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Sample records for object relative clauses

  1. Appendix : Relative Clause Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This questionnaire is intended as an aid to eliciting different relative clause types – restrictive, non-restrictive, free, cleft. We have taken care to include examples where the head plays a variety of grammatical functions in the relative clause (subject, object, indirect object, possessor, adjunct). We have also taken care to include examples where the relative clause is in different positions in the sentence: initial, medial and extraposed. The questionnaire is intended as a guide, only,...

  2. Relative clauses in Gavião of Rondônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Moore

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The language of the Gavião of Rondônia constructs relative clauses by syntactic nominalization, using either of two particles, mát 'concrete nominalization' or méne 'abstract nominalization', which are derived diachronically from discourse pronouns. The resulting nominal clause may or may not have an internal head, which, if it occurs, is not marked, leading to a certain degree of ambiguity. The nominalized clause can modify a following noun stem, which serves as an external head. Relative clauses and complement clauses are not distinct constructions in this language. The typological significance of these constructions is discussed.

  3. Anticipating Explanations in Relative Clause Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Rohde, H; R Levy; Kehler, A.

    2011-01-01

    We show that comprehenders’ expectations about upcoming discourse coherence relations influence the resolution of local structural ambiguity. We employ cases in which two clauses share both a syntactic relationship and a discourse relationship, and hence in which syntactic and discourse processing might be expected to interact. An off-line sentence-completion study and an on-line self-paced reading study examined readers’ expectations for high/low relative clause attachments following implici...

  4. Anticipating Explanations in Relative Clause Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, H.; Levy, R.; Kehler, A.

    2011-01-01

    We show that comprehenders' expectations about upcoming discourse coherence relations influence the resolution of local structural ambiguity. We employ cases in which two clauses share both a syntactic relationship and a discourse relationship, and hence in which syntactic and discourse processing might be expected to interact. An off-line…

  5. The syntactic complexity of Russian relative clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Roger; Fedorenko, Evelina; Gibson, Edward

    2013-11-01

    Although syntactic complexity has been investigated across dozens of studies, the available data still greatly underdetermine relevant theories of processing difficulty. Memory-based and expectation-based theories make opposite predictions regarding fine-grained time course of processing difficulty in syntactically constrained contexts, and each class of theory receives support from results on some constructions in some languages. Here we report four self-paced reading experiments on the online comprehension of Russian relative clauses together with related corpus studies, taking advantage of Russian's flexible word order to disentangle predictions of competing theories. We find support for key predictions of memory-based theories in reading times at RC verbs, and for key predictions of expectation-based theories in processing difficulty at RC-initial accusative noun phrase (NP) objects, which corpus data suggest should be highly unexpected. These results suggest that a complete theory of syntactic complexity must integrate insights from both expectation-based and memory-based theories. PMID:24711687

  6. Semantic Bias in the Acquisition of Relative Clauses in Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Hiromi; Shirai, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzes the acquisition of relative clauses in Japanese to determine the semantic and functional characteristics of children's relative clauses in spontaneous speech. Longitudinal data from five Japanese children are analyzed and compared with English data (Diessel & Tomasello, 2000). The results show that the relative clauses produced…

  7. Rethinking child difficulty: the effect of NP type on children's processing of relative clauses in Hebrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon, Inbal

    2010-01-01

    Children find object relative clauses difficult. They show poor comprehension that lags behind production into their fifth year. This finding has shaped models of relative clause acquisition, with appeals to processing heuristics or syntactic preferences to explain why object relatives are more difficult than subject relatives. Two studies here suggest that children (age 4 ; 6) do not find all object relatives difficult: a corpus study shows that children most often hear and produce object relatives with pronominal subjects. But they are most often tested on ones with lexical-NP subjects (e.g. The nurse that the girl is drawing). When tested on object relatives with pronominal subjects (e.g. The nurse that I am drawing), similar to those they actually hear and produce, Hebrew speakers aged 4 ; 6 show good comprehension (85% accuracy) that matches their production ability. This suggests a different path of relative clause acquisition, one that is sensitive to fine-grained distributional information. PMID:19327196

  8. Working Memory, Animacy, and Verb Class in the Processing of Relative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traxler, M.J.; Williams, R.S.; Blozis, S.A.; Morris, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    In three eye-movement monitoring experiments, participants' working memory capacity was assessed and they read sentences containing subject-extracted and object-extracted relative clauses. In Experiment 1, sentences lacked helpful semantic cues, object-relatives were harder to process than subject relatives, and working memory capacity did not…

  9. Visual Salience Modulates Structure Choice in Relative Clause Production

    OpenAIRE

    Montag, Jessica L; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2014-01-01

    The role of visual salience on utterance form was investigated in a picture description study. Participants heard spoken questions about animate or inanimate entities in a picture and produced a relative clause in response. Visual properties of the scenes affected production choices such that less salient inanimate entities tended to yield longer initiation latencies and to be described with passive relative clauses more than visually salient inanimates. We suggest that the participants’ ques...

  10. Children's Comprehension of Relative Clauses in an Ergative Language: The Case of Basque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Mangado, M. Juncal

    2011-01-01

    The investigation of the comprehension of L1 relative clauses across different languages has shown that subject relatives (SRs) are acquired earlier and responded to more accurately than object relatives (ORs). Most of this work has been based on SVO nominative-absolutive languages. In this article we present the results obtained in a binary…

  11. Children's Comprehension of Relative Clauses in an Ergative Language: The Case of Basque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Mangado, M. Juncal

    2011-01-01

    The investigation of the comprehension of L1 relative clauses across different languages has shown that subject relatives (SRs) are acquired earlier and responded to more accurately than object relatives (ORs). Most of this work has been based on SVO nominative-absolutive languages. In this article we present the results obtained in a binary…

  12. 48 CFR 952.227 - Provisions and clauses related to patents, technical data and copyrights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Provisions and clauses related to patents, technical data and copyrights. 952.227 Section 952.227 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 952.227 Provisions...

  13. Subject Relative Clauses Are Not Universally Easier to Process: Evidence from Basque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreiras, Manuel; Dunabeitia, Jon Andoni; Vergara, Marta; de la Cruz-Pavia, Irene; Laka, Itziar

    2010-01-01

    Studies from many languages consistently report that subject relative clauses (SR) are easier to process than object relatives (OR). However, Hsiao and Gibson (2003) report an OR preference for Chinese, a finding that has been contested. Here we report faster OR versus SR processing in Basque, an ergative, head-final language with pre-nominal…

  14. Grammatical feature dissimilarities make relative clauses easier: A comprehension study with Italian children

    OpenAIRE

    Adani, Flavia; VAN DER LELY, HEATHER K. J.; FORGIARINI, MATTEO; Guasti, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The Relativized Minimality approach to A?-dependencies (Friedmann et al., 2009) predicts that headed object relative clauses (RCs) and which—questions are the most difficult, due to the presence of a lexical restriction on both the subject and the object DP which creates intervention. We investigated comprehension of center-embedded headed object RCs with Italian children, where Number and Gender feature values on subject and object DPs are manipulated. We found that, Number conditions are al...

  15. 48 CFR 970.2702 - Patent related clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent related clauses. 970.2702 Section 970.2702 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2702...

  16. Children's relative clause markers in two non-mainstream dialects of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetting, Janna B; Newkirk, Brandi L

    2011-08-01

    We examined children's productions of mainstream and non-mainstream relative clause markers (e.g. that, who, which, what, where, Ø) in African American English (AAE) and Southern White English (SWE) as a function of three linguistic variables (syntactic role of the marker, humanness of the antecedent and adjacency of the noun phrase head). The data were language samples from 99 typically developing 4-6-year-olds: 61 spoke AAE and 38 spoke SWE. The majority of the children's relative clauses included mainstream markers. Non-mainstream markers were rare, with 3-6% involving Ø subjects and 2% involving what. The children produced who exclusively as subjects and with human antecedents, where exclusively as locatives and with non-human antecedents and Ø and what primarily as direct objects or objects of prepositions and with non-human antecedents. Although AAE- and SWE-speaking children produce some non-mainstream relative markers, the majority of their markers are mainstream. Their use of relative markers is also influenced by linguistic variables in ways that are consistent with a wide range of mainstream and non-mainstream English dialects. These findings show across-dialect similarity in children's relative clauses, even though characterisation of relative clauses as a contrastive dialect structure remains justified. PMID:21453062

  17. Development of Relative Clause Constructions in English L2

    OpenAIRE

    Yumiko Yamaguchi; Satomi Kawaguchi

    2016-01-01

    This study explores how relative clause (RC) constructions develop in the acquisition of English as a second language (L2). The acquisition of RC constructions has been the focus of much research in the field of language acquisition, but a majority of L2 studies in this area is experimental based on the Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy (NPAH) (Keenan & Comrie, 1977). In this study, the spontaneous speech production by a Japanese primary school child, learning English in a naturalistic ...

  18. Development of Relative Clause Constructions in English L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Yamaguchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how relative clause (RC constructions develop in the acquisition of English as a second language (L2. The acquisition of RC constructions has been the focus of much research in the field of language acquisition, but a majority of L2 studies in this area is experimental based on the Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy (NPAH (Keenan & Comrie, 1977. In this study, the spontaneous speech production by a Japanese primary school child, learning English in a naturalistic environment, was audio-recorded regularly over two years, and the development of RC constructions was compared with the acquisition of other English morphological and syntactic structures as represented within Processability Theory (PT (Pienemann, 1998; Pienemann, Di Biase, & Kawaguchi, 2005; Pienemann & Keßler, 2011. Although PT predicts that subordinate clauses are acquired at the highest stage in processability hierarchy, the results in this longitudinal study show that some types of RC constructions emerge at earlier stages in L2 English acquisition. The results also show that RC constructions in the Japanese child’s English L2 develop in the similar way to those reported in L1 studies (e.g., Diessel, 2004.Keywords: relative clause constructions, English L2, Processability Theory, the Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy, Japanese child

  19. Visual salience modulates structure choice in relative clause production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Jessica L; MacDonald, Maryellen C

    2014-06-01

    The role of visual salience on utterance form was investigated in a picture description study. Participants heard spoken questions about animate or inanimate entities in a picture and produced a relative clause in response. Visual properties of the scenes affected production choices such that less salient inanimate entities tended to yield longer initiation latencies and to be described with passive relative clauses more than visually salient inanimates. We suggest that the participants' question-answering task can change as a function of visual salience of entities in the picture. Less salient entities require a longer visual search of the scene, which causes the speaker to notice or attend more to the non-target competitors in the picture. As a result, it becomes more important in answering the question for the speaker to contrast the target item with a salient competitor. This effect is different from other effects of visual salience, which tend to find that more salient entities take more prominent grammatical roles in the sentence. We interpret this discrepancy as evidence that visual salience does not have a single effect on sentence production, but rather its effect is modulated by task and linguistic context. PMID:25102604

  20. The Production of Turkish Relative Clauses in Second Language Acquisition: Overcoming Student Difficulties

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    Anjel Toczu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on teaching relative clauses (R.Cs in Turkish, a left-branching language, and discusses the relative difficulty of producing RCs in Turkish by English-speaking learners by investigating whether the production of subject relative clauses in Turkish is easier than that of the object relative clauses. It also offers suggestions as to how to help learners overcome these difficulties. Turkish and English belong to two different language families, Altaic and Inda-European respectively. This study lends further insight that Turkish does not have RCs similar to those found in Inda-European languages. Instead, in Turkish RCs comprise nominalized verbs and participles. The characteristics of Turkish are also explained such as its word order, agglutinating morphology, vowel and consonant harmony rules as well as case markers indicating grammatical relations between sentence constituents, which shed light to our understanding of RCs in Turkish. Data was collected through written and oral tasks from students enrolled in a military intensive Turkish language training program in the United States. Moreover, their performance was studied through classroom observations and one-on-one speaking activities.

  1. Objects, properties and relations:

    OpenAIRE

    Koutamanis, M.

    2008-01-01

    The paper takes a fundamental look at the composition of digital design representations, in particular at the objects they comprise, the properties of these objects and relations between objects. It proposes that the clarity of domain principles underlying such representation should be matched by explicit, flexible implementations that not only fit design actions and transactions rather than institutional classifications and prescriptive views of architectural information but also challenge f...

  2. Syntactic and Thematic Constraint Effects on Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent Signal Correlates of Comprehension of Relative Clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Caplan, David; Stanczak, Louise; Waters, Gloria

    2008-01-01

    The effects of plausibility of thematic role assignment and syntactic structure on blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal were studied using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging by orthogonally varying syntactic structure (subject- vs. object-extracted relative clauses) and the plausibility of nouns playing thematic roles (constrained vs. unconstrained sentences) in a plausibility judgment task. In plausible sentences, BOLD signal increased for object-compared to subje...

  3. Šalutiniai pažyminio sakiniai: kod?l vaikams sunku juos suprasti? | Relative clauses: why children have difficulties to comprehend them?

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    Ineta Dabašinskien?

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to describe and interpret the results of testing the speech of Lithuanian children in order to find out whether language-specific features of Lithuanian as a highly inflected language help children grasp the complex syntactic relations between the subject and the object in relative clauses. The investigation has been aimed to test the hypothesis to the effect that depending on the language type, object relative clauses are more difficult to acquire than subject relative clauses (Guasti, Cardinaletti 2003; Utzeri 2007; Brandt, Diessel, Tomasello 2008; O’Grady, Kim, Lee et al. 2011; Ben?ea 2012. The findings of the research support the hypothesis that relative clauses as objects (the OO type are more difficult to grasp than those that function as subjects (OS. This claim has been statistically confirmed in the group of 3 – 4.5 year-olds, which had a big difficulty in perceiving the difference between relative clauses functioning as subjects or objects. These findings are in line with claims related to other languages, which demonstrate that children in early childhood, distinguishing between OS or OO, misinterpret the OO type more often (Guasti, Stavrakaki, Arosio 2008. However, when an unusual, strange situation is described, or an unfamiliar verb is used, children tend to assign the same syntactic function to the head noun and the relative pronoun; in such cases the OS clause is interpreted as the OO type. This tendency also supports the parallel-function hypothesis advanced by Tavakolian (1981. In later years children already perceive the difference between the OS and OO type relative clauses, but in a pre-school period misinterpretations of the OO type are quite numerous. Children of schooling age, on the other hand, have no difficulty in interpreting this difference correctly. The results of the present study confirm the assertion that older children grasp the functions of relative clauses and interpret complex structures more easily: they gradually realize that there are two different propositions conveyed in the main and the subordinate clause. It is assumed that children understand and start using relative clauses when their language processing skills have improved, and this happens while they are getting older. In addition to language processing skills, it is important to pay due attention to the frequency of usage principle. Our research findings show that subject relative clauses are more frequent in child-directed speech, and they also appear earlier in a spontaneous child language than object clauses; this is exactly what influences an easier perception of subject relative clauses. Semantic and pragmatic factors have to be mentioned as well: while acquiring a language, children master those grammatical structures where a particular form correlates with a particular meaning more easily (Diessel, Tomassello 2000. It might be assumed that an inflectional system of Lithuanian enables children to easier interpret the syntactic relationship between the main and the relative clause (see, e.g. Arnon 2010; however, the findings of this study allow us to claim that the structure of relative clauses is complex and multilayered, encompassing not only morphological but also semantic and pragmatic factors, which should be investigated more thoroughly in the future. It has also to be stressed that while researching child language it is important to evaluate the influence of adult language, which provides the necessary environment for the child to hear and to understand syntactic constructions of different complexity. Moreover, the assumption that a rich morphological system of a language makes it easier to grasp the complex syntactic functions of sentence elements is corroborated only in part – the findings of the study show that it takes time for Lithuanian children to master correct usage of relative clauses.

  4. The Acquisition of Relative Clauses in Cypriot Greek: Production and Comprehension

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eleni, Theodorou; Kleanthes K., Grohmann.

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the development of relative clauses in Cypriot Greek (CG) - in particular, young children’s comprehension and production of subject relatives (SRs) and object relatives (ORs). A total of thirty-three monolingual children aged between 5 and 9 years acquiring CG as their native [...] language (variety) participated in this study. Two different tasks were used to examine the acquisition of restrictive relative clauses: (i) a Picture Pointing Task, modified from Friedmann and Novogrodsky (2004), was used to investigate the auditory comprehension of SRs and ORs, and (ii) a Preference Task, modified from Novogrodsky and Friedmann (2006), was employed to examine the production of SRs and ORs. Crosslinguistic research provides evidence that children experience difficulties in the acquisition of ORs, whereas this does not seem to be the case for SRs (McKee and McDaniel, 2001; Stathopoulou, 2007). The on-going study on the acquisition of SRs and ORs in CG, the first in the literature for this language variety, so far appears to confirm the difficulty attested for other languages that children display in the acquisition of ORs.

  5. Thematic orders and the comprehension of subject-extracted relative clauses in Mandarin Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Jer Charles

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the comprehension of three kinds of subject-extracted relative clauses (SRs) in Mandarin Chinese: standard SRs, relative clauses involving the disposal ba construction ("disposal SRs"), and relative clauses involving the long passive bei constructions ("passive SRs"). In a self-paced reading experiment, the regions before the relativizer (where the sentential fragments are temporarily ambiguous) showed reading patterns consistent with expectation-based incremental processing: standard SRs, with the highest constructional frequency and the least complex syntactic structure, were processed faster than the other two variants. However, in the regions after the relativizer and the head noun where the existence of a relative clause is unambiguously indicated, a top-down global effect of thematic ordering was observed: passive SRs, whose thematic role order conforms to the canonical thematic order of Chinese, were read faster than both the standard SRs and the disposal SRs. Taken together, these results suggest that two expectation-based processing factors are involved in the comprehension of Chinese relative clauses, including both the structural probabilities of pre-relativizer constituents and the overall surface thematic orders in the relative clauses. PMID:26441697

  6. Thematic orders and the comprehension of subject-extracted relative clauses in Mandarin Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Jer Charles

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the comprehension of three kinds of subject-extracted relative clauses (SRs) in Mandarin Chinese: standard SRs, relative clauses involving the disposal ba construction (“disposal SRs”), and relative clauses involving the long passive bei constructions (“passive SRs”). In a self-paced reading experiment, the regions before the relativizer (where the sentential fragments are temporarily ambiguous) showed reading patterns consistent with expectation-based incremental processing: standard SRs, with the highest constructional frequency and the least complex syntactic structure, were processed faster than the other two variants. However, in the regions after the relativizer and the head noun where the existence of a relative clause is unambiguously indicated, a top-down global effect of thematic ordering was observed: passive SRs, whose thematic role order conforms to the canonical thematic order of Chinese, were read faster than both the standard SRs and the disposal SRs. Taken together, these results suggest that two expectation-based processing factors are involved in the comprehension of Chinese relative clauses, including both the structural probabilities of pre-relativizer constituents and the overall surface thematic orders in the relative clauses. PMID:26441697

  7. Early object relations into new objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    Two strands of change are suggested by this review, one maturational, the other therapeutic or developmental (Hartmann and Kris, 1945). By "maturational" I mean to suggest energies that infuse the individual from earliest life in a manner that includes object relations, but for the healthy exercise of which object relations per se need not be of central and crucial importance. Within wide limits such energies may be delayed until growth conditions prevail without significant distortion of certain of the organism's ego functions. Therapeutic change is analogous to developmental change in that both involve the crucial presence of another to release energies. In therapeutic change these are energies that have been repressed beyond the reach of developmental dynamics. In everyday development crisis and synthesis alternate in conjunction with new and emerging objects to add to the psychological structures brought to the fore by maturation. In many instances, as we see with John, over time and in a less focussed manner, developmental changes can approximate therapeutic change and visa versa. Freud-Dann in their "experiment" pursued one line, in which the equipmental delay brought on by extremely adverse living circumstances was redressed by providing an interpersonally enriching, loving, developmentally facilitating milieu. The sketches of individual children and John's subsequent story provide a perspective into what becomes the stuff of growth and what remains the stuff of neurosis. The developmental reserves and ego resilience of these children were impressive but probably not extraordinary. Usual growth ensued as soon as they were provided with the rich soil of Bulldogs Bank instead of the desert sand of the Tereszin concentration camp. However, no one can escape such adverse circumstances without having taken in the stuff of neurosis. Affects and percepts that were not assimilatable or even available to consciousness at the time remain buried in the unconscious. Pain deprived of meaning is buried as neurosis. As we see in John's story, experience that cannot be integrated at the time is locked away from whatever developmental progression has occurred. Intolerable affects and ideas require particular circumstances of object relation and verbalization such as are found in the context of psychoanalysis and arrived at through psychoanalytic interpretation. Or, as in John's case, they may give way only slowly and irregularly over long stretches of time, when subjected to life experiences in the company of new object relations. Broadly stated, the Freud-Dann paper helps us to appreciate that there are several pathways of protection and growth in the ego that involve the discovery or construction of new objects. Family-romance fantasies are a common manifestation of new-object phenomena. Transitional object phenomena are also related. For some individuals at a particular time or over a span of time, providing the right circumstances for the resumption of maturational and developmental growth is all it takes to make them whole. Changes in the adaptive ego are sufficient to alleviate the conflicts stemming from the neurotic ego. For others, depending upon the degree of their neurotic impairment, or for the same individual under other circumstances, therapeutic change in the deepest sense demands the relatively unconditional presence of the interactive and interpreting other. Children of the storm who come in for shelter and warmth may thrive, but they also require a means of getting at the storm in their core that has been internalized as part of the ego's survival mechanism. What can be extracted from the poignant story of the Bulldogs Bank children about current child-analytic technique? The psychoanalytic piano now may be more formally conceptualized as having white as well as black keys. Most analyses, adult and child, have been conducted as though the "black keys"--pressure to mastery through repetition and its subsequent interpretation in relation to the transference--were the sole agents of the

  8. Cláusulas relativas em Gavião de Rondônia / Relative clauses in Gavião of Rondônia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Denny, Moore.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A língua dos Gavião de Rondônia constrói cláusulas relativas por meio de nominalização sintática, usando uma de duas partículas, mát 'nominalização concreta' ou méne 'nominalização abstrata', que são derivadas diacronicamente de pronomes de discurso. As cláusulas nominais assim construídas podem ou [...] não ter um núcleo interno, que, se ocorre, não é marcado como tal, criando uma certa ambigüidade. A cláusula nominalizada pode modificar um radical nominal seguinte, que funciona como núcleo externo. Cláusulas relativas e cláusulas complementos não são construções distintas nesta língua. A significação tipológica destas construções é discutida. Abstract in english The language of the Gavião of Rondônia constructs relative clauses by syntactic nominalization, using either of two particles, mát 'concrete nominalization' or méne 'abstract nominalization', which are derived diachronically from discourse pronouns. The resulting nominal clause may or may not have a [...] n internal head, which, if it occurs, is not marked, leading to a certain degree of ambiguity. The nominalized clause can modify a following noun stem, which serves as an external head. Relative clauses and complement clauses are not distinct constructions in this language. The typological significance of these constructions is discussed.

  9. Restrictive relative clauses in Balochi and the marking of the antecedent : linguistic influence from Persian?

    OpenAIRE

    Jahani, Carina

    2008-01-01

    An interesting morphosyntactic feature that has been observed in e.g. New Persian and Balochi is that the same suffix that marks indefinite restrictive selection out of a generic unit or a plurality (the so-called y?-ye va?dat) is also attached to head nouns of restrictive relative clauses. The purpose of the article is to investigate whether an extension of the use of the suffix denoting indefinite selection to mark antecedents of restrictive relative clauses similar to the one observed in P...

  10. The Acquisition of English Restrictive Relative Clauses by Arab Adult EFL Learners

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    Hayat Eid Alroudhan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the challenges faced by Arab adult learners of English as a foreign language (EFL in acquiring English restrictive relative clauses (RRCs, as well as the factors that affect the process of acquisition. This issue has received considerable attention in second language (L2 research. The present study discusses the syntactic structure of RRCs in English and Arabic with regard to the use of resumptive pronouns and the use of overt versus covert relative markers as related to the definiteness of the head noun. This study is carried out using an acceptability judgment test as the tool for data collection. A sample of 100 male and female adult Arabic speakers is used with the aim of identifying potential acquisition problems. The results obtained provide further support for first language (L1 transfer. This study concludes that participants accepted the use of resumptive pronouns and preferred the overt relative markers determined by definiteness. It is further discovered that certain factors influenced the acquisition process such as participants’ age, age of learning, and age of immersion. The current study has some pedagogical implications for the teaching of relative clauses in the EFL context.Keywords: English Relative Clauses, Restrictive Relative Clauses, Relative pronoun, Arab Learners of English

  11. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational...

  12. Children's Relative Clause Markers in Two Non-Mainstream Dialects of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oetting, Janna B.; Newkirk, Brandi L.

    2011-01-01

    We examined children's productions of mainstream and non-mainstream relative clause markers (e.g. "that", "who", "which", "what", "where", [image omitted]) in African American English (AAE) and Southern White English (SWE) as a function of three linguistic variables (syntactic role of the marker, humanness of the antecedent and adjacency of the…

  13. Portuguese spoken in Almoxarife, Sao Tome: relative clauses with “ku” and “com” [with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Filipe Guimarães Figueiredo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relative clauses with “ku” [substrate relativizer] and “com” [with] in the Portuguese of Almoxarife, spoken by the community of Almoxarife, São Tome island, aiming to uncover what the motivations are that trigger the use of those relativizers.

  14. Basque Relative Clauses: Head Raising, Case and Micro-Variation within Bizkaiera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondra, Ager

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation establishes the syntactic representation and derivation of relative clause (RC) constructions in Bizkaiera Basque. Using native speaker introspection, grammaticality judgment under direct elicitation and formal experiments, I show that Bizkaiera follows the Head raising strategy in RC construction. Evidence for this comes from…

  15. Rethinking the Acquisition of Relative Clauses in Italian: Towards a Grammatically Based Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adani, Flavia

    2011-01-01

    In a number of studies, the acquisition of restrictive relative clauses (RCs) shows contrasting findings regarding comprehension and production, with the former usually delayed up to the age of five. As previously claimed in the literature, we suggest that this delay is a task artifact and we present a new procedure for the assessment of…

  16. Effects of Form-Focused Instruction on the Learning of Relative Clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Jalal Abdolmanafi (Rokni

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Relativization is an important grammatical sub-system for second language learners. This study intended to explore the effects of different types of L2 instruction on the learning of English relative clauses by Persian learners.Purpose: The differential effects of the three types of treatment (i.e., Focus on FormS, Focus on Meaning, Focus on Form on the learning of English relativization was investigated.Methods: Intact university classes of English learners were divided into three groups receiving different forms of instruction. Accuracy of the target form was measured by two distinct tasks of sentence combining test and grammaticality judgment test.Findings and Results: The results of the two tests show improvement of all three groups, the focus on form treatment group outperformed the other two on both tests, however. This study also suggests that learners’ attention to detailed analysis of form facilitates the learning of relative clauses in this context.

  17. Free relative clauses: a new teaching approach for Italian learners of Latin and German

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Bertollo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we would like to present a new teaching proposal for free relative clauses, with a comparative perspective. The proposal is addressed to Italian learners of Latin and German with an advanced knowledge of the morpho-syntax of the three languages and tries to combine the theories proposed within the Generative Grammar framework with the needs which emerge from school teaching experiences. In the path we will develop, the students will be led to get familiar with this construction, first in the native language and then in German and Latin. Students will be stimulated to analyze the syntactic constraints, which are different in the three languages, so as to develop a new grammatical awareness and be in a position to correctly handle complex syntactic structures such as free relative clauses. This will be helpful to adequately cope with this specific construction, but it will also improve the overall skills.

  18. Restrictive relative clauses in English and Korean learners' second language Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xiaoling; Liu, Chuanping

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This study investigates the second language (L2) acquisition of restrictive relative clauses (RRCs) in Chinese by two groups of learners speaking typologically different first languages (L1s): English and Korean. English RRCs, unlike those of Chinese, are head-initial whereas Korean RRCs, like those of Chinese, are head-final. The difference could be predicted to hinder English learners' acquisition of L2 RRCs but facilitate it for Korean learners. This prediction was not ...

  19. The on-line resolution of the sentence complement/relative clause ambiguity: evidence from Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demestre, Josep; García-Albea, José E

    2004-01-01

    Two self-paced reading experiments investigated syntactic ambiguity resolution in Spanish. The experiments examined the way in which Spanish subjects initially interpret sentences that are temporarily ambiguous between a sentence complement and a relative clause interpretation. Experiment 1 examined whether the sentence complement preference found in English is observed in Spanish speaking subjects. In Experiment 2, verbal mood was manipulated in order to study the influence of verb-specific information on sentence processing. Since subcategorization for a subjunctive complement clause is generally assumed to be a lexical property of some verbs, the manipulation of the mood of the embedded verb affords us an interesting and novel way to examine the influence of lexical information on syntactic ambiguity resolution. Experiment 1 showed that Spanish speakers initially interpret the ambiguous that-clause as a sentence complement. Experiment 2 showed that verb-specific information, in particular, the information that specificies that a verb subcategorizes for a subjunctive complement, is accessed and used rapidly and affects the ambiguity resolution process. The results are discussed in relation to current models of sentence processing. PMID:14959507

  20. Visualizing abstract objects and relations

    CERN Document Server

    Kamada, Tomihisa

    1989-01-01

    Pictorial representations are very useful for humans to understand complicated relations or structures. This is the reason that the user interface of information systems is strongly required to visualize many kinds of information in a wide variety of graphical forms. At present, however, only some very specialized visualization techniques have been developed probably because the generality in the visualization has not been appreciated correctly. This book presents a visualization framework for translating abstract objects and relations, typically represented in textual forms, into pictorial re

  1. Object relations in Harry Potter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Suzanne

    2003-01-01

    Good fiction helps children address their emotional dilemmas by evoking repressed content, and offering strategies and meaningful values that help them work towards resolutions. Because certain fundamental conflicts continue to be revisited and reworked throughout adulthood, it follows that masterful children's literature might enthrall adults as well. Given the extraordinary, worldwide success of the Harry Potter stories with both children and adults, it might be inferred that they, indeed, are among such literature. Common object relations themes, as well as other intrapsychic processes, are presented in such an imaginative and resonant way that the unconscious is readily engaged. The character of Harry Potter, specifically, embodies such universal (repressed) torments as the agony of destroying and losing the mother; the ominous perception of good and bad objects at war within the self; and the earnest reparative efforts offered to save the self from eternal separation from the beloved other. PMID:14535615

  2. Infant Object Categorization Transcends Diverse Object-Context Relations

    OpenAIRE

    BORNSTEIN, MARC H.; Arterberry, Martha E.; Mash, Clay

    2009-01-01

    Infants’ categorization of objects in different object-context relations was investigated. The experiment used a multiple-exemplar habituation-categorization procedure where 92 6-month-olds formed categories of animals and vehicles embedded in congruent, incongruent, and homogeneous object-context relations. Across diverse object-context relations, infants habituated to multiple exemplars within a category and categorized novel members of both animal and vehicle categories. Infants showed a s...

  3. The performance of relational and object-relational SQL queries when using Oracle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Moreno Arboleda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a study in which the performance of several queries involving GROUP BY clause, sub-queries (using IN and EXISTS clauses and loins are measured and compared by means of specific queries. The behaviour of relational and oblect-relational models is also shown.

  4. Relations among early object recognition skills: Objects and letters

    OpenAIRE

    Augustine, Elaine; Jones, Susan S.; SMITH, LINDA B.; Longfield, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Human visual object recognition is multifaceted, with several domains of expertise. Developmental relations between young children's letter recognition and their 3-dimensional object recognition abilities are implicated on several grounds but have received little research attention. Here, we ask how preschoolers’ success in recognizing letters relates to their ability to recognize 3-dimensional objects from sparse shape information alone. A relation is predicted because perception of the spat...

  5. Fundamentals of Object Databases Object-Oriented and Object-Relational Design

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Object-oriented databases were originally developed as an alternative to relational database technology for the representation, storage, and access of non-traditional data forms that were increasingly found in advanced applications of database technology. After much debate regarding object-oriented versus relational database technology, object-oriented extensions were eventually incorporated into relational technology to create object-relational databases. Both object-oriented databases and object-relational databases, collectively known as object databases, provide inherent support for object

  6. Syntactic and Prosodic Computations in the Resolution of Relative Clause Attachment Ambiguity by English-French Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekydtspotter, Laurent; Donaldson, Bryan; Edmonds, Amanda C.; Fultz, Audrey Liljestrand; Petrush, Rebecca A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the manner in which syntax, prosody, and context interact when second- and fourth-semester college-level English-French learners process relative clause (RC) attachment to either the first noun phrase (NP1) or the second noun phrase (NP2) in complex nominal expressions such as "le secretaire du psychologue qui se promene"…

  7. A Study of the Role of Relative Clauses in the Simplification of News Texts for Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the current research is to investigate the effects of textual modification upon the distribution of specific linguistic features of news texts when authors adopt an intuitive approach to simplification. The research focuses on the distribution and use of relative clauses (RCs) across three levels of simplification. The analysis of news…

  8. Review of Hendery (2012), Relative Clauses in Time and Space: A Case Study in the Methods of Diachronic Typology

    OpenAIRE

    Pat-El, Na'ama; The University of Texas, Austin/Swedish Collegium for Advanced Studies, Uppsala, Sweden

    2013-01-01

    Review of Hendery, Rachel. 2012. Relative Clauses in Time and Space: A case study in the methods of diachronic typology. (Typological Studies in Language.) Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. 281 pp. Hardbound: ISBN 978 90 272 0682 4 | €95.00 / $143.00 | e-Book: ISBN 978 90 272 7368 0 | €95.00 / $143.00

  9. General Relativity and Compact Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Patrick Das

    2015-01-01

    Starting with the conceptual foundation of general relativity (GR) - equivalence principle, space-time geometry and special relativity, I train cross hairs on two characteristic predictions of GR - black holes and gravitational waves. These two consequences of GR have played a significant role in relativistic astrophysics, e.g. compact X-ray sources, quasars, blazars, coalescing binary pulsars, etc. With quantum theory wedded to GR, particle production from vacuum becomes a generic feature whenever event horizons are present. In this paper, I shall briefly discuss the fate of a `black hole atom' when Hawking radiation is taken into account. In the context of gravitational waves, I shall focus on the possible consequences of gravitational and electromagnetic radiation from highly magnetized and rapidly spinning white dwarfs. The discovery of RX J0648.0-4418 system - a WD in a binary with mass slightly over 1.2 $ M_{\\odot}$, and rotating with spin period as short as 13.2 s, provides an impetus to revisit the pr...

  10. Relations among Early Object Recognition Skills: Objects and Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Elaine; Jones, Susan S.; Smith, Linda B.; Longfield, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Human visual object recognition is multifaceted and comprised of several domains of expertise. Developmental relations between young children's letter recognition and their 3-dimensional object recognition abilities are implicated on several grounds but have received little research attention. Here, we ask how preschoolers' success in recognizing…

  11. Problems in Relational Object Oriented Requirement Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Mahajan

    2012-01-01

    The goal of relational object oriented requirement engineering is to achieve higher quality and productivity with lower cost. There are so many problems related to relational object oriented requirement engineering. In this paper, we present a review of the various problematic issues specifically in requirements engineering of object oriented concepts and we mention some existing research attempts to deal with such issues

  12. Optional Clauses in the Individual Working Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA TOFAN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Labor Code, that is Law no. 53 from 2003 in Romanian legal framework, mainly rules the individual working contract. This is the first time when the working contract is established to have not only general clauses, but also some particular clauses. The employers and employees may now negotiate special rights and liabilities, such us competitions clause, mobility clause, confidentiality clause and the clause concerning continuous professional forming. Besides these clauses that are in the Labor Code, the parts may also agree on different clauses that are not in a specific law, but are permitted and used in practice, such as the clause of conscience, the objective clause and the clause concerning intellectual property rights.

  13. Relações retóricas estabelecidas por orações gerundiais adverbiais / Rhetorical relations held by adverbial gerund clauses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliano Desiderato, Antonio.

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é propor critérios para identificação das relações implícitas estabelecidas por orações gerundiais adverbiais em um corpus formado por elocuções formais (aulas) e entrevistas. Para isso, tomam-se como fundamento teórico da pesquisa duas teorias funcionalistas, a Teoria da E [...] strutura Retórica do Texto (RST) e a Gramática Discursivo-Funcional (GDF). Na visão da RST, além do conteúdo explícito veiculado pelas orações de um texto, há proposições implícitas que surgem das relações que se estabelecem entre partes do texto. Foram utilizados os parâmetros da GDF, factualidade, pressuposição, e as camadas dos níveis representacional e interpessoal em que ocorrem as orações para a identificação das relações retóricas estabelecidas pelas orações gerundiais adverbiais. Foram encontradas relações de meio, de resultado, de condição e de propósito, o que não significa que não se reconheça, neste trabalho, que outras relações como tempo (anterioridade, posterioridade, simultaneidade), concessão, causa, dentre outras, podem ser estabelecidas por orações gerundiais adverbiais. Os parâmetros da GDF demonstraram ser eficientes na identificação das relações. Abstract in english The aim of this paper is to set up criteria to identify the implicit relations held by adverbial gerund clauses in formal speeches (university lectures) and oral interviews in Brazilian Portuguese. The theoretical framework consists of two functional linguistic theories: Rhetorical Structure Theory [...] (RST) and Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG). According to RST, besides the explicit content conveyed by text sentences, there are implicit relations that connect text segments. In this study, the identification of such relations was based on the FDG parameters of factuality and presupposition, and the layers of the representational and interpersonal levels. Means, result, condition, and purpose rhetorical relations were attested in the corpus. Other rhetorical relations such circumstance (anteriority, posteriority, simultaneity), concession, and cause may also be attested in further research. FDG parameters have shown to be efficient for the identification of rhetorical relations.

  14. Working memory for relations among objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clevenger, Pamela E; Hummel, John E

    2014-10-01

    Across many areas of study in cognition, the capacity of working memory (WM) is widely agreed to be roughly three to five items: three to five objects (i.e., bound collections of object features) in the literature on visual WM or three to five role bindings (i.e., objects in specific relational roles) in the literature on memory and reasoning. Three experiments investigated the capacity of observers' WM for the spatial relations among objects in a visual display, and the results suggest that the "items" in WM are neither simply objects nor simply role bindings. The results of Experiment 1 are most consistent with a model that treats an "item" in visual WM as an object, along with the roles of all its relations to one other object. Experiment 2 compared observers' WM for object size with their memory for relative size and provided evidence that observers compute and store objects' relations per se (rather than just absolute size) in WM. Experiment 3 tested and confirmed several more nuanced predictions of the model supported by Experiment 1. Together, these findings suggest that objects are stored in visual WM in pairs (along with all the relations between the objects in a pair) and that, from the perspective of WM, a given object in one pair is not the same "item" as that same object in a different pair. PMID:24379151

  15. PROCESAMIENTO DE CLÁUSULAS RELATIVAS ANIDADAS, MEMORIA OPERATIVA Y ENVEJECIMIENTO / NESTED RELATIVES CLAUSES PROCESSING, WORKING MEMORY, AND AGING

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    BEATRIZ, ARANCIBIA GUTIÉRREZ; MÓNICA, VÉLIZ; BERNARDO, RIFFO; RUBÉN, ROA-URETA.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio examina los efectos del envejecimiento, la memoria operativa y la complejidad sintáctica en el procesamiento de oraciones. Con este propósito se compara el desempeño de adultos mayores y adultos jóvenes en una tarea de lectura autoadministrada de oraciones con anidamiento de cláusulas d [...] e relativo sujeto y objeto. Se efectuó un análisis de efectos mixtos para los tiempos de lectura, el acierto a preguntas y tiempos de respuesta, que toma en cuenta el hecho de tener observaciones repetidas en los individuos y la distribución de probabilidad correcta para las variables observadas. Los resultados muestran efectos de la edad en el procesamiento, pero no respaldan la hipótesis de un declive en el procesamiento sintáctico como efecto de una menor capacidad de memoria operativa en los adultos mayores. Además, el análisis confirma la complejidad de las relativas objeto en comparación con las relativas sujeto en español. Abstract in english This study examines the effects of age, working memory and syntactic complexity on sentence processing. For this purpose we compare the performance of younger and older adults in a self-administered reading task of sentences with subject and object nested relatives clauses. A mixed effects analysis [...] was carried for reading times, accuracy and response times, which took into account that observations were repeated inside individuals and the correct probability distribution of the observed variables. The results show effects of age in processing, but they do not support the hypothesis of syntactic processing decline as an effect of less working memory capacity in older adults. In addition, the data analysis confirms the complexity of object relatives processing compared to subject relatives processing in Spanish.

  16. Sexual decision making and object relations theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, B J; Winstead, B

    1988-10-01

    The Sexual Decision-Making Inventory (SDMI) was developed to measure levels of sexual decision making based on the developmental concepts of Object Relations Theory. The inventory asks subjects to report on their thoughts and feelings at the time they decided to have sex in their most recent sexual relationship. The inventory was tested in a pilot study involving 45 male and 49 female undergraduates. A factor analysis was performed on the SDMI and six levels of sexual decision making were defined: Object Constancy, Ambivalence, Need for Merger, Need Gratification, Low Self-esteem, and Narcissistic Gratification. Endorsement of items on these subscales was related to perceptions of the relationship. In a second study involving 79 male and 135 female undergraduates, subjects completed the SDMI, the Bell Object Relations Self-report Inventory, and a questionnaire concerning perceptions of the relationship in which the sexual decision was made. Object Constancy was positively correlated to object relations, satisfaction with the relationship, and durability of the relationship; Ambivalence, Need Gratification, and Low Self-esteem were negatively correlated with object relations, satisfaction with the relationship, and durability of the relationship; Narcissistic Gratification was negatively correlated with object relations and most aspects of the relationship with interesting exceptions such as sexual satisfaction. Sex differences demonstrated that females were more likely to endorse items on the Object Constancy subscale; whereas males were more likely to endorse items on the Ambivalence, Need Gratification, and Narcissistic Gratification subscales. There were no sex differences, however, in quality of general object relations. PMID:3219063

  17. Some modifications of temporal relation in the sentence with the temporal clause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni? Ivana N.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is the modification of temporal relation in the complex sentence with the temporal clause. At the functional different Serbian language corpus the author notices the next types of modified temporality: excepted locational simultaneity complete or partial, and excepted locationalorientational posteriority formalized by the structure V SAMO/JEDINO/OSIM/SEM/IZUZEV(ONDA KAD VSub, and excepted locational simultaneity/excepted terminativity formalized by the structure V SAMO DOK (Neg VSub; sutuational locational simultaneity complete or partial formalized by the structure V U SITUACIJI / U SLU?AJU KAD VSub, with the posibility to be exceptivly modified in the structure V IZUZEV U SITUACIJI / U SLU?AJU KAD VSub; situational-concessive locational simultaneity complete or partial formalized by the structure V (?AK I (ONDA KAD VSub; situational-conditional locational-orientational posteriority formalized by the structure V TEK (ONDA KAD VSub, and situational-conditional orientational posteriority formalized by the structure V TEK POŠTO VSub or V TEK NAKON ŠTO VSub and situational-conditional orientational quantified posteriority formalized by the structure V Quant TEK POŠTO VSub, and finaly situational-conditional terminativity formalized by the structure (Neg V SVE DOK Neg VSub. It can ocure sporadically supstitutiv temporality formalized by the structure V DetTemp (UMESTO KAD VSub, and consecutive-adversative temporality formalized by the structure KAD VSub A (ONDA V. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 178004: Sintaksi?ka, semanti?ka i pragmati?ka istraživanja standardnog srpskog jezika

  18. 48 CFR 370.701 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...the Leadership Act 370.701 Contract clause. The Contracting Officer shall insert the clause in 352.270-8, Prostitution and Related Activities, in solicitations, contracts, and orders, and in existing contracts and orders...

  19. 48 CFR 3408.870 - Printing clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Printing clause. 3408.870... COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Printing and Related Supplies 3408.870 Printing clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause in...

  20. What causes the processing advantage in the comprehension of German object relative clauses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Adelt

    2015-05-01

    Wo ist der Hund, den gerade der Fuchs kitzelt? (Where is the dog that the fox is currently tickling? (1b Case/Early disambiguation: Wo ist die Ente, die gerade der Fuchs kitzelt? (Where is the duck that the fox is currently tickling? (2 Number/Late disambiguation: Wo ist das Reh, das gerade die Füchse kitzeln? (Where is the deer that the foxes are currently tickling? ORC processing was studied by simultaneously using an off-line task (auditory referent identification and an on-line method (eye-tracking in the visual-world paradigm. Results In the referent identification task, IWAs’ comprehension performance for case-marked ORCs (1a, 1b was above chance (p.05, binomial test. Both, IWAs and controls revealed significantly better performance on early disambiguated ORCs (1b as compared to late disambiguated ORCs (2; all p.05, GLM. Finally, no participant group revealed a significant difference within case conditions (p>.05, GLM. Discussion Controls show a processing advantage for both types of case-marked ORCs compared to number-marked ORCs. For controls, this processing advantage seems to be caused by a difference in the morphological features, irrespective of the disambiguation point, as they performed equally well in both case conditions. In contrast, IWAs reveal a processing advantage only for early-disambiguated case-marked ORCs as compared to number-marked ORCs. We suggest that disambiguation in the immediate case condition does not lead to a processing advantage in IWAs due to a delay in sentence processing. Analyses of the eye-tracking data (in preparation will provide additional insights about real-time ORC processing.

  1. Learning in Organizations - an Object Relations Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Siig

    Learning in organizations – an object relations perspective As a researcher with a primary interest in the study of learning environments in organizations I have conducted a number of empirical research projects primarily concerning work places in the state sector. The aim of the research has been...... the creation of specific atmospheres in organizations. In the empirical part of the paper I shall combine my inspiration from Menzies (defence systems and defence techniques) with my inspiration from Hinschelwood & Skogstad (defensive myths and specific atmospheres) to demonstrate different aspects of...... psycho-social defence that may be elicited by applying different perspectives of understanding and different empirical methods. The case for the empirical analyses will be the learning environment amongst teachers at HTX, a general and technical degree for students in their last three years of high...

