

2011-01-01

48

infrared spectra of T Tau stars and related objects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Four T Tau stars and related objects (RY Tau, T Tau, AB Aur and V1057 Cyg) have been included in the authors' spectroscopic programme since 1973. The present paper is concerned with the spectroscopic observations made at the Crimea with the single stage image tube S1. Tentative atomic line identifications are given for programme stars. Ca II and O I emission line equivalent widths and profiles are presented for RY Tau, T Tau and AB Aur. The lambda 10830 A line of neutral helium has shown P Cyg-type features for T Tau and V 1057 Cyg. (Auth.)

1974-07-29

49

Object-Relational Database Representations for Text Indexing  

CERN Multimedia

One of the distinctive features of Information Retrieval systems comparing to Database Management systems, is that they offer better compression for posting lists, resulting in better I/O performance and thus faster query evaluation. In this paper, we introduce database representations of the index that reduce the size (and thus the disk I/Os) of the posting lists. This is not achieved by redesigning the DBMS, but by exploiting the non 1NF features that existing Object-Relational DBM systems (ORDBMS) already offer. Specifically, four different database representations are described and detailed experimental results for one million pages are reported. Three of these representations are one order of magnitude more space efficient and faster (in query evaluation) than the plain relational representation.

Papadakos, Panagiotis; Marketakis, Yannis; Armenatzoglou, Nikos; Tzitzikas, Yannis

2009-01-01

50

Automating the Collection of Object Relational Database Metrics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The quality of software systems is the most important factor to consider when designing and using these systems. The quality of the database or the database management system is particularly important as it is the backbone for all types of systems that it holds their data. Many researches argued that software with high quality will lead to an effective and secure system. Software quality can be assessed by using software measurements or metrics. Typically, metrics have several problems such as: having no specific standards, sometimes they are hard to measure, while at the same time they are time and resource consuming. Metrics need also to be continuously updated. A possible solution to some of those problems is to automate the process of gathering and assessing those metrics. In this research the metrics that evaluate the complexity of Object Oriented Relational Database (ORDB) are composed of the object oriented metrics and relational database metrics. This research is based on common theoretical calculations and formulations of ORDB metrics proposed by database experts. A tool is developed that takes the ORDB schema as an input and then collects several database structural metrics. Based on those proposed and gathered metrics, a study is conducted and showed that such metrics’ assessment can be very useful in assessing the database complexity.

Samer M. Suleiman; Qasem A. Al-Radaideh; Bilal A. Abulhuda; Izzat M. AlSmadi

2011-01-01

51

48 CFR 503.1004 - Contract clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...SERVICES ADMINISTRATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 503.1004 Contract clauses. (a) The FAR threshold for the clause at 52.203-14,...

2010-10-01

52

48 CFR 3.1004 - Contract clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 3.1004 Contract clauses. ...the clause at FAR 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct, in solicitations and contracts...

2010-10-01

53

48 CFR 203.1004 - Contract clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 203.1004 Contract clauses. ...include the FAR clause 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct. (b)(2)(ii) Insert...

2010-10-01

54

Color-Inclination Relation of the Classical Kuiper Belt Objects  

CERN Multimedia

We re-examine the correlation between the colors and the inclinations of the Classical Kuiper Belt Objects (CKBOs) with an enlarged sample of optical measurements. The correlation is strong (rho=-0.7) and highly significant (>8 sigma) in the range 0-34 deg. Nonetheless, the optical colors are independent of inclination below ~12 deg, showing no evidence for a break at the reported boundary between the so-called dynamically "hot" and "cold" populations near ~5 deg. The commonly accepted parity between the dynamically cold CKBOs and the red CKBOs is observationally unsubstantiated, since the group of red CKBOs extends to higher inclinations. Our data suggest, however, the existence of a different color break. We find that the functional form of the color-inclination relation is most satisfactorily described by a non-linear and stepwise behavior with a color break at ~12 deg. Objects with inclinations >12 deg show bluish colors which are either weakly correlated with inclination or are simply homogeneously blue,...

Peixinho, Nuno; Jewitt, David

2008-01-01

55

Study of Object Substitution Masking Using Event-related Potential  

Science.gov (United States)

We make use of especially visual information though we are using a lot of information among modality in daily life. However, there is a difference between the real world and the perception of visual world. For instance, conscious perception of a briefly presented target can be reduced by a subsequent dot mask that does not touch it. However, the theory of this phenomenon, called Object Substitution Masking (OSM), is not clear. We investigated this issue by examining the effect of OSM on the N170 component of the event-related potential (ERP). As expected, subsequent dot mask significantly reduced accuracy in identifying the target. The N170 amplitude of P4 was also diminished by OSM. It was suggested that OSM is concerned in right posterior parietal cortex.

Nuruki, Atsuo; Yamada, Masafumi; Kawabata, Takuro; Shimozono, Tomoyuki; Yunokuchi, Kazutomo

56

Lean clause-sets: Generalizations of minimally unsatisfiable clause-sets  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We study the problem of (efficiently) deleting such clauses fromconjunctive normal forms (clause-sets) which can not contribute toany proof of unsatisfiability. For that purpose we introduce the notionof an autarky system, associated with a canonical normal formfor every clause-set by deleting superfluous clauses. Clause-sets whereno clauses can be deleted are called lean, a natural generalization ofminimally unsatisfiable clause-sets, opening the possibility for combinatorialapproaches (and including also satisfiable instances). Threespecial examples for autarky systems are considered: general autarkies,linear autarkies (based on linear programming) and matching autarkies(based on matching theory). We give new characterizations of lean andlinearly lean clause-sets by "universal linear programming problems,"while matching lean clause-sets are characterized in terms of "deficiency," the difference between the number of clauses and the numberof variables, and ...

Oliver Kullmann

57

La influencia del contexto referencial en la resolución de ambigüedades oración completiva/oración de relativo: Evidencia en español/ The influence of referential context in solving ambiguities in complete sentences/relative clause: Evidence from Spanish  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El presente trabajo analiza la resolución de ambigüedades sintácticas en español. De manera más específica, compara el procesamiento de oraciones con ambigüedad estructural (parsing) entre oración de relativo y oración completiva, con y sin contexto referencial, utilizando una metodología de tiempos de lectura autoadministrada. El objetivo era comprobar si los resultados encontrados en lectores de habla inglesa se obtenían también en español. Los tiempos de l (more) ectura para las frases que contenían tanto oraciones completivas como oraciones de relativo fueron significativamente menores cuando iban precedidas de un contexto referencial. Estos resultados aportan evidencia congruente con los modelos referenciales (Crain & Steedman, 1985; Altmann & Steedman, 1988), que apuestan por un procesamiento basado en el uso de múltiples fuentes de información a la hora de resolver ambigüedades, y no solo en información de tipo estructural, tal y como sugieren los modelos modulares (Frazier, 1987; Mitchell, 1994; Mitchell, Cuetos, Corley & Brysbaert, 1995; Cuetos, Mitchell & Corley, 1996; Frazier & Clifton, 1996; Carreiras & Meseguer, 1999). Abstract in english This paper analyzes the resolution of syntactic ambiguities in Spanish. Specifically, it compares the processing of sentences with structural ambiguity between relative clause and complete sentences, with and without referential context, using different methods of self-administered reading times. The aim was to check whether the results found in English-speaking readers is also obtained in Spanish. The reading times for sentences containing both complete sentences and rel (more) ative clauses were significantly smaller when they were preceded by a referential context. These results provide evidence consistent with referential models (Crain & Steedman, 1985; Altmann & Steedman, 1988) supporting a process based on the use of multiple sources of information when solving ambiguities, and not just on structural information as suggested by modular models (Frazier, 1987; Mitchell, 1994; Mitchell, Cuetos, Corley & Brysbaert, 1995; Cuetos, Mitchell & Corley, 1996; Frazier & Clifton, 1996; Carreiras & Meseguer, 1999).

Alonso, Laura; Antonio León, José

2011-12-01

58

SPECIAL SECTION: A Labor View on the Social Clause  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article argues for the need for a social clause in the last General Agreement on Tarrifs and Trade (GATT) treaty. Experts assert that social clauses and related sanctions cannot effectively compel the enforcement of labor laws. Also, there exists a contention that workers’ rights could become the basis for putting up unjust barriers to world trade. In spite of these, the paper insists that a social clause is necessary to ensure the protection of fundamental laborers’ rights in GATT member-countries. It condemns the governments and employers that seek the elimination of the social clause, decrying their complicity in the exploitation of laborers and the rejection of trade union rights in order to gain an unfair advantage over countries that are more conscientious about the needs of their workers. It chastises the Philippine government for implicitly siding with these governments, despite its averred advocacy of workers’ rights. It seeks an appreciation of the assertion that providing laborers with a means to combat abuses against their basic rights is in line with the development of a level playing field in international trade. While a social clause may not be a priority at present, there is hope that there will be deliberations about it in future trade agreements.

Cedric R. Bagtas

2009-01-01

59

Relationship between object-related gestures and the fractionated object knowledge system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The praxic semantic system comprises a conceptual knowledge system, which stores functional information about objects, and an action knowledge system, which stores information about the correct manipulation of objects. Moreover, mechanical problem solving abilities permit to take advantages from objects structure to use unfamiliar tools or discover alternative ways of using familiar tools. This study aims at investigating whether conceptual knowledge, action knowledge and mechanical problem solving abilities intervene in the production of gestures with objects (i.e. pantomimes and object use) by testing a group of brain damaged patients. Results showed that the mechanical problem solving abilities are not sufficient to produce pantomimes and that only severe deficits in the praxic semantic system would affect the production of these gestures. Furthermore, a double dissociation was observed between mechanical problem solving abilities and the capacity to use multiple objects. Overall, the results indicate that the praxic semantic system can be disrupted at different levels, suggesting that the semantic system for object has to be conceived as fractionated in different entities.

Bartolo A; Daumüller M; Sala SD; Goldenberg G

2007-01-01

60

Relationship between object-related gestures and the fractionated object knowledge system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The praxic semantic system comprises a conceptual knowledge system, which stores functional information about objects, and an action knowledge system, which stores information about the correct manipulation of objects. Moreover, mechanical problem solving abilities permit to take advantages from objects structure to use unfamiliar tools or discover alternative ways of using familiar tools. This study aims at investigating whether conceptual knowledge, action knowledge and mechanical problem solving abilities intervene in the production of gestures with objects (i.e. pantomimes and object use) by testing a group of brain damaged patients. Results showed that the mechanical problem solving abilities are not sufficient to produce pantomimes and that only severe deficits in the praxic semantic system would affect the production of these gestures. Furthermore, a double dissociation was observed between mechanical problem solving abilities and the capacity to use multiple objects. Overall, the results indicate that the praxic semantic system can be disrupted at different levels, suggesting that the semantic system for object has to be conceived as fractionated in different entities. PMID:17726242

Bartolo, Angela; Daumüller, Meike; Sala, Sergio Della; Goldenberg, Georg

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Relation between object properties and EMG during reaching to grasp.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In order to stably grasp an object with an artificial hand, a priori knowledge of the object's properties is a major advantage, especially to ensure subsequent manipulation of the object held by the hand. This is also true for hand prostheses: pre-shaping of the hand while approaching the object, similar to able-bodied, allows the wearer for a much faster and more intuitive way of handling and grasping an object. For hand prostheses, it would be advantageous to obtain this information about object properties from a surface electromyography (sEMG) signal, which is already present and used to control the active prosthetic hand. We describe experiments in which human subjects grasp different objects at different positions while their muscular activity is recorded through eight sEMG electrodes placed on the forearm. Results show that sEMG data, gathered before the hand is in contact with the object, can be used to obtain relevant information on object properties such as size and weight.

Fligge N; Urbanek H; van der Smagt P

2013-04-01

62

Clause Boundary Identification using Classifier and Clause Markers in Urdu Language  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english This paper presents the identification of clause boundary for the Urdu language. We have used Conditional Random Field as the classification method and the clause markers. The clause markers play the role to detect the type of subordinate clause, which is with or within the main clause. If there is any misclassification after testing with different sentences then more rules are identified to get high recall and precision. Obtained results show that this approach efficiently determines the type of sub-ordinate clause and its boundary.

Parveen, Daraksha; Sanyal, Ratna; Ansari, Afreen

2011-06-01

63

Relating Things and Stuff via Object Property Interactions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the last few years, substantially different approaches have been adopted for segmenting and detecting "things" (object categories that have a well defined shape such as people and cars) and "stuff" (object categories which have an amorphous spatial extent such as grass and sky). While things have been typically detected by sliding window or Hough transform based methods, detection of stuff is generally formulated as a pixel or segment-wise classification problem. This paper proposes a framework for scene understanding that models both things and stuff using a common representation while preserving their distinct nature by using a property list. This representation allows us to enforce sophisticated geometric and semantic relationships between thing and stuff categories via property interactions in a single graphical model. We use the latest advances made in the field of discrete optimization to efficiently perform maximum a posteriori (MAP) inference in this model. We evaluate our method on the Stanford dataset by comparing it against state-of-the-art methods for object segmentation and detection. We also show that our method achieves competitive performances on the challenging PASCAL'09 segmentation dataset.

Sun M; Kim BS; Kohli P; Savarese S

2013-10-01

64

Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the safeguard clause notified by Greece on genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Following a request of the European Commission, the European Food Safety Authority’s Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (EFSA GMO Panel) evaluated the documentation submitted by Greece in support of its request for the prohibition of the placing on the market of the genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC. The EFSA GMO Panel notes that the majority of the publications referred to by Greece were already addressed by the EFSA GMO Panel in previous scientific outputs on maize MON 810 or other related insect-resistant genetically modified maize transformation events. In the remaining evidence provided by Greece, the EFSA GMO Panel could not identify any new data subject to scientific scrutiny or scientific information that would invalidate its previous risk assessments of maize MON 810. With regard to issues related to management and monitoring of maize MON 810, the EFSA GMO Panel refers to its recent recommendations for management and monitoring measures of maize MON 810. In conclusion, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that, based on the documentation submitted by Greece, there is no specific scientific evidence, in terms of risk to human and animal health or the environment, that would support the notification of a safeguard clause under Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC and that would invalidate the GMO Panel’s previous risk assessments of maize MON 810.

EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

2012-01-01

65

Stock loan model with Automatic termination clause  

CERN Multimedia

This paper works out fair values of stock loan model with automatic termination clause. This stock loan is treated as a generalized perpetual American option with an automatic termination clause and possibly negative interest rate. Since it helps a bank to control the risk, banks should charge less service fees compared to stock loans without automatic termination clauses. The automatic termination clause is in fact a stop order set by the bank. We aim at establishing explicitly the value of such a loan and ranges of fair values of key parameters : this loan size, interest rate, fee for providing such a service and quantity of this automatic termination clause and relationships among these parameters as well as the optimal terminable stopping times.

Liang, Zongxia; Jiang, Shuqing

2010-01-01

66

Vary speed of Claus blowers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Variable speed drives are uniquely applicable for use with the air blower in Claus sulfur recovery units (SRUs). Analysis shows the cost of variable speed drives is frequently justified on energy evaluation involving examination of the characteristics of SRUs and peculiarities of air blowers in SRU operation. Results of typical situations suggest that owners of SRUs used with gas plants should make an effort to establish duty cycles and look carefully at the variable speed option. This is particularly true if plans call for an SRU expansion or for occasional peaks of capacity. Experience in refinery SRU operation suggest that variable speed drives are usually justified. On the other hand, capital can be conserved by considering constant speed machines for standby duty. In addition to economy, variable speed drives have another powerful benefit because they operate as a highly linear, very responsive final control element in lieu of or in addition to a control valve, thus improving control of the tail gas composition.

Taggart, G.

1983-12-01

67

Rigorous Kinetic Modeling and Optimization Study of a Modified Claus Unit for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant with CO{sub 2} Capture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and the ability to recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Because of these criteria, modifications to the conventional process are often required, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO{sub 2} capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant, such as rapid change in the feed flow rates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but they are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified, and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus furnace, a four-stage method was devised so as to determine which set of linearly independent reactions would best describe the product distributions from available plant data. Various approaches are taken to derive the kinetic rate expressions, which are either missing in the open literature or found to be inconsistent. A set of plant data is used for optimal estimation of the kinetic parameters. The final model agrees well with the published plant data. Using the developed kinetics models of the Claus reaction furnace, WHB, and catalytic stages, two optimization studies are carried out. The first study shows that there exists an optimal steam pressure generated in the WHB that balances hydrogen yield, oxygen demand, and power generation. In the second study, it is shown that an optimal H{sub 2}S/SO{sub 2} ratio exists that balances single-pass conversion, hydrogen yield, oxygen demand, and power generation. In addition, an operability study has been carried out to examine the operating envelope in which both the H{sub 2}S/SO{sub 2} ratio and the adiabatic flame temperature can be controlled in the face of disturbances typical for the operation of an IGCC power plant with CO{sub 2} capture. Impact of CO{sub 2} capture on the Claus process has also been discussed.

Jones, Dustin; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Turton, Richard; Zitney, Stephen E.

2012-02-08

68

Rigorous Kinetic Modeling, Optimization, and Operability Studies of a Modified Claus Unit for an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Power Plant with CO{sub 2} Capture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and the ability to recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Because of these criteria, modifications to the conventional process are often required, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO{sub 2} capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant, such as rapid change in the feed flow rates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but they are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified, and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus furnace, a four-stage method was devised so as to determine which set of linearly independent reactions would best describe the product distributions from available plant data. Various approaches are taken to derive the kinetic rate expressions, which are either missing in the open literature or found to be inconsistent. A set of plant data is used for optimal estimation of the kinetic parameters. The final model agrees well with the published plant data. Using the developed kinetics models of the Claus reaction furnace, WHB, and catalytic stages, two optimization studies are carried out. The first study shows that there exists an optimal steam pressure generated in the WHB that balances hydrogen yield, oxygen demand, and power generation. In the second study, it is shown that an optimal H{sub 2}S/SO{sub 2} ratio exists that balances single-pass conversion, hydrogen yield, oxygen demand, and power generation. In addition, an operability study has been carried out to examine the operating envelope in which both the H{sub 2}S/SO{sub 2} ratio and the adiabatic flame temperature can be controlled in the face of disturbances typical for the operation of an IGCC power plant with CO{sub 2} capture. Impact of CO{sub 2} capture on the Claus process has also been discussed.

Jones, Dustin; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Turton, Richard; Zitney, Stephen E

2011-12-15

69

Modeling and optimization of a modified claus process as part of an integrted gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with CO2 capture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The modified Claus process is one of the most common technologies for sulfur recovery from acid gas streams. Important design criteria for the Claus unit, when part of an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, are the ability to destroy ammonia completely and recover sulfur thoroughly from a relatively low purity acid gas stream without sacrificing flame stability. Due to these criteria, modifications are often required to the conventional process, resulting in a modified Claus process. For the studies discussed here, these modifications include the use of a 95% pure oxygen stream as the oxidant, a split flow configuration, and the preheating of the feeds with the intermediate pressure steam generated in the waste heat boiler (WHB). In the future, for IGCC plants with CO2 capture, the Claus unit must satisfy emission standards without sacrificing the plant efficiency in the face of typical disturbances of an IGCC plant such as rapid change in the feed flowrates due to load-following and wide changes in the feed composition because of changes in the coal feed to the gasifier. The Claus unit should be adequately designed and efficiently operated to satisfy these objectives. Even though the Claus process has been commercialized for decades, most papers concerned with the modeling of the Claus process treat the key reactions as equilibrium reactions. Such models are validated by manipulating the temperature approach to equilibrium for a set of steady-state operating data, but are of limited use for dynamic studies. One of the objectives of this study is to develop a model that can be used for dynamic studies. In a Claus process, especially in the furnace and the WHB, many reactions may take place. In this work, a set of linearly independent reactions has been identified and kinetic models of the furnace flame and anoxic zones, WHB, and catalytic reactors have been developed. To facilitate the modeling of the Claus furnace, a four-stage method was devised so as to determine which set of linearly independent reactions would best describe the product distributions from available plant data. Various approaches are taken to derive the kinetic rate expressions which are either missing in the open literature or found to be inconsistent. A set of plant data is used for optimal estimation of the kinetic parameters. The final model agrees well with the published plant data. Using the developed kinetics models of the Claus reaction furnace, WHB, and catalytic stages, two optimization studies are carried out. The first study shows that there exists an optimal steam pressure generated in the WHB that balances hydrogen yield, oxygen demand, and power generation. In the second study, it is shown that an optimal H2S/SO2 ratio exists that balances single-pass conversion, hydrogen yield, oxygen demand, and power generation. In addition, an operability study has been carried out to examine the operating envelope in which both H2S/SO2 ratio and adiabatic flame temperature can be controlled in the face of disturbances typical for the operation of an IGCC power plant with CO2 capture. Impact of CO2 capture on the Claus process has also been discussed.

Jones, D.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

2011-01-01

70

Automatic adjustment clauses: theory and application  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Automatic-adjustment clauses have come into ever-increasing use as fuel costs and the rate of inflation continue to escalate. The clauses have been attacked by the public as being moneymakers for the utilities. Still, automatic adjustment is seen as a practical and useful alternative to traditional methods for changing electric-utility rates - methods that are expensive, time-consuming, and often lag behind economic conditions. This book presents a critical examination of the historical and current application of automatic-adjustment clauses in electric-utility tariffs as an alternative to traditional ratemaking. Subjects dealt with include the positive and negative aspects of regulatory lag; the legal and economic restraints under which regulatory agencies and regulated firms must operate; use of automatic-adjustment clauses to mitigate the negative effects of regulatory lag and to promote managerial efficiency; current problems associated with automatic-adjustment clauses; fuel-adjustment clauses in the context of the National Energy Act (PURPA); and an in-depth analysis of the fuel-adjustment clauses of Ohio North Carolina, and Connecticut. 263 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

Schmidt, M.

1980-01-01

71

48 CFR 370.701 - Contract clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

...SPECIAL PROGRAMS AFFECTING ACQUISITION Acquisitions Under the Leadership Act 370.701 Contract clause. The Contracting Officer...the contractor will receive funding under the United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria Act of...

2012-10-01

72

PREDICATIVE SUBORDINATE CLAUSE IN OLD ROMANIAN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By a wide range of examples, the present paper focuses on the complex configuration of predicative subordinate clause, researching how it has been formed diachronically and its structural algorithm.

Mihaela G?IT?NARU

2010-01-01

73

The Information Structure of Adverbial Clauses in Chinese Discourse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated adverbial clauses in spoken as well as written Chinese discourse. The adverbial clauses in the spoken data were categorized into (i) initial clauses that occur in the initial position with respect to their linked material across continuing intonation, (ii) final clauses that occur in the final position with respect to their linked material across continuing intonation, and (iii) final clauses that occur in the final position with respect to their linked material across final intonation. Those in the written data were classified into (i) initial and (ii) final clauses that occur in the initial or final clauses that occur in the initial or final position, respectively, with respect to their main clauses. An analysis of the spoken and written data shows that the temporal, conditional, and concessiveclauses are quite different from the other adverbial clauses. Specifically, the causal clauses commonly appear in the final position with respect to their associated material in the spoken data, while the initial and final causal clauses are nearly evenly distributed in the written data. The data suggest that temporal, conditional, and concessive clauses, like topics, are presupposed parts of their sentences; i.e., all of them may be thought of as establishing frameworks for the interpretation of propositions that follow, which seem to be prototypically textual in their functioning. By contrast, causal clauses in Chinese are noticeably distinct from other adverbial clauses not only in spoken data, but also in written data; they play interactional as well as textual roles in discourse linking.

Yu-Fang Wang

2006-01-01

74

Aspectual Inflection, Verb Raising and Object Fronting in American Sign Language.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper examines the object fronting construction of American Sign Language (Liddell, 1980; Matsuoka 1997), and its relation to verb raising and aspectual inflection. In this construction, word order, canonically S-V-O, is modified to O-S-V. Matsuoka (1997) argues persuasively for a relationship between object fronting and overt verb raising, driven by the presence of an affixal verbal inflection (per Lasnik, 1995b). Thus, her analysis reduces ASL object fronting to an instance of 'object shift' as occurs in the Scandinavian language family (Bobaljik & Jonas 1996). However, evidence is provided here, from the distributions of adverbs and modals, and from the interaction of object fronting with question formation and raising contexts, which indicates that ASL object fronting targets a position high in the clause.A new model of ASL object fronting is developed against the backdrop of Matsuoka (1997) and the Lasnik (1995b) theory of verbal morphology. This new framework has much in common with Matsuoka's account, while attaining greater empirical coverage. In this framework, as in Matsuoka, overt verb raising is triggered by the presence of an aspectual head (Asp). However, I argue that AspP is part of an articulated COMP layer (Rizzi, 1997). Object fronting targets spec-AspP, an A'-position. This model is shown to provide a better account of the distribution of adverbs and modals in object-fronted clauses, as well as explanations of the behavior of object fronted clauses in questions and in embedded contexts.Lasnik's (1995b) model of verbal morphology is extended such that verbs in (some varieties of) ASL allow both derivational and lexical options for aspectual inflection. This mechanism provides for an explanation of the infelicity of object fronted clauses in embedded contexts. The analysis crucially relies on the categorial status of object-fronted clauses and the mechanism of c-selection.

Braze D

2004-01-01

75

The Hilbert space of conditional clauses  

CERN Document Server

Context. The well known problems of interpretation of quantum mechanics mean that physical law lacks physical basis. Aims. To abstract the formalism of quantum mechanics from assertions about the world with clear physical meaning. Methods. Kets are defined as conditional clauses referring to measurements in a formal language. It is seen that these clauses are elements of a Hilbert space, such that addition is logical disjunction, the dual space consists of consequent clauses, and the inner product is a set of statements in the subjunctive mood. The probability interpretation gives truth values for corresponding future tense statements when the initial state is prepared and the final state is to be measured. Results. The mathematical structure of quantum mechanics is formulated in terms of discrete measurement results at finite level of accuracy and does not depend on an assumption of a substantive, or background, spacetime continuum. A continuum of kets, |x> for x in R^3, is constructed from linear combinatio...

Francis, Charles

2012-01-01

76

A COMPARISON OF THE TURKIC TYPE RELATIVE CLAUSE TYPOLOGY WITH JAPANESE, KOREAN AND HUNGRAIAN TYPOLOGIES TÜRK D?L? SIFAT-F??LL? YAPI T?POLOJ?S?N?N JAPON, KORE VE MACAR T?POLOJ?LER? ?LE KAR?ILA?TIRILMASI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this present study, we dealt with relative clause typologies in the world languages in general and Turkic Type Relative Clause typology in particular. By doing this, we compared Turkish relative clause construction with Japanese, Korean and Hungarian ones, which are all considered in Uralic and Altaic Language Family. In doing this, we made use of Chomskian theories called Generative-Transformational Grammar and Governement and Binding Thoery. As is known, Chomsky declared that all languages have the same typolgy in the Deep Structure. The changes among languages are witnessed in Surface Structure. There is a transformation between deep structure and surface structure. It means that, a noun pharse can be moved to another place leaving an empty place behind by constructing a chain between the empty place and its antecedents (moved element). When we compared Turkic type relative clause typology with Japanese, Korean and Hungarian, we amasingly saw that the strategies are the same in these langauges. Bu çal??mada, dünya dillerinde önemli bir yere sahip olan s?fat-fiilli yap?lar?n tipolojilerini inceledik. Bunu yapmaktaki amac?m?z, Türk Dili Tipi S?fat-fiilli Yap? tipolojinsin dünya dilleri aras?ndaki yerini tespit etmek ve benzer tipolojiler ile kar??la?t?rmakt?r. Türk dili ile akraba oldu?u varsay?lan Japon, Kore ve Macar dillerini, s?fat-fiil tipolojileri aç?s?nda analiz ederek Türk Dili Tipolojisi ile olan benzerlikleri ortaya koymaya çal??t?k. S?fat-fiil tipolojisini analiz ederken, Chomsky’nin Üretken-Dönü?ümlü Dil Bilgisi ve Yönetim ve Ba?lama Kuram?’ndan faydaland?k. Dilin yap?sal olarak incelenmesi gerekti?ini ileri süren Chomsky, derin yap? ve yüzey yap? kavramlar? ile ta??n?m ve dönü?ümün bütün diller için kaç?n?lmaz bir gerçeklik oldu?unu gösterdi. Biz de bu çal??mada ad öbe?i ta??n?m? ve bo?luk kuram? ?????nda, s?fat-fiilli yap? tipolojilerini kar??la?t?rmal? olarak ele ald?k ve Türk, Japon, Kore ve Macar dilleri aras?ndaki ?a??rt?c? benzerli?i, öbek yap? ve söz dizimi seviyesinde tespit ettik.

Ferhat KARABULUT; ?smail ULUTA?

2011-01-01

77

48 CFR 48.201 - Clauses for supply or service contracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

...REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Contract Clauses 48.201 Clauses...contracting officer shall insert a value engineering clause in solicitations and contracts...and in paragraph (f) below. A value engineering clause may be included in...

2012-10-01

78

Watching object related movements modulates mirror-like activity in parietal brain regions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: We studied the activation of cortical motor and parietal areas during the observation of object related grasping movements. By manipulating the type of an object (realistic versus abstract) and the type of grasping (correct versus incorrect), we addressed the question how observing such object related movements influences cortical rhythmicity, especially the mu-rhythm, in the context of an "extended" human mirror neuron system (MNS). METHODS: Multichannel electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded during the observation of different object-related grasping actions in twenty healthy subjects. Different movies were presented, showing sequences of correct or incorrect hand grasping actions related to an abstract or realistic (daily life) object. RESULTS: Event-related de/synchronization (ERD/ERS) analyses revealed a larger ERD in the upper alpha (10-12 Hz), beta (16-20 Hz) and gamma (36-40 Hz) frequency bands over parietal brain regions depending on the type of grasping. The type of object only influenced ERD patterns in the gamma band range (36-40 Hz) at parietal sites suggesting a strong relation of gamma band activity and cortical object representation. Abstract and realistic objects produced lower beta band synchronization at central sites only, whereas depending on the type of grasping an ERS in the upper alpha band (10-12 Hz) was observed. CONCLUSION: Depending on the type of the grasped object and the type of grasping stronger parietal cortical activation occurred during movement observation. SIGNIFICANCE: Discussing the results in terms of an "extended" human mirror neuron system (MNS), it could be concluded that beside sensorimotor areas a stronger involvement of parietal brain regions was found depending on the type of object and grasping movement observed.

Wriessnegger SC; Leeb R; Kaiser V; Neuper C; Müller-Putz GR

2013-08-01

79

Signaling Elaboration: Combining French Gerund Clauses with Lexical Cohesion Cues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the Elaboration relation and on its automatic identification in French, using the theoretical framework of Segmented Discourse Representation Theory (SDRT). One of the information sources identified by the SDRT framework to infer the Elaboration relation is based on the existence of a potential subsumption link between the eventualities at stake, depending on lexical semantics and world knowledge. We investigate this claim by combining a weak syntactic marker of the Elaboration relation, namely the gerund clause, with lexical cohesion cues. We aim at automatically identifying gerund clauses which are Elaborations by finding cohesive links between the host main clause and the gerund clause. This approach makes it possible to accurately detect few cases of intra-sentential Elaborations in our corpus, confirming the fact that lexical cohesion cues are relevant for this task.Dans cet article, nous nous focalisons sur la relation d’Élaboration en français, telle qu’elle est décrite dans le modèle théorique de la SDRT (Segmented Discourse Representation Theory), et sur son identification automatique. Selon la SDRT, une des sources d’information permettant d’inférer la relation d’Élaboration est basée sur l’existence d’un lien de subsomption entre les types des éventualités des segments à relier, indiquant que le type de la seconde éventualité est un sous-type de celui de la première dans la sémantique lexicale des éventualités ou grâce à des connaissances du monde. Nous proposons de contribuer à cette question en combinant un indice de la relation d’Élaboration, i. e. la construction syntaxique du gérondif, et des indices de cohésion lexicale. Notre objectif est d’identifier automatiquement des propositions gérondives qui sont des Élaborations en repérant des indices de cohésion lexicale entre la proposition principale et la proposition gérondive. Cette approche permet de détecter avec précision des cas d’Élaboration dans notre corpus, validant le fait que les indices de cohésion lexicale sont pertinents pour cette tâche.

Marianne Vergez-Couret; Clémentine Adam

2012-01-01

80

What sort of a thing is a religion? A view from object-relations theory.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper suggests that a religion is not, as Freud proposed, a science-like thing, refutable by evidence. It is a socially constructed and maintained system of internal objects, analogous to those spoken of in psychoanalysis. Like analytic internal objects, religious objects have a heuristic function but no material existence. Unlike analytic objects, they are derived from a definite cultural tradition and are elaborated over time to meet the experience of practitioners. They may be understood to have a function of 'containing' the feelings, thoughts and fantasies arising in individual practitioners, and of making these experiences comprehensible. These objects then enable the believer to speak more truthfully of, and relate more fully to, the larger matrix within which the human world is situated. Finally, the suggestion is made that, as with analytic internal objects, religious objects may best be judged by their long-term effects on the lives of believers. PMID:8344777

Black, D M

1993-06-01

 
 
 
 
81

What sort of a thing is a religion? A view from object-relations theory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper suggests that a religion is not, as Freud proposed, a science-like thing, refutable by evidence. It is a socially constructed and maintained system of internal objects, analogous to those spoken of in psychoanalysis. Like analytic internal objects, religious objects have a heuristic function but no material existence. Unlike analytic objects, they are derived from a definite cultural tradition and are elaborated over time to meet the experience of practitioners. They may be understood to have a function of 'containing' the feelings, thoughts and fantasies arising in individual practitioners, and of making these experiences comprehensible. These objects then enable the believer to speak more truthfully of, and relate more fully to, the larger matrix within which the human world is situated. Finally, the suggestion is made that, as with analytic internal objects, religious objects may best be judged by their long-term effects on the lives of believers.

Black DM

1993-06-01

82

Concurrent validity of the Quality of Object Relations Scale (QORS) in relation to proxy assessment of the theoretical scale constituents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Clinical assessment of object relations is essential when evaluating treatability by different types of psychotherapy. The Quality of Object Relations Scale (QORS) is an established interview measure used for assessing object relations, but the validity of the QORS in relation to its theoretical constituents has not been examined. Our aim was to study the concurrent validity of the QORS. METHODS: Trained interviewers assessed 263 outpatients seeking psychotherapy due to mood or anxiety disorder, with the QORS and with selected proxy criterion measures representing constituents of object-relational maturity. RESULTS: Discontinuity in relationships and the use of devaluation in relationships were the main determinants of low Quality of Object Relations (low-QOR). Patients with discontinuity in relationships had a four-fold and patients with devaluation in relationships a three-fold risk of belonging to the low-QOR group (p = 0.001) in comparison to those without these relational characteristics. Also poor self-confidence and major separations in childhood predicted the low- versus high-QOR category. CONCLUSION: The results indicate adequate concurrent validity of the QORS and support its credibility in assessing personality pathology, beyond axis II diagnosis, by trained clinicians.

Lindfors O; Knekt P; Virtala E; Haaramo P

2013-01-01

83

Object-Relational Database Based Category Data Model for Natural Language Interface to Database  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Domain specific question answering technique allows users to use natural language to express their queries so that users need not have the knowledge about the structures of the information source. Forsuch an application relational model is not suitable as it is not a natural way to represent real world knowledge. Using relational model for representing information source results in scattered relations ofdata about the real world objects. In this paper an effective category model is presented to organize information according to their contents based on object-relational database. For the discussion of the category model railway domain is used in the paper.

Avinash J. Agrawal; Dr. O. G. Kakde

2011-01-01

84

Multiple objective fractional programming involving semilocally type I-preinvex and related functions  

Science.gov (United States)

Sufficient optimality conditions are obtained for a nonlinear multiple objective fractional programming problem involving [eta]-semidifferentiable type I-preinvex and related functions. Furthermore, a general dual is formulated and duality results are proved under the assumptions of generalized semilocally type I-preinvex and related functions. Our result generalize the results of Preda [V. Preda, Optimality and duality in fractional multiple objective programming involving semilocally preinvex and related functions, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 288 (2003) 365-382] and Stancu-Minasian [I.M. Stancu-Minasian, Optimality and duality in fractional programming involving semilocally preinvex and related functions, J. Inform. Optim. Sci. 23 (2002) 185-201].

Mishra, S. K.; Wang, S. Y.; Lai, K. K.

2005-10-01

85

Rights granted in the habendum clause  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The habendum clause sets out the conditions for the continuance of a petroleum or natural gas lease during the primary term and during the events or circumstances which will continue the lease beyond the primary term. This paper describes the rights granted in the habendum clause. Typical older forms of freehold leases are compared with the model lease form and with the 1991 form of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Landmen (CAPL) Petroleum and Natural Gas lease. These comparisons were made in an effort to analyse the changes in the nature of the rights granted in the habendum clause. The most significant change is that the 1991 CAPL lease form avoids the 'unless' pitfalls of older forms by creating firstly the 'drill or pay' form of habendum clause, and by introducing the alternatives of paying either a lump sum one time rental or a periodic rental payment. The effect of these changes is that failure to make timely payments does not result in automatic termination of the lease, but rather one which must be made subject of a default notice by the lessor to the lessee.12 refs

1998-01-01

86

Licensing Revisited: Open Access Clauses in Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Open access increases the visibility and use of research outputs and promises to maximize the return on our public investment in research. However, only a minority of researchers will "spontaneously" deposit their articles into an open access repository. Even with the growing number of institutional and funding agency mandates requiring the deposit of papers into the university repository, deposit rates have remained stubbornly low. As a result, the responsibility for populating repositories often falls onto the shoulders of library staff and/or repository managers. Populating repositories in this way – which involves obtaining the articles, checking the rights, and depositing articles into the repository – is time consuming and resource intensive work.The Confederation of Open Access Repositories (COAR), a global association of repository initiatives and networks, is promoting a new strategy for addressing some of the barriers to populating repositories, involving the use of open access archiving clauses in publisher licenses. These types of clauses are being considered by consortia and licensing agencies around the world as a way of ensuring that all the papers published by a given publisher are cleared for deposit into the institutional repository. This paper presents some use cases of open access archiving clauses, discusses the major barriers to implementing archiving language into licenses, and describes some strategies that organizations can adopt in order to include such clauses into publisher licenses.

Birgit Schmidt; Kathleen Shearer

2012-01-01

87

Object-related regularities are processed automatically: evidence from the visual mismatch negativity  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most challenging tasks of our visual systems is to structure and integrate the enormous amount of incoming information into distinct coherent objects. It is an ongoing debate whether or not the formation of visual objects requires attention. Implicit behavioral measures suggest that object formation can occur for task-irrelevant and unattended visual stimuli. The present study investigated pre-attentive visual object formation by combining implicit behavioral measures and an electrophysiological indicator of pre-attentive visual irregularity detection, the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) of the event-related potential. Our displays consisted of two symmetrically arranged, task-irrelevant ellipses, the objects. In addition, there were two discs of either high or low luminance presented on the objects, which served as targets. Participants had to indicate whether the targets were of the same or different luminance. In separate conditions, the targets either usually were enclosed in the same object or in two different objects (standards). Occasionally, the regular target-to-object assignment was changed (deviants). That is, standards and deviants were exclusively defined on the basis of the task-irrelevant target-to-object assignment but not on the basis of some feature regularity. Although participants did not notice the regularity nor the occurrence of the deviation in the sequences, task-irrelevant deviations resulted in increased reaction times. Moreover, compared with physically identical standard displays deviating target-to-object assignments elicited a negative potential in the 246–280 ms time window over posterio-temporal electrode positions which was identified as vMMN. With variable resolution electromagnetic tomography (VARETA) object-related vMMN was localized to the inferior temporal gyrus. Our results support the notion that the visual system automatically structures even task-irrelevant aspects of the incoming information into objects.

Muller, Dagmar; Widmann, Andreas; Schroger, Erich

2013-01-01

88

Imagined viewer and object rotations dissociated with event-related FMRI.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human spatial reasoning may depend in part on two dissociable types of mental image transformations: object-based transformations, in which an object is imagined to move in space relative to the viewer and the environment, and perspective transformations, in which the viewer imagines the scene from a different vantage point. This study measured local brain activity with event-related fMRI while participants were instructed to either imagine an array of objects rotating (an object-based transformation) or imagine themselves rotating around the array (a perspective transformation). Object-based transformations led to selective increases in right parietal cortex and decreases in left parietal cortex, whereas perspective transformations led to selective increases in left temporal cortex. These results argue against the view that mental image transformations are performed by a unitary neural processing system, and they suggest that different overlapping systems are engaged for different image transformations. PMID:14614811

Zacks, Jeffrey M; Vettel, Jean M; Michelon, Pascale

2003-10-01

89

Motor experience with graspable objects reduces their implicit analysis in visual- and motor-related cortex.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Motor-related regions of parietal and prefrontal cortices have been shown to selectively activate when observers passively view objects that afford manual grasping. Yet, it remains unknown whether these cortical responses depend on prior motor-related experience with the object being observed. To address this question, we asked participants to undergo fMRI scanning while viewing exemplars of two different categories of graspable objects: one associated with extensive motor experience (door knobs) and one associated with no self-reported motor experience (artificial rock climbing holds). Despite participants' lack of experience grasping climbing holds, these objects were found to generate a systematic response in several visuomotor-related regions of cortex-including left PMv and left AIP. Interestingly, however, the response to door knobs did not include activity in any motor-related regions, being limited instead to a comparatively small bilateral area of lateral occipital cortex, relative to the more spatially extensive response in occipital and temporal cortex that was observed for climbing holds. This result suggested that object-specific responses in both visual- and motor-related cortex may in fact negatively correlate with object-specific motor experience. To test this possibility, we repeated the experiment using participants having extensive self-reported experience grasping climbing holds (i.e., veteran indoor rock climbers). Consistent with our hypothesis, both climbing holds and door knobs generated activity limited to lateral occipital cortex. Taken together, these data support the proposal that repeated real-world motor experience with an object category may lead to reduced implicit analysis in both motor- and visual-related regions of cortex.

