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Sample records for object relative clauses

  1. Frequency Affects Object Relative Clause Processing: Some Evidence in Favor of Usage-Based Accounts

    Reali, Florencia

    2014-01-01

    The processing difficulty of nested grammatical structure has been explained by different psycholinguistic theories. Here I provide corpus and behavioral evidence in favor of usage-based models, focusing on the case of object relative clauses in Spanish as a first language. A corpus analysis of spoken Spanish reveals that, as in English, the…

  2. Experience and Sentence Processing: Statistical Learning and Relative Clause Comprehension

    Wells, Justine B.; Christiansen, Morten H.; Race, David S.; Acheson, Daniel J.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2009-01-01

    Many explanations of the difficulties associated with interpreting object relative clauses appeal to the demands that object relatives make on working memory. MacDonald and Christiansen [MacDonald, M. C., & Christiansen, M. H. (2002). "Reassessing working memory: Comment on Just and Carpenter (1992) and Waters and Caplan (1996)." "Psychological…

  3. Experience and Sentence Processing: Statistical Learning and Relative Clause Comprehension

    Wells, J.; Christiansen, M; Race, D.; Acheson, D.; M. MacDonald

    2008-01-01

    Many explanations of the difficulties associated with interpreting object relative clauses appeal to the demands that object relatives make on working memory. MacDonald and Christiansen [MacDonald, M. C., & Christiansen, M. H. (2002). Reassessing working memory: Comment on Just and Carpenter (1992) and Waters and Caplan (1996). Psychological Review, 109, 35-54] pointed to variations in reading experience as a source of differences, arguing that the unique word order of object relatives makes ...

  4. Semantic Bias in the Acquisition of Relative Clauses in Japanese

    Ozeki, Hiromi; Shirai, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the acquisition of relative clauses in Japanese to determine the semantic and functional characteristics of children's relative clauses in spontaneous speech. Longitudinal data from five Japanese children are analyzed and compared with English data (Diessel & Tomasello, 2000). The results show that the relative clauses produced

  5. Semantic Bias in the Acquisition of Relative Clauses in Japanese

    Ozeki, Hiromi; Shirai, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the acquisition of relative clauses in Japanese to determine the semantic and functional characteristics of children's relative clauses in spontaneous speech. Longitudinal data from five Japanese children are analyzed and compared with English data (Diessel & Tomasello, 2000). The results show that the relative clauses produced…

  6. The Acquisition of Relative Clauses by Tamil Children.

    Lakshmanan, Usha

    2000-01-01

    Reports the findings of a cross-sectional study that investigated the acquisition of relative clauses by 27 Tamil-speaking children who ranged in age from 2 years and 11 months to 6 years and 6 months. A picture-cued production task was used to elicit relative clauses from the child subjects. (Author/VWL)

  7. Working Memory, Animacy, and Verb Class in the Processing of Relative Clauses

    Traxler, M.J.; Williams, R.S.; Blozis, S.A.; Morris, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    In three eye-movement monitoring experiments, participants' working memory capacity was assessed and they read sentences containing subject-extracted and object-extracted relative clauses. In Experiment 1, sentences lacked helpful semantic cues, object-relatives were harder to process than subject relatives, and working memory capacity did not

  8. Blackboard- and Object-Based Systems via Multi-Head Clauses

    A. Ciampolini; El Lamma; C. Stefanelli; Mello, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a distributed architecture supporting and integrating both blackboard- and object-based multi-agent models. The architecture is based on a concurrent logic language with multi-head clauses, committed/choice behaviour and restricted AND parallelism. A blackboard/based application is mapped into a set of multi-head clauses representing logic agents which communicate via a common (possibly distributed) working memory. Objects are clusters of processes, objects' state is repre...

  9. Children's Comprehension of Relative Clauses in an Ergative Language: The Case of Basque

    Gutierrez-Mangado, M. Juncal

    2011-01-01

    The investigation of the comprehension of L1 relative clauses across different languages has shown that subject relatives (SRs) are acquired earlier and responded to more accurately than object relatives (ORs). Most of this work has been based on SVO nominative-absolutive languages. In this article we present the results obtained in a binary…

  10. 48 CFR 952.227 - Provisions and clauses related to patents, technical data and copyrights.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Provisions and clauses related to patents, technical data and copyrights. 952.227 Section 952.227 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.227 Provisions...

  11. Subject Relative Clauses Are Not Universally Easier to Process: Evidence from Basque

    Carreiras, Manuel; Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Vergara, Marta; de la Cruz-Pavia, Irene; Laka, Itziar

    2010-01-01

    Studies from many languages consistently report that subject relative clauses (SR) are easier to process than object relatives (OR). However, Hsiao and Gibson (2003) report an OR preference for Chinese, a finding that has been contested. Here we report faster OR versus SR processing in Basque, an ergative, head-final language with pre-nominal…

  12. Processing Relative Clauses in Chinese as a Second Language

    Xu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    This project investigates second language (L2) learners' processing of four types of Chinese relative clauses crossing extraction types and demonstrative-classifier (DCl) positions. Using a word order judgment task with a whole-sentence reading technique, the study also discusses how psycholinguistic theories bear explanatory power in L2…

  13. 48 CFR 970.2702 - Patent related clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent related clauses. 970.2702 Section 970.2702 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2702...

  14. Development of Relative Clause Constructions in English L2

    Yumiko Yamaguchi; Satomi Kawaguchi

    2016-01-01

    This study explores how relative clause (RC) constructions develop in the acquisition of English as a second language (L2). The acquisition of RC constructions has been the focus of much research in the field of language acquisition, but a majority of L2 studies in this area is experimental based on the Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy (NPAH) (Keenan & Comrie, 1977). In this study, the spontaneous speech production by a Japanese primary school child, learning English in a naturalistic ...

  15. Development of Relative Clause Constructions in English L2

    Yumiko Yamaguchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how relative clause (RC constructions develop in the acquisition of English as a second language (L2. The acquisition of RC constructions has been the focus of much research in the field of language acquisition, but a majority of L2 studies in this area is experimental based on the Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy (NPAH (Keenan & Comrie, 1977. In this study, the spontaneous speech production by a Japanese primary school child, learning English in a naturalistic environment, was audio-recorded regularly over two years, and the development of RC constructions was compared with the acquisition of other English morphological and syntactic structures as represented within Processability Theory (PT (Pienemann, 1998; Pienemann, Di Biase, & Kawaguchi, 2005; Pienemann & Keler, 2011. Although PT predicts that subordinate clauses are acquired at the highest stage in processability hierarchy, the results in this longitudinal study show that some types of RC constructions emerge at earlier stages in L2 English acquisition. The results also show that RC constructions in the Japanese childs English L2 develop in the similar way to those reported in L1 studies (e.g., Diessel, 2004.Keywords: relative clause constructions, English L2, Processability Theory, the Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy, Japanese child

  16. WH-extractions and relative clauses in Brazilian Portuguese

    NEGRÃO Esmeralda Vailati

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe and explain WH-extraction patterns out of island contexts in Brazilian Portuguese (BP, by means of the principles established by Generative Theory. I claim that BP uses a strategy for the extraction of subjects which involves a special case of Agreement. Extractions out of relative islands are possible when the extracted WH-phrase ends up in the specifier position of the higher CP and from there it behaves as the subject of the predication. The subject-predicate relationship established under agreement makes Comp a proper governor for traces in subject position under its scope. The analysis proposed makes a distinction between two processes of relative clause formation. One in which que is an operator that transforms sentences into predicates and sits in the Comp position of a CP whose specifier can be occupied by a QP functioning as the subject of the predication. The other, in which que is a WH-word, traditionally treated as a pronoun, occupying the specifier position of a QP and introducing relative clauses as we know them.

  17. The Production of Turkish Relative Clauses in Second Language Acquisition: Overcoming Student Difficulties

    Anjel Toczu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on teaching relative clauses (R.Cs in Turkish, a left-branching language, and discusses the relative difficulty of producing RCs in Turkish by English-speaking learners by investigating whether the production of subject relative clauses in Turkish is easier than that of the object relative clauses. It also offers suggestions as to how to help learners overcome these difficulties. Turkish and English belong to two different language families, Altaic and Inda-European respectively. This study lends further insight that Turkish does not have RCs similar to those found in Inda-European languages. Instead, in Turkish RCs comprise nominalized verbs and participles. The characteristics of Turkish are also explained such as its word order, agglutinating morphology, vowel and consonant harmony rules as well as case markers indicating grammatical relations between sentence constituents, which shed light to our understanding of RCs in Turkish. Data was collected through written and oral tasks from students enrolled in a military intensive Turkish language training program in the United States. Moreover, their performance was studied through classroom observations and one-on-one speaking activities.

  18. Meaning Through Syntax: Language Comprehension and the Reduced Relative Clause Construction

    MCKOON, GAIL; RATCLIFF, ROGER

    2003-01-01

    A new explanation is proposed for a long standing question in psycholinguistics: Why are some reduced relative clauses so difficult to comprehend? It is proposed that the meanings of some verbs like race are incompatible with the meaning of the reduced relative clause and that this incompatibility makes sentences like The horse raced past the barn fell unacceptable. In support of their hypotheses, the authors show that reduced relatives of The horse raced past the barn fell type occur in natu...

  19. Early object relations into new objects.

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    Two strands of change are suggested by this review, one maturational, the other therapeutic or developmental (Hartmann and Kris, 1945). By "maturational" I mean to suggest energies that infuse the individual from earliest life in a manner that includes object relations, but for the healthy exercise of which object relations per se need not be of central and crucial importance. Within wide limits such energies may be delayed until growth conditions prevail without significant distortion of certain of the organism's ego functions. Therapeutic change is analogous to developmental change in that both involve the crucial presence of another to release energies. In therapeutic change these are energies that have been repressed beyond the reach of developmental dynamics. In everyday development crisis and synthesis alternate in conjunction with new and emerging objects to add to the psychological structures brought to the fore by maturation. In many instances, as we see with John, over time and in a less focussed manner, developmental changes can approximate therapeutic change and visa versa. Freud-Dann in their "experiment" pursued one line, in which the equipmental delay brought on by extremely adverse living circumstances was redressed by providing an interpersonally enriching, loving, developmentally facilitating milieu. The sketches of individual children and John's subsequent story provide a perspective into what becomes the stuff of growth and what remains the stuff of neurosis. The developmental reserves and ego resilience of these children were impressive but probably not extraordinary. Usual growth ensued as soon as they were provided with the rich soil of Bulldogs Bank instead of the desert sand of the Tereszin concentration camp. However, no one can escape such adverse circumstances without having taken in the stuff of neurosis. Affects and percepts that were not assimilatable or even available to consciousness at the time remain buried in the unconscious. Pain deprived of meaning is buried as neurosis. As we see in John's story, experience that cannot be integrated at the time is locked away from whatever developmental progression has occurred. Intolerable affects and ideas require particular circumstances of object relation and verbalization such as are found in the context of psychoanalysis and arrived at through psychoanalytic interpretation. Or, as in John's case, they may give way only slowly and irregularly over long stretches of time, when subjected to life experiences in the company of new object relations. Broadly stated, the Freud-Dann paper helps us to appreciate that there are several pathways of protection and growth in the ego that involve the discovery or construction of new objects. Family-romance fantasies are a common manifestation of new-object phenomena. Transitional object phenomena are also related. For some individuals at a particular time or over a span of time, providing the right circumstances for the resumption of maturational and developmental growth is all it takes to make them whole. Changes in the adaptive ego are sufficient to alleviate the conflicts stemming from the neurotic ego. For others, depending upon the degree of their neurotic impairment, or for the same individual under other circumstances, therapeutic change in the deepest sense demands the relatively unconditional presence of the interactive and interpreting other. Children of the storm who come in for shelter and warmth may thrive, but they also require a means of getting at the storm in their core that has been internalized as part of the ego's survival mechanism. What can be extracted from the poignant story of the Bulldogs Bank children about current child-analytic technique? The psychoanalytic piano now may be more formally conceptualized as having white as well as black keys. Most analyses, adult and child, have been conducted as though the "black keys"--pressure to mastery through repetition and its subsequent interpretation in relation to the transference--were the sole agents of the

  20. Restrictive relative clauses in Balochi and the marking of the antecedent : linguistic influence from Persian?

    Jahani, Carina

    2008-01-01

    An interesting morphosyntactic feature that has been observed in e.g. New Persian and Balochi is that the same suffix that marks indefinite restrictive selection out of a generic unit or a plurality (the so-called y?-ye va?dat) is also attached to head nouns of restrictive relative clauses. The purpose of the article is to investigate whether an extension of the use of the suffix denoting indefinite selection to mark antecedents of restrictive relative clauses similar to the one observed in P...

  1. Grammatical feature dissimilarities make relative clauses easier: A comprehension study with Italian children

    Adani, Flavia; van der Lely, Heather K.J.; Forgiarini, Matteo; Guasti, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The Relativized Minimality approach to A′-dependencies (Friedmann et al., 2009) predicts that headed object relative clauses (RCs) and which—questions are the most difficult, due to the presence of a lexical restriction on both the subject and the object DP which creates intervention. We investigated comprehension of center-embedded headed object RCs with Italian children, where Number and Gender feature values on subject and object DPs are manipulated. We found that, Number conditions are always more accurate than Gender ones, showing that intervention is sensitive to DP-internal structure. We propose a finer definition of the lexical restriction where external and syntactically active features (such as Number) reduce intervention whereas internal and (possibly) lexicalized features (such as Gender) do so to a lesser extent. Our results are also compatible with a memory interference approach in which the human parser is sensitive to highly specific properties of the linguistic input, such as the cue-based model (Van Dyke, 2007). PMID:21151323

  2. The Acquisition of English Restrictive Relative Clauses by Arab Adult EFL Learners

    Hayat Eid Alroudhan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the challenges faced by Arab adult learners of English as a foreign language (EFL in acquiring English restrictive relative clauses (RRCs, as well as the factors that affect the process of acquisition. This issue has received considerable attention in second language (L2 research. The present study discusses the syntactic structure of RRCs in English and Arabic with regard to the use of resumptive pronouns and the use of overt versus covert relative markers as related to the definiteness of the head noun. This study is carried out using an acceptability judgment test as the tool for data collection. A sample of 100 male and female adult Arabic speakers is used with the aim of identifying potential acquisition problems. The results obtained provide further support for first language (L1 transfer. This study concludes that participants accepted the use of resumptive pronouns and preferred the overt relative markers determined by definiteness. It is further discovered that certain factors influenced the acquisition process such as participants’ age, age of learning, and age of immersion. The current study has some pedagogical implications for the teaching of relative clauses in the EFL context.Keywords: English Relative Clauses, Restrictive Relative Clauses, Relative pronoun, Arab Learners of English

  3. Rethinking the Acquisition of Relative Clauses in Italian: Towards a Grammatically Based Account

    Adani, Flavia

    2011-01-01

    In a number of studies, the acquisition of restrictive relative clauses (RCs) shows contrasting findings regarding comprehension and production, with the former usually delayed up to the age of five. As previously claimed in the literature, we suggest that this delay is a task artifact and we present a new procedure for the assessment of…

  4. Basque Relative Clauses: Head Raising, Case and Micro-Variation within Bizkaiera

    Gondra, Ager

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation establishes the syntactic representation and derivation of relative clause (RC) constructions in Bizkaiera Basque. Using native speaker introspection, grammaticality judgment under direct elicitation and formal experiments, I show that Bizkaiera follows the Head raising strategy in RC construction. Evidence for this comes from…

  5. Working Memory Effects in the L2 Processing of Ambiguous Relative Clauses

    Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates whether and how L2 sentence processing is affected by memory constraints that force serial parsing. Monitoring eye movements, we test effects of working memory on L2 relative-clause attachment preferences in a sample of 75 late-adult German learners of English and 25 native English controls. Mixed linear regression…

  6. Children's Relative Clause Markers in Two Non-Mainstream Dialects of English

    Oetting, Janna B.; Newkirk, Brandi L.

    2011-01-01

    We examined children's productions of mainstream and non-mainstream relative clause markers (e.g. "that", "who", "which", "what", "where", [image omitted]) in African American English (AAE) and Southern White English (SWE) as a function of three linguistic variables (syntactic role of the marker, humanness of the antecedent and adjacency of the

  7. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    2010-10-01

    ... environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational...

  8. MAPPING OBJECTS TO RELATIONAL DATABASE FOR OBJECT PERSISTENCE

    Prabhu, P

    2013-01-01

    Object to relational mapping is necessary because there is a mismatch between the object and relational database paradigm to achieve object persistence. Object to relational mapping is the process of transforming between object and relational modelling approaches and systems that support those approaches. This paper discusses the concept of mapping object to relational database and ORM (Object to Relational Mapping) frameworks.

  9. MAPPING OBJECTS TO RELATIONAL DATABASE FOR OBJECT PERSISTENCE

    P.PRABHU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Object to relational mapping is necessary because there is a mismatch between the object and relational database paradigm to achieve object persistence. Object to relational mapping is the process of transforming between object and relational modelling approaches and systems that support those approaches. This paper discusses the concept of mapping object to relational database and ORM (Object to Relational Mapping frameworks.

  10. A view on the development of Relative Clauses in Danish

    Jensen de López, Kristine M.; Sundahl Olsen, Lone

    dansktalende voksne. For begge grupper var objekt-relative sætninger vanskeligere at opfatte og frembringe end subjekt-relative. Undersøgelsen viste, at objekt-relative sætninger især er vanskelige at frembringe, selv om børn ret tidligt kan forstå dem. Voksne undgår også tit at bruge objekt-relative sætninger...

  11. Free relative clauses: a new teaching approach for Italian learners of Latin and German

    Sabrina Bertollo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we would like to present a new teaching proposal for free relative clauses, with a comparative perspective. The proposal is addressed to Italian learners of Latin and German with an advanced knowledge of the morpho-syntax of the three languages and tries to combine the theories proposed within the Generative Grammar framework with the needs which emerge from school teaching experiences. In the path we will develop, the students will be led to get familiar with this construction, first in the native language and then in German and Latin. Students will be stimulated to analyze the syntactic constraints, which are different in the three languages, so as to develop a new grammatical awareness and be in a position to correctly handle complex syntactic structures such as free relative clauses. This will be helpful to adequately cope with this specific construction, but it will also improve the overall skills.

  12. Effects of Form-Focused Instruction on the Learning of Relative Clauses

    Seyed Jalal Abdolmanafi (Rokni

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Relativization is an important grammatical sub-system for second language learners. This study intended to explore the effects of different types of L2 instruction on the learning of English relative clauses by Persian learners.Purpose: The differential effects of the three types of treatment (i.e., Focus on FormS, Focus on Meaning, Focus on Form on the learning of English relativization was investigated.Methods: Intact university classes of English learners were divided into three groups receiving different forms of instruction. Accuracy of the target form was measured by two distinct tasks of sentence combining test and grammaticality judgment test.Findings and Results: The results of the two tests show improvement of all three groups, the focus on form treatment group outperformed the other two on both tests, however. This study also suggests that learners attention to detailed analysis of form facilitates the learning of relative clauses in this context.

  13. Visualizing abstract objects and relations

    Kamada, Tomihisa

    1989-01-01

    Pictorial representations are very useful for humans to understand complicated relations or structures. This is the reason that the user interface of information systems is strongly required to visualize many kinds of information in a wide variety of graphical forms. At present, however, only some very specialized visualization techniques have been developed probably because the generality in the visualization has not been appreciated correctly. This book presents a visualization framework for translating abstract objects and relations, typically represented in textual forms, into pictorial re

  14. Object relations in Harry Potter.

    Lake, Suzanne

    2003-01-01

    Good fiction helps children address their emotional dilemmas by evoking repressed content, and offering strategies and meaningful values that help them work towards resolutions. Because certain fundamental conflicts continue to be revisited and reworked throughout adulthood, it follows that masterful children's literature might enthrall adults as well. Given the extraordinary, worldwide success of the Harry Potter stories with both children and adults, it might be inferred that they, indeed, are among such literature. Common object relations themes, as well as other intrapsychic processes, are presented in such an imaginative and resonant way that the unconscious is readily engaged. The character of Harry Potter, specifically, embodies such universal (repressed) torments as the agony of destroying and losing the mother; the ominous perception of good and bad objects at war within the self; and the earnest reparative efforts offered to save the self from eternal separation from the beloved other. PMID:14535615

  15. The performance of relational and object-relational SQL queries when using Oracle

    Francisco Javier Moreno Arboleda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a study in which the performance of several queries involving GROUP BY clause, sub-queries (using IN and EXISTS clauses and loins are measured and compared by means of specific queries. The behaviour of relational and oblect-relational models is also shown.

  16. Fundamentals of Object Databases Object-Oriented and Object-Relational Design

    Dietrich, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Object-oriented databases were originally developed as an alternative to relational database technology for the representation, storage, and access of non-traditional data forms that were increasingly found in advanced applications of database technology. After much debate regarding object-oriented versus relational database technology, object-oriented extensions were eventually incorporated into relational technology to create object-relational databases. Both object-oriented databases and object-relational databases, collectively known as object databases, provide inherent support for object

  17. Relations among early object recognition skills: Objects and letters

    Augustine, Elaine; Jones, Susan S.; SMITH, LINDA B.; Longfield, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Human visual object recognition is multifaceted, with several domains of expertise. Developmental relations between young children's letter recognition and their 3-dimensional object recognition abilities are implicated on several grounds but have received little research attention. Here, we ask how preschoolers’ success in recognizing letters relates to their ability to recognize 3-dimensional objects from sparse shape information alone. A relation is predicted because perception of the spat...

  18. Review of Hendery (2012), Relative Clauses in Time and Space: A Case Study in the Methods of Diachronic Typology

    Pat-El, Na'ama; The University of Texas, Austin/Swedish Collegium for Advanced Studies, Uppsala, Sweden

    2013-01-01

    Review of Hendery, Rachel. 2012. Relative Clauses in Time and Space: A case study in the methods of diachronic typology. (Typological Studies in Language.) Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 281 pp. Hardbound: ISBN 978 90 272 0682 4 | 95.00 / $143.00 | e-Book: ISBN 978 90 272 7368 0 | 95.00 / $143.00

  19. A Study of the Role of Relative Clauses in the Simplification of News Texts for Learners of English

    Allen, David

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to investigate the effects of textual modification upon the distribution of specific linguistic features of news texts when authors adopt an intuitive approach to simplification. The research focuses on the distribution and use of relative clauses (RCs) across three levels of simplification. The analysis of news

  20. Portuguese spoken in Almoxarife, Sao Tome: relative clauses with “ku” and “com” [with

    Carlos Filipe Guimarães Figueiredo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relative clauses with “ku” [substrate relativizer] and “com” [with] in the Portuguese of Almoxarife, spoken by the community of Almoxarife, São Tome island, aiming to uncover what the motivations are that trigger the use of those relativizers.

  1. General Relativity and Compact Objects

    Gupta, Patrick Das

    2015-01-01

    Starting with the conceptual foundation of general relativity (GR) - equivalence principle, space-time geometry and special relativity, I train cross hairs on two characteristic predictions of GR - black holes and gravitational waves. These two consequences of GR have played a significant role in relativistic astrophysics, e.g. compact X-ray sources, quasars, blazars, coalescing binary pulsars, etc. With quantum theory wedded to GR, particle production from vacuum becomes a generic feature whenever event horizons are present. In this paper, I shall briefly discuss the fate of a `black hole atom' when Hawking radiation is taken into account. In the context of gravitational waves, I shall focus on the possible consequences of gravitational and electromagnetic radiation from highly magnetized and rapidly spinning white dwarfs. The discovery of RX J0648.0-4418 system - a WD in a binary with mass slightly over 1.2 $ M_{\\odot}$, and rotating with spin period as short as 13.2 s, provides an impetus to revisit the pr...

  2. Relations among Early Object Recognition Skills: Objects and Letters

    Augustine, Elaine; Jones, Susan S.; Smith, Linda B.; Longfield, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Human visual object recognition is multifaceted and comprised of several domains of expertise. Developmental relations between young children's letter recognition and their 3-dimensional object recognition abilities are implicated on several grounds but have received little research attention. Here, we ask how preschoolers' success in recognizing…

  3. Object relations and attachment styles in adulthood

    Gregor Žvelc

    2010-01-01

    Attachment theory and object relations theory both describe interpersonal relationships from childhood throughout the life span. The goal of the research was to investigate the relatedness between dimensions of object relations and attachment styles in adulthood. 176 undergraduate students from University of Ljubljana filled out the Test of Object Relations (Žvelc, 1998) and Relationship Questionnaire (Bartholomew and Horowitz, 1991). Research results showed that there exist significant and t...

  4. Sexual decision making and object relations theory.

    Randolph, B J; Winstead, B

    1988-10-01

    The Sexual Decision-Making Inventory (SDMI) was developed to measure levels of sexual decision making based on the developmental concepts of Object Relations Theory. The inventory asks subjects to report on their thoughts and feelings at the time they decided to have sex in their most recent sexual relationship. The inventory was tested in a pilot study involving 45 male and 49 female undergraduates. A factor analysis was performed on the SDMI and six levels of sexual decision making were defined: Object Constancy, Ambivalence, Need for Merger, Need Gratification, Low Self-esteem, and Narcissistic Gratification. Endorsement of items on these subscales was related to perceptions of the relationship. In a second study involving 79 male and 135 female undergraduates, subjects completed the SDMI, the Bell Object Relations Self-report Inventory, and a questionnaire concerning perceptions of the relationship in which the sexual decision was made. Object Constancy was positively correlated to object relations, satisfaction with the relationship, and durability of the relationship; Ambivalence, Need Gratification, and Low Self-esteem were negatively correlated with object relations, satisfaction with the relationship, and durability of the relationship; Narcissistic Gratification was negatively correlated with object relations and most aspects of the relationship with interesting exceptions such as sexual satisfaction. Sex differences demonstrated that females were more likely to endorse items on the Object Constancy subscale; whereas males were more likely to endorse items on the Ambivalence, Need Gratification, and Narcissistic Gratification subscales. There were no sex differences, however, in quality of general object relations. PMID:3219063

  5. Some modifications of temporal relation in the sentence with the temporal clause

    Antonić Ivana N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is the modification of temporal relation in the complex sentence with the temporal clause. At the functional different Serbian language corpus the author notices the next types of modified temporality: excepted locational simultaneity complete or partial, and excepted locationalorientational posteriority formalized by the structure V SAMO/JEDINO/OSIM/SEM/IZUZEV(ONDA KAD VSub, and excepted locational simultaneity/excepted terminativity formalized by the structure V SAMO DOK (Neg VSub; sutuational locational simultaneity complete or partial formalized by the structure V U SITUACIJI / U SLUČAJU KAD VSub, with the posibility to be exceptivly modified in the structure V IZUZEV U SITUACIJI / U SLUČAJU KAD VSub; situational-concessive locational simultaneity complete or partial formalized by the structure V (ČAK I (ONDA KAD VSub; situational-conditional locational-orientational posteriority formalized by the structure V TEK (ONDA KAD VSub, and situational-conditional orientational posteriority formalized by the structure V TEK POŠTO VSub or V TEK NAKON ŠTO VSub and situational-conditional orientational quantified posteriority formalized by the structure V Quant TEK POŠTO VSub, and finaly situational-conditional terminativity formalized by the structure (Neg V SVE DOK Neg VSub. It can ocure sporadically supstitutiv temporality formalized by the structure V DetTemp (UMESTO KAD VSub, and consecutive-adversative temporality formalized by the structure KAD VSub A (ONDA V. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178004: Sintaksička, semantička i pragmatička istraživanja standardnog srpskog jezika

  6. 48 CFR 3408.870 - Printing clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Printing clause. 3408.870... COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Printing and Related Supplies 3408.870 Printing clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause in...

  7. Cross-Linguistic Differences in Processing Double-Embedded Relative Clauses: Working-Memory Constraints or Language Statistics?

    Frank, Stefan L; Trompenaars, Thijs; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-04-01

    An English double-embedded relative clause from which the middle verb is omitted can often be processed more easily than its grammatical counterpart, a phenomenon known as the grammaticality illusion. This effect has been found to be reversed in German, suggesting that the illusion is language specific rather than a consequence of universal working memory constraints. We present results from three self-paced reading experiments which show that Dutch native speakers also do not show the grammaticality illusion in Dutch, whereas both German and Dutch native speakers do show the illusion when reading English sentences. These findings provide evidence against working memory constraints as an explanation for the observed effect in English. We propose an alternative account based on the statistical patterns of the languages involved. In support of this alternative, a single recurrent neural network model that is trained on both Dutch and English sentences is shown to predict the cross-linguistic difference in the grammaticality effect. PMID:25943302

  8. What causes the processing advantage in the comprehension of German object relative clauses?

    Anne Adelt

    2015-05-01

    Wo ist der Hund, den gerade der Fuchs kitzelt? (Where is the dog that the fox is currently tickling? (1b Case/Early disambiguation: Wo ist die Ente, die gerade der Fuchs kitzelt? (Where is the duck that the fox is currently tickling? (2 Number/Late disambiguation: Wo ist das Reh, das gerade die Fchse kitzeln? (Where is the deer that the foxes are currently tickling? ORC processing was studied by simultaneously using an off-line task (auditory referent identification and an on-line method (eye-tracking in the visual-world paradigm. Results In the referent identification task, IWAs comprehension performance for case-marked ORCs (1a, 1b was above chance (p.05, binomial test. Both, IWAs and controls revealed significantly better performance on early disambiguated ORCs (1b as compared to late disambiguated ORCs (2; all p.05, GLM. Finally, no participant group revealed a significant difference within case conditions (p>.05, GLM. Discussion Controls show a processing advantage for both types of case-marked ORCs compared to number-marked ORCs. For controls, this processing advantage seems to be caused by a difference in the morphological features, irrespective of the disambiguation point, as they performed equally well in both case conditions. In contrast, IWAs reveal a processing advantage only for early-disambiguated case-marked ORCs as compared to number-marked ORCs. We suggest that disambiguation in the immediate case condition does not lead to a processing advantage in IWAs due to a delay in sentence processing. Analyses of the eye-tracking data (in preparation will provide additional insights about real-time ORC processing.

  9. Learning in Organizations - an Object Relations Perspective

    Andersen, Anders Siig

    Learning in organizations – an object relations perspective As a researcher with a primary interest in the study of learning environments in organizations I have conducted a number of empirical research projects primarily concerning work places in the state sector. The aim of the research has been...... to qualify the understanding of learning conditions in working life and to develop a multifaceted theoretical and methodological basis for the analysis focussing on action- and behaviour, symbolic interaction and discourse (Andersen & Andersen 2007; Andersen & Trojaborg 2007). The aim of this paper...... is to supplement this analytical basis with an analysis based on psychoanalytical theory. I shall present and clarify some theoretical and methodological ideas about the discovery and understanding of psychodynamic defence mechanisms in organizations. My intention is to achieve a better understanding...

  10. Claus Bonderup

    Fisker, Anna Marie; Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen

    -oriented architectural projects within Urban Farming in which the students will initially work with the subject as master’s students, but later, hopefully, as PhD students. Also, I have wished for a long time to give Claus Bonderup the recognition he deserves! His view of architecture, his knowledge and his way of...... house that serves as a basis for this project with its unique architectural models for the International Architecture Exhibition. Claus’ Duck House has, thus, in theory and practice alike, become the foundation for the new architectural models, and his thoughts on design have contributed to a fruitful...

  11. O-ODM Framework for Object-Relational Databases

    Carlos Alberto Rombaldo Jr; Solange N. Alves Souza; Luiz Sergio de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Object-Relational Databases introduce new features which allow manipulating objects in databases. At present, many DBMS offer resources to manipulate objects in database, but most application developers just map class to relations tables, failing to exploit the O-R model strength. The lack of tools that aid the database project contributes to this situation. This work presents O-ODM (Object-Object Database Mapping), a persistent framework that maps objects from OO applications to database ob...

  12. Narcissism and Object Relations in Hypochondria.

    Albarracin, Dolorès

    2015-08-01

    Hypochondria remains little studied from a theoretical point of view. Whereas psychoanalysts know how difficult it is to handle hypochondriac subjects, the few works studying the relationship between patients and physicians resort to a cognitive-behavioral approach. These latter conclude that the quality of this relationship is more important than the disappearance of the symptoms. The aim of this work is to show how psychoanalysis can conceptualize hypochondria as a disruption of narcissism, leading to an apparent relational deadlock. Considering hypochondria as a narcissistic transference constitutes a useful contribution of psychoanalysis to medicine and psychotherapeutic care. PMID:26290944

  13. Annoying Danish Relatives

    Jensen de López, Kristine M.; Sundahl Olsen, Lone; Chondrigianni, V.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI...

  14. Quantifiers in Than-Clauses

    Sigrid Beck

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reexamines the interpretations that quantifiers in "than"-clauses give rise to. It develops an analysis that combines an interval semantics for the "than"-clause with a standard semantics for the comparative operator. In order to mediate between the two, interpretive mechanisms like maximality and maximal informativity determine selection of a point from an interval. The interval semantics allows local interpretation of the quantifier. Selection predicts which interpretation this leads to. Cases in which the prediction appears not to be met are explained via recourse to independently attested external factors (e.g. the interpretive possibilities of indefinites. The goal of the paper is to achieve coverage of the relevant data while maintaining a simple semantics for the comparative. A secondary objective is to reexamine, restructure and extend the set of data considered in connection with the problem of quantifiers in "than"-clauses. doi:10.3765/sp.3.1 BibTeX info

  15. Multi-Label Object Categorization Using Histograms of Global Relations

    Mustafa, Wail; Xiong, Hanchen; Kraft, Dirk; Szedmak, Sandor; Piater, Justus; Krüger, Norbert

    In this paper, we present an object categorization system capable of assigning multiple and related categories for novel objects using multi-label learning. In this system, objects are described using global geometric relations of 3D features. We propose using the Joint SVM method for learning and...

  16. TRANSFORMING OBJECT ORIENTED DATA MODEL TO RELATIONAL DATA MODEL

    Mohd Khalid Awang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The object oriented and relational technologies are originated in distinct paradigms. The object-oriented technology is universally accepted approach for the development of business applications since it offers more appropriate methods and facilities for modelling of the real world objects. Meanwhile, relational database is still used to preserve the persistence of enterprise data. Connecting these two paradigms is not a straightforward task and necessitates a systematic mapping from one to another. Mapping from object model to relational database demands special attention because it would yield an object-relational impedance mismatch. One of the essential concepts in object technology is the idea of inheritance, and unfortunately relational database does not support this notion. This paper seeks to address various approaches in mapping from inheritance to tables and demonstrates how object-relational tool could be used to help software developers.

  17. Saving clauses in international contracts concerning the nuclear fuel cycle

    This paper concerns saving clauses in international contracts relating to the fuel cycle. It deals in particular with economic upheavals affecting those contracts and the usual clauses to protect the financial interests of the co-contractors. The paper also examines such economic upheavals in the context of clauses intended to preserve the contracts. (NEA)

  18. An approach to computing direction relations between separated object groups

    H. Yan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Direction relations between object groups play an important role in qualitative spatial reasoning, spatial computation and spatial recognition. However, none of existing models can be used to compute direction relations between object groups. To fill this gap, an approach to computing direction relations between separated object groups is proposed in this paper, which is theoretically based on Gestalt principles and the idea of multi-directions. The approach firstly triangulates the two object groups; and then it constructs the Voronoi Diagram between the two groups using the triangular network; after this, the normal of each Vornoi edge is calculated, and the quantitative expression of the direction relations is constructed; finally, the quantitative direction relations are transformed into qualitative ones. The psychological experiments show that the proposed approach can obtain direction relations both between two single objects and between two object groups, and the results are correct from the point of view of spatial cognition.

  19. An approach to computing direction relations between separated object groups

    Yan, H.; Wang, Z.; Li, J.

    2013-09-01

    Direction relations between object groups play an important role in qualitative spatial reasoning, spatial computation and spatial recognition. However, none of existing models can be used to compute direction relations between object groups. To fill this gap, an approach to computing direction relations between separated object groups is proposed in this paper, which is theoretically based on gestalt principles and the idea of multi-directions. The approach firstly triangulates the two object groups, and then it constructs the Voronoi diagram between the two groups using the triangular network. After this, the normal of each Voronoi edge is calculated, and the quantitative expression of the direction relations is constructed. Finally, the quantitative direction relations are transformed into qualitative ones. The psychological experiments show that the proposed approach can obtain direction relations both between two single objects and between two object groups, and the results are correct from the point of view of spatial cognition.

  20. Object Persistency for HEP data using an Object-Relational Database

    Nowak, M; Geppert, D; Kunszt, Zoltn; Paoli, S

    2001-01-01

    We present an initial study of the object features of Oracle 9i - the first of the market-leading object-relational database systems that supports a true object model on the server side as well as an ODMG-style C++ language binding on the client side. We discuss how these features can be used to provide persistent object storage in the HEP environment.

  1. Object persistency for HEP data using an object-relational database

    The authors present an initial study of the object features of Oracle 9i--the first of the market-leading object-relational database systems that supports a true object model on the server side as well as an ODMG-style C++ language binding on the client side. The authors discuss how these features can be used to provide persistent object storage in the HEP environment

  2. O-ODM Framework for Object-Relational Databases

    Carlos Alberto Rombaldo Jr

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Object-Relational Databases introduce new features which allow manipulating objects in databases. At present, many DBMS offer resources to manipulate objects in database, but most application developers just map class to relations tables, failing to exploit the O-R model strength. The lack of tools that aid the database project contributes to this situation. This work presents O-ODM (Object-Object Database Mapping, a persistent framework that maps objects from OO applications to database objects. Persistent Frameworks have been used to aid developers, managing all access to DBMS. This kind of tool allows developers to persist objects without solid knowledge about DBMSs and specific languages, improving the developers’ productivity, mainly when a different DBMS is used. The results of some experiments using O-ODM are shown.

  3. The relation of experience in osteopathic palpation and object identification

    Sabini, Rosanna C.; Leo, Chadwick S; Moore, Alton E

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine whether osteopathic medical students, fellows, residents, and practicing physicians differ in their ability to identify inanimate objects and if these skills relate to palpatory experience. Methods Fifteen commonly known objects were fixed to a board and blinded with a cotton cloth. In Part I of testing, participants were asked to identify 9 objects, with choices provided. In Part II participants were asked to identify 6 objects using one word only. Part III consisted ...

  4. An approach to object-relational mapping in bioscience domains.

    Tuck, David; O'Connell, Ryan, 1984-; Gershkovich, Peter; Cowan, James

    2002-01-01

    Object-relational mapping (mapping object-oriented software systems to relational databases) remains a challenging undertaking because of the inherent differences between these two technologies. Effective application of this technique in biomedical informatics applications can provide robust, adaptive solutions but requires careful attention to specific issues in the bioscience domain. Mapping from a single, fixed, stably defined object to a table is straightforward, and several standard patt...

  5. TRANSFORMING OBJECT ORIENTED DATA MODEL TO RELATIONAL DATA MODEL

    Mohd Khalid Awang; Nur Lian Labadu

    2012-01-01

    The object oriented and relational technologies are originated in distinct paradigms. The object-oriented technology is universally accepted approach for the development of business applications since it offers more appropriate methods and facilities for modelling of the real world objects. Meanwhile, relational database is still used to preserve the persistence of enterprise data. Connecting these two paradigms is not a straightforward task and necessitates a systematic mapping from one to a...

  6. Small Clauses in Swedish : Towards a Unified Account

    Lundin-kesson, Katarina

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis I offer a unified syntactic account of the small clauses involved in Swedish object-with-infinitive constructions (ECM), object predicative constructions and absolute constructions. In the present framework, this similarity is conceptually appealing and is also supported by empirical data. My account extends to other types of small clauses as well. I claim that small clauses are properly analysed as vPs, or more specific, as the maximal projections of the functional categorial ...

  7. Fundamentals for the Automation of Object-Relational Database Design

    Maria Fernanda Golobisky; Aldo Vecchietti

    2011-01-01

    In the market there is a wide amount of CASE tools for the design of relational databases. Object-relational database management system (ORDBMS) emerged at the end of the 90s to incorporate the object technology into the relational databases, allowing the treatment of more complex data and relationships than its predecessor. The design for this database model is not straightforward. Most of the works proposed in the literature fail because they do not provide consistent transformation formali...

  8. An approach to object-relational mapping in bioscience domains.

    Tuck, David; O'Connell, Ryan; Gershkovich, Peter; Cowan, James

    2002-01-01

    Object-relational mapping (mapping object-oriented software systems to relational databases) remains a challenging undertaking because of the inherent differences between these two technologies. Effective application of this technique in biomedical informatics applications can provide robust, adaptive solutions but requires careful attention to specific issues in the bioscience domain. Mapping from a single, fixed, stably defined object to a table is straightforward, and several standard patterns have been described for mapping inheritance trees to tables. However, mapping becomes more problematic when it involves complex, evolving inheritance trees, sparse, dynamic attributes, or associations and aggregations whose requirements and definitions change frequently during development. All of these seem to be inherent, inescapable facts in the development of biological information systems. Here we describe modifications of the basic patterns of object-relational mapping that are being applied to two systems in ongoing collaborations between biomedical investigators and informaticians. In this approach a small set of objects for each entity collaborates to provide the usual required services of an object-relational implementation including query capacity, transaction management, object relationships (associations, aggregation, composition, many-many relations) and persistence functions. This set of objects also allows dynamic attributes for a selected set of entities by merging an entity-attribute-value approach for data storage with the object-relational approach to managing relationships among objects. Templates are used for class generation to allow flexibility and synchronization of schema/object during design evolution, facilitating changing persistence strategies across the whole system for testing and development. The entity-attribute-value details as well as all database access are encapsulated in a persistence layer which would allow change of this layer to a conventional storage model, if the design evolution is stabilized or for performance requirements, with no change to the domain or presentation layers. PMID:12463939

  9. Covered Clause Elimination

    Heule, Marijn; Biere, Armin

    2010-01-01

    Generalizing the novel clause elimination procedures developed in [M. Heule, M. J\\"arvisalo, and A. Biere. Clause elimination procedures for CNF formulas. In Proc. LPAR-17, volume 6397 of LNCS, pages 357-371. Springer, 2010.], we introduce explicit (CCE), hidden (HCCE), and asymmetric (ACCE) variants of a procedure that eliminates covered clauses from CNF formulas. We show that these procedures are more effective in reducing CNF formulas than the respective variants of blocked clause elimination, and may hence be interesting as new preprocessing/simplification techniques for SAT solving.