  2. Claus Bonderup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Anna Marie; Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Tvedebrink, Tenna Doktor Olsen

    -oriented architectural projects within Urban Farming in which the students will initially work with the subject as master’s students, but later, hopefully, as PhD students. Also, I have wished for a long time to give Claus Bonderup the recognition he deserves! His view of architecture, his knowledge and his way of...... house that serves as a basis for this project with its unique architectural models for the International Architecture Exhibition. Claus’ Duck House has, thus, in theory and practice alike, become the foundation for the new architectural models, and his thoughts on design have contributed to a fruitful...

  3. Learning in Organizations - an Object Relations Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Siig

    Learning in organizations – an object relations perspective As a researcher with a primary interest in the study of learning environments in organizations I have conducted a number of empirical research projects primarily concerning work places in the state sector. The aim of the research has been to qualify the understanding of learning conditions in working life and to develop a multifaceted theoretical and methodological basis for the analysis focussing on action- and behaviour, symbolic interaction and discourse (Andersen & Andersen 2007; Andersen & Trojaborg 2007). The aim of this paper is to supplement this analytical basis with an analysis based on psychoanalytical theory. I shall present and clarify some theoretical and methodological ideas about the discovery and understanding of psychodynamic defence mechanisms in organizations. My intention is to achieve a better understanding of organizations as learning environments for the employees. Theoretically I draw on object relations theory. Within this tradition the theoretical point of departure is twofold: the study of work conditions in hospitals carried out by Menzies (1975) and Hinschelwood & Skogstad (2000). With regard to the first mentioned, Menzies combines two types of analysis. In the first type she understands the development of work organizations as the development of psycho-social defence systems. Psycho-social defence systems are composed of many specific defence techniques that are developed by the staff during a long period of time as institutionalized work practices. In the second type of analysis she reflects on the different defence techniques from a psychoanalytical theoretical point of view: Which kind of unconscious ‘rationality’ do they possess, which consequences do they have for the quality of work and which positive and negative impact do they have with respect to the staff itself? With regard to Hinschelwood & Skogstad (2000) they are introduced to further develop and contrast Menzies’ theoretical ideas. Instead of only emphasizing the connection between the work organization and the defence techniques applied unconsciously by the staff, Hinschelwood & Skogstad also emphasize the need to understand how the organizational culture is co-produced by psychodynamic defence mechanisms, how the defence techniques are underpinned by defensive myths and how the defence mechanisms contribute to the creation of specific atmospheres in organizations. In the empirical part of the paper I shall combine my inspiration from Menzies (defence systems and defence techniques) with my inspiration from Hinschelwood & Skogstad (defensive myths and specific atmospheres) to demonstrate different aspects of psycho-social defence that may be elicited by applying different perspectives of understanding and different empirical methods. The case for the empirical analyses will be the learning environment amongst teachers at HTX, a general and technical degree for students in their last three years of high school. The case study aims to uncover the social learning environment in an organization marked by extensive organizational and pedagogical transformation processes. I conclude the paper by discussing some advantages and disadvantages of the psychoanalytical organizational research tradition focussing on the empirical analysis of learning environments in contrast to other theoretical and methodological paradigms. References Andersen, A. S. & Andersen, V. (2007): Learning Environments for Academic Employees: Possibilities and Hurdles. Human Ressource Development Review (HRDR). Andersen, A. S. & Trojaborg, R. S. (2007). Life History and Learning in Working Life. In West, L.; Alheit, P.; Andersen, A. S. & Merrill, B. (eds.), Using Biographical and Life History Approaches in the Study of Adult and Lifelong Learning: European Perspectives. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang – Europäischer Verlag der Wissenschaften. Hinshelwood, R. D. & Skogstad, W. (2000),Observing Organisations – Anxiety, defence and culture in health care. Great Britain: Routledge. Menzies, I.

  4. Desempeño de consultas SQL relacionales y objeto-relacionales en Oracle / The performance of relational and object-relational SQL queries when using Oracle

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco Javier, Moreno; Guillermo, Ospina Romero; Rafael, Larios Restrepo.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se muestra por medio de consultas específicas el comportamiento del modelo relacional y objeto-relacional, y se presenta así un estudio en el que se mide y a la vez se compara la eficiencia (tiempo, uso de recursos del sistema) de operaciones que involucran cláusulas GROUP BY, subco [...] nsultas (con las cláusulas IN y EXISTS), y reuniones (joins). Abstract in english This article presents a study in which the performance of several queries involving GROUP BY clause, sub-queries (using IN and EXISTS clauses) and joins are measured and compared by means of specific queries. The behaviour of relational and object-relational models is also shown. [...

  5. PODI AND ODI IN CLAUSE CONSTRUCTION OF KEMAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Budiarta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reveals podi and odi in clause construction of Kemak. Specifically, this article is aimed at finding out in what construction  podi and odi appear. Moreover, this article is also aimed at finding out the function of podi and odi in the clause construction of Kemak. Before exploring podi and odi in clause construction, the first discussion will examine the morphology of the verb of Kemak to find out how the verbs are formed in Kemak as they have the main role to fill the predicate. The discussion continues to examine the clause with nonverbal (verbless and verbal predicate. Clause with nonvebral (verbless predicate will begin the discussion on clause construction in Kemak. Then, the discussion goes to clause with verbal predicate. The clause with verbal predicate includes intransitive and transtive. The disscussion of transitive clause covers monotransitive and  ditransitive clause. The  study on transitive clause is related to the presence of podi and odi in the construction.The result shows that all verbs are basic verbs. Verbs in Kemak are morphologically unmarked (no affixes and there is no agreement between the verb and its arguments. The clause with nonverbal predicate in Kemak is filled by  noun, adjective, numeral, and prepositional phrase. Clause with nonverbal predicate requires one argument  functioning as grammatical subject. As cluase with nonverbal predicate, intransitive clause in Kemak also requires one argument  functioning as grammatical subject. Meanwhile, monotransitive clause requires two arguments, preverbal and postverbal argument. Ditranstive clause requires three arguments, one preverbal and two postverbal argument. Moreover, it was found that  podi appears in ditransitive clause (applicative/benefactive construction. Podi has the function to increase the verb valence from monotransitive into ditransitive. Meanwhile, odi appears in monotransitive clause  The presence of odi in monotrasitive is as the alternation result from ditransitive clause into monotransitive clause. Moreover, odi has the function to decrease the number of core argument, from three core arguments to two core arguments.

  6. Narcissism and Object Relations in Hypochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracin, Dolorès

    2015-08-01

    Hypochondria remains little studied from a theoretical point of view. Whereas psychoanalysts know how difficult it is to handle hypochondriac subjects, the few works studying the relationship between patients and physicians resort to a cognitive-behavioral approach. These latter conclude that the quality of this relationship is more important than the disappearance of the symptoms. The aim of this work is to show how psychoanalysis can conceptualize hypochondria as a disruption of narcissism, leading to an apparent relational deadlock. Considering hypochondria as a narcissistic transference constitutes a useful contribution of psychoanalysis to medicine and psychotherapeutic care. PMID:26290944

  7. Annoying Danish Relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen de López, Kristine M.; Sundahl Olsen, Lone; Chondrigianni, V.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI...

  8. Quantifiers in Than-Clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Beck

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reexamines the interpretations that quantifiers in "than"-clauses give rise to. It develops an analysis that combines an interval semantics for the "than"-clause with a standard semantics for the comparative operator. In order to mediate between the two, interpretive mechanisms like maximality and maximal informativity determine selection of a point from an interval. The interval semantics allows local interpretation of the quantifier. Selection predicts which interpretation this leads to. Cases in which the prediction appears not to be met are explained via recourse to independently attested external factors (e.g. the interpretive possibilities of indefinites. The goal of the paper is to achieve coverage of the relevant data while maintaining a simple semantics for the comparative. A secondary objective is to reexamine, restructure and extend the set of data considered in connection with the problem of quantifiers in "than"-clauses. doi:10.3765/sp.3.1 BibTeX info

  9. TRANSFORMING OBJECT ORIENTED DATA MODEL TO RELATIONAL DATA MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Khalid Awang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The object oriented and relational technologies are originated in distinct paradigms. The object-oriented technology is universally accepted approach for the development of business applications since it offers more appropriate methods and facilities for modelling of the real world objects. Meanwhile, relational database is still used to preserve the persistence of enterprise data. Connecting these two paradigms is not a straightforward task and necessitates a systematic mapping from one to another. Mapping from object model to relational database demands special attention because it would yield an object-relational impedance mismatch. One of the essential concepts in object technology is the idea of inheritance, and unfortunately relational database does not support this notion. This paper seeks to address various approaches in mapping from inheritance to tables and demonstrates how object-relational tool could be used to help software developers.

  10. Object Persistency for HEP data using an Object-Relational Database

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, M; Geppert, D; Kunszt, Zoltán; Paoli, S

    2001-01-01

    We present an initial study of the object features of Oracle 9i - the first of the market-leading object-relational database systems that supports a true object model on the server side as well as an ODMG-style C++ language binding on the client side. We discuss how these features can be used to provide persistent object storage in the HEP environment.

  11. Object persistency for HEP data using an object-relational database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present an initial study of the object features of Oracle 9i--the first of the market-leading object-relational database systems that supports a true object model on the server side as well as an ODMG-style C++ language binding on the client side. The authors discuss how these features can be used to provide persistent object storage in the HEP environment

  12. Saving clauses in international contracts concerning the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper concerns saving clauses in international contracts relating to the fuel cycle. It deals in particular with economic upheavals affecting those contracts and the usual clauses to protect the financial interests of the co-contractors. The paper also examines such economic upheavals in the context of clauses intended to preserve the contracts. (NEA)

  13. / The use of the Afrikaans conjunction "wanneer" (when) in subordinate clause embedding / Die gebruik van die voegwoord wanneer in bysinsinlywing

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Johanna J.E., Messerschmidt.

    Full Text Available The Afrikaans conjunction "wanneer" (when) originated in Dutch with the meaning "at which time". This paper describes the use of "wanneer" in subordinate clause embedding. A follow-up article will discuss hypotactic combining. The description follows the cognitive grammar paradigm. In accordance wit [...] h that paradigm real examples of actual usage are quoted. Relationships between form and meaning are explored with the understanding that there are no clear boundaries between syntactic and semantic categories. A wide variety of examples was obtained by examining a large corpus of documents obtained from the Internet. Table 1 specifies the usage categories observed. Two important categories, i.e. embedding of a subordinate clause AS: a constituent in the main clause and embedding IN: a constituent are discussed in depth. As background the usage of "wanneer" as adverb and the transition from adverb to conjunction are briefly discussed. Examples are quoted where "wanneer" is a pure adverb and further examples where "wanneer" is transformed into a conjunction. For example, by using reported speech or by answering questions "wanneer" can be transformed from an adverb to a conjunction. As a conjunction "wanneer" is a typical subordinating conjunction that is followed by the typical Afrikaans subordinate clause ordering. Syntactically "wanneer" introduces a subordinate clause, but semantically the subordination is not always valid as is the case with other subordinating conjunctions. The difference between embedding and hypotactic combining is explained following Taylor, using "participants" and "circumstances". Participants are inherent entities that are complements of the main verb. Circumstances are optional modifiers; they can be omitted in a sentence. In embedding AS: constituent the subordinate clause introduced by "wanneer" is a complement of the main verb. It is therefore a participant and cannot be omitted. In the corpus the following types of incorporation AS: a constituent were observed: object, subject, predicate and complement of an intransitive verb. Subordinate "wanneer" clauses as objects of transitive verbs were observed following "communication" verbs. When "wanneer" clauses were observed as subjects the use of an empty "dit" (it) as temporary subject was also seen. In copula constructions, "wanneer" clauses were found as copulative predicates. Sometimes an author mixes the references to time and space, using time as a metaphoric space. Complements of intransitive verbs using "wanneer" were found in sentences with verbs like "plaasvind" (take place), "gebeur" (happen), "ontstaan" (originate) and "voorkom" (occur). Huddleston and Pullum describe a similar phenomenon in English with the verbs "happen", "live", "occur" and "take place" which take complements of temporal location. Embedding IN: a constituent represents a deeper kind of embedding. The "wanneer" clause now forms a post qualifier to a plethora of words or word groups. This article discusses nouns, noun clauses, prepositions, comparatives and infinitives. "Wanneer" clauses used as post qualifiers to nouns, show similarities to relative clauses. Following Ponelis they can be called adverbial relative clauses. The "wanneer" clause can be restrictive or appositional. The antecedent of the restrictive "wanneer" clause is a time indicator like "dag" (day), "maand" (month), "jaar" (year), "geleentheid" (occasion), "oomblik" (instant), "moment" (moment), "punt" (point) and "dag en datum" (day and age). In some cases "wanneer" can be replaced by "waarop" (whereupon). An appositional adverbial subordinate clause provides further information about the antecedent. The connection between the main clause and the subordinate clause is weaker and is usually reflected by punctuation. Sometimes the "wanneer" clause is separated from the antecedent by the verb. There is a range of looseness between appositional subordinate clauses and their antecedents from immediate to parenthetical. Typical antecedents are adverbials like "later" (later). "Wanne

  14. O-ODM Framework for Object-Relational Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Rombaldo Jr

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Object-Relational Databases introduce new features which allow manipulating objects in databases. At present, many DBMS offer resources to manipulate objects in database, but most application developers just map class to relations tables, failing to exploit the O-R model strength. The lack of tools that aid the database project contributes to this situation. This work presents O-ODM (Object-Object Database Mapping, a persistent framework that maps objects from OO applications to database objects. Persistent Frameworks have been used to aid developers, managing all access to DBMS. This kind of tool allows developers to persist objects without solid knowledge about DBMSs and specific languages, improving the developers’ productivity, mainly when a different DBMS is used. The results of some experiments using O-ODM are shown.

  15. Multi-Label Object Categorization Using Histograms of Global Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Wail; Xiong, Hanchen; Kraft, Dirk; Szedmak, Sandor; Piater, Justus; Krüger, Norbert

    experiments are carried out on a dataset of 100 objects belonging to 13 visual and action-related categories. The results indicate that multi-label methods are able to identify the relation between the dependent categories and hence perform categorization accordingly. It is also found that extracting......In this paper, we present an object categorization system capable of assigning multiple and related categories for novel objects using multi-label learning. In this system, objects are described using global geometric relations of 3D features. We propose using the Joint SVM method for learning and...... we investigate the extraction of hierarchical clusters as a higher-level description of objects to assist the learning. We make comparisons with other multi-label learning approaches as well as single-label approaches (including a state-of-the-art methods using different object descriptors). The...

  16. Fundamentals for the Automation of Object-Relational Database Design

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Fernanda Golobisky; Aldo Vecchietti

    2011-01-01

    In the market there is a wide amount of CASE tools for the design of relational databases. Object-relational database management system (ORDBMS) emerged at the end of the 90s to incorporate the object technology into the relational databases, allowing the treatment of more complex data and relationships than its predecessor. The design for this database model is not straightforward. Most of the works proposed in the literature fail because they do not provide consistent transformation formali...

  17. Small Clauses in Swedish : Towards a Unified Account

    OpenAIRE

    Lundin-Åkesson, Katarina

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis I offer a unified syntactic account of the small clauses involved in Swedish object-with-infinitive constructions (ECM), object predicative constructions and absolute constructions. In the present framework, this similarity is conceptually appealing and is also supported by empirical data. My account extends to other types of small clauses as well. I claim that small clauses are properly analysed as vPs, or more specific, as the maximal projections of the functional categorial ...

  18. Covered Clause Elimination

    CERN Document Server

    Heule, Marijn; Biere, Armin

    2010-01-01

    Generalizing the novel clause elimination procedures developed in [M. Heule, M. J\\"arvisalo, and A. Biere. Clause elimination procedures for CNF formulas. In Proc. LPAR-17, volume 6397 of LNCS, pages 357-371. Springer, 2010.], we introduce explicit (CCE), hidden (HCCE), and asymmetric (ACCE) variants of a procedure that eliminates covered clauses from CNF formulas. We show that these procedures are more effective in reducing CNF formulas than the respective variants of blocked clause elimination, and may hence be interesting as new preprocessing/simplification techniques for SAT solving.

  19. Temporal dynamics of action perception: differences on ERP evoked by object-related and non-object-related actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamain, Yannick; Pluciennicka, Ewa; Kalénine, Solène

    2014-10-01

    While neuropsychological dissociations suggest that distinct processes are involved in execution or perception of transitive (object-related) and intransitive (non-object-related) actions, the few neuroimaging studies that directly contrasted the brain activations underlying transitive and intransitive gesture perception failed to find substantial differences between the two action types. However, the distinction could be visible on brain activity timing within the fronto-parietal network. In this study, we used Event-Related Potential (ERP) method to assess the temporal dynamics of object-related and non-object-related action processing. Although both meaningful, only object-related actions involve object motor features. Accordingly, perception of the two action types would show distinct neural correlates. Participants were presented with four movie types (ORA, Object-Related Action, NORA: Non-Object-Related Action and 2 control movies) and were instructed to perform tasks that required explicit or implicit action recognition (specific action recognition or color change detection). Movies were presented as Point-Light Display (PLD) and thus provided only information about gesture kinematics regardless of action type. ERP were computed during movie visual perception and analyzed as a function of movie type and task. The main result revealed a difference between ORA and NORA on the amplitude of the P3a component in the fronto-parietal region. The difference observed around 250 ms after movie onset do not likely origin from variation in low-level visual features or attention resource allocation. Instead, we suggest that it reflects incidental recruitment of object attributes during object-related action perception. The exact nature of these attributes is discussed. PMID:25204513

  20. Object-related generativity in children with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Deborah J; Will, Elizabeth; Daunhauer, Lisa A; Gerlach-McDonald, Brianne; Visootsak, Jeannie

    2014-12-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) show challenges in some aspects of goal-directed behavior when compared to developmentally matched children (Daunhauer et al., 2014; Lee et al., 2011), particularly in the area of goal-directed action on objects (Fidler et al., 2005a,b). In this study, we examined one aspect of goal-directed action on objects, object-related generativity, in school-aged children with DS (n = 52), a developmentally matched group of children with intellectual disability, but not Down syndrome (DD; n = 21), and a group of chronologically younger, but developmentally matched typically developing children (TD; n = 34). We administered the Leiter-R, the Oral and Written Language Scales (OWLS), and an Object-Related Generativity Task, which involved 2 min of unstructured play with a variety of objects that have divergent usages. Children with DS generated significantly fewer instances of initiating actions on new objects than children in both comparison groups, were less likely to produce novel functional action on any object (new or familiar) than TD children, and they showed fewer instances of novel functional object engagement with new objects overall than TD children. Frequency of acts on new objects in DS was associated with Leiter-R Form Completion and Repeated Patterns Raw Scores and OWLS Listening Comprehension Raw Scores. These findings contribute to the growing knowledge base regarding goal-directed behavior and self-regulation in individuals with Down syndrome. Implications for education and intervention are discussed. PMID:25194513

  1. Determinación del patrón prosódico de las oraciones ambiguas con adjunción alta de la cláusula de relativo (Prosodic pattern of ambiguous sentences with high attachment of the relative clause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasna Pereira Reyes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La estructura prosódica y la sintáctica corresponden a distintos planos de análisis en una lengua; no obstante, existe una relación entre ambas que constituye una herramienta potente a la hora de enfrentar oraciones sintácticamente ambiguas (Price et al. 1991:1. Existe evidencia robusta respecto a la preferencia de adjunción alta en oraciones ambiguas con cláusula relativa en el español. La mayor parte de la investigación respecto a la ambigüedad en español se centra en el estudio de la lectura en silencio con tareas on-line y off-line, observando el funcionamiento de la memoria operativa en este contexto. Pocos autores han incorporado el estudio de patrones melódicos subyacentes a este tipo de oraciones. El presente trabajo describe el patrón prosódico que subyace a las oraciones ambiguas con adjunción alta de la cláusula de relativo (CR producidas por hablantes del español de Concepción. Los enunciados fueron etiquetados con sistema ToBI y sometidos a una evaluación perceptual para confirmar el patrón melódico descrito de la adjunción alta de la CR como soporte fonético-fonológico que acompaña a dicha adjunción. (Prosodic and syntactic structures correspond to different levels of analysis of language; however, there is a relation between them that constitutes a powerful tool when facing syntactically ambiguous sentences (Price et al. 1991:1. Robustevidence has been found in Spanish of the preference for high-attachment of the relative clause in syntactically ambiguous sentences. Most of the research concerning the topic has focused on finding out how people disambiguates these sentences when reading in silence with on-line or off-line tasks and how the working memory operates in doing so. Few researchers have incorporated the study of the underlying melody patterns in this type of sentences. The presentresearch describes the underlying prosodic pattern of ambiguous sentences with high attachment of relative clause produced by native speakers of Spanish from Concepcion. The recorded utterances were labelled with ToBI system and submitted to perceptual judgement to confirm the prosodic pattern of high-attachment preference of the relative clause as the phonetic-phonologic support that aids listeners to disambiguate this type of sentences.

  2. Object-specific and relational learning in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A; Fagot, Joël; Maugard, Anaïs

    2015-01-01

    Abstract or relational stimulus processing requires an organism to appreciate the interrelations between or among two or more stimuli (e.g., same or different, less than or greater than). In the current study, we explored the role of concrete and abstract information processing in pigeons performing a visual categorization task which could be solved by attending to either the specific objects presented or the relation among the objects. In Experiment 1, we gave pigeons three training phases in which we gradually increased the variability (that is, the number of object arrays) in the training set. In Experiment 2, we trained a second group of pigeons with an even larger number of object arrays from the outset. We found that, the larger the variability in the training exemplars, the lesser the pigeons' attention to object-specific information and the greater their attention to relational information; nevertheless, the contribution of object-specific information to categorization performance was never completely eliminated. This pervasive influence of object-specific information is not peculiar to animals, but has been observed in young children and human adults as well. PMID:25092492

  3. Iterative Relative Fuzzy Connectedness for Multiple Objects with Multiple Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Ciesielski, Krzysztof Chris; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Saha, Punam K.; Zhuge, Ying

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a new theory and an algorithm for image segmentation based on a strength of connectedness between every pair of image elements. The object definition used in the segmentation algorithm utilizes the notion of iterative relative fuzzy connectedness, IRFC. In previously published research, the IRFC theory was developed only for the case when the segmentation was involved with just two segments, an object and a background, and each of the segments was indicated by a singl...

  4. Migration from Relational Database into Object Oriented Database

    OpenAIRE

    Mansaf Alam; S. K. Wason

    2006-01-01

    Object-Oriented Technology is an important discipline in the field of software engineering in general and it is, therefore, natural to ask whether it is relevant to the field of database management in particular and what that relevance is. There is, however, no consensus on answer to these questions. Some authorities believe that object oriented database systems will take over the world replacing relational system whereas others believe that they are suited only to certain very specific probl...

  5. Learning Spatial Relations between Objects From 3D Scenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fichtl, Severin; Alexander, John

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing cognitive development during the first years of human life may be the result of a set of developmental mechanisms which are in continuous operation [1]. One such mechanism identified is the ability of the developing child to learn effective preconditions for their behaviours. It has been suggested [2] that through the application of behaviours involving more than one object, infants begin to learn about the relations between objects.

  6. The role of action representations in thematic object relations.

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos Tsagkaridis; Steven Andrew Jax

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies assessing the role of associative/event-based (thematic) and categorical (taxonomic) relations in the organization of object representations suggest that thematic relationships may influence the perceived similarity of manipulable artifacts. At the same time, evidence suggests that action knowledge is an important component of manipulable artifact representations. However, the role that action plays in processing thematic relationships between objects is unclear. In this study,...

  7. Optimal relative view angles for an object viewed multiple times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Syed U.; Shende, Apoorva; Nguyen, Bao; Stilwell, Daniel J.

    2015-05-01

    Typically, the detection of an object of interest improves as we view the object from multiple angles. For cases where viewing angle matters, object detection can be improved further by optimally selecting the relative angles of multiple views. This motivates the search for viewing angles that maximize the expected probability of detection. Although our work is motivated by applications in subsea sensing, our fundamental analysis is easily adapted for other classes of applications. The specific challenge that motivates our work is the selection of optimal viewing angles for subsea sensing in which sonar is used for bathymetric imaging.

  8. Contrast source inversion method applied to relatively high contrast objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a contrast source inversion method for microwave tomography with improved performance with respect to the popular multiplicative regularized contrast source inversion (MR-CSI) method when the contrast of the object under study is relatively high. More precisely, some shortcomings of MR-CSI which may prevent it from performing adequately on higher contrast objects are outlined. The proposed method does not suffer from such shortcomings, but necessitates the tuning of parameters. However, a unique set of parameters can be used in a wide variety of experimental conditions related to a given application. Simple guidelines to determine their values are provided

  9. Grammatical relations typology

    OpenAIRE

    Bickel, Balthasar

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, the term "grammatical relation" (GR) refers to the morphosyntactic properties that relate an argument to a clause, as, for example, its subject or its object. Alternative terms are "syntactic function" or "syntactic role", and they highlight the fact that GRs are defined by the way in which arguments are integrated syntactically into a clause, i.e. by functioning as subject, object etc. Whatever terminology one prefers, what is crucial about the traditional notion of GRs is (a)...

  10. The Relationships between Grammatical Sensitivity, Noticing of Recasts and Learning of Korean Object Relative Clauses through Conversational Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Seongmee

    2012-01-01

    Within the input and interaction research paradigm, how learners' individual differences play a role in using learning opportunities during interaction has become one of the main areas of investigation. Recasts have also received much attention in interaction research. This paper explores the extent to which individual differences in grammatical…

  11. Visual appearance of wireframe objects in special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The visual appearance of a moving object in special relativity can be constructed in a straightforward manner when representing the surface of the object, or at least a wire frame model of it, as a point cloud. The apparent position of each individual point is then found by intersecting its worldline with the observer's backward light cone. In this paper, we present a complete derivation of the apparent position of a point and some more complex geometric objects for general parameter settings (configurations). We implemented our results in python and asymptote and used these tools to generate scripts that create the figures in this paper. These scripts are directly applicable in an undergraduate course to special relativity and can also serve as the basis for student projects with the aim to study more complex sceneries. (paper)

  12. Golden Era of Cataclysmic Variables and Related Objects: concluding remarks.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 83, ?. 2 (2012), s. 883-890. ISSN 0037-8720. [Workshop on the golden age of cataclysmic variables and related objects. Palermo, 12.09.2011-17.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA205/08/1207 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : stars * variable stars * cataclysmic variables Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  13. Toward an Object-Relations Approach in Psychoanalytic Marital Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Lionel

    1987-01-01

    Describes the features which distinguish psychoanalytic marital therapy from other forms of marital therapy, demonstrates how important classical psychoanalytic concepts can be applied to marital therapy, and presents a view of how object-relations theories and, particularly, the work of Fairbairn, Kohut, and Gilligan, can be applied to…

  14. Object-Relations Theory: A Dialogue with Donald B. Rinsley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Andrew H.

    1986-01-01

    Object-relations (O-R) theory expands traditional psychoanalytic thinking beyond psychiatric hospitals and patients. This approach focuses on emotional development that leads to normal or disturbed behavior. O.R. theory is presented here to acquaint counselors with its basic concepts, its practical applications, and its impact on current…

  15. Survivor Revictimization: Object Relations Dynamics and Treatment Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Andrew L.

    1997-01-01

    Uses an integrated, unified framework based on object relations theory and research to provide specific and practical understanding of survivor revictimization. Focuses on revictimization dynamics, revictimization research, the survivor's world of revictimization, and treatment implications based on that framework. Offers a case study to elaborate…

  16. Observing cataclysmic variables and related objects with different techniques.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimon, Vojt?ch

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 83, ?. 2 (2012), s. 675-682. ISSN 0037-8720. [Workshop on the golden age of cataclysmic variables and related objects. Palermo, 12.09.2011-17.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ?R GA205/08/1207 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : X- rays * binaries * circumstellar matter Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  17. Object-Relational Management of Multiply Represented Geographic Entities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Christensen, Anders; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    means of a prototype and a realworld case study that it is possible to implement a multiple representation schema language on top of an object-relational database management system. Specifically, it is demonstrated how it is possible to map the constructs of the language used for specifying the multiple...

  18. Learning Object-Action Relations from Semantic Scene Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Aksoy

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Action recognition and object categorization have received increasing interest in the AI and cognitive-vision community during the last decade. The problem of action recognition has been addressed in previous works (Hongeng, 2004, but only rarely in conjunction with object categorization (Sridhar et al., 2004. Sridhar et al. (2004 showed that objects can also be categorized by considering their common roles in different manipulations, resulting however in large and complex activity graphs which have to be analyzed separately. In this work, we introduce a novel approach for detecting spatiotemporal object-action relations using semantic scene graphs, leading to both action recognition and object categorization.In the current study we analyze movies of scenes containing low-level context. As a first processing step, the image segments are extracted and tracked throughout the movie (Dellen et al., 2009, allowing the assignment of temporally stable labels to the respective image parts. The scene is then described by undirected labeled graphs, in which the nodes and edges represent segments and their neighborhood relations, respectively. We apply an exact graph matching method in order to extract those graphs that represent a structural change of the scene. The resulting “compressed” graph sequence represents an action graph, providing a means for comparing movies of different scenes by measuring the similarity between their action graphs. A template main graph model is constructed for each action. Finally, actions are classified by calculating the similarity with those models. Nodes playing the same role in an classified action sequence can be then used to categorize objects. We applied our framework to three different action types: “moving an object”, “opening a book”, and “making a sandwich”. For each of these actions, we recorded four movies, differing in trajectories, speeds, and object shapes. The experimental results showed that the agent can learn all four action types and categorize the participating manipulated objects according to their roles. The framework presented here represents a promising approach for recognizing actions without requiring prior object knowledge, and categorizing objects solely based on their exhibited role within an action sequence. In the future, we plan to apply the framework to more complex scenes containing high-level context and to let the agent learn the template main graph models from a training data set. A parallel implementation of the framework on GPUs for real-time robotics applications is currently investigated. Acknowledgment:The work has received support from the BMBF funded BCCN Goettingen and the EU Project PACOPLUS under Contract No. 027657.

  19. Representation Model of Topological Relations between Complex Planar Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Zhanlong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to express the details of the topological relations between complex planar objects, the classic 9-intersection model is improved and the two extended 9-intersection models that based on decomposition ideas are proposed: the one 9-intersection model method that is decomposed into simple area has its advantage of simplification, but at the cost of complicated expressions; another 9-intersection model method that is decomposed into point-set, conforming well with the classical 9-intersection model, but has relatively complex calculations. Compared the expressive abilities between the two kinds of extened 9-intersection models and the classic 9-intersection model by examples. The results show that both the two extended 9-intersection models can give more accurately expression of the topological relations between details of the sub parts in complex planar objects, the expressive ability of 9-intersection model has been expanded and improved.

  20. DEPENDENT VERBLESS CLAUSE: ITS STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Petrlikova

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The term “clause” is not only applied to structures which comply with formal prerequisites,containing a subject and a predicate conveyed by a finite verb, but also to such structures which are analysable into clause elements. The verbless clause is a structure containing no verb element at all (either finite or nonfinite, usually having a covert subject, but containing other expressions which can be identified as a part of predicate (subject complement or adverbial. The verbless subordinate clause is joined to its superordinate clause syndetically or asyndetically (a supplementive verbless clause, or by the prepositions with or without. As an optional clause element, it functions as an adverbial, expressing a range of semantic roles, usually suggested by the introductory conjunction, or as an “optional subject/object adjunct” (supplementive verbless clauses, conveying a twofold relationship: to the predication and, at the same time, to the subject or object of its superordinate clause. Considered one of the means of sentence condensation, it is mainly used in written language.

  1. Migration from Relational Database into Object Oriented Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansaf Alam

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Object-Oriented Technology is an important discipline in the field of software engineering in general and it is, therefore, natural to ask whether it is relevant to the field of database management in particular and what that relevance is. There is, however, no consensus on answer to these questions. Some authorities believe that object oriented database systems will take over the world replacing relational system whereas others believe that they are suited only to certain very specific problems and will never capture more than a small fraction of the overall market. Object-Oriented technology represents real world very well, focusing on data rather than procedure and gives more security to data. Also, it is safe from unauthorized use of data because it provides three access specifiers viz. private, public and protected and strictly provides security to data in database. This technology also provides function as well as data together so that the data can be manipulated by the given function. In this paper, we show that how the data is more secure in object-oriented database than in relational database and also why do we migrate from RDBMS into OODBMS.

  2. Database Independent Migration of Objects into an Object-Relational Database

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, A; Munir, K; Waseem-Hassan, M; Willers, I

    2002-01-01

    CERN's (European Organization for Nuclear Research) WISDOM project [1] deals with the replication of data between homogeneous sources in a Wide Area Network (WAN) using the extensible Markup Language (XML). The last phase of the WISDOM (Wide-area, database Independent Serialization of Distributed Objects for data Migration) project [2], indicates the future directions for this work to be to incorporate heterogeneous sources as compared to homogeneous sources as described by [3]. This work will become essential for the CERN community once the need to transfer their legacy data to some other source, other then Objectivity [4], arises. Oracle 9i - an Object-Relational Database (including support for abstract data types, ADTs) appears to be a potential candidate for the physics event store in the CERN CMS experiment as suggested by [4] & [5]. Consequently this database has been selected for study. As a result of this work the HEP community will get a tool for migrating their data from Objectivity to Oracle9i.

  3. Psychoanalysis, marital therapy, and object-relations theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, L

    1988-01-01

    This paper attempts to indicate why psychoanalysts should be interested in marital therapy. It discusses the clinical advantages and disadvantages of marital therapy as compared to psychoanalysis, describes the contributions of the classical psychoanalytic viewpoint to marital therapy, and finally, attempts to complement the classical psychoanalytic viewpoint with an object-relations viewpoint which can illuminate marital dynamics and provide interpretive content during the course of marital therapy. PMID:3235761

  4. Solutions for the Object-Relational Databases Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manole VELICANU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for databases occurs in the moment when takes place an informatics system development. Moreover, databases are an important step in this process. For this reason, this paper deals with object-relational databases implementation as part of informatics systems development. The practical implementation is made on a decision support system (DSS prototype, which can be applied in the uncertain and unpredictable environments, like the production and the prediction of the wind energy

  5. The role of action representations in thematic object relations

    OpenAIRE

    Tsagkaridis, Konstantinos; Watson, Christine E.; Jax, Steven A.; Buxbaum, Laurel J.

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have explored the role of associative/event-based (thematic) and categorical (taxonomic) relations in the organization of object representations. Recent evidence suggests that thematic information may be particularly important in determining relationships between manipulable artifacts. However, although sensorimotor information is on many accounts an important component of manipulable artifact representations, little is known about the role that action may play during the ...

  6. The Network Configuration of an Object Relational Database Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Philip; Harris, W. C.

    2000-01-01

    The networking and implementation of the Oracle Database Management System (ODBMS) requires developers to have knowledge of the UNIX operating system as well as all the features of the Oracle Server. The server is an object relational database management system (DBMS). By using distributed processing, processes are split up between the database server and client application programs. The DBMS handles all the responsibilities of the server. The workstations running the database application concentrate on the interpretation and display of data.

  7. Least Generalizations and Greatest Specializations of Sets of Clauses

    CERN Document Server

    Nienhuys-Cheng, S H

    1996-01-01

    The main operations in Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) are generalization and specialization, which only make sense in a generality order. In ILP, the three most important generality orders are subsumption, implication and implication relative to background knowledge. The two languages used most often are languages of clauses and languages of only Horn clauses. This gives a total of six different ordered languages. In this paper, we give a systematic treatment of the existence or non-existence of least generalizations and greatest specializations of finite sets of clauses in each of these six ordered sets. We survey results already obtained by others and also contribute some answers of our own. Our main new results are, firstly, the existence of a computable least generalization under implication of every finite set of clauses containing at least one non-tautologous function-free clause (among other, not necessarily function-free clauses). Secondly, we show that such a least generalization need not exist un...

  8. Fundamentals for the Automation of Object-Relational Database Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Golobisky

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In the market there is a wide amount of CASE tools for the design of relational databases. Object-relational database management system (ORDBMS emerged at the end of the 90s to incorporate the object technology into the relational databases, allowing the treatment of more complex data and relationships than its predecessor. The design for this database model is not straightforward. Most of the works proposed in the literature fail because they do not provide consistent transformation formalization such that the mappings from the conceptual model to the logical schema can be automated to generate an ORDB design toolkit. This is one of the goals of this paper. For this purpose, UML class diagram metamodel for the conceptual design and SQL:2003 standard metamodel for logical schemas are considered. A characterization of the components involved in the ORDB design is made in order to propose mapping rules that can be further automated. The architecture of a CASE tool prototype is presented. Model Driven Architecture for software design and XML for the model definitions and transformations are employed.

  9. Chemical Compositions of RV Tauri Stars and Related Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S. S.; Giridhar, S.

    2014-04-01

    We have undertaken a comprehensive abundance analysis for a sample of relatively unexplored RV Tauri and RV Tauri like stars to further our understanding of post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB) evolution. From our study based on high resolution spectra and a grid of model atmospheres, we find indications of mild s-processing for V820 Cen and IRAS 06165+3158. On the other hand, SU Gem and BT Lac exhibit the effects of mild dust-gas winnowing. We have also compiled the existing abundance data on RV Tauri objects and find that a large fraction of them are afflicted by dust-gas winnowing and aided by the present work, we find a small group of two RV Tauris showing mild s-process enhancement in our Galaxy. With two out of three reported s-process enhanced objects belonging to RV Tauri spectroscopic class C, these intrinsically metal-poor objects appear to be promising candidates to analyse the possible s-processing in RV Tauri stars.

  10. Chemical Compositions of RV Tauri Stars and Related Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, S Sumangala

    2013-01-01

    We have undertaken a comprehensive abundance analysis for a sample of relatively unexplored RV Tauri and RV Tauri like stars to further our understanding of post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB) evolution. From our study based on high resolution spectra and grid of model atmospheres, we find indications of mild s-processing for V820 Cen and IRAS 06165+3158. On the other hand, SU Gem and BT Lac exhibit the effects of mild dust-gas winnowing. We have also compiled the existing abundance data on RV Tauri objects and find that a large fraction of them are afflicted by dust-gas winnowing and now added by the present work, we find a small group of two RV Tauris showing mild s-process enhancement in our Galaxy. With two out of three reported s-process enhanced objects belonging to RV Tauri spectroscopic class C, these intrinsically metal-poor objects appear to be promising candidates to analyse the possible s-processing in RV Tauri stars.

  11. The role of action representations in thematic object relations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Tsagkaridis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies assessing the role of associative/event-based (thematic and categorical (taxonomic relations in the organization of object representations suggest that thematic relationships may influence the perceived similarity of manipulable artifacts. At the same time, evidence suggests that action knowledge is an important component of manipulable artifact representations. However, the role that action plays in processing thematic relationships between objects is unclear. In this study, we assessed healthy and left hemisphere stroke participants to explore three questions: 1. Do participants favor thematic relations involving action (Th+A, e.g., wine bottle – corkscrew, thematic relationships without action (Th-A, e.g., wine bottle – cheese, or taxonomic relationships (Tax, e.g., wine bottle – water bottle when choosing between them in an association judgment task? 2. Do the underlying constructs of event, action, and categorical relatedness implicitly determine the choices that participants make? 3. Does degraded action knowledge and/or damage to temporo-parietal cortex (a region of the brain associated with action representations reduce the influence of action on the choice task? Experiment 1 showed that explicit ratings of event, action, and categorical relatedness differentially predicted healthy participants’ choices, with action relatedness determining choices between Th+A and Th-A associations above and beyond event and categorical ratings. Experiment 2 focused more specifically on these Th+A vs. Th-A choices and demonstrated that participants with left temporo-parietal lesions, a brain region known to be involved in sensorimotor processing, were less likely than controls, and tended to be less likely than patients with lesions sparing that region, to implicitly use action knowledge in determining their choices. We conclude that action knowledge plays a critical role in processing of thematic relations for manipulable artifacts.

  12. The role of action representations in thematic object relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagkaridis, Konstantinos; Watson, Christine E; Jax, Steven A; Buxbaum, Laurel J

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have explored the role of associative/event-based (thematic) and categorical (taxonomic) relations in the organization of object representations. Recent evidence suggests that thematic information may be particularly important in determining relationships between manipulable artifacts. However, although sensorimotor information is on many accounts an important component of manipulable artifact representations, little is known about the role that action may play during the processing of semantic relationships (particularly thematic relationships) between multiple objects. In this study, we assessed healthy and left hemisphere stroke participants to explore three questions relevant to object relationship processing. First, we assessed whether participants tended to favor thematic relations including action (Th+A, e.g., wine bottle-corkscrew), thematic relationships without action (Th-A, e.g., wine bottle-cheese), or taxonomic relationships (Tax, e.g., wine bottle-water bottle) when choosing between them in an association judgment task with manipulable artifacts. Second, we assessed whether the underlying constructs of event relatedness, action relatedness, and categorical relatedness determined the choices that participants made. Third, we assessed the hypothesis that degraded action knowledge and/or damage to temporo-parietal cortex, a region of the brain associated with the representation of action knowledge, would reduce the influence of action on the choice task. Experiment 1 showed that explicit ratings of event, action, and categorical relatedness were differentially predictive of healthy participants' choices, with action relatedness determining choices between Th+A and Th-A associations above and beyond event and categorical ratings. Experiment 2 focused more specifically on these Th+A vs. Th-A choices and demonstrated that participants with left temporo-parietal lesions, a brain region known to be involved in sensorimotor processing, were less likely than controls and tended to be less likely than patients with lesions sparing that region to use action relatedness in determining their choices. These data indicate that action knowledge plays a critical role in processing of thematic relations for manipulable artifacts. PMID:24672461

  13. Universals in Relative Clause Acquisition: Evidence from Child and Adult L1 and L2 Learners of Hindi-Urdu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Lynne

    1986-01-01

    The performance of native and nonnative Hindi-Urdu speaking children (N=131) and adults (N=30) in the comprehension of the Hindi-Urdu correlative constructions was analyzed. Results indicated that Hindi-Urdu correlative constructs are acquired relatively late by both native and nonnative speakers, suggesting that language universals are available…

  14. Nonnativeness in Near-Native Child L2 Starters of Japanese: Age and the Acquisition of Relative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Tomomi

    2014-01-01

    Many age-related second language (L2) studies have confirmed that young children have a better chance to become nativelike in L2 acquisition than adults. The current study investigated whether age effects exist in the L2 acquisition of Japanese and whether nativelike proficiency is guaranteed for early child L2 starters after constant target…

  15. Connective Polysemy and Clause Linkage Typology in Korean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jisup

    2012-01-01

    Clause connectives are linguistic forms that convey relations between clauses in a sentence. They are typically compared, whether within a language or across languages, on the basis of a shared syntactic category, such as coordination and subordination, or a semantic one, such as sequence, cause, or addition. While the inadequacy of the…

  16. Claus Achton Friis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlers, Steen

    1996-01-01

    Grafiker, professor Claus Achton Friis 1917-1999 er en central skikkelse i det 20.århundredes danske brugsgrafik. Han er ophavsmand til en mængde emballager, frimærker og heraldik og desuden formgiver af en række fremragende skrifter. Han var elev af grafikeren professor Gunnar Biilmann Petersen ...... blev selv, i en sen alder, professor på Kunstakademiets Afdeling for Grafisk Design....

  17. Determinants of object choice in adulthood: a test case of object-relations theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, P

    1985-01-01

    A clinical example of the effects of the absence of the father during the early childhood of a male analysand and its consequences for his later object choice is presented. This patient's biological father left the household when the patient was only a few months old, and his mother did not remarry until he was five years of age. Unconscious fantasies of the lost father, with whom the patient had no contact in reality, and longing for him organized the patient's drives and determined his self-identity as well as his later object choice. The patient developed both a positive and negative identification with the lost father. The identification was with a fantasy object not a real one. The case highlights the need to use a precise term in talking of the object, namely the mental representation of the object which may or may not be built up out of experiences with the real object. PMID:3843602

  18. Chemical compositions of RV tauri stars and related objects

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S., Sumangala Rao; Sunetra, Giridhar.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Hemos emprendido un análisis de las abundancias químicas para una muestra de estrellas RV Tauri poco estudiadas, para mejorar nuestro entendimiento de la evolución estelar post-secuencia asintótica de las gigantes (post-AGB).Nuestro estudio se basa en espectros de alta resolución y en una malla de m [...] odelos atmosféricos. Encontramos indicaciones de un leve proceso-s para V820 Cen y IRAS 06165+3158. Por otra parte, SU Gem y BT Lac muestran los efectos de una ligera separación polvo-gas. Hemos reunido los datos existentes sobre las abundancias de objetos RV Tauri, y encontramos que una gran parte de ellos muestra efectos de separación polvo-gas. En nuestro estudio encontramos un pequeño grupo de estrellas RV Tauri galácticas con evidencia del proceso-s ligeramente aumentado. Dos de tres objetos con evidencia de proceso-s aumentado pertenecen a la clase C de objetos RV Tauri. Estos objetos, pobres en metales, son candidatos prometedores para el estudio del proceso-s en las estrellas RV Tauri. Abstract in english We have undertaken a comprehensive abundance analysis for a sample of relatively unexplored RV Tauri and RV Tauri like stars to further our understanding of post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB) evolution. From our study based on high resolution spectra and a grid of model atmospheres, we find ind [...] ications of mild s-processing for V820 Cen and IRAS 06165+3158. On the other hand, SU Gem and BT Lac exhibit the effects of mild dust-gas winnowing. We have also compiled the existing abundance data on RV Tauri objects and find that a large fraction of them are afflicted by dust-gas winnowing and aided by the present work, we find a small group of two RV Tauris showing mild s-process enhancement in our Galaxy. With two out of three reported s-process enhanced objects belonging to RV Tauri spectroscopic class C, these intrinsically metal-poor objects appear to be promising candidates to analyse the possible s-processing in RV Tauri stars.