Handy TC; Tipper CM; Schaich Borg J; Grafton ST; Gazzaniga MS

2006-06-01

90

Object relations, reality testing, and social withdrawal in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we investigated the relationships between observed social withdrawal (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale [PANSS] Passive Social Withdrawal and PANSS Active Social Avoidance), subjectively experienced social withdrawal (Social Functioning Scale [SFS] Withdrawal and SFS Interpersonal Behavior), and their associations to the underlying psychological patterns of Object Relations and Reality Testing. Patients with schizophrenia (n = 55) and bipolar disorder (n = 51) from the ongoing Thematically Organized Psychosis project, Oslo University Hospital, Norway, were evaluated using the Bell Object Relations and Reality Testing Inventory, the PANSS, and the SFS. Object relations and reality testing subscales related differentially to PANSS Passive Social Withdrawal and PANSS Active Social Avoidance. These two measures, together with the level of alienation, explained a significant amount of variance in self-experienced social dysfunction. Findings reveal the multidimensional nature of social dysfunction in severe mental disorders. PMID:23407207

Hansen, Charlotte Fredslund; Torgalsbøen, Anne-Kari; Røssberg, Jan Ivar; Romm, Kristin Lie; Andreassen, Ole Andreas; Bell, Morris D; Melle, Ingrid

2013-03-01

91

Importance of object relations theories for development of capacity for mature love.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We discuss Klein's, Winnicott's, and Mahler's object relational theories relevant for creating and maintaining the mature love relationship. The concept of love refers to the basic human relationship. The capacity for adult love involves the attainment of the relation towards the object as whole, satisfying the emotional needs of the self, including simultaneous tolerance of the specific needs of the object. It also involves the optimum resolution of anxiety related to schizo-paranoid and depressive positions and phases of separation and individuation. Primitive defense mechanisms, such as splitting, are replaced by more mature defense mechanisms, and primitive idealization is replaced by more mature idealization. The fusion with the object is reversible and helps in creating the experience of closeness with the partner, while the possibility of separation provides the possibility of recognizing and respecting the differences. Obstacles in the development of object relationships from pre-object to object phase, from symbiotic to separation and individuation phase can impair the capacity to love.

Milivojevi? L; Strkalj Ivezi? S

2004-02-01

92

Negative priming in naming of categorically related objects: an fMRI study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ignoring an object slows subsequent naming responses to it, a phenomenon known as negative priming (NP). A central issue in NP research concerns the level of representation at which the effect occurs. As object naming is typically considered to involve access to abstract semantic representations, Tipper 1985 proposed that the NP effect occurred at this level of processing, and other researchers supported this proposal by demonstrating a similar result with categorically related objects (e.g., Allport et al., 1985; Murray, 1995), an effect referred to as semantic NP. However, objects within categories share more physical or structural features than objects from different categories. Consequently, the NP effect observed with categorically related objects might occur at a structural rather than semantic level of representation. We used event related fMRI interleaving overt object naming and image acquisition to demonstrate for the first time that the semantic NP effect activates the left posterior-mid fusiform and insular-opercular cortices. Moreover, both naming latencies and left posterior-mid fusiform cortex responses were influenced by the structural similarity of prime-probe object pairings in the categorically related condition, increasing with the number of shared features. None of the cerebral regions activated in a previous fMRI study of the identity NP effect (de Zubicaray et al., 2006) showed similar activation during semantic NP, including the left anterolateral temporal cortex, a region considered critical for semantic processing. The results suggest that the identity and semantic NP effects differ with respect to their neural mechanisms, and the label "semantic NP" might be a misnomer. We conclude that the effect is most likely the result of competition between structurally similar category exemplars that determines the efficiency of object name retrieval. PMID:18489967

de Zubicaray, Greig I; McMahon, Katie L; Eastburn, Mathew M; Pringle, Alan J

2007-12-23

93

Low Quality Natural Gas Sulfur Removal and Recovery CNG Claus Sulfur Recovery Process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Increased use of natural gas (methane) in the domestic energy market will force the development of large non-producing gas reserves now considered to be low quality. Large reserves of low quality natural gas (LQNG) contaminated with hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen (N) are available but not suitable for treatment using current conventional gas treating methods due to economic and environmental constraints. A group of three technologies have been integrated to allow for processing of these LQNG reserves; the Controlled Freeze Zone (CFZ) process for hydrocarbon / acid gas separation; the Triple Point Crystallizer (TPC) process for H{sub 2}S / C0{sub 2} separation and the CNG Claus process for recovery of elemental sulfur from H{sub 2}S. The combined CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus group of processes is one program aimed at developing an alternative gas treating technology which is both economically and environmentally suitable for developing these low quality natural gas reserves. The CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus process is capable of treating low quality natural gas containing >10% C0{sub 2} and measurable levels of H{sub 2}S and N{sub 2} to pipeline specifications. The integrated CFZ / CNG Claus Process or the stand-alone CNG Claus Process has a number of attractive features for treating LQNG. The processes are capable of treating raw gas with a variety of trace contaminant components. The processes can also accommodate large changes in raw gas composition and flow rates. The combined processes are capable of achieving virtually undetectable levels of H{sub 2}S and significantly less than 2% CO in the product methane. The separation processes operate at pressure and deliver a high pressure (ca. 100 psia) acid gas (H{sub 2}S) stream for processing in the CNG Claus unit. This allows for substantial reductions in plant vessel size as compared to conventional Claus / Tail gas treating technologies. A close integration of the components of the CNG Claus process also allow for use of the methane/H{sub 2}S separation unit as a Claus tail gas treating unit by recycling the CNG Claus tail gas stream. This allows for virtually 100 percent sulfur recovery efficiency (virtually zero SO{sub 2} emissions) by recycling the sulfur laden tail gas to extinction. The use of the tail gas recycle scheme also deemphasizes the conventional requirement in Claus units to have high unit conversion efficiency and thereby make the operation much less affected by process upsets and feed gas composition changes. The development of these technologies has been ongoing for many years and both the CFZ and the TPC processes have been demonstrated at large pilot plant scales. On the other hand, prior to this project, the CNG Claus process had not been proven at any scale. Therefore, the primary objective of this portion of the program was to design, build and operate a pilot scale CNG Claus unit and demonstrate the required fundamental reaction chemistry and also demonstrate the viability of a reasonably sized working unit.

Klint, V.W.; Dale, P.R.; Stephenson, C.

1997-10-01

94

Remarks regarding force majeure and other excuse clauses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A brief discussion paper is accompanied by a compendium of force majeure and other excuse clauses collected from a variety of actual coal supply contracts. The author points out that nuances of contract language are often the central issue of dispute over one party's right to terminate a contract or otherwise excuse performance. Over recent years the other excuse clauses, such as those dealing with government regulations or gross inadequacies, have come into play - these are less tested and can be too generalized or ambiguous. Sometimes, two clauses within a contract can be conflicting. The compendium contains several examples of definitional clauses of force majeure, the effect of force majeur deficiency, supply of coal during force majeure events and case law examples of attempts to invoke force majeure. There follow several examples of governmental regulation clauses, gross inequity clauses, economic hardship clauses and others on market adjustment, nonconforming shipments and price control.

McMillan, R. Jr.; Anderson, W.L. (Crowell and Moring, Washington, DC (USA))

1990-01-01

95

Effects of transference work in the context of therapeutic alliance and quality of object relations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Transference interpretation is considered as a core active ingredient in dynamic psychotherapy. In common clinical theory, it is maintained that more mature relationships, as well as a strong therapeutic alliance, may be prerequisites for successful transference work. In this study, the interaction between quality of object relations, transference interpretation, and alliance is estimated. METHOD: One hundred outpatients seeking psychotherapy for depression, anxiety, and personality disorders were randomly assigned to 1 year of weekly sessions of dynamic psychotherapy with transference interpretation or to the same type and duration of treatment, but without the use of transference interpretation. Quality of Object Relations (QOR)-lifelong pattern was evaluated before treatment (P. Høglend, 1994). The Working Alliance Inventory (A. O. Horvath & L. S. Greenberg, 1989; T. J. Tracey & A. M. Kokotovic, 1989) was rated in Session 7. The primary outcome variable was the Psychodynamic Functioning Scales (P. Høglend et al., 2000), measured at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 1 year after treatment termination. RESULTS: A significant Treatment Group × Quality of Object Relations × Alliance interaction was present, indicating that alliance had a significantly different impact on effects of transference interpretation, depending on the level of QOR. The impact of transference interpretation on psychodynamic functioning was more positive within the context of a weak therapeutic alliance for patients with low quality of object relations. For patients with more mature object relations and high alliance, the authors observed a negative effect of transference work. CONCLUSION: The specific effects of transference work was influenced by the interaction of object relations and alliance, but in the direct opposite direction of what is generally maintained in mainstream clinical theory.

Høglend P; Hersoug AG; Bøgwald KP; Amlo S; Marble A; Sørbye Ø; Røssberg JI; Ulberg R; Gabbard GO; Crits-Christoph P

2011-10-01

96

Identification without manipulation: a study of the relations between object use and semantic memory.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of semantic knowledge in object utilisation is a matter of debate. It is usually presumed that access to semantic knowledge is a necessary condition for manipulation, but a few reports challenged this view. The existence of a direct, pre-semantic route from vision to action has been proposed. We report the case of a patient with a disorder of object use in everyday life, in the context of probable Alzheimer's disease. This patient was also impaired when manipulating single objects. He showed a striking dissociation between impairment in object use and preserved capacity to perform symbolic and meaningless gestures. To elucidate the nature of the disorder, and to clarify the relations between semantic knowledge and object use, we systematically assessed his capacity to recognise, name, access semantic knowledge, and use 15 common objects. We found no general semantic impairment for the objects that were not correctly manipulated, and, more importantly, no difference between the semantic knowledge of objects correctly manipulated and objects incorrectly manipulated. These data, although not incompatible with the hypothesis of a direct route for action, are better accommodated by the idea of a distributed semantic memory, where different types of knowledge are represented, as proposed by Allport (Allport, D. A. Current perspectives in dysphasia, pp. 32-60. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1985). PMID:9863683

Moreaud, O; Charnallet, A; Pellat, J

1998-12-01

97

Object working memory and visuospatial processing: functional neuroanatomy analyzed by event-related fMRI.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report an event-related functional magnetic-resonance-imaging (fMRI) experiment that investigates the relationship of transient visual object memory, visuospatial orienting, and object recognition. Delayed object matching and visuospatial orienting involved a highly overlapping network of brain areas. Common areas were the frontal eye fields (FEF), the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA)/SMA complex, the precentral gyri, and the horizontal and descending branches of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). Selective delay activation was observed anterior to the FEF and in the ascending part of the IPS. Right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was involved in goal-directed visual search, but showed no delay activity.

Pollmann S; von Cramon DY

2000-07-01

98

Deriving the Properties of Object Types for Research Data Relation Model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, the properties of the object types required to describe the relationship among research data resources, which may be generated during the life cycle of the research, are derived. The properties of Fedora Commons and DSpace, which are open source software used for resource management, and schema properties published in DataCite were analyzed. Based on relation names of Fedora Commons, nine new relation names were derived. Thirty-eight object type properties consolidating the target properties of the analysis were derived. The result of this study can be used as basic material for crosswalk research studies of object type relation terms to ensure interoperability among the systems.

Suntae Kim

2013-01-01

99

Representation of contextually related multiple objects in the human ventral visual pathway.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Real-world scenes usually contain a set of cluttered and yet contextually related objects. Here we used fMRI to investigate where and how contextually related multiple objects were represented in the human ventral visual pathway. Specifically, we measured the responses in face-selective and body-selective regions along the ventral pathway when faces and bodies were presented either simultaneously or in isolation. We found that, in the posterior regions, the response for the face and body pair was the weighted average response for faces and bodies presented in isolation. In contrast, the anterior regions encoded the face and body pair in a mutually facilitative fashion, with the response for the pair significantly higher than that for its constituent objects. Furthermore, in the right fusiform face area, the face and body pair was represented as one inseparable object, possibly to reduce perceptual load and increase representation efficiency. Therefore, our study suggests that the visual system uses a hierarchical representation scheme to process multiple objects in natural scenes: the average mechanism in posterior regions helps retaining information of individual objects in clutter, whereas the nonaverage mechanism in the anterior regions uses the contextual information to optimize the representation for multiple objects.

Song Y; Luo YL; Li X; Xu M; Liu J

2013-08-01

100

Comparative performance measures of relational and object-oriented databases using High Energy Physics data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The major experiments at the SSC are expected to produce up to 1 Petabyte of data per year. The use of database techniques can significantly reduce the time it takes to access data. The goal of this project was to test which underlying data model, the relational or the object-oriented, would be better suited for archival and accessing high energy data. We describe the relational and the object-oriented data model and their implementation in commercial database management systems. To determine scalability we tested both implementations for 10-MB and 100-MB databases using storage and timing criteria.

Marstaller, J.

1993-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

ANNARITA: Il database Object Relational dell’Anagrafe Nazionale delle Ricerche  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nell’ottica di un potenziamento e arricchimento dei dati dell’Anagrafe Nazionale delle Ricerche gestita dal CILEA per conto del Ministero dell’Università e della Ricerca, è stato pianificato un lavoro di rifacimento evolutivo del database contenente le informazioni dei soggetti iscritti allo schedario che svolgono ricerca finanziata con fondi pubblici. Questo database, denominato Annarita (ANagrafe NAzionale delle Ricerche – ITAlia), ha lo scopo di permettere una migliore gestione dei dati, attraverso l’utilizzo della tecnologia object relational, che sfrutta tutti i vantaggi del mondo degli oggetti ma permette una compatibilità con il modello relazionale puro.As part of a strengthening and enrichment of the data the “Anagrafe Nazionale delle Ricerche” CILEA managed by the MUR, has scheduled a work to evolve the database from pure relational kind to object relational. This database contains a register with information about subjects involved in publicly funded research. This database called “Annarita” (ANagrafe NAzionale delle Ricerche – ITAlia) aims to enable better management of the data because it is based about evolutionary object relational technology that exploits the advantages of the world of objects but allows compatibility with the pure relational model.

Alex Manzo

2008-01-01

102

Bridging the gap between attachment and object relations theories: A study of the transition to motherhood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An empirical study of the relations between assessments of adult attachment styles and object representations was performed in the context of first-time mothers' emotional ties to their unborn babies. We assumed that, while conceptualizations of attachment behaviour and internal working models grasp the early basic patterns of interpersonal relationships and affect regulation, object representations indicate current transformations of these patterns in an individual's internal world. Participants were a sample of 120 women in the third trimester of their first pregnancy. Participants' representations of their own mothers were found to fully mediate the association between internal working models and antenatal ties to their babies. Similarities and differences between theoretical conceptualizations and empirical operationalizations of attachment and object relations theories are discussed.

Priel B; Besser A

2001-03-01

103

Bridging the gap between attachment and object relations theories: a study of the transition to motherhood.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An empirical study of the relations between assessments of adult attachment styles and object representations was performed in the context of first-time mothers' emotional ties to their unborn babies. We assumed that, while conceptualizations of attachment behaviour and internal working models grasp the early basic patterns of interpersonal relationships and affect regulation, object representations indicate current transformations of these patterns in an individual's internal world. Participants were a sample of 120 women in the third trimester of their first pregnancy. Participants' representations of their own mothers were found to fully mediate the association between internal working models and antenatal ties to their babies. Similarities and differences between theoretical conceptualizations and empirical operationalizations of attachment and object relations theories are discussed.

Priel B; Besser A

2001-03-01

104

Integrating XML Technology with Object-Relational Databases into Decision Support Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents some informatics technologies, like XML and object-relational databases, and the main motivations for implementing them in Decision Support Systems (DSS). Also, it is proposed and analyzed a conceptual model of a DSS prototype, which can be applied in the uncertain and unpredictable environments, like the production and the prediction of the wind energy.

Iuliana BOTHA; Adela BÂRA; Simona-Vasilica OPREA; Ticiano COSTA JORDÃO

2012-01-01

105

Object-Relational Databases: An Area with Some Theoretical Promises and Few Practical Achievements  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper tries to point out some of the promises, quarrels, achievements, and perspectives of the forced marriage between the relational and object-oriented data models, from both theoretical and implementation perspectives. As practical O-R achievements, the latest SQL standards (SQL:1999-2008) and Oracle implementation are discussed.

Marin Fotache; C?t?lin Strîmbei

2009-01-01

106

Determinants of Institutional Objectives and Risk Identification: Relative Relationship – Case of a University  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the determinants of institutional Objectives and institutional-wide risk identification. In this study, guided by both qualitative and quantitative methods, the researcher uses content analysis and Speraman’s ranked correlation analysis to investigate relationship between determinants of institutional Objectives and institutional-wide risk identification. The researcher also controls for other determinant using partial correlation analysis. The results were in two folds. Firstly -the University under investigation does not identify and prioritise its risks to a sufficient standard- that the University’s’ key risks are not linked to its strategic objectives- that the University does not ensure that the awareness of the institution’s key risks is cascaded downward, upward or horizontally through out the university employees. Secondly, the findings indicated that - there was strong, positive correlation between F1 (clientele base-institutional objectives) and risk identification activity- in contrast, there was no relationship between F2 (opportunity for learning ) and risk identification- meanwhile, there was evidence to suggest good agreement between F3 (sources of risk) and risk identification- finally, there was a strong, negative correlation between F4 (alumina related institutional objective ) and risk identification.

Anass BAYAGA

2010-01-01

107

[New kinds of relationships on the internet. Virtual object relations in psychotherapy  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Communication in the internet by e-mail is gaining in significance in counseling and psychotherapy of suicidal patients as well as an additional communication in face-to-face psychotherapy. E-Mail contacts during psychodynamic psychotherapy are defined as a transference offer of a virtual object relation. In two case descriptions of suicidal patients, examples of making contact with psychotherapy on the internet are presented. The concept of the virtual object is explained and its application for understanding these initial scenes and phenomena is discussed.

Lindner R; Fiedler G

2002-01-01

108

Quality of object relations versus interpersonal functioning as predictors of therapeutic alliance and psychotherapy outcome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of the study was to compare an interview measure of quality of object relations to questionnaire and interview measures of recent interpersonal functioning with respect to the prediction of therapeutic alliance and psychotherapy outcome. The sample consisted of 64 patients who had received approximately 20 sessions of short-term individual psychotherapy within a controlled, clinical-trial investigation. Ratings of therapeutic alliance were provided independently by the patient and the therapist after each session. Outcome measures, which were provided by three sources (patient, therapist, and independent assessor), covered the areas of interpersonal functioning, psychiatric symptomatology, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Quality of object relations, which characterizes the patient's lifelong pattern of relationships, was the best predictor. It was significantly related to patient-rated and therapist-rated therapeutic alliance and to patient improvement of both general symptomatology and specific target problems. The study also replicated previous studies that have reported significant relationships between therapeutic alliance and therapy outcome. The advantages of pretherapy predictors of therapy outcome, such as quality of object relations, are discussed.

Piper WE; Azim HF; Joyce AS; McCallum M; Nixon GW; Segal PS

1991-07-01

109

Advantages Of Object-Oriented Over Relational Databases On Real-Life Applications  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Business, manufacturing and other kinds of databases have been implemented by the relational database technology. The transition from one generation to the next has always been necessitated by the ever-increasing complexity of database applications and the cost of implementing, maintaining, and extending these applications. Accordingly, whatever the application areas of the relational database technology are, the basic shortcomings and weaknesses of this discipline are valid. On the other hand, the object-oriented database technology forms a good basis for all kinds of database applications, e.g., CAD/CAM/CASE/CIM systems, knowledge management systems, and others, due to its flexible, effective, and extensible data modeling and application formalism. In this study, two popular database technologies, the relational and object-oriented, are briefly introduced and their general characteristics are discussed. The purpose of this study is to point-out and compare the important features of relational and object-oriented databases, for the sake of understanding the pros and cons of these technologies before implementing them. 

Hakan Bütüner

2013-01-01

110

Eye-hand relations for sensor placement and object location determination  

Science.gov (United States)

Eye-on-hand configuration is an important way to build the active vision system. Most tasks that the eye-on-hand system can perform are based on the estimation of eye-hand relation. Traditionally eye-hand relation is defined as a 3D to 3D coordinate transformation. This kind of definition only views the eye (camera) as a coordinate and it is useful for sensor placement. When this eye-hand relation is used for objects location determination (after the sensor is actively placed), it causes much larger errors than a more direct way which under this situation defines the eye-hand relation as the 3D to 2D perspective transformation between the last joint coordinate and the camera image plane. In this paper the meanings of the eye-hand relations are extended for different tasks: one for sensor placement and one for objects location determination. We also present a new method for the calculation of eye-hand relations by making the last joint coordinate `touchable.' We call it the direct method because some specially designed motions are performed by the robot arm to estimate the relation between the robot base frame and the world frame. When only the rotation matrix is obtained, moving the camera twice and calibrating the 3D camera pose at three stations, the eye-hand relations can then be computed. When the transformation matrix is obtained, calibrating the camera at one station may yield the solution of the eye-hand relations. Experimental results with real data are included. The advantages of the direct method are its efficiency, accuracy, and reproducibility.

Wan, Xiang; Xu, Guangyou

1993-08-01

111

Subjective and objective binge eating in relation to eating disorder symptomatology, negative affect, and personality dimensions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The current study explored the clinical meaningfulness of distinguishing subjective (SBE) from objective binge eating (OBE) among individuals with threshold/subthreshold bulimia nervosa (BN). We examined relations between OBEs and SBEs and eating disorder symptoms, negative affect, and personality dimensions using both a group comparison and a continuous approach. METHOD: Participants were 204 adult females meeting criteria for threshold/subthreshold BN who completed questionnaires related to disordered eating, affect, and personality. RESULTS: Group comparisons indicated that SBE and OBE groups did not significantly differ on eating disorder pathology or negative affect, but did differ on two personality dimensions (cognitive distortion and attentional impulsivity). Using the continuous approach, we found that frequencies of SBEs (not OBEs) accounted for unique variance in weight/shape concern, diuretic use frequency, depressive symptoms, anxiety, social avoidance, insecure attachment, and cognitive distortion. DISCUSSION: SBEs in the context of BN may indicate broader areas of psychopathology.

Brownstone LM; Bardone-Cone AM; Fitzsimmons-Craft EE; Printz KS; Le Grange D; Mitchell JE; Crow SJ; Peterson CB; Crosby RD; Klein MH; Wonderlich SA; Joiner TE

2013-01-01

112

Medical record objectives in relation to clinical problems and user needs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The difficulties met when clinical record systems are implemented using a computer have many causes. Some difficulties must be first solved by determining user requirements and then a technical solution found. The general considerations involved in setting up medical record objectives, which relate to medical activities, accounting procedures and technical solutions, are discussed. These factors are at the base of many system failures in the past decade.

de Heaulme M

1978-03-01

113

Parametric Optimization on Multi-Objective Precision Turning Using Grey Relational Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, L9(34) orthogonal array of Taguchi experiment is selected for four parameters (speed, cutting depth, feed rate, tool nose runoff) with three levels in optimizing the multi-objective (surface roughness, tool wear and material removal rate) precision turning on an ECOCA-3807 CNC (Computer Numerical Controlled) lathe. Through the examination of surface roughness (Ra), tool wear ratio (mm-2) and the calculation of MRR; the multiple objectives are then received. By using Grey Relational Analysis (GRA), the multiple objectives can additionally be integrated and introduced as the S/N (signal to noise) ratio into the Taguchi experiment. The mean effects for S/N ratios are moreover analyzed by MINITAB to achieve the multi-objective turning parameters. Through the verification results, it is shown that both surface roughness and tool wear ratio from present optimum parameters are greatly advanced with minor decrease on the MRR (Material Removal Rate) comparing to those from benchmark parameters. This study not only proposes a novel optimization technique using GRA, but also contributes the satisfactory solution for multiple CNC turning objectives with profound insight.

M.Y. Wang; T.S. Lan

2008-01-01

114

Modeling and efficient optimization for object-based scalability and some related problems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

MPEG-4 is the first visual coding standard that allows coding of scenes as a collection of individual audio-visual objects. We present mathematical formulations for modeling object-based scalability and some functionalities that it brings with it. Our goal is to study algorithms that aid in semi-automating the authoring and subsequent selective addition/dropping of objects from a scene to provide content scalability. We start with a simplistic model for object-based scalability using the "knapsack problem"--a problem for which the optimal object set can be found using known schemes such as dynamic programming, the branch and bound method and approximation algorithms. The above formulation is then generalized to model authoring or multiplexing of scalable objects (e.g., objects encoded at various target bit-rates) using the "multiple choice knapsack problem." We relate this model to several problems that arise in video coding, the most prominent of these being the bit allocation problem. Unlike previous approaches to solve the operational bit allocation problem using Lagrangean relaxation, we discuss an algorithm that solves linear programming (LP) relaxation of this problem. We show that for this problem the duality gap for Lagrange and LP relaxations is exactly the same. The LP relaxation is solved using strong duality with dual descent--a procedure that can be completed in "linear" time. We show that there can be at most two fractional variables in the optimal primal solution and therefore this relaxation can be justified for many practical applications. This work reduces problem complexity, guarantees similar performance, is slightly more generic, and provides an alternate LP-duality based proof for earlier work by Shoham and Gersho (1988). In addition, we show how additional constraints may be added to impose inter-dependencies among objects in a presentation and discuss how object aggregation can be exploited in reducing problem complexity. The marginal analysis approach of Fox (1966) is suggested as a method of re-allocation with incremental inputs. It helps in efficiently re-optimizing the allocation when a system has user interactivity, appearing or disappearing objects, time driven events, etc. Finally, we suggest that approximation algorithms for the multiple choice knapsack problem, which can be used to quantify complexity vs. quality tradeoff at the encoder in a tunable and universal way.

Batra P

2000-01-01

115

Patterns in Clause, Sentence, and Discourse in Selected Languages of India and Nepal: Part II, Clause.  

Science.gov (United States)

This volume presents a study of the clause as a verb-centered construction surrounded by certain nuclear constituents which serve to subcategorize it. Five India-Nepal languages are examined: Kotia Oriya, Kupia, and Maithili (Indo-Aryan family); and Dhanghar-Kurux and Kolani (Dravidian family). Dhangar-Kurux and Maithili are spoken in Nepal, the…

Trail, Ronald L.

116

Hospital beats ratchet clause with backup generator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Lutheran Medical Center in Denver used a backup generator to shave peak demand during the summer and installed power transformers that allow the purchase of discounted high-voltage current to save $49,000 a year in its electric bill. A ratchet clause which imposes a year-round rate based on summer peak demand prompted the investment. Holding the summer peaks down enables the facility to more nearly match winter rates to actual demand. The two generators convert discounted high voltage power from the utility to standard 480-volt current. A control system operates the generators during peak periods each day.

Ladd, C.

1985-06-10

117

Attachment and object relations in patients with narcissistic personality disorder: implications for therapeutic process and outcome.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a therapeutic approach for patients with severe personality disorders, transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP), a manualized evidence-based treatment, which integrates contemporary object relations theory with attachment theory and research. Case material is presented from a narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) patient in TFP whose primary presenting problems were in the arena of sexuality and love relations, and whose attachment state of mind showed evidence of oscillation between dismissing and preoccupied mechanisms. Clinical process material is presented to illustrate the tactics and techniques of TFP and how they have been refined for treatment of individuals with NPD. The ways in which conflicts around sexuality and love relations were lived out in the transference is delineated with a focus on the interpretation of devalued and idealized representations of self and others, both of which are key components of the compensatory grandiose self that defensively protects the individual from an underlying sense of vulnerability and imperfection. PMID:23996275

Diamond, Diana; Meehan, Kevin B

2013-08-30

118

Attachment and Object Relations in Patients With Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Implications for Therapeutic Process and Outcome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article presents a therapeutic approach for patients with severe personality disorders, transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP), a manualized evidence-based treatment, which integrates contemporary object relations theory with attachment theory and research. Case material is presented from a narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) patient in TFP whose primary presenting problems were in the arena of sexuality and love relations, and whose attachment state of mind showed evidence of oscillation between dismissing and preoccupied mechanisms. Clinical process material is presented to illustrate the tactics and techniques of TFP and how they have been refined for treatment of individuals with NPD. The ways in which conflicts around sexuality and love relations were lived out in the transference is delineated with a focus on the interpretation of devalued and idealized representations of self and others, both of which are key components of the compensatory grandiose self that defensively protects the individual from an underlying sense of vulnerability and imperfection.

Diamond D; Meehan KB

2013-08-01

119

Simple Ontology of Manipulation Actions based on Hand-Object Relations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Humans can perform a multitude of different actions with their hands (manipulations). In spite of this, so far there have been only a few attempts to represent manipulation types trying to understand the underlying principles. Here we first discuss how manipulation actions are structured in space and time. For this we use as temporal anchor points those moments where two objects (or hand and object) touch or un-touch each other during a manipulation. We show that by this one can define a relatively small tree-like manipulation ontology. We find less than 30 fundamental manipulations. The temporal anchors also provide us with information about when to pay attention to additional important information, for example when to consider trajectory shapes and relative poses between objects. As a consequence a highly condensed representation emerges by which different manipulations can be recognized and encoded. Examples of manipulations recognition and execution by a robot based on this representation are given at theend of this study.

Wörgötter, Florentin; Aksoy, E. E.

2013-01-01

120

Similarity searching for chest CT images based on object features and spatial relation maps.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, an object-based image retrieval system for chest CT image databases is proposed. Based on the scheme of the content-based image retrieval method, we proposed an image segmentation method which combines the anatomical knowledge of the chest and the well-known watershed segmentation algorithm. The purpose of segmentation is to identify the mediastinum and the two lung lobes in a chest CT image. The ARGs (attributed relational graphs) are chosen to describe the features of segmented objects. Then, image database is constructed by the feature vectors of images. In database searching, two searching modes are provided that are "query by example" and "query by object". Our system uses Euclidean distance to measure the similarity between the image in query and the image in database. The system output the 30 most similar images in the chest CT image database as query results. The experimental results show that the average precision of our system is about 80% which is impressive in a totally automatic medical image retrieval system. Moreover, query concentrated in certain objects features usually show better result than the regular query by example. The possible reasons are discussed. PMID:17271928

Yu, Sung-Nien; Chiang, Chih-Tsung

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Similarity searching for chest CT images based on object features and spatial relation maps.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, an object-based image retrieval system for chest CT image databases is proposed. Based on the scheme of the content-based image retrieval method, we proposed an image segmentation method which combines the anatomical knowledge of the chest and the well-known watershed segmentation algorithm. The purpose of segmentation is to identify the mediastinum and the two lung lobes in a chest CT image. The ARGs (attributed relational graphs) are chosen to describe the features of segmented objects. Then, image database is constructed by the feature vectors of images. In database searching, two searching modes are provided that are "query by example" and "query by object". Our system uses Euclidean distance to measure the similarity between the image in query and the image in database. The system output the 30 most similar images in the chest CT image database as query results. The experimental results show that the average precision of our system is about 80% which is impressive in a totally automatic medical image retrieval system. Moreover, query concentrated in certain objects features usually show better result than the regular query by example. The possible reasons are discussed.

Yu SN; Chiang CT

2004-01-01

122

The object-based Simon effect: grasping affordance or relative location of the graspable part?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Reaction time is often shorter when the irrelevant graspable handle of an object corresponds with the location of a keypress response to the relevant attribute than when it does not. This object-based Simon effect has been attributed to an affordance for grasping the handle with the hand to the same side. Because a grasping affordance should differentially affect keypress responses only when they are made with different hands, we conducted three experiments that measured the object-based Simon effect for frying pan stimuli using between- and within-hand response sets. When the relevant stimulus dimension was color, neither the object-based Simon effect nor the location-based Simon effect varied across response sets. When upright-inverted orientation judgments were made for the frying pan and for nongraspable stimuli derived from it, there again was no significant difference in size of the between- and within-hand Simon effects for any of the stimuli. The results provide evidence that the Simon effect for graspable frying pan stimuli is because of relative location of the handle and not to a grasping affordance.

Cho DT; Proctor RW

2010-08-01

123

The relative influences of movement kinematics and extrinsic object characteristics on the perception of lifted weight.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Humans are able to perceive unique types of biological motion presented as point-light displays (PLDs). Thirty years ago, Runeson and Frykholm (Human Perception and Performance, 7(4), 733, 1981, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 112(4), 585, 1983) studied observers' perceptions of weights lifted by actors and identified that the kinematic information in a PLD is sufficient for an observer to form an accurate perception of the object weight. However, research has also shown that extrinsic object size characteristics also influence the perception of object weight (Gordon, Forssberg, Johansson, & Westling in Experimental Brain Research, 83(3), 477-482, 1991). This study addresses the relative contributions of these two types of visual information to observers' perceptions of lifted weight, through an experiment in which participants viewed an actor lifting boxes of various sizes (small, medium, or large) and weights (25, 50, or 75 lb) under four PLD conditions-box-at-rest, moving-box, actor-only, and actor-and-box-and one full-vision video condition, and then provided a weight estimate for each box lifted. The results indicated that lift kinematics and box size contributed independently to weight perception. Interestingly, the most robust weight differentiations were elicited in the conditions in which both types of information were presented concurrently, despite their converse natures. Furthermore, full-vision video presentation, which contained visual information beyond kinematics and object information, elicited the best estimates.

Grierson LE; Ohson S; Lyons J

2013-09-01

124

Subjective cognitive complaint in healthy older adults: Identification of major domains and relation to objective performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract This study analyzed complaints across a range of memory domains in middle-aged and older adults, as well as assessed their relationship with objective cognitive performance and personal characteristics. A total of 115 community-dwelling, healthy adults between the ages of 45 and 87 completed the Self-Evaluation Questionnaire (QAM) and were tested with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. A principal component analysis identified seven dimensions of complaint. Difficulty inhibiting internal and external sources of interference when learning or remembering something was the main area of complaint and it was correlated with word-list recall and Digit Symbol. We identified complaints related to a set of memory failures that appear to be more detrimental to autonomy and safety. These were correlated with a measure of functional autonomy and might, therefore, indicate more severe difficulties. Overall, this study provides indications regarding the main domains of memory complaints and identifies which complaints are most reflective of objective cognitive problems. PMID:23731126

Langlois, Anne-Sophie; Belleville, Sylvie

2013-06-01

125

Subjective cognitive complaint in healthy older adults: Identification of major domains and relation to objective performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract This study analyzed complaints across a range of memory domains in middle-aged and older adults, as well as assessed their relationship with objective cognitive performance and personal characteristics. A total of 115 community-dwelling, healthy adults between the ages of 45 and 87 completed the Self-Evaluation Questionnaire (QAM) and were tested with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. A principal component analysis identified seven dimensions of complaint. Difficulty inhibiting internal and external sources of interference when learning or remembering something was the main area of complaint and it was correlated with word-list recall and Digit Symbol. We identified complaints related to a set of memory failures that appear to be more detrimental to autonomy and safety. These were correlated with a measure of functional autonomy and might, therefore, indicate more severe difficulties. Overall, this study provides indications regarding the main domains of memory complaints and identifies which complaints are most reflective of objective cognitive problems.

Langlois AS; Belleville S

2013-06-01

126

Flatness of the Energy Landscape for Horn Clauses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Little-Hopfield neural network programmed with Horn clauses is studied. We argue that the energy landscape of the system, corresponding to the inconsistency function for logical interpretations of the sets of Horn clauses, has minimal ruggedness. This is supported by computer simulations.

Saratha Sathasivam; Wan Ahmad Tajuddin Wan Abdullah

2007-01-01

127

Flatness of the Energy Landscape for Horn Clauses  

CERN Document Server

The Little-Hopfield neural network programmed with Horn clauses is studied. We argue that the energy landscape of the system, corresponding to the inconsistency function for logical interpretations of the sets of Horn clauses, has minimal ruggedness. This is supported by computer simulations.

Sathasivam, Saratha

2008-01-01

128

Formalized description of basic structure of representation of matrix universal object-relational databases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A formal description of the relational structure of data representation (SRD) is expanded by its foreign level, corresponding to a set of databases that allows simultaneous work with several matrix universal object-relational data-bases (MUORDB). In MUORDB the possibility of formation of complex units of information is realized, for this the fifth dimension has been set. This does not contradict the properties of atomicity of relational databases. The concept of MUORDB formation is based first on the layout of the relational SRD in a joint matrix structure, i.e. metadata are represented in the same form as substan-tive information relational SRD. In MUORDB the structure of the tuple is deep-ened by one dimension and its element is extended from two to five compo-nents: a reference to a field (attribute) of the table, meaning, the boundaries of time of limited information relevance of the tuple element, the number of the parent element in the tuple, designed for tree-like structure of complex information unit. The fundamental step in creating a MUORDB database is to develop a universal data type. The value of the generic type is placed in a dynamic array of byte type, which hosted at the seventh dimension of the MUORDB matrix. Thus, the final seven-dimensional matrix, consisting of six dynamic arrays and the sixth static array responsible for the tuple element is obtained.

Miklyaev Ivan Aleksandrovich

2011-01-01

129

A Comparative Study Between the Performance of Relational & Object Oriented Database in Data Warehousing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A data warehouse is a repository of subjectively selected and adapted operational data which cansuccessfully answer any ad hoc, statistical, complex or analytical queries. Data warehousing technology isbecoming essential for effective business intelligence, business strategy formulation and implementation ina globally competitive environment where in larger and larger amounts of data are required to beprocessed faster and faster for comprehension of its real meaning and impact. A warehouse is a subjectoriented,integrated, time-variant and non-volatile collection of data in support of management's decisionmaking process”. Data that gives information about a particular subject instead of about a company'songoing operations. It is integrated as data that is gathered into the data warehouse from a variety ofsources and merged into a coherent whole. Data warehouse system is time variant as all data in the datawarehouse is identified with a particular time period This paper discusses in detail two existing databasemodels used for data warehousing, the relational database and object oriented database and does ananalysis of the benefits of Object Oriented databases over the conventional relational database in Datawarehousing.

Pushpa Suri; Meenakshi Sharma

2011-01-01

130

Exploring the construct validity of the social cognition and object relations scale in a clinical sample.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale-Global rating method (SCORS-G; Stein, Hilsenroth, Slavin-Mulford, & Pinsker, 2011; Westen, 1995) measures the quality of object relations in narrative material. This study employed a multimethod approach to explore the structure and construct validity of the SCORS-G. The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT; Murray, 1943) was administered to 59 patients referred for psychological assessment at a large Northeastern U.S. hospital. The resulting 301 TAT narratives were rated using the SCORS-G method. The 8 SCORS variables were found to have high interrater reliability and good internal consistency. Principal components analysis revealed a 3-component solution with components tapping emotions/affect regulation in relationships, self-image, and aspects of cognition. Next, the construct validity of the SCORS-G components was explored using measures of intellectual and executive functioning, psychopathology, and normal personality. The 3 SCORS-G components showed unique and theoretically meaningful relationships across these broad and diverse psychological measures. This study demonstrates the value of using a standardized scoring method, like the SCORS-G, to reveal the rich and complex nature of narrative material.

Stein MB; Slavin-Mulford J; Sinclair SJ; Siefert CJ; Blais MA

2012-01-01

131

Age-related changes in attentional tracking of multiple moving objects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In a multiple-object tracking (MOT) task, young and older adults attentively tracked a subset of 10 identical, randomly moving disks for several seconds, and then tried to identify those disks that had comprised the subset. Young adults who habitually played video games performed significantly better than those who did not. Compared to young subjects (mean age = 20.6 years) with whom they were matched for video game experience, older subjects (mean age = 75.3 years) showed much reduced ability to track multiple moving objects, particularly with faster movement or longer tracking times. Control measurements with stationary disks show that the age-related decline in MOT was not caused by a general change in memory per se. To generate an item-wise performance measure, we examined older subjects' proportion correct according to the serial order in which individual disks were identified. Correct identification of target disks declined with the order in which targets were reported, suggesting that attentional tracking produced graded, rather than all-or-none, outcomes.