  10. Temporal dynamics of action perception: differences on ERP evoked by object-related and non-object-related actions.

    Wamain, Yannick; Pluciennicka, Ewa; Kalénine, Solène

    2014-10-01

    While neuropsychological dissociations suggest that distinct processes are involved in execution or perception of transitive (object-related) and intransitive (non-object-related) actions, the few neuroimaging studies that directly contrasted the brain activations underlying transitive and intransitive gesture perception failed to find substantial differences between the two action types. However, the distinction could be visible on brain activity timing within the fronto-parietal network. In this study, we used Event-Related Potential (ERP) method to assess the temporal dynamics of object-related and non-object-related action processing. Although both meaningful, only object-related actions involve object motor features. Accordingly, perception of the two action types would show distinct neural correlates. Participants were presented with four movie types (ORA, Object-Related Action, NORA: Non-Object-Related Action and 2 control movies) and were instructed to perform tasks that required explicit or implicit action recognition (specific action recognition or color change detection). Movies were presented as Point-Light Display (PLD) and thus provided only information about gesture kinematics regardless of action type. ERP were computed during movie visual perception and analyzed as a function of movie type and task. The main result revealed a difference between ORA and NORA on the amplitude of the P3a component in the fronto-parietal region. The difference observed around 250 ms after movie onset do not likely origin from variation in low-level visual features or attention resource allocation. Instead, we suggest that it reflects incidental recruitment of object attributes during object-related action perception. The exact nature of these attributes is discussed. PMID:25204513

  11. Object-related generativity in children with Down syndrome.

    Fidler, Deborah J; Will, Elizabeth; Daunhauer, Lisa A; Gerlach-McDonald, Brianne; Visootsak, Jeannie

    2014-12-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) show challenges in some aspects of goal-directed behavior when compared to developmentally matched children (Daunhauer et al., 2014; Lee et al., 2011), particularly in the area of goal-directed action on objects (Fidler et al., 2005a,b). In this study, we examined one aspect of goal-directed action on objects, object-related generativity, in school-aged children with DS (n = 52), a developmentally matched group of children with intellectual disability, but not Down syndrome (DD; n = 21), and a group of chronologically younger, but developmentally matched typically developing children (TD; n = 34). We administered the Leiter-R, the Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS), and an Object-Related Generativity Task, which involved 2 min of unstructured play with a variety of objects that have divergent usages. Children with DS generated significantly fewer instances of initiating actions on new objects than children in both comparison groups, were less likely to produce novel functional action on any object (new or familiar) than TD children, and they showed fewer instances of novel functional object engagement with new objects overall than TD children. Frequency of acts on new objects in DS was associated with Leiter-R Form Completion and Repeated Patterns Raw Scores and OWLS Listening Comprehension Raw Scores. These findings contribute to the growing knowledge base regarding goal-directed behavior and self-regulation in individuals with Down syndrome. Implications for education and intervention are discussed. PMID:25194513

  12. Storing Linked XML documents in Object-Relational DBMS

    Ali, Akhtar; Amornsinlaphachai, Pensri; Rossiter, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Currently, several researchers have proposed mapping both structure and constraints of XML documents to an object-relational database (ORDB). However these researches cannot be conducted because of the limited range of constraints in available object-relational DBMSs. We therefore propose mapping rules that are practicable in available technologies. Normally, an XML document is treated as a database so much data redundancy occurs. To solve this problem, we keep non-redundant data in several s...

  13. Iris Information Management in Object-Relational Databases

    Carlos E. Alvez; Etchart, Graciela; Ruíz, Silvia; Miranda, Ernesto; Aguirre, Juan José; Benedetto, Marcelo Gabriel; Delfín, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics is a technology under development that has been enhanced by the increasing security concerns in organizations at all levels. Public agencies that employ this technology need to consult the biometric data efficiently and share them with other agencies. Hence the need for data models and standards that allow interoperability between systems and facilitate data searches. The objective of this work is to develop a generic architecture using object-relational database technology (ORD...

  14. Migration from Relational Database into Object Oriented Database

    Mansaf Alam; S. K. Wason

    2006-01-01

    Object-Oriented Technology is an important discipline in the field of software engineering in general and it is, therefore, natural to ask whether it is relevant to the field of database management in particular and what that relevance is. There is, however, no consensus on answer to these questions. Some authorities believe that object oriented database systems will take over the world replacing relational system whereas others believe that they are suited only to certain very specific probl...

  15. Optimal relative view angles for an object viewed multiple times

    Gilani, Syed U.; Shende, Apoorva; Nguyen, Bao; Stilwell, Daniel J.

    2015-05-01

    Typically, the detection of an object of interest improves as we view the object from multiple angles. For cases where viewing angle matters, object detection can be improved further by optimally selecting the relative angles of multiple views. This motivates the search for viewing angles that maximize the expected probability of detection. Although our work is motivated by applications in subsea sensing, our fundamental analysis is easily adapted for other classes of applications. The specific challenge that motivates our work is the selection of optimal viewing angles for subsea sensing in which sonar is used for bathymetric imaging.

  16. Visual appearance of wireframe objects in special relativity

    The visual appearance of a moving object in special relativity can be constructed in a straightforward manner when representing the surface of the object, or at least a wire frame model of it, as a point cloud. The apparent position of each individual point is then found by intersecting its worldline with the observer's backward light cone. In this paper, we present a complete derivation of the apparent position of a point and some more complex geometric objects for general parameter settings (configurations). We implemented our results in python and asymptote and used these tools to generate scripts that create the figures in this paper. These scripts are directly applicable in an undergraduate course to special relativity and can also serve as the basis for student projects with the aim to study more complex sceneries. (paper)

  17. Toward an Object-Relations Approach in Psychoanalytic Marital Therapy.

    Finkelstein, Lionel

    1987-01-01

    Describes the features which distinguish psychoanalytic marital therapy from other forms of marital therapy, demonstrates how important classical psychoanalytic concepts can be applied to marital therapy, and presents a view of how object-relations theories and, particularly, the work of Fairbairn, Kohut, and Gilligan, can be applied to

  18. Object-Relations Theory: A Dialogue with Donald B. Rinsley.

    Schauer, Andrew H.

    1986-01-01

    Object-relations (O-R) theory expands traditional psychoanalytic thinking beyond psychiatric hospitals and patients. This approach focuses on emotional development that leads to normal or disturbed behavior. O.R. theory is presented here to acquaint counselors with its basic concepts, its practical applications, and its impact on current

  19. Survivor Revictimization: Object Relations Dynamics and Treatment Implications.

    Carey, Andrew L.

    1997-01-01

    Uses an integrated, unified framework based on object relations theory and research to provide specific and practical understanding of survivor revictimization. Focuses on revictimization dynamics, revictimization research, the survivor's world of revictimization, and treatment implications based on that framework. Offers a case study to elaborate

  20. Learning Object-Action Relations from Semantic Scene Graphs

    Eren Aksoy

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Action recognition and object categorization have received increasing interest in the AI and cognitive-vision community during the last decade. The problem of action recognition has been addressed in previous works (Hongeng, 2004, but only rarely in conjunction with object categorization (Sridhar et al., 2004. Sridhar et al. (2004 showed that objects can also be categorized by considering their common roles in different manipulations, resulting however in large and complex activity graphs which have to be analyzed separately. In this work, we introduce a novel approach for detecting spatiotemporal object-action relations using semantic scene graphs, leading to both action recognition and object categorization.In the current study we analyze movies of scenes containing low-level context. As a first processing step, the image segments are extracted and tracked throughout the movie (Dellen et al., 2009, allowing the assignment of temporally stable labels to the respective image parts. The scene is then described by undirected labeled graphs, in which the nodes and edges represent segments and their neighborhood relations, respectively. We apply an exact graph matching method in order to extract those graphs that represent a structural change of the scene. The resulting compressed graph sequence represents an action graph, providing a means for comparing movies of different scenes by measuring the similarity between their action graphs. A template main graph model is constructed for each action. Finally, actions are classified by calculating the similarity with those models. Nodes playing the same role in an classified action sequence can be then used to categorize objects. We applied our framework to three different action types: moving an object, opening a book, and making a sandwich. For each of these actions, we recorded four movies, differing in trajectories, speeds, and object shapes. The experimental results showed that the agent can learn all four action types and categorize the participating manipulated objects according to their roles. The framework presented here represents a promising approach for recognizing actions without requiring prior object knowledge, and categorizing objects solely based on their exhibited role within an action sequence. In the future, we plan to apply the framework to more complex scenes containing high-level context and to let the agent learn the template main graph models from a training data set. A parallel implementation of the framework on GPUs for real-time robotics applications is currently investigated. Acknowledgment:The work has received support from the BMBF funded BCCN Goettingen and the EU Project PACOPLUS under Contract No. 027657.

  1. Representation Model of Topological Relations between Complex Planar Objects

    CHEN Zhanlong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to express the details of the topological relations between complex planar objects, the classic 9-intersection model is improved and the two extended 9-intersection models that based on decomposition ideas are proposed: the one 9-intersection model method that is decomposed into simple area has its advantage of simplification, but at the cost of complicated expressions; another 9-intersection model method that is decomposed into point-set, conforming well with the classical 9-intersection model, but has relatively complex calculations. Compared the expressive abilities between the two kinds of extened 9-intersection models and the classic 9-intersection model by examples. The results show that both the two extended 9-intersection models can give more accurately expression of the topological relations between details of the sub parts in complex planar objects, the expressive ability of 9-intersection model has been expanded and improved.

  2. Database Independent Migration of Objects into an Object-Relational Database

    Ali, A; Munir, K; Waseem-Hassan, M; Willers, I

    2002-01-01

    CERN's (European Organization for Nuclear Research) WISDOM project [1] deals with the replication of data between homogeneous sources in a Wide Area Network (WAN) using the extensible Markup Language (XML). The last phase of the WISDOM (Wide-area, database Independent Serialization of Distributed Objects for data Migration) project [2], indicates the future directions for this work to be to incorporate heterogeneous sources as compared to homogeneous sources as described by [3]. This work will become essential for the CERN community once the need to transfer their legacy data to some other source, other then Objectivity [4], arises. Oracle 9i - an Object-Relational Database (including support for abstract data types, ADTs) appears to be a potential candidate for the physics event store in the CERN CMS experiment as suggested by [4] & [5]. Consequently this database has been selected for study. As a result of this work the HEP community will get a tool for migrating their data from Objectivity to Oracle9i.

  3. Psychoanalysis, marital therapy, and object-relations theory.

    Finkelstein, L

    1988-01-01

    This paper attempts to indicate why psychoanalysts should be interested in marital therapy. It discusses the clinical advantages and disadvantages of marital therapy as compared to psychoanalysis, describes the contributions of the classical psychoanalytic viewpoint to marital therapy, and finally, attempts to complement the classical psychoanalytic viewpoint with an object-relations viewpoint which can illuminate marital dynamics and provide interpretive content during the course of marital therapy. PMID:3235761

  4. The Network Configuration of an Object Relational Database Management System

    Diaz, Philip; Harris, W. C.

    2000-01-01

    The networking and implementation of the Oracle Database Management System (ODBMS) requires developers to have knowledge of the UNIX operating system as well as all the features of the Oracle Server. The server is an object relational database management system (DBMS). By using distributed processing, processes are split up between the database server and client application programs. The DBMS handles all the responsibilities of the server. The workstations running the database application concentrate on the interpretation and display of data.

  5. Reasoning about object capabilities with logical relations and effect parametricity

    Devriese, Dominique; Birkedal, Lars; Piessens, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Object capabilities are a technique for fine-grained privilege separation in programming languages and systems, with important applications in security. However, current formal characterisations do not fully capture capability-safety of a programming language and are not sufficient for verifying typical applications. Using state-of-the-art techniques from programming languages research, we define a logical relation for a core calculus of JavaScript that better characterises ...

  6. Solutions for the Object-Relational Databases Design

    Manole VELICANU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for databases occurs in the moment when takes place an informatics system development. Moreover, databases are an important step in this process. For this reason, this paper deals with object-relational databases implementation as part of informatics systems development. The practical implementation is made on a decision support system (DSS prototype, which can be applied in the uncertain and unpredictable environments, like the production and the prediction of the wind energy

  7. A universal charge-radius relation for spherical objects

    Full text: Pair creation in supercritical electric fields limits the net charge of any static, spherical object from subatomic to astrophysical scales. The maximal charge of a sphere is proportional to radius for radii below 104 fm and to radius squared for larger radii. The physics behind the universal charge-radius relation will be described and possible consequences of relevance for the workshop discussed. (author)

  8. Least Generalizations and Greatest Specializations of Sets of Clauses

    Nienhuys-Cheng, S H

    1996-01-01

    The main operations in Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) are generalization and specialization, which only make sense in a generality order. In ILP, the three most important generality orders are subsumption, implication and implication relative to background knowledge. The two languages used most often are languages of clauses and languages of only Horn clauses. This gives a total of six different ordered languages. In this paper, we give a systematic treatment of the existence or non-existence of least generalizations and greatest specializations of finite sets of clauses in each of these six ordered sets. We survey results already obtained by others and also contribute some answers of our own. Our main new results are, firstly, the existence of a computable least generalization under implication of every finite set of clauses containing at least one non-tautologous function-free clause (among other, not necessarily function-free clauses). Secondly, we show that such a least generalization need not exist un...

  9. Fundamentals for the Automation of Object-Relational Database Design

    Maria Fernanda Golobisky

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the market there is a wide amount of CASE tools for the design of relational databases. Object-relational database management system (ORDBMS emerged at the end of the 90s to incorporate the object technology into the relational databases, allowing the treatment of more complex data and relationships than its predecessor. The design for this database model is not straightforward. Most of the works proposed in the literature fail because they do not provide consistent transformation formalization such that the mappings from the conceptual model to the logical schema can be automated to generate an ORDB design toolkit. This is one of the goals of this paper. For this purpose, UML class diagram metamodel for the conceptual design and SQL:2003 standard metamodel for logical schemas are considered. A characterization of the components involved in the ORDB design is made in order to propose mapping rules that can be further automated. The architecture of a CASE tool prototype is presented. Model Driven Architecture for software design and XML for the model definitions and transformations are employed.

  10. Object-Relational Management of Multiply Represented Geographic Entities

    Friis-Christensen, Anders; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    means of a prototype and a realworld case study that it is possible to implement a multiple representation schema language on top of an object-relational database management system. Specifically, it is demonstrated how it is possible to map the constructs of the language used for specifying the multiple...... by introducing a multiple representation management system (MRMS), the schema of which includes rules that specify how to identify representations of the same entity, rules that specify consistency requirements, and rules used to restore consistency when necessary. In this paper, we demonstrate by...

  11. infrared spectra of T Tau stars and related objects

    Four T Tau stars and related objects (RY Tau, T Tau, AB Aur and V1057 Cyg) have been included in the authors' spectroscopic programme since 1973. The present paper is concerned with the spectroscopic observations made at the Crimea with the single stage image tube S1. Tentative atomic line identifications are given for programme stars. Ca II and O I emission line equivalent widths and profiles are presented for RY Tau, T Tau and AB Aur. The lambda 10830 A line of neutral helium has shown P Cyg-type features for T Tau and V 1057 Cyg. (Auth.)

  12. Chemical Compositions of RV Tauri Stars and Related Objects

    Rao, S Sumangala

    2013-01-01

    We have undertaken a comprehensive abundance analysis for a sample of relatively unexplored RV Tauri and RV Tauri like stars to further our understanding of post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB) evolution. From our study based on high resolution spectra and grid of model atmospheres, we find indications of mild s-processing for V820 Cen and IRAS 06165+3158. On the other hand, SU Gem and BT Lac exhibit the effects of mild dust-gas winnowing. We have also compiled the existing abundance data on RV Tauri objects and find that a large fraction of them are afflicted by dust-gas winnowing and now added by the present work, we find a small group of two RV Tauris showing mild s-process enhancement in our Galaxy. With two out of three reported s-process enhanced objects belonging to RV Tauri spectroscopic class C, these intrinsically metal-poor objects appear to be promising candidates to analyse the possible s-processing in RV Tauri stars.

  13. Chemical Compositions of RV Tauri Stars and Related Objects

    Rao, S. S.; Giridhar, S.

    2014-04-01

    We have undertaken a comprehensive abundance analysis for a sample of relatively unexplored RV Tauri and RV Tauri like stars to further our understanding of post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB) evolution. From our study based on high resolution spectra and a grid of model atmospheres, we find indications of mild s-processing for V820 Cen and IRAS 06165+3158. On the other hand, SU Gem and BT Lac exhibit the effects of mild dust-gas winnowing. We have also compiled the existing abundance data on RV Tauri objects and find that a large fraction of them are afflicted by dust-gas winnowing and aided by the present work, we find a small group of two RV Tauris showing mild s-process enhancement in our Galaxy. With two out of three reported s-process enhanced objects belonging to RV Tauri spectroscopic class C, these intrinsically metal-poor objects appear to be promising candidates to analyse the possible s-processing in RV Tauri stars.

  14. The role of action representations in thematic object relations.

    Konstantinos Tsagkaridis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies assessing the role of associative/event-based (thematic and categorical (taxonomic relations in the organization of object representations suggest that thematic relationships may influence the perceived similarity of manipulable artifacts. At the same time, evidence suggests that action knowledge is an important component of manipulable artifact representations. However, the role that action plays in processing thematic relationships between objects is unclear. In this study, we assessed healthy and left hemisphere stroke participants to explore three questions: 1. Do participants favor thematic relations involving action (Th+A, e.g., wine bottle – corkscrew, thematic relationships without action (Th-A, e.g., wine bottle – cheese, or taxonomic relationships (Tax, e.g., wine bottle – water bottle when choosing between them in an association judgment task? 2. Do the underlying constructs of event, action, and categorical relatedness implicitly determine the choices that participants make? 3. Does degraded action knowledge and/or damage to temporo-parietal cortex (a region of the brain associated with action representations reduce the influence of action on the choice task? Experiment 1 showed that explicit ratings of event, action, and categorical relatedness differentially predicted healthy participants’ choices, with action relatedness determining choices between Th+A and Th-A associations above and beyond event and categorical ratings. Experiment 2 focused more specifically on these Th+A vs. Th-A choices and demonstrated that participants with left temporo-parietal lesions, a brain region known to be involved in sensorimotor processing, were less likely than controls, and tended to be less likely than patients with lesions sparing that region, to implicitly use action knowledge in determining their choices. We conclude that action knowledge plays a critical role in processing of thematic relations for manipulable artifacts.

  15. Iterative Specialisation of Horn Clauses

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    We present a generic algorithm for solving Horn clauses through iterative specialisation. The algorithm is generic in the sense that it can be instantiated with any decidable fragment of Horn clauses, resulting in a solution scheme for general Horn clauses that guarantees soundness and termination...

  16. Connective Polysemy and Clause Linkage Typology in Korean

    Hong, Jisup

    2012-01-01

    Clause connectives are linguistic forms that convey relations between clauses in a sentence. They are typically compared, whether within a language or across languages, on the basis of a shared syntactic category, such as coordination and subordination, or a semantic one, such as sequence, cause, or addition. While the inadequacy of the…

  17. Universals in Relative Clause Acquisition: Evidence from Child and Adult L1 and L2 Learners of Hindi-Urdu.

    Hansen, Lynne

    1986-01-01

    The performance of native and nonnative Hindi-Urdu speaking children (N=131) and adults (N=30) in the comprehension of the Hindi-Urdu correlative constructions was analyzed. Results indicated that Hindi-Urdu correlative constructs are acquired relatively late by both native and nonnative speakers, suggesting that language universals are available…

  18. Universals in Relative Clause Acquisition: Evidence from Child and Adult L1 and L2 Learners of Hindi-Urdu.

    Hansen, Lynne

    1986-01-01

    The performance of native and nonnative Hindi-Urdu speaking children (N=131) and adults (N=30) in the comprehension of the Hindi-Urdu correlative constructions was analyzed. Results indicated that Hindi-Urdu correlative constructs are acquired relatively late by both native and nonnative speakers, suggesting that language universals are available

  19. 78 FR 48404 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Contract Financing...

    2013-08-08

    ... Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates--Contract Financing (DFARS Case 2013-D014) AGENCY: Defense... prescription for the set of contract financing related clauses with one or more alternates. The rule also... contract financing clause with one alternate. The rule also proposes to add a separate prescription for...

  20. Organic Bill Conscience Clause

    María Teresa Riofrío Martínez-Villalba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available By the close relationship between the right to life of the unborn child and the right to act in conscience of doctors, nurses and others at one time can be commanded to kill an unborn, we quote an interesting project of law about Conscience Clause.

  1. Learning Object-Action Relations from Semantic Scene Graphs

    Eren Aksoy; Babette Dellen

    2009-01-01

    Action recognition and object categorization have received increasing interest in the AI and cognitive-vision community during the last decade. The problem of action recognition has been addressed in previous works (Hongeng, 2004), but only rarely in conjunction with object categorization (Sridhar et al., 2004). Sridhar et al. (2004) showed that objects can also be categorized by considering their common roles in different manipulations, resulting however in large and complex activity graphs ...

  2. Claus Achton Friis

    Ejlers, Steen

    1996-01-01

    Grafiker, professor Claus Achton Friis 1917-1999 er en central skikkelse i det 20.århundredes danske brugsgrafik. Han er ophavsmand til en mængde emballager, frimærker og heraldik og desuden formgiver af en række fremragende skrifter. Han var elev af grafikeren professor Gunnar Biilmann Petersen ...... blev selv, i en sen alder, professor på Kunstakademiets Afdeling for Grafisk Design....

  3. Migrating relational databases into object-based and XML databases

    Maatuk, Abdelsalam

    2009-01-01

    Rapid changes in information technology, the emergence of object-based and WWW applications, and the interest of organisations in securing benefits from new technologies have made information systems re-engineering in general and database migration in particular an active research area. In order to improve the functionality and performance of existing systems, the re-engineering process requires identifying and understanding all of the components of such systems. An underlying database is one...

  4. Relating Things and Stuff via ObjectProperty Interactions.

    Min Sun; Byung-Soo Kim; Kohli, Pushmeet; Savarese, Silvio

    2014-07-01

    In the last few years, substantially different approaches have been adopted for segmenting and detecting "things" (object categories that have a well defined shape such as people and cars) and "stuff" (object categories which have an amorphous spatial extent such as grass and sky). While things have been typically detected by sliding window or Hough transform based methods, detection of stuff is generally formulated as a pixel or segment-wise classification problem. This paper proposes a framework for scene understanding that models both things and stuff using a common representation while preserving their distinct nature by using a property list. This representation allows us to enforce sophisticated geometric and semantic relationships between thing and stuff categories via property interactions in a single graphical model. We use the latest advances made in the field of discrete optimization to efficiently perform maximum a posteriori (MAP) inference in this model. We evaluate our method on the Stanford dataset by comparing it against state-of-the-art methods for object segmentation and detection. We also show that our method achieves competitive performances on the challenging PASCAL '09 segmentation dataset. PMID:26353309

  5. Moral Objectivity, Jurgen Habermas's Discourse Ethics, and Public Relations.

    Leeper, Roy V.

    1996-01-01

    States that while increasing attention is being paid by people in public relations to ethical theory, the predominant ethical perspective is still situational. Analyzes the applicability of the Discourse Ethics theory of Jurgen Habermas to public relations ethics. Concludes that Discourse Ethics holds the potential of a new, more objective…

  6. Exact Solutions for Compact Objects in General Relativity

    Raghoonundun, Ambrish M

    2016-01-01

    Seven new solutions to the interior static and spherically symmetric Einstein's field equations (EFE) are found and investigated. These new solutions are a generalisation of the quadratic density fall-off profile of the Tolman VII solution. The generalisation involves the addition of anisotropic pressures and electric charge to the density profile. Of these new solutions three are found to obey all the necessary conditions of physical acceptability, including linear stability under radial perturbations, and causality of the speed of pressure waves inside the object. Additionally an equation of state can be found for all the physically viable solutions. The generalised pulsation equation for interior solutions to the EFE that include both electric charge and pressure anisotropy is derived and used to determine the stability of the solutions. However the pulsation equation found is general and can be used for all new solutions that contain these ingredients.

  7. Reasoning about Object Capabilities with Logical Relations and Effect Parametricity

    Devriese, Dominique; Piessens, Frank; Birkedal, Lars

    -of-the-art techniques from programming languages research, we define a logical relation for a core calculus of JavaScript that better characterises capability-safety. The relation is powerful enough to reason about typical capability patterns and supports evolvable invariants on shared data structures, capabilities...... capability-safety. This is a technical report accompanying a paper by the same title, which contains an additional section about a binary version of our results, as well as proofs and details for our results...

  8. Chemical Compositions of RV Tauri Stars and Related Objects

    S. Sumangala Rao; Sunetra Giridhar

    2013-01-01

    We have undertaken a comprehensive abundance analysis for a sample of relatively unexplored RV Tauri and RV Tauri like stars to further our understanding of post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB) evolution. From our study based on high resolution spectra and grid of model atmospheres, we find indications of mild s-processing for V820 Cen and IRAS 06165+3158. On the other hand, SU Gem and BT Lac exhibit the effects of mild dust-gas winnowing. We have also compiled the existing abundance data ...

  9. 48 CFR 46.710 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... performance specifications or design are of major importance; a fixed-price supply, service, or research and... QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 46.710 Contract clauses. The clauses and alternates prescribed in this... insert a clause substantially the same as the clause at 52.246-20, Warranty of Services, in...

  10. 'That' in that-clauses

    Røed,Nina Kristine Hovde

    2008-01-01

    Denne oppgaven handler om termen ’that’ i that-clauses. Jeg ville se hva som rettferdiggjorde at denne termen var en del av that-clauses. That-clauses er av mange sett som den siste syntaktiske delen av propositional attitude ascriptions og indirect speech reports. De fleste av de som holder dette er tilhengere av propositionalism. Som er en tese om at det som er vårt tanke objekt er proposisjoner, og ikke setninger eller språklige størrelser. Donald Davidson og A.N Prior er noen filosofer so...

  11. Defective Arbitration Clauses in International Commercial Contracts

    Tolkušinas, Kasparas

    2011-01-01

    Usually in a drafting process of a contract arbitration clause is left at the end of a contract. Sometimes it happens that parties really do not wish start discussions on how should arbitration clause look like or what details should it contain, because either parties think they would never come to a conflict or they are short in time and leave arbitration clause unconsidered. Absence of proper attention when drafting arbitration clauses is likely to give rise to defective arbitration clauses...

  12. Sustainability clauses in international supply chain contracts

    Peterkova, Katerina

    , effectiveness and enforcement. Regardless of this regulatory gap, companies who do not comply with the globally accepted sustainability standards run reputational risks that can lead to long-term negative economic effects. Moreover, stakeholders expect companies not only to follow the standards themselves but...... contractual clauses (SCCs) in international supply chain agreements may help to overcome the regulatory gap in relation to global sustainability while concurrently protect companies against potential social, economic and legal risks threatening in connection to unethical behaviour of their suppliers. As parts...... another corporate social responsibility tool ‘without teeth’. The central questions are: why SCCs are presumed to be effective regulatory means for global sustainability, how these clauses are seen through the lenses of international contract law and whether they can actually contribute to a positive...

  13. Termination for Convenience Clauses and Good Faith

    Anthony Gray

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the legal validity of so-called termination for convenience clauses, which allow at least one party to the contract to terminate the contract without cause. Such rights are in contrast to more traditional approaches to contractual termination, which distinguished between breaches of condition and breaches of warranty, allowing termination only for the former. Specifically, it will be asked whether such termination for convenience clauses are consistent with requirements of good faith in contracting, the existence of which is itself contentious. As a result, it will be necessary to consider the current state of the law in Australia and elsewhere in relation to the extent to which good faith is and should be a feature of contracting.

  14. Termination for Convenience Clauses and Good Faith

    Anthony Gray

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the legal validity of so-called termination for convenience clauses, which allow at least one party to the contract to terminate the contract without cause. Such rights are in contrast to more traditional approaches to contractual termination, which distinguished between breaches of condition and breaches of warranty, allowing termination only for the former. Specifically, it will be asked whether such termination for convenience clauses are consistent with requirements of good faith in contracting, the existence of which is itself contentious. As a result, it will be necessary to consider the current state of the law in Australia and elsewhere in relation to the extent to which good faith is and should be a feature of contracting.

  15. The internal/external issue what is an outer object? Another person as object and as separate other in object relations models.

    Zachrisson, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The question of what we mean by the term outer object has its roots in the epistemological foundation of psychoanalysis. From the very beginning, Freud's view was Kantian, and psychoanalysis has kept that stance, as it seems. The author reviews the internal/external issue in Freud's thinking and in the central object relations theories (Klein, Winnicott, and Bion). On this background he proposes a simple model to differentiate the concept of object along one central dimension: internal object, external object, and actual person. The main arguments are: (1) there is no direct, unmediated perception of the actual person--the experience of the other is always affected by the perceiver's subjectivity; (2) in intense transference reactions and projections, the perception of the person is dominated by the qualities of an inner object--and the other person "becomes" an external object for the perceiver; (3) when this distortion is less dominating, the other person to a higher degree remains a separate other--a person in his or her own right. Clinical material illustrates these phenomena, and a graphical picture of the model is presented. Finally with the model as background, the author comments on a selection of phenomena and concepts such as unobjectionable transference, "the third position," mourning and loneliness. The way that the internal colours and distorts the external is of course a central preoccupation of psychoanalysis generally. (Spillius et al., 2011, p. 326) PMID:26072566

  16. CazDataProvider : a solution to the object-relational mismatch

    Esteves, Miguel dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Today, most software applications require mechanisms to store information persistently. For decades, Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMSs) have been the most common technology to provide efficient and reliable persistence. Due to the object-relational paradigm mismatch, object oriented applications that store data in relational databases have to deal with Object Relational Mapping (ORM) problems. Since the emerging of new ORM frameworks, there has been an attempt to lure developers ...

  17. Incremental mapping compilation in an object-to-relational mapping system

    Bernstein, Philip A.; Jacob, Marie; Pérez, Jorge; Rull Fort, Guillem; Terwilliger, James F.

    2013-01-01

    In an object-to-relational mapping system (ORM), mapping expressions explain how to expose relational data as objects and how to store objects in tables. If mappings are sufficiently expressive, then it is possible to define lossy mappings. If a user updates an object, stores it in the database based on a lossy mapping, and then retrieves the object from the database, the user might get a different result than the updated state of the object; that is, the mapping might not "roundtrip." To avo...

  18. Impairments in Object Relations and Chronicity of Suicidal Behavior in Individuals With Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Lewis, Katie C; Meehan, Kevin B; Cain, Nicole M; Wong, Philip S; Clemence, A Jill; Stevens, Jennifer; Tillman, Jane G

    2016-02-01

    While studies have demonstrated connections between impairments in object relations and self-destructive behaviors in individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD), few have investigated whether these impairments relate to actual suicidal behaviors. The current study utilized the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale-Global Method to investigate object relational functioning and suicidal behaviors in 131 residential treatment patients. Cognitive but not affective aspects of internalized representations predicted past suicidal behavior in BPD subjects; no relationships were found between quality of object representations and suicide in other-PD subjects. Implications of these findings for research, theory, and treatment of suicidal individuals are discussed. PMID:25710732

  19. 48 CFR 3.1004 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 3.1004 Contract clauses. (a) Insert the clause at FAR 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and...

  20. 48 CFR 4.303 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... MATTERS Paper Documents 4.303 Contract clause. Insert the clause at 52.204-4, Printed or Copied Double-Sided on Recycled Paper, in solicitations and contracts that exceed the simplified acquisition threshold....

  1. 48 CFR 1632.617 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Debts 1632.617 Contract clause. The clause at (FAR) 48 CFR 52.232-17 will be modified in all FEHBP...

  2. 48 CFR 24.104 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS PROTECTION OF PRIVACY AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Protection of Individual Privacy 24.104 Contract... and contracts: (a) The clause at 52.224-1, Privacy Act Notification. (b) The clause at 52.224-2, Privacy Act....

  3. 48 CFR 1424.104 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... PROTECTION OF PRIVACY AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Protection of Individual Privacy 1424.104 Contract clauses. The clause at FAR 52.224-1, Privacy Act Notification, as prescribed in FAR 24.104(a), shall...

  4. 48 CFR 3009.171-9 - Clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... Contractors 3009.171-9 Clause. Insert the clause (HSAR) 48 CFR 3052.209-76, Prohibition on Federal Protective Service guard services contracts with business concerns owned, controlled, or operated by an...

  5. De Regenkoning van Hugo Claus

    S. W. van Zuydam

    1986-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation in this article comprises the analysis of a poem by the Flemish author Hugo Claus, namely "De regenkoning". It is one of the poems in a sequence entitled "De ingewijde" (The initiated which forms part of his volume of poetry "De Oostakkerse Gedichten (1955. These poems are extremely esoteric and an attempt is made here to decode the "hidden mysteries in this particular poem. Claus method of using a kind of secret language corresponds to a basic feature of (universal initiation ceremonies, namely that everything that takes place is shrouded in secrecy. It was found that the nucleus of traditional initiations, namely sexual and mental maturation, likewise form a fundamental characteristic in Claus poem. Yet his "neophyte is not (reborn into a "new (sacred world, but initiated into the broken (profane realities of modern society.

  6. Incorporating the Scale-Relativity Principle in String Theory and Extended Objects

    Castro, Carlos

    1996-01-01

    First steps in incorporating Nottale's scale-relativity principle to string theory and extended objects are taken. Scale Relativity is to scales what motion Relativity is to velocities. The universal, absolute, impassible, invariant scale under dilatations, in Nature, is taken to be the Planck scale which is not the same as the string scale. Starting with Nambu-Goto actions for strings and other extended objects, we show that the principle of scale-relativity invariance of the world-volume me...

  7. Sensitivity to Relational Similarity and Object Similarity in Apes and Children.

    Christie, Stella; Gentner, Dedre; Call, Josep; Haun, Daniel Benjamin Moritz

    2016-02-22

    Relational reasoning is a hallmark of sophisticated cognition in humans [1, 2]. Does it exist in other primates? Despite some affirmative answers [3-11], there appears to be a wide gap in relational ability between humans and other primates-even other apes [1, 2]. Here, we test one possible explanation for this gap, motivated by developmental research showing that young humans often fail at relational reasoning tasks because they focus on objects instead of relations [12-14]. When asked, "duck:duckling is like tiger:?," preschool children choose another duckling (object match) rather than a cub. If other apes share this focus on concrete objects, it could undermine their relational reasoning in similar ways. To test this, we compared great apes and 3-year-old humans' relational reasoning on the same spatial mapping task, with and without competing object matches. Without competing object matches, both children and Pan species (chimpanzees and bonobos) spontaneously used relational similarity, albeit children more so. But when object matches were present, only children responded strongly to them. We conclude that the relational gap is not due to great apes' preference for concrete objects. In fact, young humans show greater object focus than nonhuman apes. PMID:26853364

  8. 48 CFR 203.1004 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 203.1004 Contract clauses. (a) Use the clause at 252.203-7003 in solicitations and contracts that include the FAR clause 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and...

  9. 48 CFR 208.7305 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 208.7305... Precious Metals 208.7305 Contract clause. (a) Use the clause at 252.208-7000, Intent to Furnish Precious... inventory manager and comply with the procedures in Chapter 11, DoD 4160.21-M, Defense Materiel...

  10. 78 FR 73475 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Research and...

    2013-12-06

    ... Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates--Research and Development Contracting (DFARS Case 2013-D026... an overarching prescription for the research and development-related clause with an alternate. The..., overlap, or conflict with any other Federal rules. No alternatives were identified that will...

  11. Relative hardness measurement of soft objects by a new fiber optic sensor

    Ahmadi, Roozbeh; Ashtaputre, Pranav; Abou Ziki, Jana; Dargahi, Javad; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran

    2010-06-01

    The measurement of relative hardness of soft objects enables replication of human finger tactile perception capabilities. This ability has many applications not only in automation and robotics industry but also in many other areas such as aerospace and robotic surgery where a robotic tool interacts with a soft contact object. One of the practical examples of interaction between a solid robotic instrument and a soft contact object occurs during robotically-assisted minimally invasive surgery. Measuring the relative hardness of bio-tissue, while contacting the robotic instrument, helps the surgeons to perform this type of surgery more reliably. In the present work, a new optical sensor is proposed to measure the relative hardness of contact objects. In order to measure the hardness of a contact object, like a human finger, it is required to apply a small force/deformation to the object by a tactile sensor. Then, the applied force and resulting deformation should be recorded at certain points to enable the relative hardness measurement. In this work, force/deformation data for a contact object is recorded at certain points by the proposed optical sensor. Recorded data is used to measure the relative hardness of soft objects. Based on the proposed design, an experimental setup was developed and experimental tests were performed to measure the relative hardness of elastomeric materials. Experimental results verify the ability of the proposed optical sensor to measure the relative hardness of elastomeric samples.

  12. Penalty Clauses and the CISG

    Jack Graves

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Commercial agreements often provide for “fixed sums” payable upon a specified breach. Such agreements are generally enforced in civil law jurisdictions. In contrast, the common law distinguishes between “liquidated damages” and “penalty” clauses, enforcing the former, while invalidating the latter as a penalty. The UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG does not directly address the payment of “fixed sums” as damages, and the validity of “penalty” clauses has, traditionally, been relegated to otherwise applicable domestic national law under CISG Article 4. This traditional orthodoxy has recently been challenged—suggesting that the fate of a penalty clause should be determined by reference to the general principles of the CISG and that such a clause should generally be enforced. The validity of fixed sums, as penalties, is currently under consideration by the CISG Advisory Council, so further exploration of the issue would seem particularly timely. This article examines the basis for the traditional view, along with two distinct challenges to that view—ultimately concluding that these challenges fail to support their respective solutions to the issue and suggesting the continuing vitality of the traditional view.

  13. Type of Maternal Object Motion during Synchronous Naming Predicts Preverbal Infants' Learning of Word-Object Relations

    Matatyaho, Dalit J.; Gogate, Lakshmi J.

    2008-01-01

    Mothers' use of specific types of object motion in synchrony with object naming was examined, along with infants' joint attention to the mother and object, as a predictor of word learning. During a semistructured 3-min play episode, mothers (N = 24) taught the names of 2 toy objects to their preverbal 6- to 8-month-old infants. The episodes were…

  14. Incorporating the Scale-Relativity Principle In String Theory and Extended Objects

    Castro, C

    1996-01-01

    First steps in incorporating Nottale's scale-relativity principle to string theory and extended objects are taken. Scale Relativity is to scales what motion Relativity is to velocities. The universal, absolute, impassible, invariant scale under dilatations, in Nature is taken to be the Planck scale which is not the same as the string scale. Starting with Nambu-Goto actions for strings and other extended objects, we show that the principle of scale-relativity invariance of the world-volume measure associated with the extended objects ( Lorentzian-scalings transformations with respect to the resolutions of the world-volume coordinates) is tantamount to the vanishing of the scale-relativity version of the $\\beta$ functions : respectively. Preliminary steps are taken to merge motion relativity with scale relativity and, in this fashion, analogs of Weyl-Finsler geometries make their appearance. The quantum case remains to be studied.

  15. Catalogue of cataclysmic binaries, low-mass X-ray binaries and related objects (fifth edition)

    The catalogue lists coordinates, magnitudes, orbital parameters, stellar parameters of the components and other characteristic properties of 168 cataclysmic binaries. 36 low-mass X-ray binaries and 28 related objects with known or suspected orbital periods together with a comprehensive selection of the relevant literature that appeared after 1986. In addition the catalogue contains a list of references to published finding charts for 222 of the 232 objects. A cross-reference list of objects designations concludes the catalogue

  16. SQL/XNF - processing composite objects as abstractions over relational data

    Mitschang, Bernhard; Pirahesh, Hamid; Pistor, Peter; Lindsay, Bruce; Sdkamp, Norbert

    1993-01-01

    An extension to SQL, called the SQL extended normal form (XNF), is discussed. It enhances relational technology by a composite object facility, which comprises not only extraction of composite objects from existing databases but also efficient navigation and manipulation facilities provided by an appropriate application programming interface. The language itself allows sharing of the database among normal form SQL applications and composite object applications. It provides proper subsetting o...