  19. Optional Clauses in the Individual Working Contract

    OpenAIRE

    MIHAELA TOFAN

    2006-01-01

    The Labor Code, that is Law no. 53 from 2003 in Romanian legal framework, mainly rules the individual working contract. This is the first time when the working contract is established to have not only general clauses, but also some particular clauses. The employers and employees may now negotiate special rights and liabilities, such us competitions clause, mobility clause, confidentiality clause and the clause concerning continuous professional forming. Besides these clauses that are in the...

  20. Perception of Object-Context Relations: Eye-Movement Analyses in Infants and Adults

    OpenAIRE

    BORNSTEIN, MARC H.; Mash, Clay; Arterberry, Martha E.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-eight 4-month-olds’ and 22 20-year-olds’ attention to object-context relations was investigated using a common eye-movement paradigm. Infants and adults scanned both objects and contexts. Infants showed equivalent preferences for animals and vehicles and for congruent and incongruent object-context relations overall, more fixations of objects in congruent object-context relations, more fixations of contexts in incongruent object-context relations, more fixations of objects than context...

  1. Brain activity related to integrative processes in visual object recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Aaside, C T; Humphreys, G W; Gade, A; Paulson, O B; Law, I

    2002-01-01

    We report evidence from a PET activation study that the inferior occipital gyri (likely to include area V2) and the posterior parts of the fusiform and inferior temporal gyri are involved in the integration of visual elements into perceptual wholes (single objects). Of these areas, the fusiform and...... access to stored structural knowledge, was found with recognizable stimuli, but not with unrecognizable stimuli. This latter finding also indicates: (i) that subjects may not refrain from (automatically) identifying objects even if they only have to attend to the objects' global shape, and (ii) that...... perceptual and memorial processes can be dissociated on both functional and anatomical grounds. No evidence was obtained for the involvement of the parietal lobes in the integration of single objects....

  2. The relation between energy efficiency and general objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three overall objectives for energy efficiency programs are discussed: Reduction of negative externalities, esp. climatic change; Phase-out of nuclear power while limiting electricity imports; and creating welfare gains by correcting market failures of energy efficiency programs (rebound effects)

  3. Relating Things and Stuff via ObjectProperty Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min Sun; Byung-Soo Kim; Kohli, Pushmeet; Savarese, Silvio

    2014-07-01

    In the last few years, substantially different approaches have been adopted for segmenting and detecting "things" (object categories that have a well defined shape such as people and cars) and "stuff" (object categories which have an amorphous spatial extent such as grass and sky). While things have been typically detected by sliding window or Hough transform based methods, detection of stuff is generally formulated as a pixel or segment-wise classification problem. This paper proposes a framework for scene understanding that models both things and stuff using a common representation while preserving their distinct nature by using a property list. This representation allows us to enforce sophisticated geometric and semantic relationships between thing and stuff categories via property interactions in a single graphical model. We use the latest advances made in the field of discrete optimization to efficiently perform maximum a posteriori (MAP) inference in this model. We evaluate our method on the Stanford dataset by comparing it against state-of-the-art methods for object segmentation and detection. We also show that our method achieves competitive performances on the challenging PASCAL '09 segmentation dataset. PMID:26353309

  4. Reasoning about Object Capabilities with Logical Relations and Effect Parametricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devriese, Dominique; Piessens, Frank; Birkedal, Lars

    -of-the-art techniques from programming languages research, we define a logical relation for a core calculus of JavaScript that better characterises capability-safety. The relation is powerful enough to reason about typical capability patterns and supports evolvable invariants on shared data structures, capabilities...

  5. 48 CFR 1309.507-2 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...all or some subcontracts, teaming arrangements, and other agreements calling for performance of work related to the contract...contracts. (e) Insert clause 1352.209-75, Title 13 and Non-Disclosure Requirements, in all solicitations and contracts...

  6. Factors Related to Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Karin A. Pfeiffer; Dowda, Marsha; McIver, Kerry L.; Pate, Russell R

    2009-01-01

    This study examined correlates of objectively measured physical activity (PA) in a diverse sample of preschool children (age 3–5 years; n=331). Accelerometer min·hr?1 of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and non-sedentary activity (NSA) were the outcome measures. Correlations among potential correlates and PA ranged from r= ? .12–0.26. Correlates in the final MVPA model were age, race, sex, BMI Z score, and parent perception of athletic competence, explaining 37% of the variance. ...

  7. The article in oblique relative clauses [prep.+ (definitive art. + que] in 18th century hispanoamerican texts El artículo en las relativas oblicuas [prep. + (art. definido + que] en textos americanos del siglo XVIII = The article in oblique relative clauses [prep.+ (definitive art. + que] in 18th century hispanoamerican texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha GUZMÁN RIVERÓN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of the article in sentences like la casa en (la que vivo, among other variations, is today less frequently used in Hispanoamerica. Although we know that this structure, documented as early as the 13th century, became more wide-spread in the 18th century, little is known about its evolution at the time in American sources. I study the evolution of this phenomenon, basing myself exclusively on 18th century American texts. I also explore which factors are apparently related to this linguistic development and if the pace of its spread was determined by the preceding prepositions. Aiming at a panoramic view of the spread of the article in the period in question, I also trace the appearance of these relative clauses, with and without article, in the texts collected in the CORDE, and provide detailed analyses of texts from both halves of the century, in order to evaluate the factors that may have influenced this change.El uso del artículo en estructuras como la casa en (la que vivo presenta hoy en día, entre otras variaciones, una frecuencia de uso menor en Hispanoamérica que en España. Aunque sabemos que este uso, documentado desde el siglo XIII, comienza realmente a extenderse justo en el XVIII, poco conocemos de su evolución en la época en fuentes americanas. En este trabajo, basándonos exclusivamente en textos americanos del XVIII, perseguimos investigar cómo evoluciona este fenómeno en documentación de esta procedencia. También intentaremos explorar qué factores están aparentemente en relación con este cambio e investigar si, en diferentes preposiciones, diverge el ritmo de difusión de su uso. Con vistas a obtener una idea general sobre la extensión del artículo en la época, rastrearemos las apariciones de dichas relativas —con y sin artículo— en los textos americanos recogidos en el CORDE. Para evaluar los factores que pueden incidir en él estudiaremos en detalle determinados textos de ambas mitades del siglo.

  8. Chemical Compositions of RV Tauri Stars and Related Objects

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sumangala Rao; Sunetra Giridhar

    2013-01-01

    We have undertaken a comprehensive abundance analysis for a sample of relatively unexplored RV Tauri and RV Tauri like stars to further our understanding of post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (post-AGB) evolution. From our study based on high resolution spectra and grid of model atmospheres, we find indications of mild s-processing for V820 Cen and IRAS 06165+3158. On the other hand, SU Gem and BT Lac exhibit the effects of mild dust-gas winnowing. We have also compiled the existing abundance data ...

  9. Engineering the object-relation database model in O-Raid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Prasun; Vikram, Ashish; Bhargava, Bharat

    1989-01-01

    Raid is a distributed database system based on the relational model. O-raid is an extension of the Raid system and will support complex data objects. The design of O-Raid is evolutionary and retains all features of relational data base systems and those of a general purpose object-oriented programming language. O-Raid has several novel properties. Objects, classes, and inheritance are supported together with a predicate-base relational query language. O-Raid objects are compatible with C++ objects and may be read and manipulated by a C++ program without any 'impedance mismatch'. Relations and columns within relations may themselves be treated as objects with associated variables and methods. Relations may contain heterogeneous objects, that is, objects of more than one class in a certain column, which can individually evolve by being reclassified. Special facilities are provided to reduce the data search in a relation containing complex objects.

  10. The Influence of Object Relative Size on Priming and Explicit Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Uttl, Bob; Graf, Peter; Siegenthaler, Amy L.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effects of object relative size on priming and explicit memory for color photos of common objects. Participants were presented with color photos of pairs of objects displayed in either appropriate or inappropriate relative sizes. Implicit memory was assessed by speed of object size ratings whereas explicit memory was assessed by an old/new recognition test. Study-to-test changes in relative size reduced both priming and explicit memory and had large effects for objects dis...

  11. Stellar debris clouds in quasars and related objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The density and velocity dispersion in the stellar debris cloud produced by the tidal break-up of stars by the central black hole in a galactic nucleus are consistent with these clouds being the origin of the observed forbidden lines in quasars. The debris cloud is gravitationally bound to the central black hole. The accretion disk around the black hole produced enough ionizing photons to keep the debris cloud completely ionized. Collisions among the broken-up stars in the debris cloud cause them to lose energy and to fall towards the central black hole and its accretion disk. Most of this material impacts the accretion disk in the vicinity of the tidal radius of the black hole. The high-temperature gas produced by this impact may be responsible for the high-energy X-rays observed in the more luminous quasars and in radio galaxies. The relative scarcity of strong radio emitters among the normal quasars may be due to the fact that free-free absorption in the debris cloud prevents radio emission from reaching the observer from the dense inner part of the debris cloud and to the severe energy loss the relativistic particles have suffered by the time they have travelled sufficiently far from the centre of the debris cloud for their radio emission to be observable. Only after the black hole has seriously reduced the density of stars in the galactic nucleus and the luminosity of the quasar has begun to drop does the density in the debris cloud decrease sufficiently to allow the relativistic particles to escape without considerable energy loss. The giant radio galaxies have a number of properties which suggest that they are old quasars which have evolved past their maximum luminosity phase. Most Seyferts are also likely to be old quasars. (author)

  12. Corporate Human Rights Obligations Under Stabilization Clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Letnar Cernic, Jernej

    2010-01-01

    Lawyers, economists and social scientists alike have for a number of years agreed that foreign investment has the potential to act as a catalyst for the enjoyment of an individual's fundamental human rights, particularly in developing countries. This article discusses and critically analyses corporate human rights obligations and the lack thereof under stabilization clauses in foreign investment contracts. The balance of this article is devoted to exploring three main issues relating to corpo...

  13. The internal/external issue what is an outer object? Another person as object and as separate other in object relations models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachrisson, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The question of what we mean by the term outer object has its roots in the epistemological foundation of psychoanalysis. From the very beginning, Freud's view was Kantian, and psychoanalysis has kept that stance, as it seems. The author reviews the internal/external issue in Freud's thinking and in the central object relations theories (Klein, Winnicott, and Bion). On this background he proposes a simple model to differentiate the concept of object along one central dimension: internal object, external object, and actual person. The main arguments are: (1) there is no direct, unmediated perception of the actual person--the experience of the other is always affected by the perceiver's subjectivity; (2) in intense transference reactions and projections, the perception of the person is dominated by the qualities of an inner object--and the other person "becomes" an external object for the perceiver; (3) when this distortion is less dominating, the other person to a higher degree remains a separate other--a person in his or her own right. Clinical material illustrates these phenomena, and a graphical picture of the model is presented. Finally with the model as background, the author comments on a selection of phenomena and concepts such as unobjectionable transference, "the third position," mourning and loneliness. The way that the internal colours and distorts the external is of course a central preoccupation of psychoanalysis generally. (Spillius et al., 2011, p. 326) PMID:26072566

  14. Termination for Convenience Clauses and Good Faith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Gray

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the legal validity of so-called termination for convenience clauses, which allow at least one party to the contract to terminate the contract without cause. Such rights are in contrast to more traditional approaches to contractual termination, which distinguished between breaches of condition and breaches of warranty, allowing termination only for the former. Specifically, it will be asked whether such termination for convenience clauses are consistent with requirements of good faith in contracting, the existence of which is itself contentious. As a result, it will be necessary to consider the current state of the law in Australia and elsewhere in relation to the extent to which good faith is and should be a feature of contracting.

  15. Termination for Convenience Clauses and Good Faith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Gray

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the legal validity of so-called termination for convenience clauses, which allow at least one party to the contract to terminate the contract without cause.  Such rights are in contrast to more traditional approaches to contractual termination, which distinguished between breaches of condition and breaches of warranty, allowing termination only for the former.  Specifically, it will be asked whether such termination for convenience clauses are consistent with requirements of good faith in contracting, the existence of which is itself contentious.  As a result, it will be necessary to consider the current state of the law in Australia and elsewhere in relation to the extent to which good faith is and should be a feature of contracting.

  16. ‘De Regenkoning’ van Hugo Claus

    OpenAIRE

    S. W. van Zuydam

    1986-01-01

    The investigation in this article comprises the analysis of a poem by the Flemish author Hugo Claus, namely "De regenkoning". It is one of the poems in a sequence entitled "De ingewijde" (The initiated) which forms part of his volume of poetry "De Oostakkerse Gedichten” (1955). These poems are extremely esoteric and an attempt is made here to “decode” the "hidden mysteries” in this particular poem. Claus’ method of using a kind of secret language corresponds to a basic feature of (universal) ...

  17. Perception of Object-Context Relations: Eye-Movement Analyses in Infants and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Mash, Clay; Arterberry, Martha E.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-eight 4-month-olds' and twenty-two 20-year-olds' attention to object-context relations was investigated using a common eye-movement paradigm. Infants and adults scanned both objects and contexts. Infants showed equivalent preferences for animals and vehicles and for congruent and incongruent object-context relations overall, more fixations…

  18. La influencia del contexto referencial en la resolución de ambigüedades oración completiva/oración de relativo: Evidencia en español The influence of referential context in solving ambiguities in complete sentences/relative clause: Evidence from Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Alonso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza la resolución de ambigüedades sintácticas en español. De manera más específica, compara el procesamiento de oraciones con ambigüedad estructural (parsing entre oración de relativo y oración completiva, con y sin contexto referencial, utilizando una metodología de tiempos de lectura autoadministrada. El objetivo era comprobar si los resultados encontrados en lectores de habla inglesa se obtenían también en español. Los tiempos de lectura para las frases que contenían tanto oraciones completivas como oraciones de relativo fueron significativamente menores cuando iban precedidas de un contexto referencial. Estos resultados aportan evidencia congruente con los modelos referenciales (Crain & Steedman, 1985; Altmann & Steedman, 1988, que apuestan por un procesamiento basado en el uso de múltiples fuentes de información a la hora de resolver ambigüedades, y no solo en información de tipo estructural, tal y como sugieren los modelos modulares (Frazier, 1987; Mitchell, 1994; Mitchell, Cuetos, Corley & Brysbaert, 1995; Cuetos, Mitchell & Corley, 1996; Frazier & Clifton, 1996; Carreiras & Meseguer, 1999.This paper analyzes the resolution of syntactic ambiguities in Spanish. Specifically, it compares the processing of sentences with structural ambiguity between relative clause and complete sentences, with and without referential context, using different methods of self-administered reading times. The aim was to check whether the results found in English-speaking readers is also obtained in Spanish. The reading times for sentences containing both complete sentences and relative clauses were significantly smaller when they were preceded by a referential context. These results provide evidence consistent with referential models (Crain & Steedman, 1985; Altmann & Steedman, 1988 supporting a process based on the use of multiple sources of information when solving ambiguities, and not just on structural information as suggested by modular models (Frazier, 1987; Mitchell, 1994; Mitchell, Cuetos, Corley & Brysbaert, 1995; Cuetos, Mitchell & Corley, 1996; Frazier & Clifton, 1996; Carreiras & Meseguer, 1999.

  19. La influencia del contexto referencial en la resolución de ambigüedades oración completiva/oración de relativo: Evidencia en español / The influence of referential context in solving ambiguities in complete sentences/relative clause: Evidence from Spanish

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura, Alonso; José, Antonio León.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza la resolución de ambigüedades sintácticas en español. De manera más específica, compara el procesamiento de oraciones con ambigüedad estructural (parsing) entre oración de relativo y oración completiva, con y sin contexto referencial, utilizando una metodología de tiempos [...] de lectura autoadministrada. El objetivo era comprobar si los resultados encontrados en lectores de habla inglesa se obtenían también en español. Los tiempos de lectura para las frases que contenían tanto oraciones completivas como oraciones de relativo fueron significativamente menores cuando iban precedidas de un contexto referencial. Estos resultados aportan evidencia congruente con los modelos referenciales (Crain & Steedman, 1985; Altmann & Steedman, 1988), que apuestan por un procesamiento basado en el uso de múltiples fuentes de información a la hora de resolver ambigüedades, y no solo en información de tipo estructural, tal y como sugieren los modelos modulares (Frazier, 1987; Mitchell, 1994; Mitchell, Cuetos, Corley & Brysbaert, 1995; Cuetos, Mitchell & Corley, 1996; Frazier & Clifton, 1996; Carreiras & Meseguer, 1999). Abstract in english This paper analyzes the resolution of syntactic ambiguities in Spanish. Specifically, it compares the processing of sentences with structural ambiguity between relative clause and complete sentences, with and without referential context, using different methods of self-administered reading times. Th [...] e aim was to check whether the results found in English-speaking readers is also obtained in Spanish. The reading times for sentences containing both complete sentences and relative clauses were significantly smaller when they were preceded by a referential context. These results provide evidence consistent with referential models (Crain & Steedman, 1985; Altmann & Steedman, 1988) supporting a process based on the use of multiple sources of information when solving ambiguities, and not just on structural information as suggested by modular models (Frazier, 1987; Mitchell, 1994; Mitchell, Cuetos, Corley & Brysbaert, 1995; Cuetos, Mitchell & Corley, 1996; Frazier & Clifton, 1996; Carreiras & Meseguer, 1999).

  20. Impairments in Object Relations and Chronicity of Suicidal Behavior in Individuals With Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Katie C; Meehan, Kevin B; Cain, Nicole M; Wong, Philip S; Clemence, A Jill; Stevens, Jennifer; Tillman, Jane G

    2016-02-01

    While studies have demonstrated connections between impairments in object relations and self-destructive behaviors in individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD), few have investigated whether these impairments relate to actual suicidal behaviors. The current study utilized the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale-Global Method to investigate object relational functioning and suicidal behaviors in 131 residential treatment patients. Cognitive but not affective aspects of internalized representations predicted past suicidal behavior in BPD subjects; no relationships were found between quality of object representations and suicide in other-PD subjects. Implications of these findings for research, theory, and treatment of suicidal individuals are discussed. PMID:25710732

  1. ‘De Regenkoning’ van Hugo Claus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. van Zuydam

    1986-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation in this article comprises the analysis of a poem by the Flemish author Hugo Claus, namely "De regenkoning". It is one of the poems in a sequence entitled "De ingewijde" (The initiated which forms part of his volume of poetry "De Oostakkerse Gedichten” (1955. These poems are extremely esoteric and an attempt is made here to “decode” the "hidden mysteries” in this particular poem. Claus’ method of using a kind of secret language corresponds to a basic feature of (universal initiation ceremonies, namely that everything that takes place is shrouded in secrecy. It was found that the nucleus of traditional initiations, namely sexual and mental maturation, likewise form a fundamental characteristic in Claus’ poem. Yet his "neophyte” is not (reborn into a "new” (sacred world, but initiated into the broken (profane realities of modern society.

  2. Incorporating the Scale-Relativity Principle in String Theory and Extended Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Carlos

    1996-01-01

    First steps in incorporating Nottale's scale-relativity principle to string theory and extended objects are taken. Scale Relativity is to scales what motion Relativity is to velocities. The universal, absolute, impassible, invariant scale under dilatations, in Nature, is taken to be the Planck scale which is not the same as the string scale. Starting with Nambu-Goto actions for strings and other extended objects, we show that the principle of scale-relativity invariance of the world-volume me...

  3. 48 CFR 3.1004 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 3.1004 Contract clauses. (a) Insert the clause at FAR 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and...

  4. Relative hardness measurement of soft objects by a new fiber optic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Roozbeh; Ashtaputre, Pranav; Abou Ziki, Jana; Dargahi, Javad; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran

    2010-06-01

    The measurement of relative hardness of soft objects enables replication of human finger tactile perception capabilities. This ability has many applications not only in automation and robotics industry but also in many other areas such as aerospace and robotic surgery where a robotic tool interacts with a soft contact object. One of the practical examples of interaction between a solid robotic instrument and a soft contact object occurs during robotically-assisted minimally invasive surgery. Measuring the relative hardness of bio-tissue, while contacting the robotic instrument, helps the surgeons to perform this type of surgery more reliably. In the present work, a new optical sensor is proposed to measure the relative hardness of contact objects. In order to measure the hardness of a contact object, like a human finger, it is required to apply a small force/deformation to the object by a tactile sensor. Then, the applied force and resulting deformation should be recorded at certain points to enable the relative hardness measurement. In this work, force/deformation data for a contact object is recorded at certain points by the proposed optical sensor. Recorded data is used to measure the relative hardness of soft objects. Based on the proposed design, an experimental setup was developed and experimental tests were performed to measure the relative hardness of elastomeric materials. Experimental results verify the ability of the proposed optical sensor to measure the relative hardness of elastomeric samples.

  5. 48 CFR 208.7305 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 208.7305... Precious Metals 208.7305 Contract clause. (a) Use the clause at 252.208-7000, Intent to Furnish Precious... inventory manager and comply with the procedures in Chapter 11, DoD 4160.21-M, Defense Materiel...

  6. 48 CFR 1652.000 - Applicable clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Applicable clauses. 1652.000 Section 1652.000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS CONTRACT CLAUSES 1652.000...

  7. 48 CFR 203.1004 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF DEFENSE GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 203.1004 Contract clauses. (a) Use the clause at 252.203-7003 in solicitations and contracts that include the FAR clause 52.203-13, Contractor Code of Business Ethics and...

  8. How to combine text-mining methods to validate induced Verb-Object relations?

    OpenAIRE

    Béchet, Nicolas; Chauché, Jacques; Prince, Violaine; Roche, Mathieu

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes methods using Natural Language Processing approaches to extract and validate induced syntactic relations (here restricted to the Verb-Object relation). These methods use a syntactic parser and a semantic closeness measure to extract such relations. Then, their validation is based on two different techniques: A Web Validation system on one part, then a Semantic-Vectorbased approach, and finally different combinations of both techniques in order to rank induced Verb-Object ...

  9. Turn Continuation and Clause Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couper-Kuhlen, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the viability of the analytic distinction between "turn-constructional unit (TCU) continuation" (i.e., continuing a turn beyond a point of possible completion with grammatically dependent material) and "new TCU" (i.e., continuing a turn with grammatically independent material) when hypotactic clause combinations are involved.…

  10. Incorporating the Scale-Relativity Principle In String Theory and Extended Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, C

    1996-01-01

    First steps in incorporating Nottale's scale-relativity principle to string theory and extended objects are taken. Scale Relativity is to scales what motion Relativity is to velocities. The universal, absolute, impassible, invariant scale under dilatations, in Nature is taken to be the Planck scale which is not the same as the string scale. Starting with Nambu-Goto actions for strings and other extended objects, we show that the principle of scale-relativity invariance of the world-volume measure associated with the extended objects ( Lorentzian-scalings transformations with respect to the resolutions of the world-volume coordinates) is tantamount to the vanishing of the scale-relativity version of the $\\beta$ functions : respectively. Preliminary steps are taken to merge motion relativity with scale relativity and, in this fashion, analogs of Weyl-Finsler geometries make their appearance. The quantum case remains to be studied.

  11. SQL/XNF - processing composite objects as abstractions over relational data

    OpenAIRE

    Mitschang, Bernhard; Pirahesh, Hamid; Pistor, Peter; Lindsay, Bruce; Südkamp, Norbert

    1993-01-01

    An extension to SQL, called the SQL extended normal form (XNF), is discussed. It enhances relational technology by a composite object facility, which comprises not only extraction of composite objects from existing databases but also efficient navigation and manipulation facilities provided by an appropriate application programming interface. The language itself allows sharing of the database among normal form SQL applications and composite object applications. It provides proper subsetting o...

  12. Optimization of tardiness related objectives in single machine environments via multirecombined evolutionary algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    De San Pedro, María Eugenia; Villagra, Andrea; Lasso, Marta; Pandolfi, Daniel; Vilanova, Gabriela; Vivar , M. Díaz de; Gallard, Raúl Hector

    2003-01-01

    Tardiness related objectives are of utmost importance in production systems when client satisfaction is a main goal of a company. These objectives measure the system response to the client requirements and rate manager´s performance In scheduling problems with diverse single or multiple objectives and environments Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) were successfully applied. Latest improvements in EAs have been developed by means of multirecombination, a method, which allows multiple exchange of g...

  13. Using a runway paradigm to assess the relative strength of rats' motivations for enrichment objects

    OpenAIRE

    Hanmer, Louise A.; Riddell, Patricia Mary.; Williams, Claire Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory animals should be provided with enrichment objects in their cages; however, it is first necessary to test whether the proposed enrichment objects provide benefits that increase the animals’ welfare. The two main paradigms currently used to assess proposed enrichment objects are the choice test, which is limited to determining relative frequency of choice, and consumer demand studies, which can indicate the strength of a preference but are complex to design. Here, we propos...

  14. Catalogue of cataclysmic binaries, low-mass X-ray binaries and related objects (fifth edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The catalogue lists coordinates, magnitudes, orbital parameters, stellar parameters of the components and other characteristic properties of 168 cataclysmic binaries. 36 low-mass X-ray binaries and 28 related objects with known or suspected orbital periods together with a comprehensive selection of the relevant literature that appeared after 1986. In addition the catalogue contains a list of references to published finding charts for 222 of the 232 objects. A cross-reference list of objects designations concludes the catalogue

  15. Event-related potentials during word mapping to object shape predict toddlers' vocabulary size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgström, Kristina; Torkildsen, Janne von Koss; Lindgren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    What role does attention to different object properties play in early vocabulary development? This longitudinal study using event-related potentials in combination with behavioral measures investigated 20- and 24-month-olds' (n = 38; n = 34; overlapping n = 24) ability to use object shape and object part information in word-object mapping. The N400 component was used to measure semantic priming by images containing shape or detail information. At 20 months, the N400 to words primed by object shape varied in topography and amplitude depending on vocabulary size, and these differences predicted productive vocabulary size at 24 months. At 24 months, when most of the children had vocabularies of several hundred words, the relation between vocabulary size and the N400 effect in a shape context was weaker. Detached object parts did not function as word primes regardless of age or vocabulary size, although the part-objects were identified behaviorally. The behavioral measure, however, also showed relatively poor recognition of the part-objects compared to the shape-objects. These three findings provide new support for the link between shape recognition and early vocabulary development. PMID:25762957

  16. Effects of Transference Work in the Context of Therapeutic Alliance and Quality of Object Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoglend, Per; Hersoug, Anne Grete; Bogwald, Kjell-Petter; Amlo, Svein; Marble, Alice; Sorbye, Oystein; Rossberg, Jan Ivar; Ulberg, Randi; Gabbard, Glen O.; Crits-Christoph, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Transference interpretation is considered as a core active ingredient in dynamic psychotherapy. In common clinical theory, it is maintained that more mature relationships, as well as a strong therapeutic alliance, may be prerequisites for successful transference work. In this study, the interaction between quality of object relations

  17. Drawing skill is related to the efficiency of encoding object structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdreau, Florian; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Accurate drawing calls on many skills beyond simple motor coordination. A good internal representation of the target object's structure is necessary to capture its proportion and shape in the drawing. Here, we assess two aspects of the perception of object structure and relate them to participants' drawing accuracy. First, we assessed drawing accuracy by computing the geometrical dissimilarity of their drawing to the target object. We then used two tasks to evaluate the efficiency of encoding object structure. First, to examine the rate of temporal encoding, we varied presentation duration of a possible versus impossible test object in the fovea using two different test sizes (8° and 28°). More skilled participants were faster at encoding an object's structure, but this difference was not affected by image size. A control experiment showed that participants skilled in drawing did not have a general advantage that might have explained their faster processing for object structure. Second, to measure the critical image size for accurate classification in the periphery, we varied image size with possible versus impossible object tests centered at two different eccentricities (3° and 8°). More skilled participants were able to categorise object structure at smaller sizes, and this advantage did not change with eccentricity. A control experiment showed that the result could not be attributed to differences in visual acuity, leaving attentional resolution as a possible explanation. Overall, we conclude that drawing accuracy is related to faster encoding of object structure and better access to crowded details. PMID:25469216

  18. Scientific Opinion on a request from the European Commission related to the safeguard clause notified by Greece on genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Following a request of the European Commission, the European Food Safety Authority’s Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms (EFSA GMO Panel evaluated the documentation submitted by Greece in support of its request for the prohibition of the placing on the market of the genetically modified maize MON 810 according to Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC. The EFSA GMO Panel notes that the majority of the publications referred to by Greece were already addressed by the EFSA GMO Panel in previous scientific outputs on maize MON 810 or other related insect-resistant genetically modified maize transformation events. In the remaining evidence provided by Greece, the EFSA GMO Panel could not identify any new data subject to scientific scrutiny or scientific information that would invalidate its previous risk assessments of maize MON 810. With regard to issues related to management and monitoring of maize MON 810, the EFSA GMO Panel refers to its recent recommendations for management and monitoring measures of maize MON 810. In conclusion, the EFSA GMO Panel considers that, based on the documentation submitted by Greece, there is no specific scientific evidence, in terms of risk to human and animal health or the environment, that would support the notification of a safeguard clause under Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC and that would invalidate the GMO Panel’s previous risk assessments of maize MON 810.

  19. A case Study of Applying Object-Relational Persistence in Astronomy Data Archiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, S. S.; Hiriart, R.; Barg, I.; Warner, P.; Gasson, D.

    2005-12-01

    The NOAO Science Archive (NSA) team is developing a comprehensive domain model to capture the science data in the archive. Java and an object model derived from the domain model weil address the application layer of the archive system. However, since RDBMS is the best proven technology for data management, the challenge is the paradigm mismatch between the object and the relational models. Transparent object-relational mapping (ORM) persistence is a successful solution to this challenge. In the data modeling and persistence implementation of NSA, we are using Hibernate, a well-accepted ORM tool, to bridge the object model in the business tier and the relational model in the database tier. Thus, the database is isolated from the Java application. The application queries directly on objects using a DBMS-independent object-oriented query API, which frees the application developers from the low level JDBC and SQL so that they can focus on the domain logic. We present the detailed design of the NSA R3 (Release 3) data model and object-relational persistence, including mapping, retrieving and caching. Persistence layer optimization and performance tuning will be analyzed. The system is being built on J2EE, so the integration of Hibernate into the EJB container and the transaction management are also explored.

  20. Observational validation of the chronometric cosmology: the redshift-magnitude relation for quasi-stellar objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A statistical study is made of the redshift-magnitude relation for a recent comprehensive catalogue of quasi-stellar objects. The chronometric theory, although devoid of free parameters such as the q0 and Lambda of the expansion theory, provides an excellent fit to the observed relation. The expansion theory does not provide an empirically meaningful fit

  1. An early sex difference in the relation between mental rotation and object preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Jillian E.; Udelson, Hallie B.; Jeon, Sung O.; Lourenco, Stella F.

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that males outperform females on mental rotation tasks as early as infancy. Sex differences in object preference have also been shown to emerge early in development and precede sex-typed play in childhood. Although research with adults and older children is suggestive of a relationship between play preferences and visuospatial abilities, including mental rotation, little is known about the developmental origins of this relationship. The present study compared mental rotation ability and object preference in 6- to 13-month-old infants. We used a novel paradigm to examine individual differences in infants’ mental rotation abilities as well as their differential preference for one of two sex-typed objects. A sex difference was found on both tasks, with boys showing an advantage in performance on the mental rotation task and exhibiting greater visual attention to the male-typed object (i.e., a toy truck) than to the female-typed object (i.e., a doll) in comparison to girls. Moreover, we found a relation between mental rotation and object preference that varied by sex. Greater visual interest in the male-typed object was related to greater mental rotation performance in boys, but not in girls. Possible explanations related to perceptual biases, prenatal androgen exposure, and experiential influences for this sex difference are discussed. PMID:26005426

  2. Hydrodynamic Interactions between Two Forced Objects of Arbitrary Shape: II Relative Translation

    CERN Document Server

    Goldfriend, Tomer; Witten, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    We study the relative translation of two arbitrarily shaped objects, caused by their hydrodynamic interaction as they are forced through a viscous fluid in the limit of zero Reynolds number. It is well known that in the case of two rigid spheres in an unbounded fluid, the hydrodynamic interaction does not produce relative translation. More generally such an effective pair-interaction vanishes in configurations with spatial inversion symmetry, for example, an enantiomorphic pair in mirror image positions has no relative translation. We show that the breaking of inversion symmetry by boundaries of the system accounts for the interactions between two spheres in confined geometries, as observed in experiments. The same general principle also provides new predictions for interactions in other object configurations near obstacles. We examine the time-dependent relative translation of two self-aligning objects, extending the numerical analysis of our preceding publication [Goldfriend, Diamant and Witten, arXiv:1502....

  3. Classical psychoanalysis and object relations theory in the analysis of character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, H S

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of character begins with repeated interpretation of its defensive structure and later moves into the analysis of object relations. What appears at first to be a patient's defenses against instinctual impulses may subsequently be recognized as defenses against emotional reactions to early objects. Nevertheless, at the beginning, interpretations should be directed toward the clinical material already available, and not at what may eventually emerge according to the analyst's theory. The author presents a case report to illustrate this viewpoint. PMID:2268755

  4. The k0 and relative INAA methods to determine elements in entire archaeological pottery objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages of instrumental neutron activation analysis applied to archaeological ceramics have been enhanced through the analysis of entire objects, using both the k 0 method and the relative method, respectively, to determine the concentrations of chemical elements in aliquots of replicate objects used as comparators and in the sample object. Twenty-two chemical elements of archaeological importance were measured in mud figurines from Caral civilization (5000 year BC), irradiated inside a well-characterized radial channel facility of the nuclear research reactor at IPEN, Peru. The results showed less than 10 % of bias for most of the elements. (author)

  5. Constraint Specialisation in Horn Clause Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query-answer transformation of a given set of clauses and a goal. The effect is to propagate the constraints from the goal top-down and propagate answer constraints bottom-up. Our approach does not unfold the clauses at all; we use the constraints from the model to compute a specialised version of each clause in the program. The approach is independent of the abstract domain and the constraints theory underlying the clauses. Experimental results on verification problems show that this is an effective transformation, both in our own verification tools (convex polyhedra analyser) and as a pre-processor to other Horn clause verification tools.

  6. Comparative performance measures of relational and object-oriented databases using High Energy Physics data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major experiments at the SSC are expected to produce up to 1 Petabyte of data per year. The use of database techniques can significantly reduce the time it takes to access data. The goal of this project was to test which underlying data model, the relational or the object-oriented, would be better suited for archival and accessing high energy data. We describe the relational and the object-oriented data model and their implementation in commercial database management systems. To determine scalability we tested both implementations for 10-MB and 100-MB databases using storage and timing criteria

  7. Cataclysmic binaries and related objects in the context of stellar evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataclysmic binaries (CBs) and related objects are discussed in the context of stellar evolution. Present knowledge about these objects and present theories about their formation are reviewed. Problems relating to the secondary components, including mass loss and the possibility of evolved secondaries, are addressed. Theoretical predictions of the mass spectrum of white dwarfs are compared with observations, and the formation of massive white dwarfs in CBs is discussed. The theoretical possibility that white dwarfs in CBs are continuously accreting is addressed, and the reason for the secondary's mass loss and its implications for the evolution of CBs are considered

  8. Constraint Specialisation in Horn Clause Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for specialising the constraints in constrained Horn clauses with respect to a goal. We use abstract interpretation to compute a model of a query-answer transformation of a given set of clauses and a goal. The effect is to propagate the constraints from the goal top-down and propagate answer constraints bottom-up. Our approach does not unfold the clauses at all; we use the constraints from the model to compute a specialised version of each clause in the program. The approach ...

  9. Main clause c? ‘that’ in Romanian

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Hill

    2010-01-01

    Romanian c? ‘that’ is the Force head of subordinated clauses (Hill 2004). In this paper I point out that the complementizer c? ‘that’ may occur in root (vs. subordinated) declarative clauses as well, but only in certain environments, which I identify as being the speech act domain promoting the speaker’s point of view. I argue that in such contexts, main clause c? ‘that’ marks the border between various pragmatic sub-fields derived at the left periphery (LP) of clauses, rather than typing the...

  10. Material Adverse Effect Clause – Proper Legal Work or Contribution to False Sense of Security?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Regardless of whether you are a buyer or a seller, and regardless what the object of the contract is, it is essentially important that you seek to protect your rights through various clauses that must aim to provide clearness to contractual obligations, defini- tions of breach, and consequences thereof. The article addresses a number of interest- protective legal mechanisms and necessity of their explicit incorporation in the contract. With emphasis on Material Adverse Effect clause the paper focuses on its exigency and applicability.

  11. Investigation of Inlet Gas Streams Effect on the Modified Claus Reaction Furnace

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Rezazadeh; Sima Rezvantalab

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to model the main reactions that take place in the Claus reactor furnace and compare it with actual data and simulated process. Since the most important point is the selection of suitable reaction conditions to increase the reactor performance, the model is formulated to predict the performance of the Claus plant. To substantiate the theoretical model, we used actual process condition and feed composition in Shahid Hasheminejad Gas Refinery. Model equations hav...

  12. Object Relations and the Family System in Bulmia: A Theoretical Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Laura Lynn; Stern, Steven

    1988-01-01

    Presents an integration of object relations theory and family systems theory in the conceptualization of bulimia. Proposes that in bulimic families there are transgenerational developmental deficits and adaptations which determine the level and quality of intrapsychic experience within individuals and the interpersonal relationships and dynamic…

  13. Managing XML Data to optimize Performance into Object-Relational Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana BOTHA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper propose some possibilities for manage XML data in order to optimize performance into object-relational databases. It is detailed the possibility of storing XML data into such databases, using for exemplification an Oracle database and there are tested some optimizing techniques of the queries over XMLType tables, like indexing and partitioning tables.

  14. Event-related potentials reveal increased distraction by salient global objects in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris; Finke, Kathrin; Töllner, Thomas; Müller, Hermann J.; Conci, Markus

    Age-related changes in visual functions influence how older individuals perceive and react upon objects in their environment. In particular, older individuals might be more distracted by highly salient, irrelevant information. Kanizsa figures induce a ‘global precedence’ effect, which reflects a ...

  15. An object-relational interpretation of Thomas Mann's "Death in Venice".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnick-Woldenberg, C

    1997-01-01

    The protagonist of Thomas Mann's novella "Death in Venice" is examined in terms of object-relational theory. Splitting, his primary defense mechanism, which is employed both intrapsychically and interpersonally, is discussed at length, as is his problematic relationship with his parents, which has resulted in his fixation in the paranoid/schizoid position and his ultimate destruction. PMID:9470960

  16. 37 CFR 401.3 - Use of the standard clauses at § 401.14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...work on behalf of the Government at a Government laboratory under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) pursuant...justification relates to a particular field of use or market, the clause might be modified along...

  17. Sustainability clauses in international supply chain contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterkova, Katerina

    Our current society is not successful in mitigation of global social and environmental challenges. States lack legal tools, and sometimes also the will, to secure social and environmental interests transnationally and the existing soft and private regulation is criticized for its weak legitimacy...... contractual clauses (SCCs) in international supply chain agreements may help to overcome the regulatory gap in relation to global sustainability while concurrently protect companies against potential social, economic and legal risks threatening in connection to unethical behaviour of their suppliers. As parts...... companies. However, this hardening function is questionable face-to-face the lack of case law or another proof of SCCs’ formal enforcement. This article aims to shed a light on the question whether SCCs can be the efficient regulatory solution for global challenges we are looking for or whether they are yet...

  18. 48 CFR 923.903 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ENVIRONMENT, CONSERVATION, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Contractor Compliance With Environmental Management Systems § 923.903 Contract clause. The FAR Environmental Management Systems clause at.... Some DOE sites have a single Environmental Management System for the site while others have...

  19. 48 CFR 1632.617 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH BENEFITS ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Debts 1632.617 Contract clause. The clause at (FAR) 48 CFR 52.232-17 will be modified in all FEHBP contracts to exclude the words “net of any applicable tax credit under the Internal Revenue Code (26...

  20. The role of objects and effects in action imitation: Comparing the imitation of object-related actions vs. gestures in 18-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ziyon; Óturai, Gabriella; Király, Ildikó; Knopf, Monika

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to systematically investigate 18-month-old infants' imitation of object-related actions compared to motorically similar gestures. An additional goal of the study was to examine the role of action effects on infants' imitation of target actions. One group of infants (n=17) observed object-related actions and gestures leading to salient effects (sounds or visual resp. social effects), and the other group (n=16) watched the same actions without effects. Furthermore, this study examined whether infants show a consistent imitation ability for object-related actions and gestures. First, the present study showed that 18-month-old infants imitated object-related actions more frequently than gestures. Second, the presence of an effect significantly increased the imitation rate of object-related actions; however, this difference was not found for gestures. Third, indications for a general imitation ability were found as results on an individual level showed that object-related action imitation significantly correlated with gesture imitation. Implications of the results for theory and future studies are discussed with a focus on the role of objects and effects in 18-month-old infants' action imitation. PMID:26311467

  1. Stock loan model with Automatic termination clause

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Zongxia; Jiang, Shuqing

    2010-01-01

    This paper works out fair values of stock loan model with automatic termination clause. This stock loan is treated as a generalized perpetual American option with an automatic termination clause and possibly negative interest rate. Since it helps a bank to control the risk, banks should charge less service fees compared to stock loans without automatic termination clauses. The automatic termination clause is in fact a stop order set by the bank. We aim at establishing explicitly the value of such a loan and ranges of fair values of key parameters : this loan size, interest rate, fee for providing such a service and quantity of this automatic termination clause and relationships among these parameters as well as the optimal terminable stopping times.

  2. Parametric Optimization on Multi-Objective Precision Turning Using Grey Relational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Y. Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, L9(34 orthogonal array of Taguchi experiment is selected for four parameters (speed, cutting depth, feed rate, tool nose runoff with three levels in optimizing the multi-objective (surface roughness, tool wear and material removal rate precision turning on an ECOCA-3807 CNC (Computer Numerical Controlled lathe. Through the examination of surface roughness (Ra, tool wear ratio (mm-2 and the calculation of MRR; the multiple objectives are then received. By using Grey Relational Analysis (GRA, the multiple objectives can additionally be integrated and introduced as the S/N (signal to noise ratio into the Taguchi experiment. The mean effects for S/N ratios are moreover analyzed by MINITAB to achieve the multi-objective turning parameters. Through the verification results, it is shown that both surface roughness and tool wear ratio from present optimum parameters are greatly advanced with minor decrease on the MRR (Material Removal Rate comparing to those from benchmark parameters. This study not only proposes a novel optimization technique using GRA, but also contributes the satisfactory solution for multiple CNC turning objectives with profound insight.

  3. Implicit Memory for Object Locations Depends on Reactivation of Encoding-Related Brain Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Manelis, Anna; Hanson, Catherine; Hanson, Stephen José

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the correspondence between implicit memory and the reactivation of encoding-related brain regions. By using a classification method, we examined whether reactivation reflects only the similarities between study and test or voxels at the reactivated regions are diagnostic of facilitation in the implicit memory task. A simple detection task served as incidental encoding of object–location pairings. A subsequent visual search task served as the indirect (implicit) test of mem...

  4. Field-Testing Reusable Learning Objects Related to Sensory Over-Responsiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan M. Gee; Kiersten Moholy; Kimberly Lloyd; Anthony Seikel

    2015-01-01

    Background. There is an increased need for dynamic, mobile, and relevant parent and caregiver education related to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and Sensory Processing (SP). This need may be due to the increased incidence of the conditions’ co-morbidity and the revision of the diagnostic criteria of ASD. Reusable learning objects (RLOs) have been implemented as instructional tools as a part of, or adjunct to, formal health care education programs. However, there is a lack of kno...

  5. An atlas of optical spectra of DZ white dwarfs and related objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An atlas of optical spectra and equivalent width measurements for DZ stars and several related objects is described. These data should improve abundance measurements for Ca/He, Mg/He, and Fe/He in these stars and provide tests for calculations of accretion, diffusion, and radiative transfer in white-dwarf atmospheres. Also reported is the possible detection of He I (3888-A) in three DZ white dwarfs, 0246 + 735, 1705 + 030, and 2215 + 388. 25 refs

  6. Epidemiological perspectives on sleep : health-related outcomes and subjective-objective sleep assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Westerlund, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This thesis aimed to expand knowledge about self-reported habitual sleep in relation to health outcomes and objectively measured sleep. Study I was a cross-sectional analysis of 40,197 Swedish adult volunteers participating in the National March, a fundraising event for the Swedish Cancer Society held in 1997. We compared the entire distribution of BMI between subjects with different sleep patterns. Relative to those who reported 6–8 h or good-quality sleep, the upper tail of the BMI di...

  7. The syntactic complexity of Russian relative clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Roger; Fedorenko, Evelina; Gibson, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Although syntactic complexity has been investigated across dozens of studies, the available data still greatly underdetermine relevant theories of processing difficulty. Memory-based and expectation-based theories make opposite predictions regarding fine-grained time course of processing difficulty in syntactically constrained contexts, and each class of theory receives support from results on some constructions in some languages. Here we report four self-paced reading experiments on the onli...

