Prashanth K and Umarani J
In 1998 the World Health Organization declared childhood obesity as a global epidemic. It has also been observed that the health problems of adult obesity can be prevented, if obesity is controlled in childhood. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge and attitude regarding prevention of obesity and Correlate the knowledge and attitude regarding prevention of obesity among adolescents in a selected pre-university college. A pre-experimental ...
Juliana Kain; Fernando Concha; Lorena Moreno; BĂĄrbara Leyton
Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a 12-month multicomponent obesity prevention intervention. Setting. 9 elementary schools in Santiago, Chile. Subjects. 6â8ây old low-income children (N = 1474). Design. Randomized controlled study; 5 intervention/4 control schools. We trained teachers to deliver nutrition contents and improve the quality of PE classes. We determined % healthy snacks brought from home, children's nutrition knowledge, nutritional status, duration of PE classes, and % ...
Dietz, W H
The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity, its attendant morbidity, and the limited success of therapy mandate increased attention to preventive approaches. Environmental and family variables serve to identify families with children at risk for the development of obesity. Although the behavioral correlates that link these risk factors to childhood obesity remain unclear, inactivity and increased dietary intake of fat appear at this time to be the most logical foci for preventive interventions. Television viewing, which promotes both increased food consumption and reduced activity, represents a major concern at which counseling should be directed. PMID:3737257
Fitzgibbon, M. L.; Stolley, M. R.; Schiffer, L.; Braunschweig, C. L.; Gomez, S. L.; Van Horn, L; Dyer, A.
The preschool years offer an opportunity to interrupt the trajectory toward obesity in black children. The Hip-Hop to Health Jr. Obesity Prevention Effectiveness Trial was a group-randomized controlled trial assessing the feasibility and effectiveness of a teacher-delivered weight control intervention for black preschool children. The 618 participating children were enrolled in 18 schools administered by the Chicago Public Schools. Children enrolled in the 9 schools randomized to the interven...
Xu, Fei; Ware, Robert S.; Leslie, Eva; Tse, Lap Ah; Wang, Zhiyong; Li, Jiequan; Wang, Youfa
Background Childhood obesity has been increasing rapidly worldwide. There is limited evidence for effective lifestyle interventions to prevent childhood obesity worldwide, especially in developing countries like China. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a school-based multi-component lifestyle childhood obesity prevention program (the CLICK-Obesity study) in Mainland China. Methods A cluster randomized controlled trial was developed among grade 4 students from 8 urban primary schools (638 students in intervention, 544 as control) in Nanjing City, China. Students were randomly allocated to the control or intervention group at school-level. A one-year multi-component intervention program (classroom curriculum, school environment support, family involvement and fun programs/events) together with routine health education was provided to the intervention group, while the control group received routine health education only. The main outcome variables assessed were changes in body mass index, obesity occurrence, obesity-related lifestyle behaviors and knowledge. Results Overall, 1108 (93.7%) of the 1182 enrolled students completed the intervention study. The intervention group had a larger marginal reduction than did the control group in overall mean BMI value (-0.32Â±1.36 vs. -0.29Â±1.40, p = 0.09), although this was not significant. Compared with the control group, the intervention group was more likely to decrease their BMI (OR = 1.44, 95%CI = 1.10, 1.87) by 0.5 kg/m2 or above, increase the frequency of jogging/running (OR = 1.55, 95%CI = 1.18, 2.02), decrease the frequency of TV/computer use (OR = 1.41, 95%CI = 1.09, 1.84) and of red meat consumption (OR = 1.50, 95%CI = 1.15, 1.95), change commuting mode to/from school from sedentary to active mode (OR = 2.24, 95%CI = 1.47, 3.40), and be aware of the harm of selected obesity risk factors. Conclusions The school-based lifestyle intervention program was practical and effective in improving health behaviors and obesity-related knowledge for children in China. This study provides important policy implications on school-based intervention programs for modifications of obesity-related lifestyles. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-ERC-11001819 PMID:26510135
Full Text Available Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating energy intake and expenditure and body size mainly occurs in the first 1,000 days of life. Therefore, factors affecting the foetal exposition to maternal metabolic environment and early postnatal nutrition are crucial in modulating the definition of the metabolic programming processes in the brain. Maternal diseases, mainly malnutrition for defect or excess, obesity and diabetes, placental disorders and dysfunctions, maternal use of alcohol and drugs, smoking, affect long term metabolic programming of the foetus with lifelong consequences. Similarly, early nutrition contributes to complete the long-term metabolic regulating framework initiated in the uterus. Breastfeeding, adequate weaning, attention to portion size and diet composition are potential tools for reducing the obesity risk later in childhood. Longitudinal randomized controlled studies are needed for exploring the efficacy of obesity prevention strategies initiated after conception.Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology Â· Cagliari (Italy Â· October 22nd-25th, 2014 Â·Â The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou
Full Text Available Elizabeth TeixeiraDrexel University College of Nursing and Health Professions, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Obesity is a major public health concern worldwide. The increasing prevalence of obesity in all ages, especially children and adolescents, has gained global attention and it is widely known that obesity increases the risk of many chronic conditions and illnesses, such as Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Obesity is a complex metabolic disorder, however, that is difficult to treat and manage. Therefore, despite the increased awareness about obesity-related health risks, obesity prevention and control has been a major challenge for health professionals. Lifestyle modification is easily prescribed, however, multiple barriers to implementation exist. Barriers include but are not limited to: behavioral and motivational factors, anti-fat bias, access to and reimbursement of educational programs, availability of healthy affordable foods, ongoing support systems that are culturally and community attuned, and comorbidities that limit physical activity and quality of life. Further, the current health care systems are not all designed to focus on health promotion and wellness. These contributing factors complicate weight management and control. Community-based programs are one potentially feasible approach that can assist individuals, families, and communities in developing healthy behaviors that promote and maintain weight loss. This review reports on nine worldwide current studies on the effectiveness of community-based programs in diverse populations targeting obesity. The purpose of this review is to examine evidenced-based interventions that can assist in the development of standard practices in the battle against obesity.Keywords: obesity, community, prevention, physical activity, nutrition
Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Zulkepli, Jafri Hj; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura
The rise in income and population growth have increased the demand for food and induced changes in food habits, food purchasing and consumption patterns in Malaysia. With this transition, one of the plausible causes of weight gain and obesity is the frequent consumption of outside food which is synonymous with bigger portion size. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to develop a system dynamics model to analyse the effect of reducing food portion size on weight and obesity prevention. This study combines the different strands of knowledge comprise of nutrition, physical activity and body metabolism. These elements are synthesized into a system dynamics model called SIMULObese. Findings from this study suggested that changes in eating behavior should not emphasize only on limiting the food portion size consumption. The efforts should also consider other eating events such as controlling the meal frequency and limiting intake of high-calorie food in developing guidelines to prevent obesity.
Crawford, Patricia B B; Schneider, Constance; Anna C Martin; Spezzano, Theresa; Algert, Susan; Ganthavorn, Chutima; Nicholson, Yvonne; Neelon, Marisa; Wooten Swanson, Patti C; Donohue, Susan S.
Approximately 25 million children in the United States are obese or at risk of becoming obese, with anticipated negative consequences for individual health as well as the nation's future health-care costs. Effective interventions to prevent obesity require more than educating individuals. To bring about change, we must deploy tactics at multiple levels, from community facilities like parks and bike paths to foods offered in schools. The Spectrum of Prevention proposed in 1999 by L. Coh...
Dilek Yildiz; Berna Eren Fidanci; Derya Suluhan
Childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past two decades. The growing incidence of childhood obesity is alarming, given the significant short and long term health problems associated with obesity. Being overweight or obese may increase the rate of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It may contribute to shortening life expectancy and adversely affects the quality of life. Therefore, it is important to prevent childhood obe...
Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Zulkepli, Jafri Hj
Obesity is a medical condition where an individual has an excessive amount of body fat. There are many factors contributing to obesity and one of them is the sedentary behaviour. Rapid development in industrialization and urbanization has brought changes to Malaysia's socioeconomic, especially the lifestyles of Malaysians. With this lifestyle transition, one of the impact is on weight and obesity. How does sedentary behaviour have an impact on the growth of Malaysian population's weight and obesity? What is the most effective sedentary behaviour preventing strategy to obesity? Is it through reduction in duration or frequency of sedentary behaviour? Thus, the aim of this paper is to design an intervention to analyse the effect of decreasing duration and frequency of sedentary behaviour on the population reversion trends of average weight (AW), average body mass index (ABMI), and prevalence of overweight and obesity (POVB). This study combines the different strands of sub-models comprised of nutrition, physical activity and body metabolism, and then synthesis these knowledge into a system dynamics of weight behaviour model, namely SIMULObese. Findings from this study revealed that Malaysian's adults spend a lot of time engaged in sedentary behaviour and this resulted in weight gain and obesity. Comparing between frequency and duration of sedentary behaviour, this study reported that reduced in duration or time spend in sedentary behaviour is a better preventing strategy to obesity compared to duration. As a summary, this study highlighted the importance of decreasing the frequency and duration of sedentary behaviour in developing guidelines to prevent obesity.
Pandita, Aakash; Sharma, Deepak; Pandita, Dharti; Pawar, Smita; Tariq, Mir; Kaul, Avinash
Obesity and its associated comorbidities have emerged as a major health problem garnering interests from both public health agencies and mainstream media consumers. With increasing awareness on its impact on health, finances, and community at large, it has come to the forefront for scientific research and development of health plans. The need for better strategies and novel interventions to manage obesity is now being recognized by the entire health care system. Obesity and overweight is now the fifth leading global risk factor for mortality. Strategic investment is thus urgently needed to implement population-based childhood obesity prevention programmes which are effective and also culturally appropriate. Population-based prevention is crucial to stem this rising tide of childhood obesity which is fast reaching epidemic proportions. Obesity has its onset very early in life; therefore, children constitute a major group of this disease. It is thus imperative to lay utmost importance on prevention of obesity in children and herald its progress, if present already. Furthermore, treatment is still in preliminary stage, so early prevention holds better than treatment at later stages. This article is an attempt to lay emphasis on childhood obesity as a problem that needs to be recognized early and measures for its prevention. PMID:27042133
Merchant Anwar T
Full Text Available Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Consequently, both over-consumption of calories and reduced physical activity are involved in childhood obesity. Almost all researchers agree that prevention could be the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic of obesity. Prevention may include primary prevention of overweight or obesity, secondary prevention or prevention of weight regains following weight loss, and avoidance of more weight increase in obese persons unable to lose weight. Until now, most approaches have focused on changing the behaviour of individuals in diet and exercise. It seems, however, that these strategies have had little impact on the growing increase of the obesity epidemic. While about 50% of the adults are overweight and obese in many countries, it is difficult to reduce excessive weight once it becomes established. Children should therefore be considered the priority population for intervention strategies. Prevention may be achieved through a variety of interventions targeting built environment, physical activity, and diet. Some of these potential strategies for intervention in children can be implemented by targeting preschool institutions, schools or after-school care services as natural setting for influencing the diet and physical activity. All in all, there is an urgent need to initiate prevention and treatment of obesity in children.
Full Text Available Aakash Pandita,1 Deepak Sharma,2 Dharti Pandita,3 Smita Pawar,4 Mir Tariq,5 Avinash Kaul6 1Department of Pediatrics, SMGS Hospital Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India; 2Department of Pediatrics, Pt Bhagwat Dayal Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India; 3Department of Microbiology Jammu University, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India; 4Department of OBG Fernandez Hospital, Hyderabad,Telangana, India; 5Department of Orthopedics, Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Mumbai, India; 6Department of Surgery, Acharya Shri Chander College of Medical Sciences and Hospital, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India Abstract: Obesity and its associated comorbidities have emerged as a major health problem garnering interests from both public health agencies and mainstream media consumers. With increasing awareness on its impact on health, finances, and community at large, it has come to the forefront for scientific research and development of health plans. The need for better strategies and novel interventions to manage obesity is now being recognized by the entire health care system. Obesity and overweight is now the fifth leading global risk factor for mortality. Strategic investment is thus urgently needed to implement population-based childhood obesity prevention programmes which are effective and also culturally appropriate. Population-based prevention is crucial to stem this rising tide of childhood obesity which is fast reaching epidemic proportions. Obesity has its onset very early in life; therefore, children constitute a major group of this disease. It is thus imperative to lay utmost importance on prevention of obesity in children and herald its progress, if present already. Furthermore, treatment is still in preliminary stage, so early prevention holds better than treatment at later stages. This article is an attempt to lay emphasis on childhood obesity as a problem that needs to be recognized early and measures for its prevention. Keywords: overweight, obesity, prevention, assessment, body mass index, nutrition assessment, treatment
Volpe, Stella Lucia; Sukumar, Deeptha; Milliron, Brandy-Joe
The number of older adults living in the USA, 65Â years of age and older, has been steadily increasing. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010, indicate that more than one-third of older adults, 65Â years of age and older, were obese. With the increased rate of obesity in older adults, the purpose of this paper is to present research on different methods to prevent or manage obesity in older adults, namely dietary interventions, physical activity interventions, and a combination of dietary and physical activity interventions. In addition, research on community assistance programs in the prevention of obesity with aging will be discussed. Finally, data on federal programs for older adults will also be presented. PMID:27107762
Tucker, Sharon; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M.
School-based childhood obesity prevention programs have grown in response to reductions in child physical activity (PA), increased sedentariness, poor diet, and soaring child obesity rates. Multiple systematic reviews indicate school-based obesity prevention/treatment interventions are effective, yet few studies have examined the school nurse role
Tucker, Sharon; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M.
School-based childhood obesity prevention programs have grown in response to reductions in child physical activity (PA), increased sedentariness, poor diet, and soaring child obesity rates. Multiple systematic reviews indicate school-based obesity prevention/treatment interventions are effective, yet few studies have examined the school nurse roleâŠ
Ten Have, Marieke
Programs to prevent overweight and obesity are needed in order to improve individual and public health, to support informed choice and to diminish the societal costs associated with overweight. However, lifestyle interventions frequently evoke ethical debate. The potential ethical pitfalls that arise with respect to the prevention of overweight regard consequences for physical health, psychosocial well-being, equality, informed choice, social and cultural values, privacy, the attributions of responsibilities and liberty. For doctors in gastroenterology, it is important to be aware of these ethical pitfalls, either because they apply directly to questions in the consulting-room, or because they help to create awareness of the societal context a patient lives in. An ethical framework is being presented to show which ethical issues play a role in obesity prevention and how they can be prevented, followed by reflection on the ethical issues in interventions and in policy and media debate. PMID:24810191
Aye, Irving L M H; Rosario, Fredrick J; Powell, Theresa L; Jansson, Thomas
Mothers with obesity or gestational diabetes mellitus have low circulating levels of adiponectin (ADN) and frequently deliver large babies with increased fat mass, who are susceptible to perinatal complications and to development of metabolic syndrome later in life. It is currently unknown if the inverse correlation between maternal ADN and fetal growth reflects a cause-and-effect relationship. We tested the hypothesis that ADN supplementation in obese pregnant dams improves maternal insulin sensitivity, restores normal placental insulin/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and nutrient transport, and prevents fetal overgrowth. Compared with dams on a control diet, female C57BL/6J mice fed an obesogenic diet before mating and throughout gestation had increased fasting serum leptin, insulin, and C-peptide, and reduced high-molecular-weight ADN at embryonic day (E) 18.5. Placental insulin and mTORC1 signaling was activated, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-Î± (PPARÎ±) phosphorylation was reduced, placental transport of glucose and amino acids in vivo was increased, and fetal weights were 29% higher in obese dams. Maternal ADN infusion in obese dams from E14.5 to E18.5 normalized maternal insulin sensitivity, placental insulin/mTORC1 and PPARÎ± signaling, nutrient transport, and fetal growth without affecting maternal fat mass. Using a mouse model with striking similarities to obese pregnant women, we demonstrate that ADN functions as an endocrine link between maternal adipose tissue and fetal growth by regulating placental function. Importantly, maternal ADN supplementation reversed the adverse effects of maternal obesity on placental function and fetal growth. Improving maternal ADN levels may serve as an effective intervention strategy to prevent fetal overgrowth caused by maternal obesity. PMID:26417088
Public Health Agency
In 2011 nearly 73,000 adults in Northern Ireland are registered as having diabetes. Many cases of diabetes are preventable and are the result of obesity. With this in mind, on World Diabetes Day, 14 November 2011, the Public Health Agency is encouraging everyone across Northern Ireland to be aware of how Type 2 diabetes can be prevented, the dangers it can cause to your health and what the signs and symptoms of diabetes are to ensure early diagnosis.The links between type 2 diabetes and obesi...
Kurukulasuriya, L Romayne; Govindarajan, Gurushankar; Sowers, James
Stroke is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, and is an economic burden. Diabetes and obesity are two important modifiable risk factors for stroke. Patients with diabetes have a higher incidence of stroke and a poorer prognosis after stroke. Risk-factor modification is the most important aspect of prevention of stroke in diabetes and obesity. This includes lifestyle modifications and different therapeutic modalities to control conditions, such as diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and arrhythmia. Recent landmark studies have shown the beneficial effects of statins in diabetic patients even with close to normal or normal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Obesity, which is a risk factor for diabetes, hypertension and hyperlipidemia has been shown to be an independent risk factor for stroke. Increased leptin, dysregulation of adipocyte proteins, increased insulin resistance and C-reactive protein may be factors involved in the increased incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality directly related to obesity. Visceral fat is a much bigger health risk than subcutaneous fat. Lifestyle interventions and pharmacotherapeutic agents have been used to manage obesity. In morbidly obese patients, surgical intervention seems to be the best method of treatment with a long-lasting favorable metabolic outcome. In the 21st Century, with the advanced medical knowledge and the therapeutic modalities available, it should be possible to reduce the incidence of stroke associated with diabetes and obesity. PMID:16918267
Cluny, Nina L.; Keenan, Catherine M.; Reimer, Raylene A.; Le Foll, Bernard; Sharkey, Keith A.
Objective Acute administration of cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists, or the ingestion of cannabis, induces short-term hyperphagia. However, the incidence of obesity is lower in frequent cannabis users compared to non-users. Gut microbiota affects host metabolism and altered microbial profiles are observed in obese states. Gut microbiota modifies adipogenesis through actions on the endocannabinoid system. This study investigated the effect of chronic THC administration on body weight and gut microbiota in diet-induced obese (DIO) and lean mice. Methods Adult male DIO and lean mice were treated daily with vehicle or THC (2mg/kg for 3 weeks and 4 mg/kg for 1 additional week). Body weight, fat mass, energy intake, locomotor activity, whole gut transit and gut microbiota were measured longitudinally. Results THC reduced weight gain, fat mass gain and energy intake in DIO but not lean mice. DIO-induced changes in select gut microbiota were prevented in mice chronically administered THC. THC had no effect on locomotor activity or whole gut transit in either lean or DIO mice. Conclusions Chronic THC treatment reduced energy intake and prevented high fat diet-induced increases in body weight and adiposity; effects that were unlikely to be a result of sedation or altered gastrointestinal transit. Changes in gut microbiota potentially contribute to chronic THC-induced actions on body weight in obesity. PMID:26633823
Eldridge, Galen; Paul, Lynn; Bailey, Sandra J; Ashe, Carrie Benke; Martz, Jill; Lynch, Wesley
This experiment compared body image (BI) and BMI changes resulting from two parent-only obesity prevention interventions aimed at 8-12 year olds. Parents in the experimental intervention attended ten face-to-face educational sessions, while parents in the minimal (control) intervention received similar mailed information. Parent-child dyads (N=150) were semi-randomly assigned to intervention groups. Children were assessed before, after, and 6 months following the interventions; children did not attend experimental intervention sessions. Child BI assessments included weight and size perception, weight management goals, body esteem, and appearance attitudes. Significant effects included small decreases in BMIz scores and overweight dissatisfaction, as well as improvements in aspects of body esteem and appearance attitudes. Some BI effects were gender-specific. Decreases in overweight dissatisfaction were greater following the experimental treatment. Neither treatment reduced body size misperception. Thus, parent-only obesity prevention interventions can reduce body weight and body image concerns among rural preteens. PMID:26851605
Child obesity is becoming a serious public health concern, and major research effort is being devoted both to understand its aetiology and to improve the effectiveness of prevention strategies. Early growth patterns, both prenatally and postnatally, are emerging as important markers of later obesity risk, with rapid neonatal weight gain a clear risk factor for later obesity and metabolic syndrome. Thus, in two distinct senses child obesity is a growing problem. The paper summarises current ev...
Hita-Contreras, Fidel; MartĂnez-Amat, Antonio; Cruz-DĂaz, David; PĂ©rez-LĂłpez, Faustino R
Sarcopenia, obesity, and osteoporosis are three interrelated entities which may share common pathophysiological factors. In the last decades, overall survival has drastically increased. Postmenopausal women, due to their estrogen depletion, are at higher risk of developing any of these three conditions or the three, which is termed osteosarcopenic obesity. One of the most common health problems among these patients is the elevated risk of falls and fractures. Falls and fall-related injuries are one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in older adults, and have a significant impact on social, economical and health-related costs. Several extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors have been described that play a role in the etiology of falls. A therapeutic approach to osteosarcopenic obesity aimed at the prevention of falls must include several factors, and act on those risk elements which can be effectively modified. An adequate weight-loss diet and a good nutritional intake, with an appropriate amount of vitamin D and the right protein/carbohydrates ratio, may contribute to the prevention of falls. The recommendation of physical exercise, both traditional (resistance or aerobic training) and more recent varieties (Tai Chi, Pilates, body vibration), can improve balance and positively contribute to fall prevention, whether by itself or in combination with other therapeutic strategies. Finally, a pharmacological approach, especially one focused on hormone therapy, has shown to have a positive effect on postmenopausal women's balance, leading to a decreased risk of falls. PMID:25533145
Haire-Joshu, Debra; Tabak, Rachel
To prevent the intergenerational transfer of obesity and end the current epidemic, interventions are needed across the early life stages, from preconception to prenatal to infancy through the age of 2 years. The foundation for obesity is laid in early life by actions and interactions passed from parent to child that have long-lasting biologic and behavioral consequences. The purpose of this paper is to examine the best evidence about (a) factors in parents and offspring that promote obesity during the early life stages, (b) the social determinants and dimensions of obesity in early life, (c) promising and effective interventions for preventing obesity in early life, and (d) opportunities for future research into strategies to disrupt the intergenerational cycle of obesity that begins early in life. The pathway for halting the intergenerational obesity epidemic requires the discovery and development of evidence-based interventions that can act across multiple dimensions of influence on early life. PMID:26989828
Lund, Thomas BĂžker; SandĂže, Peter; Lassen, Jesper
condition. A representative survey of members of the Danish public (N=1,141) was conducted using a web-based questionnaire. The survey was designed to assess attitudes to public funding for obesityrelated health care, and to investigate the impact, on those attitudes, of dislike of obese people, the......The aim of this study was to investigate the Danish publicâs support for publicly funded obesity treatment and prevention. It was also examined whether levels of support could be explained by dislike of obese people and / or the belief that those who are obese are personally responsible for their...... interventions and preventive initiatives. Attitudes to the treatment of obesity were clearly best predicted by the belief that individuals are personally responsible for their own obesity. Dislike of obese persons had no direct effect on the preference for collective treatment initiatives and only a small...
Elizabeth TeixeiraDrexel University College of Nursing and Health Professions, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Obesity is a major public health concern worldwide. The increasing prevalence of obesity in all ages, especially children and adolescents, has gained global attention and it is widely known that obesity increases the risk of many chronic conditions and illnesses, such as Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obesity is a complex metabolic disorder, however,...
Full Text Available Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to life expectancy and increased health problems. In keeping with the general international trend of rising prevalence of obesity, maternal obesity prevalence is rising. According to WHO, the prevalence of obesity in pregnancy ranges from 1.8 to 25.3%. Maternal obesity has been identified to be a risk factor for maternal and perinatal mortality. The aim of this article was reviewed in research about maternal obesity in Pubmed, which published between 2009 and 2010. 7 reviews and 13 studies was examined and they presented under this headings: impacts of maternal obesity in pregnancy, obstetric outcomes of maternal obesity, postpartum outcomes of maternal obesity, impact of maternal obesity on breastfeeding, impact of maternal obesity on procedure of anomaly scan and risk determination, maternal obesity and fetal complications, impact of maternal obesity on Apgar scores, obesity and infertility, pregnancy following bariatric surgery, long term effects of obesity, management of maternal obesity. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 353-364
Merchant Anwar T; Akhtar-Danesh Noori; Dehghan Mahshid
Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising pre...
Hawkes, Corinna; Smith, Trenton G; Jewell, Jo; Wardle, Jane; Hammond, Ross A; Friel, Sharon; Thow, Anne Marie; Kain, Juliana
Prevention of obesity requires policies that work. In this Series paper, we propose a new way to understand how food policies could be made to work more effectively for obesity prevention. Our approach draws on evidence from a range of disciplines (psychology, economics, and public health nutrition) to develop a theory of change to understand how food policies work. We focus on one of the key determinants of obesity: diet. The evidence we review suggests that the interaction between human food preferences and the environment in which those preferences are learned, expressed, and reassessed has a central role. We identify four mechanisms through which food policies can affect diet: providing an enabling environment for learning of healthy preferences, overcoming barriers to the expression of healthy preferences, encouraging people to reassess existing unhealthy preferences at the point-of-purchase, and stimulating a food-systems response. We explore how actions in three specific policy areas (school settings, economic instruments, and nutrition labelling) work through these mechanisms, and draw implications for more effective policy design. We find that effective food-policy actions are those that lead to positive changes to food, social, and information environments and the systems that underpin them. Effective food-policy actions are tailored to the preference, behavioural, socioeconomic, and demographic characteristics of the people they seek to support, are designed to work through the mechanisms through which they have greatest effect, and are implemented as part of a combination of mutually reinforcing actions. Moving forward, priorities should include comprehensive policy actions that create an enabling environment for infants and children to learn healthy food preferences and targeted actions that enable disadvantaged populations to overcome barriers to meeting healthy preferences. Policy assessments should be carefully designed on the basis of a theory of change, using indicators of progress along the various pathways towards the long-term goal of reducing obesity rates. PMID:25703109
Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan
Objective: Evaluate the effects of a prevention program targeting both eating disorders and obesity at 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Method: Female college students at risk for these outcomes because of body image concerns (N = 398) were randomized to the "Healthy Weight 2" group-based 4-hr prevention program, which promotes lasting healthy
Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan
Objective: Evaluate the effects of a prevention program targeting both eating disorders and obesity at 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Method: Female college students at risk for these outcomes because of body image concerns (N = 398) were randomized to the "Healthy Weight 2" group-based 4-hr prevention program, which promotes lasting healthyâŠ
Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a grave issue, which needs to be addressed urgently because it leads to several medical and psychosocial problems in children. High prevalence is being increasingly reported in children from developing countries as well. The combination of our genetic propensity to store fat, the ready availability of calorie dense foods, and sedentary lifestyle promotes overweight. The childâČs food environment at home and parental obesity are strong determinants. Urban poor in developed countries and urban rich in developing countries are both at risk. In developing countries, a number of beliefs passed down over generations are other important determinants. Evaluation includes assessing the childâČs lifestyle, excluding weight-promoting medication history; poor linear growth needs endocrine evaluation; genetic syndromes should be considered if there are clinical pointers. Overweight children should be evaluated for hypertension, dyslipidemia, T2DM, and NAFLD. Therapeutic lifestyle changes targeting food habits and physical activity through parental participation and social support are the cornerstones of preventing childhood obesity. Active travel and play by making the built environment more accessible, ban on âČjunkâČ food advertising, and effective health education through active participation of clinicians, school systems, and the media will go a long way in reversing anticipated trends in childhood obesity.
Taxes on unhealthy food, limits to commercial advertising, a ban on chocolate drink at schools, or compulsory physical exercise for obese employees: efforts to counter the rise in overweight and obesity sometimes raise questions about what is ethically acceptable. This thesis examines how a structured debate can be facilitated about the ethical issues that are involved in the prevention of overweight and obesity. In the first part of this introduction I explain why this question is relevant, ...
The increasing number of obese children and youth throughout the U.S. has led policymakers to rank obesity as a critical health threat. This report provides a broad-based examination of the nature, extent, and consequences of obesity in the nation, including the social, environmental, medical, and dietary factors responsible. It also offers a prevention-oriented action plan that identifies the most promising short-term and longer-term interventions, as well as recommendations for the roles an...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity have a dramatic negative impact on children's health not only during the childhood but also throughout the adult life. Preventing the development of obesity in children is therefore a world-wide health priority. There is an obvious urge for sustainable and evidenced-based interventions that are suitable for families with young children, especially for families with overweight or obese parents. We have developed a prevention program, Early STOPP, combating multiple obesity-promoting behaviors such unbalanced diet, physical inactivity and disturbed sleeping patterns. We also aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the early childhood obesity prevention in a well-characterized population of overweight or obese parents. This protocol outlines methods for the recruitment phase of the study. Design and methods This randomized controlled trial (RCT targets overweight and/or obese parents with infants, recruited from the Child Health Care Centers (CHCC within the Stockholm area. The intervention starts when infants are one year of age and continues until they are six and is regularly delivered by a trained coach (dietitian, physiotherapist or a nurse. The key aspects of Early STOPP family intervention are based on Swedish recommendations for CHCC, which include advices on healthy food choices and eating patterns, increasing physical activity/reducing sedentary behavior and regulating sleeping patterns. Discussion The Early STOPP trial design addresses weaknesses of previous research by recruiting from a well-characterized population, defining a feasible, theory-based intervention and assessing multiple measurements to validate and interpret the program effectiveness. The early years hold promise as a time in which obesity prevention may be most effective. To our knowledge, this longitudinal RCT is the first attempt to demonstrate whether an early, long-term, targeted health promotion program focusing on healthy eating, physical activity/reduced sedentary behaviors and normalizing sleeping patterns could be effective. If proven so, Early STOPP may protect children from the development of overweight and obesity. Trial registration The protocol for this study is registered with the clinical trials registry clinicaltrials.gov, ID: ES-2010
Swinburn, B A; Millar, L; Utter, J; Kremer, P; Moodie, M; Mavoa, H; Snowdon, W; McCabe, M P; Malakellis, M; de Courten, Maximilian; Waqa, G; Fotu, K F; Roberts, G; Scragg, R
Obesity is increasing worldwide with the Pacific region having the highest prevalence among adults. The most common precursor of adult obesity is adolescent obesity making this a critical period for prevention. The Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project was a four-country project (Fiji......, Tonga, New Zealand and Australia) designed to prevent adolescent obesity. This paper overviews the project and the methods common to the four countries. Each country implemented a community-based intervention programme promoting healthy eating, physical activity and healthy weight in adolescents. A...... community capacity-building approach was used, with common processes employed but with contextualized interventions within each country. Changes in anthropometric, behavioural and perception outcomes were evaluated at the individual level and school environments and community capacity at the settings level...