  17. Event-related potentials during word mapping to object shape predict toddlers' vocabulary size

    Borgstrm, Kristina; Torkildsen, Janne von Koss; Lindgren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    What role does attention to different object properties play in early vocabulary development? This longitudinal study using event-related potentials in combination with behavioral measures investigated 20- and 24-month-olds' (n = 38; n = 34; overlapping n = 24) ability to use object shape and object part information in word-object mapping. The N400 component was used to measure semantic priming by images containing shape or detail information. At 20 months, the N400 to words primed by object shape varied in topography and amplitude depending on vocabulary size, and these differences predicted productive vocabulary size at 24 months. At 24 months, when most of the children had vocabularies of several hundred words, the relation between vocabulary size and the N400 effect in a shape context was weaker. Detached object parts did not function as word primes regardless of age or vocabulary size, although the part-objects were identified behaviorally. The behavioral measure, however, also showed relatively poor recognition of the part-objects compared to the shape-objects. These three findings provide new support for the link between shape recognition and early vocabulary development. PMID:25762957

  18. Effects of Transference Work in the Context of Therapeutic Alliance and Quality of Object Relations

    Hoglend, Per; Hersoug, Anne Grete; Bogwald, Kjell-Petter; Amlo, Svein; Marble, Alice; Sorbye, Oystein; Rossberg, Jan Ivar; Ulberg, Randi; Gabbard, Glen O.; Crits-Christoph, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Transference interpretation is considered as a core active ingredient in dynamic psychotherapy. In common clinical theory, it is maintained that more mature relationships, as well as a strong therapeutic alliance, may be prerequisites for successful transference work. In this study, the interaction between quality of object relations,

  19. Qualitative Differences in the Representation of Spatial Relations for Different Object Classes

    Cooper, Eric E.; Brooks, Brian E.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether the representations used for animal, produce, and object recognition code spatial relations in a similar manner. Experiment 1 tested the effects of planar rotation on the recognition of animals and nonanimal objects. Response times for recognizing animals followed an inverted U-shaped function, whereas those…

  20. Drawing skill is related to the efficiency of encoding object structure

    Perdreau, Florian; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Accurate drawing calls on many skills beyond simple motor coordination. A good internal representation of the target object's structure is necessary to capture its proportion and shape in the drawing. Here, we assess two aspects of the perception of object structure and relate them to participants' drawing accuracy. First, we assessed drawing accuracy by computing the geometrical dissimilarity of their drawing to the target object. We then used two tasks to evaluate the efficiency of encoding object structure. First, to examine the rate of temporal encoding, we varied presentation duration of a possible versus impossible test object in the fovea using two different test sizes (8 and 28). More skilled participants were faster at encoding an object's structure, but this difference was not affected by image size. A control experiment showed that participants skilled in drawing did not have a general advantage that might have explained their faster processing for object structure. Second, to measure the critical image size for accurate classification in the periphery, we varied image size with possible versus impossible object tests centered at two different eccentricities (3 and 8). More skilled participants were able to categorise object structure at smaller sizes, and this advantage did not change with eccentricity. A control experiment showed that the result could not be attributed to differences in visual acuity, leaving attentional resolution as a possible explanation. Overall, we conclude that drawing accuracy is related to faster encoding of object structure and better access to crowded details. PMID:25469216

  1. Drawing skill is related to the efficiency of encoding object structure.

    Perdreau, Florian; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Accurate drawing calls on many skills beyond simple motor coordination. A good internal representation of the target object's structure is necessary to capture its proportion and shape in the drawing. Here, we assess two aspects of the perception of object structure and relate them to participants' drawing accuracy. First, we assessed drawing accuracy by computing the geometrical dissimilarity of their drawing to the target object. We then used two tasks to evaluate the efficiency of encoding object structure. First, to examine the rate of temporal encoding, we varied presentation duration of a possible versus impossible test object in the fovea using two different test sizes (8° and 28°). More skilled participants were faster at encoding an object's structure, but this difference was not affected by image size. A control experiment showed that participants skilled in drawing did not have a general advantage that might have explained their faster processing for object structure. Second, to measure the critical image size for accurate classification in the periphery, we varied image size with possible versus impossible object tests centered at two different eccentricities (3° and 8°). More skilled participants were able to categorise object structure at smaller sizes, and this advantage did not change with eccentricity. A control experiment showed that the result could not be attributed to differences in visual acuity, leaving attentional resolution as a possible explanation. Overall, we conclude that drawing accuracy is related to faster encoding of object structure and better access to crowded details. PMID:25469216

  2. Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the safeguard clause notified by Greece on genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request of the European Commission, the European Food Safety Authority’s Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (EFSA GMO Panel evaluated the documentation submitted by Greece in support of its request for the prohibition of the placing on the market of the genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC. The EFSA GMO Panel notes that the majority of the publications referred to by Greece were already addressed by the EFSA GMO Panel in previous scientific outputs on maize MON 810 or other related insect-resistant genetically modified maize transformation events. In the remaining evidence provided by Greece, the EFSA GMO Panel could not identify any new data subject to scientific scrutiny or scientific information that would invalidate its previous risk assessments of maize MON 810. With regard to issues related to management and monitoring of maize MON 810, the EFSA GMO Panel refers to its recent recommendations for management and monitoring measures of maize MON 810. In conclusion, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that, based on the documentation submitted by Greece, there is no specific scientific evidence, in terms of risk to human and animal health or the environment, that would support the notification of a safeguard clause under Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC and that would invalidate the GMO Panel’s previous risk assessments of maize MON 810.

  3. Aggressiveness and characteristics of object-relations in students at risk of migrainous headaches

    Darja Škrila

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research, carried out in a sample of Slovene students, was to determine how subjects with migraine differ from subjects with migrainous disorder, subjects with non-migrainous headaches and subjects without recurrent headaches. The existence of migraine was assessed by UCSD migraine questionnaire, aggressiveness by Buss-Durkee hostility inventory and characteristics of object-relations by Bell object relations and reality testing inventory - form O. Subjects with migraine express significantly more negativism, indirect aggressiveness, irritability, hostility, suspicion and feelings of guilt than subject without recurrent headaches, while there are no differences in physical and verbal aggressiveness. There are less significant differences among subjects with different types of headache (migraine, migrainous disorder, non-migrainous headaches. Subjects with migraine and subjects without recurrent headaches differ significantly in characteristics of object-relations, subjects with migraine having more disturbed object-relations. Subject with different types of headaches do not differ in characteristics of object-relations. It is concluded that subjects with migraine have a raised level of aggressiveness, especially of indirect forms, which can indicate non-neutralized aggressiveness, and their object-relations are more disturbed.

  4. MODEL OF STORAGE XML DATABASE BASED ON THE RELATIONAL-OBJECT MODEL

    Laila Alami Kasri; Imran A. Tasadduq

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work is to define a model of storage represented strictly in XML, this model is based on the structure of the relational model using the types of the model object. We suggest then creating our database according to this model by requests SQL3. We thus realize a framework of management and administration ofdatabases XML based on requests object relational SQL3. We analyze at first the mapping since a request SQL towards a structure of a document XML. We shall describe the...

  5. The Event as an Object-Relational Database: Avoiding the Dependency Nightmare

    Jones, C D

    2003-01-01

    With the use of object-oriented languages for HEP, many experiments have designed their data objects to contain direct references to other objects in the event (e.g., tracks and electromagnetic showers have references to each other to denote matches). Unfortunately this creates tremendous dependencies between packages which lead to brittle development systems (e.g., if the electromagnetic code has a problem you may not be able to compile the tracking code) and makes the storage system more complex. We discuss how the CLEO III experiment avoided these problems by treating an event as an object-relational database. The discussion will include: the constraints we placed on our objects; our use of a separate Association class to deal with inter-object references; and our ability to use multiple sources to supply different data items for one event.

  6. Observational validation of the chronometric cosmology: the redshift-magnitude relation for quasi-stellar objects

    A statistical study is made of the redshift-magnitude relation for a recent comprehensive catalogue of quasi-stellar objects. The chronometric theory, although devoid of free parameters such as the q0 and Lambda of the expansion theory, provides an excellent fit to the observed relation. The expansion theory does not provide an empirically meaningful fit

  7. An Empirical Study of Object Relations in Adult Children of Depressed Elderly Mothers.

    Hernandez, Nancy A.; Hinrichsen, Gregory A.; Lapidus, Leah Blumberg

    1998-01-01

    Examines coping and emotional distress in children (N=50) assisting an elderly mother hospitalized for depression. The hypothesis that maternal object-relations would be related to more adaptive coping and less emotional distress received partial support, whereas the idea that mothers' history of depression would be associated with the child's…

  8. Hydrodynamic Interactions between Two Forced Objects of Arbitrary Shape: II Relative Translation

    Goldfriend, Tomer; Witten, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    We study the relative translation of two arbitrarily shaped objects, caused by their hydrodynamic interaction as they are forced through a viscous fluid in the limit of zero Reynolds number. It is well known that in the case of two rigid spheres in an unbounded fluid, the hydrodynamic interaction does not produce relative translation. More generally such an effective pair-interaction vanishes in configurations with spatial inversion symmetry, for example, an enantiomorphic pair in mirror image positions has no relative translation. We show that the breaking of inversion symmetry by boundaries of the system accounts for the interactions between two spheres in confined geometries, as observed in experiments. The same general principle also provides new predictions for interactions in other object configurations near obstacles. We examine the time-dependent relative translation of two self-aligning objects, extending the numerical analysis of our preceding publication [Goldfriend, Diamant and Witten, arXiv:1502....

  9. Event-related potentials reveal increased distraction by salient global objects in older adults

    Wiegand, Iris; Finke, Kathrin; Töllner, Thomas; Müller, Hermann J.; Conci, Markus

    search. Older participants detected target stimuli slower and less accurate than younger participants did. ERPs indicated that the general performance decline originated at multiple stages within the information-processing stream, from sensory coding to spatial allocation of attention: The P1 was......Age-related changes in visual functions influence how older individuals perceive and react upon objects in their environment. In particular, older individuals might be more distracted by highly salient, irrelevant information. Kanizsa figures induce a ‘global precedence’ effect, which reflects a...... processing advantage for salient whole-object representations relative to configurations of local elements not inducing a global form. We investigated event-related potential (ERP) correlates of age-related decline in visual abilities, and specifically, distractibility by salient global objects in visual...

  10. Hydrodynamic interactions between two forced objects of arbitrary shape. II. Relative translation

    Goldfriend, Tomer; Diamant, Haim; Witten, Thomas A.

    2016-04-01

    We study the relative translation of two arbitrarily shaped objects, caused by their hydrodynamic interaction as they are forced through a viscous fluid in the limit of zero Reynolds number. It is well known that in the case of two rigid spheres in an unbounded fluid, the hydrodynamic interaction does not produce relative translation. More generally, such an effective pair-interaction vanishes in configurations with spatial inversion symmetry; for example, an enantiomorphic pair in mirror image positions has no relative translation. We show that the breaking of inversion symmetry by boundaries of the system accounts for the interactions between two spheres in confined geometries, as observed in experiments. The same general principle also provides new predictions for interactions in other object configurations near obstacles. We examine the time-dependent relative translation of two self-aligning objects, extending the numerical analysis of our preceding publication [Goldfriend, Diamant, and Witten, Phys. Fluids 27, 123303 (2015)], 10.1063/1.4936894. The interplay between the orientational interaction and the translational one, in most cases, leads over time to repulsion between the two objects. The repulsion is qualitatively different for self-aligning objects compared to the more symmetric case of uniform prolate spheroids. The separation between the two objects increases with time t as t1 /3 in the former case, and more strongly, as t , in the latter.

  11. Classical psychoanalysis and object relations theory in the analysis of character.

    Gill, H S

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of character begins with repeated interpretation of its defensive structure and later moves into the analysis of object relations. What appears at first to be a patient's defenses against instinctual impulses may subsequently be recognized as defenses against emotional reactions to early objects. Nevertheless, at the beginning, interpretations should be directed toward the clinical material already available, and not at what may eventually emerge according to the analyst's theory. The author presents a case report to illustrate this viewpoint. PMID:2268755

  12. THE RELATIVE-PROFIT-MAXIMIZATION OBJECTIVE OF PRIVATE FIRMS AND ENDOGENOUS TIMING IN A MIXED OLIGOPOLY

    YUANZHU LU

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates whether the relative-profit-maximization objective of private firms affects endogenous timing in a mixed oligopoly in the linear demand case. Assuming firms have constant marginal costs and symmetric private firms are more efficient than the public firm, it is found that such an objective does not affect endogenous timing compared with the absolute-profit-maximization case. When the equilibrium involves the public firm acting as a leader, social welfare increases compa...

  13. The k0 and relative INAA methods to determine elements in entire archaeological pottery objects

    The advantages of instrumental neutron activation analysis applied to archaeological ceramics have been enhanced through the analysis of entire objects, using both the k 0 method and the relative method, respectively, to determine the concentrations of chemical elements in aliquots of replicate objects used as comparators and in the sample object. Twenty-two chemical elements of archaeological importance were measured in mud figurines from Caral civilization (5000 year BC), irradiated inside a well-characterized radial channel facility of the nuclear research reactor at IPEN, Peru. The results showed less than 10 % of bias for most of the elements. (author)

  14. Santa Claus, Ga./Ind.

    2002-01-01

    The towns of Santa Claus, Ga., (top) and Santa Claus, Ind. (bottom), are shown in these two images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite. They are the only two Santa Claus towns in the United States with post offices and zip codes, although there are 11 towns with this name in the United States. Santa Claus, Ga. is located in Toombs County, and has a population of 237. Santa Claus, Ind. is located in Spencer County, and has a population of 2,041. Its name was accepted by the United States Postal Service in 1856. The images were acquired on July 3, 2000 (top) and June 16, 2001 (bottom), respectively.With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the technologies needed to explore the universe and search for life beyond our home planet.Size: 10.5 by 6.75 kilometers (6.5 by 4.2 miles) Location: 32.2 degrees North latitude, 82.3 degrees West longitude; and 38.1 degrees North latitude, 86.9 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1, 2 and 3 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49.2 feet) Dates Acquired: June 16, 2001 and July 3, 2000

  15. Revisiting Clause Exchange in Parallel SAT Solving

    Audemard, Gilles; Hoessen, Benoît; Jabbour, Said; Lagniez, Jean-Marie; Piette, Cédric

    2012-01-01

    Managing learnt clause database is known to be a tricky task in SAT solvers. In the portfolio framework, the collaboration between threads through learnt clause exchange makes this problem even more difficult to tackle. Several techniques have been proposed in the last few years, but practical results are still in favor of very limited collaboration, or even no collaboration at all. This is mainly due to the difficulty that each thread has to manage a large amount of learnt clauses generated ...

  16. Nominal Clauses in Popular Scientific Style

    Kožená, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    This Bachelor paper focuses on the occurence of nominal clauses in popular-scientific literature, as well as their Czech translation. Firstly, the term 'subordinate clause', sentence elements, and types of nominal clauses are introduced. Then the popular-scientific style is described and the differences between Czech and English are briefly discussed. Finally, the corpus of examples for the analysis is presentend, analysed and discussed.

  17. Translating Circumstantial Clause of Arabic into Malay

    Azman Che Mat; Ahmad Marzuki Nazuki Yaakub; Nurhafizah Ahmad Tajuddin

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the function of circumstantial clause of Arabic for its translation into Malay. Circumstantial clause is among functional syntax in Arabic sentence structure. It is formed from the words or phrase in the sentence. This pattern does not seem to exist in the Malay grammar. In such circumstances, there is the difficulty to understand the meaning contained in a sentence correctly. Descriptive approach was used to analyze the circumstantial clause in Arabic. Comparative ...

  18. 48 CFR 2122.170 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 2122.170 Contract clauses. The provisions at FAR sections...

  19. Comparative performance measures of relational and object-oriented databases using High Energy Physics data

    The major experiments at the SSC are expected to produce up to 1 Petabyte of data per year. The use of database techniques can significantly reduce the time it takes to access data. The goal of this project was to test which underlying data model, the relational or the object-oriented, would be better suited for archival and accessing high energy data. We describe the relational and the object-oriented data model and their implementation in commercial database management systems. To determine scalability we tested both implementations for 10-MB and 100-MB databases using storage and timing criteria

  20. AMERINDIAN RELATIONAL OBJECTS: THE (INVISIBILITY OF KADIWÉU INDIANS ART IN A BRAZILIAN SOAP OPERA

    Lisiane Koller Lecznieski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work examines the role of ceramics in Kadiwéu social life. The Kadiwéu are Amerindians who live in the southern part of Pantanal Matogrossense, Brazil. The relations between art and social world will be described and analyzed through ethnographic examples, showing how the Kadiwéu understand their ceramic as a special way of relating to the external world, markedly the “world of the “whites”. This relational understanding of objects also points out, in a reflexive and critical manner, to crucial aspects of western conceptions of human relations.

  1. Current controversy in object relations theory as outgrowth of a schism between Klein and Fairbairn.

    Robbins, M

    1980-01-01

    The paper examines the controversy in object relations theory between Kernberg and Kohut from two vantage points, one historical and the other contemporary. By striving to be critically equidistant from both theories we hope to avoid either-or thinking and to address larger questions about the state of object relations theory. Historically the controversy reincarnates a seemingly forgotten schism between Klein and Fairbairn from the preceding psychoanalytic generation. First Klein and now Kernberg has contributed to our understanding of developmentally and pathologically primitive states characterized by absence of integration, incompleteness of self-object differentiation, and prominence of aggression. In so doing they fail to make sufficient distinctions between the neonatal psyche, the more mature psyche, and the neurotic and psychotic psychic apparatuses. First Fairbairn and now Kohut has brought to our attention the importance of the pre-object relationship in early development and primitive psychopathology, but neither has conceptualized meaningful psychic events prior to subjective integration. Their theories, like those of Klein and Kernberg, also condense more and less well differentiated phases of development. For example, Kohut postulates completely separate development of the self and of object relations. The polarization of the current controversy need not force us to choose between theories. We might better aspire to a more comprehensive theory which includes elements from each but which makes clearer distinctions between normal development, pathological development, normal adult functioning and adult psychopathology. PMID:7216632

  2. MODEL OF STORAGE XML DATABASE BASED ON THE RELATIONAL-OBJECT MODEL

    Laila Alami Kasri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to define a model of storage represented strictly in XML, this model is based on the structure of the relational model using the types of the model object. We suggest then creating our database according to this model by requests SQL3. We thus realize a framework of management and administration ofdatabases XML based on requests object relational SQL3. We analyze at first the mapping since a request SQL towards a structure of a document XML. We shall describe the mapping by using the language XML SCHEMA because the data must be validated in every operation on the database. The database structure, types and tables definitions will be transformed in an equivalent XML SCHEMA which will be used to store the valid XML data.

  3. Object Relations and the Family System in Bulmia: A Theoretical Integration.

    Humphrey, Laura Lynn; Stern, Steven

    1988-01-01

    Presents an integration of object relations theory and family systems theory in the conceptualization of bulimia. Proposes that in bulimic families there are transgenerational developmental deficits and adaptations which determine the level and quality of intrapsychic experience within individuals and the interpersonal relationships and dynamic

  4. Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Development: Attention to Relations and Objects

    Kuwabara, Megumi; Smith, Linda B.

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates a suite of generalized differences in the attentional and cognitive processing of adults from Eastern and Western cultures. Cognition in Eastern adults is often more relational and in Western adults is more object focused. Three experiments examined whether these differences characterize the cognition of preschool…

  5. An object-relational interpretation of Thomas Mann's "Death in Venice".

    Zlotnick-Woldenberg, C

    1997-01-01

    The protagonist of Thomas Mann's novella "Death in Venice" is examined in terms of object-relational theory. Splitting, his primary defense mechanism, which is employed both intrapsychically and interpersonally, is discussed at length, as is his problematic relationship with his parents, which has resulted in his fixation in the paranoid/schizoid position and his ultimate destruction. PMID:9470960

  6. 48 CFR 2124.104-70 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PROTECTION OF PRIVACY AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Protection of Individual Privacy 2124.104-70 Contract clause. The clause...

  7. Symposium on object relations theory and love. Love, the couple, and the group: a psychoanalytic frame.

    Kernberg, O F

    1980-01-01

    After a brief summary of previous work on the intrapsychic preconditions of love relations, this paper explores the built-in contradictions between the sexual couple and its social group, their mutual equilibrium, and the formation and dissolution of couples within the group. Clinical case material illustrates how three dimensions of love relations-namely, sexual experience, object relations, and superego integration-jointly determine a couple's stability within the social group. Finally, sexual psychopathology affecting the couple's interaction with its social group is explored in terms of some frequent pathological developments. PMID:7189060

  8. 48 CFR 923.903 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... ENVIRONMENT, CONSERVATION, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Contractor Compliance With Environmental Management Systems 923.903 Contract clause. The FAR Environmental Management Systems clause at.... Some DOE sites have a single Environmental Management System for the site while others have...

  9. Legislative versus Judiciary? The case of performance clause

    José Paulo Martins Junior; Emilie Kalyne Munhoz; Matheus Cavalcanti Pestana

    2014-01-01

    The relations between the powers tend to be conflictive. The institutional arrangements were built for the mutually control of the powers. Since 1988, the Judiciary has been interfering and making decisions in cases that impact in the electoral and party rules in Brazil, causing discomfort to the politicians. One case was a declaration of unconstitutionality of the performance clause, defined in the Article 13 of Law 9096/95. The aim of the paper is to investigate the relation between the jud...

  10. Word order variation and foregrounding of complement clauses

    Christensen, Tanya Karoli; Jensen, Torben Juel

    2015-01-01

    Through mixed models analyses of complement clauses in a corpus of spoken Danish we examine the role of sentence adverbials in relation to a word order distinction in Scandinavian signalled by the relative position of sentence adverbials and finite verb (V>Adv vs. Adv>V). The type of sentence adv...... foregrounded information, and exploit the random intercepts assigned to the individual adverbials for further exploring the functions of sentence adverbials that behave unexpectedly based on the predictions of the model....

  11. The role of objects and effects in action imitation: Comparing the imitation of object-related actions vs. gestures in 18-month-old infants.

    Kim, Ziyon; turai, Gabriella; Kirly, Ildik; Knopf, Monika

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to systematically investigate 18-month-old infants' imitation of object-related actions compared to motorically similar gestures. An additional goal of the study was to examine the role of action effects on infants' imitation of target actions. One group of infants (n=17) observed object-related actions and gestures leading to salient effects (sounds or visual resp. social effects), and the other group (n=16) watched the same actions without effects. Furthermore, this study examined whether infants show a consistent imitation ability for object-related actions and gestures. First, the present study showed that 18-month-old infants imitated object-related actions more frequently than gestures. Second, the presence of an effect significantly increased the imitation rate of object-related actions; however, this difference was not found for gestures. Third, indications for a general imitation ability were found as results on an individual level showed that object-related action imitation significantly correlated with gesture imitation. Implications of the results for theory and future studies are discussed with a focus on the role of objects and effects in 18-month-old infants' action imitation. PMID:26311467

  12. Field-Testing Reusable Learning Objects Related to Sensory Over-Responsiveness

    Bryan M. Gee; Kiersten Moholy; Kimberly Lloyd; Anthony Seikel

    2015-01-01

    Background. There is an increased need for dynamic, mobile, and relevant parent and caregiver education related to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and Sensory Processing (SP). This need may be due to the increased incidence of the conditions co-morbidity and the revision of the diagnostic criteria of ASD. Reusable learning objects (RLOs) have been implemented as instructional tools as a part of, or adjunct to, formal health care education programs. However, there is a lack of kno...

  13. Implementation of the Multidimensional Modeling Concepts into Object-Relational Databases

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A key to survival in the business world is being able to analyze, plan and react to changing business conditions as fast as possible. With multidimensional models the managers can explore information at different levels of granularity and the decision makers at all levels can quickly respond to changes in the business climate-the ultimate goal of business intelligence. This paper focuses on the implementation of the multidimensional concepts into object-relational databases.

  14. Using Object-Relational Mapping to Create the Distributed Databases in a Hybrid Cloud Infrastructure

    Oleg Lukyanchikov; Evgeniy Pluzhnik; Simon Payain; Evgeny Nikulchev

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenges currently problems in the use of cloud services is the task of designing of specialized data management systems. This is especially important for hybrid systems in which the data are located in public and private clouds. Implementation monitoring functions querying, scheduling and processing software must be properly implemented and is an integral part of the system. To provide these functions is proposed to use an object-relational mapping (ORM). The article devoted to ...

  15. An atlas of optical spectra of DZ white dwarfs and related objects

    An atlas of optical spectra and equivalent width measurements for DZ stars and several related objects is described. These data should improve abundance measurements for Ca/He, Mg/He, and Fe/He in these stars and provide tests for calculations of accretion, diffusion, and radiative transfer in white-dwarf atmospheres. Also reported is the possible detection of He I (3888-A) in three DZ white dwarfs, 0246 + 735, 1705 + 030, and 2215 + 388. 25 refs

  16. Implementation of the Multidimensional Modeling Concepts into Object-Relational Databases

    Muntean, Mihaela

    2007-01-01

    A key to survival in the business world is being able to analyze, plan and react to changing business conditions as fast as possible. With multidimensional models the managers can explore information at different levels of granularity and the decision makers at all levels can quickly respond to changes in the business climate-the ultimate goal of business intelligence. This paper focuses on the implementation of the multidimensional concepts into object-relational databases.

  17. Objectively Measured Sedentary Time Is Related to Quality of Life among Cancer Survivors

    George, Stephanie M.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Groves, Jay; Karabulut, Zafer; Haman, Kirsten L.; Murphy, Barbara A.; Matthews, Charles E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose While exercise has been shown to be beneficial in improving health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among cancer survivors, evidence is limited on the independent role of sedentary behavior. We examined how objectively measured sedentary time was associated with HRQOL among long-term cancer survivors. Methods This cross-sectional study included 54 cancer survivors, on average 3.4 years postdiagnosis, who were enrolled into an exercise trial designed to improve cognitive function. At ba...

  18. Unsupervised Methods for Determining Object and Relation Synonyms on the Web

    Yates, Alexander Pieter; Etzioni, Oren

    2014-01-01

    The task of identifying synonymous relations and objects, or synonym resolution, is critical for high-quality information extraction. This paper investigates synonym resolution in the context of unsupervised information extraction, where neither hand-tagged training examples nor domain knowledge is available. The paper presents a scalable, fully-implemented system that runs in O(KN log N) time in the number of extractions, N, and the maximum number of synonyms per word, K. The system, called ...

  19. Adding Hierarchical Objects to Relational Database General-Purpose XML-Based Information Managements

    Lin, Shu-Chun; Knight, Chris; La, Tracy; Maluf, David; Bell, David; Tran, Khai Peter; Gawdiak, Yuri

    2006-01-01

    NETMARK is a flexible, high-throughput software system for managing, storing, and rapid searching of unstructured and semi-structured documents. NETMARK transforms such documents from their original highly complex, constantly changing, heterogeneous data formats into well-structured, common data formats in using Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) and/or Extensible Markup Language (XML). The software implements an object-relational database system that combines the best practices of the relational model utilizing Structured Query Language (SQL) with those of the object-oriented, semantic database model for creating complex data. In particular, NETMARK takes advantage of the Oracle 8i object-relational database model using physical-address data types for very efficient keyword searches of records across both context and content. NETMARK also supports multiple international standards such as WEBDAV for drag-and-drop file management and SOAP for integrated information management using Web services. The document-organization and -searching capabilities afforded by NETMARK are likely to make this software attractive for use in disciplines as diverse as science, auditing, and law enforcement.

  20. The syntactic complexity of Russian relative clauses

    Levy, Roger; Fedorenko, Evelina; Gibson, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Although syntactic complexity has been investigated across dozens of studies, the available data still greatly underdetermine relevant theories of processing difficulty. Memory-based and expectation-based theories make opposite predictions regarding fine-grained time course of processing difficulty in syntactically constrained contexts, and each class of theory receives support from results on some constructions in some languages. Here we report four self-paced reading experiments on the onli...

  1. Reduced object related negativity response indicates impaired auditory scene analysis in adults with autistic spectrum disorder

    Veema Lodhia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Auditory Scene Analysis provides a useful framework for understanding atypical auditory perception in autism. Specifically, a failure to segregate the incoming acoustic energy into distinct auditory objects might explain the aversive reaction autistic individuals have to certain auditory stimuli or environments. Previous research with non-autistic participants has demonstrated the presence of an Object Related Negativity (ORN in the auditory event related potential that indexes pre-attentive processes associated with auditory scene analysis. Also evident is a later P400 component that is attention dependent and thought to be related to decision-making about auditory objects. We sought to determine whether there are differences between individuals with and without autism in the levels of processing indexed by these components. Electroencephalography (EEG was used to measure brain responses from a group of 16 autistic adults, and 16 age- and verbal-IQ-matched typically-developing adults. Auditory responses were elicited using lateralized dichotic pitch stimuli in which inter-aural timing differences create the illusory perception of a pitch that is spatially separated from a carrier noise stimulus. As in previous studies, control participants produced an ORN in response to the pitch stimuli. However, this component was significantly reduced in the participants with autism. In contrast, processing differences were not observed between the groups at the attention-dependent level (P400. These findings suggest that autistic individuals have difficulty segregating auditory stimuli into distinct auditory objects, and that this difficulty arises at an early pre-attentive level of processing.

  2. 48 CFR 48.202 - Clause for construction contracts.

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Contract Clauses 48.202 Clause for construction contracts. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.248-3, Value Engineering—Construction, in construction... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clause for...

  3. Constraint Specialisation in Horn Clause Verification

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query-answer transformation of a given set of clauses and a goal. The effect is to propagate the constraints from the goal top-down and...... results on verification problems show that this is an effective transformation, both in our own verification tools (convex polyhedra analyser) and as a pre-processor to other Horn clause verification tools....

  4. International ultraviolet explorer spectral atlas of planetary nebulae, central stars, and related objects

    Feibelman, Walter A.; Oliversen, Nancy A.; Nicholsbohlin, Joy; Garhart, Matthew P.

    1988-01-01

    The International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) archives contain a wealth of information on high quality ultraviolet spectra of approximately 180 planetary nebulae, their central stars, and related objects. Selected are representative low-dispersion IUE spectra in the range 1200 to 3200 A for 177 objects arranged by Right Ascension (RA) for this atlas. For most entries, the combined short wavelength (SWP) (1200to 1900) and long wavelength (LWR) (or LWP, 1900 to 3200 A) regions are shown on 30 cm by 10 cm Calcomp plots on a uniform scale to facilitate intercomparison of the spectra. Each calibrated spectrum is also shown on an expanded vertical scale to bring out some of the weaker features.

  5. Grey Relational Analyses for Multi-Objective Optimization of Turning S45C Carbon Steel

    Shah, A. H. A.; Azmi, A. I.; Khalil, A. N. M.

    2016-02-01

    The optimization of performance characteristics in turning process can be achieved through selection of proper machining parameters. It is well known that many researchers have successfully reported the optimization of single performance characteristic. Nevertheless, the multi-objective optimization can be difficult and challenging to be studied due to its complexity in analysis. This is because an improvement of one performance characteristic may lead to degradation of other performance characteristic. As a result, the study of multi-objective optimization in CNC turning of S45C carbon steel has been attempted in this paper through Taguchi and Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) method. Through this methodology, the multiple performance characteristics, namely; surface roughness, material removal rate (MRR), tool wear, and power consumption; can be optimized simultaneously. It appears from the experimental results that the multiple performance characteristics in CNC turning was achieved and improved through the methodology employed.

  6. Parts and Relations in Young Children's Shape-Based Object Recognition

    Augustine, Elaine; Smith, Linda B.; Jones, Susan S.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to recognize common objects from sparse information about geometric shape emerges during the same period in which children learn object names and object categories. Hummel and Biederman's (1992) theory of object recognition proposes that the geometric shapes of objects have two components--geometric volumes representing major object

  7. Objectively Measured Physical Activity is Related to Cognitive Function in Older Adults

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Marshall, Simon J.; Patterson, Ruth E.; Marinac, Catherine R.; Natarajan, Loki; Rosenberg, Dori; Wasilenko, Kari; Crist, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objectives To explore the relationship between cognitive functioning and the time spent at different intensities of physical activity (PA) in free-living older adults. Design, Setting Cross sectional analyses of participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial set in continuing care retirement communities. Participants 215 older adults residing in 7 continuing care retirement communities in San Diego County: average age 83 years, 70% female and 35% with graduate level education. Measurements PA was measured objectively by hip worn accelerometers with data aggregated to the minute level. Three cut points were used to assess low-light, high-light, and moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA). Trail Making Tests A and B were completed and time for each test (sec) and test B-minus- A time (sec) were used as measures of cognitive functioning. Variables were log transformed and entered into linear regression models adjusting for demographic factors (age, education, gender) and other PA intensity variables. Results Low-light PA was not related to any Trails test score. High-light PA was significantly related to Trails A, B and B-minus-A; but only in unadjusted models. MVPA was related to Trails B and B-minus-A after adjusting for demographic variables. Conclusion These data suggest there may be a dose response between PA intensity and cognitive functioning in older adults. The stronger findings supporting a relationship between MVPA and cognitive functioning are consistent with previous observational and intervention studies. PMID:24219194

  8. Object relations, defensive operations, and affective states in narcissistic, borderline, and antisocial personality disorder.

    Gacono, C B; Meloy, J R; Berg, J L

    1992-08-01

    Rorschach data were used to psychometrically "map" the internal psychological operations of three Cluster B personality disorders, listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed., rev. [DSM-III-R]; American Psychiatric Association, 1987), all of which may be organized at a borderline level. Psychopathic antisocial subjects (P-APDs) and narcissistic subjects (NPDs) were highly narcissistic. NPD subjects, however, produced more indices of anxiety and attachment capacity and fewer scores related to borderline object relations and damaged identity. P-APDs and borderline subjects (BPDs) produced similar mean numbers of borderline object relations; however, the BPDs were more anxious, produced more unsublimated aggressive and libidinal drive material, and evidenced greater potential for attachment. BPDs were also less narcissistic than both P-APDs and NPDs. Nonpsychopathic antisocial subjects (NP-APDs) were less borderline than P-APDs and BPDs, less narcissistic in terms of a stable grandiose self-structure than NPD and P-APDs, produced less evidence of attachment capacity than NPDs and BPDs but more than P-APDs, and were similar to BPDs in their proneness to anxiety. The outpatient NPDs and BPDs produced more idealization responses than the incarcerated antisocial personality disorder (APD) groups. We conclude that the behavioral descriptions offered for these three Cluster B personality disorders, when used in conjunction with information such as level of personality organization (Kernberg, 1984), level of psychopathy (Hare, 1980, 1985), and outpatient versus inpatient research settings, may have greater intrapsychic specificity than previously thought. PMID:1512679

  9. Age-related maculopathy and sunlight exposure evaluated by objective measurement

    Hirakawa, M.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, Y.; Okubo, A; Koriyama, C; Tsuji, M; Akiba, S; Miyamoto, K; Hillebrand, G.; Yamashita, T; Sakamoto, T

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To study the relationship between age-related maculopathy (ARM) and exposure to sunlight using an objective method. Methods: In a case–control study of Japanese men aged ⩾50 years (67 controls without ophthalmic disease and 148 with ARM), those with ARM were separated into groups of early (n = 75) and late (n = 73) ARM. Facial wrinkle length and area of hyperpigmentation, which are considered to be associated with exposure to sun, were measured using imaging with computer-based image ana...

  10. Using Object-Relational Mapping to Create the Distributed Databases in a Hybrid Cloud Infrastructure

    Oleg Lukyanchikov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges currently problems in the use of cloud services is the task of designing of data management systems. This is especially important for hybrid systems in which the data are located in public and private clouds. Implementation monitoring functions querying, scheduling and processing software must be properly implemented and is an integral part of the system. To provide these functions is proposed to use an object-relational mapping (ORM. The article devoted to presenting the approach of designing databases for information systems hosted in a hybrid cloud infrastructure. It also provides an example of the development of ORM library.

  11. Field-Testing Reusable Learning Objects Related to Sensory Over-Responsiveness

    Bryan M. Gee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is an increased need for dynamic, mobile, and relevant parent and caregiver education related to autism spectrum disorders (ASD and Sensory Processing (SP. This need may be due to the increased incidence of the conditions’ co-morbidity and the revision of the diagnostic criteria of ASD. Reusable learning objects (RLOs have been implemented as instructional tools as a part of, or adjunct to, formal health care education programs. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the appropriateness of RLOs as a part of routine patient and caregiver instruction of children with ASD. Method. A semi-structured interview/rating scale was implemented among three practicing occupational therapists to ascertain their opinions regarding six prototype RLOs related to sensory processing for caregivers of children with ASD. Results. The participants’ perspectives revealed that the SP-based prototype RLOs were a viable and valuable option to be included as a resource for parents and caregivers of children with ASD. Conclusion. The findings of this study suggest that RLOs related to SP were valuable, especially related to their subject matter, accessibility, and reusability. Furthermore, the participants indirectly identified the strengths related to the foundational concepts of RLOs and how they could be applied to other therapeutic and behavioral topics for parents and caregivers of children with ASD.

  12. 48 CFR 1223.303 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    .... The contracting officer shall insert the clause at (TAR) 48 CFR 1252.223-70, Removal or Disposal of... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY,...

  13. Termination for Convenience Clauses and Good Faith

    Anthony Gray

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the legal validity of so-called termination for convenience clauses, which allow at least one party to the contract to terminate the contract without cause. Such rights are in contrast to more traditional approaches to contractual termination, which distinguished between breaches of condition and breaches of warranty, allowing termination only for the former. Specifically, it will be asked whether such termination for convenience clauses are consistent with requiremen...

  14. Age-related impairments in object-place associations are not due to hippocampal dysfunction.

    Hernandez, Abigail R; Maurer, Andrew P; Reasor, Jordan E; Turner, Sean M; Barthle, Sarah E; Johnson, Sarah A; Burke, Sara N

    2015-10-01

    Age-associated cognitive decline can reduce an individual's quality of life. As no single neurobiological deficit can account for the wide spectrum of behavioral impairments observed in old age, it is critical to develop an understanding of how interactions between different brain regions change over the life span. The performance of young and aged animals on behaviors that require the hippocampus and cortical regions to interact, however, has not been well characterized. Specifically, the ability to link a spatial location with specific features of a stimulus, such as object identity, relies on the hippocampus, perirhinal and prefrontal cortices. Although aging is associated with dysfunction in each of these brain regions, behavioral measures of functional change within the hippocampus, perirhinal and prefrontal cortices in individual animals are often not correlated. Thus, how dysfunction of a single brain region within this circuit, such as the hippocampus, impacts behaviors that require communication with the perirhinal and prefrontal cortices remains unknown. To address this question, young and aged rats were tested on the interregion dependent object-place paired association task, as well as a hippocampal-dependent test of spatial reference memory. This particular cohort of aged rats did not show deficits on the hippocampal-dependent task, but were significantly impaired at acquiring object-place associations relative to young. These data suggest that behaviors requiring functional connectivity across different regions of the memory network may be particularly sensitive to aging, and can be used to develop models that will clarify the impact of systems-level dysfunction in the elderly. PMID:26413723

  15. Pose Performance of LIDAR-Based Relative Navigation for Non-Cooperative Objects

    Sell, Jordan L.

    Flash LIDAR is an important new sensing technology for relative navigation; these sensors have shown promising results during rendezvous and docking applications involving a cooperative vehicle. An area of recent interest is the application of this technology for pose estimation with non-cooperative client vehicles, in support of on-orbit satellite servicing activities and asteroid redirect missions. The capability for autonomous rendezvous with non-cooperative satellites will enable refueling and servicing of satellites (particularly those designed without servicing in mind), allowing these vehicles to continue operating rather than being retired. Rendezvous with an asteroid will give further insight to the origin of individual asteroids. This research investigates numerous issues surrounding pose performance using LIDAR. To begin analyzing the characteristics of the data produced by Flash LIDAR, simulated and laboratory testing have been completed. Observations of common asteroid materials were made with a surrogate LIDAR, characterizing the reflectivity of the materials. A custom Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm was created to estimate the relative position and orientation of the LIDAR relative to the observed object. The performance of standardized pose estimation techniques (including ICP) has been examined using non-cooperative data as well as the characteristics of the materials that will potentially be observed during missions. For the hardware tests, a SwissRanger ToF camera was used as a surrogate Flash LIDAR.

  16. Multi-objective optimal experimental designs for event-related fMRI studies.

    Kao, Ming-Hung; Mandal, Abhyuday; Lazar, Nicole; Stufken, John

    2009-02-01

    In this article, we propose an efficient approach to find optimal experimental designs for event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (ER-fMRI). We consider multiple objectives, including estimating the hemodynamic response function (HRF), detecting activation, circumventing psychological confounds and fulfilling customized requirements. Taking into account these goals, we formulate a family of multi-objective design criteria and develop a genetic-algorithm-based technique to search for optimal designs. Our proposed technique incorporates existing knowledge about the performance of fMRI designs, and its usefulness is shown through simulations. Although our approach also works for other linear combinations of parameters, we primarily focus on the case when the interest lies either in the individual stimulus effects or in pairwise contrasts between stimulus types. Under either of these popular cases, our algorithm outperforms the previous approaches. We also find designs yielding higher estimation efficiencies than m-sequences. When the underlying model is with white noise and a constant nuisance parameter, the stimulus frequencies of the designs we obtained are in good agreement with the optimal stimulus frequencies derived by Liu and Frank, 2004, NeuroImage 21: 387-400. In addition, our approach is built upon a rigorous model formulation. PMID:18948212

  17. Simple Ontology of Manipulation Actions based on Hand-Object Relations

    Wörgötter, Florentin; Aksoy, E. E.; Krüger, Norbert; Piater, Justus; Ude, Ales; Tamosiunaite, M.