  8. Reduced object related negativity response indicates impaired auditory scene analysis in adults with autistic spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veema Lodhia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Auditory Scene Analysis provides a useful framework for understanding atypical auditory perception in autism. Specifically, a failure to segregate the incoming acoustic energy into distinct auditory objects might explain the aversive reaction autistic individuals have to certain auditory stimuli or environments. Previous research with non-autistic participants has demonstrated the presence of an Object Related Negativity (ORN in the auditory event related potential that indexes pre-attentive processes associated with auditory scene analysis. Also evident is a later P400 component that is attention dependent and thought to be related to decision-making about auditory objects. We sought to determine whether there are differences between individuals with and without autism in the levels of processing indexed by these components. Electroencephalography (EEG was used to measure brain responses from a group of 16 autistic adults, and 16 age- and verbal-IQ-matched typically-developing adults. Auditory responses were elicited using lateralized dichotic pitch stimuli in which inter-aural timing differences create the illusory perception of a pitch that is spatially separated from a carrier noise stimulus. As in previous studies, control participants produced an ORN in response to the pitch stimuli. However, this component was significantly reduced in the participants with autism. In contrast, processing differences were not observed between the groups at the attention-dependent level (P400. These findings suggest that autistic individuals have difficulty segregating auditory stimuli into distinct auditory objects, and that this difficulty arises at an early pre-attentive level of processing.

  9. Prefrontal and striatal activity related to values of objects and locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DaeyeolLee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The value of an object acquired by a particular action often determines the motivation to produce that action. Previous studies found neural signals related to the values of different objects or goods in the orbitofrontal cortex, while the values of outcomes expected from different actions are broadly represented in multiple brain areas implicated in movement planning. However, how the brain combines the values associated with various objects and the information about their locations is not known. In this study, we tested whether the neurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and striatum in rhesus monkeys might contribute to translating the value signals between multiple frames of reference. Monkeys were trained to perform an oculomotor intertemporal choice in which the color of a saccade target and the number of its surrounding dots signaled the magnitude of reward and its delay, respectively. In both DLPFC and striatum, temporally discounted values associated with specific target colors and locations were encoded by partially overlapping populations of neurons. In the DLPFC, the information about reward delays and temporally discounted values of rewards available from specific target locations emerged earlier than the corresponding signals for target colors. Similar results were reproduced by a simple network model built to compute temporally discounted values of rewards in different locations. Therefore, DLPFC might play an important role in estimating the values of different actions by combining the previously learned values of objects and their present locations.

  10. Simple Ontology of Manipulation Actions based on Hand-Object Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wörgötter, Florentin; Aksoy, E. E.

    2013-01-01

    Humans can perform a multitude of different actions with their hands (manipulations). In spite of this, so far there have been only a few attempts to represent manipulation types trying to understand the underlying principles. Here we first discuss how manipulation actions are structured in space and time. For this we use as temporal anchor points those moments where two objects (or hand and object) touch or un-touch each other during a manipulation. We show that by this one can define a relatively small tree-like manipulation ontology. We find less than 30 fundamental manipulations. The temporal anchors also provide us with information about when to pay attention to additional important information, for example when to consider trajectory shapes and relative poses between objects. As a consequence a highly condensed representation emerges by which different manipulations can be recognized and encoded. Examples of manipulations recognition and execution by a robot based on this representation are given at theend of this study.

  11. The Role of Objective Numeracy and Fluid Intelligence in Sex-Related Protective Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Nathan F; Peters, Ellen; Leon, Juan; Benavides, Martin; Baker, David P; Norris, Alison

    2015-01-01

    A wealth of studies has indicated that greater cognitive ability is related to healthier behaviors and outcomes throughout the lifespan. In the present paper, we focus on objective numeracy (ability with numbers) and present findings from a study conducted in the Peruvian Highlands that examines the relations among formal education, numeracy, other more general cognitive skills, and a sex-related protective behavior (condom use). Our results show a potential unique protective effect of numeracy on this healthprotective behavior even after accounting for measures of fluid intelligence and potential confounding factors. These results add to a growing literature highlighting the robust protective effect on health behaviors of greater cognitive skills that are enhanced through schooling. Challenges for future research will be identifying the causal mechanisms that underlie these effects and translating this knowledge into effective interventions for improving health. PMID:26149157

  12. Form and function in early clause-combining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustigman, Lyle; Berman, Ruth A

    2016-01-01

    The study characterizes developmental trends in early Hebrew clause-combining (CC) by analyzing the interplay between linguistic form and communicative function in different interactional settings. Analysis applied to all utterances produced by three children aged 2;0-3;0 who combined two or more clauses, either self-initiated or on the basis of adult input. Ten types of CC were analyzed for marking by connectives (e.g. the Hebrew equivalents of 'and', 'that', 'so'). Four shared consecutive developmental phases emerged: non-marking; partial marking by 'and' and 'that'; use of 'but' and 'because', favored significantly in interlocutor-supported contexts; marking of adverbial relations and more varied use of še- 'that'. These CC processes are interpreted as reflecting general properties of language development, in the form of gradually increasing specification of form-function relations under the impact of interlocutor-child interactive support combined with Hebrew-particular typological factors. PMID:25736699

  13. Simple Ontology of Manipulation Actions based on Hand-Object Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wörgötter, Florentin; Aksoy, E. E.; Krüger, Norbert; Piater, Justus; Ude, Ales; Tamosiunaite, M.

    2013-01-01

    Humans can perform a multitude of different actions with their hands (manipulations). In spite of this, so far there have been only a few attempts to represent manipulation types trying to understand the underlying principles. Here we first discuss how manipulation actions are structured in space...... and time. For this we use as temporal anchor points those moments where two objects (or hand and object) touch or un-touch each other during a manipulation. We show that by this one can define a relatively small tree-like manipulation ontology. We find less than 30 fundamental manipulations. The...... and encoded. Examples of manipulations recognition and execution by a robot based on this representation are given at the end of this study....

  14. International ultraviolet explorer spectral atlas of planetary nebulae, central stars, and related objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feibelman, Walter A.; Oliversen, Nancy A.; Nicholsbohlin, Joy; Garhart, Matthew P.

    1988-01-01

    The International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) archives contain a wealth of information on high quality ultraviolet spectra of approximately 180 planetary nebulae, their central stars, and related objects. Selected are representative low-dispersion IUE spectra in the range 1200 to 3200 A for 177 objects arranged by Right Ascension (RA) for this atlas. For most entries, the combined short wavelength (SWP) (1200to 1900) and long wavelength (LWR) (or LWP, 1900 to 3200 A) regions are shown on 30 cm by 10 cm Calcomp plots on a uniform scale to facilitate intercomparison of the spectra. Each calibrated spectrum is also shown on an expanded vertical scale to bring out some of the weaker features.

  15. Parts and Relations in Young Children's Shape-Based Object Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Elaine; Smith, Linda B.; Jones, Susan S.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to recognize common objects from sparse information about geometric shape emerges during the same period in which children learn object names and object categories. Hummel and Biederman's (1992) theory of object recognition proposes that the geometric shapes of objects have two components--geometric volumes representing major object…

  16. Disjunctive Interpolants for Horn-Clause Verification (Extended Technical Report)

    OpenAIRE

    Rümmer, Philipp; Hojjat, Hossein; Kuncak, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    One of the main challenges in software verification is efficient and precise compositional analysis of programs with procedures and loops. Interpolation methods remain one of the most promising techniques for such verification, and are closely related to solving Horn clause constraints. We introduce a new notion of interpolation, disjunctive interpolation, which solve a more general class of problems in one step compared to previous notions of interpolants, such as tree inte...

  17. Objectively measured daily physical activity related to cardiac size in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, M; Thorsson, O; Karlsson, M K; Lindén, C; Wollmer, P; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2009-01-01

    Training studies in children have suggested that endurance training can give enlargement of cardiac dimensions. This relationship has not been studied on a population-based level in young children with objective methods. A cross-sectional study was made of 248 children (140 boys and 108 girls...... that independent factors for LVDD, indexed for BSA for boys, were age and VPA. LA indexed for BSA was not related to physical activity variables in either gender. No clear relationship exists between cardiac size and daily physical activity in children aged 8-11 years. This suggests that significant...

  18. Using Object-Relational Mapping to Create the Distributed Databases in a Hybrid Cloud Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Lukyanchikov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges currently problems in the use of cloud services is the task of designing of data management systems. This is especially important for hybrid systems in which the data are located in public and private clouds. Implementation monitoring functions querying, scheduling and processing software must be properly implemented and is an integral part of the system. To provide these functions is proposed to use an object-relational mapping (ORM. The article devoted to presenting the approach of designing databases for information systems hosted in a hybrid cloud infrastructure. It also provides an example of the development of ORM library.

  19. Field-Testing Reusable Learning Objects Related to Sensory Over-Responsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan M. Gee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is an increased need for dynamic, mobile, and relevant parent and caregiver education related to autism spectrum disorders (ASD and Sensory Processing (SP. This need may be due to the increased incidence of the conditions’ co-morbidity and the revision of the diagnostic criteria of ASD. Reusable learning objects (RLOs have been implemented as instructional tools as a part of, or adjunct to, formal health care education programs. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the appropriateness of RLOs as a part of routine patient and caregiver instruction of children with ASD. Method. A semi-structured interview/rating scale was implemented among three practicing occupational therapists to ascertain their opinions regarding six prototype RLOs related to sensory processing for caregivers of children with ASD. Results. The participants’ perspectives revealed that the SP-based prototype RLOs were a viable and valuable option to be included as a resource for parents and caregivers of children with ASD. Conclusion. The findings of this study suggest that RLOs related to SP were valuable, especially related to their subject matter, accessibility, and reusability. Furthermore, the participants indirectly identified the strengths related to the foundational concepts of RLOs and how they could be applied to other therapeutic and behavioral topics for parents and caregivers of children with ASD.

  20. Formalized description of basic structure of representation of matrix universal object-relational databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklyaev Ivan Aleksandrovich

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A formal description of the relational structure of data representation (SRD is expanded by its foreign level, corresponding to a set of databases that allows simultaneous work with several matrix universal object-relational data-bases (MUORDB. In MUORDB the possibility of formation of complex units of information is realized, for this the fifth dimension has been set. This does not contradict the properties of atomicity of relational databases. The concept of MUORDB formation is based first on the layout of the relational SRD in a joint matrix structure, i.e. metadata are represented in the same form as substan-tive information relational SRD. In MUORDB the structure of the tuple is deep-ened by one dimension and its element is extended from two to five compo-nents: a reference to a field (attribute of the table, meaning, the boundaries of time of limited information relevance of the tuple element, the number of the parent element in the tuple, designed for tree-like structure of complex information unit. The fundamental step in creating a MUORDB database is to develop a universal data type. The value of the generic type is placed in a dynamic array of byte type, which hosted at the seventh dimension of the MUORDB matrix. Thus, the final seven-dimensional matrix, consisting of six dynamic arrays and the sixth static array responsible for the tuple element is obtained.

  1. Querying Uncertain Data in Geospatial Object-relational Databases Using SQL and Fuzzy Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ?ura?iová, R.

    2013-12-01

    This paper deals with uncertainty modeling in spatial object-relational databases by the use of Structured Query Language (SQL). The fundamental principles of uncertainty modeling by fuzzy sets are applied in the area of geographic information systems (GIS) and spatial databases. A spatial database system includes types of spatial data and implements the spatial extension of SQL. The implementation of the principles of fuzzy logic to spatial databases brings an opportunity for the efficient processing of uncertain data, which is important, especially when using various data sources (e.g., multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) on the basis of heterogeneous spatial data resources). The modeling and data processing of uncertainties are presented in relation to the applicable International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards (standards of the series 19100 Geographic information) and the relevant specifications of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The fuzzy spatial query approach is applied and tested on a case study with a fundamental database for GIS in Slovakia.

  2. A Comparative Study Between the Performance of Relational & Object Oriented Database in Data Warehousing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpa Suri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A data warehouse is a repository of subjectively selected and adapted operational data which cansuccessfully answer any ad hoc, statistical, complex or analytical queries. Data warehousing technology isbecoming essential for effective business intelligence, business strategy formulation and implementation ina globally competitive environment where in larger and larger amounts of data are required to beprocessed faster and faster for comprehension of its real meaning and impact. A warehouse is a subjectoriented,integrated, time-variant and non-volatile collection of data in support of management's decisionmaking process”. Data that gives information about a particular subject instead of about a company'songoing operations. It is integrated as data that is gathered into the data warehouse from a variety ofsources and merged into a coherent whole. Data warehouse system is time variant as all data in the datawarehouse is identified with a particular time period This paper discusses in detail two existing databasemodels used for data warehousing, the relational database and object oriented database and does ananalysis of the benefits of Object Oriented databases over the conventional relational database in Datawarehousing.

  3. 48 CFR 923.7003 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Renewable Energy Technologies, and Occupational...at 952.223-71, Integration of Environment, Safety...clause 952.223-71, Integration of Environment...952.223-71, Integration of Environment...and Other Classified Information and Protection...

  4. 48 CFR 1403.1004 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 1403.1004 Contract clause. (a) In all awards...

  5. 48 CFR 503.1004 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 503.1004 Contract clauses. (a) The FAR...

  6. 48 CFR 1223.303 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... The contracting officer shall insert the clause at (TAR) 48 CFR 1252.223-70, Removal or Disposal of... PROGRAMS ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY,...

  7. 48 CFR 8.1104 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...208-6, Marking of Leased Vehicles. (d) A clause substantially...208-7, Tagging of Leased Vehicles, for vehicles leased over 60 days (see subpart...contracts for supplies when a fixed-price contract is contemplated, but...

  8. Termination for Convenience Clauses and Good Faith

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Gray

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the legal validity of so-called termination for convenience clauses, which allow at least one party to the contract to terminate the contract without cause.  Such rights are in contrast to more traditional approaches to contractual termination, which distinguished between breaches of condition and breaches of warranty, allowing termination only for the former.  Specifically, it will be asked whether such termination for convenience clauses are consistent with requiremen...

  9. A COMPARISON OF THE TURKIC TYPE RELATIVE CLAUSE TYPOLOGY WITH JAPANESE, KOREAN AND HUNGRAIAN TYPOLOGIES TÜRK D?L? SIFAT-F??LL? YAPI T?POLOJ?S?N?N JAPON, KORE VE MACAR T?POLOJ?LER? ?LE KAR?ILA?TIRILMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat KARABULUT

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, we dealt with relative clause typologies in the world languages in general and Turkic Type Relative Clause typology in particular. By doing this, we compared Turkish relative clause construction with Japanese, Korean and Hungarian ones, which are all considered in Uralic and Altaic Language Family. In doing this, we made use of Chomskian theories called Generative-Transformational Grammar and Governement and Binding Thoery. As is known, Chomsky declared that all languages have the same typolgy in the Deep Structure. The changes among languages are witnessed in Surface Structure. There is a transformation between deep structure and surface structure. It means that, a noun pharse can be moved to another place leaving an empty place behind by constructing a chain between the empty place and its antecedents (moved element. When we compared Turkic type relative clause typology with Japanese, Korean and Hungarian, we amasingly saw that the strategies are the same in these langauges. Bu çal??mada, dünya dillerinde önemli bir yere sahip olan s?fat-fiilli yap?lar?n tipolojilerini inceledik. Bunu yapmaktaki amac?m?z, Türk Dili Tipi S?fat-fiilli Yap? tipolojinsin dünya dilleri aras?ndaki yerini tespit etmek ve benzer tipolojiler ile kar??la?t?rmakt?r. Türk dili ile akraba oldu?u varsay?lan Japon, Kore ve Macar dillerini, s?fat-fiil tipolojileri aç?s?nda analiz ederek Türk Dili Tipolojisi ile olan benzerlikleri ortaya koymaya çal??t?k. S?fat-fiil tipolojisini analiz ederken, Chomsky’nin Üretken-Dönü?ümlü Dil Bilgisi ve Yönetim ve Ba?lama Kuram?’ndan faydaland?k. Dilin yap?sal olarak incelenmesi gerekti?ini ileri süren Chomsky, derin yap? ve yüzey yap? kavramlar? ile ta??n?m ve dönü?ümün bütün diller için kaç?n?lmaz bir gerçeklik oldu?unu gösterdi. Biz de bu çal??mada ad öbe?i ta??n?m? ve bo?luk kuram? ?????nda, s?fat-fiilli yap? tipolojilerini kar??la?t?rmal? olarak ele ald?k ve Türk, Japon, Kore ve Macar dilleri aras?ndaki ?a??rt?c? benzerli?i, öbek yap? ve söz dizimi seviyesinde tespit ettik.

  10. Self-reported long sleep in older adults is closely related to objective time in bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Christopher E; Zielinski, Mark R; Devlin, Tina M; Kripke, Daniel F; Bogan, Richard K; Youngstedt, Shawn D

    2010-01-01

    Although self-reported long sleep is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, little is known about the objective sleep patterns and daytime functioning of long sleepers, particularly those aged ?50 years. Our primary aim was to compare the objective and subjective sleep patterns of a sample (n = 35) of middle- to older-aged adults who reported sleeping ?8.5 h per night. A secondary aim was to characterize the mood and functioning of the sample. Over a 2-week period, sleep was recorded via actigraphy and a daily diary. Sleepiness was assessed daily. At the conclusion of the 2-week period, daytime sleepiness, mood, and quality of life were assessed. Measures of sleep and functioning were compared with available representative data. In the sample, actigraphic total sleep time (TST; 7.35 ± 0.97 h) was approximately 60 min greater than age-related representative values but substantially less than diary-assessed TST (8.59 ± 0.74 h) and survey-assessed TST (8.92 ± 0.78 h). Survey and diary-based subjective TST assessments agreed more closely with actigraphic time in bed (TIB; 9.11 ± 0.72 h) than TST, and correlations between subjective TST and actigraphic TIB were similar to those between subjective and actigraphic TST. Measures of mood, sleepiness, and daytime functioning were similar to population-representative values. These results suggest that, among middle- to older-aged adults, self-reported long sleep is primarily indicative of long TIB, but it also represents long objective sleep duration, particularly in comparison to age-matched data. Findings of little functional impairment corroborated previous descriptions of older long sleepers. PMID:25210491

  11. Multi-objective optimal experimental designs for event-related fMRI studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ming-Hung; Mandal, Abhyuday; Lazar, Nicole; Stufken, John

    2009-02-01

    In this article, we propose an efficient approach to find optimal experimental designs for event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (ER-fMRI). We consider multiple objectives, including estimating the hemodynamic response function (HRF), detecting activation, circumventing psychological confounds and fulfilling customized requirements. Taking into account these goals, we formulate a family of multi-objective design criteria and develop a genetic-algorithm-based technique to search for optimal designs. Our proposed technique incorporates existing knowledge about the performance of fMRI designs, and its usefulness is shown through simulations. Although our approach also works for other linear combinations of parameters, we primarily focus on the case when the interest lies either in the individual stimulus effects or in pairwise contrasts between stimulus types. Under either of these popular cases, our algorithm outperforms the previous approaches. We also find designs yielding higher estimation efficiencies than m-sequences. When the underlying model is with white noise and a constant nuisance parameter, the stimulus frequencies of the designs we obtained are in good agreement with the optimal stimulus frequencies derived by Liu and Frank, 2004, NeuroImage 21: 387-400. In addition, our approach is built upon a rigorous model formulation. PMID:18948212

  12. Sensory Processing Relates to Attachment to Childhood Comfort Objects of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpidou, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The author tested the hypothesis that attachment to comfort objects is based on the sensory processing characteristics of the individual. Fifty-two undergraduate students with and without a childhood comfort object reported sensory responses and performed a tactile threshold task. Those with a comfort object described their object and rated their…

  13. Object Substitution Masking in Schizophrenia: An Event-Related Potential Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KristopherIanMathis

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia patients exhibit deficits on visual processing tasks, including visual backward masking, and these impairments are related to deficits in higher-level processes. In the current study we used electroencephalography techniques to examine successive stages and pathways of visual processing in a specialized masking paradigm, four-dot masking, which involves masking by object substitution. Seventy-six schizophrenia patients and 66 healthy controls had event-related potentials (ERPs recorded during four-dot masking. Target visibility was manipulated by changing stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA between the target and mask, such that performance decreased with increasing SOA. Three SOAs were used: 0, 50, and 100 ms. The P100 and N100 perceptual ERPs were examined. Additionally, the visual awareness negativity (VAN to correct vs. incorrect responses, an index of reentrant processing, was examined for SOAs 50 and 100 ms. Results showed that patients performed worse than controls on the behavioral task across all SOAs. The ERP results revealed that patients had significantly smaller P100 and N100 amplitudes, though there was no effect of SOA on either component in either group. In healthy controls, but not patients, N100 amplitude correlated significantly with behavioral performance at SOAs where masking occurred, such that higher accuracy correlated with a larger N100. Healthy controls, but not patients, exhibited a larger VAN to correct vs. incorrect responses. The results indicate that the N100 appears to be related to attentional effort in the task in controls, but not patients. Considering that the VAN is thought to reflect reentrant processing, one interpretation of the findings is that patients’ lack of VAN response and poorer performance may be related to dysfunctional reentrant processing.

  14. On the nature of escapable relative islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj; Nyvad, Anne Mette

    2014-01-01

    It is generally assumed that universal island constraints block extraction from relative clauses. However, it is well-known that such extractions can be acceptable in the Scandinavian languages. Kush & Lindahl (2011) argue that the acceptability in Swedish is illusory; relative clauses that allow extraction have a different structure (small clause structure) from those that block extraction (true relatives, CPs). We present data from an acceptability survey of relative clause extraction in Danis...

  15. Reasoning about Object Capabilities with Logical Relations and Effect Parametricity : Technical Report including Proofs and Details

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devriese, Dominique; Piessens, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Object capabilities are a model for fine-grained privilege separation in programming languages and systems. However,formal characterisations of the model do not fully capturecapability-safety of a programming language and are not sufficient for verifying typical uses of the model. Using state-of-the-art techniques from programming languages research, we define a logical relation for a core calculus of JavaScript that better characterises capability-safety. The relation is powerful enough to reason about typical capability patterns and supports evolvable invariants on shared data structures, capabilities with restricted authority over them and isolated components with restricted communication channels. We use a novel notion of effect parametricity to support deriving properties about primitive effects. We demonstrate that it implies access bound properties that have previously been used to characterise capability-safety. This is a technical report accompanying a paper by the same title, whichcontains an additional section about a binary version of our results, as well as proofs and details for our results

  16. Legal briefing: conscience clauses and conscientious refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to conscience clauses and conscientious refusal. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it has also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions. Over the past several months, conscientious refusal disputes have had an unusually high profile not only in courthouses, but also in legislative and regulatory halls across the United States. Healthcare providers' own moral beliefs have been obstructing and are expected to increasingly obstruct patients' access to medical services. For example, some providers, on ethical or moral grounds, have denied: (1) sterilization procedures to pregnant patients, (2) pain medications in end-of-life situations, and (3) information about emergency contraception to rape victims. On the other hand, many healthcare providers have been forced to provide medical treatment that is inconsistent with their moral beliefs. There are two fundamental types of conscientious objection laws. First, there are laws that permit healthcare workers to refuse providing - on ethical, moral, or religious grounds healthcare services that they might otherwise have a legal or employer-mandated obligation to provide. Second, there are laws directed at forcing healthcare workers to provide services to which they might have ethical, moral, or religious objections. Both types of laws are rarely comprehensive, but instead target: (1) certain types of healthcare providers, (2) specific categories of healthcare services, (3) specific patient circumstances, and (4) certain conditions under which a right or obligation is triggered. For the sake of clarity, I have grouped recent legal developments concerning conscientious refusal into eight categories: 1. Abortion: right to refuse 2. Abortion: duty to provide 3. Contraception: right to refuse 4. Contraception: duty to provide 5. Sterilization: right to refuse 6. Fertility, HIV, vaccines, counseling 7. End-of-life measures: right to refuse 8. Comprehensive laws: right to refuse. PMID:20866024

  17. The Use of the Rorschach Inkblot Test in the Assessment of Object Relations: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Hope Lynette

    Research in how the Rorschach Inkblot Test has been utilized in the assessment of object relations is reviewed. The review includes a critical examination of six areas: (1) constructs and concepts of object-relations theory represented in the research; (2) relevant Rorschach history and history; (3) characteristics of Rorschach-based,…

  18. Positioning and Relating: Market Boundaries and the Slippery Identity of the Marketing Object

    OpenAIRE

    Finch, John; Geiger, Susi

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel perspective on positioning by identifying goods and services first as market objects and then as marketing objects. As part of their normal marketing activities marketers position market objects and thereby provide means for other market actors to evaluate differences and similarities across an array of goods and services. Hence, marketers help disentangle goods and services in a market space, so formatting them as market objects. At the same time, marketers tend to make...

  19. 48 CFR 52.301 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). 52.301 Section 52.301 Federal...CONTRACT CLAUSES Provision and Clause Matrix 52.301 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). Note: The FAR matrix is...

  20. 48 CFR 1352.301 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). 1352.301 Section 1352.301...CONTRACT CLAUSES Provisions and Clauses Matrix 1352.301 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). ER08MR10.000...

  1. Bi-Objective Optimization Based on Compromise Method for Horizontal Fragmentation in Relational Data Warehouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Barr

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Generally, research that dealt with the selection problems for optimization techniques or structures in relational data ware houses supports these problems by considering only a single criterion of optimization. The optimization criteria may be the response time of query execution, the number of inputs/outputs between the main memory and the disk, the space allocated to store the index or materialized views, or the number fragments required by the administrator of the data warehouse when using the fragmentation technique. The present work deals with the problem of selecting the horizontal fragmentation technique while considering both the number of I/O between memory and disk during decisional queries and the number of fragments, as two objective functions to minimize. To reduce the scope of choice solutions, we are based on a scalar method, called compromise method. The method is complemented by the principle of Pareto front to infer the best solutions. The study has been experimented on APB1 benchmark of data warehouse.

  2. Representing Objects using Global 3D Relational Features for Recognition Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Wail

    2015-01-01

    In robotic systems, visual interpretations of the environment compose an essential element in a variety of applications, especially those involving manipulation of objects. Interpreting the environment is often done in terms of recognition of objects using machine learning approaches. For user...... representations. For representing objects, we derive global descriptors encoding shape using viewpoint-invariant features obtained from multiple sensors observing the scene. Objects are also described using color independently. This allows for combining color and shape when it is required for the task. For more...... initiate higher-level semantic interpretations of complex scenes. In the object category recognition task, we present a system that is capable of assigning multiple and nested categories for novel objects using a method developed for this purpose. Integrating this method with other multi-label learning...

  3. The Hilbert space of conditional clauses

    CERN Document Server

    Francis, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Context. The well known problems of interpretation of quantum mechanics mean that physical law lacks physical basis. Aims. To abstract the formalism of quantum mechanics from assertions about the world with clear physical meaning. Methods. Kets are defined as conditional clauses referring to measurements in a formal language. It is seen that these clauses are elements of a Hilbert space, such that addition is logical disjunction, the dual space consists of consequent clauses, and the inner product is a set of statements in the subjunctive mood. The probability interpretation gives truth values for corresponding future tense statements when the initial state is prepared and the final state is to be measured. Results. The mathematical structure of quantum mechanics is formulated in terms of discrete measurement results at finite level of accuracy and does not depend on an assumption of a substantive, or background, spacetime continuum. A continuum of kets, |x> for x in R^3, is constructed from linear combinatio...

  4. Representing Objects using Global 3D Relational Features for Recognition Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Wail

    2015-01-01

    In robotic systems, visual interpretations of the environment compose an essential element in a variety of applications, especially those involving manipulation of objects. Interpreting the environment is often done in terms of recognition of objects using machine learning approaches. For user acceptance, the recognition must be reliable and the learning must be fast, i.e. only few number of training samples should be used. In this thesis, a framework utilized in three recognition tasks is presented. The framework uses a combination of effective learning algorithms and strong visual representations. For representing objects, we derive global descriptors encoding shape using viewpoint-invariant features obtained from multiple sensors observing the scene. Objects are also described using color independently. This allows for combining color and shape when it is required for the task. For more robust color description, color calibration is performed. The framework was used in three recognition tasks: object instance recognition, object category recognition, and object spatial relationship recognition. For the object instance recognition task, we present a system that utilizes color and scale-variant shape representations. We achieve both high performance and learning efficiency. The learning efficiency is expressed in terms of scalability to many objects while requiring only a few training samples. The system has also been applied in real-world application in which its reliability allowed to initiate higher-level semantic interpretations of complex scenes. In the object category recognition task, we present a system that is capable of assigning multiple and nested categories for novel objects using a method developed for this purpose. Integrating this method with other multi-label learning approaches is also investigated. The system uses a scale-invariant shape representation and it is shown to outperform a state-of-the-art method particularly when a few samples are used for training. Both systems are benchmarked using a multi-view object dataset of 100 objects specially created for this purpose. Finally, we show that, by defining global descriptors between objects, the framework can be extended to perform recognition of object spatial relationships. In this task, we show that we can achieve high recognition performance for a number of relationships of objects in a simulated environment.

  5. 48 CFR 3.907-7 - Contract Clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Whistleblower Protections for Contractor Employees 3.907-7 Contract Clause. Use the clause at 52.203-15, Whistleblower Protections Under the American Recovery and...

  6. 48 CFR 514.201-7 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 514.201-7 Section 514.201-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 514.201-7 Contract clauses. Stock...

  7. Material Adverse Effect Clause – Proper Legal Work or Contribution to False Sense of Security?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Regardless of whether you are a buyer or a seller, and regardless what the object of the contract is, it is essentially important that you seek to protect your rights through various clauses that must aim to provide clearness to contractual obligations, defini- tions of breach, and consequences t...

  8. On the relation between atmospheric and internal motions in an astrophysical object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equations of the flow of a perfect fluid in a relativistic spacetime are considered, as well as their first-order approximations when the velocity is small as compared with the speed of light. In particular we study how frame-dragging effects in the atmosphere of a massive object may yield some clues as to the motion of fluids within the object

  9. The Object-Based Simon Effect: Grasping Affordance or Relative Location of the Graspable Part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dongbin; Proctor, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Reaction time is often shorter when the irrelevant graspable handle of an object corresponds with the location of a keypress response to the relevant attribute than when it does not. This object-based Simon effect has been attributed to an affordance for grasping the handle with the hand to the same side. Because a grasping affordance should…

  10. Issues Related to Measuring and Interpreting Objectively Measured Sedentary Behavior Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Xanne; Cliff, Dylan P.

    2015-01-01

    The use of objective measures of sedentary behavior has increased over the past decade; however, as is the case for objectively measured physical activity, methodological decisions before and after data collection are likely to influence the outcomes. The aim of this article is to review the evidence on different methodological decisions made by…

  11. THE UNPREDICTABILITY CLAUSE IN TRANSPORT CONTRACTS, ACCORDING TO THE NEW CIVIL CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Elena BELU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Until the enforcement of the highly controversial transport law, transport companies must already observe the provisions of the new Civil Code1 in their transport business. One of the novelties in the new Civil Code, that came into force on October 1, 2011, refers to the unpredictability clause: recurring to this clause, in certain situations to be precisely analysed by courts, parties may even be exempted from certain contractual obligations, when the court decides to rescind the contract based on objective criteria, not imputable to the party that no longer can properly fulfil the obligations that had been undertaken when the contract had been made. However, this solution only is provided after all means of negotiation and mediation between parties are exhausted. The clause meets current market requirements, under which many companies have to deal with bad paying partners.

  12. Signaling Elaboration: Combining French Gerund Clauses with Lexical Cohesion Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Vergez-Couret

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the Elaboration relation and on its automatic identification in French, using the theoretical framework of Segmented Discourse Representation Theory (SDRT. One of the information sources identified by the SDRT framework to infer the Elaboration relation is based on the existence of a potential subsumption link between the eventualities at stake, depending on lexical semantics and world knowledge. We investigate this claim by combining a weak syntactic marker of the Elaboration relation, namely the gerund clause, with lexical cohesion cues. We aim at automatically identifying gerund clauses which are Elaborations by finding cohesive links between the host main clause and the gerund clause. This approach makes it possible to accurately detect few cases of intra-sentential Elaborations in our corpus, confirming the fact that lexical cohesion cues are relevant for this task.Dans cet article, nous nous focalisons sur la relation d’Élaboration en français, telle qu’elle est décrite dans le modèle théorique de la SDRT (Segmented Discourse Representation Theory, et sur son identification automatique. Selon la SDRT, une des sources d’information permettant d’inférer la relation d’Élaboration est basée sur l’existence d’un lien de subsomption entre les types des éventualités des segments à relier, indiquant que le type de la seconde éventualité est un sous-type de celui de la première dans la sémantique lexicale des éventualités ou grâce à des connaissances du monde. Nous proposons de contribuer à cette question en combinant un indice de la relation d’Élaboration, i. e. la construction syntaxique du gérondif, et des indices de cohésion lexicale. Notre objectif est d’identifier automatiquement des propositions gérondives qui sont des Élaborations en repérant des indices de cohésion lexicale entre la proposition principale et la proposition gérondive. Cette approche permet de détecter avec précision des cas d’Élaboration dans notre corpus, validant le fait que les indices de cohésion lexicale sont pertinents pour cette tâche.

  13. 48 CFR 1852.227-84 - Patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Patent rights clauses. 1852... 1852.227-84 Patent rights clauses. The contracting officer shall insert the following provision as prescribed in 1827.303-70(e): Patent Rights Clauses (DEC 1989) This solicitation contains the patent...

  14. 48 CFR 241.501 - Solicitation provision and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation provision and contract clauses. 241.501 Section 241.501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Solicitation Provision and Contract Clauses 241.501 Solicitation provision and contract clauses. (d)(1) Use...

  15. 48 CFR 541.501 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and contract clauses. 541.501 Section 541.501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES... 541.501 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. In addition to the solicitation terms, provisions and contract clauses at FAR 41.501(c), the contracting officer shall include the following...

  16. A Survey of Health Management User Objectives Related to Diagnostic and Prognostic Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Kevin R.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Poll, Scott D.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most prominent technical challenges to effective deployment of health management systems is the vast difference in user objectives with respect to engineering development. In this paper, a detailed survey on the objectives of different users of health management systems is presented. These user objectives are then mapped to the metrics typically encountered in the development and testing of two main systems health management functions: diagnosis and prognosis. Using this mapping, the gaps between user goals and the metrics associated with diagnostics and prognostics are identified and presented with a collection of lessons learned from previous studies that include both industrial and military aerospace applications.

  17. Object-relations in maltreated and abused children assessed with the Rorschach inkblots and the Mutuality of Autonomy Scale (Urist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Rivera Carpio

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to observe the quality of the object-relations in maltreated and institutionalized boys and girls, assessed with the Rorschach inkblots and the Mutuality of AutonomyScale (MOA of Urist. The participants were 23 children of both sexes, aged 8 to 10,who had been maltreated in their household and were institutionalized in an orphanage. The results showed that both tools reflect object-relations well. There are significant differences, depending on the sex, time of Separation from their maternal figure and the type of maltreatment they received. Furthermore, the children represent more adaptative, conventional and positive object relations what is related with their resources.

  18. Knee Confidence as it Relates to Self-Reported and Objective Correlates of Knee Osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Søren T; Rasmussen, Sten; Simonsen, Ole; Roos, Ewa M

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Objective The objective was to validate, if possible, previously reported associations and to investigate other potential associations between knee confidence and various self-reported and objective measures in an independent cohort of patients with knee...... osteoarthritis (OA). Background Lack of knee confidence is a frequent symptom in patients with knee OA, but little is known of associations between knee confidence and other common correlates of knee OA. Methods Baseline data from 220 patients with knee OA were applied in ordinal regression analyses, with knee...... confidence, assessed using item Q3 of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, as the dependent variable and self-reported (pain on walking, general health, fear of movement, self-efficacy, function, and previous serious injury) and objective measures (muscle strength, 20-m walk time, and...

  19. Detecting Moving Objects in Noisy Radar Data Using a Relational Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrend, Andreas; Manthey, Rainer; Schüller, Gereon; Wieneke, Monika

    In moving object databases, many authors assume that number and position of objects to be processed are always known in advance. Detecting an unknown moving object and pursuing its movement, however, is usually left to tracking algorithms outside the database in which the sensor data needed is actually stored. In this paper we present a solution to the problem of efficiently detecting targets over sensor data from a radar system based on database techniques. To this end, we implemented the recently developed probabilistic multiple hypothesis tracking approach using materialized SQL views and techniques for their incremental maintenance. We present empirical measurements showing that incremental evaluation techniques are indeed well-suited for efficiently detecting and tracking moving objects from a high-frequency stream of sensor data in this particular context. Additionally, we show how to efficiently simulate the aggregate function product which is fundamental for combining independent probabilistic values but unsupported by the SQL standard, yet.

  20. Applying the Food Safety Objective and related concepts to thermal inactivation of Salmonella in poultry meat

    OpenAIRE

    Membré, J. M.; Bassett, J.; Gorris, L.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the practicality of designing a heat treatment process in a food manufacturing operation for a product governed by a Food Safety Objective (FSO). Salmonella in cooked poultry meat was taken as the working example. Although there is no FSO for this product in current legislation, this may change in the (near) future. Four different process design calculations were explored by means of deterministic and probabilistic approaches to mathematical data...

  1. Crossmodal neuroimaging of object-related integration in subcortical structures of the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J Naumer

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on invasive electrophysiology it has been recently hypothesized that in addition to the superior colliculus (SC further subcortical structures (i.e. the cerebellum, the thalamus, and the basal ganglia might play a critical role in multisensory integration. So far, however, non-invasive evidence in humans for such subcortical involvement is almost completely lacking. In a series of fMRI experiments, we first searched for visuo-tactile (VT integration regions employing the so-called Max-criterion (VT>max[V, T], while we manipulated the side of active touch (left vs. right hand and the degree of VT (orientation or identity congruency. The results showed robust, bilateral VT integration effects in the lateral cerebellum that were substantially more pronounced during stimulation of the ipsilateral as compared to the contralateral hand and independent of VT congruency or the type of stimulus material (i.e familiar natural versus unfamiliar artificial. Additional tests for audio-visuo-tactile (AVT integration in this region showed no significant effects indicating that the role of the lateral cerebellum might be specific to VT integration. In complementary analyses of these fMRI data sets we employed spatial independent component analysis (sICA. SICA is a multivariate, data-driven analysis technique that decomposes fMRI data into spatially independent components, which can be interpreted as functional connectivity maps. Selection of components of interest for further analysis was done by visual inspection. Among the task-related independent components (ICs of the AVT experiment three apparently unisensory ICs were most robustly detected. Each of these ICs suggested a network of functionally connected cortical and subcortical regions processing auditory, visual, and somatosensory-motor information, respectively. Combining these IC-maps provided a surprisingly clear parcellation of the sensorimotor thalamus in its medial geniculate (MGN, lateral geniculate (LGN, and ventral posterior (VPN nuclei. The same subjects also participated in two independent audio-visual (AV and VT experiments. These data enabled explicit testing of the hypothesized thalamic involvement in multisensory integration. Our results indicate AV integration effects (Max-criterion: AV>max[A, V] in bilateral MGN (but not LGN and similar VT integration effects in both LGN and VPN. Interestingly, these latter effects were only detectable when our subjects grasped the objects with their non-dominant (left hand, which suggests that VT integration effects in distinct nuclei of the human thalamus are most pronounced when unimodal (haptic stimulation is least effective, in accordance with the inverse-effectiveness rule.

  2. Low Quality Natural Gas Sulfur Removal and Recovery CNG Claus Sulfur Recovery Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klint, V.W.; Dale, P.R.; Stephenson, C.

    1997-10-01

    Increased use of natural gas (methane) in the domestic energy market will force the development of large non-producing gas reserves now considered to be low quality. Large reserves of low quality natural gas (LQNG) contaminated with hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen (N) are available but not suitable for treatment using current conventional gas treating methods due to economic and environmental constraints. A group of three technologies have been integrated to allow for processing of these LQNG reserves; the Controlled Freeze Zone (CFZ) process for hydrocarbon / acid gas separation; the Triple Point Crystallizer (TPC) process for H{sub 2}S / C0{sub 2} separation and the CNG Claus process for recovery of elemental sulfur from H{sub 2}S. The combined CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus group of processes is one program aimed at developing an alternative gas treating technology which is both economically and environmentally suitable for developing these low quality natural gas reserves. The CFZ/TPC/CNG Claus process is capable of treating low quality natural gas containing >10% C0{sub 2} and measurable levels of H{sub 2}S and N{sub 2} to pipeline specifications. The integrated CFZ / CNG Claus Process or the stand-alone CNG Claus Process has a number of attractive features for treating LQNG. The processes are capable of treating raw gas with a variety of trace contaminant components. The processes can also accommodate large changes in raw gas composition and flow rates. The combined processes are capable of achieving virtually undetectable levels of H{sub 2}S and significantly less than 2% CO in the product methane. The separation processes operate at pressure and deliver a high pressure (ca. 100 psia) acid gas (H{sub 2}S) stream for processing in the CNG Claus unit. This allows for substantial reductions in plant vessel size as compared to conventional Claus / Tail gas treating technologies. A close integration of the components of the CNG Claus process also allow for use of the methane/H{sub 2}S separation unit as a Claus tail gas treating unit by recycling the CNG Claus tail gas stream. This allows for virtually 100 percent sulfur recovery efficiency (virtually zero SO{sub 2} emissions) by recycling the sulfur laden tail gas to extinction. The use of the tail gas recycle scheme also deemphasizes the conventional requirement in Claus units to have high unit conversion efficiency and thereby make the operation much less affected by process upsets and feed gas composition changes. The development of these technologies has been ongoing for many years and both the CFZ and the TPC processes have been demonstrated at large pilot plant scales. On the other hand, prior to this project, the CNG Claus process had not been proven at any scale. Therefore, the primary objective of this portion of the program was to design, build and operate a pilot scale CNG Claus unit and demonstrate the required fundamental reaction chemistry and also demonstrate the viability of a reasonably sized working unit.

  3. Proposed Framework wWhich Use the Object Oriented Principles in Relational Systems. General Aspects and Principles (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin STRIMBEI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are some significant theoretical and technological approaches on the issue of object-relational "impedance mismatch" between applications' abstract model and database structures. Two characteristics of those approaches we think that are questionable: first of all it is so called “flat” nature of relational systems and model, and then there is the drawback of the storage of (object oriented semantics on the application level, thus severe limiting the data (object sharing and, at the same time, virtually broking the data independence principle of database systems architecture. In this paper we will try to outline an approach to address to some in a concrete manner.

  4. 21 CFR 26.21 - Safeguard clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Safeguard clause. 26.21 Section 26.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS, AND CERTAIN MEDICAL DEVICE PRODUCT...

  5. 12 CFR 966.10 - Savings clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings clause. 966.10 Section 966.10 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK LIABILITIES CONSOLIDATED OBLIGATIONS § 966.10... obligations of the Banks....

  6. 15 CFR 8.5 - Nondiscrimination clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nondiscrimination clause. 8.5 Section 8.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY..., color, or national origin; (ii) notify each labor union or representative of workers with which it has...

  7. Licensing Revisited: Open Access Clauses in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Schmidt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Open access increases the visibility and use of research outputs and promises to maximize the return on our public investment in research. However, only a minority of researchers will "spontaneously" deposit their articles into an open access repository. Even with the growing number of institutional and funding agency mandates requiring the deposit of papers into the university repository, deposit rates have remained stubbornly low. As a result, the responsibility for populating repositories often falls onto the shoulders of library staff and/or repository managers. Populating repositories in this way – which involves obtaining the articles, checking the rights, and depositing articles into the repository – is time consuming and resource intensive work.The Confederation of Open Access Repositories (COAR, a global association of repository initiatives and networks, is promoting a new strategy for addressing some of the barriers to populating repositories, involving the use of open access archiving clauses in publisher licenses. These types of clauses are being considered by consortia and licensing agencies around the world as a way of ensuring that all the papers published by a given publisher are cleared for deposit into the institutional repository. This paper presents some use cases of open access archiving clauses, discusses the major barriers to implementing archiving language into licenses, and describes some strategies that organizations can adopt in order to include such clauses into publisher licenses.

  8. Rights granted in the habendum clause

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, P.W. [Evans Higa Burgess, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    The habendum clause sets out the conditions for the continuance of a petroleum or natural gas lease during the primary term and during the events or circumstances which will continue the lease beyond the primary term. This paper describes the rights granted in the habendum clause. Typical older forms of freehold leases are compared with the model lease form and with the 1991 form of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Landmen (CAPL) Petroleum and Natural Gas lease. These comparisons were made in an effort to analyse the changes in the nature of the rights granted in the habendum clause. The most significant change is that the 1991 CAPL lease form avoids the `unless` pitfalls of older forms by creating firstly the `drill or pay` form of habendum clause, and by introducing the alternatives of paying either a lump sum one time rental or a periodic rental payment. The effect of these changes is that failure to make timely payments does not result in automatic termination of the lease, but rather one which must be made subject of a default notice by the lessor to the lessee.12 refs.

  9. Rights granted in the habendum clause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The habendum clause sets out the conditions for the continuance of a petroleum or natural gas lease during the primary term and during the events or circumstances which will continue the lease beyond the primary term. This paper describes the rights granted in the habendum clause. Typical older forms of freehold leases are compared with the model lease form and with the 1991 form of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Landmen (CAPL) Petroleum and Natural Gas lease. These comparisons were made in an effort to analyse the changes in the nature of the rights granted in the habendum clause. The most significant change is that the 1991 CAPL lease form avoids the 'unless' pitfalls of older forms by creating firstly the 'drill or pay' form of habendum clause, and by introducing the alternatives of paying either a lump sum one time rental or a periodic rental payment. The effect of these changes is that failure to make timely payments does not result in automatic termination of the lease, but rather one which must be made subject of a default notice by the lessor to the lessee.12 refs

  10. 48 CFR 227.303 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... experimental, developmental, or research work if— (A) The contractor is other than a small business concern or nonprofit organization; and (B) No alternative patent rights clause is used in accordance with FAR 27.303(c... foreign governments or international organizations pursuant to any existing or future treaty or...

  11. 48 CFR 1403.1004 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 1403.1004 Section 1403.1004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct...

  12. 48 CFR 503.1004 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 503.1004 Section 503.1004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct...