Sleep may affect energy balance. Sleep may not be the only answer to the obesity pandemic, but its effect should be considered seriously, as even small changes in the energy balance are beneficial. Good sleep could be part of the obesity prevention approach.
Wang, H; Zhai, F
By 2002, China's prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults was 18.9 and 2.9%, respectively. The replacement of traditional Chinese diet with 'Western diet', major declines in all phases of activity and increased sedentary activity are cited as the main reasons explaining the rapid increase in overweight and obesity, which bring major economic and health costs. The Nutrition Improvement Work Management Approach was released in 2010. Overweight and obesity prevention-related policies were added to national planning for disease prevention and control. The Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity of Chinese Adults and the School-age Children and Teenagers Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Control Guidelines in China were promulgated in 2003 and 2007, respectively. Few education programmes have been implemented. Selected academic intervention research projects dominate with a focus on reducing child obesity and promoting healthier diets; increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time; and facilitating changes in family, school, social and cultural environments. Intervention samples are small and have not addressed the increasing rates of obesity throughout the entire population. Government provision of effective policy measures, multisectoral cooperation and increasing corporate social responsibility are keys to curbing the trend towards overweight and obesity in China. PMID:24102781
Gracia-Marco, Luis; Moreno, Luis A; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán
Obesity, mainly childhood obesity, is a worldwide concern. Childhood obesity continues to adulthood, and it is associated with multiple noncommunicable diseases. One important aspect in the fight against obesity is prevention, the earlier, the better. Social marketing is a novel concept being increasingly used as an approach to address social problems and more and more included in the community-based interventions aiming to change unhealthy behaviors. Although there is limited evidence of its effectiveness, it seems that when conscientiously applied, social marketing principles may be useful to change behaviors and thus better health outcomes. PMID:22798001
Emre Yanikkerem; Selviye Mutlu
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to life expectancy and increased health problems. In keeping with the general international trend of rising prevalence of obesity, maternal obesity prevalence is rising. According to WHO, the prevalence of obesity in pregnancy ranges from 1.8 to 25.3%. Maternal obesity has been identified to be a risk factor for maternal and perinatal mortality. The aim of this article was reviewed in...
Suglia, Shakira F; Shelton, Rachel C; Hsiao, Amber; Wang, Y Claire; Rundle, Andrew; Link, Bruce G
The continuing obesity epidemic in the USA calls for the examination of antecedents to the well-known risk factors of physical activity and diet. The neighborhood built environment has been extensively studied in relation to obesity noting an increased risk of development and prevalence of obesity in relation to numerous built environment characteristics (lack of green spaces, higher number of fast food restaurants, low walkability indices). The neighborhood social environment, however, has been less extensively studied but is perhaps an equally important component of the neighborhood environment. The neighborhood social environment, particularly constructs of social capital, collective efficacy, and crime, is associated with obesity among both adults and children. Several studies have identified physical activity as a potential pathway of the neighborhood social environment and obesity association. Further work on social networks and norms and residential segregation, as well as the examination of dietary behaviors and mental health as potential mediating pathways, is necessary. Given the existing evidence, intervening on the neighborhood social environment may prove to be an effective target for the prevention on obesity. Intervention studies that promote healthy behaviors and prevent obesity while addressing aspects of the neighborhood social environment are necessary to better identify targets for obesity prevention. PMID:26780582
Brown, Callie L; Halvorson, Elizabeth E; Cohen, Gail M; Lazorick, Suzanne; Skelton, Joseph A
The overweight and obesity epidemic among children and adolescents in the United States continues to worsen, with notable racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities. Risk factors for pediatric obesity include genetics; environmental and neighborhood factors; increased intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fast-food, and processed snacks; decreased physical activity; shorter sleep duration; and increased personal, prenatal, or family stress. Pediatricians can help prevent obesity by measuring body mass index at least yearly and providing age- and development-appropriate anticipatory guidance to families. Public policies and environmental interventions aim to make it easier for children to make healthy nutrition and physical activity choices. Interventions focused on family habits and parenting strategies have also been successful at preventing or treating childhood obesity. PMID:26318950
Huang, Terry T-K; Cawley, John H; Ashe, Marice; Costa, Sergio A; Frerichs, Leah M; Zwicker, Lindsey; Rivera, Juan A; Levy, David; Hammond, Ross A; Lambert, Estelle V; Kumanyika, Shiriki K
Public mobilisation is needed to enact obesity-prevention policies and to mitigate reaction against their implementation. However, approaches in public health focus mainly on dialogue between public health professionals and political leaders. Strategies to increase popular demand for obesity-prevention policies include refinement and streamlining of public information, identification of effective obesity frames for each population, strengthening of media advocacy, building of citizen protest and engagement, and development of a receptive political environment with change agents embedded across organisations and sectors. Long-term support and investment in collaboration between diverse stakeholders to create shared value is also important. Each actor in an expanded coalition for obesity prevention can make specific contributions to engaging, mobilising, and coalescing the public. The shift from a top-down to a combined and integrated bottom-up and top-down approach would need an overhaul of current strategies and reprioritisation of resources. PMID:25703113
Must, Aviva; Curtin, Carol; Hubbard, Kristie; Sikich, Linmarie; Bedford, James; Bandini, Linda
The prevention of obesity in children with DD is a pressing public health issue, with implications for health status, independent living, and quality of life. Substantial evidence suggests that children with developmental disabilities (DD), including those with intellectual disabilities (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), have a prevalence of obesity at least as high if not higher than their typically developing peers. The paper reviews what is known about the classic and unique risk fac...
Cao Yingting; Johansson Elin; Karlsson HĂ„kan; Ekstedt Mirjam; Ek Anna; Svensson Viktoria; Sobko Tanja; HagstrĂ¶mer Maria; Marcus Claude
Abstract Background Overweight and obesity have a dramatic negative impact on children's health not only during the childhood but also throughout the adult life. Preventing the development of obesity in children is therefore a world-wide health priority. There is an obvious urge for sustainable and evidenced-based interventions that are suitable for families with young children, especially for families with overweight or obese parents. We have developed a prevention program, Early STOPP, comb...
Tetens, Inge; Alinia, Sevil
effect. The physical disruption of fruit is of considerable importance for satiety, as shown in studies in which fruit juices were less satisfying compared to sugar-equivalent intakes of purees and whole fruits. The potential role of fruit in the prevention of overweight and obesity may be connected to......The global obesity epidemic is associated with a sedentary lifestyle and diets rich in high-fat, high-energy foods. The potential role of fruit in preventing overweight and obesity is related to their relatively low energy density, high content of dietary fibre, and associated increasing satiety...... changes towards a healthy diet and lifestyle, making it impossible to quantity the specific effect of fruit intake oil body weight. In the few available intervention studies in adults, the Study period was often too short to allow measures of body weight changes, and studies oil overweight or obese...
Vos, Miriam B; Welsh, Jean
Obesity is a global epidemic and children are affected in increasing numbers. Overweight children are at increased risk of becoming overweight adults with associated chronic diseases. In this update, we present key findings from a review of the current literature focused on potential causes and strategies for preventing childhood obesity. We highlight recent evidence regarding the role of genetics, maternal body mass index, postnatal influences, and environmental effects throughout childhood ...
Maria Catena Quattropani; Teresa Buccheri
Objective: This work focuses on clinical psychologistâ presence within childhood obesity prevention programmes in several countries. Method: The Authors collected articles considering psychological, biological and social aspects linked to childhood obesity. Results: Studies reveal that childhood obesity prevention programmes are based on biological, medical and educational aspects; clinical psychologists up until now have been engaged almost exclusively in the treatment of obesity. Conclusion...
Smith, Tosha Woods; Calancie, Larissa; Ammerman, Alice
In recent years, social entrepreneurship has emerged as a new field to address social and public health challenges. Social entrepreneurship, which harnesses traditional business practices and market forces to address social challenges, may produce solutions that are more cost-effective and sustainable than those produced by governmental and nonprofit sectors. In this paper, we discuss whether and how social entrepreneurship can be harnessed for obesity prevention by defining and briefly reviewing the rise of social entrepreneurship in the USA, outlining the threat that obesity poses to US society and offering some examples of how social ventures are addressing the problem of obesity. Additional untapped opportunities are also discussed and recommendations given for how social entrepreneurship might impact obesity prevention in the future. PMID:26627488
Braun, Matthias; Schell, Johanna; Siegfried, Wolfgang; Müller, Manfred J.; Ried, Jens
Background While numerous studies highlight the relevance of socio-cultural factors influencing incidence and prevalence of obesity, only a few address how obese people perceive causes and prevention of or intervention for obesity. This study contributes to a more thorough understanding of subjective aetiologies and framing themes for a mainly understudied but promising field. Thus it may serve for the development of effective public health strategies to combat obesity. Methods Autob...
SabatĂ©, Joan; Wien, Michelle
The increased prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is not unique to industrialized societies; dramatic increases are occurring in urbanized areas of developing countries. In light of the consensus that obesity is a significant public health concern and that many weight-loss interventions have been unsuccessful in the long term, an exploration of food patterns that are beneficial in the primary prevention of obesity is warranted. The focus of this article is to review the relation between vegetarian diets and obesity, particularly as they relate to childhood obesity. Epidemiologic studies indicate that vegetarian diets are associated with a lower body mass index (BMI) and a lower prevalence of obesity in adults and children. A meta-analysis of adult vegetarian diet studies estimated a reduced weight difference of 7.6 kg for men and 3.3 kg for women, which resulted in a 2-point lower BMI (in kg/m(2)). Similarly, compared with nonvegetarians, vegetarian children are leaner, and their BMI difference becomes greater during adolescence. Studies exploring the risk of overweight and food groups and dietary patterns indicate that a plant-based diet seems to be a sensible approach for the prevention of obesity in children. Plant-based diets are low in energy density and high in complex carbohydrate, fiber, and water, which may increase satiety and resting energy expenditure. Plant-based dietary patterns should be encouraged for optimal health and environmental benefits. Food policies are warranted to support social marketing messages and to reduce the cultural and economic forces that make it difficult to promote plant-based dietary patterns. PMID:20237136
Godin, K; Leatherdale, S T; Elton-Marshall, T
First Nations, Inuit and MĂ©tis (FNIM) youth are disproportionately affected by obesity and represent known a high-risk group in Canada. School-based prevention programmes may have the potential to effectively influence obesity-related health behaviours (i.e. healthy eating and physical activity) among this population. We conducted a systematic review of nine electronic databases (2003-2014) to identify studies that describe school-based programmes that have been developed to improve obesity-related health behaviours and outcomes among FNIM youth in Canada. The objectives of this review were to identify and evaluate the effectiveness of these programmes and assess the strength of the methodologies used to evaluate them. Fifteen studies, representing seven distinct interventions, met our inclusion criteria. The majority of these programmes did not result in significant improvements in outcomes related to obesity, healthy eating, or physical activity among FNIM youth. The studies varied in design rigour and use of evaluation activities. The lack of literature on effective school-based programmes for FNIM youth in Canada that target obesity-related outcomes highlights a priority area for future intervention development, evaluation and dissemination within the peer-reviewed literature. Further research is needed on interventions involving MĂ©tis and Inuit youth, secondary school-aged FNIM youth and FNIM youth living in urban settings. PMID:25880029
Prevention of childhood obesity is an international public health priority given the significant impact of obesity on short- and long-term functioning, health and wellbeing. Although recommended in several recent reviews, school-based obesity prevention interventions targeting physical activity and diet have been tested with mixed results. The overall aim of the HEalth in Adolescents (HEIA) study was to design, implement and evaluate a comprehensive intervention program to promote a healt...
Riggs, Nathaniel; Tewari, Abha; Stigler, Melissa; Rodrigues, Lindsay; Arora, Monika; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Simmons, Rob; Pentz, Mary Ann
Childhood obesity has recently been reported as a growing problem in low- and middle-income countries. One potential prevention strategy is to apply effective obesity prevention approaches from the United States and/or other Western countries into programs that can be implemented in developing countries such as India. The purpose of this study was to explore Indian students' perceptions of social-contextual factors related to obesity and whether they perceived a role for school-based obesity prevention. This study was conducted as a first step in a model to translate interventions from one culture to another. A total of 183 fourth- and fifth-grade students of middle socioeconomic status participated in focus group discussions. Analyses were guided by the essential principles of qualitative research and informed by social cognitive and social ecological theories. Results yielded five relevant themes: (a) student health behavior knowledge, (b) parental influence on health behavior, (c) school influence on health behavior, (d) media influence on health behavior, and (e) contexts for health promotion intervention. We found that students had moderate knowledge related to health behaviors (i.e., food intake and physical activity); that parents, schools, and the media are all important contributors to healthy and unhealthy behavior; and that schools can play an important role in the prevention of obesity. Results suggest that Indian middle socioeconomic status students are already moderately aware of the health benefits to nutritious food intake and physical activity, but parents, schools, and the media can influence unhealthy behaviors. PMID:24149680
Douketis, J D; Feightner, J. W.; ATTIA J; Feldman, W F
OBJECTIVES: (1) To evaluate the evidence relating to the effectiveness of methods to prevent and treat obesity, and (2) to provide recommendations for the prevention and treatment of obesity in adults aged 18 to 65 years and for the measurement of the body mass index (BMI) as part of a periodic health examination. OPTIONS: In adults with obesity (BMI greater than 27) management options include weight reduction, prevention of further weight gain or no intervention. OUTCOMES: The long-term (mor...
Government and societal efforts to combat obesity are aimed at prevention, although there is a generation for whom excess weight is the rule rather than the exception. Although measures to prevent a worsening of the current epidemic are important, management of obesity must also be prioritised. Obesity management is beset with problems ranging from attitudinal to clinical and pharmacological, and the individualisation of therapy.
Maria Catena Quattropani
Full Text Available Objective: This work focuses on clinical psychologistâ presence within childhood obesity prevention programmes in several countries. Method: The Authors collected articles considering psychological, biological and social aspects linked to childhood obesity. Results: Studies reveal that childhood obesity prevention programmes are based on biological, medical and educational aspects; clinical psychologists up until now have been engaged almost exclusively in the treatment of obesity. Conclusions: There is a clear need to consider psychological aspects (emotional, cognitive and relational related to the childhood obesityâs causes and involve psychologists in its prevention projects. Keywords: childhood obesity, overweight, multidisciplinary approach, clinical psychology, prevention, treatment
Effectiveness of a universal parental support programme to promote health behaviours and prevent overweight and obesity in 6-year-old children in disadvantaged areas, the Healthy School Start Study II, a cluster-randomised controlled trial
Nyberg, Gisela; Norman, Ă sa; Sundblom, Elinor; Zeebari, Zangin; Elinder, Liselotte SchĂ€fer
Background There is increasing evidence for the effectiveness of parental support programmes to promote healthy behaviours and prevent obesity in children, but only few studies have been conducted among groups with low socio-economic status. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary and physical activity habits and to prevent overweight and obesity in six-year-old children in disadvantaged areas. Methods A cl...
Zulkepli, Jafri; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura
Over the years, obesity prevention has been a broadly studied subject by both academicians and practitioners. It is one of the most serious public health issue as it can cause numerous chronic health and psychosocial problems. Research is needed to suggest a population-based strategy for obesity prevention. In the academic environment, the importance of obesity prevention has triggered various problem solving approaches. A good obesity prevention model, should comprehend and cater all complex and dynamics issues. Hence, the main purpose of this paper is to discuss the qualitative and quantitative approaches on obesity prevention study and to provide an extensive literature review on various recent modelling techniques for obesity prevention. Based on these literatures, the comparison of both quantitative and qualitative approahes are highlighted and the justification on the used of system dynamics technique to solve the population of obesity is discussed. Lastly, a potential framework solution based on system dynamics modelling is proposed.
Zach Ferraro; Adamo, Kristi B
Global increases in obesity have led public health experts to declare this disease a pandemic. Although prevalent in all ages, the dire consequences associated with maternal obesity have a pronounced impact on the long-term health of their children as a result of the intergenerational effects of developmental programming. Previously, fetal under-nutrition has been linked to the predisposition to pediatric obesity explained by the adiposity rebound and âcatch-upâ growth that occurs when a chil...
Azar, Kristen M. J.; Xiao, Lan; Ma, Jun
Objective. To examine whether baseline obesity severity modifies the effects of two different, primary care-based, technology-enhanced lifestyle interventions among overweight or obese adults with prediabetes and/or metabolic syndrome. Patients and Methods. We compared mean differences in changes from baseline to 15 months in clinical measures of general and central obesity among participants randomized to usual care alone (n = 81) or usual care plus a coach-led group (n = 79) or self-directed individual (n = 81) intervention, stratified by baseline body mass index (BMI) category. Results. Participants with baseline BMI 35+ had greater reductions in mean BMI, body weight (as percentage change), and waist circumference in the coach-led group intervention, compared to usual care and the self-directed individual intervention (P < 0.05 for all). In contrast, the self-directed intervention was more effective than usual care only among participants with baseline BMIs between 25 â€ 35. Mean weight loss exceeded 5% in the coach-led intervention regardless of baseline BMI category, but this was achieved only among self-directed intervention participants with baseline BMIs <35. Conclusions. Baseline BMI may influence behavioral weight-loss treatment effectiveness. Researchers and clinicians should take an individual's baseline BMI into account when developing or recommending lifestyle focused treatment strategy. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00842426. PMID:24369008
Akopian, David; Jayaram, Varun; Aaleswara, Lakshmipathi; Esfahanian, Moosa; Mojica, Cynthia; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Kaghyan, Sahak
Cellular telephony has become a bright example of co-evolution of human society and information technology. This trend has also been reflected in health care and health promotion projects which included cell phones in data collection and communication chain. While many successful projects have been realized, the review of phone-based data collection techniques reveals that the existing technologies do not completely address health promotion research needs. The paper presents approaches which close this gap by extending existing versatile platforms. The messaging systems are designed for a health-promotion research to prevent obesity and obesity-related health disparities among low-income Latino adolescent girls. Messaging and polling mechanisms are used to communicate and automatically process response data for the target constituency. Preliminary survey data provide an insight on phone availability and technology perception for the study group.
Javier Aranceta Bartrina
Full Text Available In recent decades, obesity has become a major public health problem in developed societies and economies in transition. Rapid social changes that have occurred since the mid 20th century prompted major changes in eating habits and lifestyles, with the gradual abandonment of traditional dietary patterns and culinary techniques, significant decrease in physical activity and increased sedentary time, giving as result in an imbalance in the energy balance. Obesity is a risk factor for many chronic diseases. There is evidence that childhood obesity influences adult health condition. Additionally, obesity in children affects their physical, emotional and social wellbeing. According to some estimates the cost of obesity may represent up to 12% of health cost in some countries. Many actions have been developed since around the year 2000 WHO alerted about the problem. The analysis of the factors involved in the origin of the problem have led to recognize the importance of creating supportive environments for healthier food choices and physical activity to be the easiest and accessible options in common everyday environments, such as schools, workplace or community environment. Evidence is long available that the most effective interventions to prevent childhood obesity should consider multiple strategies and last longer. Today it is also recognized the importance of implementing policies that encourage supportive friendly environments for physical activity and help decisions to opt for healthy eating habits.
Silva, A C F; Bortolini, G A; Jaime, P C
In Brazil, overweight and obesity are increasing in all age and income groups. Currently, 7.3% of children under 5 years of age, 30% of children aged 5â9 and 20% of preadolescents aged 10â19 are overweight. In the primary health-care (PHC) environment, activities are carried out to monitor eating habits and nutrition, as well as to prevent unhealthy habits and promote healthy eating behaviors consistent with the dietary guidelines for Brazilian children. Comprehensive care is being provided to overweight individuals. The Brazilian Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding Strategy was launched in 2009 to support health teams to counsel families about healthy feeding, focused on child health and obesity prevention. Within the school environment, the School Health Program offers activities that are developed by PHC teams together with education professionals to focus on assessing health conditions, prevention and health promotion. To improve the nutritional profile of processed foods, terms of cooperation have been signed with the food industry to reduce fat and sodium content. Food industry advertising and marketing to infants and young children are now regulated by the Brazilian Regulation for the Marketing of Foods to Infants and Young Children.
Silva, A C F; Bortolini, G A; Jaime, P C
In Brazil, overweight and obesity are increasing in all age and income groups. Currently, 7.3% of children under 5 years of age, 30% of children aged 5-9 and 20% of preadolescents aged 10-19 are overweight. In the primary health-care (PHC) environment, activities are carried out to monitor eating habits and nutrition, as well as to prevent unhealthy habits and promote healthy eating behaviors consistent with the dietary guidelines for Brazilian children. Comprehensive care is being provided to overweight individuals. The Brazilian Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding Strategy was launched in 2009 to support health teams to counsel families about healthy feeding, focused on child health and obesity prevention. Within the school environment, the School Health Program offers activities that are developed by PHC teams together with education professionals to focus on assessing health conditions, prevention and health promotion. To improve the nutritional profile of processed foods, terms of cooperation have been signed with the food industry to reduce fat and sodium content. Food industry advertising and marketing to infants and young children are now regulated by the Brazilian Regulation for the Marketing of Foods to Infants and Young Children. PMID:27152158
Swinburn, B A; Millar, L; Utter, J; Kremer, P; Moodie, M; Mavoa, H; Snowdon, W; McCabe, M P; Malakellis, M; de Courten, Maximilian; Waqa, G; Fotu, K F; Roberts, G; Scragg, R
, Tonga, New Zealand and Australia) designed to prevent adolescent obesity. This paper overviews the project and the methods common to the four countries. Each country implemented a community-based intervention programme promoting healthy eating, physical activity and healthy weight in adolescents. A...... community capacity-building approach was used, with common processes employed but with contextualized interventions within each country. Changes in anthropometric, behavioural and perception outcomes were evaluated at the individual level and school environments and community capacity at the settings level...
Full Text Available Carla Caffarelli, Chiara Alessi, Ranuccio Nuti, Stefano Gonnelli Department of Medicine, Surgery andÂ Neuroscience, University ofÂ Siena, Siena, Italy Abstract: Obesity was commonly thought to be advantageous for maintaining healthy bones due to the higher bone mineral density observed in overweight individuals. However, several recent studies have challenged the widespread belief that obesity is protective against fracture and have suggested that obesity is a risk factor for certain fractures. The effect of obesity on fracture risk is site-dependent, the risk being increased for some fractures (humerus, ankle, upper arm and decreased for others (hip, pelvis, wrist. Moreover, the relationship between obesity and fracture may also vary by sex, age, and ethnicity. Risk factors for fracture in obese individuals appear to be similar to those in nonobese populations, although patterns of falling are particularly important in the obese. Research is needed to determine if and how visceral fat and metabolic complications of obesity (type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, chronic inflammation, etc are causally associated with bone status and fragility fracture risk. Vitamin D deficiency and hypogonadism may also influence fracture risk in obese individuals. Fracture algorithms such as FRAXÂź might be expected to underestimate fracture probability. Studies specifically designed to evaluate the antifracture efficacy of different drugs in obese patients are not available; however, literature data may suggest that in obese patients higher doses of the bisphosphonates might be required in order to maintain efficacy against nonvertebral fractures. Therefore, the search for better methods for the identification of fragility fracture risk in the growing population of adult and elderly subjects with obesity might be considered a clinical priority which could improve the prevention of fracture in obese individuals. Keywords: bone mineral density, BMI, prevention
Jurkowski, Janine M; Green Mills, Lisa L.; Lawson, Hal A.; Bovenzi, Mary C.; Quartimon, Ronald; Davison, Kirsten K.
Prevention of childhood obesity is a national priority. Parents influence young childrenâs healthy lifestyles, so it is paradoxical that obesity interventions focus primarily on children. Evidence and theory suggest that including parents in interventions offers promise for effective childhood obesity prevention. This case study engaged parentsâ as co-researchers in the design, implementation and evaluation of an intervention for low-income families with a child enrolled in Head Start. Parent...
XU, SHUMEI; Xue, Ying
Pediatric or childhood obesity is the most prevalent nutritional disorder among children and adolescents worldwide. Approximately 43 million individuals are obese, 21â24% children and adolescents are overweight, and 16â18% of individuals have abdominal obesity. The prevalence of obesity is highest among specific ethnic groups. Obesity increases the risk of heart diseases in children and adults. Childhood obesity predisposes the individual to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, hypertensio...
Hayward, Joshua; Jacka, Felice N.; Waters, Elizabeth; Allender, Steven
Background Emerging evidence supports a relationship between risk factors for obesity and the genesis of the common mental disorders, depression and anxiety. This suggests common mental disorders should be considered as a form of non-communicable disease, preventable through the modification of lifestyle behaviours, particularly diet and physical activity. Discussion Obesity prevention research since the 1970âs represents a considerable body of knowledge regarding strategies to modify diet an...
Lila Finney Rutten; Amy Lazarus Yaroch; Heather Patrick; Mary Story
Interventions that cultivate sustainable food systems to promote health, prevent obesity, and improve food security have the potential for many large-scale and long-lasting benefits including improvements in social, environmental, health, and economic outcomes. We briefly summarize findings from previous research examining associations between obesity and food insecurity and discuss the need for greater synergy between food insecurity initiatives and national obesity prevention public health ...
Cohen, D A; Lesser, L I
The point of purchase is when people may make poor and impulsive decisions about what and how much to buy and consume. Because point of purchase strategies frequently work through non-cognitive processes, people are often unable to recognize and resist them. Because people lack insight into how marketing practices interfere with their ability to routinely eat healthy, balanced diets, public health entities should protect consumers from potentially harmful point of purchase strategies. We describe four point of purchase policy options including standardized portion sizes; standards for meals that are sold as a bundle, e.g. 'combo meals'; placement and marketing restrictions on highly processed low-nutrient foods; and explicit warning labels. Adoption of such policies could contribute significantly to the prevention of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. We also discuss how the policies could be implemented, along with who might favour or oppose them. Many of the policies can be implemented locally, while preserving consumer choice. Â© 2016 World Obesity. PMID:26910361
ten Have, M; de Beaufort, I D; Teixeira, P J; Mackenbach, J P; van der Heide, A
Efforts to counter the rise in overweight and obesity, such as taxes on certain foods and beverages, limits to commercial advertising, a ban on chocolate drink at schools or compulsory physical exercise for obese employees, sometimes raise questions about what is considered ethically acceptable. There are obvious ethical incentives to these initiatives, such as improving individual and public health, enabling informed choice and diminishing societal costs. Whereas we consider these positive arguments to put considerable effort in the prevention of overweight indisputable, we focus on potential ethical objections against such an effort. Our intention is to structure the ethical issues that may occur in programmes to prevent overweight and/or obesity in order to encourage further debate. We selected 60 recently reported interventions or policy proposals targeting overweight or obesity and systematically evaluated their ethically relevant aspects. Our evaluation was completed by discussing them in two expert meetings. We found that currently proposed interventions or policies to prevent overweight or obesity may (next to the benefits they strive for) include the following potentially problematic aspects: effects on physical health are uncertain or unfavourable; there are negative psychosocial consequences including uncertainty, fears and concerns, blaming and stigmatization and unjust discrimination; inequalities are aggravated; inadequate information is distributed; the social and cultural value of eating is disregarded; people's privacy is disrespected; the complexity of responsibilities regarding overweight is disregarded; and interventions infringe upon personal freedom regarding lifestyle choices and raising children, regarding freedom of private enterprise or regarding policy choices by schools and other organizations. The obvious ethical incentives to combat the overweight epidemic do not necessarily override the potential ethical constraints, and further debate is needed. An ethical framework to support decision makers in balancing potential ethical problems against the need to do something would be helpful. Developing programmes that are sound from an ethical point of view is not only valuable from a moral perspective, but may also contribute to preventing overweight and obesity, as societal objections to a programme may hamper its effectiveness. PMID:21545391
Morris, Heather; Skouteris, Helen; Edwards, Susan; Rutherford, Leonie
Partnering early childhood education and care (ECEC) and the home together may be more effective in combating obesogenic risk factors in preschool children. Thus, an evaluation of ECEC obesity prevention interventions with a parental component was conducted, exploring parental engagement and its effect on obesity and healthy lifestyle outcomes. AâŠ
de Groot Florentine P; Robertson Narelle M; Swinburn Boyd A; de Silva-Sanigorski Andrea M
Abstract Background Obesity is a major public health issue; however, only limited evidence is available about effective ways to prevent obesity, particularly in early childhood. Romp & Chomp was a community-wide obesity prevention intervention conducted in Geelong Australia with a target group of 12,000 children aged 0-5 years. The intervention had an environmental and capacity building focus and we have recently demonstrated that the prevalence of overweight/obesity was lower in intervention...