Sekuler R; McLaughlin C; Yotsumoto Y

2008-01-01

132

Over a barrel : exiting from NAFTA's proportionality clause  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Natural gas exports to the United States are locked in by the proportionality clause of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The authors state that although both conventional oil and gas have peaked in Canada, the proportionality clause requires Canada to maintain its current share of energy exports to the United States, even if Canadians experience shortages. The unique clause guarantees the United States' access to Canada's energy resources. The authors cautioned that NAFTA limits Canada's options for managing its energy future and recommended options for regaining Canadian energy security. With NAFTA and the energy proportionality clause back on the political agenda for the first time since the 1993 federal election, this document explored 3 scenarios under which the proportionality clause could be invoked. The scenarios demonstrated how the clause could prevent Canada from reducing exports to conserve oil; prioritizing natural gas for petrochemicals; or, substituting Canadian oil for volatile foreign imports. The exercise demonstrated how under certain circumstances, proportionality could result in energy shortages for Canadians. The authors suggested that if NAFTA were to be renegotiated, Canada's first priority should be to end the proportionality clause because it stands in the way of Canada developing an effective energy security plan. 51 refs., 3 tabs

2008-01-01

133

Encoding of faces and objects into visual working memory: an event-related brain potential study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Visual working memory (VWM) is an important prerequisite for cognitive functions, but little is known on whether the general perceptual processing advantage for faces also applies to VWM processes. The aim of the present study was (a) to test whether there is a general advantage for face stimuli in VWM and (b) to unravel whether this advantage is related to early sensory processing stages. To address these questions, we compared encoding of faces and complex nonfacial objects into VWM within a combined behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) study. In detail, we tested whether the N170 ERP component - which is associated with face-specific holistic processing - is affected by memory load for faces or whether it might be involved in WM encoding of any complex object. Participants performed a same-different task with either face or watch stimuli and with two different levels of memory load. Behavioral measures show an advantage for faces on the level of VWM, mirrored in higher estimated VWM capacity (i.e. Cowan's K) for faces compared with watches. In the ERP, the N170 amplitude was enhanced for faces compared with watches. However, the N170 was not modulated by working memory load either for faces or for watches. In contrast, the P3b component was affected by memory load irrespective of the stimulus category. Taken together, the results suggest that the VWM advantage for faces is not reflected at the sensory stages of stimulus processing, but rather at later higher-level processes as reflected by the P3b component. PMID:23921593

Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana; Persike, Malte; Berti, Stefan

2013-09-11

134

Encoding of faces and objects into visual working memory: an event-related brain potential study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Visual working memory (VWM) is an important prerequisite for cognitive functions, but little is known on whether the general perceptual processing advantage for faces also applies to VWM processes. The aim of the present study was (a) to test whether there is a general advantage for face stimuli in VWM and (b) to unravel whether this advantage is related to early sensory processing stages. To address these questions, we compared encoding of faces and complex nonfacial objects into VWM within a combined behavioral and event-related brain potential (ERP) study. In detail, we tested whether the N170 ERP component - which is associated with face-specific holistic processing - is affected by memory load for faces or whether it might be involved in WM encoding of any complex object. Participants performed a same-different task with either face or watch stimuli and with two different levels of memory load. Behavioral measures show an advantage for faces on the level of VWM, mirrored in higher estimated VWM capacity (i.e. Cowan's K) for faces compared with watches. In the ERP, the N170 amplitude was enhanced for faces compared with watches. However, the N170 was not modulated by working memory load either for faces or for watches. In contrast, the P3b component was affected by memory load irrespective of the stimulus category. Taken together, the results suggest that the VWM advantage for faces is not reflected at the sensory stages of stimulus processing, but rather at later higher-level processes as reflected by the P3b component.

Meinhardt-Injac B; Persike M; Berti S

2013-09-01

135

How Infants Relate Looker and Object: Evidence for a Perceptual Learning Account of Gaze Following in Infancy  

Science.gov (United States)

In two experiments, it was investigated how preverbal infants perceive the relationship between a person and an object she is looking at. More specifically, it was examined whether infants interpret an adult's object-directed gaze as a marker of an intention to act or whether they relate the person and the object via a mechanism of associative…

Paulus, Markus

2011-01-01

136

Subjective and objective wine quality in Central Mediterranean in relation to large scale climate patterns  

Science.gov (United States)

Subjective wine ranking is based on three factors: appearance (eye), smell (nose) and taste (palate); this kind of subjective ranking is often preferred over that based on technical objective means. Wine quality depends on its composition, which is a function of a number of factors: grapevine variety, soil type, cultivation techniques, and climate conditions. Between them, the soil is the main fixed factor; the positive trend is determined by a combination of improved cultural techniques and of warming related to climate change; while the climate variability is the main factor in determining the year-to-year wine quality variations. Therefore, the analysis of the grape composition before harvest is crucial for establishing the quality-climate correlations. In this work, 40 years of objective and subjective wine quality data collected in Italy are analyzed in relation to the climate conditions. Results show that the year-to-year quality variation of wines produced in North and Central Italy depends on the large scale climate variability, and that the wine quality improvement in the last four decades is partially due to an increase of temperature and to a decrease of the precipitations in West and Central Mediterranean Europe (WME; CME). In addition, wine quality is positively correlated with air temperature throughout the entire active period of the grapevine; weakly negatively correlated with precipitation in spring, and well negatively correlated in summer and fall. The month-to-month composites of the NAO anomaly show that, in years of good quality wine, this anomaly is negative in late spring, oscillates around zero in summer, and is positive in early fall; while, in years of bad quality wine, it is positive in late spring and summer, and negative in early fall; i.e. its polarity has an opposite sign in spring and fall in good versus bad years. The composite seasonal maps show that good wines are produced when the spring jet stream over Atlantic diverts most of the weather perturbations towards North Europe, still providing a sufficient amount of rainwater to CME; when summer warming induced by southerly winds is balanced by the cooling induced by westerly winds; and when a positive geopotential anomaly over WME shelters CME from fall Atlantic storms. Bad quality wines are produced when the jet stream favors the intrusion of the Atlantic weather perturbations into the Mediterranean. Results suggest that the persistence of atmospheric patterns can be used as precursor for wine quality forecast.

Baldi, Marina; Dalu, John David; Dalla Marta, Anna; Orlandini, Simone; Maracchi, Gianpiero; Dalu, Giovannangelo; Grifoni, Daniele; Mancini, Marco

2013-04-01

137

From a set of parts to an indivisible whole. Part III: Holistic space of multi-object relations  

CERN Multimedia

The previously described methodology for hierarchical grouping of objects through iterative averaging has been used for simulation of cooperative interactions between objects of a system with the purpose of investigation of the conformational organization of the system. Interactions between objects were analyzed within the space of an isotropic field of one of the objects (drifter). Such an isotropic field of an individual object can be viewed as a prototype of computer ego. It allows visualization of a holistic space of multi-object relations (HSMOR) which has a complex structure depending on the number of objects, their mutual arrangement in space, and the type of metric used for assessment of (dis)similarities between the objects. In the course of computer simulation of cooperative interactions between the objects, only those points of the space were registered which corresponded to transitions in hierarchical grouping. Such points appeared to aggregate into complex spatial structures determining a unique ...

Andreev, Leonid

2008-01-01

138

Time to face FACs: How fuel clauses undermine energy efficiency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fully reconciled fuel adjustment clauses remove incentives for energy efficiency on both sides of the meter. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 provides a logical opportunity to re-examine both their design and appropriteness.

Morgan, R.E.

1993-10-01

139

Relaciones sintácticas en la zona adverbial: El caso de pues SYNTACTICAL RELATIONSHIP IN ADVERBIAL CLAUSES: THE PUES CONNECTOR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En el marco propuesto por Borzi (2001 y 2010), sostenemos que los esquemas binarios de coordinación/subordinación (definidos a priori y cuyas limitaciones se aspira a resolver por medio del concepto de interordinación) no son pertinentes para dar cuenta de la relación existente en el período causal porque esta es el resultado de los grados de coherencia/continuidad discursiva existente entre las cláusulas que lo conforman. El presente artículo propone estudiar el tipo de relación sintáctica que se establece entre las cláusulas causales introducidas por pues y la otra cláusula del período en el discurso alberdiano en relación con los siguientes parámetros: a) continuidad tópica entre los conectados del período causal, b) distribución de la información, c) iconicidad del orden de las cláusulas respecto del orden de los hechos y d) función retórica de ambas cláusulas.Within the framework proposed by Borzi (2001 and 2010), we argue that coordination/subordination binary schemes (defined a priori and whose deficiencies the concept of interordination attempts to resolve) are not pertinent to attest the existing relationship in the causal period because this is the result of the degrees of discursive coherence/continuity that exist between the clauses that constitute it.The present article proposes to study the type of syntactical relationship that is established between causal clauses introduced by pues (then) and the other clause of the period in Alberdi’s discourse in relation to the following parameters: a) topic continuity between the connected clauses, b) information distribution, c) iconicity of the order of the  clauses in relation to the order of the facts and d) rhetoric function of both clauses.

Mariana Morón Usandivaras

2013-01-01

140

THE COMPLEX CLAUSE IN BORUCA LA ORACIÓN COMPLEJA EN LA LENGUA BORUCA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper describes the complex clause in Boruca, a Chibchan language once spoken in the southern territories on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The present study concentrates on the behavior of complex clauses, following a major distinction between paratactic and hypotactic constructions. Paratactic constructions are divided into asyndetic and syndetic constructions. The latter are quite frequent and it is common to find the syndetons: mang, ní, ihchí and iné in the combination of sentences in regular speech. Hypotactic constructions also have asyndetic and syndetic constructions usually functioning as object complements. There is also evidence for reported speech, indirect questions and adverbial clauses (classified at least into seven different types).El artículo describe la oración compleja del boruca, una lengua chibcha que se habló en los territorios del Pacífico Sur en Costa Rica. El estudio se centra en el comportamiento de las proposiciones complejas, a partir de la distinción principal entre construcciones paratácticas e hipotácticas. Las construcciones paratácticas se dividen en sindéticas y asindéticas. Estas últimas son bastante frecuentes, y el uso de los conectores mang, ní, ihchí e iné es también bastante utilizado en la combinación de frases del lenguaje común. Las construcciones hipotácticas también presentan asindesis y sindesis, las cuales suelen funcionar como complementos de objeto. Hay también evidencia de discurso directo e indirecto, preguntas indirectas y construcciones adverbiales (clasificadas en siete tipos diferentes).

Damaris Castro

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

[Self concept and object relations of patients with affective disorders--individual centered diagnosis with the repertory-grid technique  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Significant dimensions of the self concept and the object relations of 127 depressive patients and 34 orthopaedic patients were investigated with the repertory-grid-technique. Self concept and object relations were compared by means of nomothethically used idiographic results after recovery from manifest depression. The object relations of the depressive sample were characterised by the dimension "symbiotic near"; "ambivalent" and "indifferent" partnership relationships were found much more frequently in the controls. The idiographic results contribute to a differentiation of the spectrum of affective disorders. They underline the importance of the interpersonal dimension of depression and may be used as a basis of a therapeutic orientation.

Böker H; Budischewski K; Eppel A; Härtling F; Rinnert J; von Schmeling C; Will H; Northoff G; Schoeneich F

2000-08-01

142

Examining Complexity across Domains: Relating Subjective and Objective Measures of Affective Environmental Scenes, Paintings and Music  

Science.gov (United States)

Subjective complexity has been found to be related to hedonic measures of preference, pleasantness and beauty, but there is no consensus about the nature of this relationship in the visual and musical domains. Moreover, the affective content of stimuli has been largely neglected so far in the study of complexity but is crucial in many everyday contexts and in aesthetic experiences. We thus propose a cross-domain approach that acknowledges the multidimensional nature of complexity and that uses a wide range of objective complexity measures combined with subjective ratings. In four experiments, we employed pictures of affective environmental scenes, representational paintings, and Romantic solo and chamber music excerpts. Stimuli were pre-selected to vary in emotional content (pleasantness and arousal) and complexity (low versus high number of elements). For each set of stimuli, in a between-subjects design, ratings of familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal were obtained for a presentation time of 25 s from 152 participants. In line with Berlyne’s collative-motivation model, statistical analyses controlling for familiarity revealed a positive relationship between subjective complexity and arousal, and the highest correlations were observed for musical stimuli. Evidence for a mediating role of arousal in the complexity-pleasantness relationship was demonstrated in all experiments, but was only significant for females with regard to music. The direction and strength of the linear relationship between complexity and pleasantness depended on the stimulus type and gender. For environmental scenes, the root mean square contrast measures and measures of compressed file size correlated best with subjective complexity, whereas only edge detection based on phase congruency yielded equivalent results for representational paintings. Measures of compressed file size and event density also showed positive correlations with complexity and arousal in music, which is relevant for the discussion on which aspects of complexity are domain-specific and which are domain-general.

Marin, Manuela M.; Leder, Helmut

2013-01-01

143

Examining Complexity across Domains: Relating Subjective and Objective Measures of Affective Environmental Scenes, Paintings and Music.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Subjective complexity has been found to be related to hedonic measures of preference, pleasantness and beauty, but there is no consensus about the nature of this relationship in the visual and musical domains. Moreover, the affective content of stimuli has been largely neglected so far in the study of complexity but is crucial in many everyday contexts and in aesthetic experiences. We thus propose a cross-domain approach that acknowledges the multidimensional nature of complexity and that uses a wide range of objective complexity measures combined with subjective ratings. In four experiments, we employed pictures of affective environmental scenes, representational paintings, and Romantic solo and chamber music excerpts. Stimuli were pre-selected to vary in emotional content (pleasantness and arousal) and complexity (low versus high number of elements). For each set of stimuli, in a between-subjects design, ratings of familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal were obtained for a presentation time of 25 s from 152 participants. In line with Berlyne's collative-motivation model, statistical analyses controlling for familiarity revealed a positive relationship between subjective complexity and arousal, and the highest correlations were observed for musical stimuli. Evidence for a mediating role of arousal in the complexity-pleasantness relationship was demonstrated in all experiments, but was only significant for females with regard to music. The direction and strength of the linear relationship between complexity and pleasantness depended on the stimulus type and gender. For environmental scenes, the root mean square contrast measures and measures of compressed file size correlated best with subjective complexity, whereas only edge detection based on phase congruency yielded equivalent results for representational paintings. Measures of compressed file size and event density also showed positive correlations with complexity and arousal in music, which is relevant for the discussion on which aspects of complexity are domain-specific and which are domain-general.

Marin MM; Leder H

2013-01-01

144

Relation between objective measures of atopy and myocardial infarction in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Although rodent studies indicate that atherosclerosis is a T(H)1-mediated disease and that atopic T(H)2 immunity is atheroprotective, findings in humans are conflicting. Total IgE (tIgE) is associated with atherosclerotic disease but has limited specificity for atopy. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine the relation between atopy, as indicated by a broad panel of serum allergen-specific IgE (sIgE), and past myocardial infarction (MI) in a sample representative of the US population. METHODS: Data were analyzed from 4002 participants aged ? 20 years from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. RESULTS: Subjects reporting a history of MI had lower summed sIgE (5.51 vs 7.71 kU/L; P < .001) and were less likely to have ? 1 positive sIgE test (29.9% vs 44.6%; P = .02) or current hay fever (3.3% vs 7.6%; P = .002). After adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, family history of MI, smoking, total/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, and C-reactive protein, the odds ratio (OR) for MI was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.85-0.97) per positive sIgE; 0.70 (95% CI, 0.57-0.85) per 2-fold increase in sum[sIgE]; and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.69-0.98) per 10% increase in the ratio of sum[sIgE] to tIgE. Analysis with 7 data-driven, prespecified allergen clusters found that house dust mite is the only allergen cluster for which sIgE is associated with reduced odds for MI (fully adjusted OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.20-0.64). CONCLUSION: Serum sIgE is inversely related to MI in the US population in a manner independent of multiple coronary risk factors.

Jaramillo R; Cohn RD; Crockett PW; Gowdy KM; Zeldin DC; Fessler MB

2013-02-01

145

2-Sat Sub-Clauses and the Hypernodal Structure of the 3-Sat Problem  

CERN Document Server

Like simpler graphs, nested (hypernodal) graphs consist of two components: a set of nodes and a set of edges, where each edge connects a pair of nodes. In the hypernodal graph model, however, a node may contain other graphs, so that a node may be contained in a graph that it contains. The inherently recursive structure of the hypernodal graph model aptly characterizes both the structure and dynamic of the 3-sat problem, a broadly applicable, though intractable, computer science problem. In this paper I first discuss the structure of the 3-sat problem, analyzing the relation of 3-sat to 2-sat, a related, though tractable problem. I then discuss sub-clauses and sub-clause thresholds and the transformation of sub-clauses into implication graphs, demonstrating how combinations of implication graphs are equivalent to hypernodal graphs. I conclude with a brief discussion of the use of hypernodal graphs to model the 3-sat problem, illustrating how hypernodal graphs model both the conditions for satisfiability and th...

Powell, D B

2004-01-01

146

The Object-Based Simon Effect: Grasping Affordance or Relative Location of the Graspable Part?  

Science.gov (United States)

Reaction time is often shorter when the irrelevant graspable handle of an object corresponds with the location of a keypress response to the relevant attribute than when it does not. This object-based Simon effect has been attributed to an affordance for grasping the handle with the hand to the same side. Because a grasping affordance should…

Cho, Dongbin; Proctor, Robert W.

2010-01-01

147

Management by objectives in relation to optimal experience in the workplace  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to discover whether Management by Objectives could be used to create optimal experience in the workplace, two tests were constructed. These were a measure of Management by Objectives (42 items) and a measure of Optimal Experience (24 items). First and second-order factor analyses were perfo...

S. Loubris; F. Crous; J. M. Scheepers

148

Syntaktische Nebensatzklassen im Deutschen/ Syntactic classes of subordinate clauses in German  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Abstract in portuguese O artigo dá uma visão panorâmica das classes de orações subordinadas da língua alemã. Suas funções e estruturas sintáticas são descritas mediante o esquema das posições e dos campos. Três aspectos específicos são tratados mais a fundo: as funções (i) de pronomes e (ii) de partículas de comparação em relação a orações subordinadas e (iii) o papel de orações subordinadas em construções clivadas. O artigo pode ser usado para fins didáticos no meio acadêmico e como ponto de partida para estudos em sintaxe comparativa. Abstract in english This article gives an overview of the syntactic classes of subordinate clauses in German. Their functions and structures are described with the help of the model of linear positions and fields. Three questions are treated in more detail: the functions of (i) pronouns and (ii) comparative particles in relation to subordinate clauses and (iii) the role of subordinate clauses in cleft constructions. The article can be used in academic teaching and as a starting point for studies in comparative syntax.

Blühdorn, Hardarik

2013-06-01

149

How infants relate looker and object: evidence for a perceptual learning account of gaze following in infancy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In two experiments, it was investigated how preverbal infants perceive the relationship between a person and an object she is looking at. More specifically, it was examined whether infants interpret an adult's object-directed gaze as a marker of an intention to act or whether they relate the person and the object via a mechanism of associative learning. Fourteen-month-old infants observed an adult gazing repeatedly at one of two objects. When the adult reached out to grasp this object in the test trials, infants showed no systematic visual anticipations to it (i.e. first visual anticipatory gaze shifts) but only displayed longer looking times for this object than for another before her hand reached the object. However, they showed visual anticipatory gaze shifts to the correct action target when only the grasping action was presented. The second experiment shows that infants also look longer at the object a person has been gazing at when the person is still present, but is not performing any action during the test trials. Looking preferences for the objects were reversed, however, when the person was absent during the test trials. This study provides evidence for the claim that infants around 1 year of age do not employ other people's object-directed gaze to anticipate future actions, but to establish person-object associations. The implications of this finding for theoretical conceptions of infants' social-cognitive development are discussed.

Paulus M

2011-11-01

150

Reasoning about Function Objects  

Science.gov (United States)

Modern object-oriented languages support higher-order implementations through function objects such as delegates in C#, agents in Eiffel, or closures in Scala. Function objects bring a new level of abstraction to the object-oriented programming model, and require a comparable extension to specification and verification techniques. We introduce a verification methodology that extends function objects with auxiliary side-effect free (pure) methods to model logical artifacts: preconditions, postconditions and modifies clauses. These pure methods can be used to specify client code abstractly, that is, independently from specific instantiations of the function objects. To demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, we have implemented an automatic prover, which verifies several non-trivial examples.

Nordio, Martin; Calcagno, Cristiano; Meyer, Bertrand; Müller, Peter; Tschannen, Julian

151

Automatic-adjustment clauses and allocative efficiency in public utilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a formal analysis of the efficiency effects of automatic-adjustment clauses (AACs) in regulated industries. Using a two-imput model of ex ante/ex post input choice and general putty-clay technology, the authors analyze the relative extent of allocative distortions due to each of three alternative regulatory policies (periodic rate review with and without an AAC, and an AAC without any rate review) for the case of a regulated firm that chooses an ex post technology to maximize the present value of future profits. Results indicate that the economic rationale for using AACs in industries already subject to intermittent rate review is not unambiguous, even in the face of severe cost inflation, and is particularly sensitive to the magnitude of the price elasticity of demand for output and the rate and direction of input price changes. It is concluded that the use of AACs in regulated industries such as electric power, while originally justified on the basis of financial viability, may well carry significant economic costs in the form of allocative inefficiency that may outweight the benefits. 49 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

Cowing, T.G. (State Univ. of New York, Binghamton); Stevenson, R.E.

1982-01-01

152

Parametric Optimization on Multi-Objective Precision Turning Using Grey Relational Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, L9(34) orthogonal array of Taguchi experiment is selected for four parameters (speed, cutting depth, feed rate, tool nose runoff) with three levels in optimizing the multi-objective (surface roughness, tool wear and material removal rate) precision turning on...

M.Y. Wang; T.S. Lan

153

Spectral energy distribution and generalized Wien's law for photons, cosmic string loops and related physical objects  

CERN Multimedia

Physical objects with energy $u_w(l) \\sim l^{-3w}$ with $l$ a characteristic length and $w$ a numerical constant ($-1 \\leq w \\leq 1$), lead to an equation of state $p=w\\rho$, with $p$ the pressure and $\\rho$ the energy density. Special objects with this property are, for instance, photons ($u = hc/l$, with $l$ the wavelength) with $w = 1/3$, and some models of cosmic string loops ($u = (c^4/aG)l$, with $l$ the length of the loop and $a$ a numerical constant), with $w = -1/3$, and maybe other kinds of objects as, for instance, hypothetical cosmic membranes with lateral size $l$ and energy proportional to the area, i.e. to $l^2$, for which $w = -2/3$, or the yet unknown constituents of dark energy, with $w = -1$. Here, we discuss the general features of the spectral energy distribution of these systems and the corresponding generalization of Wien's law, which has the form $Tl_{mp}^{3w}=constant$, being $l_{mp}$ the most probable size of the mentioned objects.

Jou, David; Sciacca, Michele

2013-01-01

154

Attachment, social cognition, and posttraumatic stress symptoms in a traumatized, urban population: evidence for the mediating role of object relations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research has linked multiple risk and resiliency factors to developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One potentially important construct for understanding connections between trauma and PTSD is attachment. Although relationships between attachment and risk for PTSD have been described theoretically, limited research has addressed these relationships empirically. Furthermore, aspects of object relations overlap with attachment and PTSD, but have not been adequately incorporated in empirical research. One proposed pathway between attachment and PTSD involves the mediating role of object relations, particularly views of self and others. Present data were from a larger study investigating environmental and genetic risk factors for PTSD in an impoverished, primarily African American sample seeking care at a public urban hospital. Correlations indicated that adult attachment (with the exception of dismissing) and object relations relate to childhood traumas, (|r|s = .19-.29), adult traumas (|r|s = .14-.20), and self-reported PTSD symptoms (|r|s = .20-.36). Analyses also found support for mediational roles of object relations in relationships between attachment and PTSD symptoms (Model R(2) range = .136-.160). These data have theoretical, clinical, and research implications for understanding how particular aspects of attachment, specifically its effects on object relations, may protect against or predispose one to develop PTSD.

Ortigo KM; Westen D; Defife JA; Bradley B

2013-06-01

155

[Internal representation of diseased organs and symbolic disguise of conflictual object relations].  

Science.gov (United States)

Psychoanalytic-psychosomatic hypotheses assume, among other things, that patients with psychosomatic diseases tend to represent conflict-laden object relationship experiences symbolically in the diseased organ of the body. This assertion was tested on 139 patients having inflammatory and irritable bowel diseases with the help of the repertory grid technique. Univariate analysis showed that this hypothesis not only applies to the primary object, but is also valid for the partner relationship. Neither gender nor illness behaviour affect the connections observed here. Although patients with irritable bowel diseases as well as those suffering from Crohn's disease or colitis ulcerosa, have differing pathogeneses, there is a comparable tendency in all three diagnostic groups to represent object relationships leaded with conflict symbolically in the diseased organ of the body. The finding that the physical and psychological condition of the moment in the sense of a reactive component like-wise has to intervening influence, leads to the supposition that, in accordance with theoretical assumptions, this is a general factor. PMID:9454266

Porsch, U

1997-11-01

156

Promoting the demoted : The distribution and semantics of “main clause word order” in spoken Danish complement clauses  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this article, we investigate a hypothesis regarding the distinction between the word orders ‘finite verb, adverb’ (V>Adv, in Scandinavian linguistics often considered an instance of V2, also in subject initial clauses) and ‘adverb, finite verb’ (Adv>V, sometimes referred to as V3) in Mainland Scandinavian complement clauses. The hypothesis is semantico-pragmatic and reads that V>Adv signals foregrounding of the subordinate clause, i.e. that its content is the main point of the utterance. Our results, based upon detailed coding of the LANCHART corpus of spoken Danish, are readily interpretable as supporting the semantico-pragmatic hypothesis. Our results show that V>Adv is much more frequent in subordinate clauses than commonly assumed, and that complement clauses in Danish are not in general characterized by having Adv>V word order, but only by the possibility of having this word order. Results seemingly in conflict with predictions of the semantico-pragmatic hypothesis are discussed with respect to possible norm conflicts and shifts in communicative strategy during speech production.

Jensen, Torben Juel; Christensen, Tanya Karoli

2013-01-01

157

Comparison and benchmarks for import of VPF geographic data from object-oriented and relational database files  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents some of the advantages accrued from adopting anobject-oriented (OO) data model versus the relational data model whenrepresenting and managing a Vector Product Format (VPF) database, specificallythe Digital Nautical Chart (DNC) for Norfolk Harbor, Virginia. An OO-DNCprototype viewer capable of importing, displaying and editing DNC feature databoth from relational-format and from object-format files was developed using theSmalltalk language. The differences in performance between the relational importand the object import were then compared across several DNC coverages. Theresults indicate a significant increase in performance when adopting the OOparadigm; specifically the OO-DNC viewer imported feature data from objectformatfiles from 6 to 15 times faster than from the relational-format files. It shouldbe noted that these figures are NOT the result of comparing a commercial objectorienteddatabase managment system (ODBMS) against a commercial relational...

David Arctur; Eman Anwar; John Alex; Sharma Chakravarthy; Miyi Chung; Maria Cobb; Kevin Shaw

158

Management by objectives in relation to optimal experience in the workplace  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to discover whether Management by Objectives could be used to create optimal experience in the workplace, two tests were constructed. These were a measure of Management by Objectives (42 items) and a measure of Optimal Experience (24 items). First and second-order factor analyses were performed on both inventories to identify the true factors. Item analyses were performed to verify the reliability of both instruments. Pearson Productmoment correlations were computed to assess the relationship between the constructs. The implications are discussed. Opsomming Ten einde te bepaal of Doelwitbestuur gebruik kan word om optimale ervaring in die hand te werk is twee toetse gekonstrueer, naamlik 'n meetinstrument van Doelwitbestuur (42 items) en 'n meetinstrument van Optimale Ervaring (24 items). Eerste en tweedeorde-faktorontledings is uitgevoer op altwee meetinstrumente om die ware faktore uit te haal. 'n Itemontleding is uitgevoer om die betroubaarheid van albei instrumente te bepaal. Pearson Produk-moment korrelasies is bereken om die verwantskap tussen die twee konstrukte te bepaal. Die implikasies van die bevindinge is bespreek.

S. Loubris; F. Crous; J. M. Scheepers

1995-01-01

159

48 CFR 1437.7202 - When is the biomass utilization clause required?  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false When is the biomass utilization clause required? 1437.7202... SERVICE CONTRACTING Utilization of Woody Biomass § 1437.7202 When is the biomass utilization clause required? (a)...

2009-10-01

160

Suicide-nearness assessed with PORT, the Percept-genetic Object-Relation Test: A replication and a reliability study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To determine the reliability and validity of a previously identified "suicide cluster" in the Percept-genetic Object-Relation Test (PORT), which test documents subliminal perception of object-relation pictures, 20 suicide attempters and 70 controls were investigated. The correspondence between scores assigned by two judges was 95%-100%. The suicide-cluster signs in PORT, notably "lack of attachment relationships" and "Motor activity," were significant. Differences between the results of this and the previous study are discussed as is the role of psychiatric disorder in suicide.

Titelman D; Nilsson A; Svensson B; Karlsson H; Bruchfeld S

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
161

Suicide-nearness assessed with PORT, the Percept-genetic Object-Relation Test: A replication and a reliability study.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine the reliability and validity of a previously identified "suicide cluster" in the Percept-genetic Object-Relation Test (PORT), which test documents subliminal perception of object-relation pictures, 20 suicide attempters and 70 controls were investigated. The correspondence between scores assigned by two judges was 95%-100%. The suicide-cluster signs in PORT, notably "lack of attachment relationships" and "Motor activity," were significant. Differences between the results of this and the previous study are discussed as is the role of psychiatric disorder in suicide. PMID:22166128

Titelman, David; Nilsson, Alf; Svensson, Bengt; Karlsson, Hans; Bruchfeld, Suzanne

2011-12-01

162

Statistical relations among architectural features and objective acoustical measurements of concert halls  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A statistical analysis of architectural features and detailed objective acoustical measurements made in eight concert halls and several multi-use rooms in their concert configuration will be presented. A method for evaluating the architectural features of rooms that affect their acoustical properties was developed. Architectural features of interest include both room average values and more-detailed subdivisions of surfaces including shape, volume, height, width, and sound absorption properties of materials. Regression modeling was performed for individual source–receiver paths as well as for entire rooms. Measurements data from all three teams were used in the models to assess the sensitivity of the models to expect variations in measurements. The results were compared to the previous work of Barron, Gade, and Hook among others. [Work supported by the National Science Foundation and Concert Hall Research Group.

Gade, Anders Christian; Siebein, G. W.

1993-01-01

163

OBJECTIVES AND REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO THE SUSTAINABILITY OF ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to the EU Sustainable Development Strategy, whose foundations were laid in Gothenburg 2001, sustainability requires simultaneous and impartial consideration of economic, social and environmental consequences of any decision taken, so at this point, stating that “the EU to become the world whose economy is highly efficient use of resources with a high quality of life of its citizens and where socio-economic development of environmentally”. As a result, international organizations, European and national support implementation of projects and strategies to change unsustainable consumption patterns. In this sense, sustainable solutions and increased use of renewable energy resources, practice on a larger scale organic farming and intelligent management of urban waste are major objectives of not only environmental policies, but also the quality of life.

Elena Cofas

2013-01-01

164

For a relational approach to modern literary Arabic conditional clauses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on novels written in Modern Standard Arabic published between 1963 and 2005 and from the entire Arab world, this article suggests how the hypothetical systems of this variety of language no longer correspond to the established "classical" model. Specifically, it demonstrates that the so called...

Sartori, Manuel

165

Humanizing the impostor: object relations and illness equations in the neonatal intensive care unit.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper I explore a seemingly mundane and inconsequential act--that of placing dolls and stuffed animals into newborns' incubator machines, in what I dub a kind of "teddy bear diplomacy," whereby mothers ornament their babies' high tech life-support prostheses with commonplace toys and trinkets. Using hospital ethnography and maternal interviews, I probe the psychodynamic significations of these ornamenting acts, which aspire to domesticate, animate and even humanize the incubator, itself a cyborg womb that displaces maternal purpose and problematizes bonding. The stress triggered by a high-risk infant and the double bind imposed by the therapeutic protocol lead me to here examine the intersubjectivity of illness in mothers' comorbidity and satellite syndromes. I argue that teddy bears and like artifacts serve as countertransitional objects to materially symbolize and perform the imagined mother-child dyad. Moreover, as autopoetic devices in the metamorphosis of maternal identity, they may empower a mother's vicarious participation in her child's healing, and thereby work towards closure of her own intersubjective afflictions.

Landzelius KM

2003-03-01

166

Humanizing the impostor: object relations and illness equations in the neonatal intensive care unit.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper I explore a seemingly mundane and inconsequential act--that of placing dolls and stuffed animals into newborns' incubator machines, in what I dub a kind of "teddy bear diplomacy," whereby mothers ornament their babies' high tech life-support prostheses with commonplace toys and trinkets. Using hospital ethnography and maternal interviews, I probe the psychodynamic significations of these ornamenting acts, which aspire to domesticate, animate and even humanize the incubator, itself a cyborg womb that displaces maternal purpose and problematizes bonding. The stress triggered by a high-risk infant and the double bind imposed by the therapeutic protocol lead me to here examine the intersubjectivity of illness in mothers' comorbidity and satellite syndromes. I argue that teddy bears and like artifacts serve as countertransitional objects to materially symbolize and perform the imagined mother-child dyad. Moreover, as autopoetic devices in the metamorphosis of maternal identity, they may empower a mother's vicarious participation in her child's healing, and thereby work towards closure of her own intersubjective afflictions. PMID:12825782

Landzelius, Kyra Marie

2003-03-01

167

Sex-related preferences for real and doll faces versus real and toy objects in young infants and adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

Findings of previous studies demonstrate sex-related preferences for toys in 6-month-old infants; boys prefer nonsocial or mechanical toys such as cars, whereas girls prefer social toys such as dolls. Here, we explored the innate versus learned nature of this sex-related preferences using multiple pictures of doll and real faces (of men and women) as well as pictures of toy and real objects (cars and stoves). In total, 48 4- and 5-month-old infants (24 girls and 24 boys) and 48 young adults (24 women and 24 men) saw six trials of all relevant pairs of faces and objects, with each trial containing a different exemplar of a stimulus type. The infant results showed no sex-related preferences; infants preferred faces of men and women regardless of whether they were real or doll faces. Similarly, adults did not show sex-related preferences for social versus nonsocial stimuli, but unlike infants they preferred faces of the opposite sex over objects. These results challenge claims of an innate basis for sex-related preferences for toy real stimuli and suggest that sex-related preferences result from maturational and social development that continues into adulthood. PMID:23933180

Escudero, Paola; Robbins, Rachel A; Johnson, Scott P

2013-08-07

168

Sex-related preferences for real and doll faces versus real and toy objects in young infants and adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Findings of previous studies demonstrate sex-related preferences for toys in 6-month-old infants; boys prefer nonsocial or mechanical toys such as cars, whereas girls prefer social toys such as dolls. Here, we explored the innate versus learned nature of this sex-related preferences using multiple pictures of doll and real faces (of men and women) as well as pictures of toy and real objects (cars and stoves). In total, 48 4- and 5-month-old infants (24 girls and 24 boys) and 48 young adults (24 women and 24 men) saw six trials of all relevant pairs of faces and objects, with each trial containing a different exemplar of a stimulus type. The infant results showed no sex-related preferences; infants preferred faces of men and women regardless of whether they were real or doll faces. Similarly, adults did not show sex-related preferences for social versus nonsocial stimuli, but unlike infants they preferred faces of the opposite sex over objects. These results challenge claims of an innate basis for sex-related preferences for toy real stimuli and suggest that sex-related preferences result from maturational and social development that continues into adulthood.

Escudero P; Robbins RA; Johnson SP

2013-10-01

169

Indefiniteness relation and diffraction of micro-objects at screen with aperture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of interpreting the Heisenberg indefiniteness, when microparticles are passed through an aperture in a massive screen is considered. It is shown that derivation of the indefiniteness relations on the basis of diffraction approach, as it is sometimes done in manuals and guides on general physics, is not quite correct. Using the approximation which makes allowance for atomic structure of a screen with an aperture and uses quantum theory of single scattering on many centers, it was found that the picture of microparticle scattering on a screen with an aperture is similar to optical diffraction

2000-01-01

170

Integrating Conflict Driven Clause Learning to Local Search  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article introduces SatHyS (SAT HYbrid Solver), a novel hybrid approach for propositional satisfiability. It combines local search and conflict driven clause learning (CDCL) scheme. Each time the local search part reaches a local minimum, the CDCL is launched. For SAT problems it behaves like a ...

Gilles Audenard; Jean-Marie Lagniez; Bertrand Mazure; Lakhdar Saïs

171

Aspects of royalty clauses inside freehold oil and gas leases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of the most common royalty clauses currently used are discussed with particular emphasis on the CAPL 88 and the CAPL 91 petroleum and natural gas lease forms and the provisions regarding lessors and lessees. The problems regarding their practical applications are described. The legal status of a royalty inside a freehold oil and gas lease is also examined. 4 refs

1998-01-01

172

Clause union and verb raising phenomena in German  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we discuss a class of constructions in German syntax which have been known as coherent infinitive, clause union or verb raising constructions. These data run against the predictions of strictly configurational theories by apparently having a syntactic structure where the subcategorizat...

Netter, Klaus

173

A systematic review of reliability and objective criterion-related validity of physical activity questionnaires  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Physical inactivity is one of the four leading risk factors for global mortality. Accurate measurement of physical activity (PA) and in particular by physical activity questionnaires (PAQs) remains a challenge. The aim of this paper is to provide an updated systematic review of the reliability and validity characteristics of existing and more recently developed PAQs and to quantitatively compare the performance between existing and newly developed PAQs. A literature search of electronic databases was performed for studies assessing reliability and validity data of PAQs using an objective criterion measurement of PA between January 1997 and December 2011. Articles meeting the inclusion criteria were screened and data were extracted to provide a systematic overview of measurement properties. Due to differences in reported outcomes and criterion methods a quantitative meta-analysis was not possible. In total, 31 studies testing 34 newly developed PAQs, and 65 studies examining 96 existing PAQs were included. Very few PAQs showed good results on both reliability and validity. Median reliability correlation coefficients were 0.62–0.71 for existing, and 0.74–0.76 for new PAQs. Median validity coefficients ranged from 0.30–0.39 for existing, and from 0.25–0.41 for new PAQs. Although the majority of PAQs appear to have acceptable reliability, the validity is moderate at best. Newly developed PAQs do not appear to perform substantially better than existing PAQs in terms of reliability and validity. Future PAQ studies should include measures of absolute validity and the error structure of the instrument.

Helmerhorst Hendrik JF; Brage Søren; Warren Janet; Besson Herve; Ekelund Ulf

2012-01-01

174

Metamemory knowledge and beliefs in patients with schizophrenia and how these relate to objective cognitive abilities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Subjective reports and theories about memory may have an influence on other beliefs and behaviours. Patients with schizophrenia suffer a wide range of deficits affecting their awareness of daily life, including memory. With the Metamemory Inventory in Adulthood (MIA) we ascertained patients' memory knowledge and thoughts about their own cognitive capacities and about several aspects of cognitive functioning: personal capacities, knowledge of processes, use of strategies, perceived change with ageing, anxiety, motivation and mastery. The participants' ratings were correlated with their intellectual, cognitive and psychiatric data. Patients felt they had a lower capacity and marginally lower mastery over their memory than comparison subjects. They reported less recourse to strategies, and higher levels of memory-related anxiety. However, their knowledge of basic memory processes, motivation to succeed, and perception of ageing effects were similar. So patients with schizophrenia do not suffer a general and non specific impairment of their metacognitive knowledge.

Bacon E; Huet N; Danion JM

2011-12-01

175

Metamemory knowledge and beliefs in patients with schizophrenia and how these relate to objective cognitive abilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Subjective reports and theories about memory may have an influence on other beliefs and behaviours. Patients with schizophrenia suffer a wide range of deficits affecting their awareness of daily life, including memory. With the Metamemory Inventory in Adulthood (MIA) we ascertained patients' memory knowledge and thoughts about their own cognitive capacities and about several aspects of cognitive functioning: personal capacities, knowledge of processes, use of strategies, perceived change with ageing, anxiety, motivation and mastery. The participants' ratings were correlated with their intellectual, cognitive and psychiatric data. Patients felt they had a lower capacity and marginally lower mastery over their memory than comparison subjects. They reported less recourse to strategies, and higher levels of memory-related anxiety. However, their knowledge of basic memory processes, motivation to succeed, and perception of ageing effects were similar. So patients with schizophrenia do not suffer a general and non specific impairment of their metacognitive knowledge. PMID:21798766

Bacon, Elisabeth; Huet, Nathalie; Danion, Jean-Marie

2011-07-27

176

Objective evaluation of the relative modulation transfer function of densitometers for digitisation of electron micrographs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Digitisation of images recorded on film is a crucial part of data acquisition in electron microscopy, particularly for electron cryo-microscopy of biological specimens where the contrast and signal-to-noise ratio are low. A quantitative method to evaluate and compare the quality of densitometers, as measured by the modulation transfer function (MTF), is described here. The densitometer is modelled as a linear system, the output being the convolution of the input image and a point spread function. The MTF is the magnitude of the Fourier transform of the point spread function. The relative MTF describes the quality of signal transfer with spatial frequency. It is important that fine structural details in the micrograph are digitised with a high value for the MTF which does not vary with direction. A test pattern has been generated by projecting an electron image of a grid pattern onto film. The film is scanned and a computer program measures the intensities of the diffraction orders of the repeating pattern. Three different scanners are compared, one is a point scanner and the other two are line scanners. The test can be used to check if a scanner is set up optimally, and how it compares with another scanner.

2003-01-01

177

Personality and object relations in patients with affective disorders: idiographic research by means of the repertory grid technique.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This paper presents an idiographic approach to evaluate the self concept and the self-object-relationship of patients suffering from affective disorders. METHODS: Significant dimensions of the personality and the object relations of 127 depressive patients and 34 orthopaedic patients were investigated with the repertory grid-technique. The self concept and the object relations were compared by means of nomothetically used idiographic results after recovery from manifest depression. RESULTS: 'Low self esteem' was frequently found in patients with a long lasting course of illness and the ICD-10-diagnoses of 'bipolar affective disorder' and 'dysthymia'. The object relations of the depressive sample were characterised by the dimension 'symbiotic near'; 'ambivalent' and 'indifferent' partnership relationships were found much more frequently in the controls. CONCLUSIONS: The idiographic results help to differentiate the spectrum of affective disorders. They underline the importance of the interpersonal dimension of depression and may be used as a basis of a therapeutic appraisal. LIMITATIONS: The repertory grid-technique may not be used as a diagnostic instrument. However, the combination of idiographic results with further clinical informations enables the multidimensional assessment of the self concept and psychosocial coping mechanisms.