    2013-01-01

    Humans can perform a multitude of different actions with their hands (manipulations). In spite of this, so far there have been only a few attempts to represent manipulation types trying to understand the underlying principles. Here we first discuss how manipulation actions are structured in space...... and encoded. Examples of manipulations recognition and execution by a robot based on this representation are given at the end of this study.......Humans can perform a multitude of different actions with their hands (manipulations). In spite of this, so far there have been only a few attempts to represent manipulation types trying to understand the underlying principles. Here we first discuss how manipulation actions are structured in space...... and time. For this we use as temporal anchor points those moments where two objects (or hand and object) touch or un-touch each other during a manipulation. We show that by this one can define a relatively small tree-like manipulation ontology. We find less than 30 fundamental manipulations. The...

  18. Sensory Processing Relates to Attachment to Childhood Comfort Objects of College Students

    Kalpidou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The author tested the hypothesis that attachment to comfort objects is based on the sensory processing characteristics of the individual. Fifty-two undergraduate students with and without a childhood comfort object reported sensory responses and performed a tactile threshold task. Those with a comfort object described their object and rated their

  19. Sensory Processing Relates to Attachment to Childhood Comfort Objects of College Students

    Kalpidou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The author tested the hypothesis that attachment to comfort objects is based on the sensory processing characteristics of the individual. Fifty-two undergraduate students with and without a childhood comfort object reported sensory responses and performed a tactile threshold task. Those with a comfort object described their object and rated their…

  20. B-SPID: an object-relational database architecture to store, retrieve, and manipulate neuroimaging data.

    Diallo, B; Dolidon, F; Travere, J M; Mazoyer, B

    1999-01-01

    We propose a hardware and software architecture to respond to crucial problems in the neuroimaging field: storage, retrieval, and processing of large datasets. The B-SPID project, here discussed, concerns the processing of neuroimages and attached components stored in an object-relational multimedia database management system (DBMS). Advanced bioinformation concepts are exploited in this project such as large scale data storage, high level graphical user interfaces and 3D graphical processing and display of data. Our database implementation is based on standard programming components, runs on several UNIX platforms and is written to be evolutive. Queries on this database are designed to obtain and display from neuroimaging data several types of results (pictures, text, or 3D graphical shapes) on heterogeneous systems. PMID:9950070

  1. An ego psychology object relations theory of the structure and treatment of pathologic narcissism. An overview.

    Kernberg, O F

    1989-09-01

    This article summarizes the author's contributions to the psychoanalytic understanding of narcissistic personality disorders and their application to a theory of psychoanalytic and psychotherapeutic techniques for the treatment of these patients. The treatment is described as primarily focused on the analysis of the pathologic grandiose self in the transference. The early stages of this transference analysis are differentiated from later stages in the treatment, when the gradual dissolution of the pathologic grandiose self brings to the surface the underlying, dissociated, primitive object relations reflecting unconscious conflicts. The final stage of the treatment is described as approaching the characteristics of the treatment of neurotic patients. Finally, expressive or exploratory psychotherapy and supportive psychotherapy for narcissistic patients are described as psychoanalytically derived alternative treatment methods, and their respective indications and techniques are briefly summarized. PMID:2678027

  2. Experimental Study on Event-Related Potential for Objective Evaluation of Food

    Tanaka, Motoshi; Honma, Tomohiro; Inoue, Hiroshi; Niiyama, Yoshitsugu; Takahashi, Toru; Kumagai, Masanori; Akiyama, Yoshinobu

    In order to study the application of event-related potential (ERP) for performing objective evaluation of food, the ERP was measured when subjectively judging the appearance of food by three-grade scale with the opinion “like”, “favorite” and “more favorite”. Sushi and cooked rice were selected as typical foods. Five pictures of each food that the subjects liked were chosen before measurements, and then were used in opinion tests. As a result, the P300 component of the ERP was detected, and the P300 area (surrounded by ERP waveform from the latency 250 to 500ms) became larger when the subjects judged as “more favorite”, which indicates the feasibility of evaluation of food using the ERP.

  3. Object Substitution Masking in Schizophrenia: An Event-Related Potential Analysis

    KristopherIanMathis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia patients exhibit deficits on visual processing tasks, including visual backward masking, and these impairments are related to deficits in higher-level processes. In the current study we used electroencephalography techniques to examine successive stages and pathways of visual processing in a specialized masking paradigm, four-dot masking, which involves masking by object substitution. Seventy-six schizophrenia patients and 66 healthy controls had event-related potentials (ERPs recorded during four-dot masking. Target visibility was manipulated by changing stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA between the target and mask, such that performance decreased with increasing SOA. Three SOAs were used: 0, 50, and 100 ms. The P100 and N100 perceptual ERPs were examined. Additionally, the visual awareness negativity (VAN to correct vs. incorrect responses, an index of reentrant processing, was examined for SOAs 50 and 100 ms. Results showed that patients performed worse than controls on the behavioral task across all SOAs. The ERP results revealed that patients had significantly smaller P100 and N100 amplitudes, though there was no effect of SOA on either component in either group. In healthy controls, but not patients, N100 amplitude correlated significantly with behavioral performance at SOAs where masking occurred, such that higher accuracy correlated with a larger N100. Healthy controls, but not patients, exhibited a larger VAN to correct vs. incorrect responses. The results indicate that the N100 appears to be related to attentional effort in the task in controls, but not patients. Considering that the VAN is thought to reflect reentrant processing, one interpretation of the findings is that patients lack of VAN response and poorer performance may be related to dysfunctional reentrant processing.

  4. TERRASAR-X AND RAPIDEYE DATA FOR THE PARAMETERISATION OF RELATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF URBAN ATKIS DLM OBJECTS

    S. Hese; Lindner, M.; Voltersen, M.; Berger, C.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a multi-sensor data analysis concept for the parameterisation of urban landuse in comparison to ATKIS DLM reference objects (digital landscape model). An object based top-down approach is implemented and the potential of multisensor data for a primary urban landcover object classification is assessed. Urban landuse structure is developed based on relational features applied to land cover objects and compared to an aggregated DLM class legend. For a better imperviousness des...

  5. Legal briefing: conscience clauses and conscientious refusal.

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to conscience clauses and conscientious refusal. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it has also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions. Over the past several months, conscientious refusal disputes have had an unusually high profile not only in courthouses, but also in legislative and regulatory halls across the United States. Healthcare providers' own moral beliefs have been obstructing and are expected to increasingly obstruct patients' access to medical services. For example, some providers, on ethical or moral grounds, have denied: (1) sterilization procedures to pregnant patients, (2) pain medications in end-of-life situations, and (3) information about emergency contraception to rape victims. On the other hand, many healthcare providers have been forced to provide medical treatment that is inconsistent with their moral beliefs. There are two fundamental types of conscientious objection laws. First, there are laws that permit healthcare workers to refuse providing - on ethical, moral, or religious grounds healthcare services that they might otherwise have a legal or employer-mandated obligation to provide. Second, there are laws directed at forcing healthcare workers to provide services to which they might have ethical, moral, or religious objections. Both types of laws are rarely comprehensive, but instead target: (1) certain types of healthcare providers, (2) specific categories of healthcare services, (3) specific patient circumstances, and (4) certain conditions under which a right or obligation is triggered. For the sake of clarity, I have grouped recent legal developments concerning conscientious refusal into eight categories: 1. Abortion: right to refuse 2. Abortion: duty to provide 3. Contraception: right to refuse 4. Contraception: duty to provide 5. Sterilization: right to refuse 6. Fertility, HIV, vaccines, counseling 7. End-of-life measures: right to refuse 8. Comprehensive laws: right to refuse. PMID:20866024

  6. Animacy Affects the Processing of Subject-Object Ambiguities in the Second Language: Evidence from Self-Paced Reading with German Second Language Learners of Dutch

    Jackson, Carrie N.; Roberts, Leah

    2010-01-01

    The results of a self-paced reading study with German second language (L2) learners of Dutch showed that noun animacy affected the learners' on-line commitments when comprehending relative clauses in their L2. Earlier research has found that German L2 learners of Dutch do not show an on-line preference for subject-object word order in temporarily…

  7. Positioning and Relating: Market Boundaries and the Slippery Identity of the Marketing Object

    Finch, John; Geiger, Susi

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel perspective on positioning by identifying goods and services first as market objects and then as marketing objects. As part of their normal marketing activities marketers position market objects and thereby provide means for other market actors to evaluate differences and similarities across an array of goods and services. Hence, marketers help disentangle goods and services in a market space, so formatting them as market objects. At the same time, marketers tend to make...

  8. Knee Confidence as it Relates to Self-Reported and Objective Correlates of Knee Osteoarthritis

    Skou, Søren T; Rasmussen, Sten; Simonsen, Ole; Roos, Ewa M

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Objective The objective was to validate, if possible, previously reported associations and to investigate other potential associations between knee confidence and various self-reported and objective measures in an independent cohort of patients with knee osteoa...

  9. Material Adverse Effect Clause – Proper Legal Work or Contribution to False Sense of Security?

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Regardless of whether you are a buyer or a seller, and regardless what the object of the contract is, it is essentially important that you seek to protect your rights through various clauses that must aim to provide clearness to contractual obligations, defini- tions of breach, and consequences t...... thereof. The article addresses a number of interest- protective legal mechanisms and necessity of their explicit incorporation in the contract. With emphasis on Material Adverse Effect clause the paper focuses on its exigency and applicability....

  10. Bi-Objective Optimization Based on Compromise Method for Horizontal Fragmentation in Relational Data Warehouses

    Mohamed Barr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Generally, research that dealt with the selection problems for optimization techniques or structures in relational data ware houses supports these problems by considering only a single criterion of optimization. The optimization criteria may be the response time of query execution, the number of inputs/outputs between the main memory and the disk, the space allocated to store the index or materialized views, or the number fragments required by the administrator of the data warehouse when using the fragmentation technique. The present work deals with the problem of selecting the horizontal fragmentation technique while considering both the number of I/O between memory and disk during decisional queries and the number of fragments, as two objective functions to minimize. To reduce the scope of choice solutions, we are based on a scalar method, called compromise method. The method is complemented by the principle of Pareto front to infer the best solutions. The study has been experimented on APB1 benchmark of data warehouse.

  11. THE UNPREDICTABILITY CLAUSE IN TRANSPORT CONTRACTS, ACCORDING TO THE NEW CIVIL CODE

    Adriana Elena BELU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Until the enforcement of the highly controversial transport law, transport companies must already observe the provisions of the new Civil Code1 in their transport business. One of the novelties in the new Civil Code, that came into force on October 1, 2011, refers to the unpredictability clause: recurring to this clause, in certain situations to be precisely analysed by courts, parties may even be exempted from certain contractual obligations, when the court decides to rescind the contract based on objective criteria, not imputable to the party that no longer can properly fulfil the obligations that had been undertaken when the contract had been made. However, this solution only is provided after all means of negotiation and mediation between parties are exhausted. The clause meets current market requirements, under which many companies have to deal with bad paying partners.

  12. 48 CFR 22.103-5 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 22.103-5 Contract clauses. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause 52.222-1, Notice to the Government of...

  13. 48 CFR 1822.103-5 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 1822.103-5 Contract clause. Insert the clause at 52.222-1, Notice to the Government of Labor Disputes, in...

  14. 48 CFR 970.2201-1-3 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Application of Labor Policies 970.2201-1-3 Contract clause. In addition to the clause at 48 CFR 52.222-1, Notice to the Government of Labor...

  15. 48 CFR 1622.103-70 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 1622.103-70 Contract clause. The clause at 1652.222-70 shall...

  16. The Hilbert space of conditional clauses

    Francis, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Context. The well known problems of interpretation of quantum mechanics mean that physical law lacks physical basis. Aims. To abstract the formalism of quantum mechanics from assertions about the world with clear physical meaning. Methods. Kets are defined as conditional clauses referring to measurements in a formal language. It is seen that these clauses are elements of a Hilbert space, such that addition is logical disjunction, the dual space consists of consequent clauses, and the inner product is a set of statements in the subjunctive mood. The probability interpretation gives truth values for corresponding future tense statements when the initial state is prepared and the final state is to be measured. Results. The mathematical structure of quantum mechanics is formulated in terms of discrete measurement results at finite level of accuracy and does not depend on an assumption of a substantive, or background, spacetime continuum. A continuum of kets, |x> for x in R^3, is constructed from linear combinatio...

  17. Translating Circumstantial Clause of Arabic into Malay

    Azman Che Mat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the function of circumstantial clause of Arabic for its translation into Malay. Circumstantial clause is among functional syntax in Arabic sentence structure. It is formed from the words or phrase in the sentence. This pattern does not seem to exist in the Malay grammar. In such circumstances, there is the difficulty to understand the meaning contained in a sentence correctly. Descriptive approach was used to analyze the circumstantial clause in Arabic. Comparative analysis is carried out on selected data of Arabic language with its translation in Malay. It is expected that there exist a need to understand the differences of these patterns in the work of the Arabic translation into Malay language.

  18. Representing Objects using Global 3D Relational Features for Recognition Tasks

    Mustafa, Wail

    2015-01-01

    In robotic systems, visual interpretations of the environment compose an essential element in a variety of applications, especially those involving manipulation of objects. Interpreting the environment is often done in terms of recognition of objects using machine learning approaches. For user...... representations. For representing objects, we derive global descriptors encoding shape using viewpoint-invariant features obtained from multiple sensors observing the scene. Objects are also described using color independently. This allows for combining color and shape when it is required for the task. For more...... initiate higher-level semantic interpretations of complex scenes. In the object category recognition task, we present a system that is capable of assigning multiple and nested categories for novel objects using a method developed for this purpose. Integrating this method with other multi-label learning...

  19. Signaling Elaboration: Combining French Gerund Clauses with Lexical Cohesion Cues

    Marianne Vergez-Couret

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the Elaboration relation and on its automatic identification in French, using the theoretical framework of Segmented Discourse Representation Theory (SDRT. One of the information sources identified by the SDRT framework to infer the Elaboration relation is based on the existence of a potential subsumption link between the eventualities at stake, depending on lexical semantics and world knowledge. We investigate this claim by combining a weak syntactic marker of the Elaboration relation, namely the gerund clause, with lexical cohesion cues. We aim at automatically identifying gerund clauses which are Elaborations by finding cohesive links between the host main clause and the gerund clause. This approach makes it possible to accurately detect few cases of intra-sentential Elaborations in our corpus, confirming the fact that lexical cohesion cues are relevant for this task.Dans cet article, nous nous focalisons sur la relation d’Élaboration en français, telle qu’elle est décrite dans le modèle théorique de la SDRT (Segmented Discourse Representation Theory, et sur son identification automatique. Selon la SDRT, une des sources d’information permettant d’inférer la relation d’Élaboration est basée sur l’existence d’un lien de subsomption entre les types des éventualités des segments à relier, indiquant que le type de la seconde éventualité est un sous-type de celui de la première dans la sémantique lexicale des éventualités ou grâce à des connaissances du monde. Nous proposons de contribuer à cette question en combinant un indice de la relation d’Élaboration, i. e. la construction syntaxique du gérondif, et des indices de cohésion lexicale. Notre objectif est d’identifier automatiquement des propositions gérondives qui sont des Élaborations en repérant des indices de cohésion lexicale entre la proposition principale et la proposition gérondive. Cette approche permet de détecter avec précision des cas d’Élaboration dans notre corpus, validant le fait que les indices de cohésion lexicale sont pertinents pour cette tâche.

  20. Response interference between functional and structural object-related actions is increased in patients with ideomotor apraxia

    Jax, Steven A.; Buxbaum, Laurel J.

    2012-01-01

    We report data from two left hemisphere stroke patients with moderate-to-severe ideomotor apraxia who exhibited deficits in positioning their hands to use ‘conflict’ objects (objects grasped and used with different hand postures) relative to controls and patients with mild apraxia. These novel data support the claim that actions to common objects are subject to interference between multiple responses, and suggest that errors in apraxia may be attributed to deficient resolution of competition ...

  1. On the relation between atmospheric and internal motions in an astrophysical object

    The equations of the flow of a perfect fluid in a relativistic spacetime are considered, as well as their first-order approximations when the velocity is small as compared with the speed of light. In particular we study how frame-dragging effects in the atmosphere of a massive object may yield some clues as to the motion of fluids within the object

  2. Issues Related to Measuring and Interpreting Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior Data

    Janssen, Xanne; Cliff, Dylan P.

    2015-01-01

    The use of objective measures of sedentary behavior has increased over the past decade; however, as is the case for objectively measured physical activity, methodological decisions before and after data collection are likely to influence the outcomes. The aim of this article is to review the evidence on different methodological decisions made by…

  3. Discerning Technological Systems Related to Everyday Objects: Mapping the Variation in Pupils' Experience

    Svensson, Maria; Ingerman, Ake

    2010-01-01

    Understanding technology today implies more than being able to use the technological objects present in our everyday lives. Our society is increasingly integrated with technological systems, of which technological objects, and their function, form a part. Technological literacy in that context implies understanding how knowledge is constituted in…

  4. 48 CFR 1615.470-1 - Investment income clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Investment income clause... FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 1615.470-1 Investment income clause. The clause set forth in...

  5. 48 CFR 3022.101-71 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 3022.101-71 Contract clauses. (a) The contracting officer, may, when applicable, insert the clause at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3052.222-70, Strikes or Picketing Affecting Timely... applicable, insert the clause at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3052.222-71, Strikes or Picketing Affecting Access to a...

  6. 48 CFR 1222.101-71 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 1222.101-71 Contract clauses. (a) When applicable, the contracting officer may insert the clause at (TAR) 48 CFR 1252... contracts. (b) When applicable the contracting officer may insert the clause at (TAR) 48 CFR...

  7. 48 CFR 1852.227-84 - Patent rights clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Patent rights clauses. 1852... 1852.227-84 Patent rights clauses. The contracting officer shall insert the following provision as prescribed in 1827.303-70(e): Patent Rights Clauses (DEC 1989) This solicitation contains the patent...

  8. 48 CFR 3009.507-2 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... Organizational and Consultant Conflicts of Interest 3009.507-2 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert a clause substantially the same as the clause at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3052.209-73, Limitation of Future Contracting, in solicitations and contracts when a potential organizational conflict of interest exists...

  9. 48 CFR 909.507-2 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... contain the organizational conflict of interest clause at 952.209-72. The organizational conflicts of... PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational and Consultant Conflicts of Interest 909.507-2 Contract clause. (a)(1) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 952.209-72, Organizational Conflicts...

  10. 48 CFR 1509.507-2 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... solicitation or contract does not include (EPAAR) 48 CFR 1552.211-74, Work Assignments, Alternate I, or a similar clause requiring conflict of interest certifications during contract performance. This clause... PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational Conflicts of Interests 1509.507-2 Contract clause....

  11. 48 CFR 3447.7000 - Foreign travel clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign travel clause... REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Foreign Travel 3447.7000 Foreign travel clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause in 3452.247-70, Foreign Travel, in all solicitations and resultant...

  12. Determinación del patrón prosódico de las oraciones ambiguas con adjunción alta de la cláusula de relativo (Prosodic pattern of ambiguous sentences with high attachment of the relative clause

    Yasna Pereira Reyes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La estructura prosódica y la sintáctica corresponden a distintos planos de análisis en una lengua; no obstante, existe una relación entre ambas que constituye una herramienta potente a la hora de enfrentar oraciones sintácticamente ambiguas (Price et al. 1991:1. Existe evidencia robusta respecto a la preferencia de adjunción alta en oraciones ambiguas con cláusula relativa en el español. La mayor parte de la investigación respecto a la ambigüedad en español se centra en el estudio de la lectura en silencio con tareas on-line y off-line, observando el funcionamiento de la memoria operativa en este contexto. Pocos autores han incorporado el estudio de patrones melódicos subyacentes a este tipo de oraciones. El presente trabajo describe el patrón prosódico que subyace a las oraciones ambiguas con adjunción alta de la cláusula de relativo (CR producidas por hablantes del español de Concepción. Los enunciados fueron etiquetados con sistema ToBI y sometidos a una evaluación perceptual para confirmar el patrón melódico descrito de la adjunción alta de la CR como soporte fonético-fonológico que acompaña a dicha adjunción. (Prosodic and syntactic structures correspond to different levels of analysis of language; however, there is a relation between them that constitutes a powerful tool when facing syntactically ambiguous sentences (Price et al. 1991:1. Robustevidence has been found in Spanish of the preference for high-attachment of the relative clause in syntactically ambiguous sentences. Most of the research concerning the topic has focused on finding out how people disambiguates these sentences when reading in silence with on-line or off-line tasks and how the working memory operates in doing so. Few researchers have incorporated the study of the underlying melody patterns in this type of sentences. The presentresearch describes the underlying prosodic pattern of ambiguous sentences with high attachment of relative clause produced by native speakers of Spanish from Concepcion. The recorded utterances were labelled with ToBI system and submitted to perceptual judgement to confirm the prosodic pattern of high-attachment preference of the relative clause as the phonetic-phonologic support that aids listeners to disambiguate this type of sentences.

  13. Low Quality Natural Gas Sulfur Removal and Recovery CNG Claus Sulfur Recovery Process

    Klint, V.W.; Dale, P.R.; Stephenson, C.

    1997-10-01

    Increased use of natural gas (methane) in the domestic energy market will force the development of large non-producing gas reserves now considered to be low quality. Large reserves of low quality natural gas (LQNG) contaminated with hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen (N) are available but not suitable for treatment using current conventional gas treating methods due to economic and environmental constraints. A group of three technologies have been integrated to allow for processing of these LQNG reserves; the Controlled Freeze Zone (CFZ) process for hydrocarbon / acid gas separation; the Triple Point Crystallizer (TPC) process for H{sub 2}S / C0{sub 2} separation and the CNG Claus process for recovery of elemental sulfur from H{sub 2}S. The combined CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus group of processes is one program aimed at developing an alternative gas treating technology which is both economically and environmentally suitable for developing these low quality natural gas reserves. The CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus process is capable of treating low quality natural gas containing >10% C0{sub 2} and measurable levels of H{sub 2}S and N{sub 2} to pipeline specifications. The integrated CFZ / CNG Claus Process or the stand-alone CNG Claus Process has a number of attractive features for treating LQNG. The processes are capable of treating raw gas with a variety of trace contaminant components. The processes can also accommodate large changes in raw gas composition and flow rates. The combined processes are capable of achieving virtually undetectable levels of H{sub 2}S and significantly less than 2% CO in the product methane. The separation processes operate at pressure and deliver a high pressure (ca. 100 psia) acid gas (H{sub 2}S) stream for processing in the CNG Claus unit. This allows for substantial reductions in plant vessel size as compared to conventional Claus / Tail gas treating technologies. A close integration of the components of the CNG Claus process also allow for use of the methane/H{sub 2}S separation unit as a Claus tail gas treating unit by recycling the CNG Claus tail gas stream. This allows for virtually 100 percent sulfur recovery efficiency (virtually zero SO{sub 2} emissions) by recycling the sulfur laden tail gas to extinction. The use of the tail gas recycle scheme also deemphasizes the conventional requirement in Claus units to have high unit conversion efficiency and thereby make the operation much less affected by process upsets and feed gas composition changes. The development of these technologies has been ongoing for many years and both the CFZ and the TPC processes have been demonstrated at large pilot plant scales. On the other hand, prior to this project, the CNG Claus process had not been proven at any scale. Therefore, the primary objective of this portion of the program was to design, build and operate a pilot scale CNG Claus unit and demonstrate the required fundamental reaction chemistry and also demonstrate the viability of a reasonably sized working unit.

  14. A Survey of Health Management User Objectives Related to Diagnostic and Prognostic Metrics

    Wheeler, Kevin R.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Poll, Scott D.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most prominent technical challenges to effective deployment of health management systems is the vast difference in user objectives with respect to engineering development. In this paper, a detailed survey on the objectives of different users of health management systems is presented. These user objectives are then mapped to the metrics typically encountered in the development and testing of two main systems health management functions: diagnosis and prognosis. Using this mapping, the gaps between user goals and the metrics associated with diagnostics and prognostics are identified and presented with a collection of lessons learned from previous studies that include both industrial and military aerospace applications.

  15. CRUD-DOM : a model for bridging the gap between the object-oriented and the relational paradigms

    Pereira, Óscar M.; Rui L. Aguiar; Santos, Maribel Yasmina

    2010-01-01

    Object-oriented programming is the most successful programming paradigm. Relational database management systems are the most successful data storage components. Despite their individual successes and their desirable tight binding, they rely on different points of view about data entailing difficulties on their integration. Some solutions have been proposed to overcome these difficulties, such as Embedded SQL, object/relational mappings (O/RM), language extensions and e...

  16. Defensive Projection, Superimposed on Simplistic Object Relations, Erodes Patient-Provider Relationships in High-Risk Pregnancy: An Empirical Investigation

    Shahar, Golan; Porcerelli, John H.; Kamoo, Ray; Epperson, C. Neill; Czarkowski, Kathryn A.; Magriples, Urania; Mayes, Linda C.

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to illustrate the relevance of psychoanalytic theory and research to behavior medicine, an empirical investigation was conducted of females treated at a high-risk pregnancy specialty clinic (N = 58). Drawing from psychoanalytic object relations theory, it was hypothesized and confirmed that use of projection as a defense mechanism during pregnancy, superimposed on simplistic object relations, predicted an erosion of patient-provider relationships during the pregnancy/postdeliver...

  17. A Survey of Health Management User Objectives in Aerospace Systems Related to Diagnostic and Prognostic Metrics

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One of the most prominent technical challenges to effective deployment of health management systems is the vast difference in user objectives with respect to...

  18. A simple software environment based on objects and relations / [by] Bruce J. MacLennan.

    MacLennan, Bruce J.

    1985-01-01

    Author(s) key words: Object-oriented programming, programming environments, software engineering environments, production rules, production systems, entity-relationship approach, software prototyping, knowledge representation, logic programming, simulation languages, rule-based systems, knowledge base fifth generation languages, classification

  19. Detecting Moving Objects in Noisy Radar Data Using a Relational Database

    Behrend, Andreas; Manthey, Rainer; Schller, Gereon; Wieneke, Monika

    In moving object databases, many authors assume that number and position of objects to be processed are always known in advance. Detecting an unknown moving object and pursuing its movement, however, is usually left to tracking algorithms outside the database in which the sensor data needed is actually stored. In this paper we present a solution to the problem of efficiently detecting targets over sensor data from a radar system based on database techniques. To this end, we implemented the recently developed probabilistic multiple hypothesis tracking approach using materialized SQL views and techniques for their incremental maintenance. We present empirical measurements showing that incremental evaluation techniques are indeed well-suited for efficiently detecting and tracking moving objects from a high-frequency stream of sensor data in this particular context. Additionally, we show how to efficiently simulate the aggregate function product which is fundamental for combining independent probabilistic values but unsupported by the SQL standard, yet.

  20. The effect of subjective and objective social class on health-related quality of life: new paradigm using longitudinal analysis

    Choi, Young; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the impact of the gap between subjective and objective social status on health-related quality of life. Methods We analyzed data from 12,350 participants aged ≥18 years in the Korean Health Panel Survey. Health-related quality of life was measured by EuroQol-Visual analogue scale. Objective (income and education) and subjective social class (measured by MacArthur scale) was classified into three groups (High, Middle, Low). In terms of a gap between objective and subj...

  1. Proposed Framework wWhich Use the Object Oriented Principles in Relational Systems. General Aspects and Principles (Part I

    Catalin STRIMBEI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are some significant theoretical and technological approaches on the issue of object-relational "impedance mismatch" between applications' abstract model and database structures. Two characteristics of those approaches we think that are questionable: first of all it is so called “flat” nature of relational systems and model, and then there is the drawback of the storage of (object oriented semantics on the application level, thus severe limiting the data (object sharing and, at the same time, virtually broking the data independence principle of database systems architecture. In this paper we will try to outline an approach to address to some in a concrete manner.

  2. 21 CFR 26.21 - Safeguard clause.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Safeguard clause. 26.21 Section 26.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE PRODUCT...

  3. 48 CFR 32.412 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... agency desires to waive the countersignature requirement because of the contractor's financial strength, good performance record, and favorable experience concerning cost disallowances, the contracting officer shall use the clause with its Alternate I. (c) If a cost-reimbursement contract is...

  4. Rights granted in the habendum clause

    Burgess, P.W. [Evans Higa Burgess, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    The habendum clause sets out the conditions for the continuance of a petroleum or natural gas lease during the primary term and during the events or circumstances which will continue the lease beyond the primary term. This paper describes the rights granted in the habendum clause. Typical older forms of freehold leases are compared with the model lease form and with the 1991 form of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Landmen (CAPL) Petroleum and Natural Gas lease. These comparisons were made in an effort to analyse the changes in the nature of the rights granted in the habendum clause. The most significant change is that the 1991 CAPL lease form avoids the `unless` pitfalls of older forms by creating firstly the `drill or pay` form of habendum clause, and by introducing the alternatives of paying either a lump sum one time rental or a periodic rental payment. The effect of these changes is that failure to make timely payments does not result in automatic termination of the lease, but rather one which must be made subject of a default notice by the lessor to the lessee.12 refs.

  5. Rights granted in the habendum clause

    The habendum clause sets out the conditions for the continuance of a petroleum or natural gas lease during the primary term and during the events or circumstances which will continue the lease beyond the primary term. This paper describes the rights granted in the habendum clause. Typical older forms of freehold leases are compared with the model lease form and with the 1991 form of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Landmen (CAPL) Petroleum and Natural Gas lease. These comparisons were made in an effort to analyse the changes in the nature of the rights granted in the habendum clause. The most significant change is that the 1991 CAPL lease form avoids the 'unless' pitfalls of older forms by creating firstly the 'drill or pay' form of habendum clause, and by introducing the alternatives of paying either a lump sum one time rental or a periodic rental payment. The effect of these changes is that failure to make timely payments does not result in automatic termination of the lease, but rather one which must be made subject of a default notice by the lessor to the lessee.12 refs

  6. 48 CFR 227.303 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... experimental, developmental, or research work if (A) The contractor is other than a small business concern or nonprofit organization; and (B) No alternative patent rights clause is used in accordance with FAR 27.303(c... foreign governments or international organizations pursuant to any existing or future treaty or...

  7. 48 CFR 503.1004 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 503.1004 Section 503.1004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct...

  8. 48 CFR 1403.1004 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 1403.1004 Section 1403.1004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct...

  9. 37 CFR 11.61 - Savings clause.

    2010-07-01

    ... been subject to disciplinary action before September 15, 2008. (c) Sections 11.24, 11.25, 11.28 and 11... September 15, 2008. (d) Sections 11.58 through 11.60 shall apply to all cases in which an order of... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Savings clause. 11.61...

  10. 48 CFR 1632.772 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contract clause. 1632.772 Section 1632.772 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING...

  11. 48 CFR 1624.104 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PROTECTION OF PRIVACY AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Protection of Individual Privacy 1624.104 Contract clause. Records retained by FEHBP carriers on... records do not fall within the provisions of the Privacy Act. Nevertheless, OPM recognizes the need...

  12. 48 CFR 424.104 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 424.104 Section 424.104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PROTECTION OF PRIVACY AND FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Protection of Individual Privacy 424.104 Contract...

  13. Crossmodal neuroimaging of object-related integration in subcortical structures of the human brain

    M. J Naumer

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on invasive electrophysiology it has been recently hypothesized that in addition to the superior colliculus (SC further subcortical structures (i.e. the cerebellum, the thalamus, and the basal ganglia might play a critical role in multisensory integration. So far, however, non-invasive evidence in humans for such subcortical involvement is almost completely lacking. In a series of fMRI experiments, we first searched for visuo-tactile (VT integration regions employing the so-called Max-criterion (VT>max[V, T], while we manipulated the side of active touch (left vs. right hand and the degree of VT (orientation or identity congruency. The results showed robust, bilateral VT integration effects in the lateral cerebellum that were substantially more pronounced during stimulation of the ipsilateral as compared to the contralateral hand and independent of VT congruency or the type of stimulus material (i.e familiar natural versus unfamiliar artificial. Additional tests for audio-visuo-tactile (AVT integration in this region showed no significant effects indicating that the role of the lateral cerebellum might be specific to VT integration. In complementary analyses of these fMRI data sets we employed spatial independent component analysis (sICA. SICA is a multivariate, data-driven analysis technique that decomposes fMRI data into spatially independent components, which can be interpreted as functional connectivity maps. Selection of components of interest for further analysis was done by visual inspection. Among the task-related independent components (ICs of the AVT experiment three apparently unisensory ICs were most robustly detected. Each of these ICs suggested a network of functionally connected cortical and subcortical regions processing auditory, visual, and somatosensory-motor information, respectively. Combining these IC-maps provided a surprisingly clear parcellation of the sensorimotor thalamus in its medial geniculate (MGN, lateral geniculate (LGN, and ventral posterior (VPN nuclei. The same subjects also participated in two independent audio-visual (AV and VT experiments. These data enabled explicit testing of the hypothesized thalamic involvement in multisensory integration. Our results indicate AV integration effects (Max-criterion: AV>max[A, V] in bilateral MGN (but not LGN and similar VT integration effects in both LGN and VPN. Interestingly, these latter effects were only detectable when our subjects grasped the objects with their non-dominant (left hand, which suggests that VT integration effects in distinct nuclei of the human thalamus are most pronounced when unimodal (haptic stimulation is least effective, in accordance with the inverse-effectiveness rule.

  14. Why the formal relational data model can be considered as a basis of object-oriented systems

    Grigoriev, Evgeniy

    2007-01-01

    Relational data model defines a specification of a unique type "relation." However, its simplicity does not mean that the system implementing this model must operate with structures which are simple to the same degree only. We consider two principles, which allow one to combine object-oriented paradigm (OOP) and relational data model (RDM) in the framework of the unique system without breaking the formalism of the latter model. The first principle -- "data complexity in encapsulated domains" -- is well known from The Third Manifesto by Date and Darwen. The second principle --"data complexity in names"-- is the basis for a system where data are described as arbitrarily complex objects and may be uniquely represented as a set of relations. Names of these relations and names of their attributes are combinations of names entered in specifications of the complex objects. Below, we consider the main properties of such a system.

  15. Variability of Extragalactic Objects in Relation to Redshift, Color, Radio Spectral Index and Absorption Lines

    D. Basu

    2001-12-01

    Optical variability of extragalactic objects, viz., QSOs, BL Lacs and Seyfert galaxies has been monitored systematically over an appreciable period of time and a large amount of data have accumulated. The present work reports results of investigations involving statistical analysis of updated data on relationships between variability and various observed properties of the objects, viz., redshift, color indices, radio spectral index and absorption lines. It is found that at high frequencies (rest frame) radio spectral index does not change significantly with the degree of variability. However, the degree of variability depends on redshifts. On the other hand, presence or absence of absorption lines is significantly associated with variability for QSOs with larger redshifts ( > 1.0), while no such relationship exists for QSOs at smaller redshifts ( < 1.0 or other objects. Correlation between color indices and redshifts depends on the degree of variability and the sample chosen for the color index.

  16. An encoder for the measurement of relative motions between two objects

    The motion encoder is composed of a measuring rule, mounted on one of the object, which bears at least two tracks (X, Y) with multiple simple marks distributed following a similar pattern on the two tracks, and at least one specific mark (each mark limit is defining a step variation on the rule), and at least two mark readers, mounted on the second object, each one associated to a track. Data processing means are used to estimate distance and motion direction. Application to robotics and metrology

  17. An Equivalence Relation to Reduce Data Redundancy Based on Fuzzy Object Oriented Database System

    Sujoy Dutta; Dr.Laxman Sahoo; Debasis Dwibedy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a fuzzy equivalence relation is defined, generally, superseding most of the established results. The technique of employing sets of values for tuple components to express imprecision and redundancy in relational databases was proposed by Buckles and Petry in their classic works on fuzzy relational databases [1], [2]. By employing finite scalar domains with similarity relations and special fuzzy number domains, Buckles and Petry have demonstrated that the classical properties of...

  18. A COMPARISON OF THE TURKIC TYPE RELATIVE CLAUSE TYPOLOGY WITH JAPANESE, KOREAN AND HUNGRAIAN TYPOLOGIES TÜRK DİLİ SIFAT-FİİLLİ YAPI TİPOLOJİSİNİN JAPON, KORE VE MACAR TİPOLOJİLERİ İLE KARŞILAŞTIRILMASI

    Ferhat KARABULUT

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, we dealt with relative clause typologies in the world languages in general and Turkic Type Relative Clause typology in particular. By doing this, we compared Turkish relative clause construction with Japanese, Korean and Hungarian ones, which are all considered in Uralic and Altaic Language Family. In doing this, we made use of Chomskian theories called Generative-Transformational Grammar and Governement and Binding Thoery. As is known, Chomsky declared that all languages have the same typolgy in the Deep Structure. The changes among languages are witnessed in Surface Structure. There is a transformation between deep structure and surface structure. It means that, a noun pharse can be moved to another place leaving an empty place behind by constructing a chain between the empty place and its antecedents (moved element. When we compared Turkic type relative clause typology with Japanese, Korean and Hungarian, we amasingly saw that the strategies are the same in these langauges. Bu çalışmada, dünya dillerinde önemli bir yere sahip olan sıfat-fiilli yapıların tipolojilerini inceledik. Bunu yapmaktaki amacımız, Türk Dili Tipi Sıfat-fiilli Yapı tipolojinsin dünya dilleri arasındaki yerini tespit etmek ve benzer tipolojiler ile karşılaştırmaktır. Türk dili ile akraba olduğu varsayılan Japon, Kore ve Macar dillerini, sıfat-fiil tipolojileri açısında analiz ederek Türk Dili Tipolojisi ile olan benzerlikleri ortaya koymaya çalıştık. Sıfat-fiil tipolojisini analiz ederken, Chomsky’nin Üretken-Dönüşümlü Dil Bilgisi ve Yönetim ve Bağlama Kuramı’ndan faydalandık. Dilin yapısal olarak incelenmesi gerektiğini ileri süren Chomsky, derin yapı ve yüzey yapı kavramları ile taşınım ve dönüşümün bütün diller için kaçınılmaz bir gerçeklik olduğunu gösterdi. Biz de bu çalışmada ad öbeği taşınımı ve boşluk kuramı ışığında, sıfat-fiilli yapı tipolojilerini karşılaştırmalı olarak ele aldık ve Türk, Japon, Kore ve Macar dilleri arasındaki şaşırtıcı benzerliği, öbek yapı ve söz dizimi seviyesinde tespit ettik.

  19. On the nature of escapable relative islands

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj; Nyvad, Anne Mette

    2014-01-01

    It is generally assumed that universal island constraints block extraction from relative clauses. However, it is well-known that such extractions can be acceptable in the Scandinavian languages. Kush & Lindahl (2011) argue that the acceptability in Swedish is illusory; relative clauses that allow...... extraction have a different structure (small clause structure) from those that block extraction (true relatives, CPs). We present data from an acceptability survey of relative clause extraction in Danish. In the survey, extraction significantly decreased acceptability but we found no statistically...... significant effect of the ability of the verb to take a small-clause complement. We also found no difference between som ‘that/who/which’ and der ‘that/who/which’, both of which can head a relative clause while only som can head a small clause. We argue that our results do not warrant the stipulation of a...

  20. Hypernode graphs for learning from binary relations between sets of objects

    Ricatte, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Graphs are commonly used as a powerful abstract model to represent complex relationships between individuals.For (classical) graphs, pairwise relations are modeled by edges between vertices. This is for instance the casefor social networks with the friendship relation, or for computer networks with the connection relation.The hypergraph formalism has been introduced in the 1970s for modeling complex problems where relationshipsare no longer binary, which is when they involve more than two ind...

  1. Relation between infants'/toddlers' developmental status and their levels of object play

    Urška Fekonja

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of introduced study was to establish the connection between the highest achieved levels of infant' and toddler's object play and their developmental status. 23 Slovenian infants and toddlers were included in the sample. They were engaged in solitary play with standard toys. Global and partial quotients were established using the early childhood development scale RT-R. The levels of child's solitary play were estimated using assesment scale designed by Belsky and Most. The results showed some statisticaly significant correlations between children's developmental qoutients (global and partial and their highest achieved levels of object play. As the basis for the interpretation of results I used the theories which explain the development of child's language, cognition and play.

  2. Relation between infants'/toddlers' developmental status and their levels of object play

    Urška Fekonja

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of introduced study was to establish the connection between the highest achieved levels of infant' and toddler's object play and their developmental status. 23 Slovenian infants and toddlers were included in the sample. They were engaged in solitary play with standard toys. Global and partial quotients were established using the early childhood development scale RT-R. The levels of child's solitary play were estimated using assesment scale designed by Belsky and Most....

  3. High cardiac vagal control is related to better subjective and objective sleep quality

    Werner, Gabriela G.; Ford, Brett Q.; Mauss, Iris B.; SCHABUS, MANUEL; Blechert, Jens; Wilhelm, Frank H.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac vagal control (CVC) has been linked to both physical and mental health. One critical aspect of health, that has not received much attention, is sleep. We hypothesized that adults with higher CVC – operationalized by high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) – will exhibit better sleep quality assessed both subjectively (i.e., with Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and objectively (i.e., with polysomnography). HF-HRV was measured in 29 healthy young women during an extended neutral ...

  4. Relating visual to verbal semantic knowledge: the evaluation of object recognition in prosopagnosia

    Barton, Jason J. S.; Hanif, Hashim; Ashraf, Sohi

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of face specificity in prosopagnosia is hampered by difficulty in gauging pre-morbid expertise for non-face object categories, for which humans vary widely in interest and experience. In this study, we examined the correlation between visual and verbal semantic knowledge for cars to determine if visual recognition accuracy could be predicted from verbal semantic scores. We had 33 healthy subjects and six prosopagnosic patients first rated their own knowledge of cars. They were then...