Full Text Available Obesity and its related metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, alterations in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1/IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R axis, and the state of chronic inflammation, increase the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. However, these findings also indicate that the metabolic disorders caused by obesity might be effective targets to prevent the development of CRC and HCC in obese individuals. Green tea catechins (GTCs possess anticancer and chemopreventive properties against cancer in various organs, including the colorectum and liver. GTCs have also been known to exert anti-obesity, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory effects, indicating that GTCs might be useful for the prevention of obesity-associated colorectal and liver carcinogenesis. Further, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA, which improve protein malnutrition and prevent progressive hepatic failure in patients with chronic liver diseases, might be also effective for the suppression of obesity-related carcinogenesis because oral supplementation with BCAA reduces the risk of HCC in obese cirrhotic patients. BCAA shows these beneficial effects because they can improve insulin resistance. Here, we review the detailed relationship between metabolic abnormalities and the development of CRC and HCC. We also review evidence, especially that based on our basic and clinical research using GTCs and BCAA, which indicates that targeting metabolic abnormalities by either pharmaceutical or nutritional intervention may be an effective strategy to prevent the development of CRC and HCC in obese individuals.
Full Text Available Background: In spite of the numerous chronic diseases that have been linked to obesity, studies focusing on the awareness regarding causes, consequences and strategies to prevent and control of obesity among women are lacking in the literature, especially in developing countries such as India, where obesity is culturally accepted and nurtured and women bearded the highest weight gain in the recent decade. Objective: We explored the awareness regarding causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among 325 ever-married aged 20-54 years women with different levels of body mass index (BMI in the national capital territory of Delhi representing urban India. Materials and Methods: A population based follow-up survey of women systematically selected from the second round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99 samples who were re-interviewed after four years in 2003. As a part of qualitative data collection, the respondents were asked to free list open-ended questions on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity. Responses were analyzed through Anthropac software package. Results: Over eating was reported as the most important cause of obesity by normal and overweight women whereas obese women reported fried food consumption as the most important cause of weight gain. A few women from each group reported changing lifestyle as a cause of obesity. Also, there were lots of misconceptions about the cause of obesity among women (such as no tension in life, more tension, happiness, constipation, problem in Delhi's water etc.. In terms of the consequences of obesity, the participants were well aware of the common physical consequences. Normal and obese women reported breathlessness as the most important consequence whereas overweight women reported problem in standing and sitting. Regarding preventive measures, overweight and obese women reported 'walking' as most important preventive measure of obesity whereas normal women reported 'doing exercise'. In addition, 'dieting' was reported as the next important preventive measures of obesity by all groups of women. Conclusion: Our study of a fairly large, community-based sample of women has shown that women were aware of the complex nature of obesity in terms of causes, consequences and a range of potential solutions. The findings are important for public health interventions in obesity care in India. Implementation of health promotion and health education in the community should use effective school education and mass media programme to raise more awareness of the causes, consequences and preventive measures and hammer misconceptions, to combat the growing level of obesity among Indian women.
Hisataka Moriwaki; Masaya Kubota; Masahito Shimizu; Takuji Tanaka
Obesity and its related metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, alterations in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)/IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) axis, and the state of chronic inflammation, increase the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, these findings also indicate that the metabolic disorders caused by obesity might be effective targets to prevent the development of CRC and HCC in obese individuals. Green tea catechins (GTCs) possess a...
The increasing prevalence of obesity is a worldwide health problem closely linked to diet and lifestyle factors. Obesity is associated with increased risk of several metabolic disorders including insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes. Hence, there is a great need to identify dietary strategies for the prevention of obesity and related diseases. This thesis investigates the potential of different berries to mediate beneficial health effects in a mouse model o...
Farrell, Lucy C; Warin, Megan J; Moore, Vivienne M; Street, Jackie M
Intense concern about obesity in the public imagination and in political, academic and media discourses has catalysed advocacy efforts to implement regulatory measures to reduce the occurrence of obesity in Australia and elsewhere. This article explores public attitudes towards the possible implementation of regulations to address obesity by analysing emotions within popular discourses. Drawing on reader comments attached to obesity-relevant news articles published on Australian news and current affairs websites, we examine how popular anxieties about the 'obesity crisis' and vitriol directed at obese individuals circulate alongside understandings of the appropriate role of government to legitimise regulatory reform to address obesity. Employing Ahmed's theorisation of 'affective economies' and broader literature on emotional cultures, we argue that obesity regulations achieve popular support within affective economies oriented to neoliberal and individualist constructions of obesity. These economies preclude constructions of obesity as a structural problem in popular discourse; instead positioning anti-obesity regulations as a government-endorsed vehicle for discrimination directed at obese people. Findings implicate a new set of ethical challenges for those championing regulatory reform for obesity prevention. PMID:26564262
Stegelin, Dolores A.
Obesity rates for children, adolescents, and adults continue to escalate in the United States and globally. Educators, health specialists, psychologists, and sociologists are studying the complex problems related to early obesity. Like other health problems, prevention and early detection are the most effective strategies. The causes andâŠ
Stegelin, Dolores A.
Obesity rates for children, adolescents, and adults continue to escalate in the United States and globally. Educators, health specialists, psychologists, and sociologists are studying the complex problems related to early obesity. Like other health problems, prevention and early detection are the most effective strategies. The causes and
Huijun, Wang; Fengying, Zhai
By 2002, Chinas prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults was 18.9 percent and 2.9 percent, respectively. The Chinese traditional diet has been replaced by the Western diet and major declines in all phases of activity and increased sedentary activity as the main reasons explaining the rapid increase in overweight and obesity, bring major economic and health costs. The Nutrition Improvement Work Management Approach was released in 2010. Overweight and obesity prevention-related poli...
Anna-Marie Hendriks; Delai, Mere Y.; Anne-Marie Thow; Gubbels, Jessica S.; Vries, Nanne K. de; Stef P. J. Kremers; Jansen, Maria W. J.
In Fiji and other Pacific Island countries, obesity has rapidly increased in the past decade. Therefore, several obesity prevention policies have been developed. Studies show that their development has been hampered by factors within Fiji's policy landscape such as pressure from industry. Since policymakers in the Fijian national government are primarily responsible for the development of obesity policies, it is important to understand their perspectives; we therefore interviewed 15 policymak...
Montgomery, Kristen S.
Research has identified pregnancy as a trigger to obesity among women; therefore, childbirth educators are encouraged to include the topic of weight gain in their classes. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently published a guide on obesity that may serve as an excellent resource for both educators and their clients.
Skouteris, Helen; Hill, Briony; McCabe, Marita; Swinburn, Boyd; Sacher, Paul; Chadwick, Paul
The aim of this paper was to compare the recruitment strategies of two recent studies that focused on the parental influences on childhood obesity during the preschool years. The first study was a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of the Mind, Exercise, Nutrition?âŠ?Do It! 2-4 obesity prevention programme and the second was a longitudinal cohortâŠ
Winter, Suzanne M.
Childhood obesity is epidemic in the United States and other industrialized countries across the globe. This trend is alarming, because childhood obesity is associated with the early onset of serious health problems, including Type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, orthopedic problems, behavioral disorders, and asthma. Mounting evidence also
Winter, Suzanne M.
Childhood obesity is epidemic in the United States and other industrialized countries across the globe. This trend is alarming, because childhood obesity is associated with the early onset of serious health problems, including Type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, orthopedic problems, behavioral disorders, and asthma. Mounting evidence alsoâŠ
Ussher, John R; Fillmore, Natasha; Keung, Wendy; Mori, Jun; Beker, Donna L; Wagg, Cory S; Jaswal, Jagdip S; Lopaschuk, Gary D
Obesity is a significant risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Inhibiting fatty acid oxidation has emerged as a novel approach for the treatment of ischemic heart disease. Our aim was to determine whether pharmacologic inhibition of 3-ketoacyl-coenzyme A thiolase (3-KAT), which catalyzes the final step of fatty acid oxidation, could improve obesity-induced cardiomyopathy. A 3-week treatment with the 3-KAT inhibitor trimetazidine prevented obesity-induced reduction in both systolic and diastolic function. Therefore, targeting cardiac fatty acid oxidation may be a novel therapeutic approach to alleviate the growing burden of obesity-related cardiomyopathy. PMID:25064584
Knowledge based on science has been central to implementing community-based childhood obesity prevention interventions. The art of practitioner wisdom is equally critical to ensure locally relevant responses. In South Australia (SA), the OPAL (Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle) program has been implemented to reduce childhood obesity across 20 communities reaching nearly one quarter of the state's population. Staff from across the State come together at regular intervals to share practice challenges and insights and refine the model of practice. Over a 3-year period 12 reflective practice workshops were held with OPAL staff (n = 46). OPAL staff were guided by an external facilitator using inquiring questions to reflect on their health promotion practice within local government. Three themes were identified as central within the reflections. The first theme is shared clarity through the OPAL obesity prevention model highlighting the importance of working to a clearly articulated, holistic obesity prevention model. The second theme is practitioner skill and sensitivity required to implement the model and deal with the 'politics' of obesity prevention. The final theme is the power of relationships as intrinsic to effective community based health promotion. Insights into the daily practices and reflections from obesity prevention practitioners are shared to shed light on the skills required to contribute to individual and social change. OPAL staff co-authored this paper. PMID:25700429
This podcast is based on the August, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Childhood obesity is an epidemic in the US. Breastfeeding can help prevent obesity, but one in three moms stop without hospital support. About 95% of hospitals lack policies that fully support breastfeeding moms. Hospitals need to do more to help moms start and continue breastfeeding.Â Â Created: 8/2/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).Â Â Date Released: 8/2/2011.
Behnoush Mohammadpour-Ahranjani; Morteza Abdollahi; Pallan, Miranda J.; Peymane Adab
Background and Objectives: Childhood obesity is an increasing public health problem in Iran, and there is no evidence for effective prevention strategies to date. The aim of this qualitative study was to identify and prioritise perceived potential interventions by parents and school staff to help inform the development of an obesity prevention intervention for Iranian school children. Materials and Methods: Focus groups were held with the parents of primary school aged children and school ...
Millstein, Rachel A; Sallis, James F
Recommended obesity prevention interventions target multiple levels. Effective advocacy is needed to influence factors at individual, social, environmental, and policy levels. This paper describes the rationale for engaging youth in obesity prevention advocacy efforts targeting environment and policy changes to improve nutrition and physical activity. Advocacy involves education, skill development, and behavior and attitude changes, with the goal of persuading others or taking action. Youth a...
Moutusi Raychaudhuri; Debmalya Sanyal
Childhood obesity is a grave issue, which needs to be addressed urgently because it leads to several medical and psychosocial problems in children. High prevalence is being increasingly reported in children from developing countries as well. The combination of our genetic propensity to store fat, the ready availability of calorie dense foods, and sedentary lifestyle promotes overweight. The childâČs food environment at home and parental obesity are strong determinants. Urban poor in developed ...
Powell, Lynda H.; Calvin, James E., III; Calvin, James E., Jr.
To curb the epidemic of obesity in the United States, revised Medicare policy allows support for efficacious obesity treatments. This review summarizes the evidence from rigorous randomized trials (9 lifestyle trials, 5 drug trials, and 2 surgical trials) on the efficacy and risk-benefit profile of lifestyle, drug, and surgical interventions aimedâŠ
Stamatakis, Katherine A; Lewis, Moira; Khoong, Elaine C.; LaSee, Claire
Introduction The extent of obesity prevention activities conducted by local health departments (LHDs) varies widely. The purpose of this qualitative study was to characterize how state obesity prevention program directors perceived the role of LHDs in obesity prevention and factors that impact LHDsâ success in obesity prevention. Methods From June 2011 through August 2011, we conducted 28 semistructured interviews with directors of federally funded obesity prevention programs at 22 state and ...
Ernest Ć turdĂk
Full Text Available Still more alarming obesity studies show in fact that it is largely due to incorrect diet and lifestyle. For suitable alternative for prevention of this disease are now considered cereal foods, mainly based on increased fiber content. The importance of dietary fiber for human organism consist primarily in itsÂ protective function before civilization diseases. It has beneficial effects on digestive physiology and it is therefore an important factor in the prevention of obesity, but also other diseases. Fiber consumption in developed countries is low and it is below the lower limit of the recommended dose. Slovaks per day take only 10-12 g of fiber, which represents only 47% of the recommended dose. Recent large-scale epidemiological studies have shown that regular consumption of wholegrain cereals can reduce the risk of heart disease and certain cancers by 30 percent. One of the factors that increase the functionality of foods is the so-called indigestible resistant starch. For its the positive impact on the physiology of digestion is referred to as prebiotics new generation of dietary fiber. The increasing availability of tasty, whole grain products rich in fiber could be health benefits.Â doi:10.5219/76
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Background: Pediatric obesity is a major risk factor for adult obesity. Indicated prevention--that is, helping overweight or obese youth attain non-overweight status--has been suggested to prevent adult obesity. This study aimed to support the notion of indicated prevention by demonstrating that rel...
Obesity is a complex disease of diverse etiology. Among the potential influences in the development of obesity, the food supply chain remains an important influence. We provide a conceptual overview related to the food industry's role in obesity prevention. We first discuss some limitations of current public health efforts. We then describe how a model that attends to personal autonomy in the context of supportive policy intervention can empower individuals in their efforts to navigate the food supply chain. We then provide an evidence informed overview of key areas where continued efforts to collaboratively engage the food industry, through solution-focused dialogue and action, have the potential to contribute to obesity prevention. While challenging, appropriately transparent, well-governed public-private partnerships have the demonstrated potential to benefit the communities we serve. PMID:27053065
Cao Jay J
Full Text Available Abstract Obesity is traditionally viewed to be beneficial to bone health because of well-established positive effect of mechanical loading conferred by body weight on bone formation, despite being a risk factor for many other chronic health disorders. Although body mass has a positive effect on bone formation, whether the mass derived from an obesity condition or excessive fat accumulation is beneficial to bone remains controversial. The underline pathophysiological relationship between obesity and bone is complex and continues to be an active research area. Recent data from epidemiological and animal studies strongly support that fat accumulation is detrimental to bone mass. To our knowledge, obesity possibly affects bone metabolism through several mechanisms. Because both adipocytes and osteoblasts are derived from a common multipotential mesenchymal stem cell, obesity may increase adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation while decrease osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation. The increased circulating and tissue proinflammatory cytokines in obesity may promote osteoclast activity and bone resorption through modifying the receptor activator of NF-ÎșB (RANK/RANK ligand/osteoprotegerin pathway. Furthermore, the excessive secretion of leptin and/or decreased production of adiponectin by adipocytes in obesity may either directly affect bone formation or indirectly affect bone resorption through up-regulated proinflammatory cytokine production. Finally, high-fat intake may interfere with intestinal calcium absorption and therefore decrease calcium availability for bone formation. Unraveling the relationship between fat and bone metabolism at molecular level may help us to develop therapeutic agents to prevent or treat both obesity and osteoporosis. Obesity, defined as having a body mass index â„ 30 kg/m2, is a condition in which excessive body fat accumulates to a degree that adversely affects health 1. The rates of obesity rates have doubled since 1980 2 and as of 2007, 33% of men and 35% of women in the US are obese 3. Obesity is positively associated to many chronic disorders such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, and certain cancers 456. It is estimated that the direct medical cost associated with obesity in the United States is ~$100 billion per year 7. Bone mass and strength decrease during adulthood, especially in women after menopause 8. These changes can culminate in osteoporosis, a disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration resulting in increased bone fracture risk. It is estimated that there are about 10 million Americans over the age of 50 who have osteoporosis while another 34 million people are at risk of developing the disease 9. In 2001, osteoporosis alone accounted for some $17 billion in direct annual healthcare expenditure. Several lines of evidence suggest that obesity and bone metabolism are interrelated. First, both osteoblasts (bone forming cells and adipocytes (energy storing cells are derived from a common mesenchymal stem cell 10 and agents inhibiting adipogenesis stimulated osteoblast differentiation 111213 and vice versa, those inhibiting osteoblastogenesis increased adipogenesis 14. Second, decreased bone marrow osteoblastogenesis with aging is usually accompanied with increased marrow adipogenesis 1516. Third, chronic use of steroid hormone, such as glucocorticoid, results in obesity accompanied by rapid bone loss 1718. Fourth, both obesity and osteoporosis are associated with elevated oxidative stress and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines 1920. At present, the mechanisms for the effects of obesity on bone metabolism are not well defined and will be the focus of this review.
Bell, Andrew Colin; Wolfenden, Luke; Sutherland, Rachel; Coggan, Lucy; Young, Kylie; Fitzgerald, Michael; Hodder, Rebecca; Orr, Neil; Milat, Andrew J; Wiggers, John
Background Social marketing integrates communication campaigns with behavioural and environmental change strategies. Childhood obesity programs could benefit significantly from social marketing but communication campaigns on this issue tend to be stand-alone. Methods A large-scale multi-setting child obesity prevention program was implemented in the Hunter New England (HNE) region of New South Wales (NSW), Australia from 2005â2010. The program included a series of communication campaigns prom...
Rask, Kimberly J.; Gazmararian, Julie A.; Susan S. Kohler; Hawley, Jonathan N.; Jenny Bogard; Victoria A. Brown
Childhood obesity is a recognized public health crisis. This paper reviews the lessons learned from a voluntary initiative to expand insurance coverage for childhood obesity prevention and treatment services in the United States. In-depth telephone interviews were conducted with key informants from 16 participating health plans and employers in 2010-11. Key informants reported difficulty ensuring that both providers and families were aware of the available services. Participating health plans...
Mancini, Marcio C; Alfredo Halpern
Marcio C Mancini, Alfredo HalpernObesity and Metabolic Syndrome Group, Endocrinology and Metabolism Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of SĂŁo Paulo, SĂŁo Paulo, SP, BrazilAbstract: There has been an increase in the concern about preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a disease with great and increasing prevalence. The prevalence of obesity, physical inactivity, Western processed diet, important risk factors for the development of T2DM, are also rising. Free ...
PĂ©rez-Escamilla, R; Kac, G
Overweight/obese women are more likely to deliver newborns that also have a predisposition to store excessive amounts of fat since the early infancy period. Two evidence-based cycles are considered on the explanation of the maternalâchild life-course approach for obesity prevention. The âmaternal' cycle indicates that pre-pregnancy overweight primiparous women are more likely to gain excessive weight during gestation and to retain excessive weight postpartum. The âoffspring' cycle indicates t...
Background: The rapidly rising prevalence of childhood on a global scale is closely linked to changes in the environment. Childhood obesity is ranged as one of the most serious challenges to public health in the 21st century. Community-based interventions that pay explicit attention to environmental factors appear most likely to bring success. Aim: The aim of the review is to identify environmental factors that impact success in community-based childhood obesity prevention interventions. Meth...
Mustila Taina; Keskinen PĂ€ivi; Luoto Riitta
Abstract Background Prevention is considered effective in combating the obesity epidemic. Prenatal environment may increase offspring's risk for obesity. A child starts to adopt food preferences and other behavioral habits affecting weight gain during preschool years. We report the study protocol of a pragmatic lifestyle intervention aiming at primary prevention of childhood obesity. Methods/Design A non-randomized controlled pragmatic trial in maternity and child health care clinics. The con...
Lund, Thomas Bűker; Sandűe, Peter; Lassen, Jesper
The aim of this study was to investigate the Danish publics support for publicly funded obesity treatment and prevention. It was also examined whether levels of support could be explained by dislike of obese people and / or the belief that those who are obese are personally responsible for their condition. A representative survey of members of the Danish public (N=1,141) was conducted using a web-based questionnaire. The survey was designed to assess attitudes to public funding for obesityre...
We Can Help is a promotional flyer about SNAP-Ed for Medicaid health care providers. This flyer explains what SNAP-Ed is and how it benefits Medicaid patients by combating obesity and improving health behaviors related to nutrition and physical activity.
Childhood obesity is a worldwide pandemic that increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and multiple cancers, and reduces quality of life and functional ability. Fruit, 100% juice, and vegetable (FJV) intake, and physical activity (PA) are behaviors related to childhood obesit...
... the Nation,â which premiered in May 2012. The film series spotlights the science behind obesity and how it affects the health of the nation. Watch the series to learn how citizens, groups, and ... in their communities. The films stream free on the HBO Web site. To ...
Cinar, Ayse Basak
Abstract: Obesity, diabetes and oral diseases (dental cariesand periodontal diseases), largely preventable chronic diseases, are described as global pandemic due their distribution and severe consequences. WHO has called for a global action for prevention and promotion of these diseases as a vital...... likelihood of periodontitis which is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide, described as pandemic, and closely related to DM2. Promoting good oral health is significantly essential for prevention and reducing the negative consequences of periodontal diseases, DM2 and obesity, and to maintain good...... investment in urgent need. Diabetes and obesity, showing an increasing trend, lead to disabilities and negatively impacts on the quality of life through life course along with oral diseases. WHO projects that the prevalence of diabetes and deaths/year attrituble to diabetes complications will double...
Nathanielsz, PW; Ford, SP; Long, NM; Vega, CC; Reyes-Castro, LA; Zambrano, E.
Maternal obesity is a global epidemic affecting the developed and developing world. Human and animal studies indicate that maternal obesity programs development predisposing offspring to later-life chronic diseases. Several mechanisms act together to produce these adverse health problems. There is a need for effective interventions that prevent these outcomes and guide management in human pregnancy. We report here dietary and exercise intervention studies in both altricial and precocial speci...
Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity in adolescents and children has risen to alarming levels globally, and this has serious public health consequences. Sedentary lifestyle and consumption of calorie-dense foods of low nutritional value are speculated to be two of the most important etiological factors responsible for escalating rate of childhood overweight in developing nations. To tackle the childhood obesity epidemic we require comprehensive multidisciplinary evidence-based interventions. Some suggested strategies for childhood obesity prevention and management include increasing physical activity, reducing sedentary time including television viewing, personalized nutrition plans for very obese kids, co-curriculum health education which should be implemented in schools and counseling for children and their parents. In developing countries like India we will need practical and cost-effective community-based strategies with appropriate policy changes in order to curb the escalating epidemic of childhood obesity.
Fox, Ashley M.; Horowitz, Carol R.
The rapidly rising rate of obesity has prompted a variety of policy responses at national, regional, and local levels. Yet, many have expressed concern that these policy responses have a limited evidence base, are overly paternalistic, and have the potential to increase rather than shrink obesity-related disparities. The purpose of this article is to evaluate obesity policies in terms of the adequacy of evidence for action and along two ethical dimensions: their potential effect on liberty and equity. To evaluate evidence, we engage in a systematic review of reviews and rate policies in terms of the sufficiency of evidence of effectiveness at combating obesity. We then apply a libertarian-paternalist framework to assess policies in terms of their impact on liberty and inverse-equity theory to assess impact on disparities. This article provides a framework to assist decision-makers in assessing best practices in obesity using a more multi-faceted set of dimensions. PMID:23727973
Swinburn, Boyd A
The commercial drivers of the obesity epidemic are so influential that obesity can be considered a robust sign of commercial success - consumers are buying more food, more cars and more energy-saving machines. It is unlikely that these powerful economic forces will change sufficiently in response to consumer desires to eat less and move more or corporate desires to be more socially responsible. When the free market creates substantial population detriments and health inequalities, government policies are needed to change the ground rules in favour of population benefits.Concerted action is needed from governments in four broad areas: provide leadership to set the agenda and show the way; advocate for a multi-sector response and establish the mechanisms for all sectors to engage and enhance action; develop and implement policies (including laws and regulations) to create healthier food and activity environments, and; secure increased and continued funding to reduce obesogenic environments and promote healthy eating and physical activity.Policies, laws and regulations are often needed to drive the environmental and social changes that, eventually, will have a sustainable impact on reducing obesity. An 'obesity impact assessment' on legislation such as public liability, urban planning, transport, food safety, agriculture, and trade may identify 'rules' which contribute to obesogenic environments. In other areas, such as marketing to children, school food, and taxes/levies, there may be opportunities for regulations to actively support obesity prevention. Legislation in other areas such as to reduce climate change may also contribute to obesity prevention ('stealth interventions'). A political willingness to use policy instruments to drive change will probably be an early hallmark of successful obesity prevention. PMID:18534000
Effectiveness of a Universal Parental Support Programme to Promote Healthy Dietary Habits and Physical Activity and to Prevent Overweight and Obesity in 6-Year-Old Children: The Healthy School Start Study, a Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial
Nyberg, Gisela; Sundblom, Elinor; Norman, Ă sa; Bohman, Benjamin; Hagberg, Jan; Elinder, Liselotte SchĂ€fer
Objective To develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a parental support programme to promote healthy dietary and physical activity habits and to prevent overweight and obesity in Swedish children. Methods A cluster-randomised controlled trial was carried out in areas with low to medium socio-economic status. Participants were six-year-old children (n = 243) and their parents. Fourteen pre-school classes were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 7) and control groups (n = 7). The intervent...
Shaw, Heather; Ng, Janet; Stice, Eric
Increasingly, researchers in the areas of eating disorders and obesity prevention are recognizing the benefits of collaborative efforts aimed at curbing the spectrum of eating-related disturbances. Research suggests that eating disorders and overweight tend to co-occur, and that individuals cross over from one eating-related disturbance toâŠ
Bruss, Mozhdeh B.; Dannison, Linda; Morris, Joseph R.; Quitugua, Jackie; Palacios, Rosa T.; McGowan, Judy; Michael, Timothy
This paper presents a community-school-higher education partnership approach to the prevention of childhood obesity. Public elementary school personnel, primarily teachers, participated in the design and delivery of a curriculum targeting primary caregivers of 8-9-year-old children. Theoretical framework and methodological approaches guided theâŠ
Miller Alison L; Horodynski Mildred A; Herb Holly E; Peterson Karen E; Contreras Dawn; Kaciroti Niko; Staples-Watson Julie; Lumeng Julie C
Abstract Background Nearly one in five 4-year-old children in the United States are obese, with low-income children almost twice as likely to be obese as their middle/upper-income peers. Few obesity prevention programs for low-income preschoolers and their parents have been rigorously tested, and effects are modest. We are testing a novel obesity prevention program for low-income preschoolers built on the premise that children who are better able to self-regulate in the face of psychosocial s...
Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C Nathan
This meta-analytic review summarizes obesity prevention programs and their effects and investigates participant, intervention, delivery, and design features associated with larger effects. A literature search identified 64 prevention programs seeking to produce weight gain prevention effects, of which 21% produced significant prevention effects that were typically pre to post effects. Larger effects emerged for programs targeting children and adolescents (versus preadolescents) and females, p...
Zhang, Yingmei; Ren, Jun
Uncorrected obesity has been associated with cardiac hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction. Several mechanisms for this cardiomyopathy have been identified, including oxidative stress, autophagy, adrenergic and renin-angiotensin aldosterone overflow. Another process that may regulate effects of obesity is epigenetics, which refers to the heritable alterations in gene expression or cellular phenotype that are not encoded on the DNA sequence. Advances in epigenome profiling have greatly improved the understanding of the epigenome in obesity, where environmental exposures during early life result in an increased health risk later on in life. Several mechanisms, including histone modification, DNA methylation and non-coding RNAs, have been reported in obesity and can cause transcriptional suppression or activation, depending on the location within the gene, contributing to obesity-induced complications. Through epigenetic modifications, the fetus may be prone to detrimental insults, leading to cardiac sequelae later in life. Important links between epigenetics and obesity include nutrition, exercise, adiposity, inflammation, insulin sensitivity and hepatic steatosis. Genome-wide studies have identified altered DNA methylation patterns in pancreatic islets, skeletal muscle and adipose tissues from obese subjects compared with non-obese controls. In addition, aging and intrauterine environment are associated with differential DNA methylation. Given the intense research on the molecular mechanisms of the etiology of obesity and its complications, this review will provide insights into the current understanding of epigenetics and pharmacological and non-pharmacological (such as exercise) interventions targeting epigenetics as they relate to treatment of obesity and its complications. Particular focus will be on DNA methylation, histone modification and non-coding RNAs. PMID:27013344
Sichieri, Rosely; Souza, Rita Adriana de
Few studies on treatment or prevention of obesity have shown significant results. Theoretically, in children and adolescents as compared to adults, prevention of excessive weight gain should be easy due to the energy expended during growth, associated with more time spent in leisure-time activities. However, numerous factors that stimulate overeating and sedentary behaviors are difficult to overcome. Additionally, most intervention studies have focused on a minor portion of the many factors associated with obesity. Important aspects of the obesity epidemic such as the role of the food industry, fast food chains, advertising, and a lifestyle that limits children to sedentary activities and overeating cannot be explored by a traditional clinical trial design. At any rate, among the published interventions, those including the family in weight-reduction strategies have shown the best results, as compared to children-centered approaches. Meanwhile, studies on specific nutrient or dietary composition (such as calcium, protein, or glycemic index) related to prevention or treatment of obesity have failed to yield good results. Reducing the intake of high-sugar carbonated drinks and juices has shown promising but still inconclusive results. PMID:18670698
Manini, T.M.; Newman, A.B.; Fielding, R; Blair, S. N.; Perri, M.G.; Anton, S. D.; Goodpaster, B.C.; Katula, J.; Rejeski, J.; KING, A.C.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; HSU, F.-C.; Pahor, M.