  13. Why the formal relational data model can be considered as a basis of object-oriented systems

    CERN Document Server

    Grigoriev, Evgeniy

    2007-01-01

    Relational data model defines a specification of a unique type "relation." However, its simplicity does not mean that the system implementing this model must operate with structures which are simple to the same degree only. We consider two principles, which allow one to combine object-oriented paradigm (OOP) and relational data model (RDM) in the framework of the unique system without breaking the formalism of the latter model. The first principle -- "data complexity in encapsulated domains" -- is well known from The Third Manifesto by Date and Darwen. The second principle --"data complexity in names"-- is the basis for a system where data are described as arbitrarily complex objects and may be uniquely represented as a set of relations. Names of these relations and names of their attributes are combinations of names entered in specifications of the complex objects. Below, we consider the main properties of such a system.

  14. Is the Movement Deficit in Syntactic SLI Related to Traces or to Thematic Role Transfer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, N.; Novogrodsky, R.

    2007-01-01

    Children with Syntactic Specific Language Impairment (S-SLI) have difficulties understanding object relative clauses, which have been ascribed to a deficit in syntactic movement. The current study explores the nature of the deficit in movement, and specifically whether it is related to a deficit in the construction of syntactic structure and…

  15. Variability of Extragalactic Objects in Relation to Redshift, Color, Radio Spectral Index and Absorption Lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D. Basu

    2001-12-01

    Optical variability of extragalactic objects, viz., QSOs, BL Lacs and Seyfert galaxies has been monitored systematically over an appreciable period of time and a large amount of data have accumulated. The present work reports results of investigations involving statistical analysis of updated data on relationships between variability and various observed properties of the objects, viz., redshift, color indices, radio spectral index and absorption lines. It is found that at high frequencies (rest frame) radio spectral index does not change significantly with the degree of variability. However, the degree of variability depends on redshifts. On the other hand, presence or absence of absorption lines is significantly associated with variability for QSOs with larger redshifts ( > 1.0), while no such relationship exists for QSOs at smaller redshifts ( < 1.0 or other objects. Correlation between color indices and redshifts depends on the degree of variability and the sample chosen for the color index.

  16. Local tests of general relativity with Gaia and solar system objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestroffer, D.; David, P.; Hees, A.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.

    2015-08-01

    The Gaia mission has been launched by ESA on 2013 December, 19. It aims to survey, in addition to stars, a large number of solar system objects (SSO). Hence, Gaia will provide during its 5 years mission high precision astrometry in an absolute reference frame of about 300 000 asteroids, including many Near-Earth Objects. The very precise orbits Gaia will provide, will enable to determine simultaneously the solar J2 and the PPN parameter beta and other parameters for testing the GR. Improvement from combining Gaia and radar data are also expected.

  17. Objective and Subjective Responses to Low Relative Humidity in an Office Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagercrantz, Love Per; Wyon, David; Meyer, H. W.; Prause, J. U.; Fang, Lei; Clausen, Geo; Sundell, Jan

    and objective (clinical) measurements were applied. The following effects of increased humidity were significant, though small: the air was evaluated as less dry (though still on the dry side of neutral), eyes smarted less (by 10% of full scale) eye irritation decreased (by 11%), symptoms of dry...

  18. Subjective Poverty and Its Relation to Objective Poverty Concepts in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandori, Eszter Siposne

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes subjective poverty in Hungary and compares it to the objective poverty concepts. Subjective poverty is defined by examining who people consider to be poor. Based on the Easterlin paradox, the initial hypothesis states that subjective and absolute poverty concepts are highly correlated. Taking into account that Hungary is a…

  19. Post-Modernist Objects: A Relation between the Past and Present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurmuehlen, Marilyn

    1992-01-01

    Examines postmodernist art and its impact on architecture and visual art in the United States. States that this genre of art has affected dramatically object art, such as furniture design. Contends that postmodernism can be traced through societal and personal histories. (CFR)

  20. How crawling and manual object exploration are related to the mental rotation abilities of 9-month-old infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GudrunSchwarzer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment examined whether the mental rotation ability of 9-month-old infants was related to their abilities to crawl and manually explore objects. Forty-eight 9-month-old infants were tested; half of them had been crawling for an average of 9.3 weeks. The infants were habituated to a video of a simplified Shepard-Metzler object rotating back and forth through a 240° angle around the longitudinal axis of the object. They were tested with videos of the same object rotating through a previously unseen 120° angle and with a mirror image of the display. All of the infants also participated in a manual object exploration task, in which they freely explored 5 toy blocks. The results showed that the crawlers looked significantly longer at the novel (mirror object than at the familiar object, independent of their manual exploration scores. The non-crawlers looking times, in contrast, were influenced by the manual exploration scores. The infants who did not spontaneously explore the toy blocks tended to show a familiarity preference, whereas those who explored the toy blocks preferred to look at the novel object. Thus, all of the infants were able to master the mental rotation task but it seemed to be the most complex process for infants who had no crawling experience and who did not spontaneously explore objects.

  1. Relating visual to verbal semantic knowledge: the evaluation of object recognition in prosopagnosia

    OpenAIRE

    Barton, Jason J. S.; Hanif, Hashim; Ashraf, Sohi

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of face specificity in prosopagnosia is hampered by difficulty in gauging pre-morbid expertise for non-face object categories, for which humans vary widely in interest and experience. In this study, we examined the correlation between visual and verbal semantic knowledge for cars to determine if visual recognition accuracy could be predicted from verbal semantic scores. We had 33 healthy subjects and six prosopagnosic patients first rated their own knowledge of cars. They were then...

  2. Objections raised by the Land government relating to nuclear licensing procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The president of the Bavarian Landtag rejected a motion brought in by a parliamentary party, demanding that the Landtag request the Bavarian government..'' to file objections, in matters of the current plan approval procedure for the Schacht Konrad waste repository''. The motion was rejected referring to paragraph 62, sub-section 4 of the GeschOLT, stating the scope of competence of the Bavarian Free State. The Bavarian Constitutional Court decided in this matter as follows: Anyone has the right to raise objections in a plan approval procedure according to paragraph 9 b, sub-section 1 Atomic Energy Act. There is no mandatory restriction of this right to cases involving a personal interest. Land governments thus are equally entitled to raise objections against the licensing of a radwaste with the Ministry of the Environment of Lower Saxony pository. The remotion brought in therefore aims at activities within the legally permitted scope of action in accordance with the Atomic Energy Act. (orig./HSCH)

  3. Use of Geometric Properties of Landmark Arrays for Reorientation Relative to Remote Cities and Local Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Weimin; Nankoo, Jean-François; Zhou, Ruojing; Spetch, Marcia L.

    2014-01-01

    Five experiments investigated how human adults use landmark arrays in the immediate environment to reorient relative to the local environment and relative to remote cities. Participants learned targets' directions with the presence of a proximal 4 poles forming a rectangular shape and an array of more distal poles forming a rectangular shape. Then…

  4. A New Approach in Consistency of Object Oriented Model and Relational Model in Distributed Systems Base on Heterogeneous Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh kheradmandan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available According to application a database is designed to be object-oriented model or relational model but the important point is distribution and heterogeneity. So a model should be provided which work with different types of database and also be able to work disruption, and heterogeneity So one of the great challenges in the use of distributed database technologies is integrating object-oriented databases with relational databases because the platform-independent technologies have an object-oriented approach But today databases are usualy designed and implemented base on relational model. Hence this paper tries to offer a model that could bring further coordination and integration between these two exsisting database models

  5. Some Methods of Automatic Control of Relative Motion of Objects in Near-Earth Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazirov, R. R.; Sidorov, I. M.; Frolov, V. A.

    2003-01-01

    The methods of automatic control of motion of a free-flight platform near the orbital space station are considered. The satellite-inspector intended for service of the International Space Station is an example of such objects. The algorithms of control of the platform motion along a trajectory specified by the space station operator are developed, and control of the station keeping mode for visual observation of the state of the space station's external surface is considered. The problem of control of a platform landing on a specially equipped docking unit of the orbital space station is also considered.

  6. Advantages Of Object-Oriented Over Relational Databases On Real-Life Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Butuner

    2013-01-01

    Business, manufacturing and other kinds of databases have been implemented by the relational database technology. The transition from one generation to the next has always been necessitated by the ever-increasing complexity of database applications and the cost of implementing, maintaining, and extending these applications. Accordingly, whatever the application areas of the relational database technology are, the basic shortcomings and weaknesses of this discipline are valid. On the other han...

  7. Effect of supersonic relative motion between baryons and dark matter on collapsed objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaba, Shinsuke; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Tashiro, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Great attention is given to the first star formation and the epoch of reionization as main targets of planned large radio interferometries (e.g. Square Kilometre Array). Recently, it is claimed that the supersonic relative velocity between baryons and cold dark matter can suppress the abundance of first stars and impact the cosmological reionization process. Therefore, in order to compare observed results with theoretical predictions it is important to examine the effect of the supersonic relative motion on the small-scale structure formation. In this paper, we investigate this effect on the nonlinear structure formation in the context of the spherical collapse model in order to understand the fundamental physics in a simple configuration. We show the evolution of the dark matter sphere with the relative velocity by both using N-body simulations and numerically calculating the equation of motion for the dark matter mass shell. The effects of the relative motion in the spherical collapse model appear as the delay of the collapse time of dark matter halos and the decrease of the baryon mass fraction within the dark matter sphere. Based on these results, we provide the fitting formula of the critical density contrast for collapses with the relative motion effect and calculate the mass function of dark matter halos in the Press-Schechter formalism. As a result, the relative velocity decreases the abundance of dark matter halos whose mass is smaller than 108M?/h .

  8. Multi-objective optimization of cutting parameters in turning using grey relational analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenu Gupta

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study presents optimization of performance characteristics in unidirectional glass fiber reinforced plastic composites using Taguchi method and Grey relational analysis. Performance characteristics such as surface roughness and material removal rate are optimized during rough cutting operation. Process parameters including tool nose radius, tool rake angle, feed rate, cutting speed, cutting environment and depth of cut are investigated using mixed L18 orthogonal array. Grey relation analysis is used to optimize the parameters and Principal Component Analysis is used to find the relative significance of performance characteristics. Depth of cut is the factor, which has great influence on surface roughness and material removal rate, followed by feed rate. The percentage contribution of depth of cut is 54.399% and feed rate is 5.355%.

  9. Objective and Subjective Responses to Low Relative Humidity in an Office Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagercrantz, Love Per; Wyon, David

    2003-01-01

    The impact of dry indoor air on comfort and health in winter was investigated in a crossover intervention study in two floors of an office building in northern Sweden. The indoor air humidity (normally 10-20% RH) was raised to 23-24% RH, one floor at a time, using steam humidifiers. Questionnaires and objective (clinical) measurements were applied. The following effects of increased humidity were significant, though small: the air was evaluated as less dry (though still on the dry side of neutral), eyes smarted less (by 10% of full scale) eye irritation decreased (by 11%), symptoms of dry throat, mouth, lips and skin were reduced, and it was easier to concentrate. The results confirm similar laboratory findings in 5-hour exposures (Fang et al. 2003, reported at this conference) to 2-week field exposures, but as the effects observed were again small, they do not provide sufficient justification for installing humidifiers.

  10. Knee Confidence as It Relates to Self-reported and Objective Correlates of Knee Osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Søren T; Rasmussen, Sten; Simonsen, Ole; Roos, Ewa M

    2015-01-01

    confidence, assessed using item Q3 of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, as the dependent variable and self-reported (pain on walking, general health, fear of movement, self-efficacy, function, and previous serious injury) and objective measures (muscle strength, 20-m walk time, and...... radiographic severity of tibiofemoral OA) as predictor variables. Results Most (95%) of the participants reported lack of knee confidence, and 54% experienced severe or extreme lack of knee confidence. Fear of movement (odds ratio [OR] = 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15, 3.68), pain on walking (OR = 1...... muscle strength was not. Fear of movement and poor general health were new variables associated with lack of knee confidence. The noncorrelations or poor correlations with other tested variables suggest that a lack of knee confidence may represent an independent treatment target in knee OA of importance...

  11. OBJECTIVES AND REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO THE SUSTAINABILITY OF ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cofas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the EU Sustainable Development Strategy, whose foundations were laid in Gothenburg 2001, sustainability requires simultaneous and impartial consideration of economic, social and environmental consequences of any decision taken, so at this point, stating that “the EU to become the world whose economy is highly efficient use of resources with a high quality of life of its citizens and where socio-economic development of environmentally”. As a result, international organizations, European and national support implementation of projects and strategies to change unsustainable consumption patterns. In this sense, sustainable solutions and increased use of renewable energy resources, practice on a larger scale organic farming and intelligent management of urban waste are major objectives of not only environmental policies, but also the quality of life.

  12. On the nature of escapable relative islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj; Nyvad, Anne Mette

    2014-01-01

    It is generally assumed that universal island constraints block extraction from relative clauses. However, it is well-known that such extractions can be acceptable in the Scandinavian languages. Kush & Lindahl (2011) argue that the acceptability in Swedish is illusory; relative clauses that allow...... extraction have a different structure (small clause structure) from those that block extraction (true relatives, CPs). We present data from an acceptability survey of relative clause extraction in Danish. In the survey, extraction significantly decreased acceptability but we found no statistically...... significant effect of the ability of the verb to take a small-clause complement. We also found no difference between som ‘that/who/which’ and der ‘that/who/which’, both of which can head a relative clause while only som can head a small clause. We argue that our results do not warrant the stipulation of a...

  13. On the nature of escapable relative islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken RamshØj; Nyvad, Anne Mette

    2014-01-01

    It is generally assumed that universal island constraints block extraction from relative clauses. However, it is well-known that such extractions can be acceptable in the Scandinavian languages. Kush & Lindahl (2011) argue that the acceptability in Swedish is illusory; relative clauses that allow extraction have a different structure (small clause structure) from those that block extraction (true relatives, CPs). We present data from an acceptability survey of relative clause extraction in Danish. In the survey, extraction significantly decreased acceptability but we found no statistically significant effect of the ability of the verb to take a small-clause complement. We also found no difference between som ‘that/who/which’ and der ‘that/who/which’, both of which can head a relative clause while only som can head a small clause. We argue that our results do not warrant the stipulation of a structural contrast between acceptable and unacceptable extractions, and that variation in acceptability stems from processing.

  14. Apparatus and method for simultaneously displaying relative displacements of a fluctuating biological object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a method for producing discrete images of a human organ in fluctuating motion, e.g., the heart and related vessels, images derived at selected times related to the cardiac cycle are independently presented on respective discrete areas within a common image plane. A source of X-rays irradiates the organ. A physiological synchronizer produces timing signals within the cardiac cycle for controlling the periods of transmission of the X-ray beam through the organ during, for example, end diastole and end systole. An antiscattering, masking frame has alternate parallel slits and bars at equal intervals exposing substantially half the area of presentation of an X-ray sensitive film in alternate, equally spaced area strips during, e.g., diastole. The frame is repositioned in response to a signal from the synchronizer for displacing it relative to the film such that the bars then cover the sensitized areas of the film and expose substantially the remaining half of the film during systole. The image elements are interdigitally juxtaposed to present the diastolic and systolic images in an interlaced pattern. Relative displacements of the organ during a cardiac cycle may be determined from the juxtaposed image elements. (author)

  15. Effect of supersonic relative motion between baryons and dark matter on collapsed objects

    CERN Document Server

    Asaba, Shinsuke; Tashiro, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The first star formation and the Epoch of Reionization are paid great attention to as main targets of planned large radio interferometries (e.g. Square Kilometre Array). Recently, it is claimed that the supersonic relative velocity between baryons and cold dark matter can suppress the abundance of the first stars and impact the cosmological reionization process. Therefore, in order to compare observed results with theoretical predictions it is important to examine the effect of the supersonic relative motion on the small-scale structure formation. In this paper, we investigate the effect on the nonlinear structure formation in the context of the spherical collapse model. We show the evolution of the dark matter sphere with the relative velocity by both using N-body simulations and numerical calculations of the equation of motion for the dark matter mass shell. The effects of the relative motions in the spherical collapse model appear as the delay of the collapse time of dark matter halos and the decrease of t...

  16. On Translating English Attributive Clauses into Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-min CHEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available
    Translating English attributive clauses into Chinese is one of the most knotty tasks for translators. This paper compares the syntactic differences between English and Chinese, and explores the possible methods of translating English attributive clauses into Chinese. It is suggested that the translator should bear in mind the syntactic differences, correctly grasp the original meaning and conform to the Chinese expressing rules in translation.
    Key words: English attributive clause, syntactic difference, translation
    Résumé: la traduction de la proposition attributive anglaise en chinois est une des tâches les plus épineuses pour les traducteurs. Cet article compare les différences syntaxiques entre l’anglais et le chinois, et explore les méthodes possibles de la traduction de la proposition attributive anglaise en chinois. Il est suggéré que les traducteurs doivent porter en tête les différences syntaxiques, correctement saisir le sens original et conformé aux règles de l’expression chinoise dans la traduction.
    Mots-Clés: proposition attributive anglaise, différence syntaxique, traduction

  17. Multi-objective optimization in WEDM of D3 tool steel using integrated approach of Taguchi method & Grey relational analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivade, Anand S.; Shinde, Vasudev D.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, wire electrical discharge machining of D3 tool steel is studied. Influence of pulse-on time, pulse-off time, peak current and wire speed are investigated for MRR, dimensional deviation, gap current and machining time, during intricate machining of D3 tool steel. Taguchi method is used for single characteristics optimization and to optimize all four process parameters simultaneously, Grey relational analysis (GRA) is employed along with Taguchi method. Through GRA, grey relational grade is used as a performance index to determine the optimal setting of process parameters for multi-objective characteristics. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the peak current is the most significant parameters affecting on multi-objective characteristics. Confirmatory results, proves the potential of GRA to optimize process parameters successfully for multi-objective characteristics.

  18. Nano-Objects and Ions in Liquid Crystals: Ion Trapping Effect and Related Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Garbovskiy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of ions in liquid crystals is one of the grand challenges that hinder the application of liquid crystals in various devices, which include advanced 3-D and flexible displays, tunable lenses, etc. Not only do they compromise the overall performance of liquid crystal devices, ions are also responsible for slow response, image sticking, and image flickering, as well as many other negative effects. Even highly purified liquid crystal materials can get contaminated during the manufacturing process. Moreover, liquid crystals can degrade over time and generate ions. All of these factors raise the bar for their quality control, and increase the manufacturing cost of liquid crystal products. A decade of dedicated research has paved the way to the solution of the issues mentioned above through merging liquid crystals and nanotechnology. Nano-objects (guests that are embedded in the liquid crystals (hosts can trap ions, which decreases the ion concentration and electrical conductivity, and improves the electro-optical response of the host. In this paper, we (i review recently published works reporting the effects of nanoscale dopants on the electrical properties of liquid crystals; and (ii identify the most promising inorganic and organic nanomaterials suitable to capture ions in liquid crystals.

  19. Objectives, definition and elaboration of technical scenarios for emergency drills relating to a french PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety measures applied during the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants are such that the occurrence of an accident with unacceptable consequences for the public is a highly improbable event. Despite this low probability, a number of emergency plans have been drawn up to cater for the occurrence of events that might lead to such an accident: on-site emergency plan to protect plant personnel, terminate the accident and mitigate its consequences; short-and long-term emergency plans to protect the general public and prepare for a return to acceptable living conditions. To check that plans are appropriate and ready to be implemented, they must be regularly tested by means of drills. These drills may be directed solely at technical aspects of nuclear units, or they may concern all the players normally involved, i.e. the utility (EdF), all the specialized government departments concerned and stand-ins for the media. The paper describes some aspects of the procedure for choosing objectives and the preparation of drills, which are illustrated by examples from the national EPAULE exercise. From a technical standpoint, the drills demonstrated that current organizational structures are both effective and operational; however, they cannot determine how the public would actually react in the event of a nuclear accident, given the difficulty of assessing the emotional impact of exposure to a danger than cannot be perceived directly and to information reported by the media

  20. Knee Confidence as it Relates to Self-Reported and Objective Correlates of Knee Osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Søren T; Rasmussen, Sten; Simonsen, Ole; Roos, Ewa M

    2015-01-01

    variable and self-reported (pain on walking, general health, fear of movement, self-efficacy, function and previous serious injury) and objective measures (muscle strength, 20-meter walk time and radiographic severity of tibiofemoral OA) as predictor variables. Results Most (95%) of the participants...... reported lack of knee confidence, and 54% experienced severe or extreme lack of knee confidence. Fear of movement (Odds Ratio(OR) 2.06, 95% Confidence Intervals [95% CI] 1.15-3.68), pain on walking (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.09-1.34) and general health (OR 0.024, 95% CI 0.002-0.259) explained 19% of the variance...... in knee confidence (P<0.001). Conclusion Severe lack of knee confidence is a common finding in knee OA. Pain on walking was confirmed as a correlate of knee confidence while muscle strength was not. Fear of movement and poor general health were new variables associated with lack of knee confidence...

  1. Discussion of related problems in herbal prescription science based on objective indications of herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-jiang XIONG

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal prescription science is a bridge between basic and clinical subjects in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. In studying the doctrines in the general textbook Herbal Prescription Science and applying them to clinical practice, it was found that they are imprecise and inapplicable. Based on the analysis of Suanzaoren Decoction, Xiaoqinglong Decoction, Jichuan Decoction, etc., the authors point out that this problem is due to the current pathogenesis-based research approach of the herbal prescription science. It is proposed that correspondence between formula and syndrome is the core of the herbal prescription science. In order to solve such a problem, searching for corresponding relationship between an herb or a formula and the signs and symptoms of a syndrome or disease should be the most important task in research of herbal prescription science, for emphasis on attention to the objective indications and evidence in clinical utilization of herbal formulas is the major feature of the herbal prescription science according to medication experience in the long history of TCM.

  2. Sex-related preferences for real and doll faces versus real and toy objects in young infants and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Paola; Robbins, Rachel A; Johnson, Scott P

    2013-10-01

    Findings of previous studies demonstrate sex-related preferences for toys in 6-month-old infants; boys prefer nonsocial or mechanical toys such as cars, whereas girls prefer social toys such as dolls. Here, we explored the innate versus learned nature of this sex-related preferences using multiple pictures of doll and real faces (of men and women) as well as pictures of toy and real objects (cars and stoves). In total, 48 4- and 5-month-old infants (24 girls and 24 boys) and 48 young adults (24 women and 24 men) saw six trials of all relevant pairs of faces and objects, with each trial containing a different exemplar of a stimulus type. The infant results showed no sex-related preferences; infants preferred faces of men and women regardless of whether they were real or doll faces. Similarly, adults did not show sex-related preferences for social versus nonsocial stimuli, but unlike infants they preferred faces of the opposite sex over objects. These results challenge claims of an innate basis for sex-related preferences for toy real stimuli and suggest that sex-related preferences result from maturational and social development that continues into adulthood. PMID:23933180

  3. Autonomy, subject-relativity, and subjective and objective theories of well-being in bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varelius, Jukka

    2003-01-01

    Among the different approaches to questions of biomedical ethics, there is a view that stresses the importance of a patient's right to make her own decisions in evaluative questions concerning her own well-being. This approach, the autonomy-based approach to biomedical ethics, has usually led to the adoption of a subjective theory of well-being on the basis of its commitment to the value of autonomy and to the view that well-being is always relative to a subject. In this article, it is argued that these two commitments need not lead to subjectivism concerning the nature of well-being. PMID:14760866

  4. Indefiniteness relation and diffraction of micro-objects at screen with aperture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of interpreting the Heisenberg indefiniteness, when microparticles are passed through an aperture in a massive screen is considered. It is shown that derivation of the indefiniteness relations on the basis of diffraction approach, as it is sometimes done in manuals and guides on general physics, is not quite correct. Using the approximation which makes allowance for atomic structure of a screen with an aperture and uses quantum theory of single scattering on many centers, it was found that the picture of microparticle scattering on a screen with an aperture is similar to optical diffraction

  5. Fast line and object segmentation in noisy and cluttered environments using relative connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Teutsch, Michael; Schamm, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    In applications such as 3D plane segmentation of road traffic environments using u/v-disparity-histograms, line extraction is a key component and has to be as fast and precise as possible. Hough Transform is a good way to detect straight lines but specific line segments limited by start and end points are still to be determined. The Line Patterns Hough Transform (LPHT) introduced by Yip[1] directly delivers potential start and end points using the principle of relative connectivity. But this ...

  6. A systematic review of reliability and objective criterion-related validity of physical activity questionnaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmerhorst Hendrik JF

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Physical inactivity is one of the four leading risk factors for global mortality. Accurate measurement of physical activity (PA and in particular by physical activity questionnaires (PAQs remains a challenge. The aim of this paper is to provide an updated systematic review of the reliability and validity characteristics of existing and more recently developed PAQs and to quantitatively compare the performance between existing and newly developed PAQs. A literature search of electronic databases was performed for studies assessing reliability and validity data of PAQs using an objective criterion measurement of PA between January 1997 and December 2011. Articles meeting the inclusion criteria were screened and data were extracted to provide a systematic overview of measurement properties. Due to differences in reported outcomes and criterion methods a quantitative meta-analysis was not possible. In total, 31 studies testing 34 newly developed PAQs, and 65 studies examining 96 existing PAQs were included. Very few PAQs showed good results on both reliability and validity. Median reliability correlation coefficients were 0.62–0.71 for existing, and 0.74–0.76 for new PAQs. Median validity coefficients ranged from 0.30–0.39 for existing, and from 0.25–0.41 for new PAQs. Although the majority of PAQs appear to have acceptable reliability, the validity is moderate at best. Newly developed PAQs do not appear to perform substantially better than existing PAQs in terms of reliability and validity. Future PAQ studies should include measures of absolute validity and the error structure of the instrument.

  7. A systematic review of reliability and objective criterion-related validity of physical activity questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmerhorst, Hendrik J F; Brage, Søren; Warren, Janet; Besson, Herve; Ekelund, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the four leading risk factors for global mortality. Accurate measurement of physical activity (PA) and in particular by physical activity questionnaires (PAQs) remains a challenge. The aim of this paper is to provide an updated systematic review of the reliability and validity characteristics of existing and more recently developed PAQs and to quantitatively compare the performance between existing and newly developed PAQs.A literature search of electronic databases was performed for studies assessing reliability and validity data of PAQs using an objective criterion measurement of PA between January 1997 and December 2011. Articles meeting the inclusion criteria were screened and data were extracted to provide a systematic overview of measurement properties. Due to differences in reported outcomes and criterion methods a quantitative meta-analysis was not possible.In total, 31 studies testing 34 newly developed PAQs, and 65 studies examining 96 existing PAQs were included. Very few PAQs showed good results on both reliability and validity. Median reliability correlation coefficients were 0.62-0.71 for existing, and 0.74-0.76 for new PAQs. Median validity coefficients ranged from 0.30-0.39 for existing, and from 0.25-0.41 for new PAQs.Although the majority of PAQs appear to have acceptable reliability, the validity is moderate at best. Newly developed PAQs do not appear to perform substantially better than existing PAQs in terms of reliability and validity. Future PAQ studies should include measures of absolute validity and the error structure of the instrument. PMID:22938557

  8. The relation of object substitution masking (OSM) and attention dynamics: A neuro-computational modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuth, Frederik; Hamker, Fred

    2015-09-01

    Although object substitution masking (OSM; DiLollo et al., 2000, J Exp Psychol Gen) has been discussed being affected by attention (Põder, 2012, J Exp Psychol Gen), OSM is not considered emerging from attentive dynamics and there is little overlap between both fields of research. By means of a neuro-computational modeling study, we demonstrate that OSM can be fully explained by attentive dynamics. The model is inspired by previous systems level models of attention (Hamker, 2005, Cerebral Cortex; Zirnsak et al., 2011, Eur J Neurosci) and includes the ventral stream, particularly area V4 and the frontal eye field (FEF). It simulates the firing rates of neurons over time, and models accurate signal timings in the visual system (Schmolesky et al., 1998, J Neurophysiol; Thomson et al., 2002, Cerebral cortex). It is first shown to fit data from common visual attention experiments, like biased competition and visual search. Next we show that the same model reproduces typical OSM data (e.g. DiLollo et al., 2000, J Exp Psychol Gen, and Argyropoulos et al., 2013, J of Exp Psychology). OSM is explained based on two model mechanisms. Similar as in attentional biased competition, the target and mask compete for a visual representation by means of suppressive connections. This competition mechanism accounts for the mask duration dependency in OSM. OSM also requires a high number of distractors (set size effect) like in visual search paradigms. Our model explains this observation by spatially reentrant processing between FEF and V4. We conclude that OSM can be accounted for by well-known attentional mechanisms within a unified model. Contrary to existing theories of OSM, our model is grounded on a large set of physiological and neuroanatomical data. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326917

  9. Assessment of disease-related cognitive impairments using the novel object recognition (NOR) task in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Ben; Leger, Marianne; Piercy, Chloe; Adamson, Lisa; Harte, Michael; Neill, Joanna C

    2015-05-15

    The novel object recognition test (NOR) test is a two trial cognitive paradigm that assesses recognition memory. Recognition memory is disturbed in a range of human disorders and NOR is widely used in rodents for investigating deficits in a variety of animal models of human conditions where cognition is impaired. It possesses several advantages over more complex tasks that involve lengthy training procedures and/or food or water deprivation. It is quick to administer, non-rewarded, provides data quickly, cost effective and most importantly, ethologically relevant as it relies on the animal's natural preference for novelty. A PubMed search revealed over 900 publications in rats and mice using this task over the past 3 years with 34 reviews in the past 10 years, demonstrating its increasing popularity with neuroscientists. Although it is widely used in many disparate areas of research, no articles have systematically examined this to date, which is the subject of our review. We reveal that NOR may be used to study recognition memory deficits that occur in Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia, where research is extensive, in Parkinson's disease and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) where we observed markedly reduced numbers of publications. In addition, we review the use of NOR to study cognitive deficits induced by traumatic brain injury and cancer chemotherapy, not disorders per se, but situations in which cognitive deficits dramatically reduce the quality of life for those affected, see Fig. 1 for a summary. Our review reveals that, in all these animal models, the NOR test is extremely useful for identification of the cognitive deficits observed, their neural basis, and for testing the efficacy of novel therapeutic agents. Our conclusion is that NOR is of considerable value for cognitive researchers of all disciplines and we anticipate that its use will continue to increase due to its versatility and several other advantages, as detailed in this review. PMID:25447293

  10. The role of sexuality in sadism: object relations and drive theory perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juni, Samuel

    2009-12-01

    The sexual components of sadism are conceptualized within the contexts of different forms of sadism. In aggression-drive sadism, sexuality is seen as a generalization of instinctual reactivity. Parallels are presented of such spillover between aggression and anxiety and even between aggression and oral impulses, with the notion that any areas of excitation or partial impulses can be energized by the acute release of energy in another domain. Another dynamic is presented for re-enactment sadists, in which the sexuality has a relational meaning. In such cases, sexuality is intertwined with the aggression, as the sadistic ritual actually re-evokes an original trauma that features these elements. It is further agued that the sexuality in these two sadistic modes is not consistent. The instinctual spillover that occurs in hostile psychopathy is psychosexually rooted in phallic functioning, in which relational implications are absent, while the sexuality in re-enacted sadism is genitally based, and is intrinsically linked to an imagined emotional relationship with the victim that is intended to ameliorate and undo past trauma that haunt the perpetrator. PMID:19949381

  11. Objectively measured daily physical activity related to aerobic fitness in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Bugge, Anna; Hermansen, Bianca; Andersen, Lars B

    2010-01-01

    included 468 children (246 boys, 222 girls) aged 6.7 + or - 0.4 years, recruited from a population-based cohort. Peak oxygen uptake was measured by indirect calorimetry during a maximal treadmill exercise test. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometers over a 4-day period. Minutes of sedentary......The purpose of this study was to investigate by direct measurement the cross-sectional relationship between accelerometer-measured physical activity and peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak): ml x min(-1) x kg(-1)), in a population-based cohort of young children, since such data are scarce. The study.......15-0.28, P < 0.05), with the exception of time in sedentary and light activity, which was not related to VO(2peak). None of the daily physical activity variables were related to VO(2peak) in girls, with the exception of a very weak relationship for moderate activity (r = 0.14, P < 0.05). Multiple regression...

  12. A coordinated radio and H? survey of southern RS CVn systems and related objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of a search for radio emission at 5 GHz from a selection of 21 southern hemisphere Rs CVn binaries and related late-type emission-line stars. Three of the program stars were detected above the survey limit of 10 mJy, including the previously known RS CVn radio binary HR 1099 and two new radio binaries, HR 4492 (= HD 101379) and HD 195040. A simultaneous program of high-resolution H? spectroscopy revealed significant emission profile variability in both the latter stars. Radio variability on time-scales of approximately 1 day was observed in both HR 1099 and 4492. An increase by a factor of 3 in the observed radio flux density from HR 4492 on 1981 July 18 was accompanied by a significant enhancement of the H? equivalent width by approximately 0.5 A on that date. (author)

  13. Processing of Japanese Cleft Constructions in Context: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Masataka; Tateyama, Yuki; Sakamoto, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have found "subject gap preference" in relative clauses and cleft constructions in English, French, and other languages. In contrast, previous studies have reported "object gap preference" in cleft constructions in Japanese. However, the effect of integrating a filler and its gap may be influenced by the effect…

  14. 77 FR 19128 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Separation of Combined Provisions and Clauses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ...c)(1) Use the clause at 252.229-7003, Tax Exemptions (Italy), in solicitations...solicitations that contain the clause at 252.229- 7003, Tax Exemptions (Italy...use the following clause: TAX EXEMPTIONS...

  15. 76 FR 71922 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Separation of Combined Provisions and Clauses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ...c)(1) Use the clause at 252.229-7003, Tax Exemptions (Italy), in solicitations...solicitations that contain the clause at 252.229- 7003, Tax Exemptions (Italy...use the following clause: Tax Exemptions...

  16. Nasazení Object Relation Mapping nástrojů nad legacy datovým modelem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Berger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When modernizing an information system it is necesssary to deal with problems and questions modernization brings. The new system is inovated by new technologies and must preserve data which controls. It happends very often that old system cannot be shutdown and replaced by new system in single step. Then it’s necessary to share one database among various systems and transfer responsibilities to the new system continually. This solution brings problematic situations which are discussed in this paper. Transactional access using object relation mapping is presented together with non-transactional relation/procedural access with shared database objects. Other presented restriction is that number of database changes should be as small as possible.

  17. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    OpenAIRE

    AnnemarieBoschloo; Renatede Groot

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness – ‘I feel sleepy during the first hours at school’ – appeared to predict both school grades and self-repor...

  18. Subjective Sleepiness and Sleep Quality in Adolescents are Related to Objective and Subjective Measures of School Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11–18?years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality, and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness – “I feel sleepy during the first hours at school” – appeared to predict both school grades and self-repo...

  19. Role of Working Memory Storage and Attention Focus Switching in Children’s Comprehension of Spoken Object Relative Sentences

    OpenAIRE

    Finney, Mianisha C.; Montgomery, James W.; Ronald B. Gillam; Julia L. Evans

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated a two-mechanism memory model of the online auditory comprehension of object relative (OR) sentences in 7–11-year-old typically developing children. Mechanisms of interest included working memory storage (WMS) and attention focus switching. We predicted that both mechanisms would be important for comprehension. Forty-four children completed a listening span task indexing WMS, an auditory attention focus switching task, and an agent selection task indexing spoken sen...

  20. Comparison between Face and Object Processing in Youths with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An event related potentials study

    OpenAIRE

    Anahita Khorrami; Mehdi Tehrani-Doost; Hossein Esteky

    2013-01-01

    Incapability in face perception and recognition is one of the main issues in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Event related potential (ERP) studies have revealed controversial insights on autistic brain responses to faces and objects. The current investigation examined the ERP components of young children with ASD compared to a typically developing (TD) group when looking at the upright and inverted images of faces and cars.Fourteen children and adolescents aged between 9 and 17 diagnosed as ...

  1. The Hilbert space of conditional clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Charles

    2015-05-01

    In the absence of a satisfactory interpretation of quantum theory, physical law lacks physical basis. This paper reviews the orthodox, or Dirac-von Neumann interpretation, and makes explicit that Hilbert space describes propositions about measurement results. Kets are defined as conditional clauses referring to measurements in a formal language. It is seen that these clauses are elements of a Hilbert space, such that addition is logical disjunction, the dual space consists of consequent clauses, and the inner product is a set of statements in the subjunctive mood. The probability interpretation gives truth values for corresponding future tense statements when the initial state is actually prepared and the final state is to be measured. The mathematical structure of quantum mechanics is formulated in terms of discrete measurement results at finite level of accuracy and does not depend on an assumption of a substantive, or background, space-time continuum. A continuum of kets, ?x> for x ? ?3, is constructed from linear combinations of kets in a finite basis. The inner product can be expressed either as a finite sum or as an integral. Discrete position functions are uniquely embedded into smooth wave functions in such a way that differential operators are defined. It is shown that the choice of basis has no effect on underlying physics (quantum covariance). The Dirac delta has a representation as a smooth function. Operators do not in general have an integral form. The Schrödinger equation is shown from the requirements of the probability interpretation. It is remarked that a formal construction of quantum electrodynamics (qed) avoiding divergence problems has been completed using finite dimensional Hilbert space. I conclude that quantum mechanics makes statements about the world with clear physical meaning, such that space is emergent from particle interactions and has no fundamental role.

  2. 48 CFR 227.7103-6 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Restrictive Markings on Technical Data (paragraph (e) of the clause contains information that must be included... Research Program (see 227.7104). Except as provided in 227.7107-2, do not use the clause in architect... Information Marked with Restrictive Legends, in solicitations and contracts when it is anticipated that...

  3. 48 CFR 16.506 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that exceed a specific Government activity's internal capability to produce or perform, use the clause... the same Schedule, and similar products may be acquired on a brand-name basis, use the clause with its... may be acquired on a brand-name basis; and (ii) Involves a partial small business set-aside, use...

  4. An Analysis of Hierarchy in English Clause Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarence Green

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The following study presents research into English clause combination that describes how the types of clauses in English are distributed along a hierarchy of grammatical integration, in a much more complex fashion than the traditional coordination/subordination dichotomy suggests. This hierarchy extends and synthesizes previous descriptions of English combined clauses found in the most referenced descriptive grammars of English. A corpus analysis of patterns in the combined clauses that may be a consequence of hierarchy was also conducted. A corpus of 50 examples of each form was coded for tense/aspect continuity, subject continuity and syntactic function. The analysis confirmed that the different formal levels of integration amongst the clauses are reflected in their functional and discourse patterns. The implications of the study are that English clause combination might be beneficially described and taught as hierarchical beyond traditional binary categories, as combined clauses are a range of more or less integrated structures with distinct properties.  For teachers and advanced learners the research may help in an understanding of the relationship in English grammar between function, form, discourse and syntax.Keywords: English grammar, clause combination, corpus linguistics, coordination, subordination

  5. 41 CFR 60-300.5 - Equal opportunity clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in the contract. The clause may be made a part of the contract by citation to 41 CFR 60-300.5(a). (e... more other employees; and (d) who has the authority to hire or fire other employees or whose.... 11. The contractor will include the provisions of this clause in every subcontract or purchase...

  6. 48 CFR 3027.305 - Administration of Patent Rights Clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of Patent Rights Clauses. 3027.305 Section 3027.305 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 3027.305 Administration of Patent Rights Clauses....

  7. 48 CFR 970.3270 - Standard financial management clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Standard financial management clauses. (a) The following DEAR and FAR clauses are standard financial... 48 CFR 52.215-11, Price Reduction for Defective Cost or Pricing Data—Modifications, the contracting... authorization. (7) 48 CFR 52.230-2, Cost Accounting Standards. (8) 48 CFR 52.230-6, Administration of...

  8. Search for HH objects and emission stars in star formation regions. IV. New HH flows and HH objects related with cometary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the observations in the environments of the five cometary nebulae: MacC H12, MacC sH15, GM 1-14, RNO 33, Pars 17, are presented. This search was performed in the frames of the continuing survey of the new HH-objects in the star formation regions. Nine previously unknown HH-objects were found. Nearly all these objects belong to directed outflows, the sources of which are with high probability the central stars of the listed above nebulae. In the cases of MacC H12 and GM 1-14 the outflows have distinct bipolar structure. The position of the sources on J-H/H-K diagram is discussed

  9. Levels of Finite Clause Parsing: Implications and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Butnariu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is three-fold: (1 To point out the four types of inter-clause dependencies, thus levels of finite-clause parsing; (2 To discuss the essential role of the finite (and non-finite clause structure in text processing, discourse parsing, text-to-speech modeling and prosody prediction; (3 To apply the Segmentation-Cohesion-Dependency (SCD method based on marker classes, their semantic hierarchies, and marker sequences, combined with a machine learning technique, in order to obtain improved results on clause parsing of the Romanian Acquis corpus. A special emphasis of our analysis is devoted to the intonational role that the inter-clause lexical markers and their sequences are playing on the syntax-prosody interface (of Romanian, more precisely, for establishing the discursive-intonational contrastive foci and patterns that are necessary in prosody prediction.

  10. Altered Neural Activity during Semantic Object Memory Retrieval in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment as Measured by Event-Related Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Mudar, Raksha A; Pudhiyidath, Athula; Spence, Jeffrey S; Womack, Kyle B; Cullum, C Munro; Tanner, Jeremy A; Eroh, Justin; Kraut, Michael A; Hart, John

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in semantic memory in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) have been previously reported, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain to be clarified. We examined event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with semantic memory retrieval in 16 individuals with aMCI as compared to 17 normal controls using the Semantic Object Retrieval Task (EEG SORT). In this task, subjects judged whether pairs of words (object features) elicited retrieval of an object (retrieval trials) or not (non-retrieval trials). Behavioral findings revealed that aMCI subjects had lower accuracy scores and marginally longer reaction time compared to controls. We used a multivariate analytical technique (STAT-PCA) to investigate similarities and differences in ERPs between aMCI and control groups. STAT-PCA revealed a left fronto-temporal component starting at around 750?ms post-stimulus in both groups. However, unlike controls, aMCI subjects showed an increase in the frontal-parietal scalp potential that distinguished retrieval from non-retrieval trials between 950 and 1050?ms post-stimulus negatively correlated with the performance on the logical memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III. Thus, individuals with aMCI were not only impaired in their behavioral performance on SORT relative to controls, but also displayed alteration in the corresponding ERPs. The altered neural activity in aMCI compared to controls suggests a more sustained and effortful search during object memory retrieval, which may be a potential marker indicating disease processes at the pre-dementia stage. PMID:25835419

  11. Comparison of time adjustment clauses between DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Finnie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines time adjustment clauses, as they relate to time adjustment between standard terms of construction contracts. DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC were compared on the basis of how risks are allocated, how this may impact on the contractor’s pricing, and ease of understanding for each clause. ASTCC was found to be the most easily interpreted contract, followed by AS4000 and then NZS3910. These assessments were based on the following: a whether each contract contains words with multiple meanings, b the number of words used per sentence, c the amount of internal cross-referencing, and d the clarity of the contract structure. The allowable pre-conditions for the contractor to claim a time adjustment are similar for all three contracts, and none of them expressly state which party is to bare the risk of buildability, or address the risk of a designer’s disclaimer clause. All of the contracts adopt the principle of contra preferentum which means that the employer bares the risk of variance if there are any ambiguities in the design documentation. Due to their similarities of risk allocation, all of the contracts provide the employer with a similar amount of price surety. AS4000 is the only contract to contain a stringent time-bar clause, limiting a contractor’s time adjustment claim. ASTCC requires the contractor to apply ‘immediately’ and DZ3910 provides a time-bar of 20 working days or as soon as practicable. None of the contracts clarify whether their timing requirements take precedence over the prevention principle, or over any other ground for claiming a time adjustment. The effect of DZ3910’s pre-notification clause 5.19.3 is discussed, and an alternative contents structure is recommended for DZ3910, using a project management method. 

  12. Comparison of time adjustment clauses between DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Finnie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines time adjustment clauses, as they relate to time adjustment between standard terms of construction contracts. DZ3910, AS4000 and STCC were compared on the basis of how risks are allocated, how this may impact on the contractor’s pricing, and ease of understanding for each clause. ASTCC was found to be the most easily interpreted contract, followed by AS4000 and then NZS3910. These assessments were based on the following: a whether each contract contains words with multiple meanings, b the number of words used per sentence, c the amount of internal cross-referencing, and d the clarity of the contract structure. The allowable pre-conditions for the contractor to claim a time adjustment are similar for all three contracts, and none of them expressly state which party is to bare the risk of buildability, or address the risk of a designer’s disclaimer clause. All of the contracts adopt the principle of contra preferentum which means that the employer bares the risk of variance if there are any ambiguities in the design documentation. Due to their similarities of risk allocation, all of the contracts provide the employer with a similar amount of price surety. AS4000 is the only contract to contain a stringent time-bar clause, limiting a contractor’s time adjustment claim. ASTCC requires the contractor to apply ‘immediately’ and DZ3910 provides a time-bar of 20 working days or as soon as practicable. None of the contracts clarify whether their timing requirements take precedence over the prevention principle, or over any other ground for claiming a time adjustment. The effect of DZ3910’s pre-notification clause 5.19.3 is discussed, and an alternative contents structure is recommended for DZ3910, using a project management method.

  13. A search for T Tauri stars and related objects: Archival photometry of candidate variables in V733 Cep field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurdana-Šepi?, R.; Poljan?i? Beljan, I.

    Searching for T Tauri stars or related early type variables we carried out a BVRI photometric measurements of five candidates with positions within the field of the pre-main sequence object V733 Cephei (Persson's star) located in the dark cloud L1216 near to Cepheus OB3 Association: VES 946, VES 950, NSV 14333, NSV 25966 and V385 Cep. Their magnitudes are determined on the plates from Asiago Observatory historical photographic archive exposed 1971 - 1978. We provide finding charts for program stars and comparison sequence stars, magnitude estimations, magnitude mean values and BVR_cI_c light curves of program stars.