  5. Relative Navigation Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) Sensor Development Test Objective (DTO) Performance Verification

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request from the NASA Associate Administrator (AA) for Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), to quantitatively evaluate the individual performance of three light detection and ranging (LIDAR) rendezvous sensors flown as orbiter's development test objective on Space Transportation System (STS)-127, STS-133, STS-134, and STS-135. This document contains the outcome of the NESC assessment.

  6. A New Approach in Consistency of Object Oriented Model and Relational Model in Distributed Systems Base on Heterogeneous Databases

    Tahereh kheradmandan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available According to application a database is designed to be object-oriented model or relational model but the important point is distribution and heterogeneity. So a model should be provided which work with different types of database and also be able to work disruption, and heterogeneity So one of the great challenges in the use of distributed database technologies is integrating object-oriented databases with relational databases because the platform-independent technologies have an object-oriented approach But today databases are usualy designed and implemented base on relational model. Hence this paper tries to offer a model that could bring further coordination and integration between these two exsisting database models

  7. Objectively measured daily physical activity related to cardiac size in young children

    Dencker, M; Thorsson, O; Karlsson, M K; Lindén, C; Wollmer, P; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2009-01-01

    Training studies in children have suggested that endurance training can give enlargement of cardiac dimensions. This relationship has not been studied on a population-based level in young children with objective methods. A cross-sectional study was made of 248 children (140 boys and 108 girls...... activity per day (VPA) was calculated. Acceptable accelerometer and echocardiography measurements were obtained in 228 children (boys=127, girls=101). Univariate correlations between VPA and LVDD were indexed for BSA in boys (r=0.27, P<0.05) and in girls (r=0.10, NS). Multiple regression analysis showed...

  8. A search for radio emission from X-ray binaries and related objects

    5-GHz radio observations are reported of 117 X-ray binary stars and cataclysmic variable stars using the Jodrell Bank Lovell-Mk II broad-band interferometer. Sensitivity was sufficient to detect sources of 2-3 mJy. In addition to seven objects already known to be radio emitters, seven new radio sources were detected. VLA observations confirmed that two of the new radio sources are coincident with the X-ray positions, one of them probably an extragalactic radio source, and the other a pulsar. (author)

  9. Effect of supersonic relative motion between baryons and dark matter on collapsed objects

    Asaba, Shinsuke; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Tashiro, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Great attention is given to the first star formation and the epoch of reionization as main targets of planned large radio interferometries (e.g. Square Kilometre Array). Recently, it is claimed that the supersonic relative velocity between baryons and cold dark matter can suppress the abundance of first stars and impact the cosmological reionization process. Therefore, in order to compare observed results with theoretical predictions it is important to examine the effect of the supersonic relative motion on the small-scale structure formation. In this paper, we investigate this effect on the nonlinear structure formation in the context of the spherical collapse model in order to understand the fundamental physics in a simple configuration. We show the evolution of the dark matter sphere with the relative velocity by both using N-body simulations and numerically calculating the equation of motion for the dark matter mass shell. The effects of the relative motion in the spherical collapse model appear as the delay of the collapse time of dark matter halos and the decrease of the baryon mass fraction within the dark matter sphere. Based on these results, we provide the fitting formula of the critical density contrast for collapses with the relative motion effect and calculate the mass function of dark matter halos in the Press-Schechter formalism. As a result, the relative velocity decreases the abundance of dark matter halos whose mass is smaller than 108M⊙/h .

  10. Aspectual Properties of Spanish Absolute Small Clauses

    Marín Gálvez, Rafael

    1996-01-01

    The major aim of this paper consists in determining the aspectual constraints affecting absolute small clauses (ASCs) headed by a past participle. A detailed analysis of these constructions seems to indicate that there are enough arguments to postulate the existence of two types of ASCs: those having an NP direct internal argument (AASCs), and those in which this NP is phonetically unrealized (PASCs). The different temporal interpretation that these two types of ASCs can receive is one of the...

  11. Improving SAT Solvers via Blocked Clause Decomposition

    Chen, Jingchao

    2016-01-01

    The decision variable selection policy used by the most competitive CDCL (Conflict-Driven Clause Learning) SAT solvers is either VSIDS (Variable State Independent Decaying Sum) or its variants such as exponential version EVSIDS. The common characteristic of VSIDS and its variants is to make use of statistical information in the solving process, but ignore structure information of the problem. For this reason, this paper modifies the decision variable selection policy, and presents a SAT solvi...

  12. Multi-objective optimization of cutting parameters in turning using grey relational analysis

    Meenu Gupta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study presents optimization of performance characteristics in unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastic composites using Taguchi method and Grey relational analysis. Performance characteristics such as surface roughness and material removal rate are optimized during rough cutting operation. Process parameters including tool nose radius, tool rake angle, feed rate, cutting speed, cutting environment and depth of cut are investigated using mixed L18 orthogonal array. Grey relation analysis is used to optimize the parameters and Principal Component Analysis is used to find the relative significance of performance characteristics. Depth of cut is the factor, which has great influence on surface roughness and material removal rate, followed by feed rate. The percentage contribution of depth of cut is 54.399% and feed rate is 5.355%.

  13. Knee Confidence as It Relates to Self-reported and Objective Correlates of Knee Osteoarthritis

    Skou, Sren T; Rasmussen, Sten; Simonsen, Ole; Roos, Ewa M

    2015-01-01

    confidence, assessed using item Q3 of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, as the dependent variable and self-reported (pain on walking, general health, fear of movement, self-efficacy, function, and previous serious injury) and objective measures (muscle strength, 20-m walk time, and...... radiographic severity of tibiofemoral OA) as predictor variables. Results Most (95%) of the participants reported lack of knee confidence, and 54% experienced severe or extreme lack of knee confidence. Fear of movement (odds ratio [OR] = 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15, 3.68), pain on walking (OR = 1...... muscle strength was not. Fear of movement and poor general health were new variables associated with lack of knee confidence. The noncorrelations or poor correlations with other tested variables suggest that a lack of knee confidence may represent an independent treatment target in knee OA of importance...

  14. The User Interface: A Hypertext Model Linking Art Objects and Related Information.

    Moline, Judi

    This report presents a model combining the emerging technologies of hypertext and expert systems. Hypertext is relatively unexplored but promises an innovative approach to information retrieval. In contrast, expert systems have been used experimentally in many different application areas ranging from medical diagnosis to oil exploration. The…

  15. Effect of supersonic relative motion between baryons and dark matter on collapsed objects

    Asaba, Shinsuke; Tashiro, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The first star formation and the Epoch of Reionization are paid great attention to as main targets of planned large radio interferometries (e.g. Square Kilometre Array). Recently, it is claimed that the supersonic relative velocity between baryons and cold dark matter can suppress the abundance of the first stars and impact the cosmological reionization process. Therefore, in order to compare observed results with theoretical predictions it is important to examine the effect of the supersonic relative motion on the small-scale structure formation. In this paper, we investigate the effect on the nonlinear structure formation in the context of the spherical collapse model. We show the evolution of the dark matter sphere with the relative velocity by both using N-body simulations and numerical calculations of the equation of motion for the dark matter mass shell. The effects of the relative motions in the spherical collapse model appear as the delay of the collapse time of dark matter halos and the decrease of t...

  16. Apparatus and method for simultaneously displaying relative displacements of a fluctuating biological object

    In a method for producing discrete images of a human organ in fluctuating motion, e.g., the heart and related vessels, images derived at selected times related to the cardiac cycle are independently presented on respective discrete areas within a common image plane. A source of X-rays irradiates the organ. A physiological synchronizer produces timing signals within the cardiac cycle for controlling the periods of transmission of the X-ray beam through the organ during, for example, end diastole and end systole. An antiscattering, masking frame has alternate parallel slits and bars at equal intervals exposing substantially half the area of presentation of an X-ray sensitive film in alternate, equally spaced area strips during, e.g., diastole. The frame is repositioned in response to a signal from the synchronizer for displacing it relative to the film such that the bars then cover the sensitized areas of the film and expose substantially the remaining half of the film during systole. The image elements are interdigitally juxtaposed to present the diastolic and systolic images in an interlaced pattern. Relative displacements of the organ during a cardiac cycle may be determined from the juxtaposed image elements. (author)

  17. Mechanical Objects and the Engineering Learner: An Experimental Study of How the Presence of Objects Affects Students' Performance on Engineering Related Tasks

    Bairaktarova, Diana N.

    2013-01-01

    People display varying levels of interaction with the mechanical objects in their environment; engineers in particular as makers and users of these objects display a higher level of interaction with them. Investigating the educational potential of mechanical objects in stimulating and supporting learning in engineering is warranted by the fact…

  18. International comparisons of the associations between objective measures of the built environment and transport-related walking and cycling

    Christiansen, Lars B.; Cerin, Ester; Badland, Hannah; Kerr, Jacqueline; Davey, Rachel; Troelsen, Jens; van Dyck, Delfien; Mitáš, Josef; Schofield, Grant; Sugiyama, Takemi; Salvo, Deborah; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Reis, Rodrigo; Adams, Marc; Frank, Larry; Sallis, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mounting evidence documents the importance of urban form for active travel, but international studies could strengthen the evidence. The aim of the study was to document the strength, shape, and generalizability of relations of objectively measured built environment variables with t...

  19. Sex-related preferences for real and doll faces versus real and toy objects in young infants and adults.

    Escudero, Paola; Robbins, Rachel A; Johnson, Scott P

    2013-10-01

    Findings of previous studies demonstrate sex-related preferences for toys in 6-month-old infants; boys prefer nonsocial or mechanical toys such as cars, whereas girls prefer social toys such as dolls. Here, we explored the innate versus learned nature of this sex-related preferences using multiple pictures of doll and real faces (of men and women) as well as pictures of toy and real objects (cars and stoves). In total, 48 4- and 5-month-old infants (24 girls and 24 boys) and 48 young adults (24 women and 24 men) saw six trials of all relevant pairs of faces and objects, with each trial containing a different exemplar of a stimulus type. The infant results showed no sex-related preferences; infants preferred faces of men and women regardless of whether they were real or doll faces. Similarly, adults did not show sex-related preferences for social versus nonsocial stimuli, but unlike infants they preferred faces of the opposite sex over objects. These results challenge claims of an innate basis for sex-related preferences for toy real stimuli and suggest that sex-related preferences result from maturational and social development that continues into adulthood. PMID:23933180

  20. An Algorithmic Structuration of a Type System for an Orthogonal Object/Relational Model

    Benabbou, Amel; Amghar, Youssef

    2010-01-01

    Date and Darwen have proposed a theory of types, the latter forms the basis of a detailed presentation of a panoply of simple and complex types. However, this proposal has not been structured in a formal system. Specifically, Date and Darwen haven't indicated the formalism of the type system that corresponds to the type theory established. In this paper, we propose a pseudo-algorithmic and grammatical description of a system of types for Date and Darwen's model. Our type system is supposed take into account null values; for such intention, we introduce a particular type noted #, which expresses one or more occurrences of incomplete information in a database. Our algebraic grammar describes in detail the complete specification of an inheritance model and the subryping relation induced, thus the different definitions of related concepts.

  1. Knee Confidence as it Relates to Self-Reported and Objective Correlates of Knee Osteoarthritis

    Skou, Sren T; Rasmussen, Sten; Simonsen, Ole; Roos, Ewa M

    2015-01-01

    variable and self-reported (pain on walking, general health, fear of movement, self-efficacy, function and previous serious injury) and objective measures (muscle strength, 20-meter walk time and radiographic severity of tibiofemoral OA) as predictor variables. Results Most (95%) of the participants...... reported lack of knee confidence, and 54% experienced severe or extreme lack of knee confidence. Fear of movement (Odds Ratio(OR) 2.06, 95% Confidence Intervals [95% CI] 1.15-3.68), pain on walking (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.09-1.34) and general health (OR 0.024, 95% CI 0.002-0.259) explained 19% of the variance...... in knee confidence (P<0.001). Conclusion Severe lack of knee confidence is a common finding in knee OA. Pain on walking was confirmed as a correlate of knee confidence while muscle strength was not. Fear of movement and poor general health were new variables associated with lack of knee confidence...

  2. Objectives, definition and elaboration of technical scenarios for emergency drills relating to a french PWR

    The safety measures applied during the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants are such that the occurrence of an accident with unacceptable consequences for the public is a highly improbable event. Despite this low probability, a number of emergency plans have been drawn up to cater for the occurrence of events that might lead to such an accident: on-site emergency plan to protect plant personnel, terminate the accident and mitigate its consequences; short-and long-term emergency plans to protect the general public and prepare for a return to acceptable living conditions. To check that plans are appropriate and ready to be implemented, they must be regularly tested by means of drills. These drills may be directed solely at technical aspects of nuclear units, or they may concern all the players normally involved, i.e. the utility (EdF), all the specialized government departments concerned and stand-ins for the media. The paper describes some aspects of the procedure for choosing objectives and the preparation of drills, which are illustrated by examples from the national EPAULE exercise. From a technical standpoint, the drills demonstrated that current organizational structures are both effective and operational; however, they cannot determine how the public would actually react in the event of a nuclear accident, given the difficulty of assessing the emotional impact of exposure to a danger than cannot be perceived directly and to information reported by the media

  3. Nano-Objects and Ions in Liquid Crystals: Ion Trapping Effect and Related Phenomena

    Yuriy Garbovskiy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of ions in liquid crystals is one of the grand challenges that hinder the application of liquid crystals in various devices, which include advanced 3-D and flexible displays, tunable lenses, etc. Not only do they compromise the overall performance of liquid crystal devices, ions are also responsible for slow response, image sticking, and image flickering, as well as many other negative effects. Even highly purified liquid crystal materials can get contaminated during the manufacturing process. Moreover, liquid crystals can degrade over time and generate ions. All of these factors raise the bar for their quality control, and increase the manufacturing cost of liquid crystal products. A decade of dedicated research has paved the way to the solution of the issues mentioned above through merging liquid crystals and nanotechnology. Nano-objects (guests that are embedded in the liquid crystals (hosts can trap ions, which decreases the ion concentration and electrical conductivity, and improves the electro-optical response of the host. In this paper, we (i review recently published works reporting the effects of nanoscale dopants on the electrical properties of liquid crystals; and (ii identify the most promising inorganic and organic nanomaterials suitable to capture ions in liquid crystals.

  4. What undertakings are protected under Umbrella Clauses of BITs.

    Khasanov, Jamshid

    2015-01-01

    The thesis is discusses what is the scope of Umbrella Clauses. State undertakings must satisfy the condition of being investment. That is the first requirement of applicability of investment regime to state undertakings. Despite state undertakings was seen as wide concept (by some tribunals) the language of the clause and prevailing view support undertakings must be limited to contractual undertakings (in practice some viewed that Umbrella Clause can be extended to municipal law obligations) ...

  5. Indefiniteness relation and diffraction of micro-objects at screen with aperture

    The problem of interpreting the Heisenberg indefiniteness, when microparticles are passed through an aperture in a massive screen is considered. It is shown that derivation of the indefiniteness relations on the basis of diffraction approach, as it is sometimes done in manuals and guides on general physics, is not quite correct. Using the approximation which makes allowance for atomic structure of a screen with an aperture and uses quantum theory of single scattering on many centers, it was found that the picture of microparticle scattering on a screen with an aperture is similar to optical diffraction

  6. A systematic review of reliability and objective criterion-related validity of physical activity questionnaires.

    Helmerhorst, Hendrik J F; Brage, Søren; Warren, Janet; Besson, Herve; Ekelund, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the four leading risk factors for global mortality. Accurate measurement of physical activity (PA) and in particular by physical activity questionnaires (PAQs) remains a challenge. The aim of this paper is to provide an updated systematic review of the reliability and validity characteristics of existing and more recently developed PAQs and to quantitatively compare the performance between existing and newly developed PAQs.A literature search of electronic databases was performed for studies assessing reliability and validity data of PAQs using an objective criterion measurement of PA between January 1997 and December 2011. Articles meeting the inclusion criteria were screened and data were extracted to provide a systematic overview of measurement properties. Due to differences in reported outcomes and criterion methods a quantitative meta-analysis was not possible.In total, 31 studies testing 34 newly developed PAQs, and 65 studies examining 96 existing PAQs were included. Very few PAQs showed good results on both reliability and validity. Median reliability correlation coefficients were 0.62-0.71 for existing, and 0.74-0.76 for new PAQs. Median validity coefficients ranged from 0.30-0.39 for existing, and from 0.25-0.41 for new PAQs.Although the majority of PAQs appear to have acceptable reliability, the validity is moderate at best. Newly developed PAQs do not appear to perform substantially better than existing PAQs in terms of reliability and validity. Future PAQ studies should include measures of absolute validity and the error structure of the instrument. PMID:22938557

  7. A systematic review of reliability and objective criterion-related validity of physical activity questionnaires

    Helmerhorst Hendrik JF

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Physical inactivity is one of the four leading risk factors for global mortality. Accurate measurement of physical activity (PA and in particular by physical activity questionnaires (PAQs remains a challenge. The aim of this paper is to provide an updated systematic review of the reliability and validity characteristics of existing and more recently developed PAQs and to quantitatively compare the performance between existing and newly developed PAQs. A literature search of electronic databases was performed for studies assessing reliability and validity data of PAQs using an objective criterion measurement of PA between January 1997 and December 2011. Articles meeting the inclusion criteria were screened and data were extracted to provide a systematic overview of measurement properties. Due to differences in reported outcomes and criterion methods a quantitative meta-analysis was not possible. In total, 31 studies testing 34 newly developed PAQs, and 65 studies examining 96 existing PAQs were included. Very few PAQs showed good results on both reliability and validity. Median reliability correlation coefficients were 0.62–0.71 for existing, and 0.74–0.76 for new PAQs. Median validity coefficients ranged from 0.30–0.39 for existing, and from 0.25–0.41 for new PAQs. Although the majority of PAQs appear to have acceptable reliability, the validity is moderate at best. Newly developed PAQs do not appear to perform substantially better than existing PAQs in terms of reliability and validity. Future PAQ studies should include measures of absolute validity and the error structure of the instrument.

  8. Objectively measured daily physical activity related to aerobic fitness in young children

    Dencker, Magnus; Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca; Andersen, Lars B

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate by direct measurement the cross-sectional relationship between accelerometer-measured physical activity and peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak): ml x min(-1) x kg(-1)), in a population-based cohort of young children, since such data are scarce. The study...... included 468 children (246 boys, 222 girls) aged 6.7 + or - 0.4 years, recruited from a population-based cohort. Peak oxygen uptake was measured by indirect calorimetry during a maximal treadmill exercise test. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometers over a 4-day period. Minutes of sedentary.......15-0.28, P < 0.05), with the exception of time in sedentary and light activity, which was not related to VO(2peak). None of the daily physical activity variables were related to VO(2peak) in girls, with the exception of a very weak relationship for moderate activity (r = 0.14, P < 0.05). Multiple regression...

  9. The role of sexuality in sadism: object relations and drive theory perspectives.

    Juni, Samuel

    2009-12-01

    The sexual components of sadism are conceptualized within the contexts of different forms of sadism. In aggression-drive sadism, sexuality is seen as a generalization of instinctual reactivity. Parallels are presented of such spillover between aggression and anxiety and even between aggression and oral impulses, with the notion that any areas of excitation or partial impulses can be energized by the acute release of energy in another domain. Another dynamic is presented for re-enactment sadists, in which the sexuality has a relational meaning. In such cases, sexuality is intertwined with the aggression, as the sadistic ritual actually re-evokes an original trauma that features these elements. It is further agued that the sexuality in these two sadistic modes is not consistent. The instinctual spillover that occurs in hostile psychopathy is psychosexually rooted in phallic functioning, in which relational implications are absent, while the sexuality in re-enacted sadism is genitally based, and is intrinsically linked to an imagined emotional relationship with the victim that is intended to ameliorate and undo past trauma that haunt the perpetrator. PMID:19949381

  10. Musculoskeletal symptoms related to video display terminal use: an analysis of objective and subjective exposure estimates.

    Faucett, J; Rempel, D

    1996-01-01

    The occupational use of video display terminals (VDTs) has been associated with the increasing incidence of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders, often called cumulative trauma disorders. To guide clinical and policy decisions about the prevention and treatment of these VDT related disorders, valid and economic measures of total daily VDT use and VDT related job tasks such as data entry or editing will be important. In this study of newspaper reporters and copy editors (n = 83), VDT use was measured with employee self reports and by sampling the work behaviors of a subsample of employees. Behavioral sampling estimated VDT use as a characteristic of the job as opposed to a characteristic of individual employee performance. Overall, the two techniques of measuring occupational VDT use compared favorably, with the exception that self reported hours of VDT use tended to exceed the hours of use estimated by behavioral observation for employees who were younger and those who reported greater job demands. The findings suggest that behavioral sampling is a valid technique for estimating VDT use as a job characteristic. PMID:8694972

  11. Relaxation search: a simple way of managing optional clauses

    Bacchus, Fahiem; Davies, Jessica; Tsimpoukelli, Maria; Katsirelos, George

    2014-01-01

    A number of problems involve managing a set of optional clauses. For example, the soft clauses in a MAXSAT formula are optional—they can be falsified for a cost. Similarly, when computing a Minimum Correction Set for an unsatisfiable formula, all clauses are optional—some can be falsified in order to satisfy the remaining. In both of these cases the task is to find a subset of the optional clauses that achieves some criteria, and whose removal leaves a satisfiable formula. Relaxation search i...

  12. Formation and Evolution of Binary Planetary Nebula Nuclei and Related Objects

    Iben, Icko, Jr.; Tutukov, Alexander V.

    1993-11-01

    A study is made of the evolution of close binaries in which the primary first fills its Roche lobe after the exhaustion of helium at its center and before the onset of thermal pulses. Initial masses are in the range 3-6 M0. Also examined is the evolution of a 1 Msun model which fills its Roche lobe on the first giant branch when the mass of its helium degenerate core reaches 0.4 M0. In all cases, a common envelope scenario is assumed, and mass is removed from the model primary on a timescale shorter than the initial thermal timescale of the envelope of the primary until the model contracts within a final Roche lobe of predetermined size. After the removal of the common envelope, systems are very close binaries in which the evolved remnant has either a carbon-oxygen (CO) core and a helium-burning shell (progenitor of mass 2.3-8 Msun) or a helium core and a hydrogen-burning shell (progenitor of mass 1-2.3 Msun). The more massive remnants fill their Roche lobes for an extended period, transferring first hydrogen-rich material at a rate ˜10-8±1 Msun yr-1 for up to 106 yr, and then helium at a rate ˜10-6±1 Msun yr-1 for (1-4) × 105 yr. As much as ˜0.4 Msun of nearly pure helium can be transferred to an accretor. A possible real analog of the hydrogen-transferring models is U Sco, although, in many instances, a hydrogen-transferring episode may be bypassed or considerably shortened if the hot remnant blows a strong enough wind. Possible observational analogs of helium transferring models are bright ultrasoft X-ray sources like CAL 83 and CAL 87 in the Large Magellanic Cloud and some classes of supernova precursors. Our models help to explain the number and properties of hot helium OB subdwarfs. A method for estimating initial orbital periods of binary planetary nebula nuclei is introduced and used to infer the initial characteristics of binary systems which have produced close binary central stars, precataclysmic variables, and related systems. Using existing estimates of their current masses, we find that the initial primaries of V477 Lyr, UU Sge, KV Vel, and MT Ser (all central stars of planetary nebulae) filled their Roche lobes during the early asymptotic giant branch (EAGB) stage. As EAGB stars, these primaries had a small, degenerate CO nucleus, a massive helium shell, and an extended hydrogen-rich envelope. Most of the hydrogen-rich envelope was ejected in a common envelope event, and the planetary nebula now around the system is the ejected common envelope. The ionizing remnants of the primaries have a small, but growing, CO nucleus and a massive (≲0.2 Msun) helium shell. The progenitor of the primary component of V651 Mon, another central star of a common envelope planetary nebula, probably filled its Roche lobe during the first red giant phase, after the mass of its degenerate helium core reached ˜0.4 Msun. Wind mass loss may be responsible for the fact that the hot central star lies well within its Roche lobe. An examination and interpretation of the properties of several precataclysmic systems and binaries with components having peculiar surface compositions provide further insight into the consequences of mass loss and mass transfer in close binaries. Included in the study are systems containing helium supergiants, helium subdwarf O stars, S stars, Ba stars, and main-sequence carbon stars.

  13. Nasazení Object Relation Mapping nástrojů nad legacy datovým modelem

    Ondřej Berger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When modernizing an information system it is necesssary to deal with problems and questions modernization brings. The new system is inovated by new technologies and must preserve data which controls. It happends very often that old system cannot be shutdown and replaced by new system in single step. Then it’s necessary to share one database among various systems and transfer responsibilities to the new system continually. This solution brings problematic situations which are discussed in this paper. Transactional access using object relation mapping is presented together with non-transactional relation/procedural access with shared database objects. Other presented restriction is that number of database changes should be as small as possible.

  14. Comparison between Face and Object Processing in Youths with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An event related potentials study

    Anahita Khorrami; Mehdi Tehrani-Doost; Hossein Esteky

    2013-01-01

    Incapability in face perception and recognition is one of the main issues in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Event related potential (ERP) studies have revealed controversial insights on autistic brain responses to faces and objects. The current investigation examined the ERP components of young children with ASD compared to a typically developing (TD) group when looking at the upright and inverted images of faces and cars.Fourteen children and adolescents aged between 9 and 17 diagnosed as ...

  15. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; Groot, Renate de; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11–18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness – “I feel sleepy during the first hours at school” – appeared to predict both school grades and self-repo...

  16. Subjective Sleepiness and Sleep Quality in Adolescents are Related to Objective and Subjective Measures of School Performance

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 1118?years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness I feel sleepy during the first hours at school appeared to predict both school grades and self-repo...

  17. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    AnnemarieBoschloo; Renatede Groot

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness – ‘I feel sleepy during the first hours at school’ – appeared to predict both school grades and self-repor...

  18. Role of Working Memory Storage and Attention Focus Switching in Children’s Comprehension of Spoken Object Relative Sentences

    Finney, Mianisha C.; Montgomery, James W.; Ronald B. Gillam; Julia L. Evans

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated a two-mechanism memory model of the online auditory comprehension of object relative (OR) sentences in 7–11-year-old typically developing children. Mechanisms of interest included working memory storage (WMS) and attention focus switching. We predicted that both mechanisms would be important for comprehension. Forty-four children completed a listening span task indexing WMS, an auditory attention focus switching task, and an agent selection task indexing spoken sen...

  19. The Hilbert space of conditional clauses

    Francis, Charles

    2015-05-01

    In the absence of a satisfactory interpretation of quantum theory, physical law lacks physical basis. This paper reviews the orthodox, or Dirac-von Neumann interpretation, and makes explicit that Hilbert space describes propositions about measurement results. Kets are defined as conditional clauses referring to measurements in a formal language. It is seen that these clauses are elements of a Hilbert space, such that addition is logical disjunction, the dual space consists of consequent clauses, and the inner product is a set of statements in the subjunctive mood. The probability interpretation gives truth values for corresponding future tense statements when the initial state is actually prepared and the final state is to be measured. The mathematical structure of quantum mechanics is formulated in terms of discrete measurement results at finite level of accuracy and does not depend on an assumption of a substantive, or background, space-time continuum. A continuum of kets, ∣x> for x ∈ ℝ3, is constructed from linear combinations of kets in a finite basis. The inner product can be expressed either as a finite sum or as an integral. Discrete position functions are uniquely embedded into smooth wave functions in such a way that differential operators are defined. It is shown that the choice of basis has no effect on underlying physics (quantum covariance). The Dirac delta has a representation as a smooth function. Operators do not in general have an integral form. The Schrödinger equation is shown from the requirements of the probability interpretation. It is remarked that a formal construction of quantum electrodynamics (qed) avoiding divergence problems has been completed using finite dimensional Hilbert space. I conclude that quantum mechanics makes statements about the world with clear physical meaning, such that space is emergent from particle interactions and has no fundamental role.

  20. Development of exploration of spatial-relational object properties in the second and third years of life.

    Oudgenoeg-Paz, Ora; Boom, Jan; Volman, M Chiel J M; Leseman, Paul P M

    2016-06-01

    Within a perception-action framework, exploration is seen as a driving force in young children's development. Through exploration, children become skilled in perceiving the affordances in their environment and acting on them. Using a perception-action framework, the current study examined the development of children's exploration of the spatial-relational properties of objects such as the possibility of containing or stacking. A total of 61 children, belonging to two age cohorts, were followed from 9 to 24months and from 20 to 36months of age, respectively. Exploration of a standard set of objects was observed in five home visits in each cohort conducted every 4months. A cohort-sequential augmented growth model for categorical data, incorporating assumptions of item response theory, was constructed that fitted the data well, showing that the development of exploration of spatial-relational object properties follows an overlapping waves pattern. This is in line with Siegler's model (Emerging Minds, 1996), which suggested that skill development can be seen as ebbing and flowing of alternative (simple and advanced) behaviors. Although the probability of observing the more complex forms of exploration increased with age, the simpler forms did not disappear altogether but only became less probable. Findings support a perception-action view on development. Individual differences in observed exploration and their relations with other variables, as well as future directions for research, are discussed. PMID:26950506

  1. La influencia del contexto referencial en la resolución de ambigüedades oración completiva/oración de relativo: Evidencia en español The influence of referential context in solving ambiguities in complete sentences/relative clause: Evidence from Spanish

    Laura Alonso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza la resolución de ambigüedades sintácticas en español. De manera más específica, compara el procesamiento de oraciones con ambigüedad estructural (parsing entre oración de relativo y oración completiva, con y sin contexto referencial, utilizando una metodología de tiempos de lectura autoadministrada. El objetivo era comprobar si los resultados encontrados en lectores de habla inglesa se obtenían también en español. Los tiempos de lectura para las frases que contenían tanto oraciones completivas como oraciones de relativo fueron significativamente menores cuando iban precedidas de un contexto referencial. Estos resultados aportan evidencia congruente con los modelos referenciales (Crain & Steedman, 1985; Altmann & Steedman, 1988, que apuestan por un procesamiento basado en el uso de múltiples fuentes de información a la hora de resolver ambigüedades, y no solo en información de tipo estructural, tal y como sugieren los modelos modulares (Frazier, 1987; Mitchell, 1994; Mitchell, Cuetos, Corley & Brysbaert, 1995; Cuetos, Mitchell & Corley, 1996; Frazier & Clifton, 1996; Carreiras & Meseguer, 1999.This paper analyzes the resolution of syntactic ambiguities in Spanish. Specifically, it compares the processing of sentences with structural ambiguity between relative clause and complete sentences, with and without referential context, using different methods of self-administered reading times. The aim was to check whether the results found in English-speaking readers is also obtained in Spanish. The reading times for sentences containing both complete sentences and relative clauses were significantly smaller when they were preceded by a referential context. These results provide evidence consistent with referential models (Crain & Steedman, 1985; Altmann & Steedman, 1988 supporting a process based on the use of multiple sources of information when solving ambiguities, and not just on structural information as suggested by modular models (Frazier, 1987; Mitchell, 1994; Mitchell, Cuetos, Corley & Brysbaert, 1995; Cuetos, Mitchell & Corley, 1996; Frazier & Clifton, 1996; Carreiras & Meseguer, 1999.

  2. 48 CFR 227.7103-6 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... Restrictive Markings on Technical Data (paragraph (e) of the clause contains information that must be included... Research Program (see 227.7104). Except as provided in 227.7107-2, do not use the clause in architect... Information Marked with Restrictive Legends, in solicitations and contracts when it is anticipated that...

  3. 48 CFR 225.7403-2 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Defense Contractors Outside the United States 225.7403-2 Contract clause. Use the clause at 252.225-7043, Antiterrorism/Force Protection Policy... performance or travel outside the United States, except for contracts with— (a) Foreign governments;...

  4. 37 CFR 401.13 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administration of patent rights clauses. 401.13 Section 401.13 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR... patent rights clauses. (a) In the event a subject invention is made under funding agreements of more...

  5. 48 CFR 3427.472 - Advertising of awards clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising of awards... Copyrights 3427.472 Advertising of awards clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause in 3452.227-72, Advertising of Awards, in all solicitations and contracts other than purchase orders....

  6. An Analysis of Hierarchy in English Clause Combination

    Clarence Green

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The following study presents research into English clause combination that describes how the types of clauses in English are distributed along a hierarchy of grammatical integration, in a much more complex fashion than the traditional coordination/subordination dichotomy suggests. This hierarchy extends and synthesizes previous descriptions of English combined clauses found in the most referenced descriptive grammars of English. A corpus analysis of patterns in the combined clauses that may be a consequence of hierarchy was also conducted. A corpus of 50 examples of each form was coded for tense/aspect continuity, subject continuity and syntactic function. The analysis confirmed that the different formal levels of integration amongst the clauses are reflected in their functional and discourse patterns. The implications of the study are that English clause combination might be beneficially described and taught as hierarchical beyond traditional binary categories, as combined clauses are a range of more or less integrated structures with distinct properties.  For teachers and advanced learners the research may help in an understanding of the relationship in English grammar between function, form, discourse and syntax.Keywords: English grammar, clause combination, corpus linguistics, coordination, subordination

  7. 17 CFR Appendix B to Subpart A of... - Sample Clauses

    2010-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS S-P AND S-AM Regulation S-P: Privacy of Consumer Financial Information and Safeguarding Personal.../Joint Marketing Exception You may use one of these clauses, as applicable, to meet the requirements of... Clause A-5, Alternative 1: We may disclose the following information to companies that perform...

  8. 48 CFR 16.506 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... that exceed a specific Government activity's internal capability to produce or perform, use the clause... the same Schedule, and similar products may be acquired on a brand-name basis, use the clause with its... may be acquired on a brand-name basis; and (ii) Involves a partial small business set-aside, use...

  9. 48 CFR 970.3270 - Standard financial management clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... Standard financial management clauses. (a) The following DEAR and FAR clauses are standard financial... 48 CFR 52.215-11, Price Reduction for Defective Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications, the contracting... authorization. (7) 48 CFR 52.230-2, Cost Accounting Standards. (8) 48 CFR 52.230-6, Administration of...

  10. Perception of scene-relative object movement: Optic flow parsing and the contribution of monocular depth cues.

    Warren, Paul A; Rushton, Simon K

    2009-05-01

    We have recently suggested that the brain uses its sensitivity to optic flow in order to parse retinal motion into components arising due to self and object movement (e.g. Rushton, S. K., & Warren, P. A. (2005). Moving observers, 3D relative motion and the detection of object movement. Current Biology, 15, R542-R543). Here, we explore whether stereo disparity is necessary for flow parsing or whether other sources of depth information, which could theoretically constrain flow-field interpretation, are sufficient. Stationary observers viewed large field of view stimuli containing textured cubes, moving in a manner that was consistent with a complex observer movement through a stationary scene. Observers made speeded responses to report the perceived direction of movement of a probe object presented at different depths in the scene. Across conditions we varied the presence or absence of different binocular and monocular cues to depth order. In line with previous studies, results consistent with flow parsing (in terms of both perceived direction and response time) were found in the condition in which motion parallax and stereoscopic disparity were present. Observers were poorer at judging object movement when depth order was specified by parallax alone. However, as more monocular depth cues were added to the stimulus the results approached those found when the scene contained stereoscopic cues. We conclude that both monocular and binocular static depth information contribute to flow parsing. These findings are discussed in the context of potential architectures for a model of the flow parsing mechanism. PMID:19480063

  11. Levels of Finite Clause Parsing: Implications and Applications

    Cristina Butnariu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is three-fold: (1 To point out the four types of inter-clause dependencies, thus levels of finite-clause parsing; (2 To discuss the essential role of the finite (and non-finite clause structure in text processing, discourse parsing, text-to-speech modeling and prosody prediction; (3 To apply the Segmentation-Cohesion-Dependency (SCD method based on marker classes, their semantic hierarchies, and marker sequences, combined with a machine learning technique, in order to obtain improved results on clause parsing of the Romanian Acquis corpus. A special emphasis of our analysis is devoted to the intonational role that the inter-clause lexical markers and their sequences are playing on the syntax-prosody interface (of Romanian, more precisely, for establishing the discursive-intonational contrastive foci and patterns that are necessary in prosody prediction.

  12. Search for HH objects and emission stars in star formation regions. IV. New HH flows and HH objects related with cometary nebulae

    The results of the observations in the environments of the five cometary nebulae: MacC H12, MacC sH15, GM 1-14, RNO 33, Pars 17, are presented. This search was performed in the frames of the continuing survey of the new HH-objects in the star formation regions. Nine previously unknown HH-objects were found. Nearly all these objects belong to directed outflows, the sources of which are with high probability the central stars of the listed above nebulae. In the cases of MacC H12 and GM 1-14 the outflows have distinct bipolar structure. The position of the sources on J-H/H-K diagram is discussed

  13. Comparison of time adjustment clauses between DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC

    David Finnie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines time adjustment clauses, as they relate to time adjustment between standard terms of construction contracts. DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC were compared on the basis of how risks are allocated, how this may impact on the contractor’s pricing, and ease of understanding for each clause. ASTCC was found to be the most easily interpreted contract, followed by AS4000 and then NZS3910. These assessments were based on the following: a whether each contract contains words with multiple meanings, b the number of words used per sentence, c the amount of internal cross-referencing, and d the clarity of the contract structure. The allowable pre-conditions for the contractor to claim a time adjustment are similar for all three contracts, and none of them expressly state which party is to bare the risk of buildability, or address the risk of a designer’s disclaimer clause. All of the contracts adopt the principle of contra preferentum which means that the employer bares the risk of variance if there are any ambiguities in the design documentation. Due to their similarities of risk allocation, all of the contracts provide the employer with a similar amount of price surety. AS4000 is the only contract to contain a stringent time-bar clause, limiting a contractor’s time adjustment claim. ASTCC requires the contractor to apply ‘immediately’ and DZ3910 provides a time-bar of 20 working days or as soon as practicable. None of the contracts clarify whether their timing requirements take precedence over the prevention principle, or over any other ground for claiming a time adjustment. The effect of DZ3910’s pre-notification clause 5.19.3 is discussed, and an alternative contents structure is recommended for DZ3910, using a project management method.

  14. Comparison of time adjustment clauses between DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC

    David Finnie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines time adjustment clauses, as they relate to time adjustment between standard terms of construction contracts. DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC were compared on the basis of how risks are allocated, how this may impact on the contractor’s pricing, and ease of understanding for each clause. ASTCC was found to be the most easily interpreted contract, followed by AS4000 and then NZS3910. These assessments were based on the following: a whether each contract contains words with multiple meanings, b the number of words used per sentence, c the amount of internal cross-referencing, and d the clarity of the contract structure. The allowable pre-conditions for the contractor to claim a time adjustment are similar for all three contracts, and none of them expressly state which party is to bare the risk of buildability, or address the risk of a designer’s disclaimer clause. All of the contracts adopt the principle of contra preferentum which means that the employer bares the risk of variance if there are any ambiguities in the design documentation. Due to their similarities of risk allocation, all of the contracts provide the employer with a similar amount of price surety. AS4000 is the only contract to contain a stringent time-bar clause, limiting a contractor’s time adjustment claim. ASTCC requires the contractor to apply ‘immediately’ and DZ3910 provides a time-bar of 20 working days or as soon as practicable. None of the contracts clarify whether their timing requirements take precedence over the prevention principle, or over any other ground for claiming a time adjustment. The effect of DZ3910’s pre-notification clause 5.19.3 is discussed, and an alternative contents structure is recommended for DZ3910, using a project management method. 

  15. Altered Neural Activity during Semantic Object Memory Retrieval in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment as Measured by Event-Related Potentials.

    Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Mudar, Raksha A; Pudhiyidath, Athula; Spence, Jeffrey S; Womack, Kyle B; Cullum, C Munro; Tanner, Jeremy A; Eroh, Justin; Kraut, Michael A; Hart, John

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in semantic memory in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) have been previously reported, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain to be clarified. We examined event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with semantic memory retrieval in 16 individuals with aMCI as compared to 17 normal controls using the Semantic Object Retrieval Task (EEG SORT). In this task, subjects judged whether pairs of words (object features) elicited retrieval of an object (retrieval trials) or not (non-retrieval trials). Behavioral findings revealed that aMCI subjects had lower accuracy scores and marginally longer reaction time compared to controls. We used a multivariate analytical technique (STAT-PCA) to investigate similarities and differences in ERPs between aMCI and control groups. STAT-PCA revealed a left fronto-temporal component starting at around 750?ms post-stimulus in both groups. However, unlike controls, aMCI subjects showed an increase in the frontal-parietal scalp potential that distinguished retrieval from non-retrieval trials between 950 and 1050?ms post-stimulus negatively correlated with the performance on the logical memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III. Thus, individuals with aMCI were not only impaired in their behavioral performance on SORT relative to controls, but also displayed alteration in the corresponding ERPs. The altered neural activity in aMCI compared to controls suggests a more sustained and effortful search during object memory retrieval, which may be a potential marker indicating disease processes at the pre-dementia stage. PMID:25835419

  16. A search for T Tauri stars and related objects: Archival photometry of candidate variables in V733 Cep field

    Jurdana-epi?, R.; Poljan?i? Beljan, I.