Coupled with an aging society, the rising obesity prevalence is likely to increase the future burden of physical disability. We set out to determine whether obesity modified the effects of a physical activity intervention designed to prevent mobility disability in older adults. Older adults at risk for disability (N = 424, age range: 70-88 years) were randomized to a 12 month physical activity (PA) intervention involving moderate intensity aerobic, strength, balance and flexibility exercise (...
Cinelli, Renata L; O'Dea, Jennifer A
Childhood overweight and obesity have an estimated prevalence of 10Â % globally. High body mass index (BMI) is a known major predictor of body dissatisfaction, problem eating, low self-esteem, bullying and poor social and health outcomes for children. Childhood is also a time when lifelong habits are established, and as such is a time where prevention efforts have a high chance of success if implemented appropriately. Obesity prevention in children also has the potential to create weight, shape and food concerns in children and as such programs should focus on the principle first, do no harm. This paper canvasses existing literature and intervention program data to make the following recommendations for effective childhood obesity prevention: Programs should be educative for both children and their parents, programs should be inclusive of the whole family, there should be a focus on health and growth, not weight, and parents, schools and children should all be involved. PMID:26842805
Lazarou, Chrystalleni; Kouta, Christiana
This paper examines the current scientific knowledge on the relationship between diet and obesity, and considers the implications for nursing practice. It focuses on the main nutritional elements that have been identified as significant in the prevention and management of obesity. Research findings reveal the important role of specific dietary habits and patterns and their influence on obesity; particularly on childhood obesity. This paper discusses the nursing implications in relation to the prevention and management of obesity. PMID:20622760
Borys, J-M; Le Bodo, Y; Jebb, S A; Seidell, J C; Summerbell, C; Richard, D; De Henauw, S; Moreno, L A; Romon, M; Visscher, T L S; Raffin, S; Swinburn, B
Childhood obesity is a complex issue and needs multi-stakeholder involvement at all levels to foster healthier lifestyles in a sustainable way. 'Ensemble PrĂ©venons l'ObĂ©sitĂ© Des Enfants' (EPODE, Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) is a large-scale, coordinated, capacity-building approach for communities to implement effective and sustainable strategies to prevent childhood obesity. This paper describes EPODE methodology and its objective of preventing childhood obesity. At a central level, a coordination team, using social marketing and organizational techniques, trains and coaches a local project manager nominated in each EPODE community by the local authorities. The local project manager is also provided with tools to mobilize local stakeholders through a local steering committee and local networks. The added value of the methodology is to mobilize stakeholders at all levels across the public and the private sectors. Its critical components include political commitment, sustainable resources, support services and a strong scientific input--drawing on the evidence-base--together with evaluation of the programme. Since 2004, EPODE methodology has been implemented in more than 500 communities in six countries. Community-based interventions are integral to childhood obesity prevention. EPODE provides a valuable model to address this challenge. PMID:22106871
Aoe, Seiichiro; Kudo, Haruka; Sakurai, Seiya
Konjac-mannan has been suggested to exert a protective effect against visceral obesity. However, there is little knowledge about the effects of liquid konjac (LK) that is partially alkali gelled. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of a LK powder on obesity in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with either 2.5 or 5% LK powder for 80 days. Growth parameters, abdominal fat content, serum biochemical markers, and hepatic lipid accumulations were measured. Dietary supplementation with LK resulted in decreased body weight gain and abdominal fat accumulation. Dose-dependent decreases were observed in accumulation of hepatic lipids and serum total cholesterol, leptin, insulin concentrations. The study findings indicated that LK had preventing effect against obesity, including the reduction of abdominal and hepatic lipid accumulation and serum parameters related to obesity. PMID:25832784
Prevention-Plus interventions for primary care offer a venue to intervene with both children and parents for child obesity treatment. Such interventions can promote effective parenting practices that encourage healthy eating, physical activity (PA), and lower TV use among children. Test for feasibil...
Trout, Kimberly K; Ellis, Kathryn K; Bratschie, Alexandra
Obesity and diabetes have become pandemic in the United States, with more than one-third of the US population obese and 8.3% of the population affected by diabetes. Efforts to prevent type 2 diabetes focus primarily on healthy eating and physical activity. In particular, women from at-risk racial and ethnic groups and those who have experienced gestational diabetes are at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Achieving a healthy weight prior to conception, staying within weight gain guidelines during pregnancy, and losing accumulated pregnancy weight postpartum are key prevention factors. Maintaining a healthy weight in the long-term is a challenge. Behavioral psychology and coaching techniques are presented in this article that can be useful in sustaining behaviors that promote a healthy weight. PMID:23647939
Crowe, Kristi M.; Allison, David
Research into bioactive food compounds (BFC) continues to evolve albeit with shared challenges among scientists in the fields of obesity and cancer treatment and prevention. Given the diversity of scientific disciplines involved in evaluating BFC, multi-disciplinary conferences provide opportunities to update the state of the science and critically discuss conceptual and methodological challenges encountered in studying BFC in both pre-clinical and clinical trials. This overview is an introdu...
Umstattd Meyer, M. RenĂ©e; Perry, Cynthia K.; Sumrall, Jasmin C.; Patterson, Megan S; Walsh, Shana M; Clendennen, Stephanie C.; Hooker, Steven P.; Evenson, Kelly R; Goins, Karin V.; Heinrich, Katie M.; OâHara Tompkins, Nancy; Eyler, Amy A; Jones, Sydney; Tabak, Rachel; Valko, Cheryl
Introduction Health disparities exist between rural and urban residents; in particular, rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases and obesity. Evidence supports the effectiveness of policy and environmental strategies to prevent obesity and promote health equity. In 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended 24 policy and environmental strategies for use by local communities: the Common Community Measures for Obesity Prevention (COCOMO); 12 strategies focus o...
Lofton, Saria; Julion, Wrenetha A.; McNaughton, Diane B.; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Keim, Kathryn S.
Obesity and overweight prevalence in African American (AA) youth continues to be one of the highest of all major ethnic groups, which has led researchers to pursue culturally based approaches as a means to improve obesity prevention interventions. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate culturally adapted obesity prevention
Morrison-Sandberg, Leslie F.; Kubik, Martha Y.; Johnson, Karen E.
Elementary schools are an optimal setting to provide obesity prevention interventions, yet little is known about the obesity prevention practices of elementary school nurses. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into current obesity-related school nursing practice in elementary schools in Minnesota, opinions regarding school nurse-ledâŠ
Morrison-Sandberg, Leslie F.; Kubik, Martha Y.; Johnson, Karen E.
Elementary schools are an optimal setting to provide obesity prevention interventions, yet little is known about the obesity prevention practices of elementary school nurses. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into current obesity-related school nursing practice in elementary schools in Minnesota, opinions regarding school nurse-led
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many unhealthy dietary and physical activity habits that foster the development of obesity are established by the age of five. Presently, approximately 70 percent of children in the United States are currently enrolled in early childcare facilities, making this an ideal setting to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention efforts. We describe here the methods for conducting an obesity prevention randomized trial in the child care setting. Methods/design A randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial is currently being conducted over a three year period (2010-present. The sample consists of 28 low-income, ethnically diverse child care centers with 1105 children (sample is 60% Hispanic, 15% Haitian, 12% Black, 2% non-Hispanic White and 71% of caregivers were born outside of the US. The purpose is to test the efficacy of a parent and teacher role-modeling intervention on childrenâs nutrition and physical activity behaviors. . The Healthy Caregivers-Healthy Children (HC2 intervention arm schools received a combination of (1 implementing a daily curricula for teachers/parents (the nutritional gatekeepers; (2 implementing a daily curricula for children; (3 technical assistance with meal and snack menu modifications such as including more fresh and less canned produce; and (4 creation of a center policy for dietary requirements for meals and snacks, physical activity and screen time. Control arm schools received an attention control safety curriculum. Major outcome measures include pre-post changes in child body mass index percentile and z score, fruit and vegetable and other nutritious food intake, amount of physical activity, and parental nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, defined by intentions and behaviors. All measures were administered at the beginning and end of the school year for year one and year two of the study for a total of 4 longitudinal time points for assessment. Discussion Although few attempts have been made to prevent obesity during the first years of life, this period may represent the best opportunity for obesity prevention. Findings from this investigation will inform both the fields of childhood obesity prevention and early childhood research about the effects of an obesity prevention program housed in the childcare setting. Trial registration Trial registration number: NCT01722032
Full Text Available A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify the barriers that prevent practitioners from identifying and counseling parents and caregivers of overweight or obese children. Once identified, barriers were organized into thematic categories (parental, provider, and professional barriers and recommendations were generated to facilitate discussion about childhood obesity between professionals and parents. Childhood obesity is a significant public health problem. Healthcare providers must be able to effectively communicate with caregivers and put childhood obesity at the front of healthcare discussions. This article provides a synthesis of the relevant literature and makes recommendations for healthcare providers to overcome the barriers allowing healthier outcomes for children.
Full Text Available Nikolaos Maniadakis,1 Vasiliki Kapaki,1,2 Louiza Damianidi,3Georgia Kourlaba4 1Department of Health Services Organization and Management, National School of Public Health, Athens, 2University of Peloponnese, Peloponnese, 3Department of Allergy, Second Pediatric Clinic, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens School of Medicine, Athens, 4The Stavros Niarchos Foundation â Collaborative Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Outcomes Research (CLEO, First and Second Departments of Pediatrics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens School of Medicine, Athens, Greece Background: As part of the efforts to curb obesity, a new focus seems to be put on taxing foods that are perceived as being associated with obesity (eg, sugar-sweetened beverages and foods high in fat, sugar, and salt content as a policy instrument to promote healthier diets.Objective: To assess the possible effects of such taxation policies by identifying and analyzing all studies which investigate the impact of price increases on consumption, caloric intake, or weight outcomes.Methods: Electronic data bases were searched with appropriate terms and their combinations. Thereafter, abstracts were reviewed and studies were selected based on predefined criteria. The characteristics of the selected studies and the results were extracted in a special form and consequently were reviewed and synthesized.Results: Price increase may lead to a reduction in consumption of the targeted products, but the subsequent effect on caloric intake may be much smaller. Only a limited number of the identified studies reported weight outcomes, most of which are either insignificant or very small in magnitude to make any improvement in public health.Conclusion: The effectiveness of a taxation policy to curb obesity is doubtful and available evidence in most studies is not very straightforward due to the multiple complexities in consumer behavior and the underling substitution effects. There is need to investigate in-depth the potential underlying mechanisms and the relationship between price-increase policies, obesity, and public health outcomes. Keywords: price, fat tax, sugar-sweetened beverages, calorie(s, elasticity, weight, body mass index
Background Social marketing integrates communication campaigns with behavioural and environmental change strategies. Childhood obesity programs could benefit significantly from social marketing but communication campaigns on this issue tend to be stand-alone. Methods A large-scale multi-setting child obesity prevention program was implemented in the Hunter New England (HNE) region of New South Wales (NSW), Australia from 2005â2010. The program included a series of communication campaigns promoting the program and its key messages: drinking water; getting physically active and; eating more vegetables and fruit. Pre-post telephone surveys (nâ=â9) were undertaken to evaluate awareness of the campaigns among parents of children aged 2â15Â years using repeat cross-sections of randomly selected cohorts. A total of 1,367 parents (HNEâ=â748, NSWâ=â619) participated. Results At each survey post baseline, HNE parents were significantly more likely to have seen, read or heard about the program and its messages in the media than parents in the remainder of the state (pâbrand campaign (31%) than those with (20%) but there were no other statistically significant socio-demographic differences in awareness. Conclusions The Good for Kids communication campaigns increased and maintained awareness of childhood obesity prevention messages. Moreover, messages were delivered equitably to diverse socio-demographic groups within the region. PMID:24090174
Simmons, A; Mavoa, H M; Bell, A C; de Courten, Maximilian; Schaaf, D; Schultz, J; Swinburn, B A
Community-based interventions are an important component of obesity prevention efforts. The literature provides little guidance on priority-setting for obesity prevention in communities, especially for socially and culturally diverse populations. This paper reports on the process of developing...... prioritized, community-participatory action plans for obesity prevention projects in children and adolescents using the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Elements Linked to Obesity) Framework. We combined stakeholder engagement processes, the ANGELO Framework (scans for environmental barriers, targeted behaviours......, gaps in skills and knowledge) and workshops with key stakeholders to create action plans for six diverse obesity prevention projects in Australia (n = 3), New Zealand, Fiji and Tonga from 2002 to 2005. Some sites included sociocultural contextual analyses in the environmental scans. Target groups were...
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to identify the effects of obesity on falls as a practical verification of the importance of obesity-targeting interventions as part of future fall prevention programs. [Subjects and Methods] The study involved 351 elderly people (172 men, 179 women) living in rural areas. The dependent variable, fall efficacy, was measured using the Falls Efficacy Scale, while the independent variables, body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat, were measured u...
Satyanarayana G. Konda; Giri, Purushottam A.; Anjali S. Otiv
An increasing number of children are becoming overweight and obese. Overweight and obesity are arbitrarily defined as excess adipose tissue in the body. Although many risk factors for overweight and obesity have been identified for school-age children, less is known for preschool children. Prevention of overweight and obesity in preschool children is an international public health priority given the significant impact of obesity on acute and chronic diseases, general health, development and w...
Kirk, Sara F. L.; Penney, Tarra L.
This paper provides an overview of a new section of Current Obesity Reports, called Health Services and programs. This new section seeks to better understand the problems within health systems around obesity management and prevention and to discuss the latest research on solutions. There are few health system issues that are quite as controversial as obesity and there remain several key problems inherent within existing obesity management and prevention approaches that necessitate the adoptio...
Christine M.W. Totura
Conclusion: Obesity prevention strategy implementation relies on the supportiveness and structure of school climates. Barriers to prevention can impede efforts despite school commitment toward prevention, while stakeholder collaboration can enhance the likelihood that practices are in place.
Childhood obesity is a worldwide issue, and effective methods encouraging children to adopt healthy diet and physical activity behaviors are needed. This viewpoint addresses the promise of serious video games, and why they may offer one method for helping children eat healthier and become more physically active. Lessons learned are provided, as well as examples gleaned from personal experiences. PMID:25654589
Childhood obesity is a worldwide issue, and effective methods encouraging children to adopt healthy diet and physical activity behaviors are needed. This viewpoint addresses the promise of serious video games, and why they may offer one method for helping children eat healthier and become more physi...
Ali, Quaisar; Patel, Sanket; Hussain, Tahir
High-sodium intake is a risk factor for the pathogenesis of hypertension, especially in obesity. The present study is designed to investigate whether angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R) activation with selective agonist C21 prevents high-sodium diet (HSD)-induced hypertension in obese animals. Male obese rats were treated with AT2R agonist C21 (1 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1), oral) while maintained on either normal-sodium diet (NSD; 0.4%) or HSD (4%) for 2 wk. Radiotelemetric recording showed a time-dependent increase in systolic blood pressure in HSD-fed obese rats, being maximal increase (?27 mmHg) at day 12 of the HSD regimen. C21 treatment completely prevented the increase in blood pressure of HSD-fed rats. Compared with NSD controls, HSD-fed obese rats had greater natriuresis/diuresis and urinary levels of nitrates, and these parameters were further increased by C21 treatment. Also, C21 treatment improved glomerular filtration rate in HSD-fed rats. HSD-fed rats expressed higher level of cortical ANG II, which was reduced to 50% by C21 treatment. HSD feeding and/or C21 treatment had no effects on cortical renin activity and the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and chymase, which are ANG II-producing enzymes. However, ANG(1-7) concentration and ACE2 activity in the renal cortex were reduced by HSD feeding, and C21 treatment rescued both the parameters. Also, C21 treatment reduced the cortical expression of AT1R in HSD-fed rats, but had no effect of AT2R expression. We conclude that chronic treatment with the AT2R agonist C21 prevents salt-sensitive hypertension in obese rats, and a reduction in the renal ANG II/AT1R and enhanced ACE2/ANG(1-7) levels may play a potential role in this phenomenon. PMID:25855512
Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to review the different publications associated with probiotics and obesity, as well as to get some new insights regarding the role of the microbiome in diseases such as obesity. An extensive search for scientific publications (studies in animal models, cells, clinical trials and reviews was performed in the following specialist computer databases (PubMed central (PMC-NCBI, Elsevier Journal, Scielo Spain, Scirus, Science Direct to establish the current status of the potential effect of probiotics in the control of obesity in humans, as well as the relationship between intestinal microbiota and obesity. The intestinal microbiota and oral probiotics have a positive effect on human health, as they can regulate the immune functions and protect from infections and chronic inflammatory processes. Although divergent results have recently been reported, it has been shown but not confirmed that intestinal microbiota might play a role as a new factor associated with the regulation of body weight and obesity-related diseases. The international MetaHIT project has shown that human microbiome populations can be grouped into three different enterotypes. Two of these enterotypes (Bacteroides and Ruminococcus seem to encode functions related to obesity. Although the relationship between intestinal microbiota and obesity are not yet well established, the attempt to manipulate intestinal microbiota through diet is suggested as a new plausible approach to prevent, or modify the risk of, obesity and its related diseases.
Mirilov Jelena M.
Full Text Available Numerous investigations documented that there is a significant correlation between obesity and the onset of malignant neoplasms. It has been known for decades that Vojvodina is an area characterized by frequent occurrence of obesity with adult population, which starts much earlier in childhood. Good knowledge of incidence in child obesity is a first step in the prevention of malignant diseases. The study encompassed the anthropometric measurements (body height and body weight of 3298 boys and 3146 girls aged from 6 to 15 years, from 10 primary schools of the wider area of the city of Novi Sad. The measurement data served as the basis to calculate the body mass index (BMI. On the basis of BMI the incidence of the overall obesity (ÂłP85 among the examined boys on the territory of Novi Sad community was found to be 16.59%. Overweight (P85 - P95 was observed in 10.28%, and obesity (ÂłP95 in 6.31% boys. The analysis of the nutrition status among the examined schoolgirls on the territory of Novi Sad community, on the basis of BMI, showed that overall obesity (ÂłP85 was present in 14.69% of schoolgirls; overweight (P85 - P95 was found in 9.38%, and obesity (ÂłP95 in 5.31% of the examined schoolgirls. The high percentage of obese schoolchildren cannot be considered as desirable, especially if it is taken into account that there has been a significant increase compared with the previous examination.
... Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue ... Healthier Kids Healthier Kids Home Our Programs Childhood Obesity Introduction Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is childhood obesity an issue ...
Cloutier, Michelle M; Wiley, James; Wang, Zhu; Grant, Autherene; Gorin, Amy A.
Background Obesity is a major problem in the United States, particularly among socio-economically disadvantaged Latino and Black children. Effective interventions that can be disseminated to large numbers of at-risk children and their families are needed. The goals of the Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Program (ECHO) are to examine the 12-month efficacy of a primary obesity prevention program targeting the first year of life that is delivered by home visitors and that engages mothers as a...
Callahan Randi; Russell Daniel W; Walsh David A; Reimer Rachel A; Eisenmann Joey C; Welk Greg; Gentile Douglas A; Walsh Monica; Strickland Sarah; Fritz Katie
Abstract Background Schools are the most frequent target for intervention programs aimed at preventing child obesity; however, the overall effectiveness of these programs has been limited. It has therefore been recommended that interventions target multiple ecological levels (community, family, school and individual) to have greater success in changing risk behaviors for obesity. This study examined the immediate and short-term, sustained effects of the Switch program, which targeted three be...
Mozhdeh B Bruss
Full Text Available This paper presents a community-school-higher education partnership approach to the prevention of childhood obesity. Public elementary school personnel, primarily teachers, participated in the design and delivery of a curriculum targeting primary caregivers of 8-9-year-old children. Theoretical framework and methodological approaches guided the development of a cognitive behavioral lifestyle intervention targeting childhood obesity prevention in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI, a U.S. commonwealth. This project demonstrated that in populations with health disparity, teachers can be a valuable and accessible resource for identifying key health issues of concern to communities and a vital partner in the development of parent and child interventions. Teachers also benefited by gaining knowledge and skills to facilitate student and parent learning and impact on personal and familial health. Successful community-school-higher education partnerships require consideration of local culture and community needs and resources. Moreover, within any community-schoolâhigher education partnership it is essential that a time sensitive and culturally appropriate feedback loop be designed to ensure that programs are responsive to the needs and resources of all stakeholders, and that leaders and policymakers are highly engaged so they can make informed policy decisions.
Lofton, Saria; Julion, Wrenetha A.; McNaughton, Diane B.; Bergren, Martha Dewey; Keim, Kathryn S.
Obesity and overweight prevalence in African American (AA) youth continues to be one of the highest of all major ethnic groups, which has led researchers to pursue culturally based approaches as a means to improve obesity prevention interventions. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate culturally adapted obesity preventionâŠ
Vong, Linh; Ye, Chianping; Yang, Zongfang; Choi, Brian; Chua, Streamson; Lowell, Bradford B
Leptin acts in the brain to prevent obesity. The underlying neurocircuitry responsible for this is poorly understood, in part due to incomplete knowledge regarding first order, leptin-responsive neurons. To address this, we and others have been removing leptin receptors from candidate first order neurons. While functionally relevant neurons have been identified, the observed effects have been small suggesting that most first order neurons remain unidentified. Here we take an alternative appro...
Tovar, Alison; Renzaho, Andre M. N.; Guerrero, Alma D.; Mena, Noereem; AYALA, GUADALUPE X.
The aim of this review was to systematically assess the effectiveness of obesity prevention and control interventions in US immigrant populations across the life course, from preschool-age to adults. A systematic review of relevant studies was undertaken and eligible articles included. The initial search identified 684 potentially relevant articles, of which only 20 articles met the selection criteria, representing 20 unique studies. They were divided into interventions that targeted adults (...
Tate, Eleanor B.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; OâReilly, Gillian; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Gotsis, Marientina; Pentz, Mary Ann; Dunton, Genevieve F.
Childhood obesity continues to be a significant public health issue. mHealth systems offer state-of-the-art approaches to intervention design, delivery, and diffusion of treatment and prevention efforts. Benefits include cost effectiveness, potential for real-time data collection, feedback capability, minimized participant burden, relevance to multiple types of populations, and increased dissemination capability. However, these advantages are coupled with unique challenges. This commentary di...
Bender, Melinda S.; Clark, Mary Jo; Gahagan, Sheila
Childhood obesity affects approximately 20% of US preschool children. Early prevention is needed to reduce young childrenâs risks for obesity, especially among Hispanic preschool children who have one of the highest rates of obesity. Vida Saludable was an early childhood obesity intervention designed to be culturally appropriate for low-income Hispanic mothers with preschool children to improve maternal physical activity and reduce childrenâs sugar sweetened beverage consumption. It was condu...
Gracia-Marco, Luis; Moreno, Luis A.; Vicente-RodrĂguez, GermĂĄn
Obesity, mainly childhood obesity, is a worldwide concern. Childhood obesity continues to adulthood, and it is associated with multiple noncommunicable diseases. One important aspect in the fight against obesity is prevention, the earlier, the better. Social marketing is a novel concept being increasingly used as an approach to address social problems and more and more included in the community-based interventions aiming to change unhealthy behaviors. Although there is limited evidence of its...
Jong Seok Lee
Full Text Available Codonopsis lanceolata extract (CLE has been used in traditional medicine in the Asian-Pacific region for the treatment of bronchitis, cough, and inflammation. However, it is still unclear whether obesity in mice can be altered by diet supplementation with CLE. To investigate whether CLE could have preventative effects on high fat diet (HFD-induced obesity, male C57BL/6 mice were placed on either a normal chow diet, 60% HFD, or a HFD supplemented with CLE (60, 180, and 360 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks. CLE decreased body weight and subcutaneous and visceral fat weights in HFD-induced obese mice. CLE group mice showed lower fat accumulation and a smaller adipocyte area in the adipose tissue compared with the HFD group mice. CLE group mice exhibited lower serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL, glucose, and insulin compared with the HFD group mice. In addition, CLE decreased liver weight and lowered the increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine transaminase (ALT levels in HFD-induced obese mice. These results indicate that CLE can inhibit the development of diet-induced obesity and hyperlipidemia in C57BL/6 mice.
Simmons, A; Mavoa, H M; Bell, A C; de Courten, Maximilian; Schaaf, D; Schultz, J; Swinburn, B A
Community-based interventions are an important component of obesity prevention efforts. The literature provides little guidance on priority-setting for obesity prevention in communities, especially for socially and culturally diverse populations. This paper reports on the process of developing...... prioritized, community-participatory action plans for obesity prevention projects in children and adolescents using the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Elements Linked to Obesity) Framework. We combined stakeholder engagement processes, the ANGELO Framework (scans for environmental barriers, targeted behaviours...... communities; however, several unique sociocultural elements emerged in some cultural groups which informed their action plans. Youth were actively engaged in adolescent projects, allowing their needs to be incorporated into the action plans initiating the process of ownership. A common structure for the...
Carrillo Aguilera, Sonia
Full Text Available This paper aims to review the current worrying situation in terms of physical activity in our country and the problem that leads us to be below the European average, with the attendant problems of obesity, particularly among children, which follow from this. We analyzed the intervention programs that are being used as PIOBIN plan (The Andalusian Plan for Childhood Obesity, effective from 2007-12, based on a national strategy called Naos Strategy and how different studies support that some intrinsic motivation toward physical activity helps to create lasting habits to the practice. We also carry out an analysis of the different Motivation theories and we base our study on the Self-determination Theory of Deci and Ryan (1985, 2000
Stephanie-May Ruchat; MOTTOLA, MICHELLE F.
Background. The period surrounding pregnancy has been identified as a risk period for overweight/obesity in both mother and child because of excessive gestational weight gain (GWG). The promotion of a healthy GWG is therefore of paramount importance in the context of the prevention of obesity in the current and next generations. Objective. To provide a comprehensive overview of the effect of prenatal physical activity interventions, alone or in combination with nutritional counselling, on GWG...
Bell, Sarah L; Audrey, Suzanne; Cooper, Ashley R; Noble, Sian; Campbell, Rona
Obesity in young people is a major public health concern. Energy balance, the interrelationship between diet and physical activity, is known to be a key determinant. Evidence supports the development of school-based approaches to obesity prevention. ASSIST (A Stop Smoking in Schools Trial) is an effective school-based, peer-led smoking prevention programme for 12-13-year-old students, based on diffusion of innovations theory. The AHEAD (Activity and Healthy Eating in ADolescence) study tested the feasibility of adapting ASSIST to an obesity prevention intervention. The AHEAD intervention was tested and refined during a pilot study in one school, followed by an exploratory trial in six schools. Quantitative (self-report behavioural questionnaires and evaluation forms) and qualitative (structured observations, focus groups and interviews) research methods were used to examine the implementation and acceptability of the intervention. The potential effectiveness of the intervention in increasing healthy eating was measured using self-report behavioural questionnaires. Activity monitors (accelerometers) were used to measure physical activity. Results show it was feasible to implement the AHEAD intervention, which was well received. However, implementation was resource and labour intensive and relatively expensive. Furthermore, there was no evidence of promise that the intervention would increase physical activity or healthy eating in adolescents. Although diet and physical activity are both relevant for obesity prevention, the focus on two behaviours appeared too complex for informal diffusion through peer networks. This identifies a tension, particularly for adolescent peer-led health promotion, between the desire not to isolate or oversimplify health behaviours and the need to present clear, succinct health promotion messages. PMID:24711350
Natale Ruby; Scott Stephanie Hapeman; Messiah Sarah E; Schrack Maria Mesa; Uhlhorn Susan B; Delamater Alan
Abstract Background Many unhealthy dietary and physical activity habits that foster the development of obesity are established by the age of five. Presently, approximately 70 percent of children in the United States are currently enrolled in early childcare facilities, making this an ideal setting to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention efforts. We describe here the methods for conducting an obesity prevention randomized trial in the child care setting. Methods/design A randomi...
There is a worldwide epidemic of obesity with far-reaching consequences for the health of our nation. Prevention of obesity, especially in children, has been deemed by public health policy makers to be one of the most important objectives for our country. This prevention project, called Louisiana (L...
Pallan, Miranda; Parry, Jayne; Cheng, K K; Adab, Peymané
We describe the process of development of a childhood obesity prevention programme.We combined findings from multiple methods in an iterative process of development.Childhood obesity prevention interventions need to be tailored to the local context.Understanding the local context is critical for intervention tailoring.
Conclusions: This study provided important contextual data on where the emphasis should be placed in developing the childhood obesity prevention interventions for the school children in Tehran. The findings further highlight the importance of involving a wide range of stakeholders, and including multiple components to maximise the chances of success. Keywords: Child, Obesity, Prevention, Intervention, Qualitative research, Iran
Brambilla Paolo; Bedogni Giorgio; Buongiovanni Carmen; Brusoni Guido; Di Mauro Giuseppe; Di Pietro Mario; Giussani Marco; Gnecchi Manuel; Iughetti Lorenzo; Manzoni Paola; Sticco Maura; Bernasconi Sergio
Abstract Background The first years of life are crucial to start preventive interventions that can have an impact on lifestyle and later overweight and obesity. Under the Italian National Health System (INHS), children are cared for by family pediatricians who perform health balances at regular intervals. The Italian Society of Preventive and Social Pediatrics (SIPPS) has designed a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the effectiveness of family pediatricians for the prevention of c...