Böker H; Hell D; Budischewski K; Eppel A; Härtling F; Rinnert H; von Schmeling F; Will H; Schoeneich F; Northoff G

2000-10-01

178

Norwegian Object Shift as IP-internal topicalization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the phenomenon of Object Shift in Norwegian, and we show that this operation is more complex and discourse related than what has traditionally been assumed. We argue that Object Shift cannot be accounted for in a purely prosodic approach. Rather, we demonstrate that a common denominator for all objects undergoing Object Shift is that they are topics. We thus propose that Object Shift should be analysed as (IP-internal) topicalization. Furthermore, we discuss in detail the peculiar behaviour of the topical pronominal object det ‘it’ in cases where its referent is not an individuated, gender-agreeing noun, but rather a non-individuated referent, like a full clause, a VP or a type DP. In such cases, this pronoun typically refrains from Object Shift. We discuss the contrast between these types of objects and shifting objects in light of the topic hierarchy presented in Frascarelli & Hinterhölzl (2007) and show that pronominal objects that undergo Object Shift have the characteristics of familiar topics, while det ‘it’ in the nonshifting contexts have the characteristics of aboutness topics. Consequently, we propose that Object Shift only applies to pronominal objects that constitute familiar topics.

Merete Anderssen; Kristine Bentzen

2012-01-01

179

Syntactic priming in Chinese sentence comprehension: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Using the event-related potential (ERP) technique, this study examined the nature of syntactic priming effects in Chinese. Participants were required to read prime-target sentence pairs each embedding an ambiguous relative clause (RC) containing either the same verb or a synonymous verb. In Chinese, the word de serves as a relative clause marker. During reading a potential Chinese RC structure (either the prime or the target sentence), Chinese readers initially expect to read an Subject-Verb-Object (SVO) structure but the encounter of a relative clause marker de would make readers abandon the initial strategy and reanalyze the structure as a relative clause. A reduced P600 effect was elicited by the critical word de in the target sentence containing the same initial verb as in the prime sentence. No significant reduction of the P600 was observed in the target sentences in the synonymous condition. The results demonstrated that verb repetition but not similarity in meaning produced a syntactic priming effect in Chinese. The constraint-based lexicalist hypothesis and the argument structure theory were adopted to explain the syntactic priming effect obtained in the current study.

Chen Q; Xu X; Tan D; Zhang J; Zhong Y

2013-10-01

180

Syntactic priming in Chinese sentence comprehension: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using the event-related potential (ERP) technique, this study examined the nature of syntactic priming effects in Chinese. Participants were required to read prime-target sentence pairs each embedding an ambiguous relative clause (RC) containing either the same verb or a synonymous verb. In Chinese, the word de serves as a relative clause marker. During reading a potential Chinese RC structure (either the prime or the target sentence), Chinese readers initially expect to read an Subject-Verb-Object (SVO) structure but the encounter of a relative clause marker de would make readers abandon the initial strategy and reanalyze the structure as a relative clause. A reduced P600 effect was elicited by the critical word de in the target sentence containing the same initial verb as in the prime sentence. No significant reduction of the P600 was observed in the target sentences in the synonymous condition. The results demonstrated that verb repetition but not similarity in meaning produced a syntactic priming effect in Chinese. The constraint-based lexicalist hypothesis and the argument structure theory were adopted to explain the syntactic priming effect obtained in the current study. PMID:23973904

Chen, Qingrong; Xu, Xiaodong; Tan, Dingliang; Zhang, Jingjing; Zhong, Yuan

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
181

Self-concept and quality of object relations as predictors of outcome in short- and long-term psychotherapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Quality of object relations and self-concept reflect clinically relevant aspects of personality functioning, but their prediction as suitability factors for psychotherapies of different lengths has not been compared. This study compared their prediction on psychiatric symptoms and work ability in short- and long-term psychotherapy. METHODS: Altogether 326 patients, 20-46 years of age, with mood and/or anxiety disorder, were randomized to short-term (solution-focused or short-term psychodynamic) psychotherapy and long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy. The Quality of Object Relations Scale (QORS) and the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) self-concept questionnaire were measured at baseline, and their prediction on outcome during the 3-year follow-up was assessed by the Symptom Check List Global Severity Index and the Anxiety Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory and by the Work Ability Index, Social Adjustment Scale work subscale and the Perceived Psychological Functioning scale. RESULTS: Negative self-concept strongly and self-controlling characteristics modestly predicted better 3-year outcomes in long-term therapy, after faster early gains in short-term therapy. Patients with a more positive or self-emancipating self-concept, or more mature object relations, experienced more extensive benefits after long-term psychotherapy. LIMITATIONS: The importance of length vs. long-term therapy technique on the differences found is not known. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with mild to moderate personality pathology, indicated by poor self-concept, seem to benefit more from long-term than short-term psychotherapy, in reducing risk of depression. Long-term therapy may also be indicated for patients with relatively good psychological functioning. More research is needed on the relative importance of these characteristics in comparison with other patient-related factors.

Lindfors O; Knekt P; Heinonen E; Virtala E

2013-09-01

182

Claus Bonderup : Conversations with the architect and his unique wife Anne Just, about food, art and architecture  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Ever since I was a young student and met Claus Bonderup for the first time, I have been fascinated by his work. I still remember how we turned up for a lecture of his at the Aarhus School of Architecture in the beginning of the 1980s brimming with excitement; a lecture that would end up being very short as my professor ejected him from the auditorium. Claus was not merely a classic innovative architect but also very provocative in his holistic architecture. Back then, his works were too radical for the school. At Aalborg University, initially at the Department of Architecture & Design, and later at the Department of Civil Engineering, I have had the great pleasure of working with Claus for the last 15 years. During this time, I have had the opportunity to observe his skills as a teacher and disseminator, and I have seen the great respect he holds for young, dedicated people and witnessed the students’ confidence in him. In 2008, we wrote a small book, the “old student” and the two “young graduates” from Architecture & Design, who, I would like to emphasise, are two very special young people that have now seriously entered the frame of architectural research and teaching. Now, in the late summer of 2012, we have chosen to republish the first chapter of the book, which is about the DUCK HOUSE Claus created years ago; and we have done so for a very particular reason. A short time ago, I was approached by the director of the 13th International Architecture Exhibition, the highly esteemed British architect, David Chipperfield, and – to put it bluntly – an architect to my and Claus’ liking. Chipperfield has chosen a handful of schools of architecture and architectural universities from all over Europe, which have been invited to gather a group of students and exhibit architectural models; and I have been fortunate enough to be given this opportunity. Chipperfield has chosen to create a response to the prestigious VIP architects’ often staggeringly expensive exhibitions; he wants to make room for the new generation of up and coming architects, for the young, untested and especially talented students of architecture. During July, a group of talented students have therefore built seven architectural models that will be a part of the palette, or installation if you will, which will open in the Italian Pavilion at the end of August. It is quite extraordinary that Aalborg University has received the opportunity to exhibit for the entire period. This occasion must most certainly be marked, and Marie, Tenna and I, along with the students, consequently decided to work with BIRD HOUSES. There are several reasons for this. One of them is that in the coming years, we will launch a number of job-oriented architectural projects within Urban Farming in which the students will initially work with the subject as master’s students, but later, hopefully, as PhD students. Also, I have wished for a long time to give Claus Bonderup the recognition he deserves! His view of architecture, his knowledge and his way of relating to architecture has influenced and inspired generations of students. Claus, if anyone, deserves to be represented at the Biennale. Claus broke many unwritten rules with the Duck House he built for his Anne many years ago. The house has now been measured and reconstructed and has become the MOTHER house that serves as a basis for this project with its unique architectural models for the International Architecture Exhibition. Claus’ Duck House has, thus, in theory and practice alike, become the foundation for the new architectural models, and his thoughts on design have contributed to a fruitful dialogue with the students in their process of creating the architectural models, which can soon be seen at the 13th International Architecture Exhibition in Venice.

Fisker, Anna Marie; Hvejsel, Marie Frier

2012-01-01

183

Perceived and objective neighborhood environment attributes and health related quality of life among the elderly in Bogota, Colombia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examines associations between neighborhood environment attributes and health related quality of life (HRQOL) and self-rated health (SRH) among older adults (60 years and over) in Bogotá, Colombia. Perceived and objective neighborhood environmental characteristics were assessed in a cross sectional multilevel design with 1966 older adults within 50 neighborhoods. Outcome variables included HRQOL (physical and mental dimensions) and SRH measured with the Spanish version of the Short Form 8 (SF-8). Independent variables included perceived and objective neighborhood characteristics as well as self-reported levels of walking. Hierarchical linear and logistic regression models were used for the analysis. Among perceived neighborhood characteristics, safety from traffic was positively associated with both HRQOL dimensions and SRH. Having safe parks was positively associated with the mental dimension of HRQOL and with SRH. Street noise was negatively associated with both HRQOL dimensions. Regarding objective neighborhood characteristics, residing in areas with more than eight percent of land covered by public parks was positively associated with SRH. Objective and perceived neighborhood characteristics could provide insight into potential interventions among older adults from rapidly urbanizing settings in Latin America.

Parra DC; Gomez LF; Sarmiento OL; Buchner D; Brownson R; Schimd T; Gomez V; Lobelo F

2010-04-01

184

Induction Of Relational Decision Trees By Optimization Of Structural Attributes  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present a logical approach to graph theoretical decision tree learning that isbased on using alphabetic substitutions for modelling graph morphisms. A classified graphis represented by a definite clause possessing variables of the sort node for representing thenodes and atoms for representing the edges. In contrast to the standard logical semantics,different node variables are assumed to denote different objects. The use of an alphabeticalsubsumption relation (ff-subsumption) implies that the least generalization of clauses hasdifferent properties than Plotkin's least generalization. We present a method for constructingoptimal ff-generalizations from Plotkin's least generalization. The developed model isused in the relational decision tree algorithm TRITOP. The attributes are constructed byfirst computing least ff-generalizations and then using refinement operators for a furtheroptimization.Key Words. Relational Machine Learning, Decision Trees, Inductive Log...

Peter Geibel; Fritz Wysotzki

185

Fault tree developed by an object-based method improves requirements specification for safety-related systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fault tree analysis is frequently used to improve system reliability and safety. To be suitable for analysis of software in computerised safety-related systems, it has to be modified accordingly. This paper presents a new application: the fault trees developed by an object-based method. The object-based method integrates structural and behavioural models of a system. The developed fault tree includes information on structure and the failure behaviours of classes of the system. Away from traditional use of the fault tree, which for traditional systems emphasises qualitative and quantitative results, the result of the new application emphasises the process of fault tree development and its qualitative results. Such fault tree application reduces the probability of failures in the requirements specification phase within the software life cycle, which increases the reliability of its product; however, it does not confirm this in a quantitative manner.

Cepin, Marko; Mavko, Borut

1999-02-01

186

Subjective facial skin type, based on the sebum related symptoms, can reflect the objective casual sebum level in acne patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The relationship between the subjective skin type and the casual sebum level was not fully clarified. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the characteristics of subjective skin type and to find the relationship between the subjective skin types and the skin type-related symptoms, casual sebum level, along with the objective skin type. METHODS: Seven hundred and nine patients, clinically diagnosed with acne, were included. The questionnaire and the casual sebum level measurement were performed. The determining symptoms of each subjective skin type were investigated. The 95% confidence interval of casual sebum level of each subjective skin type was calculated. RESULTS: The most frequent subjective skin type was the combination type. The dryness, tightness, and oiliness can be conclusive symptoms in determining the subjective skin type. The mean and the 95% confidence interval of the casual sebum level was highest in the oily skin type, followed by the combination, normal, and dry skin type. CONCLUSION: We found that the subjective skin type was determined by the skin type-related symptoms. The 95% confidence intervals of the casual sebum level of each subjective skin type were established. Based on the skin type-related symptoms, the casual sebum level of acne patients can be estimated.

Choi CW; Choi JW; Youn SW

2013-05-01

187

Neural correlates of conceptual object priming in young and older adults: an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated age-related differences in brain activity associated with conceptual repetition priming in young and older adults. Participants performed a speeded "living/nonliving" classification task with 3 repetitions of familiar objects. Both young and older adults showed a similar magnitude of behavioral priming to repeated objects and evidenced repetition-related activation reductions in fusiform gyrus, superior occipital, middle, and inferior temporal cortex, and inferior frontal and insula regions. The neural priming effect in young adults was extensive and continued through both the second and third stimulus repetitions, and neural priming in older adults was markedly attenuated and reached floor at the second repetition. In young adults, greater neural priming in multiple brain regions correlated with greater behavioral facilitation and in older adults, only activation reduction in the left inferior frontal correlated with faster behavioral responses. These findings provide evidence for altered neural priming in older adults despite preserved behavioral priming, and suggest the possibility that age-invariant behavioral priming is observed as a result of more sustained neural processing of stimuli in older adults which might be a form of compensatory neural activity.

Ballesteros S; Bischof GN; Goh JO; Park DC

2013-04-01

188

Orações concessivas independentes à luz da gramática discursivo-funcional/ Independent concessive clauses in the light of functional discourse grammar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo investiga, à luz da Teoria da Gramática Discursivo-Funcional (HENGEVELD; MACKENZIE, 2008), a oração concessiva que não é subordinada a outras orações, ou seja, não apresenta relações sintáticas nem semânticas com orações anteriores ou posteriores, a que denominamos Concessiva Independente. O objetivo deste estudo consiste em descrever as propriedades discursivas, semânticas, morfossintáticas e prosódicas desse tipo de estrutura, mostrando que (more) sua relevância está na construção e organização do discurso. Os resultados apontam que a Concessiva Independente funciona, no discurso, como um parêntese, que interrompe o fio discursivo, sendo, então, destacado por um contorno prosódico especial, aliado à presença de Atos Interativos. Constitui, portanto, um Movimento, a camada mais alta do Nível Interpessoal, nível que se relaciona aos aspectos pragmáticos da gramática de uma língua. O universo de investigação utilizado é o córpus Iboruna, um banco de dados que registra a variedade do português do noroeste paulista. Abstract in english This paper investigates, in light of the theory of Functional Discourse Grammar (HENGEVELD; MACKENZIE, 2008), the concessive clause that is not subordinated to other clauses, i.e., it has no semantic or syntactic relations with clauses before or after it, and which we call Independent Concessive. The aim is to describe the discursive properties and the semantic, morphosyntactic and prosodic structure of this type of clause, showing that its relevance is in the constructio (more) n and organization of discourse. The results indicate that the Independent Concessive works in speech as a parenthesis which interrupts the discursive course and is then highlighted by a special prosodic contour, combined with the presence of Interactive Acts. It is therefore a Move, the highest layer of the Interpersonal Level, the level that relates to the pragmatic aspects of the grammar of a language. The universe of research used is the Iboruna corpus, a database that records a variety of Portuguese from the Northwest of São Paulo.

Garcia, Talita Storti; Pezatti, Erotilde Goreti

2013-01-01

189

Assessing the effect of fuel adjustment clauses on electric utility efficiency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fuel adjustment clauses (FACs) have been adopted by state and federal regulatory authorities on a widespread basis to help preserve electric utility revenues during times of rapid, unexpected fuel price inflation. Economic theory suggests, however, that FAC use may generate several inefficiencies. These include a factor bias where fuel is favored relative to other productive inputs, managerial inefficiency, and a disincentive to bargain or search effectively for the lowest price fuel of a given quality. This analysis employs an econometric model of electric utility production cost. Using observations of 70 privately owned electric utilities for the year 1978, an index of FAC value to each firm is constructed for both retail and wholesale clauses. The results suggest retail FAC use encourages a fuel factor bias. The major finding is the sensitivity of this assessment to a change in the regulatory lag component of the FAC index. Regulatory lag measures the time it takes to process a rate case. If this measure is adjusted to consider the type of test a regulatory commission uses, greater inefficiency from FAC use may be inferred. Moreover, a move to this test period adjusted measure suggests both wholesale and retail FACs generate managerial inefficiency in addition to the fuel factor bias linked to retail FAC use.

Mahrenholz, G.J.

1984-01-01

190

Contribution of harmonicity and location to auditory object formation in free field: Evidence from event-related brain potentials  

Science.gov (United States)

The contribution of location and harmonicity cues in sound segregation was investigated using behavioral reports and source waveforms derived from the scalp-recorded evoked potentials. Participants were presented with sounds composed of multiple harmonics in a free-field environment. The third harmonic was either tuned or mistuned and could be presented from the same or different location from the remaining harmonics. Presenting the third harmonic at a different location than the remaining harmonics increased the likelihood of hearing the tuned or slightly (i.e., 2%) mistuned harmonic as a separate object. Partials mistuned by 16% of their original value ``pop out'' of the complex and were paralleled by an object-related negativity (ORN) that superimposed the N1 and P2 components. For the 2% mistuned stimuli, the ORN was present only when the mistuned harmonic was presented at a different location than the remaining harmonics. Presenting the tuned harmonic at a different location also yielded changes in neural activity between 150 and 250 ms after sound onset. The behavioral and electrophysiological results indicate that listeners can segregate sounds based on harmonicity or location alone. The results also indicate that a conjunction of harmonicity and location cues contribute to sound segregation primarily when harmonicity is ambiguous.

McDonald, Kelly L.; Alain, Claude

2005-09-01

191

Assessing metacognition in schizophrenia with the Metacognition Assessment Scale: associations with the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Impairments in metacognition are believed to be closely linked with functional impairments among persons with schizophrenia. Recently, we proposed a method for assessing multiple domains of metacognition by rating a narrative generated by a semi-structured interview with an abbreviated form of the Metacognition Assessment Scale (MAS). Less is known about how this measure is linked to social cognition. DESIGN: The current study sought to compare, in a cross-sectional design, assessments of metacognition using the MAS and social cognition measured using the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale (SCORS). METHODS: Participants were 37 adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders who completed an assessment battery that included the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and the procedures needed to derive the MAS and SCORS indices. RESULTS: Univariate correlations and multiple regressions revealed that mastery, a domain of metacognition measuring thinking about oneself and coping with psychological challenges, was linked to SCORS indices which assess awareness of interpersonal relationships as the result of complex psychological forces and the recognition that relationships involve people with independent needs. This relationship persisted when the effects of symptoms and neurocognitive deficits were statistically controlled. CONCLUSIONS: Mastery, one domain of metacognition, is linked to social cognition independent of neurocognitive function and symptoms.

Lysaker PH; Dimaggio G; Daroyanni P; Buck KD; LaRocco VA; Carcione A; Nicolò G

2010-09-01

192

Immediate compensation for variations in self-generated Coriolis torques related to body dynamics and carried objects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We studied the accuracy of turn and reach (T&R) movements when the Coriolis torques generated by torso rotation were augmented by having the subjects hold a novel 454g object. Subjects made slow and fast T&R movements in the dark to just extinguished targets with either arm, with and without the weight. Movement endpoints were equally accurate across speed, hand, and weight conditions, but more variable for targets of greater eccentricity. No changes in endpoint accuracy or trajectory deviation occurred over repeated movements. The dominant right arm was more stable in its trajectory direction across targets while the non-dominant left arm was better able to stop accurately at higher levels of interaction torques. Subjects did not slow their trunk velocity or change the timing of the arm and trunk velocities when holding the weight. In accordance with the dynamic dominance hypothesis (Sainburg 2002), the right arm more accurately coordinated the intersegmental dynamics, showing a decreased error variability with movement speed and more synchronized peaks of finger relative and trunk angular velocities in conditions with greater joint torque requirements. Holding the weight increased the peak Coriolis torque by 40% at the shoulder, by 45% at the elbow and, for the most eccentric target, the peak net torque by 12% at the shoulder and 34% at the elbow. These results indicate that compensations for forthcoming Coriolis torques take into account the dynamic properties of the body and of external objects, as well as the planned velocities of the trunk and arm.

Pigeon P; Dizio P; Lackner JR

2013-06-01

193

Integrating Conflict Driven Clause Learning to Local Search  

CERN Document Server

This article introduces SatHyS (SAT HYbrid Solver), a novel hybrid approach for propositional satisfiability. It combines local search and conflict driven clause learning (CDCL) scheme. Each time the local search part reaches a local minimum, the CDCL is launched. For SAT problems it behaves like a tabu list, whereas for UNSAT ones, the CDCL part tries to focus on minimum unsatisfiable sub-formula (MUS). Experimental results show good performances on many classes of SAT instances from the last SAT competitions.

Audenard, Gilles; Mazure, Bertrand; Saïs, Lakhdar

2009-01-01

194

Integrating Conflict Driven Clause Learning to Local Search  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article introduces SatHyS (SAT HYbrid Solver), a novel hybrid approach for propositional satisfiability. It combines local search and conflict driven clause learning (CDCL) scheme. Each time the local search part reaches a local minimum, the CDCL is launched. For SAT problems it behaves like a tabu list, whereas for UNSAT ones, the CDCL part tries to focus on minimum unsatisfiable sub-formula (MUS). Experimental results show good performances on many classes of SAT instances from the last SAT competitions.

Gilles Audenard; Jean-Marie Lagniez; Bertrand Mazure; Lakhdar Saïs

2009-01-01

195

Immediate compensation for variations in self-generated Coriolis torques related to body dynamics and carried objects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have previously shown that the Coriolis torques that result when an arm movement is performed during torso rotation do not affect movement trajectory. Our purpose in the present study was to examine whether torso motion-induced Coriolis and other interaction torques are counteracted during a turn and reach (T&R) movement when the effective mass of the hand is augmented, and whether the dominant arm has an advantage in coordinating intersegmental dynamics as predicted by the dynamic dominance hypothesis (Sainburg RL. Exp Brain Res 142: 241-258, 2002). Subjects made slow and fast T&R movements in the dark to just extinguished targets with either arm, while holding or not holding a 454-g object. Movement endpoints were equally accurate at both speeds, with either hand, and in both weight conditions, but subjects tended to angularly undershoot and produce more variable endpoints for targets requiring greater torso rotation. There were no changes in endpoint accuracy or trajectory deviation over repeated movements. The dominant right arm was more stable in its control of trajectory direction across targets, whereas the nondominant left arm had an improved ability to stop accurately on the target for higher levels of interaction torques. The trajectories to more eccentric targets were straighter when performed at higher speeds but slightly more deviated when subjects held the weight. Subjects did not slow their torso velocity or change the timing of the arm and torso velocities when holding the weight, although there was a slight decrease in their hand velocity relative to the torso. The delay between the onsets of torso and finger movements was almost twice as large for the right arm than the left, suggesting the right arm was better able to account for torso rotation in the arm movement. Holding the weight increased the peak Coriolis torque by 40% at the shoulder and 45% at the elbow and, for the most eccentric target, increased the peak net torque by 12% at the shoulder and 34% at the elbow. In accordance with Sainburg's dynamic dominance hypothesis, the right arm exhibited an advantage for coordinating intersegmental dynamics, showing a more stable finger velocity in relation to the torso across targets, decreasing error variability with movement speed, and more synchronized peaks of finger relative and torso angular velocities in conditions with greater joint torque requirements. The arm used had little effect on the movement path and the magnitude of the joint torques in any of the conditions. These results indicate that compensations for forthcoming Coriolis torque variations take into account the dynamic properties of the body and of external objects, as well as the planned velocities of the torso and arm.

Pigeon P; Dizio P; Lackner JR

2013-09-01

196

Immediate compensation for variations in self-generated Coriolis torques related to body dynamics and carried objects.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have previously shown that the Coriolis torques that result when an arm movement is performed during torso rotation do not affect movement trajectory. Our purpose in the present study was to examine whether torso motion-induced Coriolis and other interaction torques are counteracted during a turn and reach (T&R) movement when the effective mass of the hand is augmented, and whether the dominant arm has an advantage in coordinating intersegmental dynamics as predicted by the dynamic dominance hypothesis (Sainburg RL. Exp Brain Res 142: 241-258, 2002). Subjects made slow and fast T&R movements in the dark to just extinguished targets with either arm, while holding or not holding a 454-g object. Movement endpoints were equally accurate at both speeds, with either hand, and in both weight conditions, but subjects tended to angularly undershoot and produce more variable endpoints for targets requiring greater torso rotation. There were no changes in endpoint accuracy or trajectory deviation over repeated movements. The dominant right arm was more stable in its control of trajectory direction across targets, whereas the nondominant left arm had an improved ability to stop accurately on the target for higher levels of interaction torques. The trajectories to more eccentric targets were straighter when performed at higher speeds but slightly more deviated when subjects held the weight. Subjects did not slow their torso velocity or change the timing of the arm and torso velocities when holding the weight, although there was a slight decrease in their hand velocity relative to the torso. The delay between the onsets of torso and finger movements was almost twice as large for the right arm than the left, suggesting the right arm was better able to account for torso rotation in the arm movement. Holding the weight increased the peak Coriolis torque by 40% at the shoulder and 45% at the elbow and, for the most eccentric target, increased the peak net torque by 12% at the shoulder and 34% at the elbow. In accordance with Sainburg's dynamic dominance hypothesis, the right arm exhibited an advantage for coordinating intersegmental dynamics, showing a more stable finger velocity in relation to the torso across targets, decreasing error variability with movement speed, and more synchronized peaks of finger relative and torso angular velocities in conditions with greater joint torque requirements. The arm used had little effect on the movement path and the magnitude of the joint torques in any of the conditions. These results indicate that compensations for forthcoming Coriolis torque variations take into account the dynamic properties of the body and of external objects, as well as the planned velocities of the torso and arm. PMID:23803330

Pigeon, Pascale; Dizio, Paul; Lackner, James R

2013-06-26

197

Cause Clue Clauses: Error Localization using Maximum Satisfiability  

CERN Document Server

Much effort is spent everyday by programmers trying to reduce long, failing execution traces to the cause of the error. We present a new algorithm for error cause localization based on a reduction to the maximal satisfiability problem (MAX SAT), which asks what is the maximum number of clauses of a Boolean formula that can be satisfied by an assignment. At an intuitive level, our algorithm takes as input a program and a failing test, and comprises the following three steps. First, as in symbolic execution, we encode a trace of a program as a Boolean trace formula which is satisfiable iff the trace is feasible. Second, for a failing program execution (e.g., one that violates an assertion or a post condition), we construct an unsatisfiable formula by taking the trace formula and additionally asserting that the input is the failing test and that the post-condition holds. Third, using MAX-SAT, we find a maximal set of clauses in this formula that can be satisfied together, and output the complement set as a poten...

Jose, Manu

2010-01-01

198

Understanding of subordinate clauses in the language of dysphasic children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the research of peculiarities of syntactic development, as an element of language structure on the grammatical level of children suffering from developmental dysphasia, after the completed speech pathology treatment of many years. Syntactic level at younger school age was studied by assessing language competence in the accomplishment of communicative sentence with subordinate clause. The research was performed on the samples of children at school age in regular primary schools in Belgrade. The sample comprised 160 respondents who were divided in two groups: target and comparative. The target group consisted of 60 respondents (children suffering from developmental dysphasia after the completed speech pathology treatment of many years), and the comparative group consisted of 100 respondents from regular primary school "Gavrilo Princip" in Zemun. Research results show that grammatical development of children suffering from developmental dysphasia takes place at a considerably slower rate and entails substantially more difficulties in accomplishing predication in subordinate clauses. This paper discusses the consequences which the difficulties in grammatical development can have on school achievement.

Lazarevi? Emilija; Tenjovi? Lazar

2007-01-01

199

21 CFR 571.115 - Application of the cancer clause of section 409 of the act.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Application of the cancer clause of section 409 of the act. 571.115 Section 571.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND...115 Application of the cancer clause of section 409 of the act. Food additives intended for use as an ingredient...

2010-04-01

200

Shape and motion reconstruction from 3D-to-1D orthographically projected data via object-image relations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes an invariant-based shape- and motion reconstruction algorithm for 3D-to-1D orthographically projected range data taken from unknown viewpoints. The algorithm exploits the object-image relation that arises in echo-based range data and represents a simplification and unification of previous work in the literature. Unlike one proposed approach, this method does not require uniqueness constraints, which makes its algorithmic form independent of the translation removal process (centroid removal, range alignment, etc.). The new algorithm, which simultaneously incorporates every projection and does not use an initialization in the optimization process, requires fewer calculations and is more straightforward than the previous approach. Additionally, the new algorithm is shown to be the natural extension of the approach developed by Tomasi and Kanade for 3D-to-2D orthographically projected data and is applied to a realistic inverse synthetic aperture radar imaging scenario, as well as experiments with varying amounts of aperture diversity and noise.

Ferrara M; Arnold G; Stuff M

2009-10-01

 
 
 
 
201

Objective civil liability for work-related health damages Responsabilidade civil objetiva pelos danos à saúde do trabalhador  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The environment, including that of work , is considered a basic right guaranteed by Magna Carta (article 7º, XXII, section 225, caption and article 200, VIII) . The social value of work represents the pillars of Economic Order (article 170, CF) and Social Order (article 193, CF), which offers full health and physical integrity protection to workers in their working environment. Thus, the question of work-related damages suffered by employees due to industrial accidents and occupational hazards must be analyzed within the work environment protection legal context , adopting the objective civil liability theory, by means of a teleologic logical-systematic interpretation of constitutional and infra-constitutional rules. This interpretation evidences the compatibility of the economic activity and the free initiative according to the Democratic State of Right, in order to build a more just and united society , thus reducing social inequalities.O meio ambiente, incluído o do trabalho, é considerado um direito fundamental, estando expressamente previsto no artigo 7º, inciso XXII, no artigo 225, caput e artigo 200, inciso VIII, todos da Carta Magna. Ademais, os valores sociais do trabalho representam pilares da Ordem Econômica (artigo 170 da CF) e da Ordem Social (artigo 193 da CF), impondo plena proteção à saúde e à integridade física do trabalhador no meio ambiente onde exerce suas atividades. Desse modo, a questão da reparação dos danos sofridos pelos empregados em função dos acidentes de trabalho e das doenças ocupacionais deve ser analisada dentro do contexto jurídico da proteção ao meio ambiente do trabalho, adotando-se a teoria da responsabilidade civil objetiva, mediante uma interpretação lógico-sistemática e teleológica das normas constitucionais e infraconstitucionais. Essa interpretação evidencia a compatibilização da atividade econômica e da livre iniciativa com os fundamentos do Estado Democrático de Direito, no intuito de se construir uma sociedade mais justa e solidária, reduzindo as desigualdades sociais.

Juliane Caravieri Martins Gambá

2007-01-01

202

New equations calculate Claus unit sulfur-recovery efficiency  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method has been developed that allows direct, accurate calculation of recovery efficiency for Claus sulfur-recovery units (SRU). The calculation combines feed-gas data and tail-gas composition to calculate flow rates for combustion air and tail-gas streams. Because the recovery calculation quantifies tail-gas flow and composition, it allows direct, exact calculation of conversion efficiency, recovery efficiency, and plant sulfur emissions. The recovery-efficiency algorithm or calculation has been design to accommodate a wide variety of plant configurations without need for modification. The method accounts for feed-stream water vapor, hydrocarbons, and ammonia and results in accurate calculation of combustion air and tail-gas flow rates.

Anderson, M. [Brimstone Engineering Services Inc., Chino Hills, CA (United States)

1997-11-17

203

Tribal severance taxes: outside the purview of the commerce clause  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The issues surrounding severance taxes as a way to conserve nonrenewable resources and to compensate taxing entities for the depletion of their resources are illustrated in the case of Merrion vs Jicarilla Apache Tribe. The appeals court decision to uphold the soverign power of an Indian tribe to tax resource extraction has been granted a Supreme Court review. A district court found a 30% tax to be discriminatory and a violation of the commerce clause, but the decision was reversed by the appeals court. At issue is the relationship of a dual tribal and state power to tax. A decision that the tax is unconstitutional will mean that any taxing entity can impose up to 30% taxes on any event which precedes commerce. (DCK)

Tixier, S.

1981-04-01

204

EROs found behind lensing clusters. II. Stellar populations and dust properties of optical dropout EROs and comparison with related objects  

CERN Multimedia

We determine the nature, redshift, stellar populations and dust properties of optically faint or non-detected extremely red objects (ERO) found from our survey of the lensing clusters A1835 and AC114. We perform SED fitting and use deep optical, HST, VLT, Spitzer data, and for some objects and sub-mm data. For most of the lensed EROs we find photometric redshifts showing a strong degeneracy between "low-z" (z~1-3) and high-z (z~6-7). Although formally best fits are often found at high-z, their resulting bright absolute magnitudes, the number density of these objects, and in some cases Spitzer photometry or longer wavelength observations, suggest strongly that all of these objects are at "low-z". The majority of these objects are best fitted with young (<~ 0.5-0.7 Gyr) and dusty starbursts. Indications for strong extinction, with A_V~2.4-4, are found in some objects. For dusty objects star formation rates (SFR) have been estimated from the bolometric luminosity determined after fitting of semi-empirical sta...

Schärer, D; Egami, E; Pellò, R; Richard, J; Le Borgne, J F; Kneib, J P; Wise, M; Boone, F

2007-01-01

205

Fast Mapping, Slow Learning: Disambiguation of Novel Word-Object Mappings in Relation to Vocabulary Learning at 18, 24, and 30 Months  

Science.gov (United States)

When hearing a novel name, children tend to select a novel object rather than a familiar one, a bias known as disambiguation. Using online processing measures with 18-, 24-, and 30-month-olds, we investigate how the development of this bias relates to word learning. Children's proportion of looking time to a novel object after hearing a novel name…

Bion, Ricardo A. H.; Borovsky, Arielle; Fernald, Anne

2013-01-01

206

Over a barrel : exiting from NAFTA's proportionality clause  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Natural gas exports to the United States are locked in by the proportionality clause of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The authors state that although both conventional oil and gas have peaked in Canada, the proportionality clause requires Canada to maintain its current share of energy exports to the United States, even if Canadians experience shortages. The unique clause guarantees the United States' access to Canada's energy resources. The authors cautioned that NAFTA limits Canada's options for managing its energy future and recommended options for regaining Canadian energy security. With NAFTA and the energy proportionality clause back on the political agenda for the first time since the 1993 federal election, this document explored 3 scenarios under which the proportionality clause could be invoked. The scenarios demonstrated how the clause could prevent Canada from reducing exports to conserve oil; prioritizing natural gas for petrochemicals; or, substituting Canadian oil for volatile foreign imports. The exercise demonstrated how under certain circumstances, proportionality could result in energy shortages for Canadians. The authors suggested that if NAFTA were to be renegotiated, Canada's first priority should be to end the proportionality clause because it stands in the way of Canada developing an effective energy security plan. 51 refs., 3 tabs.

Laxer, G.; Dillon, J. [Parkland Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

2008-05-15

207

Assessment of complement clauses: a comparison between elicitation tasks and language sample data.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to determine whether data from specifically designed elicitation tasks and commonly-used language sampling techniques provided the same information about children's production of complement clauses. It was predicted that elicitation tasks would yield more examples of complement clauses and children would use a wider range of verbs to form complement clauses in elicitation tasks than in language samples. A group of 20 pre-school children aged between 3;11-5;3 years were investigated. Each child completed two elicitation tasks, prompting the production of two of the major forms of complement clauses. A language sample of 100 utterances was also collected from each child. The results demonstrated that the two methods of data collection do not provide the same information about children's production of complement clauses. Significantly more examples of both types of complement clauses investigated were produced in the elicitation tasks. Similarly, children used a greater range of verbs in the elicitation tasks. Thus, language sample data under-estimate pre-school children's competency with complement clauses. Accurate and efficient methods of assessment of children's language structures are vital for speech-language pathologists to base their management decisions on. Elicitation tasks offer a viable alternative to language sampling.

Steel G; Rose M; Eadie P; Thornton R

2013-06-01

208

MVC: A user-based on-line optimal control system for gas processing and treating plants. Development and results for claus sulfur recovery and sweetening modules. Topical report, June 1992-September 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this project was to develop and field validate modular, on-line, advanced control systems to optimize the operation of Claus sulfur recovery and sweetening in gas processing plants with emphasis on small and mid-sized facilities.

Berkowitz, P.N.; Papadopoulos, M.N.; Colwell, L.W.; Poe, W.; Yiu, Y.

1993-09-01

209

Drafting the effective ADR clause for natural resources and energy contracts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Environmental, energy and natural resources attorneys understand the value of using alternatives to conventional litigation for dispute resolution. While the use of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) is becoming common in these fields, the task of drafting the ADR clause, however, is far from routine and requires careful consideration of a number of factors. Without a carefully crafted ADR clause, ADR may not serve the desired goals of expeditious and coast-effective resolution. This article outlines some of the key components every ADR clause should contain.

Brunet, E. [Lewis & Clark Law School, Portland, OR (United States); Stern, W.E. [Modrall, Sperlin, Roehl, Harris & Sisk, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1996-12-31

210

Context Improves Comprehension of Fronted Objects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Object-initial clauses (OCs) are associated with more processing difficulties than subject-initial clauses (SCs) in a number of languages (e.g. English, German and Finnish), but a supportive context can reduce or neutralize the difference between SCs and OCs with respect to reading times. Still, it is unresolved how context can affect the comprehension of OCs. In the present self-paced reading study of Danish, we therefore investigated both reading times, comprehension accuracy and response times for OCs and SCs. In line with previous studies on word order processing, OCs in an unsupportive context showed longer reading times than SCs, longer response times and a comprehension accuracy as poor as chance level. A manipulation of context showed no effect of reading time, but a supportive context had a stronger facilitating effect on comprehension (response accuracy and response time) for OCs than for SCs.

Kristensen LB; Engberg-Pedersen E; Poulsen M

2013-03-01

211

Minimal erythema dose and minimal melanogenesis dose relate better to objectively measured skin type than to Fitzpatricks skin type  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fitzpatrick skin type (FST I-IV) is a subjective expression of ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity based on erythema and tanning reactivity after a single exposure. Pigment protection factor (PPF) is an objective measurement of skin sensitivity in all skin types after a single exposure.

Wulf, Hans Christian; Philipsen, Peter A

2010-01-01

212

77 FR 20598 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Solicitation Provisions and Contract Clauses...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Inspector General, in solicitations and contracts that include the FAR clause 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct, including solicitations and contracts using FAR part 12 procedures for the acquisition of...

2012-04-05

213

The suspended well clause in the CAPL freehold mineral lease and proposal for deep right reversion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The current version of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Landmen (CAPL) Lease form has a clause entitled the 'suspended wells clause' (commonly called the 'shut-in' clause). The very pro-lessee' orientation of earlier leases which basically provided that if the Lessee had a well located on the lands at the end of the primary term the lessee could hold the lease by submitting a shut-in well payment to the Lessor, regardless of the reasons for which the well was shut in. This provision provided the Lessee with a great deal of flexibility, but created many problems for both freehold land owners and industry. Various scenarios illustrating the problems that industry is encountering with this clause are described and possible solutions to the problems are suggested. The feasibility of adding a deep rights reversion provision to the CAPL Lease is also discussed. 1 ref

1998-01-01

214

48 CFR 970.0404-4 - Solicitation provision and contract clauses.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Solicitation provision and contract clauses. 970.0404-4 Section 970.0404-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT...OPERATING CONTRACTS Administrative Matters 970.0404-4 Solicitation provision and contract...

2009-10-01

215

Comparison of GOHAI and OHIP-14 measures in relation to objective values of oral function in elderly Japanese.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to assess the correlations between the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) and the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14) and to examine which survey is more sensitive to objectively measured oral function in the Japanese elderly. METHODS: The subjects were 290 community-dwelling, cognitively healthy, and independently living people over the age of 60 years (mean: 66.3 years). Measures included the GOHAI and OHIP-14 questionnaires, as well as self-rating of general and oral health, dry mouth, number of residual teeth, and objective values of occlusal force, masticatory performance, and salivary flow rate. Bivariate and linear regression analyses were used to identify which of these variables predicted GOHAI and OHIP-14 scores. RESULTS: Spearman's correlation coefficient between the GOHAI and OHIP-14 scores was 0.728 (P < 0.001), although the OHIP-14 showed a greater number of 0 scores, suggesting a greater floor effect. At the bivariate level, self-rating of general and oral health, dry mouth, number of residual teeth, occlusal force, and masticatory performance were associated with GOHAI and OHIP-14 scores. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that after controlling for the other significant variables, both the occlusal force (standardized regression coefficient [?] = -0.164, P = 0.004) and masticatory performance (? = -0.125, P = 0.019) had significant associations with the GOHAI score, whereas this association was not found with the OHIP score. CONCLUSIONS: Although the GOHAI and OHIP-14 had a strong correlation, the GOHAI was more sensitive to the objective values of oral functions among independently living elderly persons in Japan.

Ikebe K; Hazeyama T; Enoki K; Murai S; Okada T; Kagawa R; Matsuda K; Maeda Y

2012-10-01

216

Rms-flux relation in the optical fast variability data of BL Lacertae object S5 0716+714  

CERN Document Server

The possibility that Bl Lac S5 0716+714 exhibits a linear rms-flux relation in its IntraDay Variability is analyzed. The results may be used as an argument in the existing debate regarding the source of optical IDV in Active Galactic Nuclei. 63 timeseries in different optical bands were used. A linear rms-flux relation at a confidence level higher than 65% was recovered for less than 8% of the cases.