    Searching for T Tauri stars or related early type variables we carried out a BVRI photometric measurements of five candidates with positions within the field of the pre-main sequence object V733 Cephei (Persson's star) located in the dark cloud L1216 near to Cepheus OB3 Association: VES 946, VES 950, NSV 14333, NSV 25966 and V385 Cep. Their magnitudes are determined on the plates from Asiago Observatory historical photographic archive exposed 1971 - 1978. We provide finding charts for program stars and comparison sequence stars, magnitude estimations, magnitude mean values and BVR_cI_c light curves of program stars.

  17. Subjective and Objective Hierarchies and Their Relations to Psychological Well-Being: A U.S/Japan Comparison

    Curhan, Katherine B.; Levine, Cynthia S.; Markus, Hazel Rose; Kitayama, Shinobu; Park, JiYoung; Karasawa, Mayumi; Kawakami, Norito; Love, Gayle D.; Coe, Christopher L.; Miyamoto, Yuri; Ryff, Carol D.

    2014-01-01

    Hierarchy can be conceptualized as objective social status (e.g., education level) or subjective social status (i.e., one’s own judgment of one’s status). Both forms predict well-being. This is the first investigation of the relative strength of these hierarchy-well-being relationships in the U.S. and Japan, cultural contexts with different normative ideas about how social status is understood and conferred. In probability samples of Japanese (N=1027) and U.S. (N=1805) adults, subjective soci...

  18. Perceived environment in relation to objective and self-reported physical activity in Spanish youth. The UP&DOWN study.

    Garcia-Cervantes, Laura; Rodríguez-Romo, Gabriel; Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Cabanas-Sanchez, Verónica; Delgado-Alfonso, Álvaro; Castro-Piñero, José; Veiga, Óscar L

    2016-08-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the association of environmental perception with objective and self-reported physical activity (PA) and the relation between environmental perception and meeting PA recommendations on children and adolescents. A sample of 1520 youth (770 boys) aged 8-18 years (12.1 ± 2.5 years) from the UP&DOWN study were included in the data analyses. Environmental perception was assessed with the short adapted version of the ALPHA environmental questionnaire. PA was objectively (accelerometers) and self-reported measured (PA Questionnaire for Children, Patient-centered Assessment and Counseling for Exercise Questionnaire and Finnish PA Index). Linear regression models were used to assess the association of environmental perception with PA. Bivariate logistic regression models were used to assess differences between environmental perception and meeting PA recommendations. Environmental perception was positively associated with both objective and self-reported PA. Some differences were found in the association of environmental perception and PA between sex- and age-specific groups. Youth who perceived a more favourable environment were more likely to meet PA recommendations (at least 60 min · day(-1) of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA)). Results suggest that environmental perceptions of children and adolescents may play an important role in achieving higher levels of PA. PMID:26641935

  19. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Science Archive: Migrating a Multi-Terabyte Astronomical Archive from Object to Relational DBMS

    Thakar, A R; Kunszt, Peter Z; Gray, J; Thakar, Aniruddha R.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Kunszt, Peter Z.; Gray, Jim

    2004-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Science Archive is the first in a series of multi-Terabyte digital archives in Astronomy and other data-intensive sciences. To facilitate data mining in the SDSS archive, we adapted a commercial database engine and built specialized tools on top of it. Originally we chose an object-oriented database management system due to its data organization capabilities, platform independence, query performance and conceptual fit to the data. However, after using the object database for the first couple of years of the project, it soon began to fall short in terms of its query support and data mining performance. This was as much due to the inability of the database vendor to respond our demands for features and bug fixes as it was due to their failure to keep up with the rapid improvements in hardware performance, particularly faster RAID disk systems. In the end, we were forced to abandon the object database and migrate our data to a relational database. We describe below the technical issu...

  20. Over a barrel : exiting from NAFTA's proportionality clause

    Natural gas exports to the United States are locked in by the proportionality clause of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The authors state that although both conventional oil and gas have peaked in Canada, the proportionality clause requires Canada to maintain its current share of energy exports to the United States, even if Canadians experience shortages. The unique clause guarantees the United States' access to Canada's energy resources. The authors cautioned that NAFTA limits Canada's options for managing its energy future and recommended options for regaining Canadian energy security. With NAFTA and the energy proportionality clause back on the political agenda for the first time since the 1993 federal election, this document explored 3 scenarios under which the proportionality clause could be invoked. The scenarios demonstrated how the clause could prevent Canada from reducing exports to conserve oil; prioritizing natural gas for petrochemicals; or, substituting Canadian oil for volatile foreign imports. The exercise demonstrated how under certain circumstances, proportionality could result in energy shortages for Canadians. The authors suggested that if NAFTA were to be renegotiated, Canada's first priority should be to end the proportionality clause because it stands in the way of Canada developing an effective energy security plan. 51 refs., 3 tabs

  1. Caudate asymmetry is related to attentional impulsivity and an objective measure of ADHD-like attentional problems in healthy adults.

    Dang, Linh C; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Young, Jacob S; Cowan, Ronald L; Kessler, Robert M; Zald, David H

    2016-01-01

    Case-control studies comparing ADHD with typically developing individuals suggest that anatomical asymmetry of the caudate nucleus is a marker of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, there is no consensus on whether the asymmetry favors the right or left caudate nucleus in ADHD, or whether the asymmetry is increased or decreased in ADHD. The current study aimed to clarify this relationship by applying a dimensional approach to assessing ADHD symptoms that, instead of relying on clinical classification, utilizes the natural behavioral continuum of traits related to ADHD. Structural T1-weighted MRI was collected from 71 adults between 18 and 35 years and analyzed for caudate asymmetry. ADHD-like attentional symptoms were assessed with an objective measure of attentional problems, the ADHD score from the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA). Impulsivity, a core feature in ADHD, was measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, a self-report measure that assesses attentional, non-planning, and motor features of impulsivity. We found that larger right relative to left caudate volumes correlated with both higher attentional impulsiveness and worse ADHD scores on the TOVA. Higher attentional impulsiveness also correlated with worse ADHD scores, establishing coherence between the objective measure and the self-report measure of attentional problems. These results suggest that a differential passage of information through frontal-striatal networks may produce instability leading to attentional problems. The findings also demonstrate the utility of a dimensional approach to understanding structural correlates of ADHD symptoms. PMID:25269835

  2. Computer Security: a plea to Santa Claus

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    Running pirated software or illegal licences, using cracking tools to bypass software activation measures, sharing music and films – these are problems that academic environments unfortunately have to deal with. All violate the copyright of the software/music/film owners, and copyright owners are not Santa Claus...    CERN, like other research organisations and universities, regularly receives allegations from external companies complaining about laptops or PCs running illegal software or sharing their films, videos or music with peers – and thus violating copyright.  Usually, we then contact the owners of the corresponding devices in order to understand whether these allegations are true. Very often such allegations boil down to a laptop whose owner replies “I confirm that a torrent client was left up and running on my device by mistake” or “This is a file that is stored on my personal hard disk.” As if those allegatio...

  3. ‘De Regenkoning’ van Hugo Claus

    S. W. van Zuydam

    1986-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation in this article comprises the analysis of a poem by the Flemish author Hugo Claus, namely "De regenkoning". It is one of the poems in a sequence entitled "De ingewijde" (The initiated which forms part of his volume of poetry "De Oostakkerse Gedichten” (1955. These poems are extremely esoteric and an attempt is made here to “decode” the "hidden mysteries” in this particular poem. Claus’ method of using a kind of secret language corresponds to a basic feature of (universal initiation ceremonies, namely that everything that takes place is shrouded in secrecy. It was found that the nucleus of traditional initiations, namely sexual and mental maturation, likewise form a fundamental characteristic in Claus’ poem. Yet his "neophyte” is not (reborn into a "new” (sacred world, but initiated into the broken (profane realities of modern society.

  4. Natural syntax : English interrogative main clauses

    Janez Oresnik

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural Syntax is a developing deductive theory, a branch of Naturalness Theory. The naturalnessjudgements are couched in naturalness scales, whichfollow from the basic parameters (or «axioms» listed at the beginning of the paper. The predictions of the theory are calculated in deductions, whose chief components are apair of naturalness scales and the rules governing the alignment of corresponding naturalness values. Parallel and chiastic alignments are distinguished, in complementary distribution. Chiastic alignment is mandatory in deductions limited to unnatural environments. The paper deals with English interrogative main clauses. Within these, only the interrogatives containing wh-words exclusively insitu constitute an extremely unnatural environment and require chiastic alignment. Otherwiseparallel alignment is used. Earlier publications on Natural Syntax: Kavcic 2005a,b, Oresnik 1999, 2000a,b, 200la-f   2002, 2003a-c, 2002/03, 2004. This list cites only works written in English.

  5. How to start a V2 declarative clause: Transfer of syntax vs. information structure in L2 German

    Ute Bohnacker; Christina Rosén

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses V2 word order and information structure in Swedish, German and non-native German. Concentrating on the clause-initial position of V2 declaratives, the ‘prefield’, we investigate the extent of L1 transfer in a closely related L2. The prefield anchors the clause in discourse, and although almost any type of element can occur in this position, naturalistic text corpora of native Swedish and native German show distinct language-specific patterns. Certain types of elements are...

  6. The use of congruent and non-congruent clauses in Oscar Wilde's play "The importance of being earnest"

    Kliacevi?, Dalia

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of Oscar Wildes play The Importance of Being Earnest revealed that of all the non-finite clauses, the infinitival clauses were the most common. They accounted for 81.49% of all the non-congruent clauses used in the play. The author used the following types of infinitival clauses: 1. infinitival clauses in which the infinitive joins with modal auxiliaries or their substitutes; 2. infinitival clauses without explicit subjects; 3. infinitival clauses in which the subjec...

  7. Comparative analysis of the symptomatology of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction in relation to objective data

    Ubirajara Barroso Jr

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical presentation of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD relating to objective examination data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four children (36 girls and 8 boys with mean age of 6.8 years with LUTD were prospectively assessed through a specific questionnaire that analyzed clinical presentation of those patients. These data were then compared to objective data, such as micturition diary and uroflowmetry with electromyography. RESULTS: A urinary tract infection (UTI antecedent was observed in 31 cases (70.5%, and of those, 24 cases of UTI were accompanied by fever. All children presented micturition urgency. Daily urinary incontinence was observed in 33 cases (75% and nocturnal enuresis in 23 (52.3%. As for micturition frequency, 15 (34.1% had normal frequency 19 (43.2% presented more than 10 daily micturition episodes and 10 (22.7% thought they urinated less than 5 times a day. In the uroflowmetry and electromyography examination, 14 (31.8% experienced lack of coordination during micturition. Of 10 children with infrequent micturition, 5 confirmed this in their micturition diaries and 2 listed more than 5 micturition episodes per day in the diary. Of 19 patients presenting polaciuria, only 5 confirmed this in their micturition diaries, while 7 had less than 10 micturition episodes per day. CONCLUSION: Most children with LUTD presented a previous UTI, and daily incontinence was verified in around 75% of the patients. Complaints of polaciuria or infrequent micturition are not noted completely in the micturition diaries and there is no parameter in the clinical history that offers good sensitivity or specificity for the diagnosis of lack of perineal coordination.

  8. Comparison between Face and Object Processing in Youths with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An event related potentials study.

    Anahita Khorrami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Incapability in face perception and recognition is one of the main issues in autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Event related potential (ERP studies have revealed controversial insights on autistic brain responses to faces and objects. The current investigation examined the ERP components of young children with ASD compared to a typically developing (TD group when looking at the upright and inverted images of faces and cars.Fourteen children and adolescents aged between 9 and 17 diagnosed as having ASD were compared with 18 age- gender matched normally developing individuals. All participants' ERPs were recorded while they were seeing the images of human faces and objects in both upright and inverted positions. The ERP components including N170 (latency and amplitude were compared between the two groups in two conditions of upright and inverted using the repeated measure analysis method.The processing speed for upright faces was faster than the inverted faces in the TD group; however, the difference was not significant. A significant difference was observed in terms of N170 latency between the two groups for different stimulus categories such as objects and faces(p<0.05. Moreover, inverted vs. upright stimuli in both groups elicited a greater response in terms of N170 amplitude in both groups, and this effect was significantly prominent in the right hemisphere (p<0.05. The N170 amplitude turned out to be greater for the inverted vs. upright stimuli irrespective of the stimuli type and group.These data suggest youths with ASD have difficulty processing information, particularly in face perception regardless of the stimuli orientation.

  9. Iron Abundance in the Prototype PG 1159 Star, GW Vir Pulsator PG 1159-035, and Related Objects

    Werner, K.; Rauch, T.; Kruk, J. W.; Kurucz, R. L.

    2011-01-01

    We performed an iron abundance determination of the hot, hydrogen deficient post-AGB star PG 1159-035. which is the prototype of the PG 1159 spectral class and the GW Vir pulsators, and of two related objects (PG 1520+525, PG 1144+005), based on the first detection of Fe VIII lines in stellar photospheres. In another PG 1159 star. PG 1424+535. we detect Fe VII lines. In all four stars, each within T(sub eff) = 110,000-150,000 K, we find a solar iron abundance. This result agrees with our recent abundance analysis of the hottest PG 1159 stars (T(sub eff) = 150,000-200,000 K) that exhibit Fe x lines. On the whole, we find that the PG 1159 stars are not significantly iron deficient, in contrast to previous notions.

  10. A cognitive perspective on object relations, drive development and ego structure in the second and third years of life.

    Posener, J A

    1989-01-01

    This paper extends a recent line of research by correlating Piaget's theory of cognitive development with several psychoanalytic perspectives on development during the second and third years of life. The concrete, imagistic, unintegrated nature of mental representations associated by Mahler and Kernberg with this period, along with the mental operation of splitting, are related to preconceptual representation, a cognitive mode described by Piaget. Psychoanalytic perspectives on the body ego and object world associated with the anal period are also seen to involve concrete, unintegrated representations which show correspondence with preconceptual cognition. Parallels are explored between cognitive stages and the psychoanalytic understanding of ego and superego development. While psychoanalysis is not a cognitive psychology, aspects of its theory are concerned with cognitive structure and are enriched by a consideration of cognitive development. PMID:2606598

  11. Iron abundance in the prototype PG1159 star, GW Vir pulsator PG1159-035, and related objects

    Werner, Klaus; Kruk, Jeff W; Kurucz, Robert L

    2011-01-01

    We performed an iron abundance determination of the hot, hydrogen deficient post-AGB star PG1159-035, which is the prototype of the PG1159 spectral class and the GW Vir pulsators, and of two related objects (PG1520+525, PG1144+005), based on the first detection of Fe VIII lines in stellar photospheres. In another PG1159 star, PG1424+535, we detect Fe VII lines. In all four stars, each within Teff = 110,000 - 150,000 K, we find a solar iron abundance. This result agrees with our recent abundance analysis of the hottest PG1159 stars (Teff = 150,000 - 200,000 K) that exhibit Fe X lines. On the whole, we find that the PG1159 stars are not significantly iron deficient, in contrast to previous notions.

  12. Public's utility yardstick: preference clause spurs competition, permits local control

    White, L.

    1979-07-01

    The preference clause, which establishes a priority system for distributing Federal power, is credited with maintaining competition among utilities and permitting local control. Examples from the Midwest illustrate how municipal utilities are protected by their guaranteed access to federal power. The preference clause dates to Theodore Roosevelt's assertion that the Federal government has the right to control water-related resources. This led to legislation granting preference to those organizations which benefit the public and includes the Tennessee Valley Authority Act, the Rural Electrification Act, and the Bonneville Project Act. Post World War II policy shifts sought to make better use of non-preference power, but later administrations shifted policies back. The arguments presented by invester-owned utilities are examined and found to be invalid.

  13. 32 CFR 48.604 - Transition and protective clauses.

    2010-07-01

    ... protective clauses. (a) A retired member who is participating in the Plan without inclusion of former option... individual had no eligible beneficiary. However, if undue hardship or financial burden would result,...

  14. 48 CFR 522.103-5 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 522.103-5 Contract clauses. Insert FAR 52.222-1, Notice to the Government of Labor Disputes, in solicitations...

  15. 48 CFR 27.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 27.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  16. 48 CFR 1327.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1327.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  17. V2 word order in subordinate clauses in spoken Danish

    Jensen, Torben Juel; Christensen, Tanya Karoli

    ”assertiveness”, but is rather a question of foregrounding (cf. Simons 2007: Main Point of Utterance). The paper presents the results of a study of word order in subordinate clauses in contemporary spoken Danish and focuses on how to include the proposed semantic difference as a factor influencing the choice of......Danish grammatical tradition has it that V2 and V3 word order are signals of the syntactic difference between main and subordinate clauses. However, several studies have shown that both word orders appear in both clause types (Heltoft 2005, Christensen 2007, Jensen forthc.). Though V2 and V3 are...... studies of two age cohorts of speakers in Copenhagen, recorded in the 1980s and again in 2005-07, and on recent recordings with two age cohorts of speakers from the western part of Jutland. This makes it possible to study variation and change with respect to word order in subordinate clauses in both real...

  18. 48 CFR 2427.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Administration of patent... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 2427.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  19. 48 CFR 1227.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... TRANSPORTATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1227.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  20. 48 CFR 15.408 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ...) Acquisitions at or below the simplified acquisition threshold; (ii) Construction or architect-engineer services... including task or delivery orders as follows: (A) For civilian agencies, insert the clause when— (1)...

  1. Stock loan with Automatic termination clause, cap and margin

    Shuqing Jiang; Zongxia Liang; Weiming Wu

    2010-01-01

    This paper works out fair values of stock loan model with automatic termination clause, cap and margin. This stock loan is treated as a generalized perpetual American option with possibly negative interest rate and some constraints. Since it helps a bank to control the risk, the banks charge less service fees compared to stock loans without any constraints. The automatic termination clause, cap and margin are in fact a stop order set by the bank. Mathematically, it is a kind of optimal stoppi...

  2. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    AnnemarieBoschloo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness – ‘I feel sleepy during the first hours at school’ – appeared to predict both school grades and self-reported school performance. Sleep quality on the other hand – as a measure of (uninterrupted sleep and/or problems falling asleep or waking up – predicted parent-reported school performance. Self- and parent-reported school performance correlated only moderately with school grades. So it turns out that the measures used to measure either sleep or school performance impacts whether or not a relation is found. Further research on sleep and school performance should take this into account. The findings do underscore the notion that sleep in adolescence can be important for learning. They are compatible with the hypothesis that a reduced sleep quality can give rise to sleepiness in the first hours at school which results in lower school performance. This notion could have applied value in counseling adolescents and their parents in changing adolescents’ sleep behavior.

  3. Immediate compensation for variations in self-generated Coriolis torques related to body dynamics and carried objects.

    Pigeon, Pascale; Dizio, Paul; Lackner, James R

    2013-09-01

    We have previously shown that the Coriolis torques that result when an arm movement is performed during torso rotation do not affect movement trajectory. Our purpose in the present study was to examine whether torso motion-induced Coriolis and other interaction torques are counteracted during a turn and reach (T&R) movement when the effective mass of the hand is augmented, and whether the dominant arm has an advantage in coordinating intersegmental dynamics as predicted by the dynamic dominance hypothesis (Sainburg RL. Exp Brain Res 142: 241-258, 2002). Subjects made slow and fast T&R movements in the dark to just extinguished targets with either arm, while holding or not holding a 454-g object. Movement endpoints were equally accurate at both speeds, with either hand, and in both weight conditions, but subjects tended to angularly undershoot and produce more variable endpoints for targets requiring greater torso rotation. There were no changes in endpoint accuracy or trajectory deviation over repeated movements. The dominant right arm was more stable in its control of trajectory direction across targets, whereas the nondominant left arm had an improved ability to stop accurately on the target for higher levels of interaction torques. The trajectories to more eccentric targets were straighter when performed at higher speeds but slightly more deviated when subjects held the weight. Subjects did not slow their torso velocity or change the timing of the arm and torso velocities when holding the weight, although there was a slight decrease in their hand velocity relative to the torso. The delay between the onsets of torso and finger movements was almost twice as large for the right arm than the left, suggesting the right arm was better able to account for torso rotation in the arm movement. Holding the weight increased the peak Coriolis torque by 40% at the shoulder and 45% at the elbow and, for the most eccentric target, increased the peak net torque by 12% at the shoulder and 34% at the elbow. In accordance with Sainburg's dynamic dominance hypothesis, the right arm exhibited an advantage for coordinating intersegmental dynamics, showing a more stable finger velocity in relation to the torso across targets, decreasing error variability with movement speed, and more synchronized peaks of finger relative and torso angular velocities in conditions with greater joint torque requirements. The arm used had little effect on the movement path and the magnitude of the joint torques in any of the conditions. These results indicate that compensations for forthcoming Coriolis torque variations take into account the dynamic properties of the body and of external objects, as well as the planned velocities of the torso and arm. PMID:23803330

  4. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets can be used in many application systems for structural and content analysis. An example of the use the hybrid sets for logistics systems modeling is shown.

  5. The scalarity of syntactic integration : syntaxic, semantic and pragmatic study of quand clause (when-clause)

    Saez, Frédérique

    2011-01-01

    Our study about the "Quand-p" (When-clause) in modern French settles in a descriptive approach in the interlacing of syntax, semantic and discourse. Therefore we first needed to define a criteria that could debrief the variability of the Quand-p syntax. We found inspiration in the interlaced work of Smessaert et al. (2005), for the difference between micro- and macro-syntax, and of Berrendonner & Reichler-Béguelin (1989), Berrendonner (1990) and Béguelin (2004) for the macro-syntax analysis. ...

  6. Complex Clause Syntax in the Italian Classroom – the Learners Between Transfer and Interference

    Darja Mertelj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When teaching Italian as a foreign language, learners’ insecurities about using conjunctions and tenses in subordinate clauses can be noticed very early. Temporality, relative temporality and modality are signalled by Italian verb forms which function in a largely different (or apparently similar way in comparison to Slovene. If ‘true’ similarities can be exploited in the process of teaching/learning by means of a positive transfer, apparent ‘similarities’ and ‘differences’ between the two language systems should, on the other hand, be clarified to avoid negative transfer (interference. During the whole learning process language awareness should be developed, also through contrastive insights into the linguistic systems concerned. Taking as a starting point a text suitable for level B1, some problematic points are presented, for which a series of tasks can be suggested with the aim of helping the learner master complex clause syntax and develop language awareness.Key words: Italian, foreign/second language, complex clause, syntax, transfer, language awareness

  7. Assisted suicide and the savings clause.

    Helminski, F

    1995-06-01

    In December 1994, the Michigan Supreme Court decided a group of cases comprising constitutional challenges to a Michigan statute against assisted suicide and prosecutions of Dr. Jack Kevorkian for his role in two incidents of suicide. The court rejected arguments that the statute infringed a right of "personal autonomy" under the Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution; it noted that, although US Supreme Court opinions indicate that decisions to withdraw or reject life-sustaining treatment are constitutionally protected, a legal difference exists between permitting death to occur by natural means and taking affirmative steps to end life. The Michigan court also decided that Kevorkian could not be charged with murder for supplying only the means by which suicide occurred, but he could be charged with a common law crime of assisting in suicide although the statute outlawing such actions became effective only after the suicides occurred. Because suicide was a crime under the prerevolutionary English Common Law, which forms the foundation of Michigan law, assisting in suicide is also a residual crime under the "savings clause" of the Michigan statutes, which incorporates common law crimes into the law of that state when no superseding statute exists. PMID:7776723

  8. Identification of metrics to monitor salt marsh integrity on National Wildlife Refuges in relation to conservation and management objectives

    Neckles, Hilary A.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Shriver, W. George; Danz, Nicholas P.; Wiest, Whitney A.; Nagel, Jessica L.; Olker, Jennifer H.

    2013-01-01

    Most salt marshes in the US have been degraded by human activities, and threats from physical alterations, surrounding land-use, species invasions, and global climate change persist. Salt marshes are unique and highly productive ecosystems with high intrinsic value to wildlife, and many National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) have been established in coastal areas to protect large tracts of salt marsh and wetland-dependent species. Various management practices are employed routinely on coastal NWRs to restore and enhance marsh integrity and ensure ecosystem sustainability. Prioritizing NWR salt marshes for application of management actions and choosing among multiple management options requires scientifically-based methods for assessing marsh condition. Monitoring is integral to structured decision-making (SDM), a formal process for decomposing a decision into its essential elements. Within a natural resource context, SDM involves identifying management objectives, alternative management actions, and expected management outcomes. The core of SDM is a set of criteria for measuring system performance and evaluating management responses. Therefore, use of SDM to frame natural resource decisions leads to logical selection of monitoring attributes that are linked explicitly to management needs. We used SDM to guide selection of variables for monitoring the ecological integrity of salt marshes within the National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS). Our objectives were to identify indicators of salt marsh integrity that are effective across large geographic regions, responsive to a wide range of threats, and feasible to implement within funding and staffing constraints of the NWRS. In April, 2008, we engaged interdisciplinary experts in a week-long rapid prototyping SDM workshop to define the essential elements of salt marsh management decisions on refuges throughout the northeastern, southwestern, and northwestern US, corresponding to respective Regions 5, 2, and 1 of the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). Through this process we identified measurable attributes for monitoring salt marsh ecosystems that are integrated into conservation practice and target management objectives. The following salt marsh attributes were identified through the SDM process either for describing state condition to determine management needs or for evaluating the achievement of management objectives: historical condition and geomorphic setting; ditch density; surrounding land use; ratio of open water area to vegetation area; rate of pesticide application; environmental contaminant concentration; change in marsh surface elevation relative to sea level rise; tidal range and groundwater level; surface topography; salinity; and species composition and abundance of vegetation, invasive species, invertebrates, nekton, and breeding and wintering birds. The identified attributes were too broadly defined to serve as operational monitoring variables. Therefore, we tested specific metrics for quantifying most of these attributes in summers of 2008 and 2009. The first four attributes in the above list can be characterized by office-based analysis of existing GIS data layers. The remaining attributes require field-based methods for assessment. We were forced to exclude a small number of attributes from field tests due to inconsistent data (pesticide application rate, environmental contaminant concentrations) or requirements that exceeded the scope of this project (change in marsh surface elevation; surface topography; benthic invertebrates; wintering birds). We evaluated potential metrics for evaluating all remaining field attributes. In partnership with NWRS biologists, we tested rapid versus intensive metrics for monitoring field attributes (tidal range and groundwater level; marsh surface elevation; salinity; and species composition and abundance of vegetation, invasive species, nekton, and breeding birds) at coastal refuges throughout FWS Region 5. Seven refuges participated in metric testing in 2008: Rachel Carson (ME), Parker River (MA), Wertheim (NY), E. B. Forsythe

  9. Pairs and Groups of Genetically Related Long-Period Comets and Probable Identity of the Mysterious Lick Object of 1921

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    2015-01-01

    We present the history of investigation of the dynamical properties of pairs and groups of genetically related long-period comets (other than the Kreutz sungrazing system). Members of a comet pair or group move in nearly identical orbits and their origin as fragments of a common parent comet is unquestionable. The only variable is the time of perihelion passage, which differs from member to member considerably due primarily to an orbital-momentum increment acquired during breakup. Meter-per-second separation velocities account for gaps of years or tens of years, thanks to the orbital periods of many millennia. The physical properties of individual members may not at all be alike, as illustrated by the trio of C/1988 A1, C/1996 Q1, and C/2015 F3. We exploit orbital similarity to examine whether the celebrated and as yet unidentified object, discovered from the Lick Observatory near the Sun at sunset on 1921 August 7, happened to be a member of such a pair and to track down the long-period comet to which it cou...

  10. Multi-Objective Optimization of Vehicle Sound Package in Middle Frequency Using Gray Relational Analysis Coupled with Principal Component Analysis

    Chen, Shuming; Wang, Dengfeng; Shi, Tianze; Chen, Jing

    2015-12-01

    This research studies optimization design of the thickness of sound packages for a passenger car. The major characteristics indexes for performance determined to evaluate the process are sound pressure level of the interior middle frequency noise and weight of the sound package. Three kinds of materials of sound packages are selected for the optimization process. The corresponding parameters of the sound packages are the thickness of the insulation plate for outer side of the firewall, thickness of the sound absorbing wool for inner side of the firewall, thickness of PU foam for the front floor, and thickness of PU foam for the rear floor, respectively. In this paper, the optimization procedure is a multi-objective optimization. Therefore, gray relational analysis (GRA) is applied to decide the optimal combination of sound package parameters. Furthermore, the principal component analysis (PCA) is used to calculate the weighting values which are corresponding to multiple performance characteristics. Then, the results of the confirmation tests uncover that GRA coupled with principal analysis methods can effectively be applied to find the optimal combination of the thickness of the sound packages at different positions for a passenger car. Thus, the proposed method can be a useful tool to improve the automotive interior middle frequency noise and lower the weight of the sound packages. Additionally, it will also be useful for automotive manufactures and designers in other fields.

  11. Infants’ visual processing of faces and objects: Age-related changes in interest, and stability of individual differences

    Robledo, Marybel; Kolling, Thorsten; Deák, Gedeon O

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal measures of infant visual processing of faces and objects were collected from a sample of healthy infants (N=40) every month from 6 to 9 months of age. Infants performed two habituation tasks each month, one with novel female faces as stimuli, and another with novel complex objects. Different individual faces and objects served as habituation (i.e., visual learning) and dishabituation (i.e., novelty response) stimuli. Measures included overall looking time to the habituation stim...

  12. Design of relative motion and attitude profiles for three-dimensional resident space object imaging with a laser rangefinder

    Nayak, M.; Beck, J.; Udrea, B.

    This paper focuses on the aerospace application of a single beam laser rangefinder (LRF) for 3D imaging, shape detection, and reconstruction in the context of a space-based space situational awareness (SSA) mission scenario. The primary limitation to 3D imaging from LRF point clouds is the one-dimensional nature of the single beam measurements. A method that combines relative orbital motion and scanning attitude motion to generate point clouds has been developed and the design and characterization of multiple relative motion and attitude maneuver profiles are presented. The target resident space object (RSO) has the shape of a generic telecommunications satellite. The shape and attitude of the RSO are unknown to the chaser satellite however, it is assumed that the RSO is un-cooperative and has fixed inertial pointing. All sensors in the metrology chain are assumed ideal. A previous study by the authors used pure Keplerian motion to perform a similar 3D imaging mission at an asteroid. A new baseline for proximity operations maneuvers for LRF scanning, based on a waypoint adaptation of the Hill-Clohessy-Wiltshire (HCW) equations is examined. Propellant expenditure for each waypoint profile is discussed and combinations of relative motion and attitude maneuvers that minimize the propellant used to achieve a minimum required point cloud density are studied. Both LRF strike-point coverage and point cloud density are maximized; the capability for 3D shape registration and reconstruction from point clouds generated with a single beam LRF without catalog comparison is proven. Next, a method of using edge detection algorithms to process a point cloud into a 3D modeled image containing reconstructed shapes is presented. Weighted accuracy of edge reconstruction with respect to the true model is used to calculate a qualitative “ metric” that evaluates effectiveness of coverage. Both edge recognition algorithms and the metric are independent of point cloud densit- , therefore they are utilized to compare the quality of point clouds generated by various attitude and waypoint command profiles. The RSO model incorporates diverse irregular protruding shapes, such as open sensor covers, instrument pods and solar arrays, to test the limits of the algorithms. This analysis is used to mathematically prove that point clouds generated by a single-beam LRF can achieve sufficient edge recognition accuracy for SSA applications, with meaningful shape information extractable even from sparse point clouds. For all command profiles, reconstruction of RSO shapes from the point clouds generated with the proposed method are compared to the truth model and conclusions are drawn regarding their fidelity.

  13. Experimental Effects and Individual Differences in Linear Mixed Models: Estimating the Relation of Spatial, Object, and Attraction Effects in Visual Attention

    ReinholdKliegl; PingWei

    2011-01-01

    Linear mixed models (LMMs) provide a still underused methodological perspective on combining experimental and individual-differences research. Here we illustrate this approach with two-rectangle cueing in visual attention (Egly, Driver, & Rafal, 1994). We replicated previous experimental cue-validity effects relating to a spatial shift of attention within an object (spatial effect), to attention switch between objects (object effect), and to the attraction of attention towards the display...

  14. Objective civil liability for work-related health damages Responsabilidade civil objetiva pelos danos sade do trabalhador

    Juliane Caravieri Martins Gamb

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The environment, including that of work , is considered a basic right guaranteed by Magna Carta (article 7, XXII, section 225, caption and article 200, VIII . The social value of work represents the pillars of Economic Order (article 170, CF and Social Order (article 193, CF, which offers full health and physical integrity protection to workers in their working environment. Thus, the question of work-related damages suffered by employees due to industrial accidents and occupational hazards must be analyzed within the work environment protection legal context , adopting the objective civil liability theory, by means of a teleologic logical-systematic interpretation of constitutional and infra-constitutional rules. This interpretation evidences the compatibility of the economic activity and the free initiative according to the Democratic State of Right, in order to build a more just and united society , thus reducing social inequalities.O meio ambiente, includo o do trabalho, considerado um direito fundamental, estando expressamente previsto no artigo 7, inciso XXII, no artigo 225, caput e artigo 200, inciso VIII, todos da Carta Magna. Ademais, os valores sociais do trabalho representam pilares da Ordem Econmica (artigo 170 da CF e da Ordem Social (artigo 193 da CF, impondo plena proteo sade e integridade fsica do trabalhador no meio ambiente onde exerce suas atividades. Desse modo, a questo da reparao dos danos sofridos pelos empregados em funo dos acidentes de trabalho e das doenas ocupacionais deve ser analisada dentro do contexto jurdico da proteo ao meio ambiente do trabalho, adotando-se a teoria da responsabilidade civil objetiva, mediante uma interpretao lgico-sistemtica e teleolgica das normas constitucionais e infraconstitucionais. Essa interpretao evidencia a compatibilizao da atividade econmica e da livre iniciativa com os fundamentos do Estado Democrtico de Direito, no intuito de se construir uma sociedade mais justa e solidria, reduzindo as desigualdades sociais.

  15. Mood Selection in Relative Clauses: Interfaces and Variability

    Borgonovo, Claudia; de Garavito, Joyce Bruhn; Prévost, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    There is presently a lively debate in second language (L2) acquisition research as to whether (adult) learners can acquire linguistic phenomena located at the interface between syntax and other modules, such as semantics, pragmatics, and lexical semantics, in contrast to phenomena that are purely syntactic in nature. For some researchers, the…

  16. Mood Selection in Relative Clauses: Interfaces and Variability

    Borgonovo, Claudia; de Garavito, Joyce Bruhn; Prvost, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    There is presently a lively debate in second language (L2) acquisition research as to whether (adult) learners can acquire linguistic phenomena located at the interface between syntax and other modules, such as semantics, pragmatics, and lexical semantics, in contrast to phenomena that are purely syntactic in nature. For some researchers, the

  17. EROs found behind lensing clusters. II. Stellar populations and dust properties of optical dropout EROs and comparison with related objects

    Schrer, D; Egami, E; Pell, R; Richard, J; Le Borgne, J F; Kneib, J P; Wise, M; Boone, F

    2007-01-01

    We determine the nature, redshift, stellar populations and dust properties of optically faint or non-detected extremely red objects (ERO) found from our survey of the lensing clusters A1835 and AC114. We perform SED fitting and use deep optical, HST, VLT, Spitzer data, and for some objects and sub-mm data. For most of the lensed EROs we find photometric redshifts showing a strong degeneracy between "low-z" (z~1-3) and high-z (z~6-7). Although formally best fits are often found at high-z, their resulting bright absolute magnitudes, the number density of these objects, and in some cases Spitzer photometry or longer wavelength observations, suggest strongly that all of these objects are at "low-z". The majority of these objects are best fitted with young (<~ 0.5-0.7 Gyr) and dusty starbursts. Indications for strong extinction, with A_V~2.4-4, are found in some objects. For dusty objects star formation rates (SFR) have been estimated from the bolometric luminosity determined after fitting of semi-empirical sta...

  18. Assessment of subjective and objective cognitive function in bipolar disorder: Correlations, predictors and the relation to psychosocial function.

    Demant, Kirsa M; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V; Miskowiak, Kamilla W

    2015-09-30

    Cognitive dysfunction is prevalent in bipolar disorder (BD). However, the evidence regarding the association between subjective cognitive complaints, objective cognitive performance and psychosocial function is sparse and inconsistent. Seventy seven patients with bipolar disorder who presented cognitive complaints underwent assessment of objective and subjective cognitive function and psychosocial functioning as part of their participation in two clinical trials. We investigated the association between global and domain-specific objective and subjective cognitive function and between global cognitive function and psychosocial function. We also identified clinical variables that predicted objective and subjective cognitive function and psychosocial functioning. There was a correlation between global subjective and objective measures of cognitive dysfunction but not within the individual cognitive domains. However, the correlation was weak, suggesting that cognitive complaints are not an assay of cognition per se. Self-rated psychosocial difficulties were associated with subjective (but not objective) cognitive impairment and both subjective cognitive and psychosocial difficulties were predicted by depressive symptoms. Our findings indicate that adequate assessment of cognition in the clinical treatment of BD and in drug trials targeting cognition requires implementation of not only subjective measures but also of objective neuropsychological tests. PMID:26073281

  19. Identification of Metrics to Monitor Salt Marsh Integrity on National Wildlife Refuges In Relation to Conservation and Management Objectives

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We used SDM to guide selection of variables for monitoring the ecological integrity of salt marshes within the National Wildlife Refuge System NWRS. Our objectives...

  20. High-resolution imaging of expertise reveals reliable object selectivity in the fusiform face area related to perceptual performance

    McGugin, Rankin Williams; Gatenby, J. Christopher; GORE, JOHN C.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The fusiform face area (FFA) is a region of human cortex that responds selectively to faces, but whether it supports a more general function relevant for perceptual expertise is debated. Although both faces and objects of expertise engage many brain areas, the FFA remains the focus of the strongest modular claims and the clearest predictions about expertise. Functional MRI studies at standard-resolution (SR-fMRI) have found responses in the FFA for nonface objects of expertise, but high-resol...

  1. 48 CFR 1827.305 - Administration of the patent rights clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... patent rights clauses. 1827.305 Section 1827.305 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1827.305 Administration of the patent rights clauses....

  2. Incorporating Clause Learning in Grid-Based Randomized SAT Solving

    Antti E.J. Hyvaerinen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Computational Grids provide a widely distributed computing environment suitable for randomized SAT solving. This paper develops techniques for incorporating clause learning, known to yield significant speed-ups in the sequential case, in such a distributed framework. The approach exploits existing state-of-the-art clause learning SAT solvers by embedding them with virtually no modifications. The paper presents an algorithmic framework for learning-enhanced randomized SAT solving in Grid environments. With a substantial amount of controlled experiments it is demonstrated that this approach enables a form of clause learning which is not directly available in the underlying sequential SAT solver. Finally, an implementation of the algorithm is run in a production level Grid where it solves several problems not solved in the SAT 2007 solver competition.

  3. Task-Related Dynamic Division of Labor Between Anterior Temporal and Lateral Occipital Cortices in Representing Object Size

    2016-01-01

    Object size is represented by functionally distinct sectors along the ventral visual pathway. The early visual cortex encodes objects' sensory-retinal size. Subsequently, the occipitotemporal cortex computes objects' canonical size based on statistical regularities of visual features. Although the neurocomputation of size has been studied in a “bottom-up” sensory-driven framework, little is known about how perceptual size information is transformed into conceptual knowledge and how this computation is modulated by “top-down” goal-driven signals. Using continuous theta burst stimulation, we demonstrated that behavioral goal shapes the neurocognitive network underpinning object size. We manipulated the congruency of perceptual versus conceptual object size, which provides a robust behavioral probe reflecting implicit size knowledge. Neurostimulation was targeted at the lateral occipital cortex (LOC), a key region for object perception, or the anterior temporal lobe (ATL), a “hub” of supramodal conceptual processing. We observed striking contextual modulation of the neurocognitive architecture: when human participants judged perceptual size, the congruency effect was significantly attenuated by LOC stimulation but stayed resilient to ATL stimulation. By contrast, when they judged conceptual size, both LOC and ATL stimulation eradicated the otherwise robust effect. Our findings demonstrate disparate functional profiles of the LOC and ATL, providing the first evidence of a malleable network adaptively altering its division of labor with top-down states. The LOC, regardless of task demand, automatically represents “bottom-up” statistical regularities of visual conformation (reflecting typical object size), whereas the ATL contributes to this computation when the context requires semantically based linkage of visual attributes to object recognition. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In the present study, we provide compelling evidence that the “top-down” cognitive state of an observer changes the dynamic interaction between different subregions of the ventral temporal cortex. Using inhibitory neurostimulation combined with a novel paradigm, we demonstrate a flexible division of labor in the neurocognitive architecture that underpins size knowledge: the lateral occipital cortex codes perceptually based aspects (statistical visual configuration of small/large objects), whereas the anterior temporal lobe represents semantically based aspects (object identity), with their involvement interactively weighted by task demand. The interactive nature of the ventral temporal cortex highlights how top-down modulation constrains and shapes neural representations in the visual system. PMID:27122025

  4. Syntactic variants and natural syntax: Greek infinitive clauses dependent on verbs of speaking and thinking:

    Kav?i?, Jerneja

    2010-01-01

    This paper explains a very well-known feature of Classical Greek syntax from the perspective of Natural Syntax. Most grammars of Classical Greek state that infinitive clauses could be dependent on both verbs of speaking and thinking in Classical Greek. In contrast, finite dependent clauses could be governed only by verbs of speaking. However, one verb of speaking that regularly governs infinitive clauses is 'say'. In terms of Natural Syntax, infinitive clauses are more natural than finite dep...

  5. Syntactic variants and natural syntax : Greek infinitive clauses dependent on verbs of speaking and thinking

    Jerneja Kav?i?