Guo, Jingjing; Tao, Hanlin; Cao, Yong; Ho, Chi-Tang; Jin, Shengkang; Huang, Qingrong
Chenpi is the dry peel of the plant Citrus reticulata Blanco after an aging processing. It has been used as an antidigestive and anti-inflammatory traditional medicine, as well as culinary seasoning and dietary supplement, in China. However, its efficacy and underlying scientific mechanism have not been sufficiently investigated. Chenpi is uniquely enriched with a high content of 5-demethylated polymethoxyflavones (5-OH PMFs). The effect of chenpi extract on improving metabolic features was examined using high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity/diabetes mouse model. Oral administration of 0.25 and 0.5% chenpi extract in food over 15 weeks markedly prevented HFD-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and diabetic symptoms. The beneficial effect is associated with 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in adipose tissue. Our results indicate that 5-OH PMFs-enriched chenpi extract is effective in preventing obesity and type 2 diabetes, and its effect might be related to improvement in lipid metabolism associated with activation of the AMPK pathway. PMID:26912037
Doak, C M; Visscher, T L S; Renders, C M; Seidell, J C
Overweight and obesity are serious, large-scale, global, public health concerns requiring population-based childhood overweight and obesity prevention. The overall objective of this review is to identify aspects of successful childhood overweight prevention programmes. This objective will be met by assessing existing interventions quantitatively as well as qualitatively, identifying efficacy, effectiveness and implementation, and evaluating potential adverse effects of previous studies. This review was limited to school-based studies with a quantitative evaluation using anthropometric outcomes and that intervene on diet or activity-related behaviours. Quantitative and qualitative approaches are used to identify factors related to successful interventions as well as adverse consequences. Sixty-eight per cent of the interventions, or 17 of the 25, were 'effective' based on a statistically significant reduction in body mass index (BMI) or skin-folds for the intervention group. Four interventions were effective by BMI as well as skin-fold measures. Of these, two targeted reductions in television viewing. The remaining two studies targeted direct physical activity intervention through the physical education programme combined with nutrition education. Of the interventions reported here, one was effective in reducing childhood overweight but was also associated with an increase in underweight prevalence. Few other studies reported outcomes for underweight. The majority of overweight/obesity prevention programmes included in this review were effective. Physical education in schools and reducing television viewing are two examples of interventions that have been successful. Because few studies report on underweight prevalence, this review recommends giving more attention to preventing adverse outcomes by reporting the intervention impact on the frequency distribution for both BMI and adiposity measures. PMID:16436107
Objective was to establish relationship between obesity and hypothyroidism and to analyze the frequency of primary hypothyroidism in obese patients and frequency of obesity in primary hypothyroidism patients. We conducted this retrospective, observational study in Department of Endocrinology and Obesity Clinic, Medwin Hospital, Hyderabad, India in March 2008. In the last 18 months (between September 2006 to February 2008), data on 625 consecutive primary hypothyroidism patients (Group I) and 450 patients from obesity clinic (Group II) were analyzed. Frequency difference between the 2 groups was assessed by Chi-square test. In Group I, 278/625 (44%) had body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2. Obesity was higher (46% versus 34%) in overt hypothyroidism than in subclinical hypothyroidism (p=0.21). More patients were overweight in overt hypothyroidism group than in subclinical hypothyroidism group (p=0.02). In obesity patients, overt hypothyroidism was present in 33% and subclinical hypothyroidism in 11% patients. Overall thyroid dysfunction was found more in obese individuals with varying degree of significance. Detailed studies are required to assess the cause and effect relation between obesity and hypothyroidism. (author)
Laws, Rachel; Karen J. Campbell; van der Pligt, Paige; Russell, Georgina; Ball, Kylie; Lynch, John; Crawford, David; Taylor, Rachael; Askew, Deborah; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth
Background Children from disadvantaged families including those from low socioeconomic backgrounds and Indigenous families have higher rates of obesity, making early intervention a priority. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature to examine the effectiveness of interventions to prevent obesity or improve obesity related behaviours in children 0-5 years from socioeconomically disadvantaged or Indigenous families. Methods Searches of major electronic databases identif...
Amini, Maryam; Abolghassem DJAZAYERY; MAJDZADEH, Reza; Taghdisi, Mohammad-Hossein; Sadrzadeh-Yeganeh, Haleh; Eslami-Amirabadi, Maryam
Background: Childhood obesity is a world-wide health problem and development of interventions to prevent or control it is a priority. Obesity is prevalent and on the increase among school-students in Iran, too. As the first step for development of an intervention, the current study was designed to complete our understanding of ideas, attitudes, beliefs, and preferences of primary school children in Tehran, Iran. Methods: Twenty-seven primary school-students (11 boys, 16 girls) in grade-five, ...
Kar, Subhranshu Sekhar; Dube, Rajani; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar
Childhood obesity is now a global problem throughout the world. The major factors affecting weight regulation and the development of obesity in children are the result of a large number of biological, behavioral, social, environmental, and economic factors and the complex interactions between them that promote a positive energy balance. The changes in the dietary habits with the adoption of sedentary life style increases manifold obesity-related diseases and their complications. An obese chil...
Full Text Available Jyu-Lin Chen,1 Mary Ellen Wilkosz2 1Department of Family Health Care Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 2Nursing Department, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA, USA Abstract: About one third of adolescents in the USA are overweight and/or obese. Obesity during the adolescent years is associated with many adverse health consequences, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and psychosocial problems. Because of substantial advances in technologies and wide acceptance by adolescents, it is now possible to use technology for healthy weight management and prevention of obesity. This systematic review used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and aimed to evaluate the existing literature reported on the effectiveness of technology-based intervention (web-based, e-learning, and active video games in preventing obesity in adolescents. The primary aim of this review was to explore if components of specific interventions were associated with a reduction in body mass index. Research articles obtained from CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database from1990 to 2014 were reviewed. A total of 131 published articles were identified, and 14 met the inclusion criteria of a randomized or nonrandomized clinical study with body mass index as primary outcome and/or secondary outcomes of diet/physical activity and/or psychosocial function, tested lifestyle interventions to prevent obesity, used technology, and studied adolescents (aged 12â18 years. The results indicated that six of 14 studies found body mass index and/or body fat decreased at short-term (less than 12 months follow-up. Six of eleven studies that examined physical activity or physical activity-related outcomes found an improved physical activity outcome (time playing active video games and increase in physical activity time, while five of seven studies which assessed dietary outcomes indicated improvement in dietary behaviors. Five of seven studies suggested an improvement in psychosocial function (reduced depression, improved self-esteem and efficacy, improvement on Behavior Assessment Scale in adolescents involved in the technology-based intervention. All effective interventions utilized dietary and physical activity strategies as part of intervention components. Because of the variation in duration of intervention (range 10 weeks to 2 years, it is not clear what length of intervention is most effective. Future research should assess the long-term impact of technology-based interventions and evaluate mediators and moderators for weight change in adolescents. Keywords: technology intervention, obesity, adolescents, web-based, exer-gamingÂ
In 2003-04, approximately 34.3% of 12-19 year olds and 37.2% of 6-11 year olds in the US were overweight or obese. Among samples with predominantly ethnic minorities in the US, 49% of middle school children were overweight or obese. Increasing prevalence of pediatric overweight and obesity has been ...
Childhood obesity has become an alarming problem in this country. Risk factors associated with childhood obesity include having obese parents, a history of low or high birth weight, Black or Hispanic ethnicity, and low socioeconomic background. Although most healthy American infants and toddlers have adequate diets, many parents and health
Childhood obesity has become an alarming problem in this country. Risk factors associated with childhood obesity include having obese parents, a history of low or high birth weight, Black or Hispanic ethnicity, and low socioeconomic background. Although most healthy American infants and toddlers have adequate diets, many parents and healthâŠ
Cassel, Kevin D; Braun, Kathryn; Ka'opua, Lana; Soa, Fuamaila; Nigg, Claudio
Obesity-associated chronic diseases persist in Samoan populations in the United States. Samoans and African Americans share cultural similarities such as church affiliation, perceptions of weight and body size, and obesity-related health risks. Adapting an effective energy balance intervention originally designed for African Americans--Body and Soul--might be useful in reducing obesity among U.S. Samoans. To determine potential attractiveness and adaptations, we used aspects of grounded theory to analyze key-informant and focus group interviews with 31 purposively selected Samoans in Hawaii. We incorporated participatory features into the research with Samoan community members conducting parts of the study. From interview narratives, we identified relevant themes from Samoan culture, such as "fa'aSamoa", or the Samoan way, and specific energy balance activities to include in an obesity and cancer prevention intervention for U.S.-dwelling Samoans. Our findings describe methods to address health disparities by incorporating culturally appropriate health concepts into existing evidence-based interventions. PMID:25212854
Ramirez, Amelie G; Gallion, Kipling J; Despres, Cliff; Aguilar, Rosalie P; Adeigbe, Rebecca T; Seidel, Sarah E; McAlister, Alfred L
Salud America! is a national network created to engage Latino researchers, health professionals and community leaders in actions to reduce Latino childhood obesity. An online survey of 148 Salud America! network members investigated relationships between (1) their levels of engagement with the network, (2) self- and collective-efficacy, and (3) behavioral intentions to engage in advocacy for policies that can help reduce Latino childhood obesity. Analyses of these data found that higher levels of Salud America! engagement was associated with collective-advocacy efficacy-greater confidence in organized group advocacy as a way of advancing policies to reduce Latino childhood obesity. A multiple regression analysis found that this sense of collective-efficacy moderately predicted intentions to engage in advocacy behaviors. Salud America! engagement levels were less strongly associated with members' confidence in their personal ability to be an effective advocate, yet this sense of self-efficacy was a very strong predictor of a behavioral intention to advocate. Based on these findings, new online applications aimed at increasing self- and collective-efficacy through peer modeling are being developed for Salud America! in order to help individuals interested in Latino childhood obesity prevention to connect with each other and with opportunities for concerted local actions in their communities. PMID:26220280
Hill, James O; Stuht, Jennifer; Wyatt, Holly R; Regensteiner, Judith G
Obesity and type-2 diabetes can be considered diseases of physical inactivity. Physically activity protects against type-2 diabetes through its positive effects on weight management and on the metabolic pathways involved in glycemic control that are not weight-dependent. Increasing physical activity is one of the most effective strategies both for preventing type-2 diabetes and for managing it once it is present. However, we still face an enormous challenge in getting people to achieve sustainable increases in physical activity. A promising strategy is to get people walking more, starting small and increasing gradually over time. PMID:16820740
Turner, T; Spruijt-Metz, D; Wen, C K F; Hingle, M D
Mobile health (mHealth) is a relatively nascent field, with a variety of technologies being explored and developed. Because of the explosive growth in this field, it is of interest to examine the design, development and efficacy of various interventions as research becomes available. This systematic review examines current use of mHealth technologies in the prevention or treatment of pediatric obesity to catalogue the types of technologies utilized and the impact of mHealth to improve obesity-related outcomes in youth. Of the 4021 articles that were identified, 41 articles met inclusion criteria. Seventeen intervention studies incorporated mHealth as the primary or supplementary treatment. The remaining articles were in the beginning stages of research development and most often described moderate-to-high usability, feasibility and acceptability. Although few effects were observed on outcomes such as body mass index, increases in physical activity, self-reported breakfast and fruit and vegetable consumption, adherence to treatment, and self-monitoring were observed. Findings from this review suggest that mHealth approaches are feasible and acceptable tools in the prevention and treatment of pediatric obesity. The large heterogeneity in research designs highlights the need for more agile scientific processes that can keep up with the speed of technology development. PMID:25641770
EncarnaĂ§ĂŁo, R; Lloyd-Williams, F; Bromley, H; Capewell, S
Evidence shows that one of the main causes for rising obesity rates is excessive consumption of sugar, which is due in large part to the high sugar content of most soda and juice drinks and junk foods. Worryingly, UK and global populations are consuming increasing amounts of sugary drinks and junk foods (high in salt, sugar and saturated fats). However, there is raised public awareness, and parents in particular want something to be done to curb the alarming rise in childhood obesity. Population-wide policies (i.e. taxation, regulation, legislation, reformulation) consistently achieve greater public health gains than interventions and strategies targeted at individuals. Junk food and soda taxes are supported by increasing evidence from empirical and modelling studies. The strongest evidence base is for a tax on sugar sweetened beverages, but in order to effectively reduce consumption, that taxation needs to be at least 20%. Empirical data from a number of countries which have implemented a duty on sugar or sugary drinks shows rapid, substantial benefits. In the UK, increasing evidence from recent scientific reports consistently support substantial reductions in sugar consumption through comprehensive strategies which include a tax. Furthermore, there is increasing public support for such measures. A sugar sweetened beverages tax will happen in the UK so the question is not 'If?' but 'When?' this tax will be implemented. And, crucially, which nation will get there first? England, Ireland, Scotland or Wales? PMID:27092368
Johnson-Shelton, Deb; Moreno-Black, Geraldine; Evers, Cody; Zwink, Nicole
Background Childhood obesity is a systemic and complex multilevel public health problem. Research approaches are needed that effectively engage communities in reversing environmental determinants of child obesity. Objectives This article discusses the Communities and Schools Together Project (CAST) and lessons learned about the projectâs community-based participatory research (CBPR) model. Methods A partnership of schools, community organizations, and researchers used multiple methods to examine environmental health risks for childhood obesity and conduct schoolâcommunity health programs. Action work groups structured partner involvement for designing and implementing study phases. Lessons Learned CBPR in child obesity prevention involves engaging multiple communities with overlapping yet divergent goals. Schools are naturally situated to participate in child obesity projects, but engagement of key personnel is essential for functional partnerships. Complex societal problems require CBPR approaches that can align diverse communities and necessitate significant coordination by researchers. CBPR can provide simultaneous health promotion across multiple communities in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. Support for emergent partner activities is an essential practice for maintaining community interest and involvement in multi-year CBPR projects. Conclusion Investigator-initiated CBPR partnerships can effectively organize and facilitate large health-promoting partnerships involving multiple, diverse stakeholder communities. Lessons learned from CAST illustrate the synergy that can propel projects that are holistically linked to the agents of a community. PMID:26548786
Shaikh, Ulfat; Romano, Patrick; Paterniti, Debora A
Children in rural areas face higher rates of obesity than children in urban areas, and their clinicians face challenges with preventing and managing obesity and translation of evidence into practice. We evaluated how the quality improvement (QI) intervention, Healthy Eating Active Living TeleHealth Community of Practice (HEALTH COP), at 7 rural California clinics addressed these challenges. Focus group interviews with QI team members assessed their experiences and factors related to adoption of key changes. Key challenges were clinician and staff buy-in, changing ingrained clinical practices, and motivating patient and families. Facilitators were top-down organizational requirements for QI, linkages to local QI resources, involvement of clinical champions, alignment with existing practices, incorporating a learning system connecting similar clinics, and clear and consistent communication channels. Evaluations of QI interventions should include not only measurement of effectiveness but also identification of factors associated with change and interactions with organizational processes and contexts. PMID:26115059
Obesity is a critical public health problem which is worsening over time. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than one third (34.9% or 78.6 million) of U.S. adults are obese. Growing obesity incidence is associated with detrimental health consequences including cancer. Experts in the field of nutrition and cancer will present the latest data and future directions of research for this important topic.
Döring, Nora; Hansson, Lena M; Andersson, Elina Scheers; Bohman, Benjamin; Westin, Maria; Magnusson, Margaretha; Larsson, Christel; Sundblom, Elinor; Willmer, Mikaela; Blennow, Margareta; Heitmann, Berit L; Forsberg, Lars; Wallin, Sanna; Tynelius, Per; Ghaderi, Ata; Rasmussen, Finn
on-going population-based PRIMROSE trial, which targets childhood obesity, is embedded in the regular national (routine) preventive child health services that are available free-of-charge to all young families in Sweden. Of the participants (n?=?1369), 489 intervention and 550 control mothers (75......-day food diary. We are not aware of any previous RCT, concerned with the primary prevention of childhood obesity through sessions at CHC that addresses healthy eating habits and physical activity in the context of a routine child health services programme. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN16991919.......BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a growing concern in Sweden. Children with overweight and obesity run a high risk of becoming obese as adults, and are likely to develop comorbidities. Despite the immense demand, there is still a lack of evidence-based comprehensive prevention programmes targeting...
DĂ¶ring, Nora; Hansson, Lena M; Andersson, Elina Scheers; Bohman, Benjamin; Westin, Maria; Magnusson, Margaretha; Larsson, Christel; Sundblom, Elinor; Willmer, Mikaela; Blennow, Margareta; Heitmann, Berit L; Forsberg, Lars; Wallin, Sanna; Tynelius, Per; Ghaderi, Ata; Rasmussen, Finn
on-going population-based PRIMROSE trial, which targets childhood obesity, is embedded in the regular national (routine) preventive child health services that are available free-of-charge to all young families in Sweden. Of the participants (nâ=â1369), 489 intervention and 550 control mothers (75......-day food diary. We are not aware of any previous RCT, concerned with the primary prevention of childhood obesity through sessions at CHC that addresses healthy eating habits and physical activity in the context of a routine child health services programme. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN16991919.......BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a growing concern in Sweden. Children with overweight and obesity run a high risk of becoming obese as adults, and are likely to develop comorbidities. Despite the immense demand, there is still a lack of evidence-based comprehensive prevention programmes targeting...
Bendre, Sachin V.; Murray, Pamela J.; Basaria, Shehzad
Background Obesity has been associated with low testosterone (T) in adult males and in pubertal boys. Therapy for hypogonadism with exogenous T may lead to testicular atrophy and later infertility. Only a few studies have demonstrated that the Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM) clomiphene citrate (CC), an estrogen receptor antagonist, increases T in obese hypogonadal men while preventing testicular atrophy. No studies to date using CC have been done in younger obese post-pubertal hypogonadal males. Objective To determine whether CC therapy is effective in increasing serum T levels in hypogonadal post-pubertal obese males 18-21 years. Materials and Methods A retrospective chart analysis of records in obese men aged 18-21 years was done. Patients with early morning T level treatment. Results Baseline T level was 233 ± 66 ng/dl and increased to 581 ± 161 ng/dl (ptreatment. Baseline LH levels increased from 3.3 ± 1.6 mIU/mL to 5.7 ± 1.7 mIU/mL (p=0.027). Similarly, baseline FSH levels increased from 2.8 ± 1.5 mIU/mL to 6.2 ± 3 mIU/mL after CC treatment (p=0.026). There was no correlation between baseline or post treatment weight or BMI and the T level, LH, or FSH level. Conclusion This is the first study reporting on CC therapy in obese, hypogonadal post-pubertal men 18-21 years. The SERM CC increased T in obese post-pubertal hypogonadal men, similar to efficacy of CC in adult hypogonadal men over the age 21 years. Larger randomized controlled studies to study the safety and potential use of CC to improve T in young obese HG men are needed.
Nadeau, Kristen J.; Maahs, David M.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Eckel, Robert H
The prevalence and severity of pediatric obesity have dramatically increased since the late 1980s, raising concerns about a subsequent increase in cardiovascular outcomes. Strong evidence, particularly from autopsy studies, supports the concept that precursors of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) begin in childhood, and that pediatric obesity has an important influence on overall CVD risk. Lifestyle patterns also begin early and impact CVD risk. In addition, obesity and other CVD risk factor...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The first years of life are crucial to start preventive interventions that can have an impact on lifestyle and later overweight and obesity. Under the Italian National Health System (INHS, children are cared for by family pediatricians who perform health balances at regular intervals. The Italian Society of Preventive and Social Pediatrics (SIPPS has designed a randomized controlled trial (RCT to evaluate the effectiveness of family pediatricians for the prevention of childhood obesity in preschool children. We report the rationale and protocol of such trial, named the "Mi voglio bene" ("I love myself" study. Methods "Mi voglio bene" is a parallel-arm RCT. Family pediatricians willing to participate to the trial will be randomly assigned to a control group and to an experimental group. The control group will provide the usual standard of care while the experimental group will implement 10 preventive actions (promotion of breastfeeding, avoidance of solid foods, control of protein intake, avoidance of sugar-sweetened beverages, avoidance of bottle, active means of transportation, identification of early adiposity rebound, limitation of television viewing, promotion of movement, and teaching portion size at 10 time points during a 6-yr follow-up. The main outcome measures is the prevalence of overweight and obesity at 6 years of age. The experimental intervention is expected to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity from 25% to 20% and the study requires a total of 3610 children. Each pediatrician will enroll 30 consecutive newborns into the study so that a total of 120 pediatricians will participate to the study. Discussion "Mi voglio bene" is expected to provide important information for the INHS and possibly other institutional child care settings about the effectiveness of a pediatrician-based approach to the prevention of childhood obesity. We published this study protocol with the aim of opening a discussion with all people interested in fighting childhood obesity and to receive useful criticisms.
Haines, Jess; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
In response to the high prevalence of obesity, eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors among youth, researchers in both the obesity and eating disorders fields have proposed using an integrated approach to prevention that addresses the spectrum of weight-related disorders within interventions. The identification of risk factors that areâŠ
Shaibu, Sheila; Holsten, Joanna E.; Stettler, Nicolas; Maruapula, Segametsi D.; Jackson, Jose C.; Malete, Leapetswe; Mokone, George; Wrotniak, Brian H.; Compher, Charlene W.
The study's objectives were to gain school personnel's (1) perceptions on diet, physical activity, body size, and obesity, (2) description of school food and physical activity practices, and (3) recommendations for programs to prevent adolescent obesity. The study took place in six junior secondary schools of varying socioeconomic status in
Davis, Sally M.; Sanders, Sarah G.; FitzGerald, Courtney A.; Keane, Patricia C.; Canaca, Glenda F.; Volker-Rector, Renee
Background: Obesity is a major concern among American Indians and Hispanics. The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) is an evidence-based intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in 16 Head Start (HS) Centers in rural communities. The design and implementation of CHILE are described. Methods: CHILE uses a
Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services (USDA), Washington, DC. Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion.
This report documents the proceedings of a 1998 symposium on the causes and prevention of childhood obesity sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion to focus attention on the growing problem of childhood obesity in the United States and the link between nutrition and health. Following openingâŠ
Davis, Sally M.; Sanders, Sarah G.; FitzGerald, Courtney A.; Keane, Patricia C.; Canaca, Glenda F.; Volker-Rector, Renee
Background: Obesity is a major concern among American Indians and Hispanics. The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) is an evidence-based intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in 16 Head Start (HS) Centers in rural communities. The design and implementation of CHILE are described. Methods: CHILE uses aâŠ
Zhang, Wenping; Fujikawa, Takahiko; Mizuno, Kaito; Ishida, Torao; Ooi, Kazuya; Hirata, Tetsuya; Wada, Atsunori
The cortex of Eucommia ulmoides Oliver is widely used to treat kidney deficiency in traditional Chinese medicine. Its leaves have recently been reported to have anti-obesity properties in metabolic syndrome-like rat models. Due to a sharp decline in estrogen production, obesity, together with osteoporosis, are common problems in postmenopausal women. In this study, we examined the potential effect of Eucommia leaf extract (ELE) in preventing osteoporosis and obesity induced by ovariectomy (OVX). Forty-six female Wistar rats were divided into six groups: Sham-Cont, OVX-Cont, and four OVX groups administered estradiol and different concentrations of ELE 1.25%, ELE 2.5%, and ELE 5%. Treatments were administered after ovariectomy at six weeks of age and continued for 12 weeks. OVX induced a significant decrease in the bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar, femora, and tibiae, together with a marked increase in body mass index (BMI). The administration of 5% ELE led to a significant increase in tibial and femoral BMD, as well as significantly increased bone-strength parameters when compared with OVX-Cont rats. According to the suppressed Dpd and increased osteocalcin concentrations in ELE 5% rats, we suggest that varying proportions of bone formation and bone absorption contributed to the enhanced BMD in the femora and tibiae. In addition, significant decreases in body weight, BMI and fat tissue in 5% ELE rats were also observed. These results suggest that ELE may have curative properties for BMD and BMI in OVX rats, and could provide an alternative therapy for the prevention of both postmenopausal osteoporosis and obesity. PMID:22809028
Introduction: With a rapidly increasing prevalence worldwide in recent decades, obesity has started to be an important public health issue in all developed countries. There are few studies focusing on the relationship of obesity with migraine. We intended to study clinical features of migraine in obes women, frequency of attacks, severity and duration of pain, use of prophylactic drugs for migraine,, use of analgesics in attacks and the effects of migraine on daily lives.Material and Methods:...
Sanborn, Margaret D.; Manske, Stephen R.; Schlegel, Ronald P.
Obesity is a common condition which has important effects on health status and longevity. This review examines the efficacy of treatments for both moderate and severe obesity. A plan of treatment combining diet, exercise, and behavioral strategies is outlined. Surgery and its complications are reviewed. Eight management issues, including rate of weight loss, self-help groups, and fringe therapies, are presented. Management recommendations are based on a critical review of the weight loss lite...
Childhood obesity is a global epidemic. Health video games are an emerging intervention strategy to combat childhood obesity. This systematic review examined published research on the effect of health video games on childhood obesity. Fourteen articles examining 28 health video ames published betwee...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The diets, physical activity and sedentary behavior levels of both children and adults in Australia are suboptimal. The family environment, as the first ecological niche of children, exerts an important influence on the onset of childrenâs habits. Parent modeling is one part of this environment and a logical focus for child obesity prevention initiatives. The focus on parentâs own behaviors provides a potential opportunity to decrease obesity risk behaviors in parents as well. Objective To assess the effect of a parent-focused early childhood obesity prevention intervention on first-time mothersâ diets, physical activity and TV viewing time. Methods The Melbourne InFANT Program is a cluster-randomized controlled trial which involved 542 mothers over their newbornâs first 18âmonths of life. The intervention focused on parenting skills and strategies, including parental modeling, and aimed to promote development of healthy child and parent behaviors from birth, including healthy diet, increased physical activity and reduced TV viewing time. Data regarding mothersâ diet (food frequency questionnaire, physical activity and TV viewing times (self-reported questionnaire were collected using validated tools at both baseline and post-intervention. Four dietary patterns were derived at baseline using principal components analyses including frequencies of 55 food groups. Analysis of covariance was used to measure the impact of the intervention. Results The scores of both the "High-energy snack and processed foods" and the "High-fat foods" dietary patterns decreased more in the intervention group: -0.22 (â0.42;-0.02 and â0.25 (â0.50;-0.01, respectively. No other significant intervention vs. control effects were observed regarding total physical activity, TV viewing time, and the two other dietary patterns, i.e. âFruits and vegetablesâ and âCereals and sweet foodsâ. Conclusions These findings suggest that supporting first-time mothers to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors in their infants impacts maternal dietary intakes positively. Further research needs to assess ways in which we might further enhance those lifestyle behaviors not impacted by the InFANT intervention.
Lu, Amy Shirong; Kharrazi, Hadi; Gharghabi, Fardad; Thompson, Debbe
Childhood obesity is a global epidemic. Health videogames are an emerging intervention strategy to combat childhood obesity. This systematic review examined published research on the effect of health videogames on childhood obesity. Fourteen articles examining 28 health videogames published between 2005 and 2013 in English were selected from 2433 articles identified through five major search engines. Results indicated that academic interest in using health videogames for childhood obesity pre...
Su, Meiling; Huang, Wendong; Zhu, Banghao
Various drugs have been developed to treat obesity, but these have undesirable secondary effects, and an efficient but non-toxic anti-obesity drug from natural sources is desired. This study investigated the anti-obesity effects and mechanisms of action of acetylshikonin (AS)-which is used in traditional Chinese medicine-in rats on a high-fat diet (HFD). Rats were fed a normal diet or an HFD; the latter group was received no treatment or were treated with 100, 300, or 900 mg/kg AS extract by intragastric administration for 6 weeks. In addition, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with AS and the effects on adipogenesis and lipolysis were evaluated by western blot analysis of adipogenic transcription factors and lipid-metabolizing enzyme levels and the phosphorylation status of protein kinase (PK) A and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). AS prevented HFD-induced obesity including reduction in body weight, white adipose tissue content, liver mass, and serum triglyceride and free fatty acid levels in rats. It also suppressed the expression of adipogenic differentiation transcription factors and decreased the expression of the adipocyte-specific proteins HSL and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Furthermore, AS treatment induced lipolysis, leading to the release of glycerol and increased in PKA and HSL phosphorylation. These findings demonstrate that AS has anti-obesity effects in a rat model and may be a safe treatment for obesity in humans. PMID:26771185
Werner, Danilea; Teufel, James; Holtgrave, Peter L.; Brown, Stephen L.
Background: Over the last 3 decades, US obesity rates have increased dramatically as more children and more adults become obese. This study explores an innovative program, Active Generations, an intergenerational nutrition education and activity program implemented in out-of-school environments (after school and summer camps). It utilizes older
Purpose: The aim of this literature review is to summarise and synthesise the research base concerning childhood obesity and physical activity, particularly in relation to teachers and schools and within a policy context of the UK. The review investigates childhood obesity, physical activity, physical education, the role of teachers, the role of
Purpose: The aim of this literature review is to summarise and synthesise the research base concerning childhood obesity and physical activity, particularly in relation to teachers and schools and within a policy context of the UK. The review investigates childhood obesity, physical activity, physical education, the role of teachers, the role ofâŠ
Werner, Danilea; Teufel, James; Holtgrave, Peter L.; Brown, Stephen L.
Background: Over the last 3 decades, US obesity rates have increased dramatically as more children and more adults become obese. This study explores an innovative program, Active Generations, an intergenerational nutrition education and activity program implemented in out-of-school environments (after school and summer camps). It utilizes olderâŠ
Fogelholm, Mikael; Lahti-Koski, Marjaana
Background: Prevention of weight gain is a primary strategy in tackling the obesity epidemic. Objective: This review summarizes results of community interventions for prevention of cardiovascular diseases, with dietary changes and increased physical activity as target behaviours, and change in obesity as one outcome variable. Design: A Medline search was used to identify studies. The focus behaviour was physical activity, but all of the five selected interventions also had dietary changes as ...