Mocanu, Gabriela Raluca

2012-01-01

217

The C/NOFS Satellite and its Relation to the Space Weather Objectives of NASA's Living With a Star Program  

Science.gov (United States)

A major objective of NASA's Living With a Star mission is to understand the variability of the plasma density in the earth's low and mid latitude ionosphere, including the conditions leading to the formation of equatorial spread-F irregularities and their location, magnitude, and spatial and temporal evolution. The main objectives of the Air Force Communication / Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) Mission of the Air Force Research Laboratory are to understand, model, and forecast the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities that adversely impact communication and navigation systems. Thus, the C/NOFS mission objectives are directly compatible with fundamental space weather goals of the LWS geospace program. The C/NOFS mission includes a satellite scheduled to be launched in September, 2005 into a low inclination (13°) elliptical (~375 x 710 km) orbit, as well as extensive ground-based observations and theory and modeling activities. The first satellite solely dedicated to forecasting ionospheric irregularities and radio wave scintillations, C/NOFS is equipped with sensors that measure ambient and fluctuating electron densities; ion and electron temperatures; AC and DC electric fields; magnetic fields; neutral winds; ion drifts; optical lightning emissions; ionospheric scintillations; and the electron content along the lines of sight between C/NOFS, GPS satellites, and ground receiver sites. To our knowledge, the sensor suite on C/NOFS is richer than on any previously flown equatorial satellite. C/NOFS is a joint Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) and Space Test Program (STP) mission. The neutral wind meter and ion drift meter are provided as part of the UTD Coupled-Ionosphere-Neutral Dynamics Investigation (CINDI) package that is funded by NASA's Explorer Program. This talk presents an overview of the C/NOFS mission and discusses its relevance to the LWS Geospace I-T Storm Probe mission.

Pfaff, R.; de La Beaujardiere, O.; Hunton, D.; Retterer, J.; Groves, K.; Jeong, L.; Heelis, R.; Earle, G.; Straus, P.; Bernhardt, P.

2005-05-01

218

PU Vulpeculae (object Honda-Kuwano 1979) - a possible short-period relative of the symbiotic stars  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] UBV photometry was conducted in Brno and Skalnate Pleso observatories during the 1979 maximum (Chochol et al., 1981) and the authors searched for possible periodicity in the V data, compiled from their own observations as well as from data in the I.A.U. Circulars. The best period found is 76.4 days, but periods up to 80 days are also possible. Over this period, the object changes its V magnitude within about 0m.2-0m.25. (Auth.)

1981-09-03

219

Disability in major depression related to self-rated and objectively-measured cognitive deficits: a preliminary study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Although major depression (MD) is associated with high levels of disability, the relationships between cognitive dysfunction and self-rated disability are poorly understood. This study examined the relationships between self-rated disability in persons with MD and both self-rated and objectively-measured cognitive functioning. Methods Twenty-one persons with MD and 21 control participants underwent neuropsychological assessment and z-scores representing deviations from control performance were calculated and averaged across the domains of psychomotor speed, initial learning, memory retention and executive function. Self-ratings of cognitive deficits (SRCDs) were reported on a 6-point scale for overall rating of cognitive change, speed of thinking, concentration, and short-term memory. Disability scores for self-rated physical, mental-health and functional (ie. days out of role) disability were computed from the Brief-Disability Questionnaire and the SF-12 'mental component' subscale. Results Persons with MD had a mean age of 53.9 years (SD = 11.0, 76% female) and had moderate to high depression severity (mean HDRS 21.7, sd = 4.4). As expected, depression severity was a strong predictor of physical (r = 0.7, p Conclusion While depression severity is associated with disability, the contributions of both self-rated and objectively-measured cognitive deficits are substantial and contribute uniquely and differentially to various forms of disability. Efforts directed at reducing cognitive deficits in depression may have the potential to reduce disability.

Naismith Sharon L; Longley Wendy A; Scott Elizabeth M; Hickie Ian B

2007-01-01

220

LAS CLÁUSULAS LIMITATIVAS, EXONERATIVAS O AGRAVANTES DE RESPONSABILIDAD EN MATERIA CONTRACTUAL. VALIDEZ Y LÍMITES/ LIMITATION, EXONERATION AND AGRAVATION OF LIABILITY CLAUSES. VALIDATION AND LIMITS.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Este artículo trata sobre las cláusulas modificatorias de responsabilidad contractual en sus tres variantes, esto es, eximentes, limitativas y agravantes de responsabilidad. Las dos primeras son las que concentran el análisis pues son las que han provocado mayor discusión doctrinal llegándose a afirmar por algunos autores que las exonerativas no serían válidas por falta de causa. El análisis abarca el fundamento de estas cláusulas, las objeciones que se han formu (more) lados a su respecto, su clasificación, límites, efectos e interpretación. El consentimiento de la parte más débil en el marco de los contratos de adhesión, donde estas cláusulas son profusamente usadas, y conocidas como "cláusulas abusivas", concentran la última parte del artículo con referencia también a la Directiva de la Unión Europea que las regula. Abstract in english This article discusses modification of contractual responsibility clauses in its three variants, namely, exoneration, limitation and aggravation of liability. The study focuses on the first two provisions because they are the ones that have caused more doctrinal discussion. Even some authors have asserted that exculpatory clauses would not be valid due to lack of consideration. The analysis covers the basis of these clauses, the objections that have been made regarding th (more) em, their classification, limits, effects and interpretation. Consent of the weaker party in the context of pre-formulated standard contracts, where such clauses are used extensively, and known as "unfair terms" is discussed in the last part of the article with reference also to the Directive of the European Union that regulates them.

González Castillo, Joel

2011-04-01

 
 
 
 
221

Rms-flux relation in the optical fast variability data of BL Lacertae object S5 0716+714  

Science.gov (United States)

The possibility that BL Lac S5 0716+714 exhibits a linear root mean square (rms)-flux relation in its IntraDay Variability (IDV) is analysed. The results may be used as an argument in the existing debate regarding the source of optical IDV in Active Galactic Nuclei. 63 time series in different optical bands were used. A linear rms-flux relation at a confidence level higher than 65 % was recovered for less than 8 % of the cases. We were able to check if the magnitude is log-normally distributed for eight timeseries and found, with a confidence ?95 %, that this is not the case.

Mocanu, Gabriela Raluca; Sándor, Bulcsú

2012-11-01

222

Visual Jokes about Christmas and Santa Claus on the Internet - Why and Why not?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article analyses a collection of Christmas-related images and video clips found on the Internet. The author started collecting this material in 2005, since that time the material in the form of a PowerPoint presentation has been shown to diverse audiences discussing the context (mainly from the perspective of a folklore researcher) while observing the reaction of the audience.The central part of the article is devoted to a brief overview of the most characteristic groups of the jokes (with links to the images, video and descriptions of the traditions): Santa Claus as the bringer of presents, his trip from the northland and his friend Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, arrival through the chimney, different other persons wearing Santa’s hat (politicians, terrorists, women, animals, etc.), Santa’s sexuality, drunken Santa, Santa murdered/killed, etc. In addition, the regional version – Ded Moroz and Snegurochka (Father Frost and the Snowgirl) – is discussed here. Parodies related to the topic – the Christmas tree, snowmen and figures made of snow, elves, angels, Chinese horoscope’s “animals of the year”.Some hypotheses regarding the differences, functions, selection and perception of the worldwide available jokes in different social situations (western and post-Soviet world) are put forward, also considering social groups and situations, the time before and after Christmas. Why would people need such jokes? An attempt is made to explain it by different “levels of joking” – starting with “simply jokes” with their specific context in the tradition of the particular subject matter and the carnival-like sense of the reversed world (also used by the traders, making the originally rather eerie Santa Claus look like a friendly joker in the “shopping mythology”) and jokes as a kind of psychological self-defence – trying to compensate, by way of irony and black humour, for the rapidly changing and excessive tediousness, seriousness, sacralisation, or right the opposite – secularisation, commercialisation of the mass media imposed Christmas traditions and the holiday stress.

Guntis Pakalns

2012-01-01

223

The Composite OLAP-Object Data Model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, we define an OLAP-Object model that combines the main characteristics of OLAP and Object data models in order to achieve their functionalities in a common framework. We classify three different object classes: primitive, regular and composite. Then, we define a query language which uses the path concept in order to facilitate data navigation and data manipulation. The main feature of the proposed language is an anchor. It allows us to fix dynamically an object class (primitive, regular or composite) along the paths over the OLAP-Object data model for expressing queries. The queries can be formulated on objects, composite objects and combination of both. The power of the proposed query language is investigated through multiple query examples. The semantic of different clauses and syntax of the proposed language are investigated.

Pourabbas, Elaheh; Shoshani, Arie

2005-12-07

224

Sentence-initial I think (that) and I believe (that) : prosodic evidence for use as main clause, comment clause and discourse marker  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sentence-initial pronoun-verb combinations such as I think, I believe are ambiguous between main clause use on the one hand and adverbial or discourse use on the other hand. We approach the topic from a prosodic perspective. Based on corpus data from spoken British English the prosodic patterns of s...

Dehé, Nicole; Wichmann, Anne

225

Case study of a conduct-disordered youngster: building ego defenses and improving object relations within a therapeutic alliance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The classification of Conduct Disorder, sometimes seen as a nonspecific designation descriptive of antisocial behavior, is illuminated through case study of a youngster admitted for acute hospital treatment. Drawing on psychodynamic theory and treatment, principles are used in illustrating how individual, historical, family, and trauma factors may contribute to disordered self-esteem and behavior, which may become a focus of therapeutic intervention. A concluding section delineates the possibility of two varieties of Conduct Disorder related, respectively, to trauma or failures in socialization. These may have implications for treatment and setting. PMID:7984754

Seltzer, J D; Atlas, J A

1994-08-01

226

Case study of a conduct-disordered youngster: building ego defenses and improving object relations within a therapeutic alliance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The classification of Conduct Disorder, sometimes seen as a nonspecific designation descriptive of antisocial behavior, is illuminated through case study of a youngster admitted for acute hospital treatment. Drawing on psychodynamic theory and treatment, principles are used in illustrating how individual, historical, family, and trauma factors may contribute to disordered self-esteem and behavior, which may become a focus of therapeutic intervention. A concluding section delineates the possibility of two varieties of Conduct Disorder related, respectively, to trauma or failures in socialization. These may have implications for treatment and setting.

Seltzer JD; Atlas JA

1994-08-01

227

Efficient transformation of use case main success scenario steps into bussiness object relation (BORM) diagrams for effective bussiness process requirement analysis.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

BORM DiagramsKód oboru RIV: IN - Informatika http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/ZOI/papik-efficient transformation of use case main success scenario steps into bussiness object relation (borm) diagrams for effective bussiness process requirement analysis.pdf

Podaras, A.; Moravec, J.; Papík, MartinG

228

QDYBE some explicit formulas for exchange matrix and related objects in case of sl(2), q=1  

CERN Document Server

This mainly tutorial paper is intended as a somewhat larger example for parts of the theory exposed in the Lectures on the dynamical Yang-Baxter equations by P. Etingof and O. Schiffmann, math.QA/9908064. We explicitly compute the matrix entries of the intertwining operator, fusion matrix and exchange matrix associated to sl(2,R) for q=1. We also consider the weighted trace function and the dual Macdonald-Ruijsenaars equation for this particular case. As expected, the matrix entries of the exchange matrix turn out to be Racah polynomials. However, the road to their explicit formula via the fusion matrix is quick, and it also yields an interesting way to derive their orthogonality relations.

Koornwinder, T H; Koornwinder, Tom H.; Touhami, Nabila

2000-01-01

229

Contributos para uma análise semântico-pragmática das causais de enunciação no Português Europeu contemporâneo/ Utterance causal clauses in contemporary European Portuguese: some contributions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho é caracterizar as orações causais de enunciação num quadro teórico que postula a existência, no discurso, de distintos domínios da significação - domínio do conteúdo, domínio epistémico e domínio ilocutório-, na convicção de que uma análise semântica destas construções poderá contribuir para iluminar o seu comportamento sintático peculiar, que tanta controvérsia tem gerado. Defende-se, neste estudo, que as orações causa (more) is de enunciação expressam a relação discursiva de Justificação, que envolve sempre a articulação de dois atos ilocutórios, um deles com o estatuto de ato principal, o outro com o estatuto de ato subordinado. Num primeiro momento, analisa-se a articulação entre causais de enunciação e asserções e argumenta-se a favor da inseparabilidade entre os domínios epistémico e ilocutório neste tipo de construções, contrariamente ao que defende Sweetser (1999). Num segundo momento, analisa-se a articulação entre causais de enunciação e outras classes de atos ilocutórios, nomeadamente atos diretivos, compromissivos e expressivos. Abstract in english The main purpose of this paper is to characterize utterance causal clauses within a theoretical framework that assumes different domains of discourse meaning - content, epistemic and speech-act domain. The assumption is that a semantic analysis may provide some explanation for the syntactic behaviour of the construction under scrutiny. It is argued in this paper that utterance causal clauses illustrate the discourse relation of Justification, which involves the connection (more) between two illocutionary acts, with different hierarchical status. It is also argued, contrary to Sweetser's 1999 account, that utterance causal clauses combined with assertions give rise to an elementary argumentative text, where the epistemic and the illocutionary domain are closely intertwined. The paper also contemplates the connection between utterance causal clauses and other classes of speech acts, namely directive, compromissive and expressive ones.

Lopes, Ana Cristina Macário

2012-12-01

230

Multi-objective optimization of cutting parameters in high-speed milling based on grey relational analysis coupled with principal component analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper investigates optimization problem of the cutting parameters in high-speed milling on NAK80 mold steel. An experiment based on the technology of Taguchi is performed. The objective is to establish a correlation among spindle speed, feed per tooth and depth of cut to the three directions of cutting force in the milling process. In this study, the optimum cutting parameters are obtained by the grey relational analysis. Moreover, the principal component analysis is applied to evaluate the weights so that their relative significance can be described properly and objectively. The results of experiments show that grey relational analysis coupled with principal component analysis can effectively acquire the optimal combination of cutting parameters and the proposed approach can be a useful tool to reduce the cutting force.

Fu, Tao; Zhao, Jibin; Liu, Weijun

2012-12-01

231

Independence as a practice issue in occupational therapy: the safety clause.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article reports findings from interviews that explored the meanings occupational therapists attach to independence as a value and a therapeutic goal in interactions with elderly clients. Through a historical review of the literature, we trace the changing use of this term and identify two analytically distinct concepts associated with it: independence as self-reliance in activity and independence as autonomy, self-determination, or choice. We show how the latter has emerged in contemporary service contexts to represent an ideal of client-centered practice for persons with chronic disabilities, such as frail elderly clients. Using a "critical incident" interview approach with 12 Australian occupational therapists, we identified the therapists' explicit and implicit understandings of independence as a value concept and practice issue. Our findings suggest that a mismatch often exists between idealized and practice-based talk about independence and that therapists narrativize this opposition around what we call "the safety clause." That is, therapists invoke concerns about safety and duty of care as a caveat to implementing their independence ideals and justifying the retention of professional control. We identify key issues that therapists need to address if the rhetoric of independence-related client-centered practice is to be achieved in reality.

Russell C; Fitzgerald MH; Williamson P; Manor D; Whybrow S

2002-07-01

232

Traditional breeding objectives and practices of goat, sheep and cattle smallholders in The Gambia and implications in relation to the design of breeding interventions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes the traditional breeding objectives and practices of West African Dwarf goat, Djallonke sheep, and N'dama cattle keepers in The Gambia and discusses the implications of these on the design of breeding-related interventions to improve livestock productivity. Data were collected via surveys implemented within three study sites in The Gambia, where traditional mixed crop-livestock smallholder farming predominates. The surveys comprised a participatory rural appraisal conducted in nine communities and a household questionnaire targeting 238 households. Livestock-keeping households were classified as 'poorer' or 'wealthier' based on the number of cattle owned. The most important objectives for keeping all species of livestock for the poorer groups (0 to 10 cattle) was 'savings and insurance', followed by 'income' and 'ceremonial/dowry' for the small ruminants and 'manure' and 'draught' for both cows and bulls. In contrast, for the wealthier group (more than 10 cattle), savings and insurance was the fourth to seventh ranked production objective (depending on species), with the most important production objectives being ceremonial/dowry for goats, income for sheep and manure for cows and bulls. An analysis of breeding practices indicated that breeding animals are selected on criteria which partially align to the breeding objectives, animals are rarely purchased for the purpose of breed improvement, knowledge of the cause and consequence of inbreeding is low and breeding decision makers may not necessarily be the livestock owner, particularly if the livestock owner is a women. Given this, it is suggested that capacity building on breeding-related issues, particularly in relation to the selection of breeding animals and specifically targeted at the different socioeconomic groups of livestock keepers, may be an appropriate, effective and relatively low-cost breeding intervention.

Ejlertsen M; Poole J; Marshall K

2012-12-01

233

Considerations concerning the criminal clause, expression of contractual principle and law abuse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The criminal clause is an accessory convention through which the parts evaluate in advance the prejudiceinterestswhich come from the inexecution lato sensu of the contractual obligations. This convention named criminalclause is the expression of the contractual liberty principle and presents a singular practical utility but also someinconveniences. Thus the criminal clause allows avoiding the difficulties of judicial evaluation of prejudices-interests.In this way, the creditor is not obliged to evidence the existence and the size of the prejudice, in order to obtain thepayment of the amount of money or carrying out other patrimonial value established in the criminal clause beingsufficient the proof of non inexecution lato sensu of the contractual obligation. The criminal clause has also a strongcomminatory purpose, exercising a pressure on the debtor to make all possible to execute precisely the contractualobligation. Due to these reasons it is seen in doctrine by some of the authors as one of the main guarantees in our law.Also in the doctrine however, it is shown that the debtor can be constrained in some situations to accept establishing avery high amount in the criminal clause, sometimes with inequitable consequences, with damaging effect for thedebtor.

Nora Andreea Daghie

2009-01-01

234

Evidence from auditory and visual event-related potential (ERP) studies of deviance detection (MMN and vMMN) linking predictive coding theories and perceptual object representations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Predictive coding theories posit that the perceptual system is structured as a hierarchically organized set of generative models with increasingly general models at higher levels. The difference between model predictions and the actual input (prediction error) drives model selection and adaptation processes minimizing the prediction error. Event-related brain potentials elicited by sensory deviance are thought to reflect the processing of prediction error at an intermediate level in the hierarchy. We review evidence from auditory and visual studies of deviance detection suggesting that the memory representations inferred from these studies meet the criteria set for perceptual object representations. Based on this evidence we then argue that these perceptual object representations are closely related to the generative models assumed by predictive coding theories. PMID:22047947

Winkler, István; Czigler, István

2011-10-30

235

Evidence from auditory and visual event-related potential (ERP) studies of deviance detection (MMN and vMMN) linking predictive coding theories and perceptual object representations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Predictive coding theories posit that the perceptual system is structured as a hierarchically organized set of generative models with increasingly general models at higher levels. The difference between model predictions and the actual input (prediction error) drives model selection and adaptation processes minimizing the prediction error. Event-related brain potentials elicited by sensory deviance are thought to reflect the processing of prediction error at an intermediate level in the hierarchy. We review evidence from auditory and visual studies of deviance detection suggesting that the memory representations inferred from these studies meet the criteria set for perceptual object representations. Based on this evidence we then argue that these perceptual object representations are closely related to the generative models assumed by predictive coding theories.

Winkler I; Czigler I

2012-02-01

236

Den sene Derrida, eller: Er Claus Beck-Nielsen et spøgelse?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This article is about hosting the ghost. In Spectres de Marx (1993) Derrida introduces the ghost which seems to condense in one figure the important themes of his late writings: the address, the other, the ethical turn, the event, the mourning, the reality of immateriality, the guest. The article turns to the paternal ghost from Shakespeare's Hamlet, as well as to the most ghost-like artist on the Danish contemporary art scene: Claus Beck-Nielsen, who some years ago declared himself dead. Is Claus Beck-Nielsen really a ghost? That is the question.

Rösing, Lilian Munk

2009-01-01

237

Stage and Individual-level predicates whihin "if" and "when" clauses: what works and what doesn't  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Clauses headed by if and when are very often considered syntactically and semantically equivalent.  Nevertheless, in this paper we show that the type of predicate has an impact both on the grammaticality and the interpretation of the subordinate clause in Spanish. Theses clauses provide evidence for the proposal that stage-level predicates involve an extra-argument that individual-level predicates lack. Following Kratzer (1995), we assume that this is extra-argument is a spatio-temporal argument. While stage-level predicates in the subordinate clause are perfectly grammatical, individual-level predicates yield to ungrammatical sentences, unless an indefinite or a kind-referring NP is involved.  Kratzer´s Prohibition against vacuous quantification provides a sound account for the asymmetry between the two types of predicates.  In addition, a stative verb in the when clause is grammatical, but it forces an epistemic reading. When both predicates are individual-level predicates in the subordinate and the main clause, the if clause may can take a factual reading while the when clause is ungrammatical unless there is some kind of operator involved through a generic, a kind-referring NP or an indefinite pronoun.

Asuncion Martínez-Arbelaiz

2013-01-01

238

Characterization of catalysts by Moessbauer spectroscopy: An application to the study of Fischer-Tropsch, hydrotreating and super Claus catalysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Moessbauer spectroscopy is an excellent in-situ technique for the identification of phases present in catalysts. Applied to metallic iron catalysts used in the Fischer-Tropsch reaction it reveals a detailed picture of the carburization process and provides insight into the relation between the properties of the catalytic material and its activity. The influence of a support and the effect of alloying iron with an (in)active metal on the catalytic performance is discussed for Fe, Cu-Fe and Ni-Fe systems. In addition, Moessbauer spectroscopy is used for the identification of 'Co-sulfide' species present in sulfided Co and CoMo catalysts applied in one of the largest chemical processes in the world, the hydrotreatment of crude oil. A structural model is proposed. Finally, the contribution of Moessbauer spectroscopic studies to the development of a new catalyst for cleaning of Claus tail gas via selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur is discussed. (orig.).

1993-01-01

239

BL Lacertae objects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The properties of BL Lacertae objects are discussed including their spectra, variability, and brightness. The historical development of observation, and the conclusion that these objects are possibly quasar-related objects rather than variable stars as originally supposed are treated. The possible mechanisms for the unusual luminosity of these objects are considered

1977-01-01

240

Predicted radionuclide release from reactor-related unenclosed solid objects dumped in the Sea of Japan and the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Between 1978 and 1991 reactor-related solid radioactive waste was dumped by the former Soviet Union as unenclosed objects in the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, and the Sea of Japan. This paper presented estimates for the current (1994) inventory of activation and corrosion products contained in the reactor-related unenclosed solid objects. In addition, simple models derived for prediction of radionuclide release from marine reactors dumped in the Kara Sea are applied to certain of the dumped objects to provide estimates of radionuclide release to the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, and Sea of Japan environments. For the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, total release rates start below 0.01 GBq yr{sup -1} and over 1,000 years, fall to 100 Bq yr{sup -1}. In the Sea of Japan, the total release rate starts just above 1 GBq yr{sup - 1}, dropping off to a level less than 0.1 GBq yr{sup -1}, extending past the year 4,000.

Mount, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Lynn, N.M.; Warden, J.M. [Royal Naval Coll., Greenwich (United Kingdom)

1996-06-01

 
 
 
 
241

Experiencias en la gestión de imágenes por contenido en bases de datos objeto-relacionales/ Experiences in Image Management by Content in Object-Relational Databases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En este artículo se analizan diversos mecanismos que brinda la tecnología Objeto-Relacional (OR) para el almacenamiento de imágenes en una Base de Datos. El objetivo fue estudiar, mediante la implementación de dos ejemplos en Oracle 10g, el comportamiento de la tecnología OR en el almacenamiento, la formulación de consultas, la recuperación de la información y de las imágenes asociadas. La primera implementación se corresponde con el almacenamiento de imágenes (more) médicas concordantes con el estándar DICOM, utilizando objetos ORDImage propios de ORACLE. En el segundo ejemplo se almacenaron imágenes de un diario digital empleando instancias del UDT SI_StillImage del estándar SQL/MM. Las capacidades provistas por la Base de Datos Objeto-Relacional empleada facilitan la implementación de un servidor de imágenes. Se analizaron también las ventajas y desventajas de emplear objetos del estándar SQL/MM o datos nativos correspondientes a Oracle 10g. Abstract in english In this paper, several alternatives for the storage of still images in databases given by the Object-Relational technology are analyzed. The aim was to study, by means of two examples, implementation in Oracle 10g database, the technology behaviour in the storage, query formulation and image recovery. The first application corresponds to the storage of medical images complying with DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) standard, Oracle 10g ORDImage object (more) s have been used for this case. The second example deals with the storage of images for a digital newspaper for which SI_StillImage of the SQL/MM standard have been employed. The capabilities provided by the Object Relational technology facilitate the implementation of an images server. The advantages and drawbacks of using SQL/MM standard or native objects corresponding to Oracle 10g are also compared.

Alvez, Carlos E; Vecchietti, Aldo R

2009-11-01

242

Health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis: convergent validity with parent-reports and objective measures of pulmonary health.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study examined the convergent validity of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) reported by patients with cystic fibrosis compared with their parents' reports and objective pulmonary measures across 3 time points. METHODS: Ninety-two children (8-13 years) and adolescents (14-18 years) with cystic fibrosis and their parents completed Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaires to examine concordance with Wisconsin chest x-ray (WCXR) scores and pulmonary function tests, for example, forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1), and parent-child/adolescent concordance across multiple HRQOL domains. Concordance was analyzed relative to patient age and gender. RESULTS: Parent-reports were closely aligned with WCXR scores, whereas patient reports were more closely aligned with FEV1. Adolescents and parents of both age groups had more HRQOL domains concordant with pulmonary health measures than did child self-reports. Parent-child concordance was inversely related to child age, particularly with male adolescents. Children generally reported better HRQOL than parents. Male adolescents and their parents were more likely to have significantly discordant HRQOL scores than female adolescents and their parents. Male and female adolescents reported higher HRQOL than their parents reported for all but vitality and health perception domains. Younger male children showed concordance with their parents on 5 of 7 domains. CONCLUSIONS: Parent-child/adolescent discordance on HRQOL was consistent with normative child development expectations. Findings underscore the value of enlisting perspectives from parents as well as children regarding HRQOL.

Tluczek A; Becker T; Grieve A; Laxova A; Rock MJ; Gershan WM; Green CG; Farrell PM

2013-05-01

243

Use of new reaction kinetics for COS formation to achieve reduced sulfur emissions from Claus plants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main source of sulfur emissions in sour gas processing and tar sands plants can be traced to the Claus plants, where sulfur is recovered from hydrogen sulfide found in acid gases which have been separated from natural gas, Therefore, any improvement in the sulfur recovery from Claus plants will result in direct reduction in the emissions of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere. This paper discusses a simulation study of COS formation in the tubes of a waste heat boiler (WHB) located just after the reaction furnace of a Claus plant. Having obtained the kinetics of COS formation from a recently completed experimental program, predictions for COS formation from the newly developed kinetic model are compared with the data from an actual industrial waste heat boiler. Results of the simulation show that COS production may be reduced by up to 30 percent by operating the waste heat boiler at an increased gas mass flux. By operating at the maximum allowable gas mass velocity in the waste heat boiler tubes, coupled with the use of a smaller diameter tube, the reduction of COS formation may be as high as 50 per cent. These reductions are considered significant and have implications on the recovery of sulfur in post-WHB catalytic converters and consequently Claus plants. 16 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

Karan, K.; Mehrotra, A. K.; Behie, L. E. [Calgary Univ., Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, AB (Canada)

1999-04-01

244

Retail electric rates: drawing the line between federal and state authority under the Commerce Clause  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review of the Commerce Clause explains the impact of recent Supreme Court decisions in their balancing approach to defining the jurisdiction of federal and state authority over retail electric rates. Although the Mississippi and Arkansas decisions blur the traditional distinction of authority, there remains a clear division in the wholesale-retail areas which the Court has yet to clarify. (DCK)

O' Neill, A.J.

1983-10-27

245

EFFICIENT TRANSFORMATION OF USE CASE MAIN SUCCESS SCENARIO STEPS INTO BUSSINESS OBJECT RELATION (BORM) DIAGRAMS FOR EFFECTIVE BUSSINESS PROCESS REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The basic part of an innovative and modern approach to business processrequirement analysis which is based on the simultaneous utilization of UML Use Caseapproach and the Business Object Relation Modelling approach is analyzed in thepresent paper. Precisely the transition rules by which the Use Case Main SuccessScenario steps are converted into to a BORM diagram, entitled as the Use Case ToBORM Transformation Algorithm (UCBTA) transition rules, are presented as apattern based method which leads to the effective and efficient business processrequirement analysis

ATHANASIOS PODARAS; JOSEF MORAVEC; MARTIN PAPIK

2012-01-01

246

Damage to the left ventral, arcuate fasciculus and superior longitudinal fasciculus-related pathways induces deficits in object naming, phonological language function and writing, respectively.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The anatomic localization of brain functions can be characterized via diffusion tensor imaging in patients with brain tumors and neurological symptoms. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the function of the ventral, arcuate fasciculus (AF) and the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF)-related language pathways using these techniques by analyzing 9 patients treated in our hospital between 2007 and 2011. In cases 1-3, the left ventral pathways, namely, the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus or inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, were mainly damaged, and the common dysfunction experienced by these patients was a deficit in object naming. In cases 4-6, the left SLF was mainly damaged, and the common deficit was dysgraphia. In cases 7-9, the left AF was mainly damaged, and almost all language functions related to phonology were abnormal. These results suggest that the left ventral, AF and SLF-related pathways are closely related to visual, auditory and hand-related language function, respectively.

Shinoura N; Midorikawa A; Onodera T; Tsukada M; Yamada R; Tabei Y; Itoi C; Saito S; Yagi K

2013-07-01

247

BOSS: context-enhanced search for biomedical objects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There exist many academic search solutions and most of them can be put on either ends of spectrum: general-purpose search and domain-specific "deep" search systems. The general-purpose search systems, such as PubMed, offer flexible query interface, but churn out a list of matching documents that users have to go through the results in order to find the answers to their queries. On the other hand, the "deep" search systems, such as PPI Finder and iHOP, return the precompiled results in a structured way. Their results, however, are often found only within some predefined contexts. In order to alleviate these problems, we introduce a new search engine, BOSS, Biomedical Object Search System. Methods Unlike the conventional search systems, BOSS indexes segments, rather than documents. A segment refers to a Maximal Coherent Semantic Unit (MCSU) such as phrase, clause or sentence that is semantically coherent in the given context (e.g., biomedical objects or their relations). For a user query, BOSS finds all matching segments, identifies the objects appearing in those segments, and aggregates the segments for each object. Finally, it returns the ranked list of the objects along with their matching segments. Results The working prototype of BOSS is available at http://boss.korea.ac.kr. The current version of BOSS has indexed abstracts of more than 20 million articles published during last 16 years from 1996 to 2011 across all science disciplines. Conclusion BOSS fills the gap between either ends of the spectrum by allowing users to pose context-free queries and by returning a structured set of results. Furthermore, BOSS exhibits the characteristic of good scalability, just as with conventional document search engines, because it is designed to use a standard document-indexing model with minimal modifications. Considering the features, BOSS notches up the technological level of traditional solutions for search on biomedical information.

Choi Jaehoon; Kim Donghyeon; Kim Seongsoon; Lee Sunwon; Lee Kyubum; Kang Jaewoo

2012-01-01

248

From object-relations theory to the theory of alterity: shame as an intermediary between the interpersonal world and the inner world of psychic structure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proceeding from a critical discussion of positions adopted in object-relations theory and of recent approaches to the understanding of shame (exemplified with reference to Wurmser's concept of shame), the paper demonstrates that intrapsychic structures should not be regarded as preconditions for shame but as themselves evolving in the first place from contact with experiential forms of the shame affect. The paper takes its theoretical bearings from object-relations theory and the theory of psychic structure, expanding the purview of these approaches by incorporating the reciprocity aspect and thus outlining a comprehensive "alterity theory." "Shame" is presented as an "interface affect," manifesting itself initially in the external interactional dimension and constituting the relational structure of "self-consciousness" via the internalization of the reciprocal relation between subject and object. From the angle of developmental psychology, three characteristic forms of such stages of internalization (identified by mythological figures) are described. (1) Narcissus, characterized by the absence of any reciprocal relation and accordingly termed "unreflected," (2) Tiresias, with a capacity for taking up the position of the vis-à-vis temporarily and looking critically at one's own self from that perspective, yet lacking the faculty of self-objectification without the help of the vis-à-vis. Self-objectification is therefore taking place in the interactional dimension. This stage is thus designated as "externally reflected." (3) Oedipus, who has reached the stage to be termed "self-reflected" or "self-referential." The gaze is directed initially toward the outside in search of external sources of guilt but then falls back upon the subject itself. The gaze "turns inward" (to use an experientially suggestive image) and in the mythology this is represented by Oedipus' self-blinding. The subject is capable of "critical," dissociating functions, in the sense of self-objectification, thus attaining to a capacity for self-recognition, self-criticism and self-judgement. These three stages are seen to be progressive, not mutually exclusive. Self-referentiality in the broadest sense is regarded as being hierarchically stratified. PMID:9327103

Seidler, G H

1997-01-01

249

From object-relations theory to the theory of alterity: shame as an intermediary between the interpersonal world and the inner world of psychic structure.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Proceeding from a critical discussion of positions adopted in object-relations theory and of recent approaches to the understanding of shame (exemplified with reference to Wurmser's concept of shame), the paper demonstrates that intrapsychic structures should not be regarded as preconditions for shame but as themselves evolving in the first place from contact with experiential forms of the shame affect. The paper takes its theoretical bearings from object-relations theory and the theory of psychic structure, expanding the purview of these approaches by incorporating the reciprocity aspect and thus outlining a comprehensive "alterity theory." "Shame" is presented as an "interface affect," manifesting itself initially in the external interactional dimension and constituting the relational structure of "self-consciousness" via the internalization of the reciprocal relation between subject and object. From the angle of developmental psychology, three characteristic forms of such stages of internalization (identified by mythological figures) are described. (1) Narcissus, characterized by the absence of any reciprocal relation and accordingly termed "unreflected," (2) Tiresias, with a capacity for taking up the position of the vis-à-vis temporarily and looking critically at one's own self from that perspective, yet lacking the faculty of self-objectification without the help of the vis-à-vis. Self-objectification is therefore taking place in the interactional dimension. This stage is thus designated as "externally reflected." (3) Oedipus, who has reached the stage to be termed "self-reflected" or "self-referential." The gaze is directed initially toward the outside in search of external sources of guilt but then falls back upon the subject itself. The gaze "turns inward" (to use an experientially suggestive image) and in the mythology this is represented by Oedipus' self-blinding. The subject is capable of "critical," dissociating functions, in the sense of self-objectification, thus attaining to a capacity for self-recognition, self-criticism and self-judgement. These three stages are seen to be progressive, not mutually exclusive. Self-referentiality in the broadest sense is regarded as being hierarchically stratified.

Seidler GH

1997-01-01

250

Trusted Objects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

1999-10-27

251

Towards Applicative Relational Programming  

CERN Multimedia

Functional programming comes in two flavours: one where ``functions are first-class citizens'' (we call this applicative) and one which is based on equations (we call this declarative). In relational programming clauses play the role of equations. Hence Prolog is declarative. The purpose of this paper is to provide in relational programming a mathematical basis for the relational analog of applicative functional programming. We use the cylindric semantics of first-order logic due to Tarski and provide a new notation for the required cylinders that we call tables. We define the Table/Relation Algebra with operators sufficient to translate Horn clauses into algebraic form. We establish basic mathematical properties of these operators. We show how relations can be first-class citizens, and devise mechanisms for modularity, for local scoping of predicates, and for exporting/importing relations between programs.

Ibrahim, H

2006-01-01

252

Quantitative assessment of bone marrow attenuation values at MDCT: An objective tool for the detection of bone bruise related to occult sacral insufficiency fractures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To prove the feasibility of using Hounsfield attenuation values at MDCT to detect bone bruises related to sacral insufficiency fractures. Twenty-two patients with acute sacrum trauma and no fracture findings at MDCT were included in our prospective study. Two observers independently reviewed CTs regarding visual signs of bone bruises in 132 defined regions of the sacral alae. Interobserver agreement was tested by ? statistics. Subsequently, HU values were obtained in the same regions, and attenuation differences between the two sides were calculated. Validity and reliability were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. HU differences were subjected to ROC curve analysis to determine sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV. MRI served as standard reference. MRI revealed 19 regions with bone bruises and associated sacral insufficiency fractures. HU measurements demonstrated good validity and reliability (r = 0.989). ROC curve analysis exhibited an ideal cutoff value of 35.7 HU density difference between affected and non-affected regions. Visual evaluation revealed moderate agreement (? = 0.48); diagnostic accuracy was inferior to objective evaluation. Assessment of differences in bone marrow density by HU measurements is an objective and reliable tool for detection of bone bruises associated with occult sacral insufficiency fractures. (orig.)

2012-01-01

253

PAH EMISSION IN STARBURST, SEYFERT, ULIRGS, QSOS AND QUASAR OBJECTS, AND THEIR RELATION WITH THE INFRARED, X-RAY AND RADIO CONTINUUM EMISSION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is a second study in an ongoing work aimed to analyze the star formation activity and its relation with the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs) emission. In this way, we have performed a study about the correlation between the ux of the 7.7 -m PAH band and its equivalent width, with the luminosities and uxes observed in JHK photometric bands, IRAS 12, 25, 60 and 100-m, the radio emission at 1.4GHz and X-ray at 2{10 keV, for a sample composed of Seyfert 1-2, QSOs, Quasars, Starburst, and ULIRGs. The results found let us discriminate between objects with more star formation activity from others with more AGN in uence.

M.-A. Higuera-G.; A. Rodru00EDguez-Ardila; J. M. Tejeiro S.

2009-01-01

254

Objectively Speaking  

Science.gov (United States)

This resources is a column on how to write learning objectives for a course and why they make everything you do thereafter (e.g. planning syllabi and class sessions, making up assignments and exams, and reviewing departmental curricula) easier and more effective. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators

Felder, Richard M., 1939-; Brent, Rebecca, 1956-

2009-12-18

255

Object Recognition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis explores a method to do object recognition on the basis of the visual representation of the bag-of-words model. This approach has shown promising results on large-scale image retrieval systems. The bag-of-words model arises from Internet-based document search and is hereby based on the v...

Bolvig Stentebjerg, Peter Rene

256

Solving the Resource Constrained Project Scheduling Problem with Generalized Precedences by Lazy Clause Generation  

CERN Multimedia

The technical report presents a generic exact solution approach for minimizing the project duration of the resource-constrained project scheduling problem with generalized precedences (Rcpsp/max). The approach uses lazy clause generation, i.e., a hybrid of finite domain and Boolean satisfiability solving, in order to apply nogood learning and conflict-driven search on the solution generation. Our experiments show the benefit of lazy clause generation for finding an optimal solutions and proving its optimality in comparison to other state-of-the-art exact and non-exact methods. The method is highly robust: it matched or bettered the best known results on all of the 2340 instances we examined except 3, according to the currently available data on the PSPLib. Of the 631 open instances in this set it closed 573 and improved the bounds of 51 of the remaining 58 instances.

Schutt, Andreas; Stuckey, Peter J; Wallace, Mark G

2010-01-01

257

H[sub 2]S--Conclusion: Options narrowed to Claus or redox processes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Depending on the gas flow rate and the produced tons of sulfur/day, the amine/Claus and Redox processes meet the requirements of a proposed CO[sub 2] EOR gas processing plant near Welch, Tex. In the low gas flow range and sulfur tonnage above 8 long tons/day, amine/Claus was best while for the high gas flow range and sulfur tonnage below 15 long tons/day, Redox was more economical. Five different sulfur recovery processes were evaluated for OXY USA Inc.'s CO[sub 2] enhanced oil recovery project (EOR) in West Texas. Part 1 described the overall processes selected. This concluding part will detail the sulfur recovery options.

Johnson, J.E. (Pritchard Corp., Overland, KS (United States)); Tzap, S.J.; Kelley, R.E. (Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Denver, CO (United States)); Laczko, L.P. (OXY USA Inc., Midland, TX (United States))

1993-11-22

258

Including radiative heat transfer and reaction quenching in modeling a Claus plant waste heat boiler  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Due to increasingly stringent sulfur emission regulations, improvements are necessary in the modified Claus process. A recently proposed model by Nasato et al. for the Claus plant waste heat boiler (WHB) is improved by including radiative heat transfer, which yields significant changes in the predicted heat flux and the temperature profile along the WHB tube, leading to a faster quenching of chemical reactions. For the WHB considered, radiation accounts for approximately 20% of the heat transferred by convection alone. More importantly, operating the WHB at a higher gas mass flux is shown to enhance reaction quenching, resulting in a doubling of the predicted hydrogen flow rate. This increase in hydrogen flow rate is sufficient to completely meet the hydrogen requirement of the H[sub 2]S recovery process considered, which would eliminate the need for a hydrogen plant.