    2010-01-01

    This paper explains a very well-known feature of Classical Greek syntax from the perspective of Natural Syntax. Most grammars of Classical Greek state that infinitive clauses could be dependent on both verbs of speaking and thinking in Classical Greek. In contrast, finite dependent clauses could be governed only by verbs of speaking. However, one verb of speaking that regularly governs infinitive clauses is 'say'. In terms of Natural Syntax, infinitive clauses are more natural than finite dep...

  6. 48 CFR 1852.301 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix).

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). 1852.301 Section 1852.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... and Clause Matrix 1852.301 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix)....

  7. 48 CFR 52.301 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix).

    2010-10-01

    ... and Clause Matrix 52.301 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). Note: The FAR matrix is not carried in the CFR. It is available in the loose-leaf edition. ... and contract clauses (Matrix). 52.301 Section 52.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  8. 41 CFR 109-45.301-51 - Export/import clause.

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export/import clause... 109-45.301-51 Export/import clause. The following clause shall be included in all sales invitations.../import from/into the country where the personal property is located. If export/import is allowed,...

  9. 21 CFR 70.51 - Advisory committee on the applicability of the anticancer clause.

    2010-04-01

    ... anticancer clause. 70.51 Section 70.51 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... of the anticancer clause. All requests for and procedures governing any advisory committee on the anticancer clause shall be subject to the provisions of part 14 of this chapter, and particularly subpart...

  10. 48 CFR 970.1504-5 - Solicitation provision and contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... contract clauses. 970.1504-5 Section 970.1504-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY....1504-5 Solicitation provision and contract clauses. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause... Operations/Field Office Manager, or designee, requires the contractor to submit a self-assessment. (4)...

  11. 48 CFR 1834.203-70 - NASA solicitation provision and contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... and contract clause. 1834.203-70 Section 1834.203-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... Management System 1834.203-70 NASA solicitation provision and contract clause. Except for the contracts... manager in accordance with OMB Circular A-11; and (b) The clause at 1852.234-2, Earned Value...

  12. Fashion Objects

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2009-01-01

    This article attempts to create a framework for understanding modern fashion phenomena on the basis of Durkheim's sociology of religion. It focuses on Durkheim's conception of the relation between the cult and the sacred object, on his notion of 'exteriorisation', and on his theory of the social...... symbol in an attempt to describe the peculiar attraction of the fashion object and its social constitution. However, Durkheim's notions of cult and ritual must undergo profound changes if they are to be used in an analysis of fashion. The article tries to expand the Durkheimian cult, radically enlarging...... it without totally dispersing it; depicting it as held together exclusively by the sheer 'force' of the sacred object. Firstly, the article introduces the themes and problems surrounding Durkheim's conception of the sacred. Next, it briefly sketches an outline of fashion phenomena in Durkheimian...

  13. Minimal erythema dose and minimal melanogenesis dose relate better to objectively measured skin type than to Fitzpatricks skin type

    Wulf, Hans Christian; Philipsen, Peter A; Ravnbak, Mette H

    2010-01-01

    Fitzpatrick skin type (FST I-IV) is a subjective expression of ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity based on erythema and tanning reactivity after a single exposure. Pigment protection factor (PPF) is an objective measurement of skin sensitivity in all skin types after a single exposure....

  14. Object and Objective Lost?

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the erosion and problematization of ‘the organization’ as a demarcated entity. Utilizing Foucault's reflections on ‘state-phobia’ as a source of inspiration, I show how an organization-phobia has gained a hold within Organization Theory (OT). By attending to the history of this...... organization-phobia, the paper argues that OT has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming theoretically deconstructed and associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history......, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OT. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OT intellectual credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia...

  15. Disability in major depression related to self-rated and objectively-measured cognitive deficits: a preliminary study

    Scott Elizabeth M; Longley Wendy A; Naismith Sharon L; Hickie Ian B

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Although major depression (MD) is associated with high levels of disability, the relationships between cognitive dysfunction and self-rated disability are poorly understood. This study examined the relationships between self-rated disability in persons with MD and both self-rated and objectively-measured cognitive functioning. Methods Twenty-one persons with MD and 21 control participants underwent neuropsychological assessment and z-scores representing deviations from con...

  16. Aspects of royalty clauses inside freehold oil and gas leases

    Some of the most common royalty clauses currently used are discussed with particular emphasis on the CAPL 88 and the CAPL 91 petroleum and natural gas lease forms and the provisions regarding lessors and lessees. The problems regarding their practical applications are described. The legal status of a royalty inside a freehold oil and gas lease is also examined. 4 refs

  17. 48 CFR 9903.201-4 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ..., including any modifications and interpretations indicated thereto contained in 48 CFR part 9905, in effect... trade secrets, and commercial or financial information which is privileged and confidential, the... this clause, except paragraph (b), and shall require such inclusion in all other subcontracts, of...

  18. 48 CFR 236.609-70 - Additional provision and clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 236.609-70 Additional provision and clause. (a)(1) Use the... A of the contract. (b) Use the provision at 252.236-7011, Overseas Architect-Engineer...

  19. 48 CFR 237.7101 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... Laundry and Dry Cleaning Services 237.7101 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. (a) Use the... contracts for laundry and dry cleaning services to be provided on a count-of-articles basis. (d) Use the... and dry cleaning services to be provided on a bulk weight basis. (1) Insert a reasonable per...

  20. 48 CFR 970.2201-2-2 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 970.2201-2-2 Section 970.2201-2-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Application of Labor Policies...

  1. 48 CFR 922.103-5 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITION Basic Labor Policies 922.103-5 Contract... clause at FAR 52.222-1, Notice to the Government of Labor Disputes, in all solicitations and contracts..., Protective Services Contracting, for additional policy guidance regarding protective services....

  2. 48 CFR 25.1103 - Other provisions and clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ...) Translations. Insert the clause at 52.225-14, Inconsistency Between English Version and Translation of Contract, in solicitations and contracts if anticipating translation into another language. (c) Foreign currency offers. Insert the provision at 52.225-17, Evaluation of Foreign Currency Offers, in...

  3. 48 CFR 3427.470 - Publication and publicity clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publication and publicity clause. 3427.470 Section 3427.470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Data and Copyrights 3427.470 Publication and...

  4. 48 CFR 2009.570-5 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... nature of the proposed contract that an organizational conflict of interest exists, the contracting... COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational Conflicts of Interest 2009.570-5... forth in 2009.570-4(b) must include the clause entitled, “Contractor Organizational Conflicts...

  5. PeneLoPe, a Parallel Clause-Freezer Solver

    Audemard, Gilles; Hoessen, Benoît; Jabbour, Said; Lagniez, Jean-Marie; Piette, Cédric

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a short system description of our new portfolio-based solver called PeneLoPe, based on ManySat. Particularly, this solver focuses on collaboration between threads, providing different policies for exporting and importing learnt clauses between CDCL searches. Moreover, different restart strategies are also available, together with a deterministic mode.

  6. 48 CFR 1535.007-70 - Contract clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.), the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.), the Safe Drinking Water Act (42 U.S.C. 300f et seq.), the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act... shall insert the clause at 48 CFR 1552.235-71, Treatment of Confidential Business Information,...

  7. 48 CFR 709.507-2 - Contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... solicitation or resulting contract or both include a provision in accordance with (48 CFR) FAR 9.507-1, or a clause in accordance with (48 CFR) FAR 9.507-2, establishing a restraint on the contractor's eligibility... Section 709.507-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT...

  8. 48 CFR 2409.507 - Solicitation provisions and contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Solicitation provisions and contract clause. 2409.507 Section 2409.507 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational...

  9. 76 FR 25657 - Cross-Waiver of Liability Clauses

    2011-05-05

    ... established by the final rule published at 73 FR 10143-50, dated 26 February 2008. The February 2008 rule... International Space Station (ISS) activities, and Science or Space Exploration activities unrelated to the ISS... International Space Station (ISS) activities cross-waiver of liability clause is revised and its...

  10. The Verb Always Leaves IP in V2 Clauses

    Schwartz, Bonnie D.; Vikner, Sten

    The verb second (V2) phenomenon, as it is found in the Germanic languages, has been the focus of much attention within recent syntactic research. In most of the literature on V2, it is assumed that the verb in all V2 clauses has moved to a head position outside IP, e.g. Cº. In Schwartz & Vikner (...

  11. 37 CFR 401.5 - Modification and tailoring of clauses.

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RIGHTS TO INVENTIONS MADE BY NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS AND SMALL BUSINESS FIRMS UNDER... may delete paragraph (g)(2) of the clause and delete the words to be performed by a small business... business firm or nonprofit organization that it would be in the national interest to acquire the right...

  12. 48 CFR 27.409 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses

    2010-10-01

    ... business innovation research contract (see paragraph (h) of this section); (iv) To be performed outside the... determines, in accordance with 27.404-2(b), to adopt the alternate definition of “Limited Rights Data” in... the contract is a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, insert the clause at...

  13. 48 CFR 3027.305 - Administration of Patent Rights Clauses.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of Patent... SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 3027.305 Administration of Patent Rights Clauses....

  14. Disability in major depression related to self-rated and objectively-measured cognitive deficits: a preliminary study

    Scott Elizabeth M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although major depression (MD is associated with high levels of disability, the relationships between cognitive dysfunction and self-rated disability are poorly understood. This study examined the relationships between self-rated disability in persons with MD and both self-rated and objectively-measured cognitive functioning. Methods Twenty-one persons with MD and 21 control participants underwent neuropsychological assessment and z-scores representing deviations from control performance were calculated and averaged across the domains of psychomotor speed, initial learning, memory retention and executive function. Self-ratings of cognitive deficits (SRCDs were reported on a 6-point scale for overall rating of cognitive change, speed of thinking, concentration, and short-term memory. Disability scores for self-rated physical, mental-health and functional (ie. days out of role disability were computed from the Brief-Disability Questionnaire and the SF-12 'mental component' subscale. Results Persons with MD had a mean age of 53.9 years (SD = 11.0, 76% female and had moderate to high depression severity (mean HDRS 21.7, sd = 4.4. As expected, depression severity was a strong predictor of physical (r = 0.7, p Conclusion While depression severity is associated with disability, the contributions of both self-rated and objectively-measured cognitive deficits are substantial and contribute uniquely and differentially to various forms of disability. Efforts directed at reducing cognitive deficits in depression may have the potential to reduce disability.

  15. Objectives, Extent and Organization of Radiological and Environmental Protection in Relation to the Nature and Size of Nuclear Facilities

    Radiological and environmental protection programs for nuclear facilities have similar goals and objectives, which are basically to protect people and the environment from adverse effects. To be effective, the programs must have organizational independence and a strong commitment from management. In return, the programs should ensure that the facility is operating in full compliance with law and good practice. The scope and elements of radiological environmental protection programs will vary according to facility type and size, with the larger and more complex facilities having a diversity of staff and functions. Examples of good and poor organization charts are given and discussed from the standpoint of program effectiveness along with a discussion of the role of the radiation protection committee. (author)

  16. Physical activity and screen-media-related parenting practices have different associations with children's objectively measured physical activity

    Children's physical activity (PA) is inversely associated with children's weight status. Parents may be an important influence on children's PA by restricting sedentary time or supporting PA. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of PA and screen-media–related [television (TV) and...

  17. Advancements in subsea intervention and construction techniques for dropped object protection, pipeline stabilization and grouting related activities

    Hudson, J.W.

    1998-12-31

    This paper is a state of the art review of Subsea Intervention and Construction Techniques using ROVs for pipeline protection, stabilization and grouting-related activities. It identifies the important stages involved in the various processes and reviews the problems experienced. Technical advances and improvements over the years have, in certain instances, produced new problems, these are highlighted and discussed. Common problem areas are investigated and the remedial measures used to overcome these are discussed, together with their effect on the final integrity of the particular product or service affected.

  18. Joint associations of objectively-measured sedentary behavior and physical activity with health-related quality of life

    Paul D. Loprinzi

    2015-01-01

    No studies, to my knowledge, have examined the joint effects of physical activity and sedentary behavior on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 5,536). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior were assessed using an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer, with HRQOL assessed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 4-item HRQOL...

  19. With hands I don't centre! Action- and object-related effects of hand-cueing in the line bisection.

    Ranzini, Mariagrazia; Borghi, Anna M.; Nicoletti, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    A variety of studies have shown action- and object-related visuo-motor priming in behavioural tasks. The peculiarity of this study lies in using a hand-cued line bisection task to explore the main properties of the motor effects evoked by action and object processing. In five experiments it is shown that flanking a line (thin vs. thick line) with images of hands (biological vs. non-biological hand) representing different actions (power vs. precision grip) biases performance towards the action...

  20. Integrating Conflict Driven Clause Learning to Local Search

    Audenard, Gilles; Lagniez, Jean-Marie; Mazure, Bertrand; Saïs, Lakhdar

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces SatHyS (SAT HYbrid Solver), a novel hybrid approach for propositional satisfiability. It combines local search and conflict driven clause learning (CDCL) scheme. Each time the local search part reaches a local minimum, the CDCL is launched. For SAT problems it behaves like a tabu list, whereas for UNSAT ones, the CDCL part tries to focus on minimum unsatisfiable sub-formula (MUS). Experimental results show good performances on many classes of SAT instances from the las...

  1. Operational Semantics of Resolution in Horn Clause Logic

    Fu, Peng; Komendantskaya, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study of operational and type-theoretic properties of different resolution strategies in Horn clause logic. We distinguish four different kinds of resolution: resolution by unification (SLD-resolution), resolution by term-matching, the recently introduced structural resolution, and partial (or lazy) resolution. We express them all uniformly as abstract reduction systems, which allows us to undertake a thorough comparative analysis of their properties. To match this small...

  2. CLAUSE 49 AND ITS IMPACT ON PERFORMANCE MEASURES

    Paridhi Saini; Shivali Dhameja

    2014-01-01

    This study attempts to understand the effect of India's adoption of major governance reforms (with reference to Clause 49) which is based on a voluntary 1998 Code of Corporate Governance, developed by the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII, an organization of large Indian public firms).If investors consider the reforms to be valuable (or more valuable for larger firms), firm return in the form of share prices, accounting profit and earning per share should react positively ...

  3. The Analysis of Causality in Escape Clause Cases.

    Kelly, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Under Section 201 of the Trade Act of 1974, the so-called escape clause, a domestic industry that is seriously injured can obtain temporary relief if imports are the substantial cause of such injury. This paper develops a methodology to determine the change in a domestic industry's production as a result of changes in import supply, demand, and domestic supply, and so determine whether or not an industry is entitled to Section 201 relief. This methodology is illustrated by application to two ...

  4. Joint associations of objectively-measured sedentary behavior and physical activity with health-related quality of life

    Paul D. Loprinzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available No studies, to my knowledge, have examined the joint effects of physical activity and sedentary behavior on health-related quality of life (HRQOL, which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were used (N = 5,536. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and sedentary behavior were assessed using an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer, with HRQOL assessed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 4-item HRQOL index. MVPA (βadjusted = −0.01; 95% CI: −0.01 to −0.004; P < 0.001, but not sedentary behavior (βadjusted = −0.0003; 95% CI: −0.001–0.0001; P = 0.37, was associated with HRQOL. MVPA was associated with HRQOL among those above the median (≥487.5 min/day level of sedentary behavior (βadjusted = −0.02; 95% CI: −0.03 to −0.01; P = 0.006; N = 2769. The results of this brief report do not demonstrate that sedentary behavior, independent of MVPA, is associated with HRQOL. The independent association of MVPA on HRQOL confirms previous work that used self-report measures of MVPA.

  5. Neural mechanisms of the observation of human and non-human object touch in children: An event-related potential study.

    Galilee, Alena; McCleery, Joseph P

    2016-03-01

    Previous behavioural research on the development of self-other tactile processing and perception suggests that this system may develop in a somewhat protracted manner relative to other aspects of social development. Neuroimaging research has shown that somatosensory mechanisms are activated when adults observe another person or object being touched. In this study, we measured event-related potentials from 4- to 5-year-old children to investigate the development of the neural correlates of the observation of human and object touch. Participants were presented with video clips of an arm or a cylindrical object being touched. Touch versus non-touch effects were observed in the amplitudes of the LSW component (600-700 ms) measured from electrodes over somatosensory region. Additionally, human versus non-human stimulus effects were reflected in the amplitudes of the parietal-central N100 component, as well as in the latencies of the N170 component recorded from parietal-occipital electrodes in children, as in adults in a previous study using this same paradigm. These findings provide evidence that relatively mature tactile mirroring mechanisms are activated during the observation of touch in children, and further suggest the possibility that these mechanisms are not particularly slow in their development relative to other aspects of social cognition. PMID:26659431

  6. CLAUSE 49 AND ITS IMPACT ON PERFORMANCE MEASURES

    Paridhi Saini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to understand the effect of India's adoption of major governance reforms (with reference to Clause 49 which is based on a voluntary 1998 Code of Corporate Governance, developed by the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII, an organization of large Indian public firms.If investors consider the reforms to be valuable (or more valuable for larger firms, firm return in the form of share prices, accounting profit and earning per share should react positively to the key adoption announcement. Over a span period of 10 years before and after the announcement by the Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI, India's principal securities regulator for adoption of Clause 49, the profit after tax and EPS of the listed companies specifically the group of companies selected for this study has shown the positive effect on the above specified components. Average returns had increased considerably and even EPS also present the same picture, but these changes may have been due to factors other than the reforms. These results also supported by statistical testing. Overall, we report evidence consistent with investors expecting the Clause 49 reforms to increase the efficiency of corporates.

  7. On the uncertainty beneath the name Oithona similis Claus, 1866 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida)

    Cepeda, Georgina D.; Sabatini, Marina E.; Scioscia, Cristina L.; Ramírez, Fernando C.; Viñas, María D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The marine cyclopoid Oithona similis sensu lato Claus, 1866, is considered to be one of the most abundant and ubiquitous copepods in the world. However, its minimal original diagnosis and the unclear connection with its (subjective) senior synonym Oithona helgolandica Claus, 1863, may have caused frequent misidentification of the species. Consequently, it seems possible that several closely related but distinct forms are being named Oithona similis or Oithona helgolandica without explicit and accurate discrimination. Here the current situation concerning the correct assignment of the two species is revised, the morphological characters commonly used to identify and distinguish each species are summarized, and the nomenclatural implications of indiscriminately using these names in current taxonomic and ecological practice is considered. It is not intended to upset a long-accepted name in its accustomed meaning but certainly the opposite. “In pursuit of the maximum stability compatible with taxonomic freedom” (International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature), we consider that reassessment of the diagnostic characters of Oithona similis sensu stricto cannot be postponed much longer. While a consensus on taxonomy and nomenclatural matters can be attained, we strongly recommend specifically reporting the authority upon which the identification of either Oithona similis s.l. or Oithona helgolandica s.l. has been accomplished. PMID:26865812

  8. On the uncertainty beneath the name Oithona similis Claus, 1866 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida).

    Cepeda, Georgina D; Sabatini, Marina E; Scioscia, Cristina L; Ramrez, Fernando C; Vias, Mara D

    2016-01-01

    The marine cyclopoid Oithona similis sensu lato Claus, 1866, is considered to be one of the most abundant and ubiquitous copepods in the world. However, its minimal original diagnosis and the unclear connection with its (subjective) senior synonym Oithona helgolandica Claus, 1863, may have caused frequent misidentification of the species. Consequently, it seems possible that several closely related but distinct forms are being named Oithona similis or Oithona helgolandica without explicit and accurate discrimination. Here the current situation concerning the correct assignment of the two species is revised, the morphological characters commonly used to identify and distinguish each species are summarized, and the nomenclatural implications of indiscriminately using these names in current taxonomic and ecological practice is considered. It is not intended to upset a long-accepted name in its accustomed meaning but certainly the opposite. "In pursuit of the maximum stability compatible with taxonomic freedom" (International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature), we consider that reassessment of the diagnostic characters of Oithona similis sensu stricto cannot be postponed much longer. While a consensus on taxonomy and nomenclatural matters can be attained, we strongly recommend specifically reporting the authority upon which the identification of either Oithona similis s.l. or Oithona helgolandica s.l. has been accomplished. PMID:26865812

  9. The Composite OLAP-Object Data Model

    Pourabbas, Elaheh; Shoshani, Arie

    2005-12-07

    In this paper, we define an OLAP-Object model that combines the main characteristics of OLAP and Object data models in order to achieve their functionalities in a common framework. We classify three different object classes: primitive, regular and composite. Then, we define a query language which uses the path concept in order to facilitate data navigation and data manipulation. The main feature of the proposed language is an anchor. It allows us to fix dynamically an object class (primitive, regular or composite) along the paths over the OLAP-Object data model for expressing queries. The queries can be formulated on objects, composite objects and combination of both. The power of the proposed query language is investigated through multiple query examples. The semantic of different clauses and syntax of the proposed language are investigated.

  10. Can a medical need clause help manage the growing costs of prescription drugs in the EU?

    Brooks, Eleanor; Geyer, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Innovation in the development of new drugs has to balance the needs of health actors and administrators, the pharmaceutical industry and patients. Differing perspectives on what constitutes an innovation, where research and development should be directed and how new drugs should be evaluated and priced cause ongoing tensions within the regulatory framework. In the current climate, where Europe's health systems face rising demand for health services and increasingly restricted resources, the efficiency of pharmaceutical regulation and drug development is under even greater scrutiny. How can regulation foster innovation and industry growth while also serving the public health needs of society, and what is the EU's role in pursuing this objective? Drawing on a provision which formerly existed in Norwegian pharmaceutical legislation, this article explores the potential of a medical need clause (MNC) in addressing these issues. In restricting market authorisations to those drugs that offer an added therapeutic value, might a MNC foster innovation and spending efficiency in Europe's health systems? PMID:26333920

  11. Development of role-differentiated bimanual manipulation in infancy: Part 3. Its relation to the development of bimanual object acquisition and bimanual non-differentiated manipulation.

    Babik, Iryna; Michel, George F

    2016-03-01

    This third paper in a series of three related developmental trajectories of bimanual object acquisition and non-differentiated bimanual manipulation (NDBM) to patterns of role-differentiated bimanual manipulation (RDBM) development to help identify the sequence of events that might predict (and potentially facilitate) the development of RDBM skill. Ninety infants were tested monthly from 6 to 14 months of age for object acquisition, and from 9 to14 months for NDBM and RDBM. The results did not support the hypothesis proposing that the onset of RDBM would require decoupling of the hands in unimanual acquisition, but supported the prediction that coupling of the hands in bimanual acquisition would predict increasing expertise in the RDBM skill. The relation between the bimanual object acquisition and RDBM was found to be mediated by NDBM, which prompts the hypothesis that bimanual acquisition of objects facilitates the development of NDBM, which, in its turn, facilitates the development of the RDBM skill. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 268-277, 2016. PMID:26642790

  12. [Abortion and conscientious objection].

    Czarkowski, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Polish laws specify the parties responsible for lawful medical care in the availability of abortion differently than the Resolution of the Council of Europe. According to Polish regulations they include all Polish doctors while according to the Resolution, the state. Polish rules should not discriminate against anyone in connection with his religion or belief, even more so because the issue of abortion is an example of an unresolved ethical dispute. The number of lawful abortion in Poland does not exceed 1000 per year and can be carried out by only a few specialists contracted by the National Health Fund. Sufficient information and assistance should be provided to all pregnant women by the National Health Fund. The participation of all physicians in the informing process is not necessary, as evidenced by the lack of complaints to provide information on where in vitro fertilization treatment can be found - until recently only available when paid for by the individual and performed in much larger numbers than abortion. Entities performing this paid procedure made sure to provide information on their own. The rejection of the right to the conscientious objection clause by negating the right to refuse information may lead some to give up the profession or cause the termination of certain professionals on the basis of the professed worldview. Meanwhile, doctors are not allowed to be discriminated against on the basis of their conscience or religion. PMID:25815623

  13. EFFICIENT TRANSFORMATION OF USE CASE MAIN SUCCESS SCENARIO STEPS INTO BUSSINESS OBJECT RELATION (BORM) DIAGRAMS FOR EFFECTIVE BUSSINESS PROCESS REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS

    ATHANASIOS PODARAS; JOSEF MORAVEC; MARTIN PAPIK

    2012-01-01

    The basic part of an innovative and modern approach to business processrequirement analysis which is based on the simultaneous utilization of UML Use Caseapproach and the Business Object Relation Modelling approach is analyzed in thepresent paper. Precisely the transition rules by which the Use Case Main SuccessScenario steps are converted into to a BORM diagram, entitled as the Use Case ToBORM Transformation Algorithm (UCBTA) transition rules, are presented as apattern based method which lea...

  14. Objective assessment of urban built environment related to physical activity — development, reliability and validity of the China Urban Built Environment Scan Tool (CUBEST)

    SU, MENG; Du, Yu-kun; Liu, Qing-min; Ren, Yan-jun; Kawachi, Ichiro; Lv, Jun; Li, Li-ming

    2014-01-01

    Background Some aspects of the neighborhood built environment may influence residents’ physical activity, which in turn, affects their health. This study aimed to develop an urban built environment evaluation tool and conduct necessary reliability and validity tests. Methods A 41-item urban built environment scan tool was developed to objectively assess the neighborhood built environment features related to physical activity. Six neighborhoods in Hangzhou were selected from three types of adm...

  15. Objective assessment of urban built environment related to physical activity — development, reliability and validity of the China Urban Built Environment Scan Tool (CUBEST)

    SU, MENG; Du, Yu-kun; Liu, Qing-min; Ren, Yan-jun; Kawachi, Ichiro; Lv, Jun; Li, Li-ming

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some aspects of the neighborhood built environment may influence residents’ physical activity, which in turn, affects their health. This study aimed to develop an urban built environment evaluation tool and conduct necessary reliability and validity tests. Methods: A 41-item urban built environment scan tool was developed to objectively assess the neighborhood built environment features related to physical activity. Six neighborhoods in Hangzhou were selected from three types of a...

  16. Syntactic variants and natural syntax : Greek infinitive clauses dependent on verbs of speaking and thinking

    Jerneja Kav?i?

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains a very well-known feature of Classical Greek syntax from the perspective of Natural Syntax. Most grammars of Classical Greek state that infinitive clauses could be dependent on both verbs of speaking and thinking in Classical Greek. In contrast, finite dependent clauses could be governed only by verbs of speaking. However, one verb of speaking that regularly governs infinitive clauses is 'say'. In terms of Natural Syntax, infinitive clauses are more natural than finite dependent clauses. The scale > nat (infinitive clause, finite dependent clause is supported by the criterion of favorable for the speaker and the hearer (criterion A and the criterion of integration into the clause (criterion D. In addition, verbs of thinking are more natural than verbs of speaking. The scale > nat (verbs of thinking, verbs of speaking is supported by the criterion of integration into the clause (criterion C, the criterion of frequency (criterion C, and the criterion of favorable for the speaker andthe hearer (criterion A. Natural Syntax predicts that the more natural syntactic variant (i.e., infinitive clauses associates with more natural parameters (i.e., verbs of thinking than the less natural syntactic variant (i.e., finite dependent clauses. This type of alignment rule is called parallel alignment. In addition, most of the criteria applied indicate that the verb 'say' is more natural than other verbs of speaking (e.g., it is an enclitic verb. Consequently, it is expected within Natural Syntax that the verb 'say' associates with the more natural syntactic variant (i.e., with infinitive clauses.

  17. Sex-related preferences for real and dolls faces versus real and toy objects in young infants and adults

    Escudero, Paola; Robbins, Rachel A.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Findings of previous studies demonstrate sex-related preferences for toys in 6-month-old infants: Boys prefer non-social or mechanical toys such as cars, while girls prefer social toys such as dolls. Here, we explored the innate versus learned nature of this sex-related preferences using multiple pictures of doll and real faces (of men and women) as well as pictures of toy and real objects (cars and stoves). Forty-eight 4- and 5-month-old infants (24 girls) and 48 young adults (24 women) saw ...

  18. Objective thermomechanics

    Fülöp, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    An irreversible thermodynamical theory of solids is presented where the kinematic quantities are defined in an automatically objective way. Namely, auxiliary elements like reference frame, reference time and reference configuration are avoided by formulating the motion of the continuum on spacetime directly, utilizing the Weyl-Matolcsi description of spacetime. This restricts the range of definable kinematic quantities heavily. Solids are distinguished from fluids by possessing not only an instantaneous metric tensor but a relaxed metric, too, that represents the natural geometric structure of the solid. The comparison of the instantaneous metric to the relaxed one is the basis of the definition of the elastic state variable, the elastic deformedness tensor. Thermal expansion is conceived as the temperature dependence of the relaxed metric. As opposed to this reversible type of change, plasticity means an irreversible change in the relaxed metric, and is describable via a plastic change rate tensor. The relat...

  19. 77 FR 60667 - EPAAR Clause for Printing

    2012-10-04

    ..., and Media Relations is responsible for the review of materials generated under a contract published or... Executive Order (EO) 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993) and therefore, not subject to review under the EO... ``Federalism'' (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999), requires EPA to develop an accountable process to...

  20. NON-COMPETITION CLAUSES IN COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS

    MIHAELA IRINA IONESCU

    2011-01-01

    We begin with an analysis of areas where rivalry between economic agents can not show (any act of competition committed in this area drawing the liability of the author), we will then analyze competition in relations between the trader and servant or other employees and continue with the analysis of the legal ban on competition in the limited liability companies and joint stock companies. So, the relevant provisions of Law 31/1990 are reviewed, views of legal doctrine and practice of judicial...

  1. BL Lacertae objects

    The properties of BL Lacertae objects are discussed including their spectra, variability, and brightness. The historical development of observation, and the conclusion that these objects are possibly quasar-related objects rather than variable stars as originally supposed are treated. The possible mechanisms for the unusual luminosity of these objects are considered

  2. Predicted radionuclide release from reactor-related unenclosed solid objects dumped in the Sea of Japan and the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka

    Between 1978 and 1991 reactor-related solid radioactive waste was dumped by the former Soviet Union as unenclosed objects in the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, and the Sea of Japan. This paper presented estimates for the current (1994) inventory of activation and corrosion products contained in the reactor-related unenclosed solid objects. In addition, simple models derived for prediction of radionuclide release from marine reactors dumped in the Kara Sea are applied to certain of the dumped objects to provide estimates of radionuclide release to the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, and Sea of Japan environments. For the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, total release rates start below 0.01 GBq yr-1 and over 1,000 years, fall to 100 Bq yr-1. In the Sea of Japan, the total release rate starts just above 1 GBq yr-1, dropping off to a level less than 0.1 GBq yr-1, extending past the year 4,000

  3. Feedback & Objectives

    Butterworth, James R.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial objectives, if they are employee oriented, produce feedback, and the motivation derived from the feedback helps reduce turnover. Feedback is the power to clarify objectives, to stimulate communication, and to motivate people. (Author/MW)

  4. Experiencias en la gestin de imgenes por contenido en bases de datos objeto-relacionales / Experiences in Image Management by Content in Object-Relational Databases

    Carlos E, Alvez; Aldo R, Vecchietti.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available En este artculo se analizan diversos mecanismos que brinda la tecnologa Objeto-Relacional (OR) para el almacenamiento de imgenes en una Base de Datos. El objetivo fue estudiar, mediante la implementacin de dos ejemplos en Oracle 10g, el comportamiento de la tecnologa OR en el almacenamiento, la [...] formulacin de consultas, la recuperacin de la informacin y de las imgenes asociadas. La primera implementacin se corresponde con el almacenamiento de imgenes mdicas concordantes con el estndar DICOM, utilizando objetos ORDImage propios de ORACLE. En el segundo ejemplo se almacenaron imgenes de un diario digital empleando instancias del UDT SI_StillImage del estndar SQL/MM. Las capacidades provistas por la Base de Datos Objeto-Relacional empleada facilitan la implementacin de un servidor de imgenes. Se analizaron tambin las ventajas y desventajas de emplear objetos del estndar SQL/MM o datos nativos correspondientes a Oracle 10g. Abstract in english In this paper, several alternatives for the storage of still images in databases given by the Object-Relational technology are analyzed. The aim was to study, by means of two examples, implementation in Oracle 10g database, the technology behaviour in the storage, query formulation and image recover [...] y. The first application corresponds to the storage of medical images complying with DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) standard, Oracle 10g ORDImage objects have been used for this case. The second example deals with the storage of images for a digital newspaper for which SI_StillImage of the SQL/MM standard have been employed. The capabilities provided by the Object Relational technology facilitate the implementation of an images server. The advantages and drawbacks of using SQL/MM standard or native objects corresponding to Oracle 10g are also compared.

  5. NON-COMPETITION CLAUSES IN COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS

    MIHAELA IRINA IONESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We begin with an analysis of areas where rivalry between economic agents can not show (any act of competition committed in this area drawing the liability of the author, we will then analyze competition in relations between the trader and servant or other employees and continue with the analysis of the legal ban on competition in the limited liability companies and joint stock companies. So, the relevant provisions of Law 31/1990 are reviewed, views of legal doctrine and practice of judicial rulings on the nature and purpose of the relevant provisions referred to, their scope, applicability of statutory prohibition against competition in the profile activity of the company, the prohibition in the liquidation phase, procedural methods which can cover damage caused to the creditor’s violated rights, as well as statute of limitations for the right to action and prescription.

  6. Integrating Conflict Driven Clause Learning to Local Search

    Audenard, Gilles; Mazure, Bertrand; Saïs, Lakhdar

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces SatHyS (SAT HYbrid Solver), a novel hybrid approach for propositional satisfiability. It combines local search and conflict driven clause learning (CDCL) scheme. Each time the local search part reaches a local minimum, the CDCL is launched. For SAT problems it behaves like a tabu list, whereas for UNSAT ones, the CDCL part tries to focus on minimum unsatisfiable sub-formula (MUS). Experimental results show good performances on many classes of SAT instances from the last SAT competitions.

  7. Decomposition by tree dimension in Horn clause verification

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick; Ganty, Pierre

    In this paper we investigate the use of the concept of tree dimension in Horn clause analysis and verification. The dimension of a tree is a measure of its non-linearity - for example a list of any length has dimension zero while a complete binary tree has dimension equal to its height. We apply...... indicating that decomposition by tree dimension is a potentially useful proof technique. We also investigate the use of existing automatic proof tools to prove some interesting properties about dimension(s) of feasible derivation trees of a given program....

  8. Integrating Conflict Driven Clause Learning to Local Search

    Gilles Audenard

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces SatHyS (SAT HYbrid Solver, a novel hybrid approach for propositional satisfiability. It combines local search and conflict driven clause learning (CDCL scheme. Each time the local search part reaches a local minimum, the CDCL is launched. For SAT problems it behaves like a tabu list, whereas for UNSAT ones, the CDCL part tries to focus on minimum unsatisfiable sub-formula (MUS. Experimental results show good performances on many classes of SAT instances from the last SAT competitions.

  9. 48 CFR 1328.310 - Contract clause for work on a Government installation.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause for work on a Government installation. 1328.310 Section 1328.310 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 1328.310 Contract clause for work on a Government...

  10. 48 CFR 1352.301 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix).

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). 1352.301 Section 1352.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Matrix 1352.301 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). ER08MR10.000 ER08MR10.001...

  11. 78 FR 48397 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Transportation (DFARS...

    2013-08-08

    ...-city or intra-area movement, is contemplated. (1) Use the clause Requirements--Basic if the acquisition..., or for performance of intra-city or intra-area movement, use the following provisions, clauses, and... facilities; ships; floating equipment and vessels of every character, type, and description, with...

  12. 48 CFR 209.570-4 - Solicitation provision and contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... at 252.209-7006, Limitations on Contractors Acting as Lead System Integrators, in solicitations for... integrator. (b) Use the clause at 252.209-7007, Prohibited Financial Interests for Lead System Integrators... contract clause. 209.570-4 Section 209.570-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE...

  13. 48 CFR 3009.570-4 - Solicitation provision and contract clause.

    2010-10-01

    ... clause. (a) Use the provision at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3052.209-74, Limitations on Contractors Acting as Lead... envisions the use of a lead system integrator. (b) Use the clause at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3052.209-75, Prohibited...) 48 CFR 3052.209-74; and (2) In contracts when the contractor will fill the role of a lead...

  14. Embedded "wh"-Questions in L2 English in India: Inversion as a Main Clause Phenomenon

    Stringer, David

    2015-01-01

    This corpus study brings a second language (L2) research perspective, insights from generative grammar, and new empirical evidence to bear on a long-accepted claim in the World Englishes literature--namely, that inversion with "wh"-movement in colloquial Indian English is obligatory in embedded clauses and impossible in main clauses. It

  15. 21 CFR 571.115 - Application of the cancer clause of section 409 of the act.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application of the cancer clause of section 409 of the act. 571.115 Section 571.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Administrative Actions on Applications § 571.115 Application of the cancer clause of section 409 of the act....

  16. 21 CFR 70.50 - Application of the cancer clause of section 721 of the act.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application of the cancer clause of section 721 of the act. 70.50 Section 70.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES Safety Evaluation § 70.50 Application of the cancer clause...

  17. Approaching the Post-Newtonian Regime with Numerical Relativity: A Compact-Object Binary Simulation Spanning 350 Gravitational-Wave Cycles.

    Szilágyi, Béla; Blackman, Jonathan; Buonanno, Alessandra; Taracchini, Andrea; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A; Chu, Tony; Kidder, Lawrence E; Pan, Yi

    2015-07-17

    We present the first numerical-relativity simulation of a compact-object binary whose gravitational waveform is long enough to cover the entire frequency band of advanced gravitational-wave detectors, such as LIGO, Virgo, and KAGRA, for mass ratio 7 and total mass as low as 45.5M_{⊙}. We find that effective-one-body models, either uncalibrated or calibrated against substantially shorter numerical-relativity waveforms at smaller mass ratios, reproduce our new waveform remarkably well, with a negligible loss in detection rate due to modeling error. In contrast, post-Newtonian inspiral waveforms and existing calibrated phenomenological inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms display greater disagreement with our new simulation. The disagreement varies substantially depending on the specific post-Newtonian approximant used. PMID:26230780

  18. Complementation of adjectives : A corpus-based study of adjectival complementation by that- and to-clauses

    Kaatari, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This corpus-based study investigates adjectives that allow complementation by both that- and to-clauses. The study is concerned with arriving at a structural and functional description of the distribution of adjectives that allow complementation by both to-infinitive clauses and that-clauses, based on the various syntactic and semantic manifestations of these two clause types and the adjectives that are complemented by them. The study reveals that there is a strong correlation between the sem...

  19. A Comparative Analysis of the Frequency and Function of If-clauses in Applied Linguistics and Chemistry Articles

    Akbar Hesabi; Morteza Raei Dehaghi; Mohammadtaghi Shahnazari-Dorcheh

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the differences and similarities between form and function of if-clauses as one type of conditional clauses within the applied linguistics and chemistry published academic Articles. These articles were examined and after determining the frequency of if-clauses, they were analyzed based on the model proposed by Sweetser (1990). According to the findings, if-clauses were more frequent in applied linguistics than chemistry articles. Results of function analysis indicated ...

  20. Virtual objects

    Seuren, P.

    2006-01-01

    Virtual objects are objects thought up by a thinking individual. Although 20th-century philosophy has tried to ban them from ontology, they make it impossible to account for the truth of sentences such as Apollo was worshipped in the island of Delos, in which a property is assigned to the nonexisting, virtual entity Apollo. Such facts are the reason why virtual objects are slowly being recognized again.

  1. Phraseological Patterns in Reporting Clauses Used in Citation: A Corpus-Based Study of Theses in Two Disciplines

    Charles, Maggie

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the phraseological patterning that occurs in reporting clauses used to make references to others' research. It examines finite reporting clauses with "that"-clause complement and draws upon two corpora of theses written by native speakers in contrasting disciplines: approximately 190,000 words in politics/international…

  2. Cause Clue Clauses: Error Localization using Maximum Satisfiability

    Jose, Manu

    2010-01-01

    Much effort is spent everyday by programmers trying to reduce long, failing execution traces to the cause of the error. We present a new algorithm for error cause localization based on a reduction to the maximal satisfiability problem (MAX SAT), which asks what is the maximum number of clauses of a Boolean formula that can be satisfied by an assignment. At an intuitive level, our algorithm takes as input a program and a failing test, and comprises the following three steps. First, as in symbolic execution, we encode a trace of a program as a Boolean trace formula which is satisfiable iff the trace is feasible. Second, for a failing program execution (e.g., one that violates an assertion or a post condition), we construct an unsatisfiable formula by taking the trace formula and additionally asserting that the input is the failing test and that the post-condition holds. Third, using MAX-SAT, we find a maximal set of clauses in this formula that can be satisfied together, and output the complement set as a poten...

  3. Understanding of subordinate clauses in the language of dysphasic children

    Lazarević Emilija

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the research of peculiarities of syntactic development, as an element of language structure on the grammatical level of children suffering from developmental dysphasia, after the completed speech pathology treatment of many years. Syntactic level at younger school age was studied by assessing language competence in the accomplishment of communicative sentence with subordinate clause. The research was performed on the samples of children at school age in regular primary schools in Belgrade. The sample comprised 160 respondents who were divided in two groups: target and comparative. The target group consisted of 60 respondents (children suffering from developmental dysphasia after the completed speech pathology treatment of many years, and the comparative group consisted of 100 respondents from regular primary school "Gavrilo Princip" in Zemun. Research results show that grammatical development of children suffering from developmental dysphasia takes place at a considerably slower rate and entails substantially more difficulties in accomplishing predication in subordinate clauses. This paper discusses the consequences which the difficulties in grammatical development can have on school achievement.