  14. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Science Archive: Migrating a Multi-Terabyte Astronomical Archive from Object to Relational DBMS

    CERN Document Server

    Thakar, A R; Kunszt, Peter Z; Gray, J; Thakar, Aniruddha R.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Kunszt, Peter Z.; Gray, Jim

    2004-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Science Archive is the first in a series of multi-Terabyte digital archives in Astronomy and other data-intensive sciences. To facilitate data mining in the SDSS archive, we adapted a commercial database engine and built specialized tools on top of it. Originally we chose an object-oriented database management system due to its data organization capabilities, platform independence, query performance and conceptual fit to the data. However, after using the object database for the first couple of years of the project, it soon began to fall short in terms of its query support and data mining performance. This was as much due to the inability of the database vendor to respond our demands for features and bug fixes as it was due to their failure to keep up with the rapid improvements in hardware performance, particularly faster RAID disk systems. In the end, we were forced to abandon the object database and migrate our data to a relational database. We describe below the technical issu...

  15. Over a barrel : exiting from NAFTA's proportionality clause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural gas exports to the United States are locked in by the proportionality clause of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The authors state that although both conventional oil and gas have peaked in Canada, the proportionality clause requires Canada to maintain its current share of energy exports to the United States, even if Canadians experience shortages. The unique clause guarantees the United States' access to Canada's energy resources. The authors cautioned that NAFTA limits Canada's options for managing its energy future and recommended options for regaining Canadian energy security. With NAFTA and the energy proportionality clause back on the political agenda for the first time since the 1993 federal election, this document explored 3 scenarios under which the proportionality clause could be invoked. The scenarios demonstrated how the clause could prevent Canada from reducing exports to conserve oil; prioritizing natural gas for petrochemicals; or, substituting Canadian oil for volatile foreign imports. The exercise demonstrated how under certain circumstances, proportionality could result in energy shortages for Canadians. The authors suggested that if NAFTA were to be renegotiated, Canada's first priority should be to end the proportionality clause because it stands in the way of Canada developing an effective energy security plan. 51 refs., 3 tabs

  16. Computer Security: a plea to Santa Claus

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    Running pirated software or illegal licences, using cracking tools to bypass software activation measures, sharing music and films – these are problems that academic environments unfortunately have to deal with. All violate the copyright of the software/music/film owners, and copyright owners are not Santa Claus...    CERN, like other research organisations and universities, regularly receives allegations from external companies complaining about laptops or PCs running illegal software or sharing their films, videos or music with peers – and thus violating copyright.  Usually, we then contact the owners of the corresponding devices in order to understand whether these allegations are true. Very often such allegations boil down to a laptop whose owner replies “I confirm that a torrent client was left up and running on my device by mistake” or “This is a file that is stored on my personal hard disk.” As if those allegatio...

  17. Natural syntax : English interrogative main clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janez Oresnik

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural Syntax is a developing deductive theory, a branch of Naturalness Theory. The naturalnessjudgements are couched in naturalness scales, whichfollow from the basic parameters (or «axioms» listed at the beginning of the paper. The predictions of the theory are calculated in deductions, whose chief components are apair of naturalness scales and the rules governing the alignment of corresponding naturalness values. Parallel and chiastic alignments are distinguished, in complementary distribution. Chiastic alignment is mandatory in deductions limited to unnatural environments.The paper deals with English interrogative main clauses. Within these, only the interrogatives containing wh-words exclusively insitu constitute an extremely unnatural environment and require chiastic alignment. Otherwiseparallel alignment is used.Earlier publications on Natural Syntax: Kavcic 2005a,b, Oresnik 1999, 2000a,b, 200la-f   2002, 2003a-c, 2002/03, 2004. This list cites only works written in English.

  18. International Reservation of Title Clauses : A study of Dutch, French, and German private international law in the light of European law

    OpenAIRE

    RUTGERS, Jacobien W.

    1999-01-01

    The rules of substantive law relating to the reservation of title clause differ from country to country. This book addresses problems which may arise if a reservation of title clause is employed within international transactions, especially transactions between Germany, France, and the Netherlands. The author seeks the solution in private international law, since other means of addressing the problem, such as harmonization and unification of substantive law rules, have failed so far. This boo...

  19. Wage bargaining in Germany: The role of works councils and opening clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Ellguth, Peter; Gerner, Hans-Dieter; Stegmaier, Jens

    2012-01-01

    German employment relations are characterized by a distinct dual system: First, working conditions and wages are determined by industry level collective bargaining agreements. Second, on the establishment level the works council is responsible for employer-employee negotiations. But since the mid-1980s more and more areas of regulation were transferred from the industry to the establishment level using so called opening-clauses. Our analysis relies on rich German establishment data and reveal...

  20. Origin and functioning of circumstantial clause linkers: a cross-linguistic study

    OpenAIRE

    Martowicz, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The thesis analyses a variety of clause linkers used in the world’s languages as dedicated markers of four circumstantial relations between states of affairs: anteriority (‘after’), causality (‘because’), purpose (‘in order to’) and conditionality (‘if’). Focusing primarily on the function of the linkers rather than on their formal properties the study scrutinizes the origin and functioning of free-word adverbial subordinators, converbal endings as well as other subordinating a...

  1. A structural equation model relating objective and subjective masticatory function and oral health-related quality of life in patients with removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fueki, K; Yoshida, E; Igarashi, Y

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between objective masticatory function with respect to masticatory performance and food mixing ability, patients' perception of chewing ability and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Partially dentate patients with removable partial dentures (n = 131, mean age 67·1 year) participated in the study. Four tests were performed to evaluate objective and subjective masticatory function and OHRQoL. Masticatory performance and food mixing ability were assessed using peanuts or a two-coloured wax cube as test items. Patients' perception of chewing ability was rated using a food intake questionnaire. OHRQoL was measured using the Japanese version of the oral health impact profile. A structural equation model was constructed based on hypothesis in which objective masticatory function would be related to OHRQoL via perceived chewing ability as a mediator. Structural equation modelling analysis found a statistically significant medium effect of perceived chewing ability on OHRQoL and statistically significant medium or small effects of masticatory performance on perceived chewing ability and OHRQoL (P food mixing ability on perceived chewing ability or OHRQoL was not statistically significant (P > 0·05). A fit index indicated that the model fitted well to the data (Goodness-of-fit index = 0·99). These results suggest that perceived chewing ability is a critical factor for OHRQoL and that masticatory performance rather than food mixing ability is important for perceived chewing ability and OHRQoL in patients with removable partial dentures. PMID:20673294

  2. Comparison between Face and Object Processing in Youths with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An event related potentials study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Khorrami

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Incapability in face perception and recognition is one of the main issues in autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Event related potential (ERP studies have revealed controversial insights on autistic brain responses to faces and objects. The current investigation examined the ERP components of young children with ASD compared to a typically developing (TD group when looking at the upright and inverted images of faces and cars.Fourteen children and adolescents aged between 9 and 17 diagnosed as having ASD were compared with 18 age- gender matched normally developing individuals. All participants' ERPs were recorded while they were seeing the images of human faces and objects in both upright and inverted positions. The ERP components including N170 (latency and amplitude were compared between the two groups in two conditions of upright and inverted using the repeated measure analysis method.The processing speed for upright faces was faster than the inverted faces in the TD group; however, the difference was not significant. A significant difference was observed in terms of N170 latency between the two groups for different stimulus categories such as objects and faces(p<0.05. Moreover, inverted vs. upright stimuli in both groups elicited a greater response in terms of N170 amplitude in both groups, and this effect was significantly prominent in the right hemisphere (p<0.05. The N170 amplitude turned out to be greater for the inverted vs. upright stimuli irrespective of the stimuli type and group.These data suggest youths with ASD have difficulty processing information, particularly in face perception regardless of the stimuli orientation.

  3. Comparative analysis of the symptomatology of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction in relation to objective data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara Barroso Jr

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical presentation of children with lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD relating to objective examination data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four children (36 girls and 8 boys with mean age of 6.8 years with LUTD were prospectively assessed through a specific questionnaire that analyzed clinical presentation of those patients. These data were then compared to objective data, such as micturition diary and uroflowmetry with electromyography. RESULTS: A urinary tract infection (UTI antecedent was observed in 31 cases (70.5%, and of those, 24 cases of UTI were accompanied by fever. All children presented micturition urgency. Daily urinary incontinence was observed in 33 cases (75% and nocturnal enuresis in 23 (52.3%. As for micturition frequency, 15 (34.1% had normal frequency 19 (43.2% presented more than 10 daily micturition episodes and 10 (22.7% thought they urinated less than 5 times a day. In the uroflowmetry and electromyography examination, 14 (31.8% experienced lack of coordination during micturition. Of 10 children with infrequent micturition, 5 confirmed this in their micturition diaries and 2 listed more than 5 micturition episodes per day in the diary. Of 19 patients presenting polaciuria, only 5 confirmed this in their micturition diaries, while 7 had less than 10 micturition episodes per day. CONCLUSION: Most children with LUTD presented a previous UTI, and daily incontinence was verified in around 75% of the patients. Complaints of polaciuria or infrequent micturition are not noted completely in the micturition diaries and there is no parameter in the clinical history that offers good sensitivity or specificity for the diagnosis of lack of perineal coordination.

  4. How to start a V2 declarative clause: Transfer of syntax vs. information structure in L2 German

    OpenAIRE

    Ute Bohnacker; Christina Rosén

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses V2 word order and information structure in Swedish, German and non-native German. Concentrating on the clause-initial position of V2 declaratives, the ‘prefield’, we investigate the extent of L1 transfer in a closely related L2. The prefield anchors the clause in discourse, and although almost any type of element can occur in this position, naturalistic text corpora of native Swedish and native German show distinct language-specific patterns. Certain types of elements are...

  5. Iron Abundance in the Prototype PG 1159 Star, GW Vir Pulsator PG 1159-035, and Related Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, K.; Rauch, T.; Kruk, J. W.; Kurucz, R. L.

    2011-01-01

    We performed an iron abundance determination of the hot, hydrogen deficient post-AGB star PG 1159-035. which is the prototype of the PG 1159 spectral class and the GW Vir pulsators, and of two related objects (PG 1520+525, PG 1144+005), based on the first detection of Fe VIII lines in stellar photospheres. In another PG 1159 star. PG 1424+535. we detect Fe VII lines. In all four stars, each within T(sub eff) = 110,000-150,000 K, we find a solar iron abundance. This result agrees with our recent abundance analysis of the hottest PG 1159 stars (T(sub eff) = 150,000-200,000 K) that exhibit Fe x lines. On the whole, we find that the PG 1159 stars are not significantly iron deficient, in contrast to previous notions.

  6. A cognitive perspective on object relations, drive development and ego structure in the second and third years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posener, J A

    1989-01-01

    This paper extends a recent line of research by correlating Piaget's theory of cognitive development with several psychoanalytic perspectives on development during the second and third years of life. The concrete, imagistic, unintegrated nature of mental representations associated by Mahler and Kernberg with this period, along with the mental operation of splitting, are related to preconceptual representation, a cognitive mode described by Piaget. Psychoanalytic perspectives on the body ego and object world associated with the anal period are also seen to involve concrete, unintegrated representations which show correspondence with preconceptual cognition. Parallels are explored between cognitive stages and the psychoanalytic understanding of ego and superego development. While psychoanalysis is not a cognitive psychology, aspects of its theory are concerned with cognitive structure and are enriched by a consideration of cognitive development. PMID:2606598

  7. The use of congruent and non-congruent clauses in Oscar Wilde's play "The importance of being earnest"

    OpenAIRE

    Kliacevi?, Dalia

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of Oscar Wilde’s play “The Importance of Being Earnest” revealed that of all the non-finite clauses, the infinitival clauses were the most common. They accounted for 81.49% of all the non-congruent clauses used in the play. The author used the following types of infinitival clauses: 1. infinitival clauses in which the infinitive joins with modal auxiliaries or their substitutes; 2. infinitival clauses without explicit subjects; 3. infinitival clauses in which the subjec...

  8. The interaction between relative, familiar object size and binocular vision cues when perceiving stereoscopic 3D content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hands, Paul; Khushu, Aniketa; Read, Jenny

    2015-09-01

    Stereoscopic 3D television can suffer from a "puppet theater effect", where figures are perceived as unnaturally small. This does not normally affect 2D television, perhaps because viewers interpret the image as being produced by a correctly-sized object viewed from a suitably far distance, whereas the additional binocular cues to distance rule out this interpretation in S3D displays. In this study, we examined the interaction between binocular disparity and perceived size. Viewers were shown a picture of a standard credit card - a familiar everyday object with a definite size - presented on a S3D TV screen with varying physical size and binocular disparity. They reported whether it appeared smaller or larger than a real card. The viewing distance was 50, 100 or 200cm. The credit card was presented in the middle of the screen either on a black background (absolute disparity condition), or on a textured background (relative disparity condition). If a "familiar size" cue dominated, viewers would always perceive the image as being credit-card-sized, so the percentage of "bigger" judgments would not depend on image size or disparity. Alternatively, viewers might base their answers on the size of the physical image on the screen, if they were able to detect this. Thirdly, viewers might combine the binocular information about the distance of the virtual card with the angular subtense of the image, and base their answers on the implied size of the virtual card. Our results indicate that viewers use a mixture of the last two strategies. At all 3 viewing distances, they do take disparity into account, especially when this is more precise (relative disparity condition). However, they are also influenced by the physical size of the image on the screen. We present a mathematical model of how viewers combine size and disparity in this task. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326770

  9. From a set of parts to an indivisible whole. Part III: Holistic space of multi-object relations

    OpenAIRE

    Andreev, Leonid

    2008-01-01

    The previously described methodology for hierarchical grouping of objects through iterative averaging has been used for simulation of cooperative interactions between objects of a system with the purpose of investigation of the conformational organization of the system. Interactions between objects were analyzed within the space of an isotropic field of one of the objects (drifter). Such an isotropic field of an individual object can be viewed as a prototype of computer ego....

  10. 32 CFR 48.604 - Transition and protective clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... protective clauses. (a) A retired member who is participating in the Plan without inclusion of former option... individual had no eligible beneficiary. However, if undue hardship or financial burden would result,...

  11. 48 CFR 1327.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1327.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  12. 48 CFR 2427.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Administration of patent... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 2427.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  13. 48 CFR 27.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 27.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  14. 48 CFR 1227.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... TRANSPORTATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1227.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  15. Direct Stakeholder's Perception of PPA Clauses In The Nepalese Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Shrestha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the perceptions of the stakeholders regarding the key issues in Power Purchase Agreements (PPAs in the Nepalese Environment. A total of 90 questionnaires representing sponsors, utility, lenders and government officials were used for the study. The questionnaire sought the perception of the stakeholders regarding the significance (importance of the clauses and the likelihood of inclusion of the clauses in PPAs. Comparison of the ranks of means was conducted by Kruskal-Wallis tests to see the significance of the differences in responses of the stakeholders and Mann-Whitney tests to see the significance of the differences of the pairs of stakeholders. Data analysis showed clauses where the prime stakeholders have similar stand and clauses where the perceptions are divergent. The findings of this paper will help the stakeholders in negotiating PPAs.

  16. Subjective sleepiness and sleep quality in adolescents are related to objective and subjective measures of school performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnnemarieBoschloo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relation between sleep and school performance in a large sample of 561 adolescents aged 11-18 years. Three subjective measures of sleep were used: sleepiness, sleep quality and sleep duration. They were compared to three measures of school performance: objective school grades, self-reported school performance, and parent-reported school performance. Sleepiness – ‘I feel sleepy during the first hours at school’ – appeared to predict both school grades and self-reported school performance. Sleep quality on the other hand – as a measure of (uninterrupted sleep and/or problems falling asleep or waking up – predicted parent-reported school performance. Self- and parent-reported school performance correlated only moderately with school grades. So it turns out that the measures used to measure either sleep or school performance impacts whether or not a relation is found. Further research on sleep and school performance should take this into account. The findings do underscore the notion that sleep in adolescence can be important for learning. They are compatible with the hypothesis that a reduced sleep quality can give rise to sleepiness in the first hours at school which results in lower school performance. This notion could have applied value in counseling adolescents and their parents in changing adolescents’ sleep behavior.

  17. Immediate compensation for variations in self-generated Coriolis torques related to body dynamics and carried objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeon, Pascale; Dizio, Paul; Lackner, James R

    2013-09-01

    We have previously shown that the Coriolis torques that result when an arm movement is performed during torso rotation do not affect movement trajectory. Our purpose in the present study was to examine whether torso motion-induced Coriolis and other interaction torques are counteracted during a turn and reach (T&R) movement when the effective mass of the hand is augmented, and whether the dominant arm has an advantage in coordinating intersegmental dynamics as predicted by the dynamic dominance hypothesis (Sainburg RL. Exp Brain Res 142: 241-258, 2002). Subjects made slow and fast T&R movements in the dark to just extinguished targets with either arm, while holding or not holding a 454-g object. Movement endpoints were equally accurate at both speeds, with either hand, and in both weight conditions, but subjects tended to angularly undershoot and produce more variable endpoints for targets requiring greater torso rotation. There were no changes in endpoint accuracy or trajectory deviation over repeated movements. The dominant right arm was more stable in its control of trajectory direction across targets, whereas the nondominant left arm had an improved ability to stop accurately on the target for higher levels of interaction torques. The trajectories to more eccentric targets were straighter when performed at higher speeds but slightly more deviated when subjects held the weight. Subjects did not slow their torso velocity or change the timing of the arm and torso velocities when holding the weight, although there was a slight decrease in their hand velocity relative to the torso. The delay between the onsets of torso and finger movements was almost twice as large for the right arm than the left, suggesting the right arm was better able to account for torso rotation in the arm movement. Holding the weight increased the peak Coriolis torque by 40% at the shoulder and 45% at the elbow and, for the most eccentric target, increased the peak net torque by 12% at the shoulder and 34% at the elbow. In accordance with Sainburg's dynamic dominance hypothesis, the right arm exhibited an advantage for coordinating intersegmental dynamics, showing a more stable finger velocity in relation to the torso across targets, decreasing error variability with movement speed, and more synchronized peaks of finger relative and torso angular velocities in conditions with greater joint torque requirements. The arm used had little effect on the movement path and the magnitude of the joint torques in any of the conditions. These results indicate that compensations for forthcoming Coriolis torque variations take into account the dynamic properties of the body and of external objects, as well as the planned velocities of the torso and arm. PMID:23803330

  18. Stock loan with Automatic termination clause, cap and margin

    OpenAIRE

    Shuqing Jiang; Zongxia Liang; Weiming Wu

    2010-01-01

    This paper works out fair values of stock loan model with automatic termination clause, cap and margin. This stock loan is treated as a generalized perpetual American option with possibly negative interest rate and some constraints. Since it helps a bank to control the risk, the banks charge less service fees compared to stock loans without any constraints. The automatic termination clause, cap and margin are in fact a stop order set by the bank. Mathematically, it is a kind of optimal stoppi...

  19. Improved Separations of Regular Resolution from Clause Learning Proof Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bonet, Maria Luisa; Buss, Sam; Johannsen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    We prove that the graph tautology formulas of Alekhnovich, Johannsen, Pitassi, and Urquhart have polynomial size pool resolution refutations that use only input lemmas as learned clauses and without degenerate resolution inferences. We also prove that these graph tautology formulas can be refuted by polynomial size DPLL proofs with clause learning, even when restricted to greedy, unit-propagating DPLL search. We prove similar results for the guarded, xor-fied pebbling tautol...

  20. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets can be used in many application systems for structural and content analysis. An example of the use the hybrid sets for logistics systems modeling is shown.

  1. TURKISH PARTICIPLES AND GREEK RELATIVE CLAUSES: TURKISH PARASYNTHEMES AND GREEK SYNTAGMS TÜRK D?L?NDE ORTAÇLAR – YUNAN D?L?NDE ?LG? YANTÜMCELER?: TÜRKÇE’DE PARASENTEMLER, YUNANCA’DA SENTAGMLAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni SELLA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkish and Greek differ clearly in terms of both the syntactic processes and the distribution of their units. Indicative of this differentiation are the difficulties faced by the speakers of Greece in acquiring the method and usage of the S?fat Fiil of the Turkish language, particularly the ones denoting relations of specialisation between reference and referent. For this purpose, we decided to examine these relations closely, both according to the principles of the contrastive study of the two structural systems, as well as in terms of error analysis, based on the theoretical premises of A. Martinet's Functional Linguistics.The analysis and interpretation of our students' errors leads to the conclusion that, compared to Modern Greek, which is for the mostpart characterised by syntagms, i.e. with an analytic method of structuring and providing information (and it is in this sense contrasted to Ancient Greek, the hardest problem in Turkish lies in the existence of synthemes and parasynthemes, i.e. a synthetic and concentrated structural method. Indeed, this is a clear difference, one that is hard to overcome in the learning process adopted for Turkish. The co-existence of genetic and typological divergences accounts for the presence of a significant number of gaps, which are due not to the strategy of interference, but rather to the mechanism of simplification and to the principle of least effort. Yunanca ile Türkçe aras?nda hem söz dizimi hem de birimlerin da??l?m? konusunda belirleyici farkl?l?klar vard?r. Bu farkl?l?klar?n ö?renimde sebep olan zorluklar?n aras?nda ana dili Yunanca olanlar?n Türkçe ö?renmelerinde, s?fat–fiil bulunduran tümcelerin söz diziminde (sentaks ve s?fat-fiillerin kullan?m?nda, özellikle de tamlayan ve tamlanan aras?ndaki ili?ki konusunda kar??la?t?klar? güçlükler de gösterilebilir. Bundan dolay?d?r ki, iki dil sistemi Kar??tsal ?nceleme ve de Yanl??lar? ?nceleme kurallar?na dayan?larak incelenip bu zorluklar?n nedenlerini ara?t?rmaya karar verilmi?tir. Bu çal??ma, André Martinet’in ??levsel Dilbilimi’nin teorisine dayan?r. Ö?rencilerin yapt??? yanl??lar?n incelenmesi ve aç?klanmas?ndan, ana dili Yunanca olanlar?n Türkçe ö?renmelerinde en büyük zorluk, Ça?da? Yunancada bildiri?imde (Eski Yunancan?n tersine, daha çok sentagmalar?n – yani verilerin ve bilgilerin ileti?iminde daha ayr?nt?l? bir yap?n?n – Türkçede ise sentem ve parasemtemlerin (birle?kebirim - yani daha yo?un ve bire?imli bir yap?n?n - kullan?lmas?d?r. Bu ay?r?c? farkl?l?ktan kaynaklanan güçlükleri a?mak, Türkçe ö?reniminde oldukça zor bir süreçtir. Genetik ve tipoloj?k farkl?l?klar?n bir araya gelmesi, oldukça büyük say?daki sapmalar?n meydana gelmesinin sebebi olarak gösterilebilir. Bu sapmalar?n, giri?imden çok, basitle?tirme ve en az çaba göstermek dü?üncesinden kaynaklanmaktad?r.

  2. Assisted suicide and the savings clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helminski, F

    1995-06-01

    In December 1994, the Michigan Supreme Court decided a group of cases comprising constitutional challenges to a Michigan statute against assisted suicide and prosecutions of Dr. Jack Kevorkian for his role in two incidents of suicide. The court rejected arguments that the statute infringed a right of "personal autonomy" under the Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution; it noted that, although US Supreme Court opinions indicate that decisions to withdraw or reject life-sustaining treatment are constitutionally protected, a legal difference exists between permitting death to occur by natural means and taking affirmative steps to end life. The Michigan court also decided that Kevorkian could not be charged with murder for supplying only the means by which suicide occurred, but he could be charged with a common law crime of assisting in suicide although the statute outlawing such actions became effective only after the suicides occurred. Because suicide was a crime under the prerevolutionary English Common Law, which forms the foundation of Michigan law, assisting in suicide is also a residual crime under the "savings clause" of the Michigan statutes, which incorporates common law crimes into the law of that state when no superseding statute exists. PMID:7776723

  3. Identification of metrics to monitor salt marsh integrity on National Wildlife Refuges in relation to conservation and management objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckles, Hilary A.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Shriver, W. George; Danz, Nicholas P.; Wiest, Whitney A.; Nagel, Jessica L.; Olker, Jennifer H.

    2013-01-01

    Most salt marshes in the US have been degraded by human activities, and threats from physical alterations, surrounding land-use, species invasions, and global climate change persist. Salt marshes are unique and highly productive ecosystems with high intrinsic value to wildlife, and many National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) have been established in coastal areas to protect large tracts of salt marsh and wetland-dependent species. Various management practices are employed routinely on coastal NWRs to restore and enhance marsh integrity and ensure ecosystem sustainability. Prioritizing NWR salt marshes for application of management actions and choosing among multiple management options requires scientifically-based methods for assessing marsh condition. Monitoring is integral to structured decision-making (SDM), a formal process for decomposing a decision into its essential elements. Within a natural resource context, SDM involves identifying management objectives, alternative management actions, and expected management outcomes. The core of SDM is a set of criteria for measuring system performance and evaluating management responses. Therefore, use of SDM to frame natural resource decisions leads to logical selection of monitoring attributes that are linked explicitly to management needs. We used SDM to guide selection of variables for monitoring the ecological integrity of salt marshes within the National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS). Our objectives were to identify indicators of salt marsh integrity that are effective across large geographic regions, responsive to a wide range of threats, and feasible to implement within funding and staffing constraints of the NWRS. In April, 2008, we engaged interdisciplinary experts in a week-long rapid prototyping SDM workshop to define the essential elements of salt marsh management decisions on refuges throughout the northeastern, southwestern, and northwestern US, corresponding to respective Regions 5, 2, and 1 of the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). Through this process we identified measurable attributes for monitoring salt marsh ecosystems that are integrated into conservation practice and target management objectives. The following salt marsh attributes were identified through the SDM process either for describing state condition to determine management needs or for evaluating the achievement of management objectives: historical condition and geomorphic setting; ditch density; surrounding land use; ratio of open water area to vegetation area; rate of pesticide application; environmental contaminant concentration; change in marsh surface elevation relative to sea level rise; tidal range and groundwater level; surface topography; salinity; and species composition and abundance of vegetation, invasive species, invertebrates, nekton, and breeding and wintering birds. The identified attributes were too broadly defined to serve as operational monitoring variables. Therefore, we tested specific metrics for quantifying most of these attributes in summers of 2008 and 2009. The first four attributes in the above list can be characterized by office-based analysis of existing GIS data layers. The remaining attributes require field-based methods for assessment. We were forced to exclude a small number of attributes from field tests due to inconsistent data (pesticide application rate, environmental contaminant concentrations) or requirements that exceeded the scope of this project (change in marsh surface elevation; surface topography; benthic invertebrates; wintering birds). We evaluated potential metrics for evaluating all remaining field attributes. In partnership with NWRS biologists, we tested rapid versus intensive metrics for monitoring field attributes (tidal range and groundwater level; marsh surface elevation; salinity; and species composition and abundance of vegetation, invasive species, nekton, and breeding birds) at coastal refuges throughout FWS Region 5. Seven refuges participated in metric testing in 2008: Rachel Carson (ME), Parker River (MA), Wertheim (NY), E. B. Forsythe

  4. Multi-Objective Optimization of Vehicle Sound Package in Middle Frequency Using Gray Relational Analysis Coupled with Principal Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuming; Wang, Dengfeng; Shi, Tianze; Chen, Jing

    2015-12-01

    This research studies optimization design of the thickness of sound packages for a passenger car. The major characteristics indexes for performance determined to evaluate the process are sound pressure level of the interior middle frequency noise and weight of the sound package. Three kinds of materials of sound packages are selected for the optimization process. The corresponding parameters of the sound packages are the thickness of the insulation plate for outer side of the firewall, thickness of the sound absorbing wool for inner side of the firewall, thickness of PU foam for the front floor, and thickness of PU foam for the rear floor, respectively. In this paper, the optimization procedure is a multi-objective optimization. Therefore, gray relational analysis (GRA) is applied to decide the optimal combination of sound package parameters. Furthermore, the principal component analysis (PCA) is used to calculate the weighting values which are corresponding to multiple performance characteristics. Then, the results of the confirmation tests uncover that GRA coupled with principal analysis methods can effectively be applied to find the optimal combination of the thickness of the sound packages at different positions for a passenger car. Thus, the proposed method can be a useful tool to improve the automotive interior middle frequency noise and lower the weight of the sound packages. Additionally, it will also be useful for automotive manufactures and designers in other fields.

  5. Pairs and Groups of Genetically Related Long-Period Comets and Probable Identity of the Mysterious Lick Object of 1921

    CERN Document Server

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    2015-01-01

    We present the history of investigation of the dynamical properties of pairs and groups of genetically related long-period comets (other than the Kreutz sungrazing system). Members of a comet pair or group move in nearly identical orbits and their origin as fragments of a common parent comet is unquestionable. The only variable is the time of perihelion passage, which differs from member to member considerably due primarily to an orbital-momentum increment acquired during breakup. Meter-per-second separation velocities account for gaps of years or tens of years, thanks to the orbital periods of many millennia. The physical properties of individual members may not at all be alike, as illustrated by the trio of C/1988 A1, C/1996 Q1, and C/2015 F3. We exploit orbital similarity to examine whether the celebrated and as yet unidentified object, discovered from the Lick Observatory near the Sun at sunset on 1921 August 7, happened to be a member of such a pair and to track down the long-period comet to which it cou...

  6. 48 CFR 745.106 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY ...funds were obligated under a Strategic Objective agreement (or...already obligated under a Strategic Objective agreement...

  7. Syntaktische Nebensatzklassen im Deutschen / Syntactic classes of subordinate clauses in German

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hardarik, Blühdorn.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo dá uma visão panorâmica das classes de orações subordinadas da língua alemã. Suas funções e estruturas sintáticas são descritas mediante o esquema das posições e dos campos. Três aspectos específicos são tratados mais a fundo: as funções (i) de pronomes e (ii) de partículas de comparação em [...] relação a orações subordinadas e (iii) o papel de orações subordinadas em construções clivadas. O artigo pode ser usado para fins didáticos no meio acadêmico e como ponto de partida para estudos em sintaxe comparativa. Abstract in english This article gives an overview of the syntactic classes of subordinate clauses in German. Their functions and structures are described with the help of the model of linear positions and fields. Three questions are treated in more detail: the functions of (i) pronouns and (ii) comparative particles i [...] n relation to subordinate clauses and (iii) the role of subordinate clauses in cleft constructions. The article can be used in academic teaching and as a starting point for studies in comparative syntax.

  8. Complex Clause Syntax in the Italian Classroom – the Learners Between Transfer and Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Mertelj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When teaching Italian as a foreign language, learners’ insecurities about using conjunctions and tenses in subordinate clauses can be noticed very early. Temporality, relative temporality and modality are signalled by Italian verb forms which function in a largely different (or apparently similar way in comparison to Slovene. If ‘true’ similarities can be exploited in the process of teaching/learning by means of a positive transfer, apparent ‘similarities’ and ‘differences’ between the two language systems should, on the other hand, be clarified to avoid negative transfer (interference. During the whole learning process language awareness should be developed, also through contrastive insights into the linguistic systems concerned. Taking as a starting point a text suitable for level B1, some problematic points are presented, for which a series of tasks can be suggested with the aim of helping the learner master complex clause syntax and develop language awareness.Key words: Italian, foreign/second language, complex clause, syntax, transfer, language awareness

  9. Differentiating spatial and object-based effects on attention: an event-related brain potential study with peripheral cueing.

    OpenAIRE

    He, X.; Humphreys, G; Fan, S; Chen, L; Han, S.

    2008-01-01

    Do spatial attention and object attention modulate visual processing in similar ways? Previously we have found a dissociation between these two forms of attention on ERP measures of sensory processing under conditions of peripheral cueing, with spatial attention effects associated with changes over anterior scalp regions and object attention effects associated with changes over posterior regions (He, X., Fan, S., Zhou, K., Chen, L., 2004. Cue validity and object-based attention. J. Cogn. Neur...

  10. Mood Selection in Relative Clauses: Interfaces and Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonovo, Claudia; de Garavito, Joyce Bruhn; Prévost, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    There is presently a lively debate in second language (L2) acquisition research as to whether (adult) learners can acquire linguistic phenomena located at the interface between syntax and other modules, such as semantics, pragmatics, and lexical semantics, in contrast to phenomena that are purely syntactic in nature. For some researchers, the…

  11. For a relational approach to modern literary Arabic conditional clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Sartori, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    À partir d'œuvres romanesques écrites en arabe littéraire moderne publiées entre 1963 et 2005 et issues de l'ensemble du monde arabe, cet article tend à montrer en quoi les systèmes hypothétiques de cette variété de la langue ne correspondent plus au modèle "classiquement" établi. Précisément, il indique que les grammaires dites de l'arabe moderne se révèlent, confrontées à la réalité des textes, descriptivement inadéquates. Il montre ensuite en quoi la conditionnelle moderne arabe, dans son ...

  12. Objective civil liability for work-related health damages Responsabilidade civil objetiva pelos danos à saúde do trabalhador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Caravieri Martins Gambá

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The environment, including that of work , is considered a basic right guaranteed by Magna Carta (article 7º, XXII, section 225, caption and article 200, VIII . The social value of work represents the pillars of Economic Order (article 170, CF and Social Order (article 193, CF, which offers full health and physical integrity protection to workers in their working environment. Thus, the question of work-related damages suffered by employees due to industrial accidents and occupational hazards must be analyzed within the work environment protection legal context , adopting the objective civil liability theory, by means of a teleologic logical-systematic interpretation of constitutional and infra-constitutional rules. This interpretation evidences the compatibility of the economic activity and the free initiative according to the Democratic State of Right, in order to build a more just and united society , thus reducing social inequalities.O meio ambiente, incluído o do trabalho, é considerado um direito fundamental, estando expressamente previsto no artigo 7º, inciso XXII, no artigo 225, caput e artigo 200, inciso VIII, todos da Carta Magna. Ademais, os valores sociais do trabalho representam pilares da Ordem Econômica (artigo 170 da CF e da Ordem Social (artigo 193 da CF, impondo plena proteção à saúde e à integridade física do trabalhador no meio ambiente onde exerce suas atividades. Desse modo, a questão da reparação dos danos sofridos pelos empregados em função dos acidentes de trabalho e das doenças ocupacionais deve ser analisada dentro do contexto jurídico da proteção ao meio ambiente do trabalho, adotando-se a teoria da responsabilidade civil objetiva, mediante uma interpretação lógico-sistemática e teleológica das normas constitucionais e infraconstitucionais. Essa interpretação evidencia a compatibilização da atividade econômica e da livre iniciativa com os fundamentos do Estado Democrático de Direito, no intuito de se construir uma sociedade mais justa e solidária, reduzindo as desigualdades sociais.

  13. Experimental Effects and Individual Differences in Linear Mixed Models: Estimating the Relation of Spatial, Object, and Attraction Effects in Visual Attention

    OpenAIRE

    ReinholdKliegl; PingWei

    2011-01-01

    Linear mixed models (LMMs) provide a still underused methodological perspective on combining experimental and individual-differences research. Here we illustrate this approach with two-rectangle cueing in visual attention (Egly, Driver, & Rafal, 1994). We replicated previous experimental cue-validity effects relating to a spatial shift of attention within an object (spatial effect), to attention switch between objects (object effect), and to the attraction of attention towards the display...

  14. Assessment of subjective and objective cognitive function in bipolar disorder : Correlations, predictors and the relation to psychosocial function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Kirsa M; Vinberg, Maj

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is prevalent in bipolar disorder (BD). However, the evidence regarding the association between subjective cognitive complaints, objective cognitive performance and psychosocial function is sparse and inconsistent. Seventy seven patients with bipolar disorder who presented cognitive complaints underwent assessment of objective and subjective cognitive function and psychosocial functioning as part of their participation in two clinical trials. We investigated the association between global and domain-specific objective and subjective cognitive function and between global cognitive function and psychosocial function. We also identified clinical variables that predicted objective and subjective cognitive function and psychosocial functioning. There was a significant, however weak, correlation between objective and subjective measures of global cognitive function but not within the individual cognitive domains, and a moderate correlation between subjective cognitive function and psychosocial function. Increased depression severity predicted greater subjective cognitive dysfunction globally (memory, attention and executive function) and in attention as well as lower psychosocial functioning. In conclusion, subjective cognitive difficulties seem to reflect general objective deficits in bipolar disorder but not individual cognitive domains. Cognitive complaints are associated with impaired psychosocial function and both are predicted by greater depression severity. Subjective cognitive complaints seem clinically useful as a threshold marker aiming for further objective cognitive assessment.

  15. EROs found behind lensing clusters. II. Stellar populations and dust properties of optical dropout EROs and comparison with related objects

    CERN Document Server

    Schärer, D; Egami, E; Pellò, R; Richard, J; Le Borgne, J F; Kneib, J P; Wise, M; Boone, F

    2007-01-01

    We determine the nature, redshift, stellar populations and dust properties of optically faint or non-detected extremely red objects (ERO) found from our survey of the lensing clusters A1835 and AC114. We perform SED fitting and use deep optical, HST, VLT, Spitzer data, and for some objects and sub-mm data. For most of the lensed EROs we find photometric redshifts showing a strong degeneracy between "low-z" (z~1-3) and high-z (z~6-7). Although formally best fits are often found at high-z, their resulting bright absolute magnitudes, the number density of these objects, and in some cases Spitzer photometry or longer wavelength observations, suggest strongly that all of these objects are at "low-z". The majority of these objects are best fitted with young (<~ 0.5-0.7 Gyr) and dusty starbursts. Indications for strong extinction, with A_V~2.4-4, are found in some objects. For dusty objects star formation rates (SFR) have been estimated from the bolometric luminosity determined after fitting of semi-empirical sta...

  16. Temporal and co-varying clause combining in Austronesian languages : Semantics, morpho-syntax and distributional patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates combined clause constructions for ten distinct semantic relations in a cross-section of Austronesian languages. The relations are of a temporal or co-varying nature, the former commonly expressed in English by such markers as when, then, until, etc. and the latter by if, so, because, etc. The research falls into three main sections. First, the study provides an overview of the semantic domain covered by the relevant relations in the Austronesian languages. Several subd...

  17. Identification of Metrics to Monitor Salt Marsh Integrity on National Wildlife Refuges In Relation to Conservation and Management Objectives

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We used SDM to guide selection of variables for monitoring the ecological integrity of salt marshes within the National Wildlife Refuge System NWRS. Our objectives...

  18. High-resolution imaging of expertise reveals reliable object selectivity in the fusiform face area related to perceptual performance

    OpenAIRE

    McGugin, Rankin Williams; Gatenby, J. Christopher; GORE, JOHN C.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The fusiform face area (FFA) is a region of human cortex that responds selectively to faces, but whether it supports a more general function relevant for perceptual expertise is debated. Although both faces and objects of expertise engage many brain areas, the FFA remains the focus of the strongest modular claims and the clearest predictions about expertise. Functional MRI studies at standard-resolution (SR-fMRI) have found responses in the FFA for nonface objects of expertise, but high-resol...

  19. Incorporating Clause Learning in Grid-Based Randomized SAT Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti E.J. Hyvaerinen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Computational Grids provide a widely distributed computing environment suitable for randomized SAT solving. This paper develops techniques for incorporating clause learning, known to yield significant speed-ups in the sequential case, in such a distributed framework. The approach exploits existing state-of-the-art clause learning SAT solvers by embedding them with virtually no modifications. The paper presents an algorithmic framework for learning-enhanced randomized SAT solving in Grid environments. With a substantial amount of controlled experiments it is demonstrated that this approach enables a form of clause learning which is not directly available in the underlying sequential SAT solver. Finally, an implementation of the algorithm is run in a production level Grid where it solves several problems not solved in the SAT 2007 solver competition.

  20. 48 CFR 970.2703-2 - Patent rights clause provisions for management and operating contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights clause provisions for management and... DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2703-2 Patent rights clause provisions for management...

  1. 48 CFR 1827.305 - Administration of the patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... patent rights clauses. 1827.305 Section 1827.305 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1827.305 Administration of the patent rights clauses....

  2. 78 FR 37980 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Solicitation Provisions and Contract Clauses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ...229-7003, Tax Exemptions (Italy...229-7003, Tax Exemptions (Italy). If...solicitation includes the clause at FAR 52.204-7...229-7005, Tax Exemptions (Spain). If...solicitation includes the clause at FAR...

  3. 48 CFR 1616.7002 - Clause-contracts based on cost analysis (experience rated).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Clause-contracts based on cost analysis (experience rated). 1616.7002 Section 1616...contracts based on cost analysis (experience rated). The clause at section...FEHBP contracts based on cost analysis (experience...

  4. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 230 - Model Clauses and Sample Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SYSTEM TRUTH IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) Pt. 230, App. B Appendix B to Part 230—Model Clauses and Sample Forms Table of contents B-1—Model Clauses for Account Disclosures (Section 230.4(b)) B-2—Model...

  5. Syntactic variants and natural syntax: Greek infinitive clauses dependent on verbs of speaking and thinking:

    OpenAIRE

    Kav?i?, Jerneja

    2010-01-01

    This paper explains a very well-known feature of Classical Greek syntax from the perspective of Natural Syntax. Most grammars of Classical Greek state that infinitive clauses could be dependent on both verbs of speaking and thinking in Classical Greek. In contrast, finite dependent clauses could be governed only by verbs of speaking. However, one verb of speaking that regularly governs infinitive clauses is 'say'. In terms of Natural Syntax, infinitive clauses are more natural than finite dep...

  6. Syntactic variants and natural syntax : Greek infinitive clauses dependent on verbs of speaking and thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Jerneja Kav?i?

    2010-01-01

    This paper explains a very well-known feature of Classical Greek syntax from the perspective of Natural Syntax. Most grammars of Classical Greek state that infinitive clauses could be dependent on both verbs of speaking and thinking in Classical Greek. In contrast, finite dependent clauses could be governed only by verbs of speaking. However, one verb of speaking that regularly governs infinitive clauses is 'say'. In terms of Natural Syntax, infinitive clauses are more natural than finite dep...

  7. Minimal erythema dose and minimal melanogenesis dose relate better to objectively measured skin type than to Fitzpatricks skin type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf, Hans Christian; Philipsen, Peter A; Ravnbak, Mette H

    2010-01-01

    Fitzpatrick skin type (FST I-IV) is a subjective expression of ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity based on erythema and tanning reactivity after a single exposure. Pigment protection factor (PPF) is an objective measurement of skin sensitivity in all skin types after a single exposure....

  8. Object visibility alters the relative contribution of ventral visual stream and mirror neuron system to goal anticipation during action observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thioux, Marc; Keysers, Christian

    2015-01-15

    We used fMRI to study the effect of hiding the target of a grasping action on the cerebral activity of an observer whose task was to anticipate the size of the object being grasped. Activity in the putative mirror neuron system (pMNS) was higher when the target was concealed from the view of the observer and anticipating the size of the object being grasped requested paying attention to the hand kinematics. In contrast, activity in ventral visual areas outside the pMNS increased when the target was fully visible, and the performance improved in this condition. A repetition suppression analysis demonstrated that in full view, the size of the object being grasped by the actor was encoded in the ventral visual stream. Dynamic causal modeling showed that monitoring a grasping action increased the coupling between the parietal and ventral premotor nodes of the pMNS. The modulation of the functional connectivity between these nodes was correlated with the subject's capability to detect the size of hidden objects. In full view, synaptic activity increased within the ventral visual stream, and the connectivity with the pMNS was diminished. The re-enactment of observed actions in the pMNS is crucial when interpreting others' actions requires paying attention to the body kinematics. However, when the context permits, visual-spatial information processing may complement pMNS computations for improved action anticipation accuracy. PMID:25462688

  9. 41 CFR 109-45.301-51 - Export/import clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Export/import clause... § 109-45.301-51 Export/import clause. The following clause shall be included in all sales invitations.../import from/into the country where the personal property is located. If export/import is allowed,...

  10. 21 CFR 70.51 - Advisory committee on the applicability of the anticancer clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... anticancer clause. 70.51 Section 70.51 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... of the anticancer clause. All requests for and procedures governing any advisory committee on the anticancer clause shall be subject to the provisions of part 14 of this chapter, and particularly subpart...

  11. 48 CFR 970.1504-5 - Solicitation provision and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contract clauses. 970.1504-5 Section 970.1504-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY....1504-5 Solicitation provision and contract clauses. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause... Operations/Field Office Manager, or designee, requires the contractor to submit a self-assessment. (4)...

  12. 48 CFR 1834.203-70 - NASA solicitation provision and contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and contract clause. 1834.203-70 Section 1834.203-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... Management System 1834.203-70 NASA solicitation provision and contract clause. Except for the contracts... manager in accordance with OMB Circular A-11; and (b) The clause at 1852.234-2, Earned Value...

  13. 48 CFR 1852.301 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). 1852.301 Section 1852.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... and Clause Matrix 1852.301 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix)....

  14. 48 CFR 52.301 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and Clause Matrix 52.301 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). Note: The FAR matrix is not carried in the CFR. It is available in the loose-leaf edition. ... and contract clauses (Matrix). 52.301 Section 52.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System...

  15. Disability in major depression related to self-rated and objectively-measured cognitive deficits: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Elizabeth M; Longley Wendy A; Naismith Sharon L; Hickie Ian B

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Although major depression (MD) is associated with high levels of disability, the relationships between cognitive dysfunction and self-rated disability are poorly understood. This study examined the relationships between self-rated disability in persons with MD and both self-rated and objectively-measured cognitive functioning. Methods Twenty-one persons with MD and 21 control participants underwent neuropsychological assessment and z-scores representing deviations from con...