Sliwa, Sarah; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Clark, Valerie; Junot, Bridgid; Nahar, Elizabeth; Nelson, Miriam E; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D; Collins, Jessica; Edwards, Ruth; Hyatt, Raymond R
To build on a growing interest in community-based obesity prevention programs, methods are needed for matching intervention strategies to local needs and assets. We used the Community Readiness Model (CRM), a structured interview guide and scoring system, to assess community readiness to act on childhood obesity prevention, furthering a replication study of a successful intervention. Using the CRM protocol, we conducted interviews with 4 stakeholders in each of 10 communities of similar size,...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Europe is high. It is a major cause of the overall rates of many of the main chronic (or non communicable diseases in this region and is characterized by an unequal socio-economic distribution within the population. Obesity is largely determined by modifiable lifestyle behaviours such as low physical activity levels, sedentary behaviour and consumption of energy dense diets. It is increasingly being recognised that effective responses must go beyond interventions that only focus on a specific individual, social or environmental level and instead embrace system-based multi-level intervention approaches that address both the individual and environment. The EU-funded project sustainable prevention of obesity through integrated strategies (SPOTLIGHT aims to increase and combine knowledge on the wide range of determinants of obesity in a systematic way, and to identify multi-level intervention approaches that are strong in terms of Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM. Methods/Design SPOTLIGHT comprises a series of systematic reviews on: individual-level predictors of success in behaviour change obesity interventions; social and physical environmental determinants of obesity; and on the RE-AIM of multi-level interventions. An interactive web-atlas of currently running multi-level interventions will be developed, and enhancing and impeding factors for implementation will be described. At the neighbourhood level, these elements will inform the development of methods to assess obesogenicity of diverse environments, using remote imaging techniques linked to geographic information systems. The validity of these methods will be evaluated using data from surveys of health and lifestyles of adults residing in the neighbourhoods surveyed. At both the micro- and macro-levels (national and international the different physical, economical, political and socio-cultural elements will be assessed. Discussion SPOTLIGHT offers the potential to develop approaches that combine an understanding of the obesogenicity of environments in Europe, and thus how they can be improved, with an appreciation of the individual factors that explain why people respond differently to such environments. Its findings will inform governmental authorities and professionals, academics, NGOs and private sector stakeholders engaged in the development and implementation of policies to tackle the obesity epidemic in Europe.
Ărgaard, Anne; Jensen, Lotte
Over the last decades, the prevalence of obesity and related diseases has increased rapidly in the Western world. Obesity is a disorder of energy balance and is associated with hyper-insulinemia, insulin resistance, and abnormalities in lipid metabolism, and it is one of the most important risk...... factors in the development of Type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, and certain cancers. Because of the lower frequency of these diseases in Asian countries, attention has been turned toward the Asian diet, which consists highly of soy and soy-based products. The health benefits...... daidzein can be obtained in high levels in humans under certain nutritional conditions, and epidemiologic and laboratory data suggest that these compounds could have health benefits in human obesity. This review will focus on the latest results of research on isoflavones and their effect on obesity in cell...
Kang, Min-Cheol; Kang, Nalae; Kim, Seo-Young; Lima, InĂȘs S; Ko, Seok-Chun; Kim, Young-Tae; Kim, Young-Bum; Jeung, Hee-Do; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Jeon, You-Jin
The popular edible seaweed, Gelidium amansii is broadly used as food worldwide. To determine whether G. amansii extract (GAE) has protective effects on obesity, mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) treated with GAE (1 and 3 %) were studied. After 12 weeks of GAE treatment, body weight was greatly decreased in mice fed a high-fat diet. This effect could be due to decreased adipogenesis, as evidenced by the fact that GAE suppressed adipogenic gene expression in adipocytes. In addition, blood glucose and serum insulin levels were reduced by GAE treatment in mice fed a high-fat diet, suggesting improvement in glucose metabolism. GAE supplementation also led to a significant decrease in total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. These data are further confirmed by H&E staining. Our findings indicate that Gelidium amansii prevents against the development of diet-induced obesity, and further implicate that GAE supplementation could be the therapeutical option for treatment of metabolic disorder such as obesity. PMID:26911551
Brahe, Lena Kirchner; Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup
Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers, which are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases are characterized by specific alterations in the human gut microbiota. Experimental studies with gut...... microbiota transplantations in mice and in humans indicate that a specific gut microbiota composition can be the cause and not just the consequence of the obese state and metabolic disease, which suggests a potential for gut microbiota modulation in prevention and treatment of obesity-related metabolic...... diseases. In addition, dietary intervention studies have suggested that modulation of the gut microbiota can improve metabolic risk markers in humans, but a causal role of the gut microbiota in such studies has not yet been established. Here, we review and discuss the role of the gut microbiota in obesity...
Barlow, Sarah E
To revise 1998 recommendations on childhood obesity, an Expert Committee, comprised of representatives from 15 professional organizations, appointed experienced scientists and clinicians to 3 writing groups to review the literature and recommend approaches to prevention, assessment, and treatment. Because effective strategies remain poorly defined, the writing groups used both available evidence and expert opinion to develop the recommendations. Primary care providers should universally assess children for obesity risk to improve early identification of elevated BMI, medical risks, and unhealthy eating and physical activity habits. Providers can provide obesity prevention messages for most children and suggest weight control interventions for those with excess weight. The writing groups also recommend changing office systems so that they support efforts to address the problem. BMI should be calculated and plotted at least annually, and the classification should be integrated with other information such as growth pattern, familial obesity, and medical risks to assess the child's obesity risk. For prevention, the recommendations include both specific eating and physical activity behaviors, which are likely to promote maintenance of healthy weight, but also the use of patient-centered counseling techniques such as motivational interviewing, which helps families identify their own motivation for making change. For assessment, the recommendations include methods to screen for current medical conditions and for future risks, and methods to assess diet and physical activity behaviors. For treatment, the recommendations propose 4 stages of obesity care; the first is brief counseling that can be delivered in a health care office, and subsequent stages require more time and resources. The appropriateness of higher stages is influenced by a patient's age and degree of excess weight. These recommendations recognize the importance of social and environmental change to reduce the obesity epidemic but also identify ways healthcare providers and health care systems can be part of broader efforts. PMID:18055651
Incorporating Primary and Secondary Prevention Approaches To Address Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment in a Low-Income, Ethnically Diverse Population: Study Design and Demographic Data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) Study
Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Nancy F. Butte; Barlow, Sarah; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Sharma, Shreela V.; Huang, Terry; Finkelstein, Eric; Pont, Stephen; Sacher, Paul; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Oluyomi, Abiodun O.; Durand, Casey; Li, Linlin; Kelder, Steven H
Background: There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (TX CORD) project, which addresses child obesity among low-income, ethnically diverse overweight and obese children, ages 2â12 years; a two-tiered systems-oriented approach is...
Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, MonĂšm; Censi, Laura; Breda, JoĂŁo; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina
The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents' obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data.The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have.This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries' needs and priorities.The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries' Health Services for monitoring adolescents' obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles. PMID:27015195
Full Text Available
Background: Due to increasing problems with childhood and adolescent obesity in Austria PRESTO (PrEvention STudy of Obesity created a school based intervention program for promoting a healthy lifestyle in Austrian youth.
Methods: PRESTO was carried out by a multi-disciplinary team including a physician, a psychologist, a nutritionist and an exercise physiologist. The study was carried out in 12 first grade school classes in Austria (2002-2004, mainly in Vienna (N=260. The control group consisted of 231 subjects. Medical examinations were performed and the participantsÂf knowledge on good nutrition and dietary habits were collected. Twelve nutrition sessions, one hour per week in each class, were conducted. Teachers were advised to discuss health issues in their classes and specific exercise physiologists were informed about how to integrate appropriate exercises into their lessons.
Results: In comparison with control group, classes who performed PRESTO showed a significant knowledge of nutrition, consuming less unhealthy foods. These effects could be observed in the short term (14 weeks and at follow up (10 months. 24% subjects could be classified as being overweight (BMI .90.Perc..
Conclusions: School-oriented intervention programs/studies, like PRESTO, are a potential way to demonstrate positive effect on nutrition, physical activity and healthy behaviours in youth, especially if carried out on a long-term basis. Ultimately PRESTO has proven to be a suitable programme to be disseminated onto schools throughout Austria.
Swinburn, Boyd A.
The commercial drivers of the obesity epidemic are so influential that obesity can be considered a robust sign of commercial success â consumers are buying more food, more cars and more energy-saving machines. It is unlikely that these powerful economic forces will change sufficiently in response to consumer desires to eat less and move more or corporate desires to be more socially responsible. When the free market creates substantial population detriments and health inequalities, government ...
Heyborne, Kent D.; Allshouse, Amanda A.; Carey, J. Christopher
OBJECTIVE We sought to determine if maternal weight or body mass index (BMI) modifies the effectiveness of 17-alpha hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OHP-C). STUDY DESIGN We performed a secondary analysis of the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network Trial for the Prevention of Recurrent Preterm Delivery by 17-Alpha Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate. Binomial regression models were estimated to determine the relative risk (RR) of preterm birth (PTB) in women randomized to 17OHP-C vs placebo according to BMI category and maternal weight. Adjusted models considered inclusion of potential confounders. RESULTS In all, 443 women with complete data were included. 17OHP-C is effective in preventing PTB women with prepregnancy BMI women who are obese or have a weight >165 lb. This finding may be due to subtherapeutic serum levels in women with increased BMI or weight. Studies of adjusted-dose 17OHP-C in women who are obese or who weigh >165 lb are warranted, and current recommendations regarding the uniform use of 17OHP-C regardless of maternal BMI and weight may deserve reassessment. PMID:26275354
Ness-Abramof, Rosane; Apovian, Caroline M
The obesity epidemic is best explained by global lifestyle alterations favoring weight gain in a susceptible population. The consumption of calorically dense foods, increased portion sizes, and a decrease in workplace and leisure physical activity most likely accounts for the increase in overweight and obesity worldwide. The cornerstone of overweight and obesity therapy is dietary intervention, but unfortunately most patients eventually regain the weight lost through diet alone. The search for a macronutrient composition that may enhance and help maintain weight loss has brought an abundance of fad diets into the lay literature. According to the available data, weight loss and maintenance of weight loss are dictated by total caloric intake, and not by macronutrient composition. There is epidemiologic data linking sugar-sweetened beverages to adult and childhood obesity, and an inverse relationship between dairy intake and overweight and obesity has also been observed. More research is needed to elucidate mechanisms explaining these relationships. Further research should focus on permanent lifestyle changes that may reverse this growing epidemic. This review will focus on current practices for the dietary management of obesity and to promote weight maintenance. PMID:16622287
Taveras Elsie M; La Pelle Nancy; Sonneville Kendrin R; Gillman Matthew W; Prosser Lisa A
Abstract Background Parents are integral to the implementation of obesity prevention and management recommendations for children. Exploration of barriers to and facilitators of parental decisions to adopt obesity prevention recommendations will inform future efforts to reduce childhood obesity. Methods We conducted 4 focus groups (2 English, 2 Spanish) among a total of 19 parents of overweight (BMI â„ 85th percentile) children aged 5-17 years. The main discussion focused on 7 common obesity pr...
Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; SĂžrensen, Thorkild I A
A new report provides compelling evidence of the high prevalence of overweight and obesity throughout the world. The prevalence has increased since 1980, but at different rates across ages, times and locations. Studies exploring the causes of these differences could aid development of effective...
Karanja, Njeri; Aickin, Mikel; Lutz, Tam; Mist, Scott; JOBE, Jared B.; Maupomé, Gerardo; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl
Eating and physical activity behaviors associated with adult obesity have early antecedents, yet few studies have focused on obesity prevention interventions targeting very young children. Efforts to prevent obesity beginning at birth seem particularly important in populations at risk for early-onset obesity. National estimates indicate that American Indian (AI) children have higher rates of overweight and obesity than children of other races/ethnicities. The Prevention of Toddler Obesity and...
Andrew L. Sussman; Williams, Robert L; Leverence, Robert; Gloyd, Park W.; Crabtree, Benjamin F.
PURPOSE Studies have often shown low rates of preventive counseling in primary care, and interventions aimed at improving counseling rates have had disappointing results. Using obesity as a case study, we looked for factors that influence cliniciansâ decisions to include preventive counseling in the brief primary care encounter.
Compositions and methods for preventing, treating or controlling conditions or disorders associated with obesity, diet, and nutrition are provided. The methods provided generally involve the administration of an amylin or an amylin agonist to a subject in order to prevent, treat or controlling condi...
Bencharunan Samniang; Krekwit Shinlapawittayatorn; Titikorn Chunchai; Wanpitak Pongkan; Sirinart Kumfu; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C.; Bruce H. KenKnight; Nipon Chattipakorn
Long-term high-fat diet (HFD) consumption leads to not only obese-insulin resistance, but also impaired left ventricular (LV) function. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been shown to exert cardioprotection. However, its effects on the heart and metabolic parameters under obese-insulin resistant condition is not known. We determined the effects of VNS on metabolic parameters, heart rate variability (HRV) and LV function in obese-insulin resistant rats. Male Wistar rats were fed with HFD for 1...
Full Text Available Introduction: The future of any nation depends on how its children's care, According to their likely future health needs of the adult population model for healthy living and wealth has increased. One of the most pressing health diet. This study is done to aimed investigate the factors influencing malnutrition in children in the past for weight loss and weight gain can be seen today. Â Methods and Methods: Related articles referring to achieve in the field of databases to Google scholar, Pub Med, proquest, SID, Magiran, Springer Link,âŠ and studies until 2013 with the key words malnutrition, child, obesity and examine their English. Â Results: In the past, malnutrition was associated with weight loss, but for now he has to weight gain and obesity. Childhood obesity is emerging as a phenomenon caused health problems in childhood and adolescence, including hyperlipidemia, obstructive sleep apnea, early puberty, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular. In addition to the health problems of obese children will benefit from the social and psychological problems such as anxiety, fewer friends, loss of confidence, lower education, and fewer chances for marriage.... Overweight in children can be caused by poor eating habits and low activity, which is affected by the parents and the family environment. Â Conclusions: Since the patterns learned in childhood affect all life on lifestyle, understand the causes of obesity and to eliminate or reduce them and reinforce the correct patterns of feeding Through education and the incidence is somewhat reduced, especially for parents to deal with this phenomenon. Â Keywords: Child,Malnutrition, Obesity Â Â
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention is considered effective in combating the obesity epidemic. Prenatal environment may increase offspring's risk for obesity. A child starts to adopt food preferences and other behavioral habits affecting weight gain during preschool years. We report the study protocol of a pragmatic lifestyle intervention aiming at primary prevention of childhood obesity. Methods/Design A non-randomized controlled pragmatic trial in maternity and child health care clinics. The control group was recruited among families who visited the same clinics one year earlier. Eligibility criteria was mother at risk for gestational diabetes: body mass indexââ„â25âkg/m2, macrosomic newborn in any previous pregnancy, immediate family history of diabetes and/or ageââ„â40âyears. All maternity clinics in town involved in recruitment. The gestational intervention consisted of individual counseling on diet and physical activity by a public health nurse, and of two group counseling sessions. Intervention continues until offspringâs age of five years. An option to participate a group counseling at childâs age 1 to 2âyears was offered. The intervention includes advice on healthy diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleeping pattern. The main outcome measure is offspring BMI z-score and its changes by the age of six years. Discussion Early childhood is a critical time period for prevention of obesity. Pragmatic trials targeting this period are necessary in order to find effective obesity prevention programs feasible in normal health care practice. Trial registration Clinical Trials gov NCT00970710
Rosiek, Anna; Maciejewska, Natalia FrÄ ckowiak; Leksowski, Krzysztof; Rosiek-Kryszewska, Aleksandra; Leksowski, Ćukasz
The epidemic nature of obesity in industrialized countries is a serious health and social concern. The number of obese people has significantly increased in the past 20 years. In Poland excess weight and obesity are a serious epidemiological concern. In terms of the number of overweight people, Poland is a leader in Europe. Therefore, indicating many serious health concerns that are the natural consequences of this phenomenon has become important from the point of view of public health. This work identifies numerous diseases which are a direct consequence of obesity due to bad eating habits and lack of physical exercise among Poles. It discusses the negative effect of television and food commercials contributing to an increase in obesity, not only among adults but also among children. This is an overview forming grounds for further studies into ways of preventing the development of diseases due to obesity, both in Poland and in the world. PMID:26274965
Full Text Available The epidemic nature of obesity in industrialized countries is a serious health and social concern. The number of obese people has significantly increased in the past 20 years. In Poland excess weight and obesity are a serious epidemiological concern. In terms of the number of overweight people, Poland is a leader in Europe. Therefore, indicating many serious health concerns that are the natural consequences of this phenomenon has become important from the point of view of public health. This work identifies numerous diseases which are a direct consequence of obesity due to bad eating habits and lack of physical exercise among Poles. It discusses the negative effect of television and food commercials contributing to an increase in obesity, not only among adults but also among children. This is an overview forming grounds for further studies into ways of preventing the development of diseases due to obesity, both in Poland and in the world.
Fabiane Dias da Rosa dos Santos
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to know how nurses and teachers contribute to prevent and combat childhood obesity. It is a qualitative study, conducted in 2012, with data collected through interviews with three nurses from a basic health unit and eight teachers from a public school in southern Brazil. Thematic analysis pointed out as factors that contribute to childhood obesity eating unhealthy foods and the familiesâ food culture. As actions of prevention and combat there is the promotion of breast feeding, the motherâs educational process and the use of recreational activities that promote childrenâs learning about obesity. It was concluded that joint and systematic actions among nurses and teachers are important to fight childhood obesity.
Ma, Li-Jun; Mao, Su-Li; Taylor, Kevin L; Kanjanabuch, Talerngsak; Guan, YouFei; Zhang, YaHua; Brown, Nancy J; Swift, Larry L; McGuinness, Owen P; Wasserman, David H; Vaughan, Douglas E; Fogo, Agnes B
Increased plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) has been linked to not only thrombosis and fibrosis but also to obesity and insulin resistance. Increased PAI-1 levels have been presumed to be consequent to obesity. We investigated the interrelationships of PAI-1, obesity, and insulin resistance in a high-fat/high-carbohydrate (HF) diet-induced obesity model in wild-type (WT) and PAI-1-deficient mice (PAI-1(-/-)). Obesity and insulin resistance developing in WT mice on an HF diet were completely prevented in mice lacking PAI-1. PAI-1(-/-) mice on an HF diet had increased resting metabolic rates and total energy expenditure compared with WT mice, along with a marked increase in uncoupling protein 3 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle, likely mechanisms contributing to the prevention of obesity. In addition, insulin sensitivity was enhanced significantly in PAI-1(-/-) mice on an HF diet, as shown by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp studies. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma and adiponectin mRNA, key control molecules in lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity, were maintained in response to an HF diet in white adipose tissue in PAI-1(-/-) mice, contrasting with downregulation in WT mice. This maintenance of PPAR-gamma and adiponectin may also contribute to the observed maintenance of body weight and insulin sensitivity in PAI-1(-/-) mice. Treatment in WT mice on an HF diet with the angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist to downregulate PAI-1 indeed inhibited PAI-1 increases and ameliorated diet-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia. PAI-1 deficiency also enhanced basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipose cells in vitro. Our data suggest that PAI-1 may not merely increase in response to obesity and insulin resistance, but may have a direct causal role in obesity and insulin resistance. Inhibition of PAI-1 might provide a novel anti-obesity and anti-insulin resistance treatment. PMID:14747283
Lobstein, Tim; Brinsden, Hannah
This paper is written as a briefing document with the aim of providing support to policy-makers and government officials tackling obesity and related non-communicable diseases. It is based on a symposium Obesity and non-communicable diseases: Learning from international experiences convened by the International Association for the Study of Obesity (now the World Obesity Federation) and its policy section, the International Obesity TaskForce (now World Obesity - Policy and Prevention). The symposium discussed a wide range of proposals to tackle the consumption of unhealthy food products, including interventions in the market through fiscal policies and marketing restrictions, measures to strengthen public health legislation and measures to limit agri-food company lobbying activities. It recognized the need for government leadership and action in order to reduce preventable deaths while improving economic performance and identified a need for governments to take a systems wide approach to tackling obesity and to work with civil society, especially to monitor the drivers of disease and to hold all stakeholders accountable for progress. PMID:24888259
This article explores the growing problem of childhood obesity and suggests guidelines for professionals to recommend to parents. Research has shown that an overweight child at 3 years is nearly eight times as likely to become an overweight young adult as is a typically developing 3-year-old. More of America's children are becoming overweight, andâŠ
Louisa Ming Yan Chung; Joanne Wai Yee Chung
Purpose: To investigate the effect of nutrition education and the engagement of students, parents and teachers in addressing school-specific environmental influences in eating problem. Design: This study adopted the action research process of diagnosing, action planning, taking action, evaluating, and specifying learning. Each of obese and non-obese male and female students was randomly selected based on physical screening based on obesity criteria. Dietary intake records were taken over seve...
Climent, Belen; Simonsen, Ulf; Rivera, Luis
This review is focused on the effects of obesity on function and expression of potassium (K) channels in the vasculature. Five families of K channels have been identified in the vascular wall, calcium-activated K (KCa) channels, inward-rectifier K (KIR) channels, ATP-sensitive K (KATP) channels, voltage-gated K (KV) channels and two-pore domain K (K2P) channels. In endothelial cells (EC) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) opening of K channels leads to hyperpolarisation followed by vasodilatation. In some vascular beds of animal models of obesity, vasodilatation mediated by KCa3.1 and KCa2.3 channels has been reported to remain unaltered or even increased, whereas vasodilatation involving KCa1.1 channel has consistently been reported to be impaired. Changes in expression and function of KIR and KATP channels have also been associated with impaired vasodilatation in animal models of obesity, and therefore activation of these channels may improve endothelial function and reduce the risk of major cardiovascular events. Expression of KV7.x channels is downregulated in small arteries from hypertensive animals and it would be interesting to assess whether these channels contribute to development of hypertension in obese patients. However, the role of KV7.x and K2P channels in regulation of blood pressure remains unexplored compared to other K channels. In conclusion, obesity and metabolic syndrome alter expression, function and sensitivity of vascular K channel subtypes causing smooth muscle dysfunction and probably endothelial dysfunction which makes these patients particularly prone to premature cardiovascular disease. Modulation of K channel activity by use of openers of e.g. KCa and KATP channels may also be attractive to counteract vascular dysfunction observed in obesity. PMID:24846233
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to identify the effects of obesity on falls as a practical verification of the importance of obesity-targeting interventions as part of future fall prevention programs. [Subjects and Methods] The study involved 351 elderly people (172 men, 179 women) living in rural areas. The dependent variable, fall efficacy, was measured using the Falls Efficacy Scale, while the independent variables, body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat, were measured using the InBody 720. The Faces Pain Scale was used to measure pain. Mobility was measured using the Timed Up and Go Test, and balance ability was measured according to the duration subjects could stand on one foot with their eyes closed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed for the final data analysis. [Results] Investigation of the correlations between the variables revealed a negative correlation between fall efficacy and the other variables. Ultimatley, investigation of the causality of fall efficacy revealed that the BMI, pain, and mobility were influential factors. In other words, fall efficacy tends to be lower when there are higher degrees of obesity, increased pain, and decreased mobility. [Conclusion] To improve the fall efficacy of elderly people living in rural areas, pain management and the maintenance of physical functionality are required. The present study confirms that the elderly need continuous obesity management to lead healthy lives. PMID:24396217
Doak, C; Heitmann, B L; Summerbell, C; Lissner, L
Two reviews, one by Summerbell et al. and the other by Doak et al. came to very different conclusions about the effectiveness of childhood obesity interventions. The aim of this commentary is to assess the extent to which inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the definition of effective outcomes......, explain discrepant results. Differences in results were compared by inclusion criteria and outcome definitions. The most important summary recommendations for inclusion/exclusion criteria were to exclude all non-peer review articles, to maintain a 6-month lower limit for duration of study, to include...... and applying agreed exclusion criteria leaves 30 interventions; 50% are positive. Excluding studies without an aim specific to preventing weight gain leaves 10/24 (42%) positive interventions. The differences in the results of these two reviews relate to the inclusion criteria and outcome assessments...
Full Text Available With the many recent advances in the biomedical world, vast changes are taking place in our growing knowledge of the physiological aspects of almost all the tissues and organs of the human body. One of the most prevalent topics of discussion is the question of obesity and its effect on the metabolic changes in the human body. The original classical role of adipose tissue as an energy storage organ has been greatly modified. We now know that it is an endocrine organ, producing adipokines like leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, resistin, apelin, etc, which modulate metabolic processes in the body. Since obesity is associated with an increase in the adipose tissue mass, these hormones may be expected to be produced in increased concentrations and may thus have a significant impact on the macronutrient metabolism. Further, these adipokines may interact with long term energy modulators like insulin. Even though the scientific community has started unravelling the mysteries of the close linkage between obesity, its hormones and their physiological effects, a lot still remains to be discovered. The present discussion makes an attempt to trace the basic modern day concepts of the role of obesity in various metabolic processes.
González-Gross, Marcela; Meléndez, Agustín
The benefits of regular physical activity have been known since ancient Greek. But in the last Century the scientific knowledge around this topic has progressed enormously, starting with the early studies of JN Morris and RS Paffenberger, who demonstrated that physical activity at work reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease and mortality. In the Harvard alumni study, the lowest risk was associated with a weekly output of 1000 to 2000 kcal performing vigorous activities. Further studies in all age groups have supported these findings and have added that even moderate levels of physical activity provide considerable benefits to health, including lower prevalence of overweight and obesity at all ages. Metabolic fat oxidation rate is highest at exercise intensities between 45 and 65% of VO2max. This means that people must be active regularly and force physiological mechanisms at certain intensities. All this body of evidence has contributed to current WHO physical activity recommendations of 150 min/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in adults and elderly, and 60 min/day of MVPA in children and adolescents, with additional strength training, apart from adopting an active lifestyle. In the last 50 years, occupational physical activity has been reduced for about 120 kcal/day, and sedentarism has emerged as an additional risk factor to physical inactivity. Even if less than 60 min of TV time in adults have been related to lower average BMI, there is still a need for research to determine the appropriate dose of exercise in combination with sedentary behaviours and other activities in the context of our modern lifestyle in order to prevent obesity at all ages. As public health measures have failed to stop the obesity epidemic in the last 3 decades, there is clearly a need to change the paradigm. The inclusion of sport scientists, physical education teachers and other professionals in the multidisciplinary team which should be responsible for drawing the road map to prevent the increase of the obesity epidemic effectively is a "must" from our point of view. PMID:24010748
Loss, J; Leitzmann, M
This article aims to provide a structured review of how to create settings and environments that prevent the development of childhood overweight and obesity. It also describes which institutions and levels are responsible for environmental (global) approaches in obesity prevention and which evidence exists in terms of process and outcomes of different preventive measures. Environmental approaches in disease prevention deal with social and technical-material conditions of daily living, as those conditions significantly influence health behavior. Strategies that focus on the obesogenic environment are considered increasingly important in the prevention of obesity in children and adolescents. They can be applied at different levels (e.g., schools, communities). These interventions should aim to improve the availability of healthy foods and physical activity facilities, e.g., by provision of healthy meals and foods in schools, restaurants, and stores and by price reductions of healthy foods. Physical activity can be supported by creating attractive green spaces and playgrounds in schools and cities, improving sidewalk networks and a supportive pedestrian environment, and implementing walk-to-school projects. On a national level, policies and legislation can support changes in the social and situational environments, e.g., relating to catering in schools or TV advertisement. The practice of environmental approaches is complex, because many stakeholders from different sectors have to be involved. This may account for the observation that environmental approaches are currently underrepresented in obesity prevention. PMID:21347760
Brug Johannes; Singh Amika S; Chin A Paw Marijke JM; van Mechelen Willem
Abstract Objectives This paper aims to identify the mediating mechanisms of a school-based obesity prevention program (DOiT). Methods The DOiT-program was implemented in Dutch prevocational secondary schools and evaluated using a controlled, cluster-randomised trial (September 2003 to May 2004). We examined mediators of effects regarding (1) consumption of sugar containing beverages (SCB); (2) consumption of high caloric snacks; (3) screen-viewing behaviour; and (4) active commuting to school...
Our purpose was to test whether interventions based on theory, multiple theories, or a formal planning process were more effective in changing fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption among children than interventions with no behavioral theoretical foundation or no formal planning. The authors conducted...
Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Laws, Rachel; Russell, Catherine Georgina; Ong, Kok-leong; Taki, Sarah; Elliot, Roz; Azadi, Leva; Lymer, Sharyn; Taylor, Rachael; Lynch, John; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie; Askew, Deborah; Litterbach, Eloise Kate; J Campbell, Karen
Introduction Early childhood is an important period for establishing behaviours that will affect weight gain and health across the life course. Early feeding choices, including breast and/or formula, timing of introduction of solids, physical activity and electronic media use among infants and young children are considered likely determinants of childhood obesity. Parents play a primary role in shaping these behaviours through parental modelling, feeding styles, and the food and physical acti...
Magnusson, Maria B.; SjĂ¶berg, Agneta; Kjellgren, Karin I; Lissner, Lauren
Objective To assess recent trends in obesity, health beliefs, and lifestyles in Swedish schoolchildren, with focus on socioeconomic disparities. Method The study was conducted in two areas with high and low socioeconomic status (SES). 340 11â12 year olds participated in three cross-sectional surveys assessing food-related behaviours, physical activity and health beliefs, together with anthropometric examinations. Comparisons were made before and after a community-based intervention (2003 vers...