Karan, K.; Mehrotra, A.K.; Behie, L.A. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering)

1994-11-01

259

Drafting force majeure clauses in natural gas purchase/sale contracts -- the practicalities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The place of 'force majeure' provisions, in gas purchase/sale contracts is discussed. This issue, not normally considered to be significant in gas purchase/sale contracts, became a matter of intense interest in the aftermath of the Atcor Ltd v. Continental Energy Marketing case when the trial court, as well as the Alberta Court of Appeals, strongly criticized the wording of the force majeure clause in the contract as containing a 'choice of words that assured litigation'. Force majeure, simply stated, refers to acts of God, (lightning, earthquakes, storms, floods, etc) and acts of war. It is inserted in contracts to limit the liability of parties to the contract in the event of inability to perform due to any of the above acts of God, or acts of war. In this particular case, the force majeure cause included, in addition to the above, a long list of other causes such as strikes, lockouts or other industrial disturbances, insurrections, riots, epidemics, landslides, fires, washouts, explosions of or accidents to plant, machinery or lines of pipe, well blowouts, and pipeline repairs and reconditioning. The trial court found the drafting of the clause archaic, circumventing clarity, and drearily lengthy. In view of the court's decision it is clear that more thought has to go into drafting force majeure decisions in the future. Accordingly, this paper attempts to discuss practical issues of drafting force majeure clauses that clearly reflect the parties' intentions and expectations so that costly litigations might be avoided, or if litigation is unavoidable, to at least have the outcome of such litigation be more predictable. The focus of the discussion is on legal interpretation issues, forms of gas contract force majeure provisions- events and consequences, and standardization of force majeure provisions. It is recommended that the drafter of such clauses should always keep in mind the potential impact that the strict construction and commercial reasonability concepts may have on the words chosen. 22 refs.

1999-01-01

260

A high temperature intrinsic kinetic study of COS forming reaction and its application in Claus plant modelling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A strategy for reducing sulfur emissions from a Claus reaction furnace has been developed. The strategy is based on the idea of reducing the production of COS and CS{sub 2} from Claus plants. The modified Claus process is the most popular process for recovering sulfur from acid gases in the hydrocarbon industry, but COS is formed in large quantities in the waste heat boiler tubes of a Claus furnace by the reaction between CO and sulfur. Since COS is not hydrolyzed in the downstream fixed bed converters, it contributes greatly to the sulfur emissions from a Claus furnace. In this study, a high temperature flow reactor system was developed to study the reaction kinetics of key homogenous gas phase reactions that lead to the formation and consumption of COS and CS{sub 2}. A study was conducted to measure the intrinsic kinetics of the COS forming reaction in the temperature range of 600-1150 degrees C over a residence time of 0.5-2.0 s. A kinetic model was developed to account for both the COS formation and COS decomposition reactions which was incorporated into a rigorous computer simulation of a Claus plant waste heat boiler. The reaction quenching capability of the waste heat boiler was examined. Results showed that a three-fold reduction in COS formation could be achieved by simply changing the boiler operating conditions.

Karan, K.; Mehrotra, A.K.; Behie, L.A. [Calgary Univ., Calgary, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

1998-10-01

 
 
 
 
261

Quantum Objects  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we suggest an alternative interpretation for the quantum state vector, which, by considering temporal parts for physical objects, aims to give an intelligible account of measurement problem in quantum mechanics. We examine the capacity of this interpretation as for explaining three measurement problems: the problem of outcome, the problem of statistics and the problem of effect. We argue that, this interpretation of the state vector, while providing a satisfactory account, as rationally plausible as its rivals, for the measurement problem, shows yet another limitation of our perceptual experience, i.e. our inability to perceive unsharp reality.

Mansouri, Alireza; Karbasizadeh, Amir Ehsan

2013-01-01

262

ProGolem: A System Based on Relative Minimal Generalisation  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last decade Inductive Logic Programming systems have been dominated by use of top-down refinement search techniques. In this paper we re-examine the use of bottom-up approaches to the construction of logic programs. In particular, we explore variants of Plotkin's Relative Least General Generalisation (RLGG) which are based on subsumption relative to a bottom clause. With Plotkin's RLGG, clause length grows exponentially in the number of examples. By contrast, in the Golem system, the length of ij-determinate RLGG clauses were shown to be polynomially bounded for given values of i and j. However, the determinacy restrictions made Golem inapplicable in many key application areas, including the learning of chemical properties from atom and bond descriptions. In this paper we show that with Asymmetric Relative Minimal Generalisations (or ARMGs) relative to a bottom clause, clause length is bounded by the length of the initial bottom clause. ARMGs, therefore do not need the determinacy restrictions used in Golem. An algorithm is described for constructing ARMGs and this has been implemented in an ILP system called ProGolem which combines bottom-clause construction in Progol with a Golem control strategy which uses ARMG in place of determinate RLGG. ProGolem has been evaluated on several well-known ILP datasets. It is shown that ProGolem has a similar or better predictive accuracy and learning time compared to Golem on two determinate real-world applications where Golem was originally tested. Moreover, ProGolem was also tested on several non-determinate real-world applications where Golem is inapplicable. In these applications, ProGolem and Aleph have comparable times and accuracies. The experimental results also suggest that ProGolem significantly outperforms Aleph in cases where clauses in the target theory are long and complex.

Muggleton, Stephen; Santos, José; Tamaddoni-Nezhad, Alireza

263

Objeto de discurso e tópico discursivo: sistematizando relações/ Discourse objects and discursive topic: systematizing relations/ Objeto de discurso y tópico discursivo: sistematizando relaciones  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A relação entre processos de referenciação e progressão tópica tem sido alvo de discussões de muitos trabalhos de pesquisadores brasileiros da área de estudos do texto e do discurso. Este trabalho se insere nesse contexto e pretende retomar a questão. Meu objetivo é discutir a relação entre objeto de discurso e tópico discursivo, dentro do contexto mais amplo da relação entre processos de referenciação e progressão tópica, apenas tangenciada em trabalho (more) s anteriores, e, a partir daí propor alguma sistematização. Inicialmente, retomo e contextualizo as duas noções, depois discuto as tentativas de explicação da relação entre elas, nos estudos linguísticos brasileiros, e, finalmente, apresento uma proposta de sistematização. Abstract in spanish La relación entre procesos de referenciación y progresión tópica ha sido blanco de discusiones de muchos trabajos de pesquisadores brasileños del área de estudios del texto y del discurso. Este trabajo se insiere en ese contexto y pretende retomar la cuestión. Mi objetivo es discutir la relación entre objeto de discurso y tópico discursivo, dentro del contexto más amplio de la relación entre procesos de referenciación y progresión tópica, apenas tangenciada (more) en trabajos anteriores, y, a partir de ahí proponer alguna sistematización. Inicialmente, retomo y contextualizo las dos nociones, después discuto los intentos de explicación de la relación entre ellas, en los estudios linguísticos brasileños, y, finalmente, presento una propuesta de sistematización. Abstract in english The relation between referenciation processes and topical progression has been the subject of discussions in many works by Brazilian researchers from in the fields of text and discourse. This work is inserted in such a context and it intends to resume that issue. My aim to discuss the relation between discourse object and discursive topic, within the wider context of the relation between referenciation processes and topical progression, which has only been suggested in pr (more) evious works, and from that point on to propose some systematization. Initially, I retake and contextualize both notions, then I discuss the attempt to explain the relation between them in Brazilian studies and, finally, I introduce a systematization proposal.

Pinheiro, Clemilton Lopes

2012-12-01

264

SPINS: Standardized ProteIn NMR Storage. A data dictionary and object-oriented relational database for archiving protein NMR spectra  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Modern protein NMR spectroscopy laboratories have a rapidly growing need for an easily queried local archival system of raw experimental NMR datasets. SPINS (Standardized ProteIn Nmr Storage) is an object-oriented relational database that provides facilities for high-volume NMR data archival, organization of analyses, and dissemination of results to the public domain by automatic preparation of the header files required for submission of data to the BioMagResBank (BMRB). The current version of SPINS coordinates the process from data collection to BMRB deposition of raw NMR data by standardizing and integrating the storage and retrieval of these data in a local laboratory file system. Additional facilities include a data mining query tool, graphical database administration tools, and a NMRStar v2.1.1 file generator. SPINS also includes a user-friendly internet-based graphical user interface, which is optionally integrated with Varian VNMR NMR data collection software. This paper provides an overview of the data model underlying the SPINS database system, a description of its implementation in Oracle, and an outline of future plans for the SPINS project.

2002-01-01

265

Motivational Object  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To provide a motivational training device for dogs, including a bite body made of an elastomeric material, with a first outer annular bulge, a second outer annular bulge and at least one more annular bulge arranged in-between the first and the second outer annular bulge, whereby the annular bulges are arranged in parallel in the longitudinal direction of the bite body, to prevent the undesirable slipping of the dog off the motivational object, to guarantee an undisturbed joy of gameplay with the device on one hand, and a flawless dog training experience from a sporting and working dog perspective on the other hand, it is proposed to including a plurality of troughs in the circumferential area of the bite body arranged in-between the adjoining annular bulges.

LIND EKARD

266

'Koloniseren is een smaak die je moet leren' - Hugo Claus en Het leven en de werken van Leopold II (1970)/ Hugo Claus and Het leven en de werken van Leopold II (1970)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Abstract in english The première of Claus' play Het leven en de werken van Leopold II (The Life and Works of Leopold II), in November 1970 (by the company Nederlandse Comedie), was directed by the author himself. After a second and again rather unsuccessful run (1972 - 1973, Arena, director: J. Tummers) it disappeared from the stage for nearly thirty years: there was no other production of Claus' play in the Low Countries until the autumn of 2002 (KVS, director: R. Ruëll). Undoubtedly Het (more) leven en de werken van Leopold II is one of the lesser-known plays by the Flemish author Hugo Claus (1929-2008). While writing it, at the end of the sixties, Claus was simultaneously working on two poetry collections. Van horen zeggen contains accessible poems, sometimes rather anecdotal, with many references to the contemporary political situation. These poems show a clear affinity with the neo-realistic poetry that was dominant in Dutch-language literature in the sixties. Also in 1970, on the same day as Van horen zeggen, Claus published Heer Everzwijn (Lord Wild Boar), manneristic poetry showing another poeta faber. Given Claus' interest in the history of the Congo Free State (see also the novel De geruchten [The rumours]) and the way he caricatures King Leopold II and his government in Het leven en de werken, it is worth investigating the political and social perspectives articulated in both his drama and his poetry. What are the similarities between the poet and the playwright? How can we explain his interest in the way Leopold mistreated the people of the Congo? In this essay I present the ideological and social points of view adopted by Claus in a broad literary and political context, studying his play on Leopold's atrocities in what would later (in 1908) become a Belgian colony, alongside the poetry he produced in the same period.

T'Sjoen, Yves

2009-01-01

267

Preservation of Digital Objects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to preservation of digital objects: practical examples; stakeholders; recordkeeping standards; genre-specific problems; trusted repository standards; preservation methods; preservation metadata standards; and future directions. (Contains 82 references.) (MES)

Galloway, Patricia

2004-01-01

268

The effectiveness of take-or-pay clauses under the Brazilian courts; A eficacia das clausulas de 'take-or-pay' nos tribunais brasileiros  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The international energy industry, where the sale of their commodities (oil, natural gas, biofuels and its derivatives), typically uses in its long-term contracts clauses take-or-pay. However, questioning about the Brazilian judicial effectiveness of such clauses appears each day. This paper aims to establish a rationale clause of take-or-pay; have terms and typical conditions of one clause of take-or-pay; discuss the existing national law on the subject; list the main questions arising from the applicability of the terms of take-or-pay, and the potential solutions to the current scenario.

Goncalves, Bruno A.; Travassos, Cristiano H. [Tess Advogados, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2008-07-01

269

On Coordinating Collaborative Objects  

CERN Multimedia

A collaborative object represents a data type (such as a text document) designed to be shared by a group of dispersed users. The Operational Transformation (OT) is a coordination approach used for supporting optimistic replication for these objects. It allows the users to concurrently update the shared data and exchange their updates in any order since the convergence of all replicas, i.e. the fact that all users view the same data, is ensured in all cases. However, designing algorithms for achieving convergence with the OT approach is a critical and challenging issue. In this paper, we propose a formal compositional method for specifying complex collaborative objects. The most important feature of our method is that designing an OT algorithm for the composed collaborative object can be done by reusing the OT algorithms of component collaborative objects. By using our method, we can start from correct small collaborative objects which are relatively easy to handle and incrementally combine them to build more ...

Imine, Abdessamad

2010-01-01

270

Control of SOx emission in tail gas of the Claus Plant at Kwangyang Steel Works  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pilot and/or laboratory studies were conducted in order to find methods for reducing the SOx emission in the Claus tail gas of the cokes unit. The TGT process which is based on the complete hydrogenation of the sulfur-containing compounds (SO{sub 2}, S) into H{sub 2}S and returning to the COG main line can reduce the SOx emission to zero. In case the return to the COG main is impossible, the SPOR process (Sulfur removal based on Partial Oxidation and Reduction) can be successfully applied to reduce the SOx emission.

Kang, H.S.; Park, J.W.; Hyun, H.D. [POSCO, Cheonnam (Korea, Republic of). Kwangyang Works; Lee, D.S. [RIST, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Environmental Catalysis; Paik, S.C. [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Chung, J.S. [RIST, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Environmental Catalysis]|[POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1995-12-01

271

Drafting force majeure clauses in natural gas purchase/sale contracts -- the practicalities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The place of 'force majeure' provisions, in gas purchase/sale contracts is discussed. This issue, not normally considered to be significant in gas purchase/sale contracts, became a matter of intense interest in the aftermath of the Atcor Ltd v. Continental Energy Marketing case when the trial court, as well as the Alberta Court of Appeals, strongly criticized the wording of the force majeure clause in the contract as containing a 'choice of words that assured litigation'. Force majeure, simply stated, refers to acts of God, (lightning, earthquakes, storms, floods, etc) and acts of war. It is inserted in contracts to limit the liability of parties to the contract in the event of inability to perform due to any of the above acts of God, or acts of war. In this particular case, the force majeure cause included, in addition to the above, a long list of other causes such as strikes, lockouts or other industrial disturbances, insurrections, riots, epidemics, landslides, fires, washouts, explosions of or accidents to plant, machinery or lines of pipe, well blowouts, and pipeline repairs and reconditioning. The trial court found the drafting of the clause archaic, circumventing clarity, and drearily lengthy. In view of the court's decision it is clear that more thought has to go into drafting force majeure decisions in the future. Accordingly, this paper attempts to discuss practical issues of drafting force majeure clauses that clearly reflect the parties' intentions and expectations so that costly litigations might be avoided, or if litigation is unavoidable, to at least have the outcome of such litigation be more predictable. The focus of the discussion is on legal interpretation issues, forms of gas contract force majeure provisions- events and consequences, and standardization of force majeure provisions. It is recommended that the drafter of such clauses should always keep in mind the potential impact that the strict construction and commercial reasonability concepts may have on the words chosen. 22 refs.

Reschke, D. N.; Campbell, L. M. [Blain and Company Law Group, Calgary, ANB (Canada)

1999-07-01

272

The phenotype and genotype experiment object model (PaGE-OM): a robust data structure for information related to DNA variation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Torrents of genotype-phenotype data are being generated, all of which must be captured, processed, integrated, and exploited. To do this optimally requires the use of standard and interoperable "object models," providing a description of how to partition the total spectrum of information being dealt with into elemental "objects" (such as "alleles," "genotypes," "phenotype values," "methods") with precisely stated logical interrelationships (such as "A objects are made up from one or more B objects"). We herein propose the Phenotype and Genotype Experiment Object Model (PaGE-OM; www.pageom.org), which has been tested and implemented in conjunction with several major databases, and approved as a standard by the Object Management Group (OMG). PaGE-OM is open-source, ready for use by the wider community, and can be further developed as needs arise. It will help to improve information management, assist data integration, and simplify the task of informatics resource design and construction for genotype and phenotype data projects.

Brookes AJ; Lehvaslaiho H; Muilu J; Shigemoto Y; Oroguchi T; Tomiki T; Mukaiyama A; Konagaya A; Kojima T; Inoue I; Kuroda M; Mizushima H; Thorisson GA; Dash D; Rajeevan H; Darlison MW; Woon M; Fredman D; Smith AV; Senger M; Naito K; Sugawara H

2009-06-01

273

In pre-school children, sleep objectively assessed via sleep-EEGs remains stable over 12 months and is related to psychological functioning, but not to cortisol secretion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Cross-sectional studies provide evidence that in pre-schoolers poor sleep is by this age already associated with both poor psychological functioning and an increased cortisol secretion. However, long-term studies on the stability of sleep in pre-schoolers are scarce. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate objectively assessed sleep in pre-schoolers longitudinally, and to predict sleep, psychological functioning and cortisol secretion prospectively as a function of sleep 12 months earlier. METHOD: A total of 58 pre-schoolers (mean age: 5.43 years; 47% females) were re-assessed 12 months later (mean age: 6.4 years). Sleep-EEG recordings were performed, saliva cortisol was analysed, and parents and experts rated children's psychological functioning. RESULTS: Longitudinally, poor objective sleep at age 5.4 years was associated with poor objective sleep and psychological difficulties but not cortisol secretion 12 months later. At age 6.4 years, poor sleep was concurrently associated with greater psychological difficulties and increased cortisol secretion. CONCLUSION: In pre-schoolers, poor sleep objectively assessed at the age of 5.4 years was associated with poor sleep and psychological difficulties one year later. Data indicate that in pre-schoolers, sleep remains stable over a 12-months-period. Pre-schoolers with poor sleep appear to be at risk for developing further psychological difficulties.

Hatzinger M; Brand S; Perren S; Von Wyl A; Stadelmann S; von Klitzing K; Holsboer-Trachsler E

2013-11-01

274

New concept for quantification of similarity relates entropy and energy of objects: First and Second Law entangled, equivalence of temperature and time proposed  

CERN Multimedia

When the difference between changes in energy and entropy at a given temperature is correlated with the ratio between the same changes in energy and entropy at zero average free energy of an ensemble of similar but distinct molecule-sized objects, a highly significant linear dependence results from which a relationship between energy and entropy is derived and the degree of similarity between the distinctly different members within the group of objects can be quantified. This fundamental energy-entropy relationship is likely to be of general interest in physics, most notably in particle physics and cosmology. We predict a consistent and testable way of classifying mini black holes, to be generated in future Large Hadron Collider experiments, by their gravitational energy and area entropy. For any isolated universe we propose absolute temperature and absolute time to be equivalent, much in the same way as energy and entropy are for an isolated ensemble of similar objects. According to this principle, the cosmo...

Zimak, Petr; Strazewski, Peter

2009-01-01

275

Dynamic Detection and Removal of Inactive Clauses in SAT with Application in Image Computation  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, we present a new technique for the efficient dynamic detection and removal of inactive clauses, i.e. clauses that do not affect the solutions of interest of a Boolean Satisfiability (SAT) problem. The algorithm is based on the extraction of gate connectivity information during generation of the Boolean formula from the circuit, and its use in the inner loop of a branch-and-bound SAT algorithm. The motivation for this optimization is to exploit the circuit structure information, which can be used to find unobservable gates at circuit outputs under dynamic conditions. It has the potential to speed up all applications of SAT in which the SAT formula is derived from a logic circuit. In particular, we find that it has considerable impact on an image computation algorithm based on SAT. We present practical results for benchmark circuits which show that the use of this optimization consistently improves the performance for reachability analysis, in some cases enabling the prototype tool to reach more states than otherwise possible.

Aarti Gupta; Anubhav Gupta; Zijiang Yang; Pranav Ashar

276

An experimental and modeling study of homogenous gas phase reactions occurring in the modified Claus process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results of a thermodynamic feasibility study, experimental data and modeling results for key side reactions occurring in the front-end units reaction furnace (RF) and waste heat boiler (WHB) of a Claus plant for sulphur recovery are discussed. The thermodynamic study was performed to select important reactions that lead to the formation of CO, COS and CS{sub 2}in the front end of a Claus plant, while the experimental and modeling studies were designed to obtain kinetic data for selected key side reactions and to determine intrinsic kinetic expressions. Experiments on the partial oxidation of acid gas mixtures yielded useful information on the formation of key species under oxidation conditions. Comparison of experimental data with simulation data showed that the kinetic scheme for H2{sub S} oxidation could adequately predict gas composition at higher temperatures, but not at lower temperatures. Simulation studies of the front end units showed that up to 50 per cent reduction in COS production in the waste heat boiler may be achieved with appropriate modifications in design and operation. This significant reduction in COS formation has significant implications for sulphur emissions and recovery.

Karan, K.

1999-07-01

277

Measures Would Be Taken By the Courts in Deciding Whether to Trigger the Off-hire Clause  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the scope of carriage of goods by sea, the central issue is the vessel. Obviously, the efficiency of the vessel is of utmost importance not only to the shipowner who render the vessel to earn hire but also the charterer who pay the hire in the purpose to utilize the vessel. Sometimes, the vessel might be out of order or cannot work efficiently. Therefore, there must be the collision of interests between the parties on whether paying the hire continuously in this situation. In other words, it is the problem of triggering off-hire clause in the charterparty. Though the standard forms, such as NYPE and Baltime form have the off-hire clause, however, the utilization of the clause is ambiguous according to different situation. Therefore, the critical challenge faced by the Court is how to trigger the off-hire clause more reasonable so that the interests of parties can be balanced. Key words: On-hire; Off-hire; Seaworthiness Résumé: Dans le cadre du transport de marchandises par mer, la question centrale est le navire. De toute évidence, l'efficacité du navire est de la plus haute importance, non seulement pour l'armateur qui rend le navire afin de gagner de la location, mais aussi pour l'affréteur qui paie la location dans le but d'utiliser le bateau. Parfois, le navire peut être hors de l’ordre ou ne peut pas travailler efficacement. Par conséquent, il doit y avoir la collision d'intérêts entre les parties sur le problème si on doit payer la location de façon continue dans cette situation. En d'autres termes, c'est le problème du déclenchement de la clause de l’arrêt-location dans la charte. Bien que certains formulaires standards, tels que NYPE et Baltime ont la forme de clause de l’arrêt-location, l'utilisation de cette clause est ambiguëe en fonction de différentes situations. Par conséquent, le défi critique de la Cour est de savoir comment déclencher une clause de l’arrêt-location plus raisonnable, afin que les intérêts des parties peuvent être équilibrés. Mots-clés: en location;arrêt-location; navigabilité ? ??????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????NYPE?????????????Baltime form?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????? ?????????????????

Xia ZHENG

2009-01-01

278

New concept for quantification of similarity relates entropy and energy of objects: First and Second Law entangled, group behavior of micro black holes expected  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract When the free energy of similar but distinct molecule-sized objects is plotted against the temperature at which their energy and entropy contributions cancel, a highly significant linear dependence results from which the degree of similarity between the distinctly different members within the group of objects can be quantified and a relationship between energy and entropy is derived. This energy-entropy relationship entirely reflects the mathematical structure of thermodynamic equations, is in this sense fundamental and therefore does probably not dependent on material nor scale. The energy-entropy relationship is likely to be of general interest in molecular biology, population biology, synthetic biology, biophysics, chemical thermodynamics, systems chemistry and physics, most notably in particle physics and cosmology. In physics we predict a consistent and perhaps testable way of classifying micro black holes, to be generated in future Large Hadron Collider experiments, by their gravitational energy and area entropy.

Zimak Petr; Terenzi Silvia; Strazewski Peter

2010-01-01

279

Relations between the matter density and layer thickness radial distributions in spherically symmetric objects: for high energy nuclear physics and astrophysics use  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is shown how it is possible to transform known data on radial distribution of the matter layer thickness to unknown radial distribution of the matter density inside spherically symmetric objects. Appropriate formulas and testing of them are presented. An application of the method for the radial distribution of the matter density inside a target nucleus is discussed as an example. 2 refs.; 2 figs

1991-01-01

280

Object-Place Recognition Learning Triggers Rapid Induction of Plasticity-Related Immediate Early Genes and Synaptic Proteins in the Rat Dentate Gyrus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Long-term recognition memory requires protein synthesis, but little is known about the coordinate regulation of specific genes. Here, we examined expression of the plasticity-associated immediate early genes (Arc, Zif268, and Narp) in the dentate gyrus following long-term object-place recognition learning in rats. RT-PCR analysis from dentate gyrus tissue collected shortly after training did not reveal learning-specific changes in Arc mRNA expression. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were therefore used to assess possible sparse effects on gene expression. Learning about objects increased the density of granule cells expressing Arc, and to a lesser extent Narp, specifically in the dorsal blade of the dentate gyrus, while Zif268 expression was elevated across both blades. Thus, object-place recognition triggers rapid, blade-specific upregulation of plasticity-associated immediate early genes. Furthermore, Western blot analysis of dentate gyrus homogenates demonstrated concomitant upregulation of three postsynaptic density proteins (Arc, PSD-95, and α-CaMKII) with key roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and long-term memory.

Jonathan Soulé; Zsuzsa Penke; Tambudzai Kanhema; Maria Nordheim Alme; Serge Laroche; Clive R. Bramham

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

This elusive objective existence  

CERN Document Server

Zurek's existential interpretation of quantum mechanics suffers from three classical prejudices, including the belief that space and time are intrinsically and infinitely differentiated. They compel him to relativize the concept of objective existence in two ways. The elimination of these prejudices makes it possible to recognize the quantum formalism's ontological implications - the relative and contingent reality of spatiotemporal distinctions and the extrinsic and finite spatiotemporal differentiation of the physical world - which in turn makes it possible to arrive at an unqualified objective existence. Contrary to a widespread misconception, viewing the quantum formalism as being fundamentally a probability algorithm does not imply that quantum mechanics is concerned with states of knowledge rather than states of Nature. On the contrary, it makes possible a complete and strongly objective description of the physical world that requires no reference to observers. What objectively exists, in a sense that r...

Mohrhoff, U

2004-01-01

282

Measures Would be Taken by the Courts in Deciding whether to Trigger the Off-hire Clause  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the scope of carriage of goods by sea, the central issue is the vessel. Obviously, the efficiency of the vessel is of utmost importance not only to the shipowner who render the vessel to earn hire but also the charterer who pay the hire in the purpose to utilize the vessel. Sometimes, the vessel might be out of order or cannot work efficiently. Therefore, there must be the collision of interests between the parties on whether paying the hire continuously in this situation. In other words, it is the problem of triggering off-hire clause in the charterparty. Though the standard forms, such as NYPE and Baltime form have the off-hire clause, however, the utilization of the clause is ambiguous according to different situation. Therefore, the critical challenge faced by the Court is how to trigger the off-hire clause more reasonable so that the interests of parties can be balanced. Key words: On-hire; Off-hire; Seaworthiness

Xia ZHENG

2009-01-01

283

Free and depedent small clauses in Brazilian Portuguese Mini-orações livres e dependentes em Português Brasileiro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines free small clauses, which, unlike dependent small clauses, exhibit peculiar properties: (a) they are restricted to occur with individual level and event adjectives, (b) they have to appear with the subject postposed. After considering several hypotheses on the nature of this inversion, it is proposed that these adjectives are of the ergative type, while the stage level adjectives are unergatives. Small clauses with ergative adjectives can be complements of a third copula distinct from the attributive 'ser' and the stative 'estar', which underlies cleft constructions. The derivation of free small clauses is parallel to canonical cleft sentences.Este artigo examina o que chamamos de mini-orações livres, que, diferentemente de mini-orações dependentes, exibem algumas propriedades peculiares: (a) é restrita a ocorrer com adjetivos de indivíduo ou de evento, (b) tem que ter o sujeito posposto. Após considerar várias hipóteses sobre a natureza dessa inversão, propôs-se que os adjetivos que nela aparecem são do tipo ergativo. Essas mini-orações podem ser complementos de um tipo especial de cópula, do tipo que aparece com construções clivadas. As derivações das mini-orações livres seriam paralelas à derivação de construções clivadas.

Mary Aizawa Kato

2007-01-01

284

Free and depedent small clauses in Brazilian Portuguese/ Mini-orações livres e dependentes em Português Brasileiro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo examina o que chamamos de mini-orações livres, que, diferentemente de mini-orações dependentes, exibem algumas propriedades peculiares: (a) é restrita a ocorrer com adjetivos de indivíduo ou de evento, (b) tem que ter o sujeito posposto. Após considerar várias hipóteses sobre a natureza dessa inversão, propôs-se que os adjetivos que nela aparecem são do tipo ergativo. Essas mini-orações podem ser complementos de um tipo especial de cópula, do ti (more) po que aparece com construções clivadas. As derivações das mini-orações livres seriam paralelas à derivação de construções clivadas. Abstract in english This paper examines free small clauses, which, unlike dependent small clauses, exhibit peculiar properties: (a) they are restricted to occur with individual level and event adjectives, (b) they have to appear with the subject postposed. After considering several hypotheses on the nature of this inversion, it is proposed that these adjectives are of the ergative type, while the stage level adjectives are unergatives. Small clauses with ergative adjectives can be complement (more) s of a third copula distinct from the attributive 'ser' and the stative 'estar', which underlies cleft constructions. The derivation of free small clauses is parallel to canonical cleft sentences.

Kato, Mary Aizawa

2007-01-01

285

Shell's recent improvements in gas treating and Claus tail gas cleanup. [Sulfinol gas treatment process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper discusses some recent improvements in Shell's sulfur recovery facilities associated with natural gas processing plants. Specifically, the discussion covers improvements in Sulfinol gas treating process, Claus tail gas cleanup, and catalytic incineration of tail gas. The technological advances described are shown to result in appreciably lower costs as well as significantly increased process flexibility.

Flynn, A.J.; Wallace, C.B.; Christensen, R.G.; Knowles, W.T.

1981-01-01

286

DVD anmeldelse - En Verden af Lyd og Musik : Claus Bang: Musikterapi for døve, hørehæmmede og multihandicappede børn og unge  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Anmeldelse af DVD-udgivelse af Claus Bang (2005): En Verden af Lyd og Musik. Musikterapi for døve, hørehæmmede og multihandicappede børn og unge. Al tale med undertekst eller tegnsprogstolkning. DVD-boks med 3 stk. dobbeltlag DVD beregnet til afspilning på PC. Udgivet af Musikterapi-foreningen En Verden af Lyd og Musik; produceret af Zenaria, Aalborg. Se også www.clausbang.com

Holck, Ulla

2006-01-01

287

Influência da textura na preensão de indivíduos com Síndrome de Down/ Influence of the object texture related to the grip in individuals with Down Syndrome  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Diversos estudos disponibilizam evidências sobre características do desempenho motor e cognitivo de indivíduos com Síndrome de Down (SD), porém poucos estudos analisam a força muscular nestes indivíduos. As alterações apresentadas por indivíduos com SD podem manifestar-se funcionalmente e interferir na sua capacidade de desempenhar de forma independente diversas atividades e tarefas da rotina diária. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo (more) analisar a influência da textura do objeto na força de preensão palmar em indivíduos com Síndrome de Down. Participaram do estudo dez indivíduos com SD, com idade entre 4 e 30 anos. MÉTODO: A análise da força de preensão palmar foi mensurada por meio de um transdutor de força. A tarefa proposta para a coleta dos dados foi realizar a preensão do transdutor, revestido com diferentes texturas, transportá-lo até um ponto previamente demarcado, e posteriormente o retorno à posição inicial. Os dados obtidos foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva e não-paramétrica. RESULTADOS: Os dados da estatística descritiva permitiram observar que a textura áspera foi a que exigiu menor força de preensão palmar dos participantes neste estudo, no entanto a análise não-paramétrica indicou não haver diferença estatisticamente significativa. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados deste estudo indicam que textura do objeto não influenciou a força de preensão palmar executada pelos indivíduos com Síndrome de Down. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Many studies show evidences about characteristics of the motor and cognitive performance of subjects with Down Syndrome (DS). However, there is lack of studies that analyze the muscular force in these individuals. The alterations found in subjects with DS can impair their function and interfere in the capacity of the subjects to perform many activities and tasks of the daily routine independently. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the influ (more) ence of object's texture on grip force in subjects with DS. Ten individuals with diagnosis of DS were selected, with age between 4 and 30 years. METHODS: The grip force was measured with a transducer with two different textures. The proposed task for data collection was to hold the transducer, covered with two different textures, and carry it until a point previously demarcated, and later return it to the initial position. The data were analyzed through descriptive and nonparametric statistics. RESULTS: It was possible to observe that the rough texture was the one that demanded minor amount of grip force; however the nonparametric analysis indicated that there was no significant difference in grip force among textures. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicated that the object's texture did not influence the grip force carried out by individuals with DS.

Gianlorenço, Anna Carolyna Lepesteur; Ide, Daniela; Braccialli, Lígia Maria Presumido

2010-06-01

288

Relations Between the Object Under Consideration, Dialectical System, System and Model of it as a Basis for the Requisite Holism and Realism of Modelling and its Results  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Modelling is a crucial tool in research and development, but models simplify one’s perception of systems as mental pictures of reality, maybe too much. Therefore one must be aware of the addressed relations, typology of models, and apply ‘USOMID – 6 Thinking Hats’ method of creative cooperation to attain requisite holism of approach and requisite wholeness of outcomes.

Matjaz Mulej; Zdenka Zenko; Branka Cagran; Nastja Mulej

2013-01-01

289

Sintaxe das orações complexas em português: uma proposta de descrição e ensino/ Syntax of complex clauses in Portuguese: a proposal of description and teaching  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, a partir de uma discussão acerca de problemas relacionados ao ensino de gramática, pretende-se fazer uma proposta de descrição e ensino de algumas orações subordinadas substantivas sob uma perspectiva interdiscursiva. Com base nos pressupostos da teoria da Gramática Discursivo-Funcional (HENGEVELD; MACKENZIE, 2008), observaram-se aspectos subjetivos codificados na sintaxe dessas orações, motivados pelas intenções do falante. Verificou-se que as (more) construções complexas estudadas, do ponto de vista pragmático, compreendem estratégias de que o falante dispõe para demonstrar maior ou menor comprometimento com o que diz, preservando sua face, e também para garantir a confiabilidade da informação asseverada; do ponto de vista do sistema da língua, revelam adaptações que a língua sofre em função das necessidades comunicativas do falante (BYBEE, 2010). Acredita-se que o ensino dessas orações, a partir de sua funcionalidade, pode tornar a prática em sala de aula mais eficiente, melhorando o desempenho linguístico dos alunos. Abstract in english In this paper, motivated by problems related to grammar teaching, we propose a description of some noun subordinate clauses from an interdiscursive perspective. Based on the principles of the Functional Discourse Grammar theory (HENGEVELD; MACKENZIE, 2008), we observed some subjective aspects encoded by these syntactic constructions, motivated by the Speaker's communicative intentions. In pragmatic terms, the complement clauses we studied correspond to the Speaker's strat (more) egies to demonstrate his commitment degree with what he's saying, protecting his/her face, and also assuring the information's reliability; in linguistic terms, they show the language suffers some adaptations (BYBEE, 2010) to serve the Speaker's communicative needs. We believe that the focus in the functionality of these constructions can make its teaching richer and more efficient, and so the students' language performance.

Sperança-Criscuolo, Ana Carolina

2013-01-01

290

Modeling and simulation of condensed sulfur in catalytic beds of CLAUS process: rapid estimation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Claus process has been known and used in the industry for over 100 years. It involves thermal oxidation of hydrogen sulfide and its reaction with sulfur dioxide to form sulfur and water vapor. This process is equilibrium-limited and usually achieves efficiencies in the range of 94-97%, which have been regarded as acceptable in the past years. First bed operates at the temperature of 573 K, second and third beds operate at 523K and 473K. Outlet of each bed enters the condenser. Operating temperature of each condenser is about 413K which sulfur condenses in them. In this study catalytic bed process of sulfur recovery unit has been mathematically modeled and by MATLAB software simulated, and then output conditions of compounds has been calculated.

Reza Abedini; Mehdi Koolivand Salooki; Samaneh Ghasemian

2010-01-01

291

A SIMPLE MOLAR FLOW MODELING AND SIMULATION OF CATALYTIC BEDS IN CLAUS PROCESS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Claus process has been known and used in the industry for over 100 years. It involves thermaloxidation of hydrogen sulfide and its reaction with sulfur dioxide to form sulfur and water vapor.This process is equilibrium-limited and usually achieves efficiencies in the range of 94-97%, whichhave been regarded as acceptable in the past years. First bed operates at the temperature of 573K, second and third beds operate at 523K and 473K. Outlet of each bed enters the condenser.Operating temperature of each condenser is about 413K which sulfur condenses in them. In thisstudy catalytic bed process of sulfur recovery unit has been mathematically modeled and byMATLAB software simulated, and then output conditions of compounds has been calculated.

R. Abedini; M. Koolivand Salooki

2010-01-01

292

Comparison of breast cancer-related lymphedema (upper limb swelling) prevalence estimated using objective and subjective criteria and relationship with quality of life.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed to investigate lymphedema prevalence using three different measurement/diagnostic criterion combinations and explore the relationship between lymphedema and quality of life for each, to provide evaluation of rehabilitation. Cross-sectional data from 617 women attending review appointments after completing surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy included the Morbidity Screening Tool (MST; criterion: yes to lymphedema); Lymphedema and Breast Cancer Questionnaire (LBCQ; criterion: yes to heaviness and/or swelling); percentage limb volume difference (perometer: %LVD; criterion: 10%+ difference); and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy breast cancer-specific quality of life tool (FACT B+4). Perometry measurements were conducted in a clinic room. Between 341 and 577 participants provided sufficient data for each analysis, with mean age varying from 60 to 62 (SD 9.95-10.03) and median months after treatment from 49 to 51. Lymphedema prevalence varied from 26.2% for perometry %LVD to 20.5% for the MST and 23.9% for the LBCQ; differences were not significant. Limits of agreement analysis between %LVD and the subjective measures showed little consistency, while moderate consistency resulted between the subjective measures. Quality of life differed significantly for women with and without lymphedema only when subjective measurements were used. Results suggest that subjective and objective tools investigate different aspects of lymphedema.

Bulley C; Gaal S; Coutts F; Blyth C; Jack W; Chetty U; Barber M; Tan CW

2013-01-01

293

Inheriting workplace risks: The effect of workers` compensation {open_quotes}exclusive remedy{close_quotes} clauses on the preconception tort after Johnson Controls  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article explores whether exclusive remedy clauses will bar a tort action by a child seeking recovery for injury caused by his or her parent`s occupational exposure to mutagenic or toxic agents before the child`s conception in the same manner that the clauses bar spouses` loss of consortium suits. Because both the child`s right to recover for injury and the spouse`s right to recover for loss of consortium depend on proof of employer negligence toward the employee, a comparison of the two rights provides a framework for analyzing the effect exclusive remedy clauses could have on the preconception tort action. Part I of this article discusses exclusive remedy clauses of workers` compensation acts and illustrates how it might be asserted as a defense to a preconception tort action. Part II traces the development of the preconception tort action and its underlying theory of liability. Part III reviews how exclusive remedy clauses have served to bar loss of consortium suits. Part IV analyzes the applicability of exclusive remedy clauses to the preconception tort action. This article concludes that, absent revision to workers` compensation statutes or judicial reliance on public policy to distinguish loss of consortium and preconception tort suits, exclusive remedy clauses probably will be held to bar recovery in preconception tort actions. 121 refs.

Stern, C.; Tierney, C.M.G. [McKenna & Cuneo, Washington, DC (United States)

1993-12-31

294

SPECT attenuation related artifacts and their removal by attenuation correction in uniform and non-uniform attenuating objects using iterative reconstruction algorithms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Photon attenuation is one of the main causes of quantitative errors and artifacts in SPECT. CT based attenuation map is necessary to correct for this effect accurately. A number of attenuation related artifacts are described. A fast and memory efficient algorithm is proposed for attenuation correction. Methods: In our CT based attenuation correction algorithm, attenuated projections of an arbitrary estimation are calculated. These projections are compared with real projections. The error due to comparison updates the first arbitrary image. This iterative procedure continues till there is no difference between mathematical and real projections. To consider the effect of Poisson noise during reconstruction, EM statistical reconstruction is used. The effect of attenuation is enrolled in both projection and backprojection steps. To accelerate the reconstruction algorithm, a rotating image in a fix grid with bilinear interpolation is used to simplify ray tracing for creating mathematical projections. OSEM with much faster convergence rate is also used instead of MLEM as iterative algorithm. Different phantom configurations with uniform and non-uniform attenuation map are used to evaluate the accuracy of this algorithm. Projections free from the effect of attenuation were also simulated. Reconstructed image from these attenuation free projections is considered as reference image. Normalized mean square error between reference and corrected image and image contrast were used for quantitative evaluation of this algorithm. Results: contrast of central hot spot reduced to about half of its real contrast due to attenuation. Non-uniformities, like hot skin, bright long related spots and colds bone related spots were also created in non-corrected images due to attenuation. All attenuation related artifacts removed after attenuation correction. NMSE is reduced from 1 in non-corrected images to 0.1 in corrected images. Much better fit in line profile of corrected images and reference images were also observed. Conclusion: By using more suitable models for image formation it is possible to reconstruct images with much higher quantitative and qualitative accuracy which is essential in both diagnostic and image guided therapy procedures.

Faraz Kalantari; Hossein Rajabi; Mohsen Saghari; Alireza Emami

2010-01-01

295

Invariance and Objectivity  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientific knowledge should not only be true, it should be as objective as possible. It should refer to a reality independent of any subject. What can we use as a criterion of objectivity? Intersubjectivity (i.e., intersubjective understandability and intersubjective testability) is necessary, but not sufficient. Other criteria are: independence of reference system, independence of method, non-conventionality. Is there some common trait? Yes, there is: invariance under some specified transformations. Thus, we say: A proposition is objective only if its truth is invariant against a change in the conditions under which it was formulated. We give illustrations from geometry, perception, neurobiology, relativity theory, and quantum theory. Such an objectivist position has many advantages.

Vollmer, Gerhard

2010-10-01

296

Portable vacuum object handling device  

Science.gov (United States)

The disclosure relates to a portable device adapted to handle objects which are not to be touched by hand. A piston and bore wall form a vacuum chamber communicating with an adaptor sealably engageable with an object to be lifted. The piston is manually moved and set to establish vacuum. A valve is manually actuatable to apply the vacuum to lift the object.