  16. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 573 - Sample Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PRIVACY OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL... personal information about you to the following types of third parties: • Financial service providers, such... the confidentiality and security of nonpublic personal information. Sample Clause A-7: We...

  17. 48 CFR 237.7101 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Laundry and Dry Cleaning Services 237.7101 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses. (a) Use the... contracts for laundry and dry cleaning services to be provided on a count-of-articles basis. (d) Use the... and dry cleaning services to be provided on a bulk weight basis. (1) Insert a reasonable per...

  18. 48 CFR 9903.201-4 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., including any modifications and interpretations indicated thereto contained in 48 CFR part 9905, in effect... trade secrets, and commercial or financial information which is privileged and confidential, the... this clause, except paragraph (b), and shall require such inclusion in all other subcontracts, of...

  19. 48 CFR 236.609-70 - Additional provision and clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Services 236.609-70 Additional provision and clause. (a)(1) Use the... A of the contract. (b) Use the provision at 252.236-7011, Overseas Architect-Engineer...

  20. 37 CFR 401.5 - Modification and tailoring of clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RIGHTS TO INVENTIONS MADE BY NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS AND SMALL BUSINESS FIRMS UNDER... may delete paragraph (g)(2) of the clause and delete the words “to be performed by a small business... business firm or nonprofit organization that it would be in the national interest to acquire the right...

  1. 48 CFR 1535.007-70 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.), the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.), the Safe Drinking Water Act (42 U.S.C. 300f et seq.), the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act... shall insert the clause at 48 CFR 1552.235-71, Treatment of Confidential Business Information,...

  2. Aspects of royalty clauses inside freehold oil and gas leases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the most common royalty clauses currently used are discussed with particular emphasis on the CAPL 88 and the CAPL 91 petroleum and natural gas lease forms and the provisions regarding lessors and lessees. The problems regarding their practical applications are described. The legal status of a royalty inside a freehold oil and gas lease is also examined. 4 refs

  3. Professor Volker Claus: vom o. Professor zum e-Professor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunzenhäuser, Rul; Taras, Christiane; Wörner, Michael

    Der Beitrag würdigt das Wirken von Professor Claus auf Gebieten des rechnerunterstützten Lehrens. Dabei wird ein Bogen von den frühen Systemen des rechnerunterstützten Lehrens über moderne Lernplattformen im Internet zu neuen Anwendungen web-basierter Systeme für das lebenslange Lehren und Lernen gespannt.

  4. 48 CFR 27.409 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... business innovation research contract (see paragraph (h) of this section); (iv) To be performed outside the... determines, in accordance with 27.404-2(b), to adopt the alternate definition of “Limited Rights Data” in... the contract is a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, insert the clause at...

  5. From Sound to Syntax: The Prosodic Bootstrapping of Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Kara

    2013-01-01

    It has long been argued that prosodic cues may facilitate syntax acquisition (e.g., Morgan, 1986). Previous studies have shown that infants are sensitive to violations of typical correlations between clause-final prosodic cues (Hirsh-Pasek et al., 1987) and that prosody facilitates memory for strings of words (Soderstrom et al., 2005). This…

  6. Pratique des relations internationales en francais. Premiere partie: Objectifs et implications didactiques (The Practice of International Relations in French. Part One: Instructional Objectives and Implications).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelides, Maro

    1985-01-01

    Outlines the development of a French second language program based on the communicative needs and professional objectives of individuals conducting diplomatic affairs in France. Two examples of discourse analysis are given: one of a number of telephone conversations recorded in an embassy and the other of a collection of notes. (MSE)

  7. Sound objects – Auditory objects – Musical objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The auditory system transforms patterns of sound energy into perceptual objects but the precise definition of an ‘auditory object’ is much debated. In the context of music listening, Pierre Schaeffer argued that ‘sound objects’ are the fundamental perceptual units in ‘musical objects’. In this paper, I review recent neurocognitive research suggesting that the auditory system is sensitive to structural information about real-world objects. Instead of focusing solely on perceptual sound features as determinants of auditory objects, I propose that real-world object properties are inherent in the organization of the auditory system and as such in music perception as well.

  8. Disability in major depression related to self-rated and objectively-measured cognitive deficits: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Elizabeth M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although major depression (MD is associated with high levels of disability, the relationships between cognitive dysfunction and self-rated disability are poorly understood. This study examined the relationships between self-rated disability in persons with MD and both self-rated and objectively-measured cognitive functioning. Methods Twenty-one persons with MD and 21 control participants underwent neuropsychological assessment and z-scores representing deviations from control performance were calculated and averaged across the domains of psychomotor speed, initial learning, memory retention and executive function. Self-ratings of cognitive deficits (SRCDs were reported on a 6-point scale for overall rating of cognitive change, speed of thinking, concentration, and short-term memory. Disability scores for self-rated physical, mental-health and functional (ie. days out of role disability were computed from the Brief-Disability Questionnaire and the SF-12 'mental component' subscale. Results Persons with MD had a mean age of 53.9 years (SD = 11.0, 76% female and had moderate to high depression severity (mean HDRS 21.7, sd = 4.4. As expected, depression severity was a strong predictor of physical (r = 0.7, p Conclusion While depression severity is associated with disability, the contributions of both self-rated and objectively-measured cognitive deficits are substantial and contribute uniquely and differentially to various forms of disability. Efforts directed at reducing cognitive deficits in depression may have the potential to reduce disability.

  9. Objectives, Extent and Organization of Radiological and Environmental Protection in Relation to the Nature and Size of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological and environmental protection programs for nuclear facilities have similar goals and objectives, which are basically to protect people and the environment from adverse effects. To be effective, the programs must have organizational independence and a strong commitment from management. In return, the programs should ensure that the facility is operating in full compliance with law and good practice. The scope and elements of radiological environmental protection programs will vary according to facility type and size, with the larger and more complex facilities having a diversity of staff and functions. Examples of good and poor organization charts are given and discussed from the standpoint of program effectiveness along with a discussion of the role of the radiation protection committee. (author)

  10. 48 CFR 352.270-8 - Prostitution and related activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prostitution and related activities. 352.270-8...Provisions and Clauses 352.270-8 Prostitution and related activities. As prescribed...shall insert the following clause: Prostitution and Related Activities (January...

  11. New R Coronae Borealis and DY Persei Star Candidates and Other Related Objects Found in Photometric Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Otero, Sebastián; Bernhard, Klaus; Soszy?ski, Igor

    2014-01-01

    We have carried out a search for new R Coronae Borealis (RCB) variables using the publicly accessible data from various photometric sky surveys and-whenever available-AAVSO visual data. Candidates were selected from Tisserand`s "Catalogue enriched with R CrB stars" and by a visual inspection of light curves from the ASAS-3, MACHO, NSVS and OGLE surveys. We have identified two new RCB stars, four RCB candidates, and one DY Persei (DYPer) star candidate. Our identification was based mainly on photometric variability, color-color diagrams, and further information drawn from various catalogue sources; spectroscopic classifications were also reported in our analysis whenever available. Additionally, we present a sample of interesting stars which-although showing similar photometric variability-can be ruled out as RCB and DYPer stars or have been rejected as such on spectroscopic grounds in recent studies. Although not useful in the investigation of the aforementioned groups of variables, these objects defy an easy...

  12. Claus Bonderup : Conversations with the architect and his unique wife Anne Just, about food, art and architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Anna Marie; Hvejsel, Marie Frier

    2012-01-01

    Ever since I was a young student and met Claus Bonderup for the first time, I have been fascinated by his work. I still remember how we turned up for a lecture of his at the Aarhus School of Architecture in the beginning of the 1980s brimming with excitement; a lecture that would end up being very short as my professor ejected him from the auditorium. Claus was not merely a classic innovative architect but also very provocative in his holistic architecture. Back then, his works were too radical for the school. At Aalborg University, initially at the Department of Architecture & Design, and later at the Department of Civil Engineering, I have had the great pleasure of working with Claus for the last 15 years. During this time, I have had the opportunity to observe his skills as a teacher and disseminator, and I have seen the great respect he holds for young, dedicated people and witnessed the students’ confidence in him. In 2008, we wrote a small book, the “old student” and the two “young graduates” from Architecture & Design, who, I would like to emphasise, are two very special young people that have now seriously entered the frame of architectural research and teaching. Now, in the late summer of 2012, we have chosen to republish the first chapter of the book, which is about the DUCK HOUSE Claus created years ago; and we have done so for a very particular reason. A short time ago, I was approached by the director of the 13th International Architecture Exhibition, the highly esteemed British architect, David Chipperfield, and – to put it bluntly – an architect to my and Claus’ liking. Chipperfield has chosen a handful of schools of architecture and architectural universities from all over Europe, which have been invited to gather a group of students and exhibit architectural models; and I have been fortunate enough to be given this opportunity. Chipperfield has chosen to create a response to the prestigious VIP architects’ often staggeringly expensive exhibitions; he wants to make room for the new generation of up and coming architects, for the young, untested and especially talented students of architecture. During July, a group of talented students have therefore built seven architectural models that will be a part of the palette, or installation if you will, which will open in the Italian Pavilion at the end of August. It is quite extraordinary that Aalborg University has received the opportunity to exhibit for the entire period. This occasion must most certainly be marked, and Marie, Tenna and I, along with the students, consequently decided to work with BIRD HOUSES. There are several reasons for this. One of them is that in the coming years, we will launch a number of job-oriented architectural projects within Urban Farming in which the students will initially work with the subject as master’s students, but later, hopefully, as PhD students. Also, I have wished for a long time to give Claus Bonderup the recognition he deserves! His view of architecture, his knowledge and his way of relating to architecture has influenced and inspired generations of students. Claus, if anyone, deserves to be represented at the Biennale. Claus broke many unwritten rules with the Duck House he built for his Anne many years ago. The house has now been measured and reconstructed and has become the MOTHER house that serves as a basis for this project with its unique architectural models for the International Architecture Exhibition. Claus’ Duck House has, thus, in theory and practice alike, become the foundation for the new architectural models, and his thoughts on design have contributed to a fruitful dialogue with the students in their process of creating the architectural models, which can soon be seen at the 13th International Architecture Exhibition in Venice.

  13. Objective becoming

    CERN Document Server

    Skow, Bradford

    2015-01-01

    Bradford Skow presents an original defense of the 'block universe' theory of time, often said to be a theory according to which time does not pass. Along the way, he provides in-depth discussions of alternative theories of time, including those in which there is 'robust passage' of time or 'objective becoming': presentism, the moving spotlight theory of time, the growing block theory of time, and the 'branching time' theory of time. Skow explains why the moving spotlight theory is the best of these arguments, and rebuts several popular arguments against the thesis that time passes. He surveys the problems that the special theory of relativity has been thought to raise for objective becoming, and suggests ways in which fans of objective becoming may reconcile their view with relativistic physics. The last third of the book aims to clarify and evaluate the argument that we should believe that time passes because, somehow, the passage of time is given to us in experience. He isolates three separate arguments thi...

  14. Location, location, location: alterations in the functional topography of face- but not object- or place-related cortex in adolescents with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Luna

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In autism, impairments in face processing are a relatively recent discovery, but have quickly become a widely accepted aspect of the behavioral profile. Only a handful of studies have investigated potential atypicalities in autism in the development of the neural substrates mediating face processing. High-functioning individuals with autism (HFA and matched typically developing (TD controls watched dynamic movie vignettes of faces, common objects, buildings, and scenes of navigation while undergoing an fMRI scan. With these data, we mapped the functional topography of category-selective activation for faces bilaterally in the fusiform gyrus, occipital face area, and posterior superior temporal sulcus. Additionally, we mapped category selective activation for objects in the lateral occipital area and for places in the parahippocampal place area in the two groups. Our findings do not indicate a generalized disruption in the development of the entire ventral visual pathway in autism. Instead, our results suggest that the functional topography of face-related cortex is selectively disrupted in autism and that this alteration is present in early adolescence. Furthermore, for those HFA adolescents who do exhibit face-selective activation, this activation tends to be located in traditionally object-related regions, which supports the hypothesis that perceptual processing of faces in autism may be more akin to the perceptual processing of common objects in TD individuals.

  15. Traditional breeding objectives and practices of goat, sheep and cattle smallholders in The Gambia and implications in relation to the design of breeding interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejlertsen, Maria; Poole, Jane; Marshall, Karen

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the traditional breeding objectives and practices of West African Dwarf goat, Djallonke sheep, and N'dama cattle keepers in The Gambia and discusses the implications of these on the design of breeding-related interventions to improve livestock productivity. Data were collected via surveys implemented within three study sites in The Gambia, where traditional mixed crop-livestock smallholder farming predominates. The surveys comprised a participatory rural appraisal conducted in nine communities and a household questionnaire targeting 238 households. Livestock-keeping households were classified as 'poorer' or 'wealthier' based on the number of cattle owned. The most important objectives for keeping all species of livestock for the poorer groups (0 to 10 cattle) was 'savings and insurance', followed by 'income' and 'ceremonial/dowry' for the small ruminants and 'manure' and 'draught' for both cows and bulls. In contrast, for the wealthier group (more than 10 cattle), savings and insurance was the fourth to seventh ranked production objective (depending on species), with the most important production objectives being ceremonial/dowry for goats, income for sheep and manure for cows and bulls. An analysis of breeding practices indicated that breeding animals are selected on criteria which partially align to the breeding objectives, animals are rarely purchased for the purpose of breed improvement, knowledge of the cause and consequence of inbreeding is low and breeding decision makers may not necessarily be the livestock owner, particularly if the livestock owner is a women. Given this, it is suggested that capacity building on breeding-related issues, particularly in relation to the selection of breeding animals and specifically targeted at the different socioeconomic groups of livestock keepers, may be an appropriate, effective and relatively low-cost breeding intervention. PMID:22706889

  16. Analysis and Transformation Tools for Constrained Horn Clause Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Several techniques and tools have been developed for verification of properties expressed as Horn clauses with constraints over a background theory (CHC). Current CHC verification tools implement intricate algorithms and are often limited to certain subclasses of CHC problems. Our aim in this work is to investigate the use of a combination of off-the-shelf techniques from the literature in analysis and transformation of Constraint Logic Programs (CLPs) to solve challenging CHC verification probl...

  17. Integrating Conflict Driven Clause Learning to Local Search

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles Audenard; Jean-Marie Lagniez; Bertrand Mazure; Lakhdar Saïs

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces SatHyS (SAT HYbrid Solver), a novel hybrid approach for propositional satisfiability. It combines local search and conflict driven clause learning (CDCL) scheme. Each time the local search part reaches a local minimum, the CDCL is launched. For SAT problems it behaves like a tabu list, whereas for UNSAT ones, the CDCL part tries to focus on minimum unsatisfiable sub-formula (MUS). Experimental results show good performances on many classes of SAT instances from the las...

  18. Integrating Conflict Driven Clause Learning to Local Search

    OpenAIRE

    Audenard, Gilles; Lagniez, Jean-Marie; Mazure, Bertrand; Saïs, Lakhdar

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces SatHyS (SAT HYbrid Solver), a novel hybrid approach for propositional satisfiability. It combines local search and conflict driven clause learning (CDCL) scheme. Each time the local search part reaches a local minimum, the CDCL is launched. For SAT problems it behaves like a tabu list, whereas for UNSAT ones, the CDCL part tries to focus on minimum unsatisfiable sub-formula (MUS). Experimental results show good performances on many classes of SAT inst...

  19. ASPECTS REGARDING THE COMPETITIVE OFFER CLAUSE IN INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Marlena BOANC? IVAN

    2013-01-01

    The competitive offer clause allows one contracting party (usually the buyer) to get from the other contracting party (usually the seller) conditions that are more favorable than those from the current contract, namely those offered by a third party. The promissory party has the possibility to accept the adaptation of the contract or to refuse it. If the seller accepts to align to the competition tariff, the contract continues under the new conditions. The acceptance of the promissory party c...

  20. Orações concessivas independentes à luz da gramática discursivo-funcional / Independent concessive clauses in the light of functional discourse grammar

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Talita Storti, Garcia; Erotilde Goreti, Pezatti.

    Full Text Available Este artigo investiga, à luz da Teoria da Gramática Discursivo-Funcional (HENGEVELD; MACKENZIE, 2008), a oração concessiva que não é subordinada a outras orações, ou seja, não apresenta relações sintáticas nem semânticas com orações anteriores ou posteriores, a que denominamos Concessiva Independent [...] e. O objetivo deste estudo consiste em descrever as propriedades discursivas, semânticas, morfossintáticas e prosódicas desse tipo de estrutura, mostrando que sua relevância está na construção e organização do discurso. Os resultados apontam que a Concessiva Independente funciona, no discurso, como um parêntese, que interrompe o fio discursivo, sendo, então, destacado por um contorno prosódico especial, aliado à presença de Atos Interativos. Constitui, portanto, um Movimento, a camada mais alta do Nível Interpessoal, nível que se relaciona aos aspectos pragmáticos da gramática de uma língua. O universo de investigação utilizado é o córpus Iboruna, um banco de dados que registra a variedade do português do noroeste paulista. Abstract in english This paper investigates, in light of the theory of Functional Discourse Grammar (HENGEVELD; MACKENZIE, 2008), the concessive clause that is not subordinated to other clauses, i.e., it has no semantic or syntactic relations with clauses before or after it, and which we call Independent Concessive. Th [...] e aim is to describe the discursive properties and the semantic, morphosyntactic and prosodic structure of this type of clause, showing that its relevance is in the construction and organization of discourse. The results indicate that the Independent Concessive works in speech as a parenthesis which interrupts the discursive course and is then highlighted by a special prosodic contour, combined with the presence of Interactive Acts. It is therefore a Move, the highest layer of the Interpersonal Level, the level that relates to the pragmatic aspects of the grammar of a language. The universe of research used is the Iboruna corpus, a database that records a variety of Portuguese from the Northwest of São Paulo.

  1. Bei: Intraclausal Coherence Relations Illustrated with a German Preposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabski, Michael; Stede, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    Coherence relations are typically taken to link two clauses or larger units and to be signaled at the text surface by conjunctions and certain adverbials. Relations, however, also can hold within clauses, indicated by prepositions like despite, due to, or in case of, when these have an internal argument denoting an eventuality. Although these…

  2. Neural mechanisms of the observation of human and non-human object touch in children: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galilee, Alena; McCleery, Joseph P

    2016-03-01

    Previous behavioural research on the development of self-other tactile processing and perception suggests that this system may develop in a somewhat protracted manner relative to other aspects of social development. Neuroimaging research has shown that somatosensory mechanisms are activated when adults observe another person or object being touched. In this study, we measured event-related potentials from 4- to 5-year-old children to investigate the development of the neural correlates of the observation of human and object touch. Participants were presented with video clips of an arm or a cylindrical object being touched. Touch versus non-touch effects were observed in the amplitudes of the LSW component (600-700 ms) measured from electrodes over somatosensory region. Additionally, human versus non-human stimulus effects were reflected in the amplitudes of the parietal-central N100 component, as well as in the latencies of the N170 component recorded from parietal-occipital electrodes in children, as in adults in a previous study using this same paradigm. These findings provide evidence that relatively mature tactile mirroring mechanisms are activated during the observation of touch in children, and further suggest the possibility that these mechanisms are not particularly slow in their development relative to other aspects of social cognition. PMID:26659431

  3. CLAUSE 49 AND ITS IMPACT ON PERFORMANCE MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paridhi Saini

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to understand the effect of India's adoption of major governance reforms (with reference to Clause 49 which is based on a voluntary 1998 Code of Corporate Governance, developed by the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII, an organization of large Indian public firms.If investors consider the reforms to be valuable (or more valuable for larger firms, firm return in the form of share prices, accounting profit and earning per share should react positively to the key adoption announcement. Over a span period of 10 years before and after the announcement by the Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI, India's principal securities regulator for adoption of Clause 49, the profit after tax and EPS of the listed companies specifically the group of companies selected for this study has shown the positive effect on the above specified components. Average returns had increased considerably and even EPS also present the same picture, but these changes may have been due to factors other than the reforms. These results also supported by statistical testing. Overall, we report evidence consistent with investors expecting the Clause 49 reforms to increase the efficiency of corporates.

  4. 40 CFR 66.5 - Savings clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Proceedings under these regulations for imposition of a penalty under section 120 are in addition to any other proceedings related to permits, orders, payments, sanctions or other requirements of State or Federal...

  5. Orações subordinadas sem o complementizador Que no Português Clássico / Subordinate clauses without Que in Classical Portuguese

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André Luis, ANTONELLI.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, olharemos para orações subordinadas finitas sem o complementizador que no Português Clássico. Nosso objetivo é investigar, dentro de uma perspectiva gerativista, se esse tipo de construção pode ser interpretado como um CP ou um IP complemento. A partir de fatos relacionados à posição [...] do sujeito, à ordem linear de advérbios e à colocação de clíticos, mostraremos que orações encaixadas sem o complementizador que instanciam movimento de V para C, resultando, portanto, na presença da categoria CP. Abstract in english In this work, we will look at embedded finite clauses without the complementizer que in Classical Portuguese. Our goal is to investigate, within a generative perspective, whether this kind of construction can be interpreted as a CP or an IP complement. Based on facts related to the position of the s [...] ubject, to the ordering of adverbs and to the placement of clitics, we will show that embedded clauses without the complementizer que instantiate V movement to C, resulting, therefore, in the presence of the CP category.

  6. On the uncertainty beneath the name Oithona similis Claus, 1866 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, Georgina D; Sabatini, Marina E; Scioscia, Cristina L; Ramírez, Fernando C; Viñas, María D

    2016-01-01

    The marine cyclopoid Oithona similis sensu lato Claus, 1866, is considered to be one of the most abundant and ubiquitous copepods in the world. However, its minimal original diagnosis and the unclear connection with its (subjective) senior synonym Oithona helgolandica Claus, 1863, may have caused frequent misidentification of the species. Consequently, it seems possible that several closely related but distinct forms are being named Oithona similis or Oithona helgolandica without explicit and accurate discrimination. Here the current situation concerning the correct assignment of the two species is revised, the morphological characters commonly used to identify and distinguish each species are summarized, and the nomenclatural implications of indiscriminately using these names in current taxonomic and ecological practice is considered. It is not intended to upset a long-accepted name in its accustomed meaning but certainly the opposite. "In pursuit of the maximum stability compatible with taxonomic freedom" (International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature), we consider that reassessment of the diagnostic characters of Oithona similis sensu stricto cannot be postponed much longer. While a consensus on taxonomy and nomenclatural matters can be attained, we strongly recommend specifically reporting the authority upon which the identification of either Oithona similis s.l. or Oithona helgolandica s.l. has been accomplished. PMID:26865812

  7. On the uncertainty beneath the name Oithona similis Claus, 1866 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, Georgina D.; Sabatini, Marina E.; Scioscia, Cristina L.; Ramírez, Fernando C.; Viñas, María D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The marine cyclopoid Oithona similis sensu lato Claus, 1866, is considered to be one of the most abundant and ubiquitous copepods in the world. However, its minimal original diagnosis and the unclear connection with its (subjective) senior synonym Oithona helgolandica Claus, 1863, may have caused frequent misidentification of the species. Consequently, it seems possible that several closely related but distinct forms are being named Oithona similis or Oithona helgolandica without explicit and accurate discrimination. Here the current situation concerning the correct assignment of the two species is revised, the morphological characters commonly used to identify and distinguish each species are summarized, and the nomenclatural implications of indiscriminately using these names in current taxonomic and ecological practice is considered. It is not intended to upset a long-accepted name in its accustomed meaning but certainly the opposite. “In pursuit of the maximum stability compatible with taxonomic freedom” (International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature), we consider that reassessment of the diagnostic characters of Oithona similis sensu stricto cannot be postponed much longer. While a consensus on taxonomy and nomenclatural matters can be attained, we strongly recommend specifically reporting the authority upon which the identification of either Oithona similis s.l. or Oithona helgolandica s.l. has been accomplished. PMID:26865812

  8. Development of role-differentiated bimanual manipulation in infancy: Part 3. Its relation to the development of bimanual object acquisition and bimanual non-differentiated manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babik, Iryna; Michel, George F

    2016-03-01

    This third paper in a series of three related developmental trajectories of bimanual object acquisition and non-differentiated bimanual manipulation (NDBM) to patterns of role-differentiated bimanual manipulation (RDBM) development to help identify the sequence of events that might predict (and potentially facilitate) the development of RDBM skill. Ninety infants were tested monthly from 6 to 14 months of age for object acquisition, and from 9 to14 months for NDBM and RDBM. The results did not support the hypothesis proposing that the onset of RDBM would require decoupling of the hands in unimanual acquisition, but supported the prediction that coupling of the hands in bimanual acquisition would predict increasing expertise in the RDBM skill. The relation between the bimanual object acquisition and RDBM was found to be mediated by NDBM, which prompts the hypothesis that bimanual acquisition of objects facilitates the development of NDBM, which, in its turn, facilitates the development of the RDBM skill. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 268-277, 2016. PMID:26642790

  9. Efficient transformation of use case main success scenario steps into bussiness object relation (BORM) diagrams for effective bussiness process requirement analysis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podaras, A.; Moravec, J.; Papík, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Ro?. 2, ?. 1 (2012), s. 86-88. ISSN 1804-7890 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Business process requirement Analysis * UCBTA Algorithm * UCBTA Transition Rules * Use Case Main Success Scenario Steps * BORM Diagrams Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/ZOI/papik-efficient transformation of use case main success scenario steps into bussiness object relation (borm) diagrams for effective bussiness process requirement analysis .pdf

  10. EFFICIENT TRANSFORMATION OF USE CASE MAIN SUCCESS SCENARIO STEPS INTO BUSSINESS OBJECT RELATION (BORM) DIAGRAMS FOR EFFECTIVE BUSSINESS PROCESS REQUIREMENT ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    ATHANASIOS PODARAS; JOSEF MORAVEC; MARTIN PAPIK

    2012-01-01

    The basic part of an innovative and modern approach to business processrequirement analysis which is based on the simultaneous utilization of UML Use Caseapproach and the Business Object Relation Modelling approach is analyzed in thepresent paper. Precisely the transition rules by which the Use Case Main SuccessScenario steps are converted into to a BORM diagram, entitled as the Use Case ToBORM Transformation Algorithm (UCBTA) transition rules, are presented as apattern based method which lea...

  11. [Abortion and conscientious objection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarkowski, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Polish laws specify the parties responsible for lawful medical care in the availability of abortion differently than the Resolution of the Council of Europe. According to Polish regulations they include all Polish doctors while according to the Resolution, the state. Polish rules should not discriminate against anyone in connection with his religion or belief, even more so because the issue of abortion is an example of an unresolved ethical dispute. The number of lawful abortion in Poland does not exceed 1000 per year and can be carried out by only a few specialists contracted by the National Health Fund. Sufficient information and assistance should be provided to all pregnant women by the National Health Fund. The participation of all physicians in the informing process is not necessary, as evidenced by the lack of complaints to provide information on where in vitro fertilization treatment can be found - until recently only available when paid for by the individual and performed in much larger numbers than abortion. Entities performing this paid procedure made sure to provide information on their own. The rejection of the right to the conscientious objection clause by negating the right to refuse information may lead some to give up the profession or cause the termination of certain professionals on the basis of the professed worldview. Meanwhile, doctors are not allowed to be discriminated against on the basis of their conscience or religion. PMID:25815623

  12. The Composite OLAP-Object Data Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourabbas, Elaheh; Shoshani, Arie

    2005-12-07

    In this paper, we define an OLAP-Object model that combines the main characteristics of OLAP and Object data models in order to achieve their functionalities in a common framework. We classify three different object classes: primitive, regular and composite. Then, we define a query language which uses the path concept in order to facilitate data navigation and data manipulation. The main feature of the proposed language is an anchor. It allows us to fix dynamically an object class (primitive, regular or composite) along the paths over the OLAP-Object data model for expressing queries. The queries can be formulated on objects, composite objects and combination of both. The power of the proposed query language is investigated through multiple query examples. The semantic of different clauses and syntax of the proposed language are investigated.

  13. Objective thermomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Fülöp, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    An irreversible thermodynamical theory of solids is presented where the kinematic quantities are defined in an automatically objective way. Namely, auxiliary elements like reference frame, reference time and reference configuration are avoided by formulating the motion of the continuum on spacetime directly, utilizing the Weyl-Matolcsi description of spacetime. This restricts the range of definable kinematic quantities heavily. Solids are distinguished from fluids by possessing not only an instantaneous metric tensor but a relaxed metric, too, that represents the natural geometric structure of the solid. The comparison of the instantaneous metric to the relaxed one is the basis of the definition of the elastic state variable, the elastic deformedness tensor. Thermal expansion is conceived as the temperature dependence of the relaxed metric. As opposed to this reversible type of change, plasticity means an irreversible change in the relaxed metric, and is describable via a plastic change rate tensor. The relat...

  14. Can a medical need clause help manage the growing costs of prescription drugs in the EU?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Eleanor; Geyer, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Innovation in the development of new drugs has to balance the needs of health actors and administrators, the pharmaceutical industry and patients. Differing perspectives on what constitutes an innovation, where research and development should be directed and how new drugs should be evaluated and priced cause ongoing tensions within the regulatory framework. In the current climate, where Europe's health systems face rising demand for health services and increasingly restricted resources, the efficiency of pharmaceutical regulation and drug development is under even greater scrutiny. How can regulation foster innovation and industry growth while also serving the public health needs of society, and what is the EU's role in pursuing this objective? Drawing on a provision which formerly existed in Norwegian pharmaceutical legislation, this article explores the potential of a medical need clause (MNC) in addressing these issues. In restricting market authorisations to those drugs that offer an added therapeutic value, might a MNC foster innovation and spending efficiency in Europe's health systems? PMID:26333920

  15. Sex-related preferences for real and doll’s faces versus real and toy objects in young infants and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Escudero, Paola; Robbins, Rachel A.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Findings of previous studies demonstrate sex-related preferences for toys in 6-month-old infants: Boys prefer non-social or mechanical toys such as cars, while girls prefer social toys such as dolls. Here, we explored the innate versus learned nature of this sex-related preferences using multiple pictures of doll and real faces (of men and women) as well as pictures of toy and real objects (cars and stoves). Forty-eight 4- and 5-month-old infants (24 girls) and 48 young adults (24 women) saw ...

  16. Convex polyhedral abstractions, specialisation and property-based predicate splitting in Horn clause verification

    OpenAIRE

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John P.

    2014-01-01

    We present an approach to constrained Horn clause (CHC) verification combining three techniques: abstract interpretation over a domain of convex polyhedra, specialisation of the constraints in CHCs using abstract interpretation of query-answer transformed clauses, and refinement by splitting predicates. The purpose of the work is to investigate how analysis and transformation tools developed for constraint logic programs (CLP) can be applied to the Horn clause verification p...

  17. Tree automata-based refinement with application to Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we apply tree-automata techniques to refinement of abstract interpretation in Horn clause verification. We go beyond previous work on refining trace abstractions; firstly we handle tree automata rather than string automata and thereby can capture traces in any Horn clause derivations rather than just transition systems; secondly, we show how algorithms manipulating tree automata interact with abstract interpretations, establishing progress in refinement and generating refined claus...

  18. Syntactic variants and natural syntax : Greek infinitive clauses dependent on verbs of speaking and thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerneja Kav?i?

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains a very well-known feature of Classical Greek syntax from the perspective of Natural Syntax. Most grammars of Classical Greek state that infinitive clauses could be dependent on both verbs of speaking and thinking in Classical Greek. In contrast, finite dependent clauses could be governed only by verbs of speaking. However, one verb of speaking that regularly governs infinitive clauses is 'say'. In terms of Natural Syntax, infinitive clauses are more natural than finite dependent clauses. The scale > nat (infinitive clause, finite dependent clause is supported by the criterion of favorable for the speaker and the hearer (criterion A and the criterion of integration into the clause (criterion D. In addition, verbs of thinking are more natural than verbs of speaking. The scale > nat (verbs of thinking, verbs of speaking is supported by the criterion of integration into the clause (criterion C, the criterion of frequency (criterion C, and the criterion of favorable for the speaker andthe hearer (criterion A. Natural Syntax predicts that the more natural syntactic variant (i.e., infinitive clauses associates with more natural parameters (i.e., verbs of thinking than the less natural syntactic variant (i.e., finite dependent clauses. This type of alignment rule is called parallel alignment. In addition, most of the criteria applied indicate that the verb 'say' is more natural than other verbs of speaking (e.g., it is an enclitic verb. Consequently, it is expected within Natural Syntax that the verb 'say' associates with the more natural syntactic variant (i.e., with infinitive clauses.

  19. Convex polyhedral abstractions, specialisation and property-based predicate splitting in Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2014-01-01

    We present an approach to constrained Horn clause (CHC) verification combining three techniques: abstract interpretation over a domain of convex polyhedra, specialisation of the constraints in CHCs using abstract interpretation of query-answer transformed clauses, and refinement by splitting predicates. The purpose of the work is to investigate how analysis and transformation tools developed for constraint logic programs (CLP) can be applied to the Horn clause verification problem. Abstract inte...

  20. NON-COMPETITION CLAUSES IN COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    MIHAELA IRINA IONESCU

    2011-01-01

    We begin with an analysis of areas where rivalry between economic agents can not show (any act of competition committed in this area drawing the liability of the author), we will then analyze competition in relations between the trader and servant or other employees and continue with the analysis of the legal ban on competition in the limited liability companies and joint stock companies. So, the relevant provisions of Law 31/1990 are reviewed, views of legal doctrine and practice of judicial...

  1. Feedback & Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, James R.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial objectives, if they are employee oriented, produce feedback, and the motivation derived from the feedback helps reduce turnover. Feedback is the power to clarify objectives, to stimulate communication, and to motivate people. (Author/MW)

  2. NON-COMPETITION CLAUSES IN COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA IRINA IONESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We begin with an analysis of areas where rivalry between economic agents can not show (any act of competition committed in this area drawing the liability of the author, we will then analyze competition in relations between the trader and servant or other employees and continue with the analysis of the legal ban on competition in the limited liability companies and joint stock companies. So, the relevant provisions of Law 31/1990 are reviewed, views of legal doctrine and practice of judicial rulings on the nature and purpose of the relevant provisions referred to, their scope, applicability of statutory prohibition against competition in the profile activity of the company, the prohibition in the liquidation phase, procedural methods which can cover damage caused to the creditor’s violated rights, as well as statute of limitations for the right to action and prescription.

  3. Experiencias en la gestión de imágenes por contenido en bases de datos objeto-relacionales / Experiences in Image Management by Content in Object-Relational Databases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos E, Alvez; Aldo R, Vecchietti.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se analizan diversos mecanismos que brinda la tecnología Objeto-Relacional (OR) para el almacenamiento de imágenes en una Base de Datos. El objetivo fue estudiar, mediante la implementación de dos ejemplos en Oracle 10g, el comportamiento de la tecnología OR en el almacenamiento, la [...] formulación de consultas, la recuperación de la información y de las imágenes asociadas. La primera implementación se corresponde con el almacenamiento de imágenes médicas concordantes con el estándar DICOM, utilizando objetos ORDImage propios de ORACLE. En el segundo ejemplo se almacenaron imágenes de un diario digital empleando instancias del UDT SI_StillImage del estándar SQL/MM. Las capacidades provistas por la Base de Datos Objeto-Relacional empleada facilitan la implementación de un servidor de imágenes. Se analizaron también las ventajas y desventajas de emplear objetos del estándar SQL/MM o datos nativos correspondientes a Oracle 10g. Abstract in english In this paper, several alternatives for the storage of still images in databases given by the Object-Relational technology are analyzed. The aim was to study, by means of two examples, implementation in Oracle 10g database, the technology behaviour in the storage, query formulation and image recover [...] y. The first application corresponds to the storage of medical images complying with DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) standard, Oracle 10g ORDImage objects have been used for this case. The second example deals with the storage of images for a digital newspaper for which SI_StillImage of the SQL/MM standard have been employed. The capabilities provided by the Object Relational technology facilitate the implementation of an images server. The advantages and drawbacks of using SQL/MM standard or native objects corresponding to Oracle 10g are also compared.

  4. Integrating Conflict Driven Clause Learning to Local Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Audenard

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces SatHyS (SAT HYbrid Solver, a novel hybrid approach for propositional satisfiability. It combines local search and conflict driven clause learning (CDCL scheme. Each time the local search part reaches a local minimum, the CDCL is launched. For SAT problems it behaves like a tabu list, whereas for UNSAT ones, the CDCL part tries to focus on minimum unsatisfiable sub-formula (MUS. Experimental results show good performances on many classes of SAT instances from the last SAT competitions.

  5. Virtual objects

    OpenAIRE

    Seuren, P.

    2006-01-01

    Virtual objects are objects thought up by a thinking individual. Although 20th-century philosophy has tried to ban them from ontology, they make it impossible to account for the truth of sentences such as Apollo was worshipped in the island of Delos, in which a property is assigned to the nonexisting, virtual entity Apollo. Such facts are the reason why virtual objects are slowly being recognized again.

  6. Approaching the Post-Newtonian Regime with Numerical Relativity: A Compact-Object Binary Simulation Spanning 350 Gravitational-Wave Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, Béla; Blackman, Jonathan; Buonanno, Alessandra; Taracchini, Andrea; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A; Chu, Tony; Kidder, Lawrence E; Pan, Yi

    2015-07-17

    We present the first numerical-relativity simulation of a compact-object binary whose gravitational waveform is long enough to cover the entire frequency band of advanced gravitational-wave detectors, such as LIGO, Virgo, and KAGRA, for mass ratio 7 and total mass as low as 45.5M_{?}. We find that effective-one-body models, either uncalibrated or calibrated against substantially shorter numerical-relativity waveforms at smaller mass ratios, reproduce our new waveform remarkably well, with a negligible loss in detection rate due to modeling error. In contrast, post-Newtonian inspiral waveforms and existing calibrated phenomenological inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms display greater disagreement with our new simulation. The disagreement varies substantially depending on the specific post-Newtonian approximant used. PMID:26230780

  7. 48 CFR 227.7107-1 - Architectural designs and data clauses for architect-engineer or construction contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Architectural designs and data clauses for architect-engineer or construction contracts...Architectural designs and data clauses for architect-engineer or construction contracts...in solicitations and contracts for architect-engineer services and for...

  8. Public policy: the origin of a general clause in the South African law of contract

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L, Hawthorne.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article relates how the Constitutional Court has chosen public policy as the general clause with which to combat unfairness in contracting. Consequently the historical development of public policy is investigated in the footsteps of Wessels, who was the first South African author to address the [...] role of public policy in the law of contract in a wider sense. The historical sources on contracts in restraint of marriage, marriage brokerage contracts, usurious contracts, contracts in restraint of trade and wagering contracts are analysed with regard to public policy. Although some Roman-law and Roman-Dutch authority can be found in certain instances, the main observation is that public policy and boni mores have not been clearly distinguished by modern writers dealing with these jurisdictions. The conclusion of the paper is that public policy as an open norm is an English transplant.

  9. 48 CFR 209.570-4 - Solicitation provision and contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... at 252.209-7006, Limitations on Contractors Acting as Lead System Integrators, in solicitations for... integrator. (b) Use the clause at 252.209-7007, Prohibited Financial Interests for Lead System Integrators... contract clause. 209.570-4 Section 209.570-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE...

  10. 48 CFR 3009.570-4 - Solicitation provision and contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... clause. (a) Use the provision at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3052.209-74, Limitations on Contractors Acting as Lead... envisions the use of a lead system integrator. (b) Use the clause at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3052.209-75, Prohibited...) 48 CFR 3052.209-74; and (2) In contracts when the contractor will fill the role of a lead...

  11. An Improved Separation of Regular Resolution from Pool Resolution and Clause Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Bonet, Maria Luisa

    2012-01-01

    We prove that the graph tautology principles of Alekhnovich, Johannsen, Pitassi and Urquhart have polynomial size pool resolution refutations that use only input lemmas as learned clauses and without degenerate resolution inferences. We also prove that these graph tautology principles can be refuted by polynomial size DPLL proofs with clause learning, even when restricted to greedy DPLL search.

  12. An Improved Separation of Regular Resolution from Pool Resolution and Clause Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bonet, Maria Luisa; Buss, Sam

    2012-01-01

    We prove that the graph tautology principles of Alekhnovich, Johannsen, Pitassi and Urquhart have polynomial size pool resolution refutations that use only input lemmas as learned clauses and without degenerate resolution inferences. We also prove that these graph tautology principles can be refuted by polynomial size DPLL proofs with clause learning, even when restricted to greedy, unit-propagating DPLL search.

  13. A competitive analysis of most favored nations clauses in contracts between health care providers and insurers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celnicker, A

    1991-12-01

    A most favored nations (MFN) clause is a contractual agreement between a buyer and a seller stating that the price paid by the buyer will be at least as low as the price paid by other buyers who purchase the same commodities from the seller. During the past decade the anticompetitive impact of MFN clauses in the health care industry has been challenged under federal antitrust laws. The cases have considered MFN clauses included in contracts between large third-party payers, specifically Blue Cross and Blue Shield (BCBS) plans, and providers of health care. The clauses prohibit providers from selling their medical services to BCBS's competitors at a price lower than the price at which they sell to BCBS. The cases have challenged these clauses on the grounds that they limit selective discounting to the competitors thereby making it difficult for the competitors to attract subscribers from dominant BCBS plans by lowering premiums. In this Article, Professor Celnicker asserts that MFN clauses have significant anticompetitive potential. The Article examines the competitive consequences of MFN clauses used in the health care industry. The Article's analysis draws heavily from the economic criticisms of the Robinson-Patman Act, which prohibits a seller from discriminating in price between customers in certain circumstances. The Article concludes that in certain circumstances, MFN clauses discourage discounting, facilitate oligopolistic pricing, and deter entry or expansion by more efficient distribution systems. PMID:10115476

  14. 48 CFR 1328.310 - Contract clause for work on a Government installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause for work on a Government installation. 1328.310 Section 1328.310 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 1328.310 Contract clause for work on a Government...

  15. 48 CFR 1352.301 - Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). 1352.301 Section 1352.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Matrix 1352.301 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses (Matrix). ER08MR10.000 ER08MR10.001...

  16. Embedded "wh"-Questions in L2 English in India: Inversion as a Main Clause Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, David

    2015-01-01

    This corpus study brings a second language (L2) research perspective, insights from generative grammar, and new empirical evidence to bear on a long-accepted claim in the World Englishes literature--namely, that inversion with "wh"-movement in colloquial Indian English is obligatory in embedded clauses and impossible in main clauses. It…

  17. 78 FR 48397 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Clauses With Alternates-Transportation (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... saving contractors time by making all paragraph substitutions from the basic clause, and by not requiring... of ocean transportation services. (1) Use the clause Transportation of Supplies by Sea--Basic, unless...'' means any vessel that is not a U.S.- flag vessel. (4) ``Ocean transportation'' means any...

  18. Object oriented methods

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Ian

    1994-01-01

    This book is a revision of Ian Graham's successful survey of the whole area of object technology. It covers object- oriented programming, object-oriented design, object- oriented analysis, object-oriented databases and treats several related technologies. New to this edition are more applications of object-oriented methods and more coverage of object-oriented database products available. Graham has also doubled the design and analysis material that examines over 60 different approaches - making this the most comprehensive book on the market. Also new is the foreword by Grady Booch.

  19. Object theatre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryöppy, Merja; Heiberg, Andreas

    This paper investigates how four perspectives from Object Theatre can enhance interaction design in the early stages of a product design process. We propose these perspectives as a playful approach for designers to gain embodied understanding and perception of objects to enable new design...

  20. Understanding of subordinate clauses in the language of dysphasic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarevi? Emilija

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the research of peculiarities of syntactic development, as an element of language structure on the grammatical level of children suffering from developmental dysphasia, after the completed speech pathology treatment of many years. Syntactic level at younger school age was studied by assessing language competence in the accomplishment of communicative sentence with subordinate clause. The research was performed on the samples of children at school age in regular primary schools in Belgrade. The sample comprised 160 respondents who were divided in two groups: target and comparative. The target group consisted of 60 respondents (children suffering from developmental dysphasia after the completed speech pathology treatment of many years, and the comparative group consisted of 100 respondents from regular primary school "Gavrilo Princip" in Zemun. Research results show that grammatical development of children suffering from developmental dysphasia takes place at a considerably slower rate and entails substantially more difficulties in accomplishing predication in subordinate clauses. This paper discusses the consequences which the difficulties in grammatical development can have on school achievement.

  1. ASPECTS REGARDING THE COMPETITIVE OFFER CLAUSE IN INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena BOANC? IVAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The competitive offer clause allows one contracting party (usually the buyer to get from the other contracting party (usually the seller conditions that are more favorable than those from the current contract, namely those offered by a third party. The promissory party has the possibility to accept the adaptation of the contract or to refuse it. If the seller accepts to align to the competition tariff, the contract continues under the new conditions. The acceptance of the promissory party can intervene also within new negotiations between parties, a situation when the contract adaptation will be made not necessarily under the terms of the competitive offer, but anyway under more advantageous conditions for the beneficiary.Otherwise, the parties most frequently stipulate for the suspension of the contract at a given time, allowing the establishment of a contractual relationship between the clause beneficiary and the more competitive party. If the promissory party refuses expressly or by silence the adaptation of the contract, the parties stipulate for the termination of the contract as a solution, each contracting party regaining his freedom to conclude new contracts (including with the third party that makes the most favourable offer, without being encumbered by the obligations in the original contract.

  2. A Comparative Analysis of the Frequency and Function of If-clauses in Applied Linguistics and Chemistry Articles

    OpenAIRE

    Akbar Hesabi; Morteza Raei Dehaghi; Mohammadtaghi Shahnazari-Dorcheh

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the differences and similarities between form and function of if-clauses as one type of conditional clauses within the applied linguistics and chemistry published academic Articles. These articles were examined and after determining the frequency of if-clauses, they were analyzed based on the model proposed by Sweetser (1990). According to the findings, if-clauses were more frequent in applied linguistics than chemistry articles. Results of function analysis indicated ...