  4. Object theatre

    Ryöppy, Merja; Heiberg, Andreas

    This paper investigates how four perspectives from Object Theatre can enhance interaction design in the early stages of a product design process. We propose these perspectives as a playful approach for designers to gain embodied understanding and perception of objects to enable new design...

  5. Senior High School Students' Errors on the Use of Relative Words

    Bao, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Relative clause is one of the most important language points in College English Examination. Teachers have been attaching great importance to the teaching of relative clause, but the outcomes are not satisfactory. Based on Error Analysis theory, this article aims to explore the reasons why senior high school students find it difficult to choose…

  6. Ownership and Object History

    Friedman, Ori; Neary, Karen R.; Defeyter, Margaret A.; Malcolm, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate behavior in relation to an object often requires judging whether it is owned and, if so, by whom. The authors propose accounts of how people make these judgments. Our central claim is that both judgments often involve making inferences about object history. In judging whether objects are owned, people may assume that artifacts (e.g.,

  7. Pragmatic Objectivity

    Michele Marsonet

    2014-01-01

    Nicholas Rescher writes that “objectivity is not something we infer from the data; it is something we must presuppose. It is something that we postulate or presume from the very outset of our dealings with people’s claims about the world’s facts”. Such definition is just the opposite of objectivity conceived of in classical terms, but it cannot be equated with an idealistic viewpoint according to which objectivity is something that our mind simply creates in the process of reflection. It is, ...

  8. A surface electromyography based objective method to identify patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain, presenting a flexion related movement control impairment.

    Van Damme, Benedicte; Stevens, Veerle; Perneel, Christiaan; Van Tiggelen, Damien; Neyens, Ellen; Duvigneaud, Nathalie; Moerman, Luc; Danneels, Lieven

    2014-12-01

    Movement control impairments (MCI) are often present in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain (NS-CLBP). Therefore, movement control exercises are widely used to rehabilitate patients. However, the objective assessment remains difficult. The purpose of this study was to develop a statistical model, based on logistic regression analysis, to differentiate patients with NS-CLBP presenting a flexion-related MCI from healthy subjects. This model is based on trunk muscle activation patterns measured by surface electromyography (sEMG), during movement control exercises. Sixty-three healthy male subjects and 36 male patients with a flexion-related MCI participated in this study. Muscle activity of the internal obliques, the external obliques, the lumbar multifidus and the thoracic part of the iliocostalis was registered. Ratios of deep stabilizing to superficial torque producing muscle activity were calculated to examine trunk muscle recruitment patterns during 6 different exercises. Logistic regression analyses were performed (1) to define the ratios and exercises that were most discriminating between patients and non-patients, (2) to make a predictive model. K-Fold cross-validation was used to assess the performance of the predictive model. This study demonstrated that sEMG trunk muscle recruitment patterns during movement control tests, allows differentiating NSCLBP patients with a flexion-related MCI from healthy subjects. PMID:25304196

  9. Quantitative assessment of bone marrow attenuation values at MDCT: An objective tool for the detection of bone bruise related to occult sacral insufficiency fractures

    To prove the feasibility of using Hounsfield attenuation values at MDCT to detect bone bruises related to sacral insufficiency fractures. Twenty-two patients with acute sacrum trauma and no fracture findings at MDCT were included in our prospective study. Two observers independently reviewed CTs regarding visual signs of bone bruises in 132 defined regions of the sacral alae. Interobserver agreement was tested by κ statistics. Subsequently, HU values were obtained in the same regions, and attenuation differences between the two sides were calculated. Validity and reliability were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. HU differences were subjected to ROC curve analysis to determine sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV. MRI served as standard reference. MRI revealed 19 regions with bone bruises and associated sacral insufficiency fractures. HU measurements demonstrated good validity and reliability (r = 0.989). ROC curve analysis exhibited an ideal cutoff value of 35.7 HU density difference between affected and non-affected regions. Visual evaluation revealed moderate agreement (κ = 0.48); diagnostic accuracy was inferior to objective evaluation. Assessment of differences in bone marrow density by HU measurements is an objective and reliable tool for detection of bone bruises associated with occult sacral insufficiency fractures. (orig.)

  10. Quantitative assessment of bone marrow attenuation values at MDCT: An objective tool for the detection of bone bruise related to occult sacral insufficiency fractures

    Henes, F.O.; Groth, M.; Bley, T.A.; Regier, M.; Ittrich, H.; Adam, G.; Bannas, P. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Nuechtern, J.V. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Trauma, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Treszl, A. [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Center for Experimental Medicine, Department of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    To prove the feasibility of using Hounsfield attenuation values at MDCT to detect bone bruises related to sacral insufficiency fractures. Twenty-two patients with acute sacrum trauma and no fracture findings at MDCT were included in our prospective study. Two observers independently reviewed CTs regarding visual signs of bone bruises in 132 defined regions of the sacral alae. Interobserver agreement was tested by {kappa} statistics. Subsequently, HU values were obtained in the same regions, and attenuation differences between the two sides were calculated. Validity and reliability were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. HU differences were subjected to ROC curve analysis to determine sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV. MRI served as standard reference. MRI revealed 19 regions with bone bruises and associated sacral insufficiency fractures. HU measurements demonstrated good validity and reliability (r = 0.989). ROC curve analysis exhibited an ideal cutoff value of 35.7 HU density difference between affected and non-affected regions. Visual evaluation revealed moderate agreement ({kappa} = 0.48); diagnostic accuracy was inferior to objective evaluation. Assessment of differences in bone marrow density by HU measurements is an objective and reliable tool for detection of bone bruises associated with occult sacral insufficiency fractures. (orig.)

  11. Extended objects

    After some disconnected comments on the MIT bag and string models for extended hadrons, I review current understanding of extended objects in classical conventional relativistic field theories and their quantum mechanical interpretation

  12. Phase gradient mapping as an aid in the analysis of object-induced and system-related phase perturbations in MRI

    In this note we wish to demonstrate the utility of phase gradient mapping (PGM) as an aid in the analysis and characterization of object-induced and system-related macroscopic phase perturbations in MRI. To achieve this goal, phase gradient maps and, if applicable, field gradient maps were derived from standard phase images via a forward difference operator taking into account phase wraps. By way of phantom experiments, PGM was shown to provide reliable phase and field gradient information, even in regions with multiple phase wraps. Phase gradient mapping was further shown to allow positive identification of local phase and field perturbations and global discrimination between positive and negative local susceptibility deviations. The suitability of PGM for in vivo studies was demonstrated by a 3D brain examination of a healthy volunteer. (note)

  13. PAH EMISSION IN STARBURST, SEYFERT, ULIRGS, QSOS AND QUASAR OBJECTS, AND THEIR RELATION WITH THE INFRARED, X-RAY AND RADIO CONTINUUM EMISSION

    M.-A. Higuera-G.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a second study in an ongoing work aimed to analyze the star formation activity and its relation with the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs emission. In this way, we have performed a study about the correlation between the ux of the 7.7 -m PAH band and its equivalent width, with the luminosities and uxes observed in JHK photometric bands, IRAS 12, 25, 60 and 100-m, the radio emission at 1.4GHz and X-ray at 2{10 keV, for a sample composed of Seyfert 1-2, QSOs, Quasars, Starburst, and ULIRGs. The results found let us discriminate between objects with more star formation activity from others with more AGN in uence.

  14. Trusted Objects

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  15. Trusted Objects

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  16. Pharmacist conscience clauses and access to oral contraceptives.

    Flynn, D P

    2008-07-01

    The introduction of conscience clauses after the 1973 US Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade allowed physicians and nurses to opt out of medical procedures, particularly abortions, to which they were morally opposed. In recent years pharmacists have requested the same consideration with regard to dispensing some medicines. This paper examines the pharmacists' role and their professional and moral obligations to patients in the light of recent refusals by pharmacists to dispense oral contraceptives. A review of John Rawls's concepts of the "original position" and the "veil of ignorance", along with consideration of the concept of compartmentalisation, are used to assess pharmacists' requests and the moral and legal rights of patients to have their prescriptive needs met. PMID:18591285

  17. Dual combustion oxygen-enriched claus sulfur plant

    Steppe, R.J.

    1988-10-25

    This patent describes a process for the production of sulfur by reaction of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide wherein a feed of hydrogen sulfide is oxidized in part to sulfur dioxide to form reactants which yield sulfur by the modified catalytic Claus reaction. The improvement consists of: (a) introducing to a first combustion zone at least a portion of a hydrogen sulfide rich gas stream containing at least about 10% by volume hydrogen sulfide and a first oxygen rich gas containing at least about 30% by volume oxygen in a proportion to achieve by combustion a first sulfur dioxide containing product gas stream at a combustion flame temperature of from about 1000/sup 0/F to about 3600/sup 0/F; (b) cooling the first product gas stream to a termperture from about 240/sup 0/F to about 3000/sup 0/; and (c) introducing the cooled first product gas stream to at least a second combustion zone with additional oxygen rich gas stream containing at least about 30% by volume oxygen to combust additional hydrogen sulfide and yield a second sulfur dioxide containing product gas stream at a combustion flame temperature of from about 1000/sup 0/F to about 3600/sup 0/F, the amount of hydrogen sulfide and oxygen fed to the combustion zones being proportioned to provide on completion of combustion a gas stream having a mole ratio of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur dioxide of about 2:1 for feed to a catalytic Claus convertor to achieve formation of sulfur by reaction of residual hydrogen sulfide with sulfur dioxide formed during combustion in the combustion zones.

  18. Role of toluene in hydrogen sulfide combustion under Claus condition

    Highlights: • Examined the role of toluene addition in hydrogen sulfide combustion. • Effect of 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 5% of toluene in H2S gas stream was examined. • Toluene addition triggers production of H2 which provides oxidation competition to H2S. • Increased amount of toluene in H2S gas reduced SO2 and increased asymptotic value of H2S. • Toluene addition enhanced the formation of CO and COS. - Abstract: Experimental investigations on the effect of different amounts of toluene addition to H2S combustion in oxygen under Claus condition (Φ = 3) are presented. Three toluene concentrations of 0.5%, 1% and 5% in H2S are presented and compared with the baseline case of 100% H2S oxygen combustion. Temperature data showed that addition of toluene to H2S gas stream increases the flame temperature because of large heating value associated with toluene. Addition of toluene resulted in the production of H2, which increased with increase in the amounts of toluene addition. Furthermore, increased addition of toluene concentration increased the asymptotic minimum value of hydrogen sulfide due to oxidation competition between the formed H2 and H2S. The results also showed that the presence of CO triggers the formation of COS with toluene addition due to reaction of CO with SO2. The results showed that SO2 mole fraction increased to a maximum value then decayed with distance along the reactor. Addition of toluene increased the rate of SO2 decay. These results have direct impact on sulfur capture in the Claus reactor and its performance

  19. The expressibility of modality in representational complement clauses in Brazilian Portuguese

    Valéria Vendrame

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper deals with the (impossibility of expressing a variety of modal categories within the context of the layering approach to complementation in Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG.Our hypothesis is that modal expressions in complement clauses only pertain to operator or modifier classes of the highest layer relevant for that type of embedded construction and for all lower levels. In order to test this hypothesis, occurrences of complement clauses in two databases of spoken Brazilian Portuguese are analyzed. The investigation of this hypothesis is restricted to representational complement clauses.

  20. Sex differences in subjective and objective measures of pain, functional impairment, and health-related quality of life in patients with lumbar degenerative disc disease.

    Gautschi, Oliver P; Corniola, Marco V; Smoll, Nicolas R; Joswig, Holger; Schaller, Karl; Hildebrandt, Gerhard; Stienen, Martin N

    2016-05-01

    Sex differences in pain perception are known to exist; however, the exact pathomechanism remains unclear. This work aims to elucidate sex differences in subjective and objective measures of pain, functional impairment, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with lumbar degenerative disc disease. In a prospective 2-center study, back and leg pain (visual analogue scale [VAS]), functional disability (Oswestry Disability Index and Roland-Morris Disability Index), and HRQoL (EuroQol-5D and Short Form [SF12]) were collected for consecutive patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery. Objective functional impairment (OFI) was estimated using age-adjusted and sex-adjusted cutoff values for the timed-up-and-go (TUG) test. A healthy cohort of n = 110 subjects served as the control group. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to test the association between sex and pain, subjective and OFIs, and HRQoL. The study comprised n = 305 patients (41.6% females). Female patients had more VAS back pain (P = 0.002) and leg pain (P = 0.014). They were more likely to report higher functional impairment in terms of Oswestry Disability Index (P = 0.005). Similarly, HRQoL measured with the EuroQol-5D index (P = 0.012) and SF12 physical composite score (P = 0.005) was lower in female patients. Female patients reported higher VAS back and leg pain, functional impairment, and reduced HRQoL than male patients. However, there were no sex differences with respect to the presence and degree of OFI measured by the TUG test using age-adjusted and sex-adjusted cutoff values. As such, the TUG may be a good test to overcome sex bias for the clinical assessment of patients with degenerative disc disease. PMID:26761383

  1. Using object affordances to improve object recognition

    Castellini, Claudio; Tommasi, Tatiana; Noceti, Nicoletta; Odone, Francesca; Caputo, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The problem of object recognition has not yet been solved in its general form. The most successful approach to it so far relies on object models obtained by training a statistical method on visual features obtained from camera images. The images must necessarily come from huge visual datasets, in order to circumvent all problems related to changing illumination, point of view, etc. We hereby propose to also consider, in an object model, a simple model of how a human being would grasp that obj...

  2. Specification of Concurrent Objects

    Srensen, Morten U.

    relation over two objects and an event. In the model, objects can be composed by parallel composition, encapsulation, and hiding of operations. Refinement between objects is defined as fair trace inclusion.A specification language is presented where objects can be specified operationally by abstract......Concurrent objects are named concurrent processes that interact by invoking each other's operations. We describe how such concurrent objects can be specified, how objects can be composed, and how it can be shown that one object refines another.First a model is defined, based on a transition...... imperative programs as well as externally by formulas in an interval logic, and even in a combination of the two styles.Verification among the different specification styles is illustrated by a number of experiments using a small distributed data base as a common example. Also, experiments are made with the...

  3. Utilities objectives

    The policy of French and german utilities is to make use of nuclear energy as a long term, competitive and environmentally friendly power supply. The world electricity generation is due to double within the next 30 years. In the next 20 to 30 years the necessity of nuclear energy will be broadly recognized. More than for most industries, to deal properly with nuclear energy requires the combination of a consistent political will, of a proper institutional framework, of strong and legitimate control authorities, of a sophisticated industry and of operators with skilled management and human resources. One of the major risk facing nuclear energy is the loss of competitiveness. This can be achieved only through the combination of an optimized design, a consistent standardization, a proper industrial partnership and a stable long term strategy. Although the existing plants in Western Europe are already very safe, the policy is clearly to enhance the safety of the next generation of nuclear plants which are designing today. The French and German utilities have chosen an evolutionary approach based on experience and proven technologies, with an enhanced defense in depth and an objective of easier operation and maintenance. The cost objective is to maintain and improve what has been achieved in the best existing power plants in both countries. This calls for rational choices and optimized design to meet the safety objectives, a strong standardization policy, short construction times, high availability and enough flexibility to enable optimization of the fuel cycle throughout the lifetime of the plants. The conceptual design phase has proven that the French and German teams from industry and from the utilities are able to pursue both the safety and the cost objectives, basing their decision on a rational approach which could be accepted by the safety authorities. (J.S.)

  4. Objective Morality

    Allott, Robin

    1991-01-01

    An objective basis for morality can be found in an evolutionary account of its origin and development. Morality is a key factor in the success of human groups in competition or co-existence with each other.A group's moral code represents an increasingly rational pattern of behaviour derived from the collective experience of the group handed down from generation to generation. Group selection is a controversial idea for animal evolution but it is inescapable in accounting for human evolution u...

  5. The suspended well clause in the CAPL freehold mineral lease and proposal for deep right reversion

    The current version of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Landmen (CAPL) Lease form has a clause entitled the 'suspended wells clause' (commonly called the 'shut-in' clause). The very pro-lessee' orientation of earlier leases which basically provided that if the Lessee had a well located on the lands at the end of the primary term the lessee could hold the lease by submitting a shut-in well payment to the Lessor, regardless of the reasons for which the well was shut in. This provision provided the Lessee with a great deal of flexibility, but created many problems for both freehold land owners and industry. Various scenarios illustrating the problems that industry is encountering with this clause are described and possible solutions to the problems are suggested. The feasibility of adding a deep rights reversion provision to the CAPL Lease is also discussed. 1 ref

  6. Understanding Original Intent and Stare Decisis: Two Methods of Interpreting the Establishment Clause.

    Seigler, Timothy John

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how school administrators can use the legal concepts of original intent and "stare decisis" to interpret the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment when faced with issues involving religion in the schools. (Contains 34 references.)(PKP)

  7. SPINS: Standardized ProteIn NMR Storage. A data dictionary and object-oriented relational database for archiving protein NMR spectra

    Modern protein NMR spectroscopy laboratories have a rapidly growing need for an easily queried local archival system of raw experimental NMR datasets. SPINS (Standardized ProteIn Nmr Storage) is an object-oriented relational database that provides facilities for high-volume NMR data archival, organization of analyses, and dissemination of results to the public domain by automatic preparation of the header files required for submission of data to the BioMagResBank (BMRB). The current version of SPINS coordinates the process from data collection to BMRB deposition of raw NMR data by standardizing and integrating the storage and retrieval of these data in a local laboratory file system. Additional facilities include a data mining query tool, graphical database administration tools, and a NMRStar v2.1.1 file generator. SPINS also includes a user-friendly internet-based graphical user interface, which is optionally integrated with Varian VNMR NMR data collection software. This paper provides an overview of the data model underlying the SPINS database system, a description of its implementation in Oracle, and an outline of future plans for the SPINS project

  8. Spontaneous Decoding of the Timing and Content of Human Object Perception from Cortical Surface Recordings Reveals Complementary Information in the Event-Related Potential and Broadband Spectral Change.

    Miller, Kai J; Schalk, Gerwin; Hermes, Dora; Ojemann, Jeffrey G; Rao, Rajesh P N

    2016-01-01

    The link between object perception and neural activity in visual cortical areas is a problem of fundamental importance in neuroscience. Here we show that electrical potentials from the ventral temporal cortical surface in humans contain sufficient information for spontaneous and near-instantaneous identification of a subject's perceptual state. Electrocorticographic (ECoG) arrays were placed on the subtemporal cortical surface of seven epilepsy patients. Grayscale images of faces and houses were displayed rapidly in random sequence. We developed a template projection approach to decode the continuous ECoG data stream spontaneously, predicting the occurrence, timing and type of visual stimulus. In this setting, we evaluated the independent and joint use of two well-studied features of brain signals, broadband changes in the frequency power spectrum of the potential and deflections in the raw potential trace (event-related potential; ERP). Our ability to predict both the timing of stimulus onset and the type of image was best when we used a combination of both the broadband response and ERP, suggesting that they capture different and complementary aspects of the subject's perceptual state. Specifically, we were able to predict the timing and type of 96% of all stimuli, with less than 5% false positive rate and a ~20ms error in timing. PMID:26820899

  9. The validity of automatic termination clauses in employment contracts / by L. Tonkin.

    Tonkin, Liechen

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to establish the validity of automatic termination clauses in employment contracts. An automatic termination clause in an employment contract is a mechanism that has the effect that the expiry of an employment contract cannot constitute a dismissal. In terms of the common law a fixed term contract of employment is terminated automatically as soon as the agreed terms have been reached and it therefore does not constitute a dismissal. The common law therefore created a gap f...

  10. Defining virtual property in terms of the constitutional property clause / Lelanie Bekker

    Bekker, Lelanie

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation critically considers the question of whether the concept of “virtual property” may be understood to be included as a form of property in the constitutional property clause. The reason for this problem is that there is no definition of the property concept in the constitutional property clause. South African courts have not yet given clarity as to whether virtual property may be included, recognised and protected or to what extent such protection could be. There are different...

  11. Shell jumping pound: Optimizing sulphur plant operations via Linde Claus oxygen enrichment process

    Dreisinger, D.; Moffat, T

    1990-11-01

    A commercial Claus oxygen enrichment system was installed at Shell's Jumping Pound Gas Plant located 35 km west of Calgary. Prior to oxygen enrichment, several seasonal problems plagued normal sulfur plant operations. These problems included insufficient air blower capacity, excessively high tail gas flows and, to a lesser extent, undesirably low reaction furnace temperatures due to low H{sub 2}S content in the acid gas feed. It has been apparent that all effects of oxygen enrichment upon the operation of the sulfur plant have been positive. Most notably, an instantaneous sulfur plant capacity increase of up to 60 tonnes per day may be achieved. The effects of oxygen enrichment upon overall sulfur recovery efficiency, reaction furnace temperature, COS/CS{sub 2} destruction, steam production, and incinerator fuel requirements have also been positive. The test program objectives and results, as well as enrichment facilities design and operation for both the test program and commercial program, are summarized. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Wow!: objects

    Freitas, Paulo Sérgio da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays computers have advanced beyond the desktop into many parts of everyday life and objects. To achieve this we have to make the computer invisible, and making a computer invisible is not a matter of size of the hardware, it’s all about how the human perceives the computer. To make this possible, the interaction with the computer has to be done in an alternative way, such that the user doesn’t notice the usual computer interfaces (mouse and keyboard) when using it. Therefore this t...

  13. Lecture Object

    Vitaglione, Giosue; Bousdira, Nora; Goldfarb, Steven; Neal, Homer A.; Severance, Charles; Storr, Mick

    A new software architectural model for the archival of slide-based presentations on the Internet is proposed. This architecture is based on the concept of the ``lecture object,'' a persistent format, independent of the lecture production and viewing technology. The work has been undertaken in the context of the Web Lecture Archive Project, a collaboration of the CERN HR Division Training and Development group and the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. To date some 250 lectures have been archived and are viewable worldwide using standard Web browsers and freely available video player software.

  14. Quantum Objects

    Mansouri, Alireza; Karbasizadeh, Amir Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest an alternative interpretation for the quantum state vector, which, by considering temporal parts for physical objects, aims to give an intelligible account of measurement problem in quantum mechanics. We examine the capacity of this interpretation as for explaining three measurement problems: the problem of outcome, the problem of statistics and the problem of effect. We argue that, this interpretation of the state vector, while providing a satisfactory account, as rationally plausible as its rivals, for the measurement problem, shows yet another limitation of our perceptual experience, i.e. our inability to perceive unsharp reality.

  15. Objects, materiality and meaning

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    The present research work investigates the relation between physical objects, their materiality, understood as the physical substances they are made from, and the communication from the objects. In product design of physical objects the communicative aspects are just as important as the function of...... the object, and the designers aim is therefore to tune both in order to achieve a desired goal. To do so the designer basically has 2 options: Alteration of the physical shape of the object and the selection of materials. Through the manipulation of shape and materials can symbolic and sensory...... information be written into the object. The materials are therefore carriers of communication, even though this is dependent of the cultural context and the environment which the object will be part of. However the designer has only minor influence on those....

  16. The Experience of Force: The Role of Haptic Experience of Forces in Visual Perception of Object Motion and Interactions, Mental Simulation, and Motion-Related Judgments

    White, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Forces are experienced in actions on objects. The mechanoreceptor system is stimulated by proximal forces in interactions with objects, and experiences of force occur in a context of information yielded by other sensory modalities, principally vision. These experiences are registered and stored as episodic traces in the brain. These stored…

  17. Visual Jokes about Christmas and Santa Claus on the Internet - Why and Why not?

    Guntis Pakalns

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses a collection of Christmas-related images and video clips found on the Internet. The author started collecting this material in 2005, since that time the material in the form of a PowerPoint presentation has been shown to diverse audiences discussing the context (mainly from the perspective of a folklore researcher while observing the reaction of the audience.The central part of the article is devoted to a brief overview of the most characteristic groups of the jokes (with links to the images, video and descriptions of the traditions: Santa Claus as the bringer of presents, his trip from the northland and his friend Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, arrival through the chimney, different other persons wearing Santa’s hat (politicians, terrorists, women, animals, etc., Santa’s sexuality, drunken Santa, Santa murdered/killed, etc. In addition, the regional version – Ded Moroz and Snegurochka (Father Frost and the Snowgirl – is discussed here. Parodies related to the topic – the Christmas tree, snowmen and figures made of snow, elves, angels, Chinese horoscope’s “animals of the year”.Some hypotheses regarding the differences, functions, selection and perception of the worldwide available jokes in different social situations (western and post-Soviet world are put forward, also considering social groups and situations, the time before and after Christmas. Why would people need such jokes? An attempt is made to explain it by different “levels of joking” – starting with “simply jokes” with their specific context in the tradition of the particular subject matter and the carnival-like sense of the reversed world (also used by the traders, making the originally rather eerie Santa Claus look like a friendly joker in the “shopping mythology” and jokes as a kind of psychological self-defence – trying to compensate, by way of irony and black humour, for the rapidly changing and excessive tediousness, seriousness, sacralisation, or right the opposite – secularisation, commercialisation of the mass media imposed Christmas traditions and the holiday stress.

  18. Contributos para uma anlise semntico-pragmtica das causais de enunciao no Portugus Europeu contemporneo / Utterance causal clauses in contemporary European Portuguese: some contributions

    Ana Cristina Macrio, Lopes.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho caracterizar as oraes causais de enunciao num quadro terico que postula a existncia, no discurso, de distintos domnios da significao - domnio do contedo, domnio epistmico e domnio ilocutrio-, na convico de que uma anlise semntica destas construes pode [...] r contribuir para iluminar o seu comportamento sinttico peculiar, que tanta controvrsia tem gerado. Defende-se, neste estudo, que as oraes causais de enunciao expressam a relao discursiva de Justificao, que envolve sempre a articulao de dois atos ilocutrios, um deles com o estatuto de ato principal, o outro com o estatuto de ato subordinado. Num primeiro momento, analisa-se a articulao entre causais de enunciao e asseres e argumenta-se a favor da inseparabilidade entre os domnios epistmico e ilocutrio neste tipo de construes, contrariamente ao que defende Sweetser (1999). Num segundo momento, analisa-se a articulao entre causais de enunciao e outras classes de atos ilocutrios, nomeadamente atos diretivos, compromissivos e expressivos. Abstract in english The main purpose of this paper is to characterize utterance causal clauses within a theoretical framework that assumes different domains of discourse meaning - content, epistemic and speech-act domain. The assumption is that a semantic analysis may provide some explanation for the syntactic behaviou [...] r of the construction under scrutiny. It is argued in this paper that utterance causal clauses illustrate the discourse relation of Justification, which involves the connection between two illocutionary acts, with different hierarchical status. It is also argued, contrary to Sweetser's 1999 account, that utterance causal clauses combined with assertions give rise to an elementary argumentative text, where the epistemic and the illocutionary domain are closely intertwined. The paper also contemplates the connection between utterance causal clauses and other classes of speech acts, namely directive, compromissive and expressive ones.

  19. 48 CFR 52.225-7 - Waiver of Buy American Act for Civil Aircraft and Related Articles.

    2010-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-7 Waiver of Buy American Act for Civil Aircraft and Related Articles. As prescribed in 25.1101(d), insert the following provision: Waiver of Buy American Act for Civil... Agreements Act. (b) The U.S. Trade Representative has waived the Buy American Act for acquisitions of...

  20. This study has for objective to study the theoretical relation of the hydraulic jump by sill, evolving in an U-shaped channel, with a rough bed. Functional relations, in non-dimensional form, relating the jump characteristics, seeming the effect of the be

    A. Ghomri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study has for objective to study the theoretical relation of the hydraulic jump by sill, evolving in an U-shaped channel, with a rough bed. Functional relations, in non-dimensional form, relating the jump characteristics, seeming the effect of the bed's roughness, are obtained. A comparative study with the hydraulic jump in U-shaped channel, with smooth bed is proposed.

  1. An automated quality assessor for Ada object-oriented designs

    Bailin, Sidney C.

    1988-01-01

    A tool for evaluating object-oriented designs (OODs) for Ada software is described. The tool assumes a design expressed as a hierarchy of object diagrams. A design of this type identifies the objects of a system, an interface to each object, and the usage relationships between objects. When such a design is implemented in Ada, objects become packages, interfaces become package specifications, and usage relationships become Ada `with' clauses and package references. An automated quality assessor has been developed that is based on flagging undesirable design constructs. For convenience, distinctions are made among three levels of severity: questionable, undesirable, and hazardous. A questionable construct is one that may well be appropriate. An undesirable construct is one that should be changed because it is potentially harmful to the reliability, maintainability, or reusability of the software. A hazardous construct is one that is undesirable and that introduces a high level of risk.

  2. Cultivating objects in interaction

    Hazel, Spencer

    associations for describing, disambiguating or clarifying aspects of the relatively complex procedural frameworks discussed in the settings. is suggests that the temporal stability of material objects available to participants makes them an ideal resource to be developed as visual motifs.......is chapter explores patterns of repeated orientations to physical objects in interactants’ visuo-spatial and haptic surround. A number of examples are presented from advice-giving activities in various institutional settings, where participants-in-interaction initially draw on material objects at...... hand while pursuing a particular line of explanation, and then return to these objects at later intervals. e analysis suggests that the objects are afforded representational properties through their being anchored to some referent in the talk, and that participants subsequently draw on these...

  3. New concept for quantification of similarity relates entropy and energy of objects: First and Second Law entangled, group behavior of micro black holes expected

    Zimak Petr

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract When the free energy of similar but distinct molecule-sized objects is plotted against the temperature at which their energy and entropy contributions cancel, a highly significant linear dependence results from which the degree of similarity between the distinctly different members within the group of objects can be quantified and a relationship between energy and entropy is derived. This energy-entropy relationship entirely reflects the mathematical structure of thermodynamic equations, is in this sense fundamental and therefore does probably not dependent on material nor scale. The energy-entropy relationship is likely to be of general interest in molecular biology, population biology, synthetic biology, biophysics, chemical thermodynamics, systems chemistry and physics, most notably in particle physics and cosmology. In physics we predict a consistent and perhaps testable way of classifying micro black holes, to be generated in future Large Hadron Collider experiments, by their gravitational energy and area entropy.

  4. Focal white matter abnormalities related to neurocognitive dysfunction: An objective diffusion tensor imaging study of children with Sturge-Weber syndrome

    Alkonyi, Bálint; Govindan, Rajkumar M.; Chugani, Harry T.; Behen, Michael E.; Jeong, Jeong-Won; Juhász, Csaba

    2011-01-01

    White matter (WM) loss is associated with cognitive impairment in Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS). In this study, we evaluated if cognitive and fine motor abnormalities are associated with impaired microstructural integrity in specific WM regions in SWS. Fifteen children with unilateral SWS (age: 3-12.4 years) and 11 controls (age: 6-12.8 years) underwent diffusion tensor imaging. Tract Based Spatial Statistics was used for objective comparisons of WM fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivi...

  5. Object-Place Recognition Learning Triggers Rapid Induction of Plasticity-Related Immediate Early Genes and Synaptic Proteins in the Rat Dentate Gyrus

    Jonathan Soul; Zsuzsa Penke; Tambudzai Kanhema; Maria Nordheim Alme; Serge Laroche; Clive R. Bramham

    2008-01-01

    Long-term recognition memory requires protein synthesis, but little is known about the coordinate regulation of specific genes. Here, we examined expression of the plasticity-associated immediate early genes (Arc, Zif268, and Narp) in the dentate gyrus following long-term object-place recognition learning in rats. RT-PCR analysis from dentate gyrus tissue collected shortly after training did not reveal learning-specific changes in Arc mRNA expression. In situ hybridization and immunohistoche...

  6. Object-Place Recognition Learning Triggers Rapid Induction of Plasticity-Related Immediate Early Genes and Synaptic Proteins in the Rat Dentate Gyrus

    Soul, Jonathan; Penke, Zsuzsa; Kanhema, Tambudzai; Alme, Maria Nordheim; Laroche, Serge; Bramham, Clive R.

    2008-01-01

    Long-term recognition memory requires protein synthesis, but little is known about the coordinate regulation of specific genes. Here, we examined expression of the plasticity-associated immediate early genes (Arc, Zif268, and Narp) in the dentate gyrus following long-term object-place recognition learning in rats. RT-PCR analysis from dentate gyrus tissue collected shortly after training did not reveal learning-specific changes in Arc mRNA expression. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were therefore used to assess possible sparse effects on gene expression. Learning about objects increased the density of granule cells expressing Arc, and to a lesser extent Narp, specifically in the dorsal blade of the dentate gyrus, while Zif268 expression was elevated across both blades. Thus, object-place recognition triggers rapid, blade-specific upregulation of plasticity-associated immediate early genes. Furthermore, Western blot analysis of dentate gyrus homogenates demonstrated concomitant upregulation of three postsynaptic density proteins (Arc, PSD-95, and ?-CaMKII) with key roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. PMID:19190776

  7. Object-Place Recognition Learning Triggers Rapid Induction of Plasticity-Related Immediate Early Genes and Synaptic Proteins in the Rat Dentate Gyrus

    Clive R. Bramham

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term recognition memory requires protein synthesis, but little is known about the coordinate regulation of specific genes. Here, we examined expression of the plasticity-associated immediate early genes (Arc, Zif268, and Narp in the dentate gyrus following long-term object-place recognition learning in rats. RT-PCR analysis from dentate gyrus tissue collected shortly after training did not reveal learning-specific changes in Arc mRNA expression. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were therefore used to assess possible sparse effects on gene expression. Learning about objects increased the density of granule cells expressing Arc, and to a lesser extent Narp, specifically in the dorsal blade of the dentate gyrus, while Zif268 expression was elevated across both blades. Thus, object-place recognition triggers rapid, blade-specific upregulation of plasticity-associated immediate early genes. Furthermore, Western blot analysis of dentate gyrus homogenates demonstrated concomitant upregulation of three postsynaptic density proteins (Arc, PSD-95, and α-CaMKII with key roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and long-term memory.

  8. Characterization of catalysts by Moessbauer spectroscopy: An application to the study of Fischer-Tropsch, hydrotreating and super Claus catalysts

    Moessbauer spectroscopy is an excellent in-situ technique for the identification of phases present in catalysts. Applied to metallic iron catalysts used in the Fischer-Tropsch reaction it reveals a detailed picture of the carburization process and provides insight into the relation between the properties of the catalytic material and its activity. The influence of a support and the effect of alloying iron with an (in)active metal on the catalytic performance is discussed for Fe, Cu-Fe and Ni-Fe systems. In addition, Moessbauer spectroscopy is used for the identification of 'Co-sulfide' species present in sulfided Co and CoMo catalysts applied in one of the largest chemical processes in the world, the hydrotreatment of crude oil. A structural model is proposed. Finally, the contribution of Moessbauer spectroscopic studies to the development of a new catalyst for cleaning of Claus tail gas via selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur is discussed. (orig.)

  9. Breaking Object Correspondence Across Saccadic Eye Movements Deteriorates Object Recognition

    Poth, Christian H.

    2015-01-01

    Visual perception is based on information processing during periods of eye fixations that are interrupted by fast saccadic eye movements. The ability to sample and relate information on task-relevant objects across fixations implies that correspondence between presaccadic and postsaccadic objects is established. Postsaccadic object information usually updates and overwrites information on the corresponding presaccadic object. The presaccadic object representation is then lost. In contrast, th...

  10. 48 CFR 1827.409 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraph (a), (b), (c), (d), (e...

    2010-10-01

    ... contract clauses. (NASA supplements paragraph (a), (b), (c), (d), (e), (i), and (k)) 1827.409 Section 1827.409 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GENERAL... agreement consistent with the clause, Federal laws, standard industry practices, and the FAR are to...

  11. 48 CFR 227.7107-1 - Architectural designs and data clauses for architect-engineer or construction contracts.

    2010-10-01

    ... data clauses for architect-engineer or construction contracts. 227.7107-1 Section 227.7107-1 Federal... designs and data clauses for architect-engineer or construction contracts. (a) Except as provided in... (Unlimited), in solicitations and contracts for architect-engineer services and for construction...

  12. 8 CFR 204.7 - Preservation of benefits contained in savings clause of Immigration and Nationality Act...

    2010-01-01

    ... savings clause of Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments of 1976. 204.7 Section 204.7 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS IMMIGRANT PETITIONS Immigrant Visa Petitions § 204.7 Preservation of benefits contained in savings clause of Immigration and Nationality...

  13. 14 CFR 91.23 - Truth-in-leasing clause requirement in leases and conditional sales contracts.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Truth-in-leasing clause requirement in... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.23 Truth-in-leasing clause requirement in leases and conditional... January 2, 1973, shall execute a written lease or contract and include therein a written...

  14. The Interaction of Most-Favored-Nation (MFN) Clauses With Dispute Settlement Provisions in Investment Treaties : A New Continent to Discover?

    Koch, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    The master thesis provides a comprehensive and comparative analysis of the scope of most-favoured-nation clauses, focusing on the application of such clauses to dispute resolution mechanisms in bilateral investment treaty’s (BIT). The ICSID decision in Maffezini was the first in a series to extend the scope of an MFN clause to dispute resolution in such context. Traditionally, such a clause had been relied on regarding substantive rights. The debate evoked by this and subsequent decisions of ...

  15. Non-finite Complementation A Usage-Based Study of Infinitive and -ing Clauses in English

    Egan, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive guide to the way speakers of British English use infinitive and – ing clauses as verbal complements. It contains details of the non-finite complementation patterns of over 300 matrix verbs, with a particular emphasis on verbs that occur with more than one type of non-finite complement. Drawing upon data from the British National Corpus, the author shows that some of the views which are to be found in the existing literature on these sorts of clauses are in conflict with the evidence of actual usage. He also shows that there is actually much more regularity in

  16. Tree automata-based refinement with application to Horn clause verification

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    rather than just transition systems; secondly, we show how algorithms manipulating tree automata interact with abstract interpretations, establishing progress in refinement and generating refined clauses that eliminate causes of imprecision. We show how to derive a refined set of Horn clauses in which...... given infeasible traces have been eliminated, using a recent optimised algorithm for tree automata determinisation. We also show how we can introduce disjunctive abstractions selectively by splitting states in the tree automaton. The approach is independent of the abstract domain and constraint theory...

  17. Senior High School Students Errors on the Use of Relative Words

    Xiaoli Bao

    2015-01-01

    Relative clause is one of the most important language points in College English Examination. Teachers have been attaching great importance to the teaching of relative clause, but the outcomes are not satisfactory. Based on Error Analysis theory, this article aims to explore the reasonswhy senior high school students find it difficult to choose relative words and how to improve this situation. Participants in this study are 73 senior high school students from Tong Liao, Inner Mongolia. These s...

  18. Breaking object correspondence across saccadic eye movements deteriorates object recognition

    Christian H. Poth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception is based on information processing during periods of eye fixations that are interrupted by fast saccadic eye movements. The ability to sample and relate information on task-relevant objects across fixations implies that correspondence between presaccadic and postsaccadic objects is established. Postsaccadic object information usually updates and overwrites information on the corresponding presaccadic object. The presaccadic object representation is then lost. In contrast, the presaccadic object is conserved when object correspondence is broken. This helps transsaccadic memory but it may impose attentional costs on object recognition. Therefore, we investigated how breaking object correspondence across the saccade affects postsaccadic object recognition. In Experiment 1, object correspondence was broken by a brief postsaccadic blank screen. Observers made a saccade to a peripheral object which was displaced during the saccade. This object reappeared either immediately after the saccade or after the blank screen. Within the postsaccadic object, a letter was briefly presented (terminated by a mask. Observers reported displacement direction and letter identity in different blocks. Breaking object correspondence by blanking improved displacement identification but deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. In Experiment 2, object correspondence was broken by changing the object’s contrast-polarity. There were no object displacements and observers only reported letter identity. Again, breaking object correspondence deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. These findings identify transsaccadic object correspondence as a key determinant of object recognition across the saccade. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that breaking object correspondence results in separate representations of presaccadic and postsaccadic objects which then compete for limited attentional processing resources (Schneider, 2013. Postsaccadic object recognition is then deteriorated because less resources are available for processing postsaccadic objects.

  19. Object inspection systems

    The patent concerns an object inspection apparatus and method, using electromagnetic radiation. The apparatus produces images of preselected portions of an object with a favourable signal to noise ratio and little blurring. The system can be used to inspect objects in order to locate minute flaws and departures from specifications. The apparatus comprises a means for producing a beam of electromagnetic radiation, a detection device for generating a signal related to the intensity of the radiation passing through the object, and an image processing system that is responsive to the sampled and stored magnitudes of the signals. The latter system enhances the signal to noise ratio and reduces the blurring of images produced by the inspection apparatus. (U.K.)

  20. On Coordinating Collaborative Objects

    Abdessamad Imine

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A collaborative object represents a data type (such as a text document designed to be shared by a group of dispersed users. The Operational Transformation (OT is a coordination approach used for supporting optimistic replication for these objects. It allows the users to concurrently update the shared data and exchange their updates in any order since the convergence of all replicas, i.e. the fact that all users view the same data, is ensured in all cases. However, designing algorithms for achieving convergence with the OT approach is a critical and challenging issue. In this paper, we propose a formal compositional method for specifying complex collaborative objects. The most important feature of our method is that designing an OT algorithm for the composed collaborative object can be done by reusing the OT algorithms of component collaborative objects. By using our method, we can start from correct small collaborative objects which are relatively easy to handle and incrementally combine them to build more complex collaborative objects.