Anderson, Gordon H. (Los Alamos, NM)

1983-08-09

297

Relativity  

CERN Multimedia

Relativity: The Special and General Theory is an introduction to Einstein's space-bending, time-stretching theory of Relativity, first published in December 1916. Special and General relativity explain the structure of space time and provide a theory of gravitation, respectively. Einstein's theories shocked the world with their counterintuitive results, including the dissolution of absolute time. In this book, he brings a simplified form of his profound understanding of the subject to the layperson. In the words of Einstein: "The present book is intended, as far as possible, to give an ex

Einstein, Albert

2010-01-01

298

Frecuencia y mecanismos de exposición accidental a productos biológicos potencialmente infecciosos en personal de salud/ Sharp object related accident involving health personnel in a pediatric hospital  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducción. Los accidentes por material punzocortante constituyen un riesgo al que está sometido el personal de salud. Objetivo: describir la frecuencia y mecanismos de exposición a productos biológicos infecciosos en el personal de salud. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio observacional y descriptivo, de los reportes del programa de vigilancia epidemiológica a la exposición a productos biológicos infecciosos en el personal de salud del Hospital Infantil (more) de México Federico Gómez de la Ciudad de México, ocurridos del 1 de enero de 1991 al 31 de diciembre de 2004. Resultados. Se presentaron 848 accidentes de trabajo durante el período estudiado. El promedio de accidentes por 100 camas/año fue de 29.9 con una variación de 4.6 a 56.4. Hubo 8.29 accidentes por 1 000 egresos/año, con un límite de 1.6 a 14.4. Los eventos se presentaron principalmente en personal de enfermería con 345 episodios (40.6%), seguido de médicos residentes con 220 eventos (25.9%). El mecanismo más frecuente fue el piquete con aguja en 616 ocasiones (72.6%), siendo las manos el sitio anatómico más comúnmente afectado en 677 casos (79.8%). Los servicios donde hubo más accidentes fueron: Urgencias con 109 eventos (12.8%), UTIP con 96 (11.3%), y UCIN con 80 (9.4%), siendo el turno matutino donde hubo el de mayor número, 507 eventos (59.7%). Las medidas de precaución realizadas por el personal lesionado fueron las siguientes: uso de guantes 488 (57.5%), lavado de manos 404 (47.6%), uso de cubrebocas 304 (35.8%), uso de bata 253 (29.8%), uso de lentes 134 (15.8%), ninguna 144 (16.9%). Con respecto al antecedente de administración de vacuna contra hepatitis B, sólo 445 (52.4%) se habían aplicado al menos una dosis y 403 (47.5%) ninguna dosis. Conclusiones. La exposición ocupacional a productos biológicos infecciosos es un problema importante en el personal de salud, especialmente en hospitales que dan atención a pacientes pediátricos, debido a las dificultades que implica el atender niños. Reforzar las estrategias educativas sobre el uso de las precauciones estándar en la toma apropiada de las muestras y utilizar material de bioseguridad podría ayudar a reducir la frecuencia de los accidentes con objetos punzocortantes. Abstract in english Introduction. The needle-stick and sharp device injuries constitute a risk to which health personnel is exposed. Objective. To describe the frequency and mechanisms of exposition to infectious biological products in health care personnel. Material and methods. It was an observational and descriptive study from the reports of the epidemiological surveillance program concerning to the exposition to infectious biological products in the health care personnel from Hospital In (more) fantil de Mexico Federico Gomez in Mexico City, happened from January 1, 1991, to December 31, 2004. Results. We observed 848 laboral accidents during this period. The average of accidents per 100 beds/ year was 29.9 with a variation from 4.6 to 56.4. There were 8.29 accidents for 1 000 outcomes/year, with a limit from 1.6 to 14.4. The events appeared mainly in the nursery personnel with 345 episodes (40.6%), followed by resident doctors with 220 events (25.9%). The most frequent mechanism was needle pinch in 616 (72.6%), being the hands the anatomical site most commonly affected in 677 cases (79.8%). The areas most affected were: Emergency with 109 events (12.8%), Pediatric Intensive Care Unit with 96 (11.3%), and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with 80 (9.4%), being in the matutinal turn the greater number of accidents, 507 events (59.7%). The standard precautions made by the injured personnel were: use of gloves 488 (57.5%); hand washing 404 (47.6%), use of mouth covers 304 (35.8%), use of gown 253 (29.8%), use of lenses 134 (15.8%), none 144 (16.9%). Concerning to the background of vaccine administration against hepatitis B, only 445 (52.4%) had been applied at least one dose and 403 (47.5%) none. Conclusions. The occupational exposition to biological produc

Morales-Aguirre, José Juan

2006-08-01

299

Retinal Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Early Atrophic Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and a New Metric for Objective Evaluation of the Efficacy of Ocular Nutrition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: A challenge in ocular preventive medicine is identification of patients with early pathological retinal damage that might benefit from nutritional intervention. The purpose of this study is to evaluate retinal thinning (RT) in early atrophic age-related macular degeneration (AMD) against visual function data from the Zeaxanthin and Visual Function (ZVF) randomized double masked placebo controlled clinical trial (FDA IND #78973). Methods: Retrospective, observational case series of medical center veterans with minimal visible AMD retinopathy (AREDS Report #18 simplified grading 1.4/4.0 bilateral retinopathy). Foveal and extra-foveal four quadrant SDOCT RT measurements were evaluated in n = 54 clinical and ZVF AMD patients. RT by age was determined and compared to the OptoVue SD OCT normative database. RT by quadrant in a subset of n = 29 ZVF patients was correlated with contrast sensitivity and parafoveal blue cone increment thresholds. Results: Foveal RT in AMD patients and non-AMD patients was preserved with age. Extrafoveal regions, however, showed significant slope differences between AMD patients and non-AMD patients, with the superior and nasal quadrants most vulnerable to retinal thinning (sup quad: ?5.5 ?m/decade thinning vs. Non-AMD: ?1.1 ?m/decade, P < 0.02; nasal quad: ?5.0 ?m/decade thinning vs. Non-AMD: ?1.0 ?m/decade, P < 0.04). Two measures of extrafoveal visual deterioration were correlated: A significant inverse correlation between % RT and contrast sensitivity (r = ?0.33, P = 0.01, 2 Tailed Paired T) and an elevated extrafoveal increment blue cone threshold (r = +0.34, P = 0.01, 2 Tailed T). Additional SD OCT RT data for the non-AMD oldest age group (ages 82–91) is needed to fully substantiate the model. Conclusion: A simple new SD OCT clinical metric called “% extra-foveal RT” correlates well with functional visual loss in early AMD patients having minimal visible retinopathy. This metric can be used to follow the effect of repleting ocular nutrients, such as zinc, antioxidants, carotenoids, n-3 essential fats, resveratrol and vitamin D.

Stuart Richer; Jane Cho; William Stiles; Marc Levin; James S. Wrobel; Michael Sinai; Carla Thomas

2012-01-01

300

Relativity  

CERN Document Server

Time magazine's ""Man of the Century"", Albert Einstein is the founder of modern physics and his theory of relativity is the most important scientific idea of the modern era. In this short book, Einstein explains, using the minimum of mathematical terms, the basic ideas and principles of the theory that has shaped the world we live in today. Unsurpassed by any subsequent books on relativity, this remains the most popular and useful exposition of Einstein's immense contribution to human knowledge.With a new foreword by Derek Raine.

Einstein, Albert

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Relativity  

CERN Multimedia

The theory of relativity has become a cornerstone of modern physics. Over the course of time it has been scrutinized in a multitude of experiments and has always been verified with high accuracy. The correctness of this theory can no longer be called into question. Right after its discovery by Albert Einstein in 1905, special relativity was only gradually accepted because it made numerous predictions contradicting common sense, fervently castigated by Einstein, and also defied experiment for too long a time. It was only with the advent of particle or high energy physics that matter could be ac

Brewster, Hilary D

2009-01-01

302

The evaluation of so-called take-or-pay clauses with respect to the civil law; Die zivilrechtliche Beurteilung sog. ToP-Klauseln  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the general transits of goods take-or-pay clauses between companies (business-to-business) are not common. Depending on the arrangement of these take-or-pay clauses in an actual single case, the purchaser is obliged to pay the price for a fixed quantity independently from receiving the goods. The evaluation of take-or-pay-clauses with respect to the civil law has not been considered intensively up to now. This includes their legal classification, their efficiency regarding to the civil law and their reliability as a part of the general terms and conditions of the supplier. A judicature of the supreme courts on this topic is missing. Only a few partly contradictory literature contributions are available. Under this aspect the author of the contribution under consideration reports on an evaluation of so-called take-or-pay clauses with respect to the civil law.

Lange, Knut Werner [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Buergerliches Recht, deutsches and europaeisches Handels- und Wirtschaftsrecht

2012-10-15

303

Making CORBA objects persistent: The object database adapter approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In spite of its remarkable successes in promoting standards for distributed object systems, the Object Management Group (OMG) has not yet settled the issue of object persistence in the Object Request Broker (ORB) environment. The Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) specification briefly mentions an Object-Oriented Database Adapter that makes objects stored in an object-oriented database accessible through the ORB. This idea is pursued in the Appendix B of the ODMG standard, which identifies a number of issues involved in using an Object Database Management System (ODBMS) in a CORBA environment, and proposes an Object Database Adapter (ODA) to realize the integration of the ORB with the ODBMS. This paper discusses the design and implementation of an ODA that integrates an ORB and an ODBMS with C++ bindings. For the author`s purposes, an ODBMS is a system with programming interfaces. It may be a pure object-oriented DBMS (an OODBMS), or a combination of a relational DBMS and an object-relational mapper.

Reverbel, F.C.R.

1997-05-01

304

Sulfur Recovery from Acid Gas Using the Claus Process and High Temperature Air Combustion (HiTAC) Technology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sulfur-bearing compounds are very detrimental to the environment and to industrial process equipment. They are often obtained or formed as a by-product of separation and thermal processing of fuels containing sulfur, such as coal, crude oil and natural gas. The two sulfur compounds, which need special attention, are: hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). H2S is a highly corrosive gas with a foul smell. SO2 is a toxic gas responsible for acid rain formation and equipment corrosion. Various methods of reducing pollutants containing sulfur are described in this paper, with a focus on the modified Claus process, enhanced by the use of High Temperature Air Combustion (HiTAC) technology in the Claus furnace. The Claus process has been known and used in the industry for over 100 years. It involves thermal oxidation of hydrogen sulfide and its reaction with sulfur dioxide to form sulfur and water vapor. This process is equilibrium-limited and usually achieves efficiencies in the range of 94-97%, which have been regarded as acceptable in the past years. Nowadays strict air pollution regulations regarding hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide emissions call for nearly 100% efficiency, which can only be achieved with process modifications. High temperature air combustion technology or otherwise called flameless (or colorless) combustion is proposed here for application in Claus furnaces, especially those employing lean acid gas streams, which cannot be burned without the use of auxiliary fuel or oxygen enrichment under standard conditions. With the use of HiTAC it has been shown, however, that fuel-lean, Low Calorific Value (LCV) fuels can be burned with very uniform thermal fields without the need for fuel enrichment or oxygen addition. The uniform temperature distribution favors clean and efficient burning with an additional advantage of significant reduction of NOx, CO and hydrocarbon emission.

Mohamed Sassi; Ashwani K.A Gupta

2008-01-01

305

Representação mental e mudança terapêutica: uma contribuição da perspectiva psicanalítica da teoria das relações objetais Mental representation and therapeutic change: a contribution from the psychoanalytical approach of object relations theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Apesar do avanço das pesquisas em psicoterapia, estudos na abordagem psicanalítica ainda são escassos. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar e discutir a contribuição do conceito de representação mental como um constructo importante para fundamentar pesquisas na área psicanalítica baseadas na identificação dos elementos associados à mudança terapêutica. Inicialmente discutem-se conceitos e modelos teóricos psicanalíticos para posteriormente discutir a noção de representação mental em relação à mudança terapêutica, destacando-se a contribuição da teoria das relações objetais e do apego. Nesse sentido, apresenta-se o Inventário das Relações de Objeto, instrumento que avalia a qualidade das representações mentais, identificando mudanças ao longo da psicoterapia. Espera-se oferecer subsídios para o aprimoramento do trabalho clínico em psicoterapias e o desenvolvimento de pesquisas em psicanálise.In spite of the progress realized in psychotherapeutic research, studies in the psychoanalytical approach are still scarce. The objective of this article is to present and to discuss the contribution of the concept of mental representation as an important construct to substantiate psychoanalytic research based on the identification of the elements associated with therapeutic change. First, concepts and psychoanalytic models are presented and after that the notion of mental representation is specifically discussed in relation to therapeutic change, particularly the object relation theory. Thus, the Object Relation Inventory is presented, an instrument designed to assess the quality of mental representations, evaluating changes along psychotherapy. Elements to improve clinical work and the development of research in psychoanalysis are presented.

Denise Zanatta; Silvia Pereira da Cruz Benetti

2012-01-01

306

Effect of catalyst shape on the hydrolysis of COS and CS{sub 2} in a simulated Claus converter  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The alumina catalyst employed in the modified Claus process for sulfur recovery is often partially deactivated from sulfation of its active surface. This decreased catalytic activity is particularly detrimental to the hydrolysis reactions of COS and CS{sub 2} because incomplete hydrolysis results even though their theoretical conversion limit is 100%. Simulation of the reactor performance at typical Claus plant-operating conditions was possible using experimentally obtained rate functions for the two simultaneous hydrolysis reactions and the H{sub 2}S/SO{sub 2} reaction. Using these rate constants, rather small values of the effectiveness factor were predicted for the hydrolysis reactions. By increasing the value of the effectiveness factor, it should be possible to improve the hydrolysis conversions without altering the process conditions appropriate for good sulfur recoveries. This was achieved by changing the particle shape to increase the external surface area. The simulation of a Claus catalytic converter, based upon a plug-flow adiabatic fixed-bed computer model using various shapes for the catalyst particles, showed that improved performance results even when the catalyst surface is partially sulfated.

Tong, S. [Hyprotech Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Lana, I.G.D.; Chuang, K.T. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

1997-10-01

307

Dynamics of Extended Objects in General Relativity  

CERN Multimedia

In this thesis, multipole expansions of mass, momentum and stress density will be made for a body in Newtonian mechanics. Using these definitions; momentum, angular momentum, center of mass, force and torque are defined for $N$ gravitationally interacting isolated bodies. Equations of motions of such a system are derived. Definitions of momentum, angular momentum, center of mass, force and torque are made in a relativistic theory. Dynamical (gravitational) skeleton is defined and the multipole moments of the dynamical skeleton are found. Equations of motion for a test body moving in a gravitational field are derived in terms of the multipole moments. Save the details of the derivations, no originality in this thesis is claimed: it is intended as a review of the subject.

Ilhan, Ibrahim Burak

2009-01-01

308

WordNet Ontology Based Query Reformulation and Optimization using Disjunctive Clause Elimination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Data integration systems attempt to provide users with seamless and flexible access to information from multiple autonomous, distributed and heterogeneous data sources through a unified query interface. Besides data are continuously growing, maintained by different organizations and managed autonomously,querying data from heterogeneous data sources faces new challenges. As data integration has been automated, the ambiguity in concept interpretation also known as semantic heterogeneity has become oneof the main obstacles to this process. Introduction of the Semantic Web Vision [5] and the shift towards machine-understandable web resources have underscored the importance of automatic semantic integration of data elements. Ontologies[7] have been widely accepted as the model of choice for modeling heterogeneous data sources by various communities including the areas of databases, Knowledge representation and Information retrieval. WordNet ontology[3] is a large lexical database that is used in many schema matching algorithms to match schemas based on the semantics of attributes. In this paper ontology based semantic query reformulation technique is followed to improve the recall of the query. The reformulated query is optimized by removing disjunctive clauses in the query to reduce the computational cost of the semantic query execution. Experimental results show that the proposed optimization technique improves recall with minimal execution time.

K.Amshakala; R.Nedunchezhian

2011-01-01

309

Choice of Court Clauses and Lis Pendens under Brussels I Regulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The principle of party autonomy, known not only in the common law legal system but also in the civil law system, provides parties contracting in civil and commercial matters with the right to establish their own rules, as long as these rules do not contradict mandatory law. This right is presumed to be protected by the force of law. It follows, that when a choice of court clause is included in the contract, disputes are supposed to be solved by the court chosen by the parties.This principle is not compromised by the Brussels I Regulation (or previously, the Brussels Convention). Moreover, it is repeated in its Articles 1 and 23. At the same time, the rule of lis pendens, provided for by its Article 27, aims to preclude subsequent actions in other Member States if a court is already seized and allows the appearance 'on the legal scene' of a court other than the court chosen by the parties. And the lis pendens rule prescribes the latter to stay proceedings until the court not chosen, but first seized, examines and declines its jurisdiction.

Ekaterina Ivanova

2010-01-01

310

Modeling reaction quench times in the waste heat boiler of a Claus plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the high temperatures found in the modified Claus reaction furnace, the thermal decomposition and oxidation of H[sub 2]S yields large quantities of desirable products, gaseous hydrogen (H[sub 2]) and sulfur (S[sub 2]). However, as the temperature of the gas stream is lowered in the waste heat boiler (WHB) located downstream of the furnace, the reverse reaction occurs leading to reassociation of H[sub 2] and S[sub 2] molecules. To examine the reaction quenching capabilities of the WHB, a rigorous computer model was developed incorporating recently published intrinsic kinetic data. A sensitivity study performed with the model demonstrated that WHBs have a wide range of operation with gas mass flux in the tubes from 4 to 24 kg/(m[sup 2] [center dot] s). Most important, the model showed that is was possible to operate WHBs such that quench times could be decreased to 40 ms, which is a reduction by 60% compared to a base case scenario. Furthermore, hydrogen production could be increased by over 20% simply by reconfiguring the WHB tubes.

Nasato, L.V.; Karan, K.; Mehrotra, A.K.; Behie, L.A. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering)

1994-01-01

311

LAS CLÁUSULAS ABUSIVAS EN EL CONTRATO DE CONCESIÓN DESDE LA PERSPECTIVA ESTADOUNIDENSE/ Unconscionable clauses in a franchising agreement from the United States' perspective  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El artículo presenta la experiencia de Estados Unidos en el desarrollo e imple-mentación de mecanismos jurídicos y extrajurídicos encaminados a proteger a los concesionarios ante la incorporación de cláusulas abusivas en el contrato de concesión privada. En ese sentido, a partir del estudio de la legislación, la jurisprudencia y las iniciativas del sector privado, se identifican medidas legislativas, administrativas y privadas encaminadas a la consecución de este (more) objetivo. Igualmente, el estudio del caso estadounidense refleja cómo la aplicación de la doctrina de cláusulas abusivas es posible en contratos diferentes a aquellos catalogados como de consumo. Abstract in english The article presents the United States' experience in the development and implementation of legal and extralegal mechanisms aimed at protecting franchisees before the incorporation of unconscionable clauses in a franchising agreement. From the analysis of the statutes, case law and private sector initiative, it is possible to identify legislative, administrative and private measures aimed at achieving this objective. Likewise, the study of the American case shows how the (more) implementation of the unconscionability doctrine is possible in contracts different from those considered as consumer contracts.

Rodríguez-Yong, Camilo A.

2011-01-01

312

Nested object watermarking  

Science.gov (United States)

Annotation watermarking is an application of watermarking where information about a cover or a part thereof are embedded in the cover itself to link both directly together. In earlier work we introduced Nested Object Annotation Watermarking as a special case, where the semantic, shape and hierarchical relations between the depicted nested objects are embedded in the area of each object only. As these regions can be anywhere and may be composed of any shape there is very limited a-priori knowledge for synchronization, which results in a higher complexity and ultimately in a higher error-proneness. In general an exhaustive search strategy for the proper blocks to reconstruct the shape suffers from the intrinsic combinatorial explosion of this process. Therefore in earlier work, at first we focused on rectangular embedding schemes with a block luminance algorithm, a steganographic WetPaperCode algorithm, a rectangular and finally a polygonal Dual-Domain DFT algorithm. In this paper we review and compare these algorithms in terms of their transparency, capacity, shape fidelity and robustness against the selected aspects JPEG compression and cropping. For the DFT algorithm we also show the influence of several parameters, present our idea of a method to reduce the combinatorial explosion by collating the paths in the search tree, and show that our new synchronization approach surpasses our former rectangular method in terms of correct retrievals, despite its higher complexity.

Vielhauer, Claus; Schott, Maik; Dittmann, Jana

2009-02-01

313

Can pregalactic objects generate galaxies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a hot universe with isothermal fluctuations or a tepid universe with general fluctuations, one would expect the first bound objects to be much smaller than galaxies. Various astrophysical processes associated with these objects could generate large-scale density fluctuations. Thus the present structure on scales larger than the first bound regions, in particular, galaxies and clusters, need not derive directly from primordial fluctuations. The primordial fluctuations only have to produce relatively small objects.

Carr, B.J. (Cambridge Univ., Great Britain); Rees, M.J. (Cambridge Univ., Great Britain)

1984-02-15

314

Representação mental e mudança terapêutica: uma contribuição da perspectiva psicanalítica da teoria das relações objetais/ Mental representation and therapeutic change: a contribution from the psychoanalytical approach of object relations theory  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Apesar do avanço das pesquisas em psicoterapia, estudos na abordagem psicanalítica ainda são escassos. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar e discutir a contribuição do conceito de representação mental como um constructo importante para fundamentar pesquisas na área psicanalítica baseadas na identificação dos elementos associados à mudança terapêutica. Inicialmente discutem-se conceitos e modelos teóricos psicanalíticos para posteriormente discutir a noç (more) ão de representação mental em relação à mudança terapêutica, destacando-se a contribuição da teoria das relações objetais e do apego. Nesse sentido, apresenta-se o Inventário das Relações de Objeto, instrumento que avalia a qualidade das representações mentais, identificando mudanças ao longo da psicoterapia. Espera-se oferecer subsídios para o aprimoramento do trabalho clínico em psicoterapias e o desenvolvimento de pesquisas em psicanálise. Abstract in english In spite of the progress realized in psychotherapeutic research, studies in the psychoanalytical approach are still scarce. The objective of this article is to present and to discuss the contribution of the concept of mental representation as an important construct to substantiate psychoanalytic research based on the identification of the elements associated with therapeutic change. First, concepts and psychoanalytic models are presented and after that the notion of menta (more) l representation is specifically discussed in relation to therapeutic change, particularly the object relation theory. Thus, the Object Relation Inventory is presented, an instrument designed to assess the quality of mental representations, evaluating changes along psychotherapy. Elements to improve clinical work and the development of research in psychoanalysis are presented.

Zanatta, Denise; Benetti, Silvia Pereira da Cruz

2012-03-01

315

Towards a profile of the interpersonal organization of the portuguese clause Para um perfil da organização interpessoal da oração em Português  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims at contributing to the description of Portuguese from the point of view of Systemic Functional Grammar, particularly in relation to the description of the clause as an exchange. While assuming that the interpersonal organization of the Portuguese clause involves phenomena that are similar across different languages, such as Mood systems, for instance, the paper wants nevertheless to show that there are systemic options (and their structural realizations) that are specific to Portuguese, particularly if compared to the same options in English, a language whose descriptions have so often and too strongly been imposed on Portuguese. Starting with a general description of some aspects of the Portuguese language, the paper then proceeds to a description of Mood types and the system of choices associated with them. By raising some questions and doubts concerning the description of the elements that in Portuguese carry the negotiation forward, the paper ends up proposing a description that sees Portuguese as a Finite-less language, that is, a language that does not have Finite, a function that proved to be appropriate for the description of the English language but fails to be so when considered from the point of view of Portuguese.Este texto visa contribuir para a descrição do português do ponto de vista da Gramática Sistémico-Funcional, particularmente no que diz respeito à descrição da oração como troca. Embora assuma que a organização interpessoal da oração em português envolve fenómenos que são semelhantes em várias línguas distintas, como os sistemas de Modo oracional, por exemplo, o texto pretende ainda assim demonstrar que há opções de sistema (e suas realizações estruturais) que são específicas do português, sobretudo quando comparadas com as mesmas opções em inglês, uma língua cujas descrições têm amiúde e fortemente sido impostas ao português. O texto começa com uma descrição geral de alguns aspectos da língua portuguesa e avança depois para uma descrição das tipologias do Modo oracional e das escolhas associadas às mesmas. Levantando algumas questões e dúvidas relativamente à descrição dos elementos que em português contribuem para a negociação e a troca, o texto acaba por propor uma descrição que encara a língua portuguesa como uma língua sem Finito, isto é, como uma língua que não tem o Finito como uma das funções do Modo oracional, já que esta sendo apropriada para a descrição da língua inglesa perde em pertinência quando pensada do ponto de vista da língua portuguesa.

Carlos A. M. Gouveia

2010-01-01

316

Towards a profile of the interpersonal organization of the portuguese clause/ Para um perfil da organização interpessoal da oração em Português  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este texto visa contribuir para a descrição do português do ponto de vista da Gramática Sistémico-Funcional, particularmente no que diz respeito à descrição da oração como troca. Embora assuma que a organização interpessoal da oração em português envolve fenómenos que são semelhantes em várias línguas distintas, como os sistemas de Modo oracional, por exemplo, o texto pretende ainda assim demonstrar que há opções de sistema (e suas realizações estr (more) uturais) que são específicas do português, sobretudo quando comparadas com as mesmas opções em inglês, uma língua cujas descrições têm amiúde e fortemente sido impostas ao português. O texto começa com uma descrição geral de alguns aspectos da língua portuguesa e avança depois para uma descrição das tipologias do Modo oracional e das escolhas associadas às mesmas. Levantando algumas questões e dúvidas relativamente à descrição dos elementos que em português contribuem para a negociação e a troca, o texto acaba por propor uma descrição que encara a língua portuguesa como uma língua sem Finito, isto é, como uma língua que não tem o Finito como uma das funções do Modo oracional, já que esta sendo apropriada para a descrição da língua inglesa perde em pertinência quando pensada do ponto de vista da língua portuguesa. Abstract in english This paper aims at contributing to the description of Portuguese from the point of view of Systemic Functional Grammar, particularly in relation to the description of the clause as an exchange. While assuming that the interpersonal organization of the Portuguese clause involves phenomena that are similar across different languages, such as Mood systems, for instance, the paper wants nevertheless to show that there are systemic options (and their structural realizations) t (more) hat are specific to Portuguese, particularly if compared to the same options in English, a language whose descriptions have so often and too strongly been imposed on Portuguese. Starting with a general description of some aspects of the Portuguese language, the paper then proceeds to a description of Mood types and the system of choices associated with them. By raising some questions and doubts concerning the description of the elements that in Portuguese carry the negotiation forward, the paper ends up proposing a description that sees Portuguese as a Finite-less language, that is, a language that does not have Finite, a function that proved to be appropriate for the description of the English language but fails to be so when considered from the point of view of Portuguese.

Gouveia, Carlos A. M.

2010-01-01

317

Escape Clauses and Targeting of the Real Exchange Rate: The Case of Nominal Exchange Rate Pegging  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We consider an economy under a fixed exchange rate system, but with bounds (a minimum level or a band) on the real exchange rate. The international price of the tradable good is characterized by the continuous arrival of shocks that change its level. In a model with microfoundations, we investigate the effects of targeting the real exchange rate through nominal exchange rate changes that preclude the real exchange from trespassing the imposed bounds.A stochastic general equilibrium model with two goods and fixed non-tradable goods price level is developed. We analyze the cases in which a lower bound or a band on the real exchange rate is introduced. The general conclusion is that when bounds are established, then welfare effects can be expected, which are generated at the expense of the levels of consumption that go in the opposite direction than what the policy intended. This short-run effect is present even in the case the targeting policy is never exercised. This result is similar to the one we find in the target zones literature, in the sense that just the existence of this tolerance band changes the behavior of the economy.An interesting result is that, in the case in which home goods prices are fixed, the imposition of the band on the real exchange rate does not change its behavior within the band. However, this result is not true of other real variables in the economy. In other words, although the targeted variable within the band behaves identically to the case in which there are no bounds, the rest of the real variables in the economy behave differently, even if the targeted variable remains within the band and the escape clause is not triggered.

Pablo González M.

2010-01-01

318

Object locating system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object's effect on electric fields. The object's effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions.

Novak, James L. (Albuquerque, NM); Petterson, Ben (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-06-09

319

Combined Object Detection and Segmentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We develop a method for combined object detection and segmentation in natural scene. In our approach segmentation and detection are considered as two faces of the same coin that should be combined into a single framework. There are two main steps in our strategy. First we focus on the learning of a visual vocabulary that efficiently encompasses objects’ appearance, spatial configuration and underlying segmentation. This vocabulary is used within a Hough voting framework to produces object’s configuration. The second step consists in searching for valid objects’ configurations by interpreting and scoring them in terms of both detection and segmentation. This allows us to prune false detections and hallucinated object-like segmentation. Experiments show the advantage of the combined approach and the improvements over recent related methods.

Jarich Vansteenberge; Masayuki Mukunoki; Michihiko Minoh

2013-01-01

320

Learning Sentence-internal Temporal Relations  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper we propose a data intensive approach for inferring sentence-internal temporal relations. Temporal inference is relevant for practical NLP applications which either extract or synthesize temporal information (e.g., summarisation, question answering). Our method bypasses the need for manual coding by exploiting the presence of markers like after", which overtly signal a temporal relation. We first show that models trained on main and subordinate clauses connected with a temporal marker achieve good performance on a pseudo-disambiguation task simulating temporal inference (during testing the temporal marker is treated as unseen and the models must select the right marker from a set of possible candidates). Secondly, we assess whether the proposed approach holds promise for the semi-automatic creation of temporal annotations. Specifically, we use a model trained on noisy and approximate data (i.e., main and subordinate clauses) to predict intra-sentential relations present in TimeBank, a corpus anno...

Lapata, M; 10.1613/jair.2015

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Objectivity Data Migration  

CERN Multimedia

In this article we describe the migration of event data collected by the COMPASS and HARP experiments at CERN. Together these experiments have over 300TB of physics data stored in Objectivity/DB that had to be transferred to a new data management system by the end of Q1 2003 and Q2 2003 respectively. To achieve this, data needed to be processed with a rate close to 100MB/s, employing 14 tape drives and a cluster of 30 Linux servers. The new persistency solution to accommodate the data is built upon relational databases for metadata storage and standard "flat" files for the event data. The databases contain collections of 109 events and allow generic queries or direct navigational access to the data, preserving the original C++ user API. The central data repository at CERN is implemented using several Oracle9i servers on Linux and the CERN Mass Storage System CASTOR.

Nowak, M; Valassi, Andrea; Lubeck, M; Geppert, D; Geppert, Dirk

2003-01-01

322

Objectives of the symposium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The author defined the objectives of the symposium as follows: to present and examine the recent evidence associating clusters of leukemia with sources of ionizing radiation; to examine the statistical basis for the analysis of clustering; to examine the underlying assumptions in epidemiological studies that clusters must have an environmental cause; to examine the extent to which we can take into account the biological causes of non-randomness in populations, particularly those of geographic and genetic origin; to evaluate the relative merits of different kinds of epidemiological studies for yielding significant information concerning clustering; to consider the potential utility of combining the results from existing studies, and whether new epidemiological studies might be helpful; to consider what other directions, including application of the technologies of molecular biology, are likely to help clarify the underlying mechanisms or causes

1992-03-11

323

Clean Air Technical Code (TA Luft) as of February 27, 1986, including the more specified clauses of 1991 for dynamic step-up of emission reduction within the given time frame. First general administrative regulation relating to the Federal Emission Control Act. 3. rev. and enl. ed. Technische Anleitung zur Reinhaltung der Luft (TA Luft) vom 27. Februar 1986 mit konkretisierten Dynamisierungsklauseln von 1991. Erste Allgemeine Verwaltungsvorschrift zum Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz; Fortentwicklung von Anforderungen an die Errichtung und den Betrieb genehmigungsbeduerftiger Anlagen. Verordnung ueber Verbrennungsanlagen fuer Abfaelle und aehnliche brennbare Stoffe - 17. BIm. SchV - mit Auslegungshinweisen. Verordnung ueber genehmigungsbeduerftige Anlagen - 4. BImSchV  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The book provides information on the new legal and administrative provisions for installations subject to licensing as regards air pollution control. Many such plants received design advice from the Regional Committee for Emission Control because of the impact of the Ordinance on Incineration Plant for Wastes and Similar Burnable Materials - 17 BImSchV - this took the form of a question and answer booklet on the implications of the statutory regulations, organised in sections. This third edition also contains the legislative text of the Ordinance on Industrial Plant subject to Licensing - 4 BImSchV. The amendments of 24 March 1993 are particularly important. They have effectively led to a reduction in the conditions required for licensing; the amendments to Article 9 of the Investment Relief and Residential Land Laws on 22 April 1993 concern the licensing procedure for plants for waste disposal and recycling. The TA Luft 86 was not diminished in terms of its current relevance; for almost twenty types of plant directly affected by the TA Luft Section 3.3, the LAI approved a proposal to apply general dynamic step-up clauses indefinitely throughout unified Germany in May 1991. The recommendations have been generally accepted as the minimum requirement for the level of emission restriction, and are technical measures affecting certain types of plant. (orig./HP)

Anon.

1993-01-01

324

Preschool children's interpretation of object-initial sentences: neural correlates of their behavioral performance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The acquisition of the function of case-marking is a key step in the development of sentence processing for German-speaking children since case-marking reveals the relations between sentential arguments. In this study, we investigated the development of the processing of case-marking and argument structures in children at 3, 4;6 and 6 years of age, as well as its processing in adults. Using EEG, we measured event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to object-initial compared to subject-initial German sentences including transitive verbs and case-marked noun phrases referring to animate arguments. We also tested children's behavioral competence in a sentence-picture matching task. Word order and case-marking were manipulated in German main clauses. Adults' behavioral performance was close to perfect and their ERPs revealed a negativity for the processing of the topicalized accusative marked noun phrase (NP1) and no effect for the second NP (NP2) in the object-initial structure. Children's behavioral data showed a significant above-chance outcome in the subject-initial condition for all age groups, but not for the object-initial condition. In contrast to adults, the ERPs of 3-year-olds showed a positivity at NP1, indicating difficulties in processing the non-canonical object-initial structures. Children at the age of 4;6 did not differ in the processing patterns of object-initial vs. subject-initial sentences at NP1 but showed a slight positivity at NP2. This positivity at NP2, which implies syntactic integration difficulties, is more pronounced in 6-year-olds but is absent in adults. At NP1, however, 6-year-olds show the same negativity as adults. In sum, the behavioral and electrophysiological findings demonstrate that children in each age group use different strategies, which are indicative of their developmental stage. While 3-year-olds merely detect differences in the two sentence structures without being able to use this information for sentence comprehension, 4;6-year-olds proceed to use mainly a word-order strategy, processing NP1 in both conditions in the same manner, which leads to processing difficulties upon detecting case-marking cues at NP2. At the age of 6, children are able to use case-marking cues for comprehension but still show enhanced effort for correct thematic-role assignment.

Schipke CS; Knoll LJ; Friederici AD; Oberecker R

2012-11-01

325

Paradigms in object recognition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A broad range of approaches has been proposed and applied for the complex and rather difficult task of object recognition that involves the determination of object characteristics and object classification into one of many a priori object types. Our paper revises briefly the three main different paradigms in pattern recognition, namely Bayesian statistics, neural networks, and expert systems. (author)

1999-01-01

326

DENSITY OF SOLID OBJECTS  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of straightforward simulations offers students a variety of ways to explore the concepts of mass, volume, and density. Students see that objects of the same mass may not have the same volume, objects of the same volume may not have the same mass, objects having a density greater than that of water sink in water, and the density of a floating object determines the position of the object in a tank of water.

Kelly Lancaster (lead)

2011-01-20

327

ASPECTUAL INFLUENCE ON TEMPORAL RELATIONS: A CASE STUDY OF THE EXPERIENTIAL GUO IN MANDARINE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines how the temporal relation between a clause containing the experiential guo and an adjacent clause is determined. Mandarin is a language not morphologically marked for tenses (e.g., Lin 2006), and therefore, tenses cannot help in determining temporal relations in Mandarin. However, Mandarin has a rich aspectual system. This paper argues that the experiential guo indirectly influences temporal relations via rhetorical relations by either specifying a default rhetorical relation, or by constraining the circumstances under which a certain rhetorical relation can connect a clause with guo to an adjacent clause. This paper also argues that the default rhetorical relation and the constraints are determined by the aspectual properties of the experiential marker. Other information, such as discourse connectors, lexical information, etc., can override the default rhetorical relation indicated by guo and specifies a rhetorical relation. Therefore, this paper concludes that in Mandarin aspect markers can indirectly affect temporal relations by means of rhetorical relations, a result consistent with Wu’s (2005b) paper on the perfective marker le in Mandarin, and Wu’s (2007b, 2004) work on the progressive marker zai and the durative marker zhe.

Jiun-Shiung Wu

2009-01-01

328

Objects That Make Objects: The Population Dynamics of Structural Complexity  

CERN Document Server

To analyze the evolutionary emergence of structural complexity in physical processes we introduce a general, but tractable, model of objects that interact to produce new objects. Since the objects--\\emph{$epsilon$-machines}--have well defined structural properties, we demonstrate that complexity in the resulting population dynamical system emerges on several distinct organizational scales during evolution--from individuals to nested levels of mutually self-sustaining interaction. The evolution to increased organization is dominated by the spontaneous creation of structural hierarchies and this, in turn, is facilitated by the innovation and maintenance of relatively low-complexity, but general individuals.

Crutchfield, J P; Crutchfield, James P.; Gornerup, Olof

2004-01-01

329

OBJECT TRACKING FOR ARTIFICIAL VISION  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This invention concerns the tracking of objects in video data for artificial vision for instance for a bionic eye. More particularly, the invention concerns a vision enhancement apparatus for a vision-impaired user. In other aspects, the invention concerns a method for enhancing vision and software to perform the method. The image processor operates to process video data representing images of a scene. Automatically detect and track a user selected object, such as a face, in the images. And, automatically modify the video data, by reserving a user selected area of the displayed images for displaying the tracked object as a separate video tile within the scene. The separate video tile remains in the selected area despite movement of the camera relative to the scene, or movement of the user relative to the object or the scene.

BARNES NICK; SHEN CHUNHUA

330

Parsing Strategies in L1 and L2 Sentence Processing: A study of relative clause attachment in Greek  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

this paper has been supported by a grant from the LeverhulmeFoundation to HC and a PhD. studentship of the University of Essex to DP. We arevery grateful to Phil Scholfield and Ricardo Russo for detailed statistical advice. Wealso thank Don Mitchell and the members of our Psycholinguistics Research Group(in particular Claudia Felser, Roger Hawkins, Thodoris Marinis, Leah Roberts) forexperiments with a control group of native speakers

Despina Papadopoulou; Harald Clahsen

331

The Final Clauses of the Charter of Fundamental Rights Stumbling Blocks for the First and Second Convention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Particular problems in EU human rights protection stem from the final clauses of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights (Articles 51 ff). This paper examines these key provisions as well as the proposals for amendments which have been put forward by Working Group II of the Convention and which have been accepted by the Convention's Praesidium in February 2003. The author argues that a closer look at the adjustments to the final clauses reveals that cardinal problems with far-reaching systemic implications remain unsettled. This holds true, particularly, for the question of whether Member States will continue to be bound by EU fundamental rights when they derogate from Community law, or "Union law" in future. The same is true, second, as regards the question of whether and under what conditions the supremacy of Community law (or, according to the Praesidium's draft Article 9, "the law of the Union") cannot supersede national fundamental rights. A third fundamental problem has been added, unnecessarily, to the former two through Article 52 para 5 on "rights and principles" which is apt to negatively affect the significance and scope of fundamental rights set out in the Charter. As also the other proposed adjustments can hardly be regarded as adequately addressing actual or perceived constitutional concerns, this paper submits that existing doubts are reinforced as to whether the much-discussed "Convention method" really allows for an appropriate treatment of fundamental, albeit technically intricate problems.

Erich Vranes

2003-01-01

332

The Final Clauses of the Charter of Fundamental Rights ? Stumbling Blocks for the First and Second Convention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Particular problems in EU human rights protection stem from the final clauses of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights (Articles 51 ff). This paper examines these key provisions as well as the proposals for amendments which have been put forward by Working Group II of the Convention and which have been accepted by the Convention's Praesidium in February 2003. The author argues that a closer look at the adjustments to the final clauses reveals that cardinal problems with far-reaching systemic implications remain unsettled. This holds true, particularly, for the question of whether Member States will continue to be bound by EU fundamental rights when they derogate from Community law, or "Union law" in future. The same is true, second, as regards the question of whether and under what conditions the supremacy of Community law (or, according to the Praesidium's draft Article 9, "the law of the Union") cannot supersede national fundamental rights. A third fundamental problem has been added, unnecessarily, to the former two through Article 52 para 5 on "rights and principles" which is apt to negatively affect the significance and scope of fundamental rights set out in the Charter. As also the other proposed adjustments can hardly be regarded as adequately addressing actual or perceived constitutional concerns, this paper submits that existing doubts are reinforced as to whether the much-discussed "Convention method" really allows for an appropriate treatment of fundamental, albeit technically intricate problems.

Erich Vranes

2003-01-01

333

CAPT Course Objectives  

Science.gov (United States)

This PDF document from the Center for the Advancement of Process Technology includes a list of course objectives for process technology curriculum. For each model course, recommended topics and objectives are included.