This 60 second Public Service Announcement (PSA) is based on the August, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Childhood obesity is an epidemic in the US. Breastfeeding can help prevent obesity, but one in three moms stop without hospital support. About 95% of hospitals lack policies that fully support breastfeeding moms. Hospitals need to do more to help moms start and continue breastfeeding.Â Â Created: 8/2/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).Â Â Date Released: 8/2/2011.
There is consensus that development and evaluation of a systems-oriented approach for child obesity prevention and treatment that includes both primary and secondary prevention efforts is needed. This article describes the study design and baseline data from the Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demo...
Johnson, Sharon Kay Harris
Childhood obesity is a prevalent subject of research currently, and many researchers have studied the effectiveness of school programs in battling obesity among students. This case study, utilizing ethnographic tools of observation, interviews, and investigation of artifacts, examines educators' perceptions of the role of the school in theâŠ
Johnson, Sharon Kay Harris
Childhood obesity is a prevalent subject of research currently, and many researchers have studied the effectiveness of school programs in battling obesity among students. This case study, utilizing ethnographic tools of observation, interviews, and investigation of artifacts, examines educators' perceptions of the role of the school in the
Kienzle, E; Fritz, J
Nutrition-induced laminitis is often caused by i) fermentation of large amounts of carbohydrates in the hindgut (usually fructans from grass or starch from cereals), which cause the release and absorption of microbial toxins and ii) insulin resistance induced by being overweight (equine metabolic syndrome). Both causes can act together. Overweight horses with a history of laminitis need to reduce body weight to prevent further incidences of laminitis. Weight reduction occurs normally on a diet of late-cut hay, a hay-straw mixture (maximally one third straw to prevent constipation) or grass seed straw all at 1-1.2% of ideal body weight. However, this roughage allowance does not satisfy the need of horses to chew, for which it requires at least 1.5% of ideal body weight. This may lead to behavioural issues, such as allophagia and aggression, and in extreme cases, stereotypic behaviour. Starch concentrates should not be replaced with high fat concentrates. Used saw dust is recommended for bedding. The intake of grass from a pasture has to be considerably and efficiently reduced. If the horse is extremely prone to laminitis or if stable management is unreliable, abstention from grazing is recommended. Any supplements need to be low in energy, and should supply minerals and vitamins which are deficient in the diet. Some additional protein or amino acids may be beneficial. Regular exercise, such as a daily 30-minute speedy trot, improves insulin sensitivity. Exercise increases energy expenditure to a certain extent, allowing a slight increase in the roughage supply, thus alleviating the conflict between energy reduction and fulfilling the need to chew. Weight loss should be 0.5-1% of body weight per week, while at a higher rate there is a potential risk of hyperlipemia. The effectiveness of the reducing diet should be monitored regularly, either by weighing or measuring body, neck or girth circumference (aiming for a reduction of 1-2 cm per week). PMID:23959622
van Nassau, Femke; Singh, Amika S.; van Mechelen, Willem; Paulussen, Theo GWM; Brug, Johannes; ChinAPaw, Mai JM
Background The evidence-based Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program is a school-based obesity prevention program for 12 to 14-year olds attending the first two years of prevocational education. This paper describes the study protocol applied to evaluate (a) the nationwide dissemination process of DOiT in the Netherlands, and (b) the relationship between quality of implementation and effectiveness during nationwide dissemination of the program in the Netherlands. Methods In or...
Zhang, Yanan; Song, Chengwei; Li, Haiou; Hou, Jingdong; Li, Dongliang
Obesity is a risk factor for several pain syndromes and is associated with increased pain sensitivity. Evidence suggests that obesity causes the downregulation of peroxisome proliferatorâactivated receptor (PPAR)Î± in the spinal cord, contributing to augmented peripheral edema and inflammatory hyperalgesia. Ursolic acid (UA), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid, has been shown to upregulate PPARÎ± in the peripheral tissues of obese animals. The present study hypothesized that UA prevents augmented peripheral inflammation and inflammatory hyperalgesia in obesity by restoring downregulated spinal PPARÎ±. The present study demonstrated that SpragueâDawley rats fed a highâfat diet (HFD) for 12Â weeks developed obesity and metabolic disorder. Following carrageenan injection, the HFD rats exhibited increased thermal hyperalgesia and paw edema, compared with the rats fed a lowâfat diet. Molecular investigations revealed that the HFD rats exhibited decreased PPARÎ± activity, and exaggerated expression of inflammatory mediators and nuclear factorâkB activity in the spinal cord in response to carrageenan. Oral administration of UA ameliorated obesity and metabolic disorder, and prevented increased thermal hyperalgesia and paw edema in the HFD rats. Additionally, UA normalized PPARÎ± activity and inhibited the exaggerated spinal cord inflammatory response to carrageenan. Although the knockdown of spinal PPARÎ± with small interferingÂ RNA following the administration of UA did not alter obesity or metabolic parameters, it eradicated the beneficial effects of UA on thermal hyperalgesia and paw edema, and reversed the spinal cord inflammatory response. These results suggested that the systemic administration of UA inhibited the exaggerated spinal cord inflammatory response to peripheral inflammatory stimulation in HFDâinduced obesity by restoring downregulated spinal PPARÎ±, preventing peripheral inflammation and inflammatory hyperalgesia. UA may be a potential therapeutic option for the prevention of increased inflammatory pain in obese patients. PMID:27108888
Odoms-Young, Angela; Singleton, Chelsea R; Springfield, Sparkle; McNabb, Leilah; Thompson, Terry
Increasing attention has been given to the role of retail food environments in shaping dietary behavior and obesity risk. Studies have generally shown an association between living in a neighborhood with or in close proximity to certain types of food outlets and/or the availability of healthy food options and better dietary quality, higher fruit/vegetable intakes, and a lower risk of overweight, even after controlling for individual/family level characteristics. However, research in this area has yielded mixed results, overall. Future research needs to identify consistent approaches for defining and measuring food retail environments. PMID:27099166
Sneha Sameer Ganu
Full Text Available Background: Excessive increases in weight bearing forces caused by obesity may negatively affect the lower limbs and feet but minimal research has examined the long-term loading effects of obesity on the musculoskeletal system, particularly in reference to the feet. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of obesity on medial longitudinal arch of foot in young adults. Method: 60 subjects, 30 obese & 30 non obese were assessed for height & weight using standard technique. Radiographic images under static condition were used for calculating the arch index. Result: The arch index of obese subjects was significantly lower than the non obese subjects & there is a negative correlation between the BMI & the arch index. Conclusion: These results suggests that obesity lowers the medial longitudinal arch of foot.
Griffin, Tania L; Clarke, Joanne L; Lancashire, Emma R; Pallan, Miranda J; Passmore, Sandra; Adab, Peymane
Objective: There has been a wealth of childhood obesity prevention studies in school-based settings. However, few have investigated the experiences of school staff charged with delivery of such programmes. This study aimed to elicit teachers' experiences of delivering a childhood obesity prevention programme for children aged 6-7 years. Design:âŠ
Luis Gustavo Celis
Obesity is one of the most important pandemics of the XXIst century, featured by the unbalanced control between food intake and energy consumption. Manifestations of interest involving this pathology include the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory factors such as TNF-Î± and IL-6 that contribute in the development of insulin resistance and type II diabetes. The purpose of our research is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of Resveratrol in the differentiation of pre...
Karanja, Njeri; Aickin, Mikel; Lutz, Tam; Mist, Scott; Jobe, Jared B.; Maupome, Gerardo; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl
Eating and physical activity behaviors associated with adult obesity have early antecedents, yet few studies have focused on obesity prevention interventions targeting very young children. Efforts to prevent obesity beginning at birth seem particularly important in populations at risk for early-onset obesity. National estimates indicate that
Spivack, Jordan G; Swietlik, Maggie; Alessandrini, Evaline; Faith, Myles S
This study evaluated primary care providers' (PCPs, pediatricians, and nurse practitioners) knowledge, current practices, and perceived barriers to childhood obesity prevention and treatment, with an emphasis on first-year well-child care visits. A questionnaire was distributed to 192 PCPs in the primary care network at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) addressing (i) knowledge of obesity and American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines, (ii) anticipatory guidance practices at well visits regarding nutrition and exercise, and (iii) perceived barriers to childhood obesity treatment and prevention. Eighty pediatricians and seven nurse practitioners responded, and a minority correctly identified the definition (26%) and prevalence (9%) of childhood overweight and AAP guidelines for exercise (39%) and juice consumption (44%). Most PCPs (81%) spent 11-20 min per well visit during the first 2 years, and 79% discussed diet, nutrition, and exercise for > or =3 min. Although >95% of PCPs discussed juice, fruits and vegetables, sippy cups, and finger foods during the first year, over 35% never discussed fast food, TV, or candy, and 55% never discussed exercise. Few rated current resources as adequate to treat or prevent childhood obesity. Over 90% rated the following barriers for obesity prevention and treatment as important or very important: parent is not motivated, child is not motivated, parents are overweight, families often have fast food, watch too much TV, and do not get enough exercise. In conclusion, there is much room to improve PCPs' knowledge of obesity and AAP guidelines. Although PCPs rate fast-food consumption, TV viewing, and lack of exercise as important treatment barriers, many never discussed these topics during the first year. PMID:19910934
The recent report by Barnhill and King about obesity prevention policy raises important issues for discussion and analysis. In response, this article raises four points for further consideration. First, a distinction between equality and justice needs to be made and consistently maintained. Second, different theories of justice highlight one additional important source of disagreement about the ethical propriety of the proposed obesity prevention policies. Third, another point of contention a...
This rule adopts the interim rule implementing the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) nutrition education and obesity prevention grant program with changes as provided in this rule. This rule also amends SNAP regulations to implement section 28 of the Food and Nutrition Act (FNA) of 2008, as added by section 241 of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act (HHFKA) of 2010, to award grants to States for provision of nutrition education and obesity prevention programs. These programs provide services for eligible individuals that promote healthy food choices consistent with the current Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs). The rule provides State agencies with requirements for implementing section 28, including the grant award process and describes the process for allocating the Federal grant funding for each State's approved SNAP-Ed plan authorized under the FNA to carry out nutrition education and obesity prevention services each fiscal year. This final rule also implements section 4028 of the Agricultural Act of 2014 (Farm Bill of 2014), which authorizes physical activity promotion in addition to promotion of healthy food choices as part of this nutrition education and obesity prevention program. PMID:27039409
Bonde, Ane HĂžstgaard; Bentsen, Peter; Hindhede, Anette Lykke
Motivational interviewing is a counseling method used to bring about behavior change; its application by school nurses for preventing obesity in children is still new. This study, based on in-depth interviews with 12 school nurses, shows how school nurses adapted motivational interviewing and integrated it into their daily practice along withâŠ
Mauriello, Leanne M.; Driskell, Mary Margaret H.; Sherman, Karen J.; Johnson, Sara S.; Prochaska, Janice M.; Prochaska, James O.
This article describes the development and pilot testing of a computer-based, multiple-behavior obesity prevention program for adolescents. Using the Transtheoretical Model as a framework, this intervention offers individualized feedback based on readiness to engage in physical activity, to consume fruits and vegetables, and to limit televisionâŠ
Elena A. Spieker
Full Text Available Obesity impacts the U.S. military by affecting the health and readiness of active duty service members and their families. Preventing Obesity in Military Communities (POMC is a comprehensive research program within Patient Centered Medical Homes (PCMHs in three Military Training Facilities. This paper describes three pilot randomized controlled trials that target critical high risk periods for unhealthy weight gain from birth to young adulthood: (1 pregnancy and early infancy (POMC-Mother-Baby, (2 adolescence (POMC-Adolescent, and (3 the first tour of duty after boot camp (POMC-Early Career. Each study employs a two-group randomized treatment or prevention program with follow up. POMC offers a unique opportunity to bring together research and clinical expertise in obesity prevention to develop state-of-the-art programs within PCMHs in Military Training Facilities. This research builds on existing infrastructure that is expected to have immediate clinical benefits to DoD and far-reaching potential for ongoing collaborative work. POMC may offer an economical approach for widespread obesity prevention, from conception to young adulthood, in the U.S. military as well as in civilian communities.
Quelly, Susan B.
Comprehensive childhood obesity prevention (COP) strategies should include increasing school nurse involvement. This study was conducted to determine the influence of key school nurse perceptions (self-efficacy, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers) on participation in COP practices at the individual child and school level. FloridaâŠ
Bonde, Ane Hűstgaard; Bentsen, Peter; Hindhede, Anette Lykke
Motivational interviewing is a counseling method used to bring about behavior change; its application by school nurses for preventing obesity in children is still new. This study, based on in-depth interviews with 12 school nurses, shows how school nurses adapted motivational interviewing and integrated it into their daily practice along with
Quelly, Susan B.
Comprehensive childhood obesity prevention (COP) strategies should include increasing school nurse involvement. This study was conducted to determine the influence of key school nurse perceptions (self-efficacy, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers) on participation in COP practices at the individual child and school level. Florida
Zhou, Yu-hao; Ma, Xiu-Qiang; Wu, Cheng; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Shan-Shan; Guo, Jia; WU, SHUN-QUAN; YE, XIAO-FEI; Xu, Jin-Fang; He, Jia
Background Anti-obesity drugs are widely used to prevent the complications of obesity, however, the effects of anti-obesity drugs on cardiovascular risk factors are unclear at the present time. We carried out a comprehensively systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effects of anti-obesity drugs on cardiovascular risk factors. Methodology and Principal Findings We systematically searched Medline, EmBase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, reference lists of articles...
BACKGROUND: Obese individuals who smoke have a 14 year reduction in life expectancy. Both obesity and smoking are independently associated with increased risk of malignancy. Natural killer cells (NK) are critical mediators of anti-tumour immunity and are compromised in obese patients and smokers. We examined whether NK cell function was differentially affected by cigarette smoke in obese and lean subjects. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clinical data and blood were collected from 40 severely obese subjects (BMI>40 kg\\/m(2)) and 20 lean healthy subjects. NK cell levels and function were assessed using flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assays. The effect of cigarette smoke on NK cell ability to kill K562 tumour cells was assessed in the presence or absence of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin. NK cell levels were significantly decreased in obese subjects compared to lean controls (7.6 vs 16.6%, p = 0.0008). NK function was also significantly compromised in obese patients (30% +\\/- 13% vs 42% +\\/-12%, p = 0.04). Cigarette smoke inhibited NK cell ability to kill tumour cell lines (p<0.0001). NK cells from obese subjects were even more susceptible to the inhibitory effects of smoke compared to lean subjects (33% vs 28%, p = 0.01). Cigarette smoke prevented NK cell activation, as well as perforin and interferon-gamma secretion upon tumour challenge. Adiponectin but not leptin partially reversed the effects of smoke on NK cell function in both obese (p = 0.002) and lean controls (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS\\/SIGNIFICANCE: Obese subjects have impaired NK cell activity that is more susceptible to the detrimental effects of cigarette smoke compared to lean subjects. This may play a role in the increase of cancer and infection seen in this population. Adiponectin is capable of restoring NK cell activity and may have therapeutic potential for immunity in obese subjects and smokers.
BACKGROUND: Obese individuals who smoke have a 14 year reduction in life expectancy. Both obesity and smoking are independently associated with increased risk of malignancy. Natural killer cells (NK) are critical mediators of anti-tumour immunity and are compromised in obese patients and smokers. We examined whether NK cell function was differentially affected by cigarette smoke in obese and lean subjects. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clinical data and blood were collected from 40 severely obese subjects (BMI>40 kg\\/m(2)) and 20 lean healthy subjects. NK cell levels and function were assessed using flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assays. The effect of cigarette smoke on NK cell ability to kill K562 tumour cells was assessed in the presence or absence of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin. NK cell levels were significantly decreased in obese subjects compared to lean controls (7.6 vs 16.6%, p = 0.0008). NK function was also significantly compromised in obese patients (30% +\\/- 13% vs 42% +\\/-12%, p = 0.04). Cigarette smoke inhibited NK cell ability to kill tumour cell lines (p<0.0001). NK cells from obese subjects were even more susceptible to the inhibitory effects of smoke compared to lean subjects (33% vs 28%, p = 0.01). Cigarette smoke prevented NK cell activation, as well as perforin and interferon-gamma secretion upon tumour challenge. Adiponectin but not leptin partially reversed the effects of smoke on NK cell function in both obese (p = 0.002) and lean controls (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS\\/SIGNIFICANCE: Obese subjects have impaired NK cell activity that is more susceptible to the detrimental effects of cigarette smoke compared to lean subjects. This may play a role in the increase of cancer and infection seen in this population. Adiponectin is capable of restoring NK cell activity and may have therapeutic potential for immunity in obese subjects and smokers.
Full Text Available Abstract Background New Zealand rates of obesity and overweight have increased since the 1980s, particularly among indigenous M?ori people, Pacific people and those living in areas of high deprivation. New Zealand's response to the obesity epidemic has been The Healthy Eating-Healthy Action: Oranga Kai - Oranga Pumau (HEHA Strategy ('the Strategy', launched in 2003. Because the HEHA Strategy explicitly recognises the importance of evaluation and the need to create an evidence base to support future initiatives, the Ministry of Health has commissioned a Consortium of researchers to evaluate the Strategy as a whole. Methods This paper discusses the Consortium's approach to evaluating the HEHA Strategy. It includes an outline of the conceptual framework underpinning the evaluation, and describes the critical components of the evaluation which are: judging to what extent stakeholders were engaged in the process of the strategy implementation and to what extent their feedback was incorporated in to future iterations of the Strategy (continuous improvement, to what extent the programmes, policies, and initiatives implemented span the target populations and priority areas, whether there have been any population changes in nutrition and/or physical activity outcomes or behaviours relating to those outcomes, and to what extent HEHA Strategy and spending can be considered value for money. Discussion This paper outlines our approach to evaluating a complex national health promotion strategy. Not only does the Evaluation have the potential to identify interventions that could be adopted internationally, but also the development of the Evaluation design can inform other complex evaluations.
Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Laws, Rachel; Russell, Catherine Georgina; Ong, Kok-leong; Taki, Sarah; Elliot, Roz; Azadi, Leva; Lymer, Sharyn; Taylor, Rachael; Lynch, John; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie; Askew, Deborah; Litterbach, Eloise Kate; J Campbell, Karen
Introduction Early childhood is an important period for establishing behaviours that will affect weight gain and health across the life course. Early feeding choices, including breast and/or formula, timing of introduction of solids, physical activity and electronic media use among infants and young children are considered likely determinants of childhood obesity. Parents play a primary role in shaping these behaviours through parental modelling, feeding styles, and the food and physical activity environments provided. Children from low socio-economic backgrounds have higher rates of obesity, making early intervention particularly important. However, such families are often more difficult to reach and may be less likely to participate in traditional programs that support healthy behaviours. Parents across all socio-demographic groups frequently access primary health care (PHC) services, including nurses in community health services and general medical practices, providing unparalleled opportunity for engagement to influence family behaviours. One emerging and promising area that might maximise engagement at a low cost is the provision of support for healthy parenting through electronic media such as the Internet or smart phones. The Growing healthy study explores the feasibility of delivering such support via primary health care services. Methods This paper describes the Growing healthy study, a non-randomised quasi experimental study examining the feasibility of an intervention delivered via a smartphone app (or website) for parents living in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas, for promoting infant feeding and parenting behaviours that promote healthy rather than excessive weight gain. Participants will be recruited via their primary health care practitioner and followed until their infant is 9â months old. Data will be collected via web-based questionnaires and the data collected inherently by the app itself. Ethics and dissemination This study received approval from the University of Technology Sydney Ethics committee and will be disseminated via peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. PMID:26621519
Vandiver, Jeremy W; Ritz, Leticia I; Lalama, Jeffrey T
Pharmacologic prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is an important aspect of medical care, particularly in the inpatient setting. Low-molecular weight heparins, heparin, and fondaparinux are commonly used agents to prevent VTE, each of which has well established dosing regimens in patients with normal body mass index. Dosing of these medications in morbidly obese populations (BMIÂ >Â 40Â kg/m(2)) is not as clearly defined in guidelines. This article reviews published data to support specific dosing regimens and monitoring strategies of these agents in this population. The most validated parenteral agent to prevent VTE in morbidly obese hospitalized patients is enoxaparin, dosed at 40Â mg subcutaneously (SC) twice daily. If unfractionated heparin is utilized for prophylaxis in morbidly obese patients, a dose of 7500 units SC three times daily should be considered. Monitoring of anti-factor Xa levels to guide prophylactic dosing is an option, although the utility of this lab test is limited, as target anti-Xa ranges for VTE prophylaxis have not been universally defined and trials have not shown a clear link between anti-factor Xa levels and bleeding or thrombotic events. Additional studies are needed to clearly define the most appropriate dosing strategies in patients with moderate obesity (BMI 35-40Â mg/m(2)) and those with extreme obesity (BMIÂ >Â 60Â mg/m(2)). PMID:25982217
Gaudet, Andrew D; Fonken, Laura K; Gushchina, Liubov V; Aubrecht, Taryn G; Maurya, Santosh K; Periasamy, Muthu; Nelson, Randy J; Popovich, Phillip G
Obesity is a growing epidemic in developed countries. Obese individuals are susceptible to comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorder. Increasing the ability of adipose tissue to expend excess energy could improve protection from obesity. One promising target is microRNA (miR)-155-5p. We demonstrate that deletion of miR-155 (-5p and -3p) in female mice prevents diet-induced obesity. Body weight gain did not differ between wild-type (WT) and miR-155 knockout (KO) mice fed control diet (CD); however, miR-155 KO mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) gained 56% less body weight and 74% less gonadal white adipose tissue (WAT) than WT mice. Enhanced WAT thermogenic potential, brown adipose tissue differentiation, and/or insulin sensitivity might underlie this obesity resistance. Indeed, miR-155 KO mice on HFD had 21% higher heat release than WT HFD mice. Compared to WT adipocytes, miR-155 KO adipocytes upregulated brown (Ucp1, Cidea, Pparg) and white (Fabp4, Pnpla2, AdipoQ, Fasn) adipogenic genes, and glucose metabolism genes (Glut4, Irs1). miR-155 deletion abrogated HFD-induced adipocyte hypertrophy and WAT inflammation. Therefore, miR-155 deletion increases adipogenic, insulin sensitivity, and energy uncoupling machinery, while limiting inflammation in WAT, which together could restrict HFD-induced fat accumulation. Our results identify miR-155 as a novel candidate target for improving obesity resistance. PMID:26953132
Walsh, Adam D; Lioret, Sandrine; Cameron, Adrian J; Hesketh, Kylie D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Karen J. Campbell
Background To investigate the effect of an early childhood obesity prevention intervention, incorporating a parent modelling component, on fathersâ obesity risk-related behaviours. Methods Cluster randomized-controlled trial in the setting of pre-existing first-time parents groups organised by Maternal and Child Health Nurses in Victoria, Australia. Participants were 460 first-time fathers mean ageâ=â34.2 (s.d.4.90) years. Dietary pattern scores of fathers were derived using principal compone...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the ACE-Obesity study was to determine the economic credentials of interventions which aim to prevent unhealthy weight gain in children and adolescents. We have reported elsewhere on the modelled effectiveness of 13 obesity prevention interventions in children. In this paper, we report on the cost results and associated methods together with the innovative approach to priority setting that underpins the ACE-Obesity study. Methods The Assessing Cost Effectiveness (ACE approach combines technical rigour with 'due process' to facilitate evidence-based policy analysis. Technical rigour was achieved through use of standardised evaluation methods, a research team that assembles best available evidence and extensive uncertainty analysis. Cost estimates were based on pathway analysis, with resource usage estimated for the interventions and their 'current practice' comparator, as well as associated cost offsets. Due process was achieved through involvement of stakeholders, consensus decisions informed by briefing papers and 2nd stage filter analysis that captures broader factors that influence policy judgements in addition to cost-effectiveness results. The 2nd stage filters agreed by stakeholders were 'equity', 'strength of the evidence', 'feasibility of implementation', 'acceptability to stakeholders', 'sustainability' and 'potential for side-effects'. Results The intervention costs varied considerably, both in absolute terms (from cost saving [6 interventions] to in excess of AUD50m per annum and when expressed as a 'cost per child' estimate (from Conclusion The use of consistent methods enables valid comparison of potential intervention costs and cost-offsets for each of the interventions. ACE-Obesity informs policy-makers about cost-effectiveness, health impact, affordability and 2nd stage filters for important options for preventing unhealthy weight gain in children. In related articles cost-effectiveness results and second stage filter considerations for each intervention assessed will be presented and analysed.
Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories ...
Olsen, Nanna Julie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal
Obesity prevention should remain a priority, even if there is some suggestion that the epidemic may presently have reached a stable level. However, previous interventions have not been effective in preventing overweight and obesity, and at the same time studies suggest that some subgroups are more...... predisposed to future obesity. The purpose of this paper is to review interventions on obesity prevention published during the past year, and to examine if interventions targeting predisposed groups or individuals seem more efficient in preventing obesity than studies targeting general populations. Among 15...... status. Thus, we may be more successful in preventing obesity when targeting predisposed individuals, but more studies are needed before a firm conclusion can be drawn....
Roberto, Christina A; Swinburn, Boyd; Hawkes, Corinna; Huang, Terry T-K; Costa, Sergio A; Ashe, Marice; Zwicker, Lindsey; Cawley, John H; Brownell, Kelly D
Despite isolated areas of improvement, no country to date has reversed its obesity epidemic. Governments, together with a broad range of stakeholders, need to act urgently to decrease the prevalence of obesity. In this Series paper, we review several regulatory and non-regulatory actions taken around the world to address obesity and discuss some of the reasons for the scarce and fitful progress. Additionally, we preview the papers in this Lancet Series, which each identify high-priority actions on key obesity issues and challenge some of the entrenched dichotomies that dominate the thinking about obesity and its solutions. Although obesity is acknowledged as a complex issue, many debates about its causes and solutions are centred around overly simple dichotomies that present seemingly competing perspectives. Examples of such dichotomies explored in this Series include personal versus collective responsibilities for actions, supply versus demand-type explanations for consumption of unhealthy food, government regulation versus industry self-regulation, top-down versus bottom-up drivers for change, treatment versus prevention priorities, and a focus on undernutrition versus overnutrition. We also explore the dichotomy of individual versus environmental drivers of obesity and conclude that people bear some personal responsibility for their health, but environmental factors can readily support or undermine the ability of people to act in their own self-interest. We propose a reframing of obesity that emphasises the reciprocal nature of the interaction between the environment and the individual. Today's food environments exploit people's biological, psychological, social, and economic vulnerabilities, making it easier for them to eat unhealthy foods. This reinforces preferences and demands for foods of poor nutritional quality, furthering the unhealthy food environments. Regulatory actions from governments and increased efforts from industry and civil society will be necessary to break these vicious cycles. PMID:25703111
Ahima, Rexford S.
The growing problem of obesity is associated with multiple morbidities, including increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, sleep apnea, and cancer. Obesity promotes disability, decreases productivity, and shortens life span. Although much attention has been focused on diet and exercise, these strategies alone are not effective in preventing obesity and maintaining weight loss. Moreover, the development of pharmacological approaches for obesity treatment has been dogged by poor...
Gubbels, Jessica S.; Mathisen, Frida KS; Samdal, Oddrun; Lobstein, Tim; Kohl, Leonie FM; Leversen, Ingrid; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Kremers, Stef PJ; Van Assema, Patricia
Background The assessment of real-life, community-based interventions to tackle obesity is an important step in the development of effective policies. Especially multi-level interventions have a high likely effectiveness and potential reach in counteracting the obesity epidemic. Although much can be learned from these initiatives, performing an evaluation of such interventions is challenging. The aim of the current article is to provide a descriptive overview of the data collection process...
Xu, Pengfei; Dai, Shu; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Jin; Wang, Fang; Zhai, Yonggong
Western diets are typically high in fat and are associated with long-term complications such as obesity and hepatic steatosis. Because of the enjoyable taste of high-fat diets (HFDs), we are interested in determining how to decrease lipid absorption and enhance lipid excretion from the digestive tract after the consumption of eating fatty foods. Montmorillonite was initially characterized as a gastrointestinal mucosal barrier protective agent for the treatment of diarrhoea. Dietary lipid adsorbent- montmorillonite (DLA-M) was isolated and purified from Xinjiang montmorillonite clay via the water extraction method. Here, we show that DLA-M has an unexpected role in preventing obesity, hyperlipidaemia and hepatic steatosis in HFD-fed rats. Interestingly, combined application of polarized light microscopy and lipid staining analyses, showed that DLA-M crystals have dietary lipid-adsorbing ability in vitro and in vivo, which enhances lipid excretion via bowel movements. In summary, our results indicate that DLA-M prevent HFD-induced obesity. This novel dietary lipid-adsorbing agent can help prevent obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:26891902
Pérez-Escamilla, R; Hospedales, J; Contreras, A.; Kac, G
The objectives of this paper are to present the conclusions from the workshop Education for childhood obesity prevention: a life-course approach', coordinated by the Pan-American Health Organization and the Pan-American Health and Education Foundation, and held on 14 June 2012 in Aruba, as part of the II Pan-American Conference on Childhood Obesity (http://www.paco.aw/). This workshop focused on the need to recognize the life-course framework and education as a social determinant of health t...