  3. Complementation of adjectives : A corpus-based study of adjectival complementation by that- and to-clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Kaatari, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This corpus-based study investigates adjectives that allow complementation by both that- and to-clauses. The study is concerned with arriving at a structural and functional description of the distribution of adjectives that allow complementation by both to-infinitive clauses and that-clauses, based on the various syntactic and semantic manifestations of these two clause types and the adjectives that are complemented by them. The study reveals that there is a strong correlation between the sem...

  4. Sustainability clauses in international supply chain contracts : Regulation, enforceability and effects of ethical requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterkova, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    Our current society is not successful in mitigation of global social and environmental challenges. States lack legal tools, and sometimes also the will, to secure social and environmental interests transnationally and the existing soft and private regulation is criticized for its weak legitimacy, effectiveness and enforcement. Regardless of this regulatory gap, companies who do not comply with the globally accepted sustainability standards run reputational risks that can lead to long-term negative economic effects. Moreover, stakeholders expect companies not only to follow the standards themselves but also to do business exclusively with socially responsible partners. Unawareness, either intentional or negligent, of unethical behaviour within a company’s supply chain may lead to an assumption that the company is complicit in such a conduct. The paper discusses a hypothesis that sustainability contractual clauses (SCCs) in international supply chain agreements may help to overcome the regulatory gap in relation to global sustainability while concurrently protect companies against potential social, economic and legal risks threatening in connection to unethical behaviour of their suppliers. As parts of enforceable business contracts, SCCs are considered to overcome the heavily criticized softness of other CSR regulation and, therefore, to be more successful in fostering ethical behaviour of suppliers who are legally independent but often in economic and business terms dependent on the sourcing companies. However, this hardening function is questionable face-to-face the lack of case law or another proof of SCCs’ formal enforcement. This article aims to shed a light on the question whether SCCs can be the efficient regulatory solution for global challenges we are looking for or whether they are yet another corporate social responsibility tool ‘without teeth’. The central questions are: why SCCs are presumed to be effective regulatory means for global sustainability, how these clauses are seen through the lenses of international contract law and whether they can actually contribute to a positive change in suppliers’ social and environmental performance. Based on the analysis of SCCs’ features and the underlying regulatory framework, the author concludes that while SCCs would not be enforceable by courts in most cases, they can still be successful in regulating global sustainability. Their positive effects on suppliers’ behaviour will depend on how companies draft and use such clauses. It is suggested that the full potential of private contracting could be triggered by adequate governmental regulation.

  5. Phraseological Patterns in Reporting Clauses Used in Citation: A Corpus-Based Study of Theses in Two Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Maggie

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the phraseological patterning that occurs in reporting clauses used to make references to others' research. It examines finite reporting clauses with "that"-clause complement and draws upon two corpora of theses written by native speakers in contrasting disciplines: approximately 190,000 words in politics/international…

  6. Ownership and Object History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Ori; Neary, Karen R.; Defeyter, Margaret A.; Malcolm, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate behavior in relation to an object often requires judging whether it is owned and, if so, by whom. The authors propose accounts of how people make these judgments. Our central claim is that both judgments often involve making inferences about object history. In judging whether objects are owned, people may assume that artifacts (e.g.,…

  7. Extended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After some disconnected comments on the MIT bag and string models for extended hadrons, I review current understanding of extended objects in classical conventional relativistic field theories and their quantum mechanical interpretation

  8. A surface electromyography based objective method to identify patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain, presenting a flexion related movement control impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Benedicte; Stevens, Veerle; Perneel, Christiaan; Van Tiggelen, Damien; Neyens, Ellen; Duvigneaud, Nathalie; Moerman, Luc; Danneels, Lieven

    2014-12-01

    Movement control impairments (MCI) are often present in patients with non-specific chronic low back pain (NS-CLBP). Therefore, movement control exercises are widely used to rehabilitate patients. However, the objective assessment remains difficult. The purpose of this study was to develop a statistical model, based on logistic regression analysis, to differentiate patients with NS-CLBP presenting a flexion-related MCI from healthy subjects. This model is based on trunk muscle activation patterns measured by surface electromyography (sEMG), during movement control exercises. Sixty-three healthy male subjects and 36 male patients with a flexion-related MCI participated in this study. Muscle activity of the internal obliques, the external obliques, the lumbar multifidus and the thoracic part of the iliocostalis was registered. Ratios of deep stabilizing to superficial torque producing muscle activity were calculated to examine trunk muscle recruitment patterns during 6 different exercises. Logistic regression analyses were performed (1) to define the ratios and exercises that were most discriminating between patients and non-patients, (2) to make a predictive model. K-Fold cross-validation was used to assess the performance of the predictive model. This study demonstrated that sEMG trunk muscle recruitment patterns during movement control tests, allows differentiating NSCLBP patients with a flexion-related MCI from healthy subjects. PMID:25304196

  9. Trusted Objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  10. Trusted Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  11. Quantitative assessment of bone marrow attenuation values at MDCT: An objective tool for the detection of bone bruise related to occult sacral insufficiency fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To prove the feasibility of using Hounsfield attenuation values at MDCT to detect bone bruises related to sacral insufficiency fractures. Twenty-two patients with acute sacrum trauma and no fracture findings at MDCT were included in our prospective study. Two observers independently reviewed CTs regarding visual signs of bone bruises in 132 defined regions of the sacral alae. Interobserver agreement was tested by κ statistics. Subsequently, HU values were obtained in the same regions, and attenuation differences between the two sides were calculated. Validity and reliability were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. HU differences were subjected to ROC curve analysis to determine sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV. MRI served as standard reference. MRI revealed 19 regions with bone bruises and associated sacral insufficiency fractures. HU measurements demonstrated good validity and reliability (r = 0.989). ROC curve analysis exhibited an ideal cutoff value of 35.7 HU density difference between affected and non-affected regions. Visual evaluation revealed moderate agreement (κ = 0.48); diagnostic accuracy was inferior to objective evaluation. Assessment of differences in bone marrow density by HU measurements is an objective and reliable tool for detection of bone bruises associated with occult sacral insufficiency fractures. (orig.)

  12. Tree automata-based refinement with application to Horn clause verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we apply tree-automata techniques to refinement of abstract interpretation in Horn clause verification. We go beyond previous work on refining trace abstractions; firstly we handle tree automata rather than string automata and thereby can capture traces in any Horn clause derivations rather than just transition systems; secondly, we show how algorithms manipulating tree automata interact with abstract interpretations, establishing progress in refinement and generating refined clauses that eliminate causes of imprecision. We show how to derive a refined set of Horn clauses in which given infeasible traces have been eliminated, using a recent optimised algorithm for tree automata determinisation. We also show how we can introduce disjunctive abstractions selectively by splitting states in the tree automaton. The approach is independent of the abstract domain and constraint theory underlying the Horn clauses. Experiments using linear constraint problems and the abstract domain of convex polyhedra show that the refinement technique is practical and that iteration of abstract interpretation with tree automata-based refinement solves many challenging Horn clause verification problems. We compare the results with other state of the art Horn clause verification tools.

  13. Analysis and Transformation Tools for Constrained Horn Clause Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kafle, Bishoksan; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Several techniques and tools have been developed for verification of properties expressed as Horn clauses with constraints over a background theory (CHC). Current CHC verification tools implement intricate algorithms and are often limited to certain subclasses of CHC problems. Our aim in this work is to investigate the use of a combination of off-the-shelf techniques from the literature in analysis and transformation of Constraint Logic Programs (CLPs) to solve challenging CHC verification problems. We find that many problems can be solved using a combination of tools based on well-known techniques from abstract interpretation, semantics-preserving transformations, program specialisation and query-answer transformations. This gives insights into the design of automatic, more general CHC verification tools based on a library of components.

  14. Dual combustion oxygen-enriched claus sulfur plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steppe, R.J.

    1988-10-25

    This patent describes a process for the production of sulfur by reaction of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide wherein a feed of hydrogen sulfide is oxidized in part to sulfur dioxide to form reactants which yield sulfur by the modified catalytic Claus reaction. The improvement consists of: (a) introducing to a first combustion zone at least a portion of a hydrogen sulfide rich gas stream containing at least about 10% by volume hydrogen sulfide and a first oxygen rich gas containing at least about 30% by volume oxygen in a proportion to achieve by combustion a first sulfur dioxide containing product gas stream at a combustion flame temperature of from about 1000/sup 0/F to about 3600/sup 0/F; (b) cooling the first product gas stream to a termperture from about 240/sup 0/F to about 3000/sup 0/; and (c) introducing the cooled first product gas stream to at least a second combustion zone with additional oxygen rich gas stream containing at least about 30% by volume oxygen to combust additional hydrogen sulfide and yield a second sulfur dioxide containing product gas stream at a combustion flame temperature of from about 1000/sup 0/F to about 3600/sup 0/F, the amount of hydrogen sulfide and oxygen fed to the combustion zones being proportioned to provide on completion of combustion a gas stream having a mole ratio of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur dioxide of about 2:1 for feed to a catalytic Claus convertor to achieve formation of sulfur by reaction of residual hydrogen sulfide with sulfur dioxide formed during combustion in the combustion zones.

  15. Role of toluene in hydrogen sulfide combustion under Claus condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Examined the role of toluene addition in hydrogen sulfide combustion. • Effect of 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 5% of toluene in H2S gas stream was examined. • Toluene addition triggers production of H2 which provides oxidation competition to H2S. • Increased amount of toluene in H2S gas reduced SO2 and increased asymptotic value of H2S. • Toluene addition enhanced the formation of CO and COS. - Abstract: Experimental investigations on the effect of different amounts of toluene addition to H2S combustion in oxygen under Claus condition (Φ = 3) are presented. Three toluene concentrations of 0.5%, 1% and 5% in H2S are presented and compared with the baseline case of 100% H2S oxygen combustion. Temperature data showed that addition of toluene to H2S gas stream increases the flame temperature because of large heating value associated with toluene. Addition of toluene resulted in the production of H2, which increased with increase in the amounts of toluene addition. Furthermore, increased addition of toluene concentration increased the asymptotic minimum value of hydrogen sulfide due to oxidation competition between the formed H2 and H2S. The results also showed that the presence of CO triggers the formation of COS with toluene addition due to reaction of CO with SO2. The results showed that SO2 mole fraction increased to a maximum value then decayed with distance along the reactor. Addition of toluene increased the rate of SO2 decay. These results have direct impact on sulfur capture in the Claus reactor and its performance

  16. Syntactic Behavior of Subordinate Clauses of Time and Condition in Zubairi Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Abdulatif Ibrahim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Of all outstanding areas of syntax, subordinate clauses of time and condition play a great role in arising linguists' interests. These types of clauses are of idiosyncratic nature in general and in Zubairi Arabic in particular, since they tend to be difficult and complex in comparison with other languages and dialects. The present study is an attempt to examine how conditional and time clauses behave syntactically in Zubairi Arabic. It is based mainly on conversation of two Zubairi Speakers from. Looking at this type of conversational speech illustrates a wider range of syntactic structures, and some speakers have more conservative dialect than others, but generally all are Zubairi in character.

  17. The expressibility of modality in representational complement clauses in Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Vendrame

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper deals with the (impossibility of expressing a variety of modal categories within the context of the layering approach to complementation in Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG.Our hypothesis is that modal expressions in complement clauses only pertain to operator or modifier classes of the highest layer relevant for that type of embedded construction and for all lower levels. In order to test this hypothesis, occurrences of complement clauses in two databases of spoken Brazilian Portuguese are analyzed. The investigation of this hypothesis is restricted to representational complement clauses.

  18. Using object affordances to improve object recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Castellini, Claudio; Tommasi, Tatiana; Noceti, Nicoletta; Odone, Francesca; Caputo, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The problem of object recognition has not yet been solved in its general form. The most successful approach to it so far relies on object models obtained by training a statistical method on visual features obtained from camera images. The images must necessarily come from huge visual datasets, in order to circumvent all problems related to changing illumination, point of view, etc. We hereby propose to also consider, in an object model, a simple model of how a human being would grasp that obj...

  19. Specification of Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten U.

    relation over two objects and an event. In the model, objects can be composed by parallel composition, encapsulation, and hiding of operations. Refinement between objects is defined as fair trace inclusion.A specification language is presented where objects can be specified operationally by abstract......Concurrent objects are named concurrent processes that interact by invoking each other's operations. We describe how such concurrent objects can be specified, how objects can be composed, and how it can be shown that one object refines another.First a model is defined, based on a transition...... imperative programs as well as externally by formulas in an interval logic, and even in a combination of the two styles.Verification among the different specification styles is illustrated by a number of experiments using a small distributed data base as a common example. Also, experiments are made with the...

  20. SPINS: Standardized ProteIn NMR Storage. A data dictionary and object-oriented relational database for archiving protein NMR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern protein NMR spectroscopy laboratories have a rapidly growing need for an easily queried local archival system of raw experimental NMR datasets. SPINS (Standardized ProteIn Nmr Storage) is an object-oriented relational database that provides facilities for high-volume NMR data archival, organization of analyses, and dissemination of results to the public domain by automatic preparation of the header files required for submission of data to the BioMagResBank (BMRB). The current version of SPINS coordinates the process from data collection to BMRB deposition of raw NMR data by standardizing and integrating the storage and retrieval of these data in a local laboratory file system. Additional facilities include a data mining query tool, graphical database administration tools, and a NMRStar v2.1.1 file generator. SPINS also includes a user-friendly internet-based graphical user interface, which is optionally integrated with Varian VNMR NMR data collection software. This paper provides an overview of the data model underlying the SPINS database system, a description of its implementation in Oracle, and an outline of future plans for the SPINS project

  1. Surviving Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Murjas, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Surviving Objects (2012) is a devised multi-media practice-as-research performance based on extensive interviews conducted with my elderly mother and recorded on a hand-held device. Our conversations concern her experiences as a child refugee following violent deportation by the Soviet Army from Eastern Poland to Siberia (1941), and her subsequent route, via Persia, to a British-run refugee camp in Northern Rhodesia, where she remained for 6 years before arriving in the UK. In order to aid my...

  2. Wow!: objects

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Paulo Sérgio da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays computers have advanced beyond the desktop into many parts of everyday life and objects. To achieve this we have to make the computer invisible, and making a computer invisible is not a matter of size of the hardware, it’s all about how the human perceives the computer. To make this possible, the interaction with the computer has to be done in an alternative way, such that the user doesn’t notice the usual computer interfaces (mouse and keyboard) when using it. Therefore this t...

  3. Quantum Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Mansouri, Alireza; Karbasizadeh, Amir Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest an alternative interpretation for the quantum state vector, which, by considering temporal parts for physical objects, aims to give an intelligible account of measurement problem in quantum mechanics. We examine the capacity of this interpretation as for explaining three measurement problems: the problem of outcome, the problem of statistics and the problem of effect. We argue that, this interpretation of the state vector, while providing a satisfactory account, as rationally plausible as its rivals, for the measurement problem, shows yet another limitation of our perceptual experience, i.e. our inability to perceive unsharp reality.

  4. 48 CFR 3052.216-70 - Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...amount for an economic price adjustment. Offers may...Increase the stipulated ceiling; (2) limit the downward...3) delete the economic price adjustment clause. If the offer stipulates a ceiling lower than that...

  5. 48 CFR 1252.216-70 - Evaluation of offers subject to an economic price adjustment clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...amount for an economic price adjustment being added...which: (1) Increase the ceiling stipulated; (2) limit...3) delete the economic price adjustment clause. If the offer stipulates a ceiling lower than that...

  6. 77 FR 50454 - Department of the Treasury Acquisition Regulations; Contract Clause on Minority and Women...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ...342 applies to ``all contracts * * * for services of...section does not define the term ``contract.'' Treasury proposes...the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs...of this clause, the terms...

  7. 75 FR 32642 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ground and Flight Risk Clause (DFARS Case 2007...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... 72 FR 69177 on December 7, 2007. This final rule revises and combines the two clauses into a single..., NAVAIR Instruction 3710.1 (Series), Coast Guard Instruction M13020.3, and Defense Contract...

  8. Understanding Original Intent and Stare Decisis: Two Methods of Interpreting the Establishment Clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seigler, Timothy John

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how school administrators can use the legal concepts of original intent and "stare decisis" to interpret the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment when faced with issues involving religion in the schools. (Contains 34 references.)(PKP)

  9. The suspended well clause in the CAPL freehold mineral lease and proposal for deep right reversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current version of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Landmen (CAPL) Lease form has a clause entitled the 'suspended wells clause' (commonly called the 'shut-in' clause). The very pro-lessee' orientation of earlier leases which basically provided that if the Lessee had a well located on the lands at the end of the primary term the lessee could hold the lease by submitting a shut-in well payment to the Lessor, regardless of the reasons for which the well was shut in. This provision provided the Lessee with a great deal of flexibility, but created many problems for both freehold land owners and industry. Various scenarios illustrating the problems that industry is encountering with this clause are described and possible solutions to the problems are suggested. The feasibility of adding a deep rights reversion provision to the CAPL Lease is also discussed. 1 ref

  10. Win shift lose stay: An experimental test of non-compete clauses

    OpenAIRE

    Bünstorf, Guido; Engel, Christoph; Fischer, Sven; Güth, Werner

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally test the effect of enforceable non-compete clauses on working efforts. The employee can invest into the probability of making a profitable innovation. After a successful innovation (Win) the employee may want to leave the firm (Shift) whereas after an innovation failure (Lose) he may remain (Stay) . In the treatments with non-compete clause, but not in the baseline, the employer can prevent successful innovators from leaving the firm. With standard preferences, effort should...

  11. The validity of automatic termination clauses in employment contracts / by L. Tonkin.

    OpenAIRE

    Tonkin, Liechen

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to establish the validity of automatic termination clauses in employment contracts. An automatic termination clause in an employment contract is a mechanism that has the effect that the expiry of an employment contract cannot constitute a dismissal. In terms of the common law a fixed term contract of employment is terminated automatically as soon as the agreed terms have been reached and it therefore does not constitute a dismissal. The common law therefore created a gap f...

  12. Defining virtual property in terms of the constitutional property clause / Lelanie Bekker

    OpenAIRE

    Bekker, Lelanie

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation critically considers the question of whether the concept of “virtual property” may be understood to be included as a form of property in the constitutional property clause. The reason for this problem is that there is no definition of the property concept in the constitutional property clause. South African courts have not yet given clarity as to whether virtual property may be included, recognised and protected or to what extent such protection could be. There are different...

  13. Objects, materiality and meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    The present research work investigates the relation between physical objects, their materiality, understood as the physical substances they are made from, and the communication from the objects. In product design of physical objects the communicative aspects are just as important as the function of...... the object, and the designers aim is therefore to tune both in order to achieve a desired goal. To do so the designer basically has 2 options: Alteration of the physical shape of the object and the selection of materials. Through the manipulation of shape and materials can symbolic and sensory...... information be written into the object. The materials are therefore carriers of communication, even though this is dependent of the cultural context and the environment which the object will be part of. However the designer has only minor influence on those....

  14. Shell jumping pound: Optimizing sulphur plant operations via Linde Claus oxygen enrichment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreisinger, D.; Moffat, T

    1990-11-01

    A commercial Claus oxygen enrichment system was installed at Shell's Jumping Pound Gas Plant located 35 km west of Calgary. Prior to oxygen enrichment, several seasonal problems plagued normal sulfur plant operations. These problems included insufficient air blower capacity, excessively high tail gas flows and, to a lesser extent, undesirably low reaction furnace temperatures due to low H{sub 2}S content in the acid gas feed. It has been apparent that all effects of oxygen enrichment upon the operation of the sulfur plant have been positive. Most notably, an instantaneous sulfur plant capacity increase of up to 60 tonnes per day may be achieved. The effects of oxygen enrichment upon overall sulfur recovery efficiency, reaction furnace temperature, COS/CS{sub 2} destruction, steam production, and incinerator fuel requirements have also been positive. The test program objectives and results, as well as enrichment facilities design and operation for both the test program and commercial program, are summarized. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. The Experience of Force: The Role of Haptic Experience of Forces in Visual Perception of Object Motion and Interactions, Mental Simulation, and Motion-Related Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Forces are experienced in actions on objects. The mechanoreceptor system is stimulated by proximal forces in interactions with objects, and experiences of force occur in a context of information yielded by other sensory modalities, principally vision. These experiences are registered and stored as episodic traces in the brain. These stored…

  16. Visual Jokes about Christmas and Santa Claus on the Internet - Why and Why not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guntis Pakalns

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses a collection of Christmas-related images and video clips found on the Internet. The author started collecting this material in 2005, since that time the material in the form of a PowerPoint presentation has been shown to diverse audiences discussing the context (mainly from the perspective of a folklore researcher while observing the reaction of the audience.The central part of the article is devoted to a brief overview of the most characteristic groups of the jokes (with links to the images, video and descriptions of the traditions: Santa Claus as the bringer of presents, his trip from the northland and his friend Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, arrival through the chimney, different other persons wearing Santa’s hat (politicians, terrorists, women, animals, etc., Santa’s sexuality, drunken Santa, Santa murdered/killed, etc. In addition, the regional version – Ded Moroz and Snegurochka (Father Frost and the Snowgirl – is discussed here. Parodies related to the topic – the Christmas tree, snowmen and figures made of snow, elves, angels, Chinese horoscope’s “animals of the year”.Some hypotheses regarding the differences, functions, selection and perception of the worldwide available jokes in different social situations (western and post-Soviet world are put forward, also considering social groups and situations, the time before and after Christmas. Why would people need such jokes? An attempt is made to explain it by different “levels of joking” – starting with “simply jokes” with their specific context in the tradition of the particular subject matter and the carnival-like sense of the reversed world (also used by the traders, making the originally rather eerie Santa Claus look like a friendly joker in the “shopping mythology” and jokes as a kind of psychological self-defence – trying to compensate, by way of irony and black humour, for the rapidly changing and excessive tediousness, seriousness, sacralisation, or right the opposite – secularisation, commercialisation of the mass media imposed Christmas traditions and the holiday stress.

  17. Reachability for Finite-state Process Algebras Using Horn Clauses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrypnyuk, Nataliya; Nielson, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present an algorithm for solving the reachability problem in finite systems that are modelled with process algebras. Our method is based on Static Analysis, in particular, Data Flow Analysis, of the syntax of a process algebraic system with multi-way synchronisation. The results of the Data Flow Analysis are used in order to build a set of Horn clauses whose least model corresponds to an overapproximation of the reachable states. The computed model can be refined after each transition, and the algorithm runs until either a state whose reachability should be checked is encountered or it is not in the least model for all constructed states and thus is definitely unreachable. The advantages of the algorithm are that in many cases only a part of the Labelled Transition System will be built which leads to lower time and memory consumption. Also, it is not necessary to save all the encountered states which leads to further reduction of the memory requirements of the algorithm.

  18. Contributos para uma análise semântico-pragmática das causais de enunciação no Português Europeu contemporâneo / Utterance causal clauses in contemporary European Portuguese: some contributions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Cristina Macário, Lopes.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é caracterizar as orações causais de enunciação num quadro teórico que postula a existência, no discurso, de distintos domínios da significação - domínio do conteúdo, domínio epistémico e domínio ilocutório-, na convicção de que uma análise semântica destas construções pode [...] rá contribuir para iluminar o seu comportamento sintático peculiar, que tanta controvérsia tem gerado. Defende-se, neste estudo, que as orações causais de enunciação expressam a relação discursiva de Justificação, que envolve sempre a articulação de dois atos ilocutórios, um deles com o estatuto de ato principal, o outro com o estatuto de ato subordinado. Num primeiro momento, analisa-se a articulação entre causais de enunciação e asserções e argumenta-se a favor da inseparabilidade entre os domínios epistémico e ilocutório neste tipo de construções, contrariamente ao que defende Sweetser (1999). Num segundo momento, analisa-se a articulação entre causais de enunciação e outras classes de atos ilocutórios, nomeadamente atos diretivos, compromissivos e expressivos. Abstract in english The main purpose of this paper is to characterize utterance causal clauses within a theoretical framework that assumes different domains of discourse meaning - content, epistemic and speech-act domain. The assumption is that a semantic analysis may provide some explanation for the syntactic behaviou [...] r of the construction under scrutiny. It is argued in this paper that utterance causal clauses illustrate the discourse relation of Justification, which involves the connection between two illocutionary acts, with different hierarchical status. It is also argued, contrary to Sweetser's 1999 account, that utterance causal clauses combined with assertions give rise to an elementary argumentative text, where the epistemic and the illocutionary domain are closely intertwined. The paper also contemplates the connection between utterance causal clauses and other classes of speech acts, namely directive, compromissive and expressive ones.

  19. Left-peripheral Free Relatives in Northern Basque

    OpenAIRE

    Rebuschi, Georges; Lipták, Anikó

    2006-01-01

    Left-peripheral relative clauses (also known as correlative clauses) are widely attested in natural languages — in the Indo-European family, both ancient and modern, and outside of that domain too. Such is also the case of Basque, an isolate language spoken in South-Western France and Northern Spain, in which these Left-peripheric Free Relatives (LPFRs), are restricted to the Eastern dialects, i.e. those spoken in France, and the neighbouring subdialects spoken across the boundary, in Spanish...

  20. Proportionality and the limitation clauses of the South African Bill of Rights

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    IM, Rautenbach.

    Full Text Available "Proportionality" is a contemporary heavy-weight concept which has been described as an element of a globalised international grammar and as a foundational element of global constitutionalism. The article firstly describes the elements of proportionality as they are generally understood in foreign s [...] ystems, namely whether the limitation pursues a legitimate aim, whether the limitation is capable of achieving this aim, whether the act impairs the right as little as possible and the so-called balancing stage when it must be determined whether the achievement of the aim outweighs the limitation imposed. The German academic Alexy (Theorie der Grundrechte (1986)) developed what he called a mathematical weight formula to deal with the balancing stage. An overview is provided of how the elements of proportionality were dealt with in the text of the South African interim Constitution of 1994, the early jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court, and in the text of the final Constitution of 1996. Contemporary South African academic criticism of the use of the concept is also analysed. The article then endeavours to relate the elements of Alexy's weight formula to both the elements of the South African general limitation clause in section 36 of the Constitution and to the appearance of such elements in the formulation of specific rights in the Bill of Rights. Although the levels of abstraction reached in the debates on the Alexy formula are so daunting that it is most unlikely that South African courts and practitioners will ever use it, certain valuable insights can be gained from it for the purposes of dealing with proportionality within the context of the limitation of rights in South Africa. Despite opposition from certain academics, proportionality is a prominent feature of the application of the limitation clauses in the South African Constitution. The elements of proportionality provides a useful tool for the application, within the context of the limitation of rights, of general and wide concepts such as "fairness", "reasonableness", "rationality", "public interest" and, somewhat surprisingly, also of the general concept "proportionality" as such. South Africa's participation in the global recognition and application of this way of dealing with the limitation of rights is worthwhile.

  1. This study has for objective to study the theoretical relation of the hydraulic jump by sill, evolving in an U-shaped channel, with a rough bed. Functional relations, in non-dimensional form, relating the jump characteristics, seeming the effect of the be

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghomri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study has for objective to study the theoretical relation of the hydraulic jump by sill, evolving in an U-shaped channel, with a rough bed. Functional relations, in non-dimensional form, relating the jump characteristics, seeming the effect of the bed's roughness, are obtained. A comparative study with the hydraulic jump in U-shaped channel, with smooth bed is proposed.

  2. Word order variation and foregrounding of complement clauses : Exploring the meaning of sentence adverbials as signals of word order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tanya Karoli; Jensen, Torben Juel

    2015-01-01

    Through mixed models analyses of complement clauses in a corpus of spoken Danish we examine the role of sentence adverbials in relation to a word order distinction in Scandinavian signalled by the relative position of sentence adverbials and finite verb (V>Adv vs. Adv>V). The type of sentence adverbial was the third-most important factor in explaining the word order variation: Sentence adverbials categorized as ‘dialogic’ are significantly associated with V>Adv word order. We argue that the results are readily interpretable in the light of the semantico-pragmatic hypothesis that V>Adv signals foregrounded information, and exploit the random intercepts assigned to the individual adverbials for further exploring the functions of sentence adverbials that behave unexpectedly based on the predictions of the model.

  3. Treatment-Related Changes in Objectively Measured Parenting Behaviors in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Karen C.; Chi, Terry C.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Pfiffner, Linda; Nebel-Schwalm, Marie; Owens, Elizabeth B.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Abikoff, Howard B.; Conners, C. Keith; Elliott, Glen R.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Hechtman, Lily; Hoza, Betsy; Jensen, Peter S.; March, John; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Pelham, William E.; Severe, Joanne B.; Swanson, James; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wigal, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined treatment outcomes for objectively measured parenting behavior in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Five hundred seventy-nine ethnically and socioeconomically diverse children with ADHD-combined type (ages 7.0-9.9 years) and their parent(s) were recruited …

  4. Causes and Consequences of Faulty Arbitration Clauses / Cláusulas de arbitramento defectuosas: sus causas y consecuencias

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis Alfonso, Gómez Domínguez.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available En vista de la relación que existe entre la cláusula de arbitramento y el proceso arbitral, antes que todo, este artículo tiene como objeto analizar las cláusulas de arbitramento. Porqué razón estas cláusulas son a veces inaplicables y las consecuencias de las deficiencias en su redacción. Para dete [...] rminar las razones que generan cláusulas de arbitraje defectuosas un estudio casuístico fue aplicado a la investigación. Este método fue escogido debido a que en lo atinente a cuestiones legales no es posible encontrar dos casos idénticos, puede hallarse casos con similares circunstancias, pero las razones que llevaron a las partes para hacer el contrato y la intención, suelen variar significativamente de un contrato a otro. A lo largo de la investigación es expresada frecuentemente una idea. Esta es en pocas palabras: "No hay cláusula perfecta, es casi imposible encontrar una cláusula aplicable a toda situación, puesto que cada contrato es firmado atendiendo a diferentes necesidades, circunstancias y requisitos." Una vez concluida la investigación, fue encontrado que las cláusulas de arbitraje inaplicables pueden ser causadas por errores de redacción o son derivadas de limitaciones propias del arbitramento, puesto que algunas veces simplemente no es el mecanismo idóneo para resolver cierta clase de conflictos. Las consecuencias varían dependiendo de la magnitud del error. Abstract in english Taking into account the link between arbitration clauses and the process of arbitration, this article first aims to analyse arbitration clauses, why these clauses are sometimes unconscionable and what are the consequences of such deficiencies. Companies have to consider that if the arbitration claus [...] e is drafted without a reasonable attention, this provision itself could be the cause of conflict. Furthermore, unconscionable, invalid and abusive clauses may lead to companies losing money and credibility. To determine the reasons that prompt faulty arbitration clauses a multi-case study was applied to the research. This approach was chosen owing to the fact that with regard to law it is not possible to find two identical cases. There may be similarities, but the reasons for making the deal and the intention of the parties, can vary significantly from one contract to another. During the research a particular comment was frequently encountered: "There is no perfect clause; it is impossible to find a perfect clause because every contract is executed according to different needs, circumstances and requirements." Once the research was concluded, it was found that faulty arbitration clauses can be prompted by drafting mistakes and limitations particular to the arbitration itself. The consequences may vary depending on the magnitude of the error.

  5. An audit questionnaire that examines specifically the management of technical activities clauses in ISO 15189.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, T F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design an audit questionnaire that focuses on the management of the technical activities in a Diagnostic Pathology Laboratory. The ISO 15189 Standard is written in such a way that it continually moves back and forth from topics where the auditor needs to question bench level staff, to topics where the auditor needs to question Technical Management Staff. This makes for a disjointed audit process - both Bench Staff and Technical Managers are repeatedly interrupted. The solution was to do a clause by clause analysis of the Standard and assign the major responsibility for the compliance to each clause to either Technical Managers or Bench Staff. The Clauses were then grouped under four topic headings regardless of whether they were a Section 4 or Section 5 Clause. Two questionnaires have emerged - the one described in this work and one directed primarily towards the activities of bench staff. There are 95 questions and it takes approximately two hours to complete. PMID:23105892

  6. Clause/Term Resolution and Learning in the Evaluation of Quantified Boolean Formulas

    CERN Document Server

    Giunchiglia, E; Tacchella, A; 10.1613/jair.1959

    2011-01-01

    Resolution is the rule of inference at the basis of most procedures for automated reasoning. In these procedures, the input formula is first translated into an equisatisfiable formula in conjunctive normal form (CNF) and then represented as a set of clauses. Deduction starts by inferring new clauses by resolution, and goes on until the empty clause is generated or satisfiability of the set of clauses is proven, e.g., because no new clauses can be generated. In this paper, we restrict our attention to the problem of evaluating Quantified Boolean Formulas (QBFs). In this setting, the above outlined deduction process is known to be sound and complete if given a formula in CNF and if a form of resolution, called Q-resolution, is used. We introduce Q-resolution on terms, to be used for formulas in disjunctive normal form. We show that the computation performed by most of the available procedures for QBFs --based on the Davis-Logemann-Loveland procedure (DLL) for propositional satisfiability-- corresponds to a tree...

  7. 48 CFR 52.225-7 - Waiver of Buy American Act for Civil Aircraft and Related Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.225-7 Waiver of Buy American Act for Civil Aircraft and Related Articles. As prescribed in 25.1101(d), insert the following provision: Waiver of Buy American Act for Civil... Agreements Act. (b) The U.S. Trade Representative has waived the Buy American Act for acquisitions of...

  8. Cultivating objects in interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    associations for describing, disambiguating or clarifying aspects of the relatively complex procedural frameworks discussed in the settings. is suggests that the temporal stability of material objects available to participants makes them an ideal resource to be developed as visual motifs.......is chapter explores patterns of repeated orientations to physical objects in interactants’ visuo-spatial and haptic surround. A number of examples are presented from advice-giving activities in various institutional settings, where participants-in-interaction initially draw on material objects at...... hand while pursuing a particular line of explanation, and then return to these objects at later intervals. e analysis suggests that the objects are afforded representational properties through their being anchored to some referent in the talk, and that participants subsequently draw on these...

  9. New concept for quantification of similarity relates entropy and energy of objects: First and Second Law entangled, group behavior of micro black holes expected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimak Petr

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract When the free energy of similar but distinct molecule-sized objects is plotted against the temperature at which their energy and entropy contributions cancel, a highly significant linear dependence results from which the degree of similarity between the distinctly different members within the group of objects can be quantified and a relationship between energy and entropy is derived. This energy-entropy relationship entirely reflects the mathematical structure of thermodynamic equations, is in this sense fundamental and therefore does probably not dependent on material nor scale. The energy-entropy relationship is likely to be of general interest in molecular biology, population biology, synthetic biology, biophysics, chemical thermodynamics, systems chemistry and physics, most notably in particle physics and cosmology. In physics we predict a consistent and perhaps testable way of classifying micro black holes, to be generated in future Large Hadron Collider experiments, by their gravitational energy and area entropy.

  10. Knee Confidence as it Relates to Self-Reported and Objective Correlates of Knee Osteoarthritis : A Cross-Sectional Study of 220 Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, SØren T; Rasmussen, Sten

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Objective Little is known about correlates of lack of knee confidence in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). The objective was to validate, if possible, previously reported associations, and investigate other potential associations, between knee confidence and various self-reported and objective measures, in independent patient cohorts. Methods Baseline data from 220 patients with knee OA was applied in ordinal regression analyses with knee confidence, assessed using the item Q3 from the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, as the dependent variable and self-reported (pain on walking, general health, fear of movement, self-efficacy, function and previous serious injury) and objective measures (muscle strength, 20-meter walk time and radiographic severity of tibiofemoral OA) as predictor variables. Results Most (95%) of the participants reported lack of knee confidence, and 54% experienced severe or extreme lack of knee confidence. Fear of movement (Odds Ratio(OR) 2.06, 95% Confidence Intervals [95% CI] 1.15-3.68), pain on walking (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.09-1.34) and general health (OR 0.024, 95% CI 0.002-0.259) explained 19% of the variance in knee confidence (P<0.001). Conclusion Severe lack of knee confidence is a common finding in knee OA. Pain on walking was confirmed as a correlate of knee confidence while muscle strength was not. Fear of movement and poor general health were new variables associated with lack of knee confidence. The none-existing or poor correlations with other tested variables suggest lack of knee confidence may represent an independent treatment target in knee OA of importance to improve mobility. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 24 Aug 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5864.

  11. Object-Place Recognition Learning Triggers Rapid Induction of Plasticity-Related Immediate Early Genes and Synaptic Proteins in the Rat Dentate Gyrus

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Soulé; Zsuzsa Penke; Tambudzai Kanhema; Maria Nordheim Alme; Serge Laroche; Clive R. Bramham

    2008-01-01

    Long-term recognition memory requires protein synthesis, but little is known about the coordinate regulation of specific genes. Here, we examined expression of the plasticity-associated immediate early genes (Arc, Zif268, and Narp) in the dentate gyrus following long-term object-place recognition learning in rats. RT-PCR analysis from dentate gyrus tissue collected shortly after training did not reveal learning-specific changes in Arc mRNA expression. In situ hybridization and immunohistoche...

  12. Subjective and Objective Binge Eating in Relation to Eating Disorder Symptomatology, Depressive Symptoms, and Self-Esteem Among Treatment-Seeking Adolescents with Bulimia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E.; Ciao, Anna C.; Accurso, Erin C.; Pisetsky, Emily M.; Peterson, Carol B.; Byrne, Catherine E.; LE GRANGE, DANIEL

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the importance of the distinction between objective (OBE) and subjective binge eating (SBE) among 80 treatment-seeking adolescents with bulimia nervosa (BN). We explored relationships among OBEs, SBEs, eating disorder (ED) symptomatology, depression, and self-esteem using two approaches. Group comparisons showed that OBE and SBE groups did not differ on ED symptoms or self-esteem; however, the SBE group had significantly greater depression. Examining continuous variabl...

  13. Knee Confidence as It Relates to Self-reported and Objective Correlates of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Cross-sectional Study of 220 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skou, Søren T; Rasmussen, Sten; Simonsen, Ole; Roos, Ewa M

    2015-10-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Objective The objective was to validate, if possible, previously reported associations and to investigate other potential associations between knee confidence and various self-reported and objective measures in an independent cohort of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Background Lack of knee confidence is a frequent symptom in patients with knee OA, but little is known of associations between knee confidence and other common correlates of knee OA. Methods Baseline data from 220 patients with knee OA were applied in ordinal regression analyses, with knee confidence, assessed using item Q3 of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, as the dependent variable and self-reported (pain on walking, general health, fear of movement, self-efficacy, function, and previous serious injury) and objective measures (muscle strength, 20-m walk time, and radiographic severity of tibiofemoral OA) as predictor variables. Results Most (95%) of the participants reported lack of knee confidence, and 54% experienced severe or extreme lack of knee confidence. Fear of movement (odds ratio [OR] = 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15, 3.68), pain on walking (OR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.34), and general health (OR = 0.024; 95% CI: 0.002, 0.259) explained 19% of the variance in knee confidence (PFear of movement and poor general health were new variables associated with lack of knee confidence. The noncorrelations or poor correlations with other tested variables suggest that a lack of knee confidence may represent an independent treatment target in knee OA of importance to improve mobility. Trials registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01410409 and NCT01535001). J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(10):765-771. Epub 24 Aug 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5864. PMID:26304646

  14. Object-Place Recognition Learning Triggers Rapid Induction of Plasticity-Related Immediate Early Genes and Synaptic Proteins in the Rat Dentate Gyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulé, Jonathan; Penke, Zsuzsa; Kanhema, Tambudzai; Alme, Maria Nordheim; Laroche, Serge; Bramham, Clive R.

    2008-01-01

    Long-term recognition memory requires protein synthesis, but little is known about the coordinate regulation of specific genes. Here, we examined expression of the plasticity-associated immediate early genes (Arc, Zif268, and Narp) in the dentate gyrus following long-term object-place recognition learning in rats. RT-PCR analysis from dentate gyrus tissue collected shortly after training did not reveal learning-specific changes in Arc mRNA expression. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were therefore used to assess possible sparse effects on gene expression. Learning about objects increased the density of granule cells expressing Arc, and to a lesser extent Narp, specifically in the dorsal blade of the dentate gyrus, while Zif268 expression was elevated across both blades. Thus, object-place recognition triggers rapid, blade-specific upregulation of plasticity-associated immediate early genes. Furthermore, Western blot analysis of dentate gyrus homogenates demonstrated concomitant upregulation of three postsynaptic density proteins (Arc, PSD-95, and ?-CaMKII) with key roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. PMID:19190776

  15. Object-Place Recognition Learning Triggers Rapid Induction of Plasticity-Related Immediate Early Genes and Synaptic Proteins in the Rat Dentate Gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive R. Bramham

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term recognition memory requires protein synthesis, but little is known about the coordinate regulation of specific genes. Here, we examined expression of the plasticity-associated immediate early genes (Arc, Zif268, and Narp in the dentate gyrus following long-term object-place recognition learning in rats. RT-PCR analysis from dentate gyrus tissue collected shortly after training did not reveal learning-specific changes in Arc mRNA expression. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were therefore used to assess possible sparse effects on gene expression. Learning about objects increased the density of granule cells expressing Arc, and to a lesser extent Narp, specifically in the dorsal blade of the dentate gyrus, while Zif268 expression was elevated across both blades. Thus, object-place recognition triggers rapid, blade-specific upregulation of plasticity-associated immediate early genes. Furthermore, Western blot analysis of dentate gyrus homogenates demonstrated concomitant upregulation of three postsynaptic density proteins (Arc, PSD-95, and α-CaMKII with key roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and long-term memory.

  16. An automated quality assessor for Ada object-oriented designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailin, Sidney C.

    1988-01-01

    A tool for evaluating object-oriented designs (OODs) for Ada software is described. The tool assumes a design expressed as a hierarchy of object diagrams. A design of this type identifies the objects of a system, an interface to each object, and the usage relationships between objects. When such a design is implemented in Ada, objects become packages, interfaces become package specifications, and usage relationships become Ada `with' clauses and package references. An automated quality assessor has been developed that is based on flagging undesirable design constructs. For convenience, distinctions are made among three levels of severity: questionable, undesirable, and hazardous. A questionable construct is one that may well be appropriate. An undesirable construct is one that should be changed because it is potentially harmful to the reliability, maintainability, or reusability of the software. A hazardous construct is one that is undesirable and that introduces a high level of risk.

  17. Breaking Object Correspondence Across Saccadic Eye Movements Deteriorates Object Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Poth, Christian H.

    2015-01-01

    Visual perception is based on information processing during periods of eye fixations that are interrupted by fast saccadic eye movements. The ability to sample and relate information on task-relevant objects across fixations implies that correspondence between presaccadic and postsaccadic objects is established. Postsaccadic object information usually updates and overwrites information on the corresponding presaccadic object. The presaccadic object representation is then lost. In contrast, th...

  18. Knee Confidence as It Relates to Self-reported and Objective Correlates of Knee Osteoarthritis : A Cross-sectional Study of 220 Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, SØren T; Rasmussen, Sten

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional study. Objective The objective was to validate, if possible, previously reported associations and to investigate other potential associations between knee confidence and various self-reported and objective measures in an independent cohort of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Background Lack of knee confidence is a frequent symptom in patients with knee OA, but little is known of associations between knee confidence and other common correlates of knee OA. Methods Baseline data from 220 patients with knee OA were applied in ordinal regression analyses, with knee confidence, assessed using item Q3 of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, as the dependent variable and self-reported (pain on walking, general health, fear of movement, self-efficacy, function, and previous serious injury) and objective measures (muscle strength, 20-m walk time, and radiographic severity of tibiofemoral OA) as predictor variables. Results Most (95%) of the participants reported lack of knee confidence, and 54% experienced severe or extreme lack of knee confidence. Fear of movement (odds ratio [OR] = 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15, 3.68), pain on walking (OR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.34), and general health (OR = 0.024; 95% CI: 0.002, 0.259) explained 19% of the variance in knee confidence (P<.001). Conclusion Severe lack of knee confidence is a common finding in individuals with knee OA. Pain on walking was confirmed as a correlate of knee confidence, whereas muscle strength was not. Fear of movement and poor general health were new variables associated with lack of knee confidence. The noncorrelations or poor correlations with other tested variables suggest that a lack of knee confidence may represent an independent treatment target in knee OA of importance to improve mobility. Trials registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01410409 and NCT01535001). J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2015;45(10):765-771. Epub 24 Aug 2015. doi:10.2519/jospt.2015.5864.

  19. Characterization of catalysts by Moessbauer spectroscopy: An application to the study of Fischer-Tropsch, hydrotreating and super Claus catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moessbauer spectroscopy is an excellent in-situ technique for the identification of phases present in catalysts. Applied to metallic iron catalysts used in the Fischer-Tropsch reaction it reveals a detailed picture of the carburization process and provides insight into the relation between the properties of the catalytic material and its activity. The influence of a support and the effect of alloying iron with an (in)active metal on the catalytic performance is discussed for Fe, Cu-Fe and Ni-Fe systems. In addition, Moessbauer spectroscopy is used for the identification of 'Co-sulfide' species present in sulfided Co and CoMo catalysts applied in one of the largest chemical processes in the world, the hydrotreatment of crude oil. A structural model is proposed. Finally, the contribution of Moessbauer spectroscopic studies to the development of a new catalyst for cleaning of Claus tail gas via selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur is discussed. (orig.)

  20. 48 CFR 227.7107-1 - Architectural designs and data clauses for architect-engineer or construction contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... data clauses for architect-engineer or construction contracts. 227.7107-1 Section 227.7107-1 Federal... designs and data clauses for architect-engineer or construction contracts. (a) Except as provided in... (Unlimited), in solicitations and contracts for architect-engineer services and for construction...