2011-02-04

334

Cadastral Modeling : Grasping the objectives  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Modeling is a term that refers to a variety of efforts, including data and process modeling. The domain to be modeled may be a department, an organization, or even an industrial sector. E-business presupposes the modeling of an industrial sector, a substantial task. Cadastral modeling compares to the modeling of an industrial sector, as it aims at rendering the basic concepts that relate to the domain of real estate and the pertinent human activities. The palpable objects are pieces of land and buildings, documents, data stores and archives, as well as persons in their diverse roles as owners, holders of assets, experts, and holders of authority. More subtle objects are rights and restrictions, which relate persons through enforceable rules and commitments. The objective of this fabric of complex relations is to provide a stable and yet flexible frame for legal-economic dispositions that are related to land. The paper advances the position that cadastral modeling has to include not only the physical objects, agents, and information sets of the domain, but also the objectives or requirements of cadastral systems.

Stubkjær, Erik

2005-01-01

335

A Simple Object Manager  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This document describes a class library which may be used in theimplementation stage to make objects created with the language C++ persistent. It is nota fully functional OODBMS, only an object manager, but it provides for convenience instoring and retrieving objects.2 The DBO Class Library

Robert P. Brazile

336

Partial Snapshot Objects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We introduce a generalization of the atomic snapshot object, which we call the partial snapshot object. This object stores a vector of values. Processes may write components of the vector individually or atomically scan any subset of the components. We investigate implementations of the latter parti...

Attiya, Hagit; Guerraoui, Rachid; Ruppert, Eric

337

Object grouping in EOS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eos is an environment for building distributed object-based systems. Leos, the language for Eos, provides transparency for distribution and persistence. In this paper, we address the problem of declustering the object graph into a number of nodes and of locally clustering objects within pages with m...

Gruber, Olivier; Amsaleg, Laurent

338

Presentation on Instructional Objectives  

Science.gov (United States)

|"Learning can be defined as change in a student's capacity for performance as a result of experience" (Kenneth D. Moore). The intended changes should be specified in instructional objectives. Viewed in this context, an objective can be defined as a clear and unambiguous description of your instructional intent. An objective is not a statement of…

Naz, Bibi Asia

2009-01-01

339

Survivability via Control Objectives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

2000-08-11

340

Deductive Object Programming  

CERN Multimedia

We propose some slight additions to O-O languages to implement the necessary features for using Deductive Object Programming (DOP). This way of programming based upon the manipulation of the Production Tree of the Objects of Interest, result in making Persistent these Objects and in sensibly lowering the code complexity.

Colonna, F

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Managed Objects for Infrastructure Data  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using data objects to describe features in the real world is a new idea and several approaches have already been shown to match scientific paradigms exceedingly well. Depending on the required level of abstraction, it is possible to represent the world more or less close to reality. In the realm of 3D Geoinformation research, this realism is often related to the way the spatial world is represented. By contrast, the 2D GIS community focuses on attribute data that describes additional states or characteristics of a feature. The main focus in 3D Geoinformation has always been on the representation of spatial objects, on relations like topology, ontology, and on storing and presenting them with more or less detail. The Centre for 3D Geoinformation (3DGI) at Aalborg University is currently participating in a project that explores objects that will not only contain geometry and associated attributive data but also will contain behavioural information. Our goal is to communicate the design and handling of these enhanced objects by means of the concept introduced in Java whereby objects are created in bytecode and subsequently executed within a Java virtual machine. This concept has already been implemented in the GRIFINOR platform. This article will present the core ideas of relevance to this concept as it relates to current understanding of objects. Our work also offers suggestions on how to implemented such algorithms using real-life infrastructure data. Furthermore, we elaborate on the posibillities and challenges associated with moving from mostly static objects to dynamic objects in the area of 3D geoinformation.

Kjems, Erik; Bodum, Lars

2009-01-01

342

Words without Objects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Resolution of the problem of mass nouns depends on an expansion of our semantic/ontological taxonomy. Semantically, mass nouns are neither singular nor plural; they apply to neither just one object, nor to many objects, at a time. But their deepest kinship links them to the plural. A plural phrase — 'the cats in Kingston' — does not denote a single plural thing, but merely many distinct things. Just so, 'the water in the lake' does not denote a single aggregate — it is not ONE, but rather MUCH. The world is not the totality of singular objects, plural objects, and mass objects; for there are no plural or mass objects. It is the totality of single objects and (just) stuff.

Henry Laycock

1998-01-01

343

Beyond the Object  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Object orientation (OO) is regained not only in all components of integrate development media but it remarks in the rest of software world from operating system to last application domain - of course, with different intensity and success. A clear prove of OO application in all situations is the development of a wide range of industrial applications. OO technology allows drawing of relation between the geometry, topology and dimensions of data on a class hierarchy; thus, the observation of the amount of data gained by research in many scientific domains is facilitated through class libraries both for graphic primitives and for events examination. In conformity to all waiting, OO asserts in every distributive system, there are very important the applications for making open systems customer-server and dis-tributed applications in Java. Finally OO application in robot's programming and modeling needn't be omitted. However, far to be panacea, OO has also shades which will be researched so on.

Cristina COCULESCU

2007-01-01

344

Lattices of fuzzy objects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The collection of fuzzy subsets of a set X forms a complete lattice that extends the complete lattice 𝒫(X) of crisp subsets of X. In this paper, we interpret this extension as a special case of the “fuzzification” of an arbitrary complete lattice A. We show how to construct a complete lattice F(A,L) –the L-fuzzificatio of A, where L is the valuation lattice– that extends A while preserving all suprema and infima. The “fuzzy” objects in F(A,L) may be interpreted as the sup-preserving maps from A to the dual of L. In particular, each complete lattice coincides with its 2-fuzzification, where 2 is the twoelement lattice. Some familiar fuzzifications (fuzzy subgroups, fuzzy subalgebras, fuzzy topologies, etc.) are special cases of our construction. Finally, we show that the binary relations on a set X may be seen as the fuzzy subsets of X with respect to the valuation lattice 𝒫(X).

Arturo A. L. Sangalli

1996-01-01

345

Mechanism for Learning Object retrieval supporting adaptivity  

CERN Multimedia

In todayâ??s world designing adaptable course material requires new technical knowledge which involves a need for a uniform protocol that allows organizing resources with emphasis on quality and Learning. This can be achieved by bundling the resources in a known and prescribed fashion called Learning objects. Learning Objects are composed of two aspects namely â??Learning â?? and â??Objectâ?. The Learning aspect of Learning objects refers to Education. Since Education is a process so the primary aim of learning objects tends to be facilitating acquisition, assessment and conversion of content into Learning objects while fostering the assimilation of these Learning objects into learning modules and instruction. The Object part of Learning objects relates to the Digital Electronic format of the resources i.e. to say that it deals with the physical resource that forms the Learning objects. The objects in LOs are analogous to objects used in object-oriented modeling (OOM). The analogy helps visual...

Chawla, Sonal

2010-01-01

346

Water and wastewater objectives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document presents the objectives associated with the RMOC`s water and wastewater systems and will be used as a guide during their planning process. These objectives have been developed using the RMOC`s Planning Framework and the Water & Wastewater Master Plan Framework as a base. An overall guiding objective from the Water & Wastewater master Plan Framework is to develop a future infrastructure plan which is flexible, technically feasible, cost effective, environmentally sound and supported by the public.

NONE

1995-12-31

347

Motifs In Object Oriented Architecture  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We observe recurring, fundamental motifs in object oriented architectures, discuss thepossibility of their rigorous representation, and offer criteria for the evaluation of possiblelanguages for their specification, such as expressiveness and completeness. Wedefine a symbolic logic language, LePUS, whose basic abstractions are the motifs observed.By comparing them to the original text, we demonstrate that LePUS expressionscan accurately and faithfully represent numerous design patterns. We show how predicatecalculus can be used to define refinement and projection relations among patterns,and apply this technique to discover relations among GoF patterns. We conclude by illustratinga tool that supports the application and validation of patterns.Index terms: Object oriented design, design patterns, theoretical foundations, softwarearchitecture1. IntroductionAbstraction techniques idiosyncratic to object oriented (O-O) programming (e.g., inheritance,encapsulation) seek to red...

Amnon H. Eden; Yoram Hirshfeld; Amiram Yehudai

348

Objective-C  

CERN Multimedia

A soup-to-nuts guide on the Objective-C programming language. Objective-C is the language behind Cocoa and Cocoa Touch, which is the Framework of applications written for the Macintosh, iPod touch, iPhone, and iPad platforms. Part of the Developer Reference series covering the hottest Apple topics, this book covers everything from the basics of the C language to advanced aspects of Apple development. You'll examine Objective-C and high-level subjects of frameworks, threading, networking, and much more.: Covers the basics of the C language and then quickly moves onto Objective-C and more advanc

DeVoe, Jiva

2011-01-01

349

What Captivates the Subject? : An investigation of the concepts 'object' and 'identification' in the works of Lacan with a view to establishing approaches for the analysis of relations of power and structures of authority  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

What can Jacques Lacan tell us about relations of power and figures of authority? – That is the guiding question of "What Captivates the Subject?" The dissertation answers this question by providing a close study of Lacanian texts and seminars from 1953 to 1973, seeking to present not only the strong conceptual coherency of Lacan’s theory, but also its fundamental underpinnings in the work of Sigmund Freud. The dissertation thus attempts to pave the way for a renewed engagement between Lacanian theory and social theory in general. This engagement has already proven exceptionally fruitful in recent years, where research emerging from Slovenia has been developing a new Lacanian approach to the analysis of a wide range of social products and political affairs. The dissertation follows in the wake of this new movement but pursues its own line of reasoning in so far as it undertakes to account for two concepts central to the technical psychoanalytical vocabulary: identification and the object. Identifications and the relation to libidinal objects were acknowledged by Freud as the most fundamental mechanisms in the social life of any human being, just as he regarded them as fundamental to the establishment and maintenance of power structures, not least within the psychoanalytic clinic itself. Yet his accounts of the concepts remain blurry and tentative throughout his career, and it took a Lacan to finally build a rigorous theoretical framework around these concepts. Throughout the dissertation, close readings of Lacan are followed by short interventions into questions of social or political theory, so that the potential of Lacan’s theory for clarifying issues or bringing to light novel perspectives is demonstrated. For instance, not only can Lacan tell us about the inherent paradoxes of authority and power in a classroom, he can also tell us why the most powerful figure of authority may be the one who shows clear signs of weakness, or why the most unshakeable way of identifying with a framework of social values is by identifying while maintaining a distance to it.

Porsgaard, Kasper

2013-01-01

350

Auditory object cognition in dementia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The cognition of nonverbal sounds in dementia has been relatively little explored. Here we undertook a systematic study of nonverbal sound processing in patient groups with canonical dementia syndromes comprising clinically diagnosed typical amnestic Alzheimer's disease (AD; n=21), progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n=5), logopenic progressive aphasia (LPA; n=7) and aphasia in association with a progranulin gene mutation (GAA; n=1), and in healthy age-matched controls (n=20). Based on a cognitive framework treating complex sounds as 'auditory objects', we designed a novel neuropsychological battery to probe auditory object cognition at early perceptual (sub-object), object representational (apperceptive) and semantic levels. All patients had assessments of peripheral hearing and general neuropsychological functions in addition to the experimental auditory battery. While a number of aspects of auditory object analysis were impaired across patient groups and were influenced by general executive (working memory) capacity, certain auditory deficits had some specificity for particular dementia syndromes. Patients with AD had a disproportionate deficit of auditory apperception but preserved timbre processing. Patients with PNFA had salient deficits of timbre and auditory semantic processing, but intact auditory size and apperceptive processing. Patients with LPA had a generalised auditory deficit that was influenced by working memory function. In contrast, the patient with GAA showed substantial preservation of auditory function, but a mild deficit of pitch direction processing and a more severe deficit of auditory apperception. The findings provide evidence for separable stages of auditory object analysis and separable profiles of impaired auditory object cognition in different dementia syndromes.

Goll JC; Kim LG; Hailstone JC; Lehmann M; Buckley A; Crutch SJ; Warren JD

2011-07-01

351

BGH (German Federal High Court), decision on clauses restricting liability in special customer agreements; BGH zur Zulaessigkeit von Haftungsklauseln in Sonderkundenvertraegen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On 25 February 1998, the BGH (German Federal High Court) came to a decision which will have a significant influence on the future evolution of the deregulated energy sector and utilities` pricing and marketing strategies. The matter to be decided by the court was the question of whether utilities act in compliance with the law in using in special customer agreements a liability restricting clause forming part of the standard contract defining Terms and Conditions of power supply (AVBEltV), or whether this clause constitutes an unfair disadvantage of the customer. The liability restricting clause in question denies liability of the utility for damage to property of the customer or financial damage induced by power supply interruptions. The decision of the court confirms the legality of inclusion of this clause in special customer agreements. (CB) [Deutsch] Am 25. Februar 1998 hat der Bundesgerichtshof ein Urteil mit weitreichender Bedeutung fuer die Versorgungswirtschaft gefaellt. In einem Verbandsklageverfahren nach dem Gesetz ueber allgemeine Geschaeftsbedingungen stellte der Bundesgerichtshof fest, dass die formularmaessige Uebernahme der Klauseln des Paragraphen 6 A VBEltV in Sonderkundenvertraege keine unangemessene Benachteiligung des Vertragspartners darstellt. Demgegenueber hatten beide Vorinstanzen (LG Muenchen I, OLG Muenchen) der auf Unterlassung der Klauselverwendung gerichteten Klage stattgegeben. Der Beitrag erlaeutert das Gerichtsurteil und seine Auswirkungen auf die Vertragspraxis. (orig./CB)

Pohlmann, M. [VDEW, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Rechtsabteilung

1998-06-29

352

Varieties of object constancy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three experiments are described in which two pictures of isolated man-made objects were presented in succession. The subjects' task was to decide, as rapidly as possible, whether the two pictured objects had the same name. With a stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) of above 200 msec two types of facilitation were observed: (1) the response latency was reduced if the pictures showed the same object, even though seen from different viewpoints (object benefit); (2) decision time was reduced further if the pictures showed the same object from the same angle of view (viewpoint benefit). These facilitation effects were not affected by projecting the pictures to different retinal locations. Significant benefits of both types were also obtained when the projected images differed in size. However, in these circumstances there was a small but significant performance decrement in matching two similar views of a single object, but not if the views were different. Conversely, the object benefit, but not the viewpoint benefit, was reduced when the SOA was only 100 msec. The data suggest the existence of (at least) two different visual codes, one non-retinotopic but viewer-centred, the other object-centred.

Ellis R; Allport DA; Humphreys GW; Collis J

1989-11-01

353

Achieving Ecological Objectives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The legal objective for surface water in the EU is ‘good ecological status’, as established by the Water Framework Directive, with a timeframe of 15, 21 or 27 years. To reach this objective, suitable legal instruments are needed, and quality standards are among the instruments intended to improve th...

Henrik Josefsson

354

Tunnels in digital objects  

CERN Multimedia

An important concept in digital geometry for computer imagery is that of tunnel. In this paper we obtain a formula for the number of tunnels as a function of the number of the object vertices, pixels, holes, connected components, and 2x2 grid squares. It can be used to test for tunnel-freedom a digital object, in particular a digital curve.

Brimkov, V

2005-01-01

355

Images of Axial Objects  

Science.gov (United States)

Imaging of three-dimensional objects by lenses and mirrors is sometimes poorly indicated in textbooks and can be incorrectly drawn. We stress a need to clarify the concept of longitudinal magnification, with simulated images illustrating distortions introduced along the optical axis. We consider all possible positions of the object for both a…

Rabal, Hector; Cap, Nelly; Trivi, Marcelo

2011-01-01

356

Learning Objects for Electronics  

Science.gov (United States)

This web site, hosted by Gateway Technical College, houses several learning objects and lectures using Flash animations and Camtasia videos in the following electronics topic areas: DC/AC ciruits, digital electronics, electronic devices, transistor fundamentals, op amp fundamentals, electronic workbench fundamentals, electronic circuit analysis and multi-simulation. This is a great fundamental source for learn objects in the field of electronics.

2011-03-01

357

Uma concepção psicanalítica de personalidade: teoria das relações objetais de Fairbairn Una concepción psicoanalítica de la personalidad: la teoría de las relaciones objetales de Fairbairn A psychoanalytical conception of personality: Fairbairn's object-relations theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo tem como propósito maior desenvolver a idéia de que a teoria das relações de objeto, introduzida no movimento psicanalítico em oposição à teoria da sexualidade como base da constituição psíquica, significou uma radical mudança na concepção psicanalítica dos sujeitos. Tal mudança se expressa no abandono da pulsionalidade como fundamento subjetivo em direção à apreensão e compreensão dos sujeitos como personalidade, isto é, algo substantivamente estruturado. Metodologicamente, opta-se pela análise e exposição da principal obra de Willian Ronald D. Fairbairn (1889-1964), tomada como paradigmática das teorias das relações de objeto. Busca-se expor a evolução do pensamento fairbairniano, desde seus estudos sobre a esquizoidia - e a contradição que isso trouxe para a teoria da libido da época - até as modificações e superações que o autor se propõe a realizar na teoria psicanalítica em função da concepção da meta libidinal como sendo o objeto.Este artículo tiene como objetivo mayor el de desarrollar la idea de que la teoría de las relaciones de objeto, introducida en el movimiento psicoanalítico en oposición a la teoría de la sexualidad como base de la constitución psíquica, significó un cambio radical en la concepción psicoanalítica de los sujetos. Dicho cambio se expresa en el abandono de la pulsionalidad como fundamento subjetivo hacia la aprensión y comprensión de los sujetos como personalidad, es decir, como algo sustantivamente estructurado. Metodológicamente, se elije el análisis y exposición de la obra principal de Willian Ronald D. Fairbairn (1889-1964), tomada como paradigmática para las teorías de las relaciones de objeto. Se busca exponer la evolución del pensamiento fairbairniano, desde sus estudios sobre la esquizoidía - y la contradicción que dicho estudio trajo para la teoría de la libido de la época - hasta las modificaciones y superaciones que el autor se propone realizar en la teoría psicoanalítica en función de la concepción de la meta libidinal como sujeto.The main purpose of this essay is to develop the idea that the object-relations theory, introduced in the psychoanalytical movement as an opposition to the libido theory as basis to psychic constitution, produced a radical change in the psychoanalytical concept of subjects. Change is represented by the quitting of the drive as a subject foundation and by the apprehension and comprehension of subjects as personalities, or rather, substantially structured. In terms of methodology, the main work by William Ronald D. Fairbairn (1889-1964) was analyzed and taken as paradigmatic for all object-relations theories. The evolution of Fairbairn's thoughts, from his studies on schizophrenia - and the contradiction it brought to the contemporary libido theory - to the changes and overcoming the author proposed to accomplish in psychoanalytical theory, as a result of his finding that the libidinal goal is an object, are presented.

Luiz Augusto M. Celes; Karen Cristina Martins Alves; Ana Caroline Galli dos Santos

2008-01-01

358

Beginning Objective-C  

CERN Multimedia

Objective-C is today's fastest growing programming language, at least in part due to the popularity of Apple's Mac, iPhone and iPad. Beginning Objective-C is for you if you have some programming experience, but you're new to the Objective-C programming language and you want a modern-and fast-way forwards to your own coding projects. Beginning Objective-C offers you a modern programmer's perspective on Objective-C courtesy of two of the best iOS and Mac developers in the field today, and gets you programming to the best of your ability in this important language.  It gets you rolling fast into

Dovey, James

2012-01-01

359

Interactive Database Objects  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes a user interface framework called Moggetto for anobject-oriented database system (OODB). Moggetto is proposed as anapproach to the definition and management of tailorable object displays.The novelty of the approach lies in the use of embedded, inherentlyreconfigurable user interface components to realise object user interfaceswhich are modelled in the database. This obviates the need for closecoupling between the OODB and the host windowing system through, forexample, common language bindings and code libraries.Keywords:User interface framework, database user interface management system,user interface components, MOG objectsTopics addressed:Visual query languages and browsers, Visual programming, Automaticgeneration of visual interfaces, Visual user interface management systemsSawyer, Colebourne, Mariani, Sommerville Interactive Database Objects31. IntroductionThe object model is frequently espoused for database applications where richer semantic...

Pete Sawyer; Andy Colebourne; John A. Mariani; Ian Sommerville

360

OBJECT ORIENTED DESIGN HEURISTICS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Object-oriented design is a process of identifying relevant objects, factoring them into classes, organizing hierarchically, and establishing dynamic collaborations among the objects. It is a difficult process especially for novice designers. In order to guide the novices, software engineers used some hints, guidelines and tips to communicate design experience from the expert. Design heuristic is common solution to design problems that developers encounter during software development. Heuristic is defined as the use of general knowledge gained by experience. Design heuristics are design experience from object-oriented developers. It is small and simpledesign expertise. This knowledge from the experienced designers is used to guide the novices. The purpose of this paper is to document design heuristics of object-oriented approach from literature study.

RAKESH KUMAR; DEEPALI GUPTA

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

PERSONAL OBJECT DETECTOR  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A personal object or obstacle detector apparatus comprises a continuous transmission frequency modulation (CTFM) ranging system (12) and an audio output device (14). The CTFM ranging system transmits a frequency-swept pressure wave, receives a reflected frequency-swept pressure wave from at least one object (34), and forms an audio signal based upon a frequency difference between the frequency-swept pressure wave and the reflected frequency-swept pressure wave. The audio output device (14) produces an acoustic pressure wave in dependence upon the audio signal. In a preferred embodiment, the acoustic pressure wave contains separate tones (30, 32) for each of the objects detected, wherein each tone has a pitch dependent upon the distance from the CTFM ranging system (12) to the corresponding object. Another embodiment utilizes a pair of CTFM ranging systems to produce a stereo auditory map of objects and obstacles.

BURGESS David; FELSENSTEIN Lee; SAUNDERS Steven E.

362

The Objective Method:  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

IntroductionThis survey describes a general approach to a class of problems that arise in combinatorialprobability and combinatorial optimization. Formally, the method ispart of weak convergence theory, but in concrete problems the method has aflavor of its own. A characteristic element of the method is that it often callsfor one to introduce a new, infinite, probabilistic object whose local propertiesinform us about the limiting properties of a sequence of finite problems.The name objective method hopes to underscore the value of shifting onesattention to the new, large random object with fixed distributional propertiesand way from the sequence of objects with changing distributions. The new objectalways provides us with some new information on the asymptotic behaviorof the original sequence, and, in the happiest cases, the constants associatedwith the infinite object even permit us to find the elusive limit constants forthat sequence.1.1 A Motivating Example: the Ass

David Aldous; J. Michael Steele

363

Pricing objectives in nonprofit hospitals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article reports on a survey of 60 financial managers of nonprofit hospitals in the eastern United States relating to the importance of a number of factors which influence their pricing decisions and the pricing objectives which they pursue. Among the results uncovered by the responses: that trustees are the single most important body in the price-setting process (doctors play a relatively unimportant role); that hospital pricing goals are more related to target net revenue than profit maximizing; and that regional factors seem to play an important role in management differences.

Bauerschmidt AD; Jacobs P

1985-06-01

364

The British welfare state and mental health problems: the continuing relevance of the work of Claus Offe.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is now over thirty years since Claus Offe theorised the crisis tendencies of the welfare state in late capitalism. As part of that work he explored ongoing and irresolvable forms of crisis management in parliamentary democracies: capitalism cannot live with the welfare state but also cannot live without it. This article examines the continued relevance of this analysis by Offe, by applying its basic assumptions to the response of the British welfare state to mental health problems, at the turn of the twenty first century. His general theoretical abstractions are tested against the empirical picture of mental health service priorities, evident since the 1980s, in sections dealing with: re-commodification tendencies; the ambiguity of wage labour in the mental health workforce; the emergence of new social movements; and the limits of legalism. PMID:22530616

Pilgrim, David

2012-04-24

365

The British welfare state and mental health problems: the continuing relevance of the work of Claus Offe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is now over thirty years since Claus Offe theorised the crisis tendencies of the welfare state in late capitalism. As part of that work he explored ongoing and irresolvable forms of crisis management in parliamentary democracies: capitalism cannot live with the welfare state but also cannot live without it. This article examines the continued relevance of this analysis by Offe, by applying its basic assumptions to the response of the British welfare state to mental health problems, at the turn of the twenty first century. His general theoretical abstractions are tested against the empirical picture of mental health service priorities, evident since the 1980s, in sections dealing with: re-commodification tendencies; the ambiguity of wage labour in the mental health workforce; the emergence of new social movements; and the limits of legalism.

Pilgrim D

2012-09-01

366

The Equivalence and Shift in the Persian Translation of English Complex Sentences with wh-Subordinate Clauses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to find the types of equivalence and shifts in the Persian translation of English complex sentences with wh-subordinate clauses. This study uses a qualitative descriptive method. The English fictions and their Persian translations considered as source of the data. The researcher classifies the data into two main categories: the equivalence and shift. The equivalence is subcategorized into formal and dynamic equivalence based on Nida's theory. In this research, four categories of shift, based on Catford's classification, which involve structure shifts, unit shifts, rank shifts and intra-system shifts, have been found. Based on 160 data, the results of this research indicated that in the Persian translation of these sentences, the shifts occur more than the equivalence, with the percentage of 86.25% and the equivalence with the percentage of 13.75%.

Parisa Farrokh

2011-01-01

367

Radiation from hard objects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The inference of the diameter of hard objects is insensitive to radiation efficiency. Deductions of radiation efficiency from observations are very sensitive - possibly overly so. Inferences of the initial velocity and trajectory vary similarly, and hence are comparably sensitive.

Canavan, G.H.

1997-02-01

368

Demographics of Transition Objects  

CERN Multimedia

The unusual properties of transition objects (young stars with an optically thin inner disc surrounded by an optically thick outer disc) suggest that significant disc evolution has occured in these systems. We explore the nature of these systems by examining their demographics, specifically their stellar accretion rates (Mdot) and disc masses (Mdisc) compared to those of accreting T Tauri stars of comparable age. We find that transition objects in Taurus occupy a restricted region of the Mdot vs. Mdisc plane. Compared to non-transition single stars in Taurus, they have stellar accretion rates that are typically ~10 times lower at the same disc mass and median disc masses ~4 times larger. These properties are anticipated by several proposed planet formation theories and suggest that the formation of Jovian mass planets may play a significant role in explaining the origin of at least some transition objects. Considering transition objects as a distinct demographic group among accreting T Tauri stars leads to a ...

Najita, Joan R; Muzerolle, James

2007-01-01

369

AUTHENTICATION OF AN OBJECT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A system for authenticating an object is disclosed. The system includes an optical sensing device and a processor. The optical sensing device senses coded data provided on a surface associated with the object. The coded data is indicative of a position on the surface, an identity associated with the object, and a part of a signature. The signature is a digital signature of the identity. The processor determines, using the sensed coded data, a sensed identity and a sensed signature part, determines, using the position, a sensed signature part identity, determines, using the sensed identity, at least a determined signature, determines, using the determined signature and the sensed signature part identity, a determined signature part, compares the determined signature part to the sensed signature part, and authenticates the object using the result of the comparison.

SILVERBROOK KIA; LAPSTUN PAUL

370

Haskell's overlooked object system  

CERN Multimedia

Haskell provides type-class-bounded and parametric polymorphism as opposed to subtype polymorphism of object-oriented languages such as Java and OCaml. It is a contentious question whether Haskell 98 without extensions, or with common extensions, or with new extensions can fully support conventional object-oriented programming with encapsulation, mutable state, inheritance, overriding, statically checked implicit and explicit subtyping, and so on. We systematically substantiate that Haskell 98, with some common extensions, supports all the conventional OO features plus more advanced ones, including first-class lexically scoped classes, implicitly polymorphic classes, flexible multiple inheritance, safe downcasts and safe co-variant arguments. Haskell indeed can support width and depth, structural and nominal subtyping. We address the particular challenge to preserve Haskell's type inference even for objects and object-operating functions. The OO features are introduced in Haskell as the OOHaskell library. OOH...

Kiselyov, O; Kiselyov, Oleg; Laemmel, Ralf

2005-01-01

371

Methods of Object Tracking  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents two methods of object detection/tracking in a video. Thefirst method will use the motion tracking technique combined with density detectionwhich will be described. The second one is based on the SURF algorithm.

Gabriel DANCIU; Iuliu SZEKELY

2009-01-01

372

Applying object-oriented technologies in modeling and querying temporally oriented clinical databases dealing with temporal granularity and indeterminacy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The need of managing temporal information given at different levels of granularity or with indeterminacy is common to many application areas. Among them, we focus on clinical data management. Different time granularities and indeterminacy are also needed in querying temporal databases. In this paper, we describe GCH-OSQL (Granular Clinical History-Object Structured Query Language), an object-oriented temporally-oriented extension of SQL. GCH-OSQL is based on an object-oriented temporal data model, GCH-OODM. GCH-OODM allows storage of clinical information at different and mixed granularities or with temporal indeterminacy. GCH-OSQL deals with the valid time of clinical information. The temporal extension of the SELECT construct includes the addition of the TIME-SLICE and MOVING WINDOW clauses, and the capability to reference the temporal dimension of objects in the WHERE and SELECT clauses. Using object-oriented technologies, a system prototype for GCH-OSQL and GCH-OODM has been implemented and applied to data management of follow-up patients after coronary angioplasty intervention. PMID:11020814

Combi, C; Cucchi, G; Pinciroli, F

1997-06-01

373

Applying object-oriented technologies in modeling and querying temporally oriented clinical databases dealing with temporal granularity and indeterminacy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The need of managing temporal information given at different levels of granularity or with indeterminacy is common to many application areas. Among them, we focus on clinical data management. Different time granularities and indeterminacy are also needed in querying temporal databases. In this paper, we describe GCH-OSQL (Granular Clinical History-Object Structured Query Language), an object-oriented temporally-oriented extension of SQL. GCH-OSQL is based on an object-oriented temporal data model, GCH-OODM. GCH-OODM allows storage of clinical information at different and mixed granularities or with temporal indeterminacy. GCH-OSQL deals with the valid time of clinical information. The temporal extension of the SELECT construct includes the addition of the TIME-SLICE and MOVING WINDOW clauses, and the capability to reference the temporal dimension of objects in the WHERE and SELECT clauses. Using object-oriented technologies, a system prototype for GCH-OSQL and GCH-OODM has been implemented and applied to data management of follow-up patients after coronary angioplasty intervention.

Combi C; Cucchi G; Pinciroli F

1997-06-01

374

Veterinary Neurobiology Learning Objects  

Science.gov (United States)

Provided by the University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine, this page’s learning objects are available for veterinary students and faculty to enhance their understanding of animal neurobiology. Covering canine pain pathways, nociceptor response, and vestibular nerves, each individual Macromedia Flash file is available for use on the web or for download to the user’s desktop. The objects not only use interactive learning components, but also include specific, labeled diagrams of the anatomy being studied.

2007-01-05

375

Topological objects in QCD  

CERN Document Server

Topological excitations are prominent candidates for explaining nonperturbative effects in QCD like confinement. In these lectures, I cover both formal treatments and applications of topological objects. The typical phenomena like BPS bounds, topology, the semiclassical approximation and chiral fermions are introduced by virtue of kinks. Then I proceed in higher dimensions with magnetic monopoles and instantons and special emphasis on calorons. Analytical aspects are discussed and an overview over models based on these objects as well as lattice results is given.

Bruckmann, Falk

2007-01-01

376

CODAS object monitoring service  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary Control and Data Acquisition System (CODAS) of JET is based on a TCP/IP network of more than 150 computers. The CODAS computers provide the JET machine control and data acquisition for over 70,000 digital and analog signals. The Object Monitoring Service (OMS) is used by applications for monitoring objects for presentation to the JET machine operators and for the operation of individual software components (such as valve state, access control, mimic definition changes and internal data distribution). Each server typically handles connections from around 60 clients monitoring upwards of 2000 objects. Some servers have over 150 clients and 5000 objects. Acquisition libraries are dynamically linked into a running server as required either to acquire data values for objects or to forward requests to other OMS servers. A mechanism involving dynamic linking allows new libraries to be integrated without stopping or changing running software. OMS provides a very reliable and highly successful 'data-type independent' means of monitoring many different objects. It allows applications to take advantage of new data sources, without the need to change existing code.

Wheatley, M.R. E-mail: martin.wheatley@jet.uk; Rainford, M

2001-10-01

377

PRESERVATION OF DIGITAL OBJECTS INFORMATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this article is to indicate theadvantages and disadvantages of digitalpreservation strategies discussed in the scientificliterature to assist practitioners and users ofinformation in the conservation of collections orprivate collections contained in the objects andtheir digital media. The methodological approachadopted was to literature. The results describethe strategies of digital preservation, someproblems related to the preservation of physicalmedia, such as technological obsolescence, themain storage media of digital objects and someconcerns about his durability. We conclude that itis of great importance to knowledge andapplication of strategies to support professionalsand users of information in making decisionsrelated to digital preservation, according to eachtype of collection or private collections. Throughthis study it is clear that it is also essential todisseminate these strategies to enable futuregenerations to access to knowledge producedtoday.

Joana D’arc Pereira de Jesus

2010-01-01

378

Calabi-Yau objects in triangulated categories  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We introduce the Calabi-Yau (CY) objects in a Hom-finite Krull-Schmidt triangulated $k$-category, and notice that the structure of the minimal, consequently all the CY objects, can be described. The relation between indecomposable CY objects and Auslander-Reiten triangles is provided. Finally we cla...

Cibils, Claude; Zhang, Pu

379

Hardware Objects for Java  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Java, as a safe and platform independent language, avoids access to low-level I/O devices or direct memory access. In standard Java, low-level I/O it not a concern; it is handled by the operating system. However, in the embedded domain resources are scarce and a Java virtual machine (JVM) without an underlying middleware is an attractive architecture. When running the JVM on bare metal, we need access to I/O devices from Java; therefore we investigate a safe and efficient mechanism to represent I/O devices as first class Java objects, where device registers are represented by object fields. Access to those registers is safe as Java’s type system regulates it. The access is also fast as it is directly performed by the bytecodes getfield and putfield. Hardware objects thus provide an object-oriented abstraction of low-level hardware devices. As a proof of concept, we have implemented hardware objects in three quite different JVMs: in the Java processor JOP, the JIT compiler CACAO, and in the interpretingembedded JVM SimpleRTJ.

Schoeberl, Martin; Thalinger, Christian

2008-01-01

380

Object Networks -- A Modeling Tool  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper presents the introductory concepts related tothe modeling tool called object networks. Inspired by both(Fuzzy) Petri nets and object oriented technology, thismodeling tool has been recently addressed as a formalframework for Computational Semiotics, and also as ameta-theoretical approach to the integration of differentparadigms within Computing with Words andComputational Intelligence. In a general sense, it isproposed as a tool for modeling, analysis and design ofintelligent systems.1. IntroductionPetri nets are a general-purpose mathematical tool fordescribing relations existing between conditions andevents. They are a very suitable tool for modeling andanalysis of information processing systems that arecharacterized as being concurrent, asynchronous,distributed, parallel, nondeterministic, fuzzy and/orstochastic [1]. As a graphical tool, Petri nets can be usedas a visual-communication aid similar to flow charts,block diagrams and networks. Tokens are ...

Ricardo Gudwin; O Gomide

 
 
 
 
381

Secure content objects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A secure content object protects electronic documents from unauthorized use. The secure content object includes an encrypted electronic document, a multi-key encryption table having at least one multi-key component, an encrypted header and a user interface device. The encrypted document is encrypted using a document encryption key associated with a multi-key encryption method. The encrypted header includes an encryption marker formed by a random number followed by a derivable variation of the same random number. The user interface device enables a user to input a user authorization. The user authorization is combined with each of the multi-key components in the multi-key encryption key table and used to try to decrypt the encrypted header. If the encryption marker is successfully decrypted, the electronic document may be decrypted. Multiple electronic documents or a document and annotations may be protected by the secure content object.

Evans, William D. (Cupertino, CA)

2009-02-24

382

Object Function Facilitates Infants' Object Individuation in a Manual Search Task  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the importance of object function (action-object-outcome relations) on object individuation in infancy. Five experiments examined the ability of 9.5- and 12-month-old infants to individuate simple geometric objects in a manual search design. Experiments 1 through 4 (12-month-olds, N = 128) provided several combinations of…

Kingo, Osman S.; Krojgaard, Peter

2012-01-01

383

Determining object translation information using stereoscopic motion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stereoscopic motion is an approach for comparing image change due to motion in stereo pair of image sequences. Qualitatively, the relative image change shows that an object point is approaching, receding, or remaining at constant depth. Quantitatively, the relative change predicts where the object point will pass with respect to the camera system.

Mutch, K.

1986-11-01

384

Learning Objects Web  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Learning Objects Web er et DEFF projekt som Aalborg Universitetsbibliotek har initieret. Projektet tager afsæt i de resultater og erfaringer som er opnået med vores tidligere projekt Streaming Webbased Information Modules (SWIM). Vi har et internationalt netværk af interessenter som giver os sparring og feedback i forhold til udviklingskoncept både omkring de teoretiske rammer og i forhold til praktisk anvendelse af vores undervisningskoncept. Med disse rygstød og input har vi forfulgt ønsket om at videreudvikle SWIM i det nye projekt Learning Objects Web. Udgivelsesdato: juni

Blåbjerg, Niels JØrgen

2005-01-01

385

Object-oriented communications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

OOC is a high-level communications protocol based on the object-oriented paradigm. OOC's syntax, semantics, and pragmatics balance simplicity and expressivity for controls environments. While natural languages are too complex, computer protocols are often insufficiently expressive. An object-oriented communications philosophy provides a base for building the necessary high-level communications primitives like I don't understand and the current value of X is K. OOC is sufficiently flexible to express data acquisition, control requests, alarm messages, and error messages in a straightforward generic way. It can be used in networks, for inter-task communication, and even for intra-task communication.

1989-01-01

386

Criminal Liability for Illegal Reproduction of Literary, Scientific, Artistic Work or Object of Related Rights, Distribution, Transportation or Storage of Illegal Copies Thereof Baudžiamoji atsakomyb? už literat?ros, mokslo, meno k?rinio ar gretutini? teisi? objekto neteis?t? atgaminim?, neteis?t? kopij? platinim?, gabenim? ar laikym?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The dissertation analyses criminal liability for illegal reproduction of literary, scientific, artistic work or object of related rights, distribution, transportation or storage of illegal copies thereof. Conception and attributes of intellectual property, evolution of laws of intellectual property ...

Švedas, Pranas

387

Interprofessional learning objectives for health team simulations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Interprofessional health team simulations are often developed using learning objectives that relate to competency statements. Educators then assume these learning objectives are relevant to students participating in the simulation. However, evaluating the link between learning objectives and outcomes is often difficult in authentic simulation environments with multiple human factors. This article suggests one process for revising learning objectives based on review of the simulation, the debriefing, and the student feedback on reported learning. Implications for curriculum integration are discussed.

Greidanus E; King S; LoVerso T; Ansell LD

2013-06-01

388

Android object recognition framework  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis is a continuation of the author?s specialization project where the ultimate goal is to build an object recognition framework suitable for mobile devices in real world environments, where control over parameters such as illumination, distance, noise and availability of consistent net...

Karlsen, Mats-Gøran

389

Light Travels Through Objects  

Science.gov (United States)

In this activity, learners investigate and explore how light waves travel through various transparent objects such as prisms and lenses. Learners explore with light waves to investigate how light absorbs, refracts, transmits, and reflects and discover that some materials absorb light waves better than others. This activity is best if completed in small groups of 2-4 students.

Houston, Children'S M.

2008-01-01

390

Impact of Predicate on Object Oriented Programming  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A programming language is an artificial language designed to express computations that can be performed by a machine, particularly a computer. Object Oriented programming work around object to relate real world entity on computer. Object is the main active body in real world. Object having a set of attributes and perform some task according to their behavior. The methods in object oriented language are defined to give them behavior of actions. If we provide constraints and logic predicate in term of object and their behavior and attributes, system will start working like actual object in real world and its behaviors can be invoke according to logic and constraints which will provide artificial intelligence in object defined by programmer. In this paper, we are proposing for a Object Oriented programming language with predicate around that to make programming more realistic and comparative to real world.

Mohammad Ahmer Munir Khan; Rita Chhikara

2012-01-01

391

DOLIB: Distributed Object Library  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (DistributedObject Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual sharedmemory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed globalarray is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of usingDOLIB include: dynamic allocation and freeing of huge (gigabyte) distributedarrays, both C and FORTRAN callable interfaces, and the ability tomix shared-memory and message-passing programming models for ease ofuse and optimal performance. DOLIB is independent of language and compilerextensions and requires no special operating system support. DOLIBalso supports automatic caching of read-only data for high performance.The virtual shared memory support provided in DOLIB is well suited forimplementing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques. We have also usedDOLIB to create DONIO (Distributed Object Network I/O Library), whichobtains over a 10-fold improvement in disk I/O performance on ...

E. F. D'azevedo; C. H. Romine

392

DOLIB: Distributed Object Library  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (Distributed Object Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual shared memory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed global array is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of using DOLIB include: dynamic allocation and freeing of huge (gigabyte) distributed arrays, both C and FORTRAN callable interfaces, and the ability to mix shared-memory and message-passing programming models for ease of use and optimal performance. DOLIB is independent of language and compiler extensions and requires no special operating system support. DOLIB also supports automatic caching of read-only data for high performance. The virtual shared memory support provided in DOLIB is well suited for implementing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques. We have also used DOLIB to create DONIO (Distributed Object Network I/O Library), which obtains over a 10-fold improvement in disk I/O performance on the Intel Paragon.

D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.

1994-10-01

393

DOLIB: Distributed Object Library  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (Distributed Object Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual shared memory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed global array is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of using DOLIB include: dynamic allocation and fre