Anderson, Sarah E; Keim, Sarah A
This paper describes the epidemiologic evidence linking parent-child relationships, self-regulation, and weight status with a focus on early childhood. The emotional quality of parent-child interactions may influence children's risk for obesity through multiple pathways. Prospective studies linking observer ratings of young children's self-regulation, particularly inhibitory control, to future weight status are discussed. Although findings are preliminary, promoting positive relationships between parents/caregivers and young children holds promise as a component of efforts to prevent childhood obesity. Multi-disciplinary collaborations between researchers with training in developmental science and child health should be encouraged. PMID:27037572
Miyata, Mitsuyoshi; Koyama, Tomoyuki; Yazawa, Kazunaga
Houttuynia cordata Thunb. is used in folk medicine for diuresis and detoxification. However, it has not yet been reported to have an anti-obesity effect. We found that the water extract of H. cordata leaves (WEH) inhibited the corn oil-induced increase in plasma triglyceride levels in mice. WEH also inhibited the oleic acid- and glycerol-induced increase in the levels of plasma nonesterified fatty acids and glycerol, respectively. Moreover, WEH had anti-obesity effects in mice with high-fat-diet-induced obesity. Therefore, WEH may be able to prevent or reduce obesity induced by a high-fat diet. PMID:20495298
Rush, Elaine; Cairncross, Carolyn; Williams, Margaret Hinepo; Tseng, Marilyn; Coppinger, Tara; McLennan, Steph; Latimer, Kasha
Prevention of childhood obesity is a global priority. The school setting offers access to large numbers of children and the ability to provide supportive environments for quality physical activity and nutrition. This article describes Project Energize, a through-school physical activity and nutrition programme that celebrated its 10-year anniversary in 2015 so that it might serve as a model for similar practices, initiatives and policies elsewhere. The programme was envisaged and financed by the Waikato District Health Board of New Zealand in 2004 and delivered by Sport Waikato to 124 primary schools as a randomised controlled trial from 2005 to 2006. The programme has since expanded to include all 242 primary schools in the Waikato region and 70 schools in other regions, including 53,000 children. Ongoing evaluation and development of Project Energize has shown it to be sustainable (ongoing for >10 years), both effective (lower obesity, higher physical fitness) and cost effective (one health related cost quality adjusted life year between $18,000 and $30,000) and efficient ($45/child/year) as a childhood 'health' programme. The programme's unique community-based approach is inclusive of all children, serving a population that is 42% MÄori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. While the original nine healthy eating and seven quality physical activity goals have not changed, the delivery and assessment processes has been refined and the health service adapted over the 10 years of the programme existence, as well as adapted over time to other settings including early childhood education and schools in Cork in Ireland. Evaluation and research associated with the programme delivery and outcomes are ongoing. The dissemination of findings to politicians and collaboration with other service providers are both regarded as priorities. PMID:26809555
Tanentsapf, Ida; Heitmann, Berit L; Adegboye, Amanda R A
Excessive weight gain during pregnancy and subsequent postpartum weight retention may contribute to the epidemic of obesity among women of childbearing age. Preventing excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) to optimize maternal, fetal and infant wellbeing is therefore of great importance. A number...... of dietary interventions in this area has been conducted with inconsistent results, which has made it difficult to identify effective strategies to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy among normal weight, overweight and obese women. The primary objective of this review was to evaluate the...
Savcheniuk, Oleksandr A; Virchenko, Oleksandr V.; Falalyeyeva, Tetyana M.; Beregova, Tetyana V.; Babenko, Lidia P.; Lazarenko, Liudmyla M; Demchenko, Olga M; Bubnov, Rostyslav V; Spivak, Mykola Ya
Introduction Obesity becomes endemic today. Monosodium glutamate was proved as obesogenic food additive. Probiotics are discussed to impact on obesity development. Aims and objectives The aim was to study the effects of probiotics on the development of monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity in rats. Material and methods We included 45 Wistar male rats and divided into three groups (nâ=â15). Newborn rats of group 1 (control) received subcutaneously 8Â ÎŒl/g saline. Group 2 received 3 to 4Â mg...
Tastesen, Hanne SĂžrup
protein, was found to be negligible in development of obesity and coâmorbidities in mice. Seafood protein with high endogenous taurine and glycine contents was found to prevent dietâinduced adiposity and dyslipidemia, both in ad libitum and pairâfed settings. The ability of seafood proteins to prevent...... these metabolic disturbances was found to associate with the high endogenous taurine and glycine concentrations and to concur with increased energy expenditure and a tendency towards increased voluntary locomotor activity. Consumption of a seafood proteinâmixture prevented dietâinduced development of...
FjĂŠre, Even; Aune, Ulrike Liisberg; RĂžen, Kristin; Keenan, Alison Haller; Ma, Tao; Borkowski, Kamil; Kristensen, David MĂžbjerg Boslev; Novotny, Guy Wayne; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Hudson, Brian D.; Milligan, Graeme; Xi, Yannan; Newman, John W.; Haj, Fawaz G.; Liaset, BjĂžrn; Kristiansen, Karsten; Madsen, Lise
a high fat/high sucrose (HF/HS) diet or a regular diet supplemented or not with indomethacin (Â±INDO) for 7 weeks. Development of obesity, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance was monitored, and the effect of indomethacin on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was measured in vivo and...... in vitro using MIN6 ÎČ-cells. We found that supplementation with indomethacin prevented HF/HS-induced obesity and diet-induced changes in systemic insulin sensitivity. Thus, HF/HS+INDO-fed mice remained insulin-sensitive. However, mice fed HF/HS+INDO exhibited pronounced glucose intolerance. Hepatic...... glucose output was significantly increased. Indomethacin had no effect on adipose tissue mass, glucose tolerance, or GSIS when included in a regular diet. Indomethacin administration to obese mice did not reduce adipose tissue mass, and the compensatory increase in GSIS observed in obese mice was not...
Coleman Karen J
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports the primary outcomes of the Healthy Opportunities for Physical Activity and Nutrition (HOP'N after-school project, which was an effectiveness trial designed to evaluate the prevention of childhood obesity through building the capacity of after-school staff to increase physical activity (PA and fruit and vegetable (FV opportunities. Methods We conducted a three-year, nested cross-sectional group randomized controlled effectiveness trial. After a baseline assessment year (2005-2006, schools and their after-school programs were randomized to the HOP'N after-school program (n = 4 or control (n = 3, and assessed for two subsequent years (intervention year 1, 2006-2007; intervention year 2, 2007-2008. Across the three years, 715 fourth grade students, and 246 third and fourth grade after-school program participants were included in the study. HOP'N included community government human service agency (Cooperative Extension led community development efforts, a three-time yearly training of after-school staff, daily PA for 30 minutes following CATCH guidelines, a daily healthful snack, and a weekly nutrition and PA curriculum (HOP'N Club. Child outcomes included change in age- and gender-specific body mass index z-scores (BMIz across the school year and PA during after-school time measured by accelerometers. The success of HOP'N in changing after-school program opportunities was evaluated by observations over the school year of after-school program physical activity sessions and snack FV offerings. Data were analyzed in 2009. Results The intervention had no impact on changes in BMIz. Overweight/obese children attending HOP'N after-school programs performed 5.92 minutes more moderate-to-vigorous PA per day after intervention, which eliminated a baseline year deficit of 9.65 minutes per day (p Conclusions The HOP'N program had a positive impact on overweight/obese children's PA and after-school active recreation time. Trial registration NCT01015599.
Cinar, A B; Murtomaa, H
Obesity and dental caries in childhood are among the major public health concerns described as a global pandemic because of their global distribution and severe consequences. A consensus has developed as to a recently emerging and alarming common risk factor that leads to the double burden of...... dental caries and obesity; energy-dense foods (sugar-coated cereals, high-sugar yogurt, soft drinks) are becoming very popular among children because of their dense marketing, cheaper price, increased supply and variety. Implementation of health-promoting and -supporting marketing strategies for healthy...... food can be one initial cornerstone for successful application of the common risk factor approach in prevention of obesity and dental caries, as also suggested by World Health Organization. Labelling healthy food with a 'health-friendly' logo, illustrating that the teeth and the heart are both parts of...
HĂ€uĂler, Jan; Breyer, Friedrich
In response to the growing burden of obesity, public primary prevention programs against obesity have been widely recommended. Several studies have estimated the cost-effectiveness of diabetes-prevention trials for different countries. Nevertheless, it is still controversial if prevention conducted in more real-world settings and among people with increased risk but not yet exhibiting increased glucose tolerance can be a cost-saving strategy to cope with the obesity epidemic. We examine this question in a simulation model based on the results of the M.O.B.I.L.I.S program, a German lifestyle intervention to reduce obesity, which is directed on the high-risk group of people who are already obese. The contribution of this paper is the use of 4-year follow-up data on the intervention group and a comparison with a control group formed by SOEP respondents as inputs in a Markov model of the long-term cost savings through this intervention due to the prevention of type 2 diabetes. We show that from the point of view of a health insurer, these programs can pay for themselves. PMID:25822164
The incidence of obesity, increased weight gain and the popularity of high-fat \\/ high-sugar diets are seriously impacting upon the global population. Billions of individuals are affected, and although diet and lifestyle are of paramount importance to the development of adult obesity, compelling evidence is emerging which suggests that maternal obesity and related disorders may be passed on to the next generation by non-genetic means. The processes acting within the uteri of obese mothers may permanently predispose offspring to a diverse plethora of diseases ranging from obesity and diabetes to psychiatric disorders. This review aims to summarise some of the molecular mechanisms and active processes currently known about maternal obesity and its effect on foetal and neonatal physiology and metabolism. Complex and multifactorial networks of molecules are intertwined and culminate in a pathologically synergistic manner to cause disruption and disorganisation of foetal physiology. This altered phenotype may potentiate the cycle of intergenerational transmission of obesity and related disorders.
PĂ©rez-Rodrigo, C; Aranceta Bartrina, J; Serra Majem, L; Moreno, B; Delgado Rubio, A
Obesity is considered a major Public Health issue in most developed countries nowadays for its wide spread across population groups, as well as its contribution to the development of chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Available population data in Spain from the SEEDO'2000 study show a prevalence of obesity (BMI > or = 30 kg/m(2)) of 14,5% in adults aged 25-60 years, estimates based on individual measurement of body weight and height. Obesity rates are higher among women aged 45 years and older, low social class, living in semi-urban places. Geographical distribution of the problem shows a trend for higher rates towards the South- SouthEast of the country, i.e. AndalucĂa, Murcia and the Canary Islands. Population data for Spanish children and young people based on the enKid study--cross-sectional study on a random national sample of the population aged 2-24 years--estimate a prevalence of obesity of 13.9% for the whole group. Geographical distribution draws a similar pattern to that described for adults. Higher peaks of the problem are identified between 9-13 years among boys from a low socioeconomical background. The analysis of determinants of obesity in Spanish children and young people show that overweight and obesity is related to absence of breastfeeding, low consumption of fruit and vegetables; high consumption of cakes and buns, soft drinks and butchery products, low physical activity levels and a positive association with time spent watching TV. The joint consensus document produced by the Spanish Association of Pediatrics (AEP), Spanish Society of Community Nutrition (SENC) and Spanish Society for the Study of Obesity (SEEDO) considers a global strategy for the prevention of obesity from early stages in life. The important role of the family and the school setting as well as the responsibility of the Health Administration and Pediatric care in the prevention of obesity is highlighted in the document. PMID:17243078
Lakerveld Jeroen; Brug Johannes; Bot Sandra; Teixeira Pedro J; Rutter Harry; Woodward Euan; Samdal Oddrun; Stockley Lynn; Bourdeaudhuij Ilse; van Assema Patricia; Robertson Aileen; Lobstein Tim; Oppert Jean-Michel; Ádány Róza; Nijpels Giel
Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Europe is high. It is a major cause of the overall rates of many of the main chronic (or non communicable) diseases in this region and is characterized by an unequal socio-economic distribution within the population. Obesity is largely determined by modifiable lifestyle behaviours such as low physical activity levels, sedentary behaviour and consumption of energy dense diets. It is increasingly being recognised that effective res...
Full Text Available Back ground: Obesity is emerging global epidemic in young adults who form the productive group of the society. This has been called as new world syndrome and is a massive reflection of social, economic and cultural problems currently faced by the developing and developed countries. As cardiac autonomic dysfunction often coexists with obesity, early detection of autonomic impairment by simple investigations of autonomic function, can be potentially important to prevent future complications. Objective: To identify cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in asymptomatic obese young adults. Study design: This study was conducted in the department of Physiology at Kakatiya Medical College, Warangal, A.P, 30 apparently healthy obese subjects of both sex with BMI > 25 kg/sqm were taken as study group. Age and sex matched 30 normal weight subjects (BMI 18.5-22.9 kg/ sqm taken as control group. Methods: Ewingâs battery of 5 noninvasive cardiovascular reflex tests were done for assessing autonomic function. These autonomic function parameters were correlated with BMI, Unpaired Studentâtâ test and Pearson correlation coefficient test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Mean values of all cardiovascular reflex tests were significantly lower in the study group. Conclusion: The results indicate that cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction is present in otherwise healthy obese young adults.
Nancy E. Sherwood; French, Simone A; Veblen-Mortenson, Sara; Crain, A Lauren; Berge, Jerica; Kunin-Batson, Alicia; Mitchell, Nathan; Senso, Meghan
Obesity prevention in children offers a unique window of opportunity to establish healthful eating and physical activity behaviors to maintain a healthful body weight and avoid the adverse proximal and distal long-term health consequences of obesity. Given that obesity is the result of a complex interaction between biological, behavioral, family-based, and community environmental factors, intervention at multiple levels and across multiple settings is critical for both short- and long-term ef...
Ornellas, Fernanda; Souza-Mello, Vanessa; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa
We aimed to evaluate the effects of maternal and/or paternal obesity on offspring body mass, leptin signaling, appetite-regulating neurotransmitters and local inflammatory markers. C57BL/6 mice received standard chow (SC, lean groups) or high-fat diet (HF, obese groups) starting from one month of age. At three months, HF mice became obese relative to SC mice. They were then mated as follows: lean mother and lean father, lean mother and obese father, obese mother and lean father, and obese mother and obese father. The offspring received the SC diet from weaning until three months of age, when they were sacrificed. In the offspring, paternal obesity did not lead to changes in the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activation of the transcription (STAT) pathway or feeding behavior but did induce hypothalamic inflammation. On the other hand, maternal obesity resulted in increased weight gain, hyperleptinemia, decreased leptin OBRb receptor expression, JAK/STAT pathway impairment, and increased SOCS3 signaling in the offspring. In addition, maternal obesity elevated inflammatory markers and altered NPY and POMC expression in the hypothalamus. Interestingly, combined parental obesity exacerbated the deleterious outcomes compared to single-parent obesity. In conclusion, while maternal obesity is known to program metabolic changes and obesity in offspring, the current study demonstrated that obese fathers induce hypothalamus inflammation in offspring, which may contribute to the development of metabolic syndromes in adulthood. PMID:26485293
Cinar, A B; Murtomaa, H
Obesity and dental caries in childhood are among the major public health concerns described as a global pandemic because of their global distribution and severe consequences. A consensus has developed as to a recently emerging and alarming common risk factor that leads to the double burden of dental caries and obesity; energy-dense foods (sugar-coated cereals, high-sugar yogurt, soft drinks) are becoming very popular among children because of their dense marketing, cheaper price, increased supply and variety. Implementation of health-promoting and -supporting marketing strategies for healthy food can be one initial cornerstone for successful application of the common risk factor approach in prevention of obesity and dental caries, as also suggested by World Health Organization. Labelling healthy food with a 'health-friendly' logo, illustrating that the teeth and the heart are both parts of the whole body (standing side by side supporting each other as close friends), both happy and protected because of consumption of healthy food for the whole body, can promote the foods that are friendly to health of the whole body, implementing the common risk factor approach under a single theme. Labelling healthy food as 'health-friendly' based on an international consensus will provide a clear and uniform picture of what is healthy to eat and result in an international integrated programme for prevention of obesity and caries. PMID:19207877
Melanie A. Ferris
Full Text Available Obesity is a growing issue for all children. Many experts say that preventing obesity is largely a matter of eating the right foods and getting enough physical activity. This advice doesnât recognize the fact that First Nations, Inuit, and MĂ©tis children face unique barriers to growing up healthy and strong simply because of theiridentity. This paper discusses how the social determinants of health impact the ability of Aboriginal children to grow up free of obesity. The paper highlights results from a community-based research project conducted amongst Aboriginal parents and service providers in Ontario who wish to prevent obesity amongst their ownyoung children and clients. Research was carried out over two years to help develop a âtoolkitâ and training program to help service provides increase efforts to prevent obesity amongst First Nations, Inuit, and MĂ©tis children from the ages of 2 to 6 in Ontario.
Bauer, K. W.; Neumark-Sztainer, D.; Hannan, P. J.; Fulkerson, J. A.; Story, M.
Identifying factors that contribute to students' behavior and weight improvements during school-based obesity prevention interventions is critical for the development of effective programs. The current study aims to determine whether the support and resources that adolescent girls received from their families were associated with improvements inâŠ
Wilkinson, Justine; Howard, Simon
Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...
Garcia-Diaz, Diego Fernando; Lopez-Legarrea, Patricia; Quintero, Pablo; Martinez, Jose Alfredo
Obesity has emerged as one of the major health threats worldwide. Moreover, an excessive body fat accumulation, which defines this disease, could lead to several associated clinical manifestations such as cardiovascular events, type 2 diabetes, inflammation, and some types of cancer. The appearance of these co-morbidities has been often related to an unbalanced oxidative stress. Therefore, antioxidant-based treatments could be considered as interesting approaches to possibly counteract obesity fat accumulation complications. In this context, it has been observed that vitamin C intake (ascorbic acid) is negatively associated with the occurrence of several conditions such as hypertension, gallbladder disease, stroke, cancers, and atherosclerosis, and also with the onset of obesity in humans and animals. Among the possible beneficial effects of ascorbic acid on obesity-related mechanisms, it has been suggested that this vitamin may: (a) modulate adipocyte lipolysis; (b) regulate the glucocorticoid release from adrenal glands; (c) inhibit glucose metabolism and leptin secretion on isolated adipocytes; (d) lead to an improvement in hyperglycemia and decrease glycosylation in obese-diabetic models; and (e) reduce the inflammatory response. Possibly, all these features could be related with the outstanding antioxidant characteristics of this vitamin. Thus, the present article reviews the up-to-date evidence regarding in vitro and in vivo effects of vitamin C in obesity and its co-morbidities. PMID:25866299
Nitert Marloes Dekker
Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is increasing in the child-bearing population as are the rates of gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes is associated with higher rates of Cesarean Section for the mother and increased risks of macrosomia, higher body fat mass, respiratory distress and hypoglycemia for the infant. Prevention of gestational diabetes through life style intervention has proven to be difficult. A Finnish study showed that ingestion of specific probiotics altered the composition of the gut microbiome and thereby metabolism from early gestation and decreased rates of gestational diabetes in normal weight women. In SPRING (the Study of Probiotics IN the prevention of Gestational diabetes, the effectiveness of probiotics ingestion for the prevention of gestational diabetes will be assessed in overweight and obese women. Methods/design SPRING is a multi-center, prospective, double-blind randomized controlled trial run at two tertiary maternity hospitals in Brisbane, Australia. Five hundred and forty (540 women with a BMI > 25.0 kg/m2 will be recruited over 2 years and receive either probiotics or placebo capsules from 16 weeks gestation until delivery. The probiotics capsules contain > 1x109 cfu each of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 per capsule. The primary outcome is diagnosis of gestational diabetes at 28 weeks gestation. Secondary outcomes include rates of other pregnancy complications, gestational weight gain, mode of delivery, change in gut microbiome, preterm birth, macrosomia, and infant body composition. The trial has 80% power at a 5% 2-sided significance level to detect a >50% change in the rates of gestational diabetes in this high-risk group of pregnant women. Discussion SPRING will show if probiotics can be used as an easily implementable method of preventing gestational diabetes in the high-risk group of overweight and obese pregnant women.
Douglas, Flora; Clark, Julia; Craig, Leone; Campbell, Jonina; McNeill, Geraldine
Background The high prevalence of childhood obesity is a concern for policy makers and health professionals, leading to a focus on early prevention. The beliefs and perspectives of parents about early childhood obesity, and their views and opinions about the need for weight management interventions for this age group are poorly understood. Methods A formative qualitative focus group study with parents of pre-school children took place in eight community-based locations throughout North-East S...
Story, Mary; Nanney, Marilyn S.; Schwartz, Marlene B.
Context: Research consistently shows that the majority of American children do not consume diets that meet the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, nor do they achieve adequate levels of daily physical activity. As a result, more children are overweight today than at any other time in U.S. history. Schools offer many opportunities to develop strategies to prevent obesity by creating environments in which children eat healthfully and engage regularly in physical activity.
Ballard Denise; Alcantara Iris; Escoffery Cam; Kegler Michelle C; Glanz Karen
Abstract Background The home and neighborhood environments may be important in obesity prevention by virtue of food availability, food preparation, cues and opportunities for physical activity, and family support. To date, little research has examined how home and neighborhood environments in rural communities may support or hinder healthy eating and physical activity. This paper reports characteristics of rural homes and neighborhoods related to physical activity environments, availability o...
Friedline, Randall H; Ko, Hwi Jin; Jung, Dae Young; Lee, Yongjin; Bortell, Rita; Dagdeviren, Sezin; Patel, Payal R; Hu, Xiaodi; Inashima, Kunikazu; Kearns, Caitlyn; Tsitsilianos, Nicholas; Shafiq, Umber; Shultz, Leonard D; Lee, Ki Won; Greiner, Dale L; Kim, Jason K
Obesity is characterized by a dysregulated immune system, which may causally associate with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Despite widespread use of nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, NOD with severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) mutation (SCID) mice, and SCID bearing a null mutation in the IL-2 common Îł chain receptor (NSG) mice as animal models of human diseases including type 1 diabetes, the underlying metabolic effects of a genetically altered immune system are poorly understood. For this, we performed a comprehensive metabolic characterization of these mice fed chow or after 6 wk of a high-fat diet. We found that NOD mice had âŒ50% less fat mass and were 2-fold more insulin sensitive, as measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, than C57BL/6 wild-type mice. SCID mice were also more insulin sensitive with increased muscle glucose metabolism and resistant to diet-induced obesity due to increased energy expenditure (âŒ10%) and physical activity (âŒ40%) as measured by metabolic cages. NSG mice were completely protected from diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance with significant increases in glucose metabolism in peripheral organs. Our findings demonstrate an important role of genetic background, lymphocytes, and cytokine signaling in diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.-Friedline, R. H., Ko, H. J., Jung, D. Y., Lee, Y., Bortell, R., Dagdeviren, S., Patel, P. R., Hu, X., Inashima, K., Kearns, C., Tsitsilianos, N., Shafiq, U., Shultz, L. D., Lee, K. W., Greiner, D. L., Kim, J. K. Genetic ablation of lymphocytes and cytokine signaling in nonobese diabetic mice prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:26644351
Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide over the past three decades. Global anti-obesity strategies focus on dietary and lifestyle modifications to slow the development of obesity. Research in the nutrition field has recently aroused considerable interest based on the potential of natural products to counteract obesity. Several studies have identified yerba maté (Ilex paraguariensis as an excellent candidate. In this review, we evaluated the impact of yerba maté on obesity and obesity-related inflammation. Cellular studies demonstrate that yerba maté suppresses adipocyte differentiation and triglyceride accumulation and reduces inflammation. Animal studies show that yerba maté modulates signaling pathways that regulate adipogenesis, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and insulin signaling responses. In summary, the data presented here showed that the use of yerba maté might be useful against obesity, improving the lipid parameters in humans and animal models. In addition, yerba maté modulates the expression of genes that are changed in the obese state and restores them to more normal levels of expression. In doing so, it addresses several of the abnormal and disease-causing factors associated with obesity. Protective and ameliorative effects on insulin resistance were also observed. Thus, as a general conclusion, it seems that yerba maté beverages and supplements might be helpful in the battle against obesity.
With American children on course to grow into the most obese generation of adults in history, Sonia Caprio argues that it is critical to develop more effective strategies for preventing childhood obesity and treating serious obesity-related health complications. She notes that although pediatricians are concerned about the obesity problem, mostâŠ
Sue Lin Yee, MA, MPH; Pam Williams-Piehota, PhD,; Asta Sorensen, MA; Amy Roussel, PhD; James Hersey, PhD; Robin Hamre, MPH, RD
To help address the challenges posed by the obesity epidemic in the United States, the U.S. Congress authorized the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to establish the Nutrition and Physical Activity Program to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases. In this article, we summarize the progress of the first 20 states funded by this program. The data presented are based on the information provided by the states in their semiannual progress monitoring reports on program activities fro...
Greaves Colin J; Logan Stuart; Lloyd Jennifer J; Wyatt Katrina M
Abstract Background Only limited data are available on the development and feasibility piloting of school-based interventions to prevent and reduce obesity in children. Clear documentation of the rationale, process of development and content of such interventions is essential to enable other researchers to understand why interventions succeed or fail. Methods This paper describes the development of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP), a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in chil...
Ryan Lange; Guy Faulkner
Interventions in Canada to address obesity have largely been limited to individual-level change through education rather than a population-level public policy approach. Little is known about obesity policy support in Canada, and substantial national variation in obesity policy support prevents direct transferability of these policies among nations. Our study recruited 521 young adults for an online survey through leaflets and flyers. We investigated how respondents demographics, health chara...
Deblon, Nicolas; Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle; Bourgoin, Lucie; Caillon, AurĂ©lie; Bussier, Anne-Lise; Petrosino, Stefania; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Legros, Jean-Jacques; Geenen, Vincent; Foti, Michelangelo; Wahli, Walter; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, FranĂ§oise
Apart from its role during labor and lactation, oxytocin is involved in several other functions. Interestingly, oxytocin- and oxytocin receptor-deficient mice develop late-onset obesity with normal food intake, suggesting that the hormone might exert a series of beneficial metabolic effects. This was recently confirmed by data showing that central oxytocin infusion causes weight loss in diet-induced obese mice. The aim of the present study was to unravel the mechanisms underlying such benefic...
MarĂa Matilde SocarrĂĄs SuĂĄrez
Full Text Available La obesidad es un importante problema de salud en nuestros dĂas, por el riesgo aumentado de morbilidad y mortalidad, sobre todo por las enfermedades cardiovasculares que provoca. El objetivo de este trabajo fue actualizar los conocimientos acerca del tratamiento no farmacolĂłgico y la prevenciĂłn de la enfermedad. Se expuso que en el 95 % de los casos la obesidad es de origen exĂłgeno o nutricional, y en el 5 %, de causa genĂ©tica o endocrina. En relaciĂłn con los factores genĂ©ticos, las investigaciones plantean las diferentes mutaciones que se acompaĂ±an de fenotipos obesos. Se seĂ±alaron los diferentes mĂ©todos empleados para el diagnĂłstico de la obesidad, antropomĂ©tricamente. Se afirmĂł que en la actualidad es muy utilizado el IMC y la relaciĂłn cintura/cadera. Se concluyĂł que el tratamiento de la obesidad supone modificaciones dietĂ©ticas, actividad fĂsica e intervenciĂłn conductual y/o psicolĂłgica y que la prevenciĂłn sigue siendo la acciĂłn fundamental para evitar su apariciĂłn por lo que los esfuerzos de todos los mĂ©dicos se deben dirigir hacia este problema de salud.Obesity is an important health problem at present due to the increased risk of morbidity and mortality and, mainly, to the cardiovascular diseases resulting from it. The objective of this paper was to bring up to date the knowledge about the nonpharmacological treatment and the prevention of the disease. It was explained that in 95 % of the cases, obesity has an exogenous or nutritional origin, whereas in the other 5 % its cause is genetic or endocrine. In relation to the genetic factors, the investigations state the different mutations that are accompanied by obese phenotypes.The different anthropometric methods used to diagnose obesity were described. It was confirmed that nowadays the BMI and the waist/hip relationship are widely used. It was concluded that the obesity treatment pressuposes diet modifications, physical activity and behavioral and/or psychological intervention and that prevention is still the fundamental action to prevent the appearance of obesity. Therefore, all doctors should direct their efforts to this health problem.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple factors combine to support a compelling case for interventions that target the development of obesity-promoting behaviours (poor diet, low physical activity and high sedentary behaviour from their inception. These factors include the rapidly increasing prevalence of fatness throughout childhood, the instigation of obesity-promoting behaviours in infancy, and the tracking of these behaviours from childhood through to adolescence and adulthood. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT aims to determine the effectiveness of an early childhood obesity prevention intervention delivered to first-time parents. The intervention, conducted with parents over the infant's first 18 months of life, will use existing social networks (first-time parent's groups and an anticipatory guidance framework focusing on parenting skills which support the development of positive diet and physical activity behaviours, and reduced sedentary behaviours in infancy. Methods/Design This cluster-randomised controlled trial, with first-time parent groups as the unit of randomisation, will be conducted with a sample of 600 first-time parents and their newborn children who attend the first-time parents' group at Maternal and Child Health Centres. Using a two-stage sampling process, local government areas in Victoria, Australia will be randomly selected at the first stage. At the second stage, a proportional sample of first-time parent groups within selected local government areas will be randomly selected and invited to participate. Informed consent will be obtained and groups will then be randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. Discussion The early years hold promise as a time in which obesity prevention may be most effective. To our knowledge this will be the first randomised trial internationally to demonstrate whether an early health promotion program delivered to first-time parents in their existing social groups promotes healthy eating, physical activity and reduced sedentary behaviours. If proven to be effective, INFANT may protect children from the development of obesity and its associated social and economic costs. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN81847050
Doak, C; Heitmann, B L; Summerbell, C; Lissner, L
Two reviews, one by Summerbell et al. and the other by Doak et al. came to very different conclusions about the effectiveness of childhood obesity interventions. The aim of this commentary is to assess the extent to which inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the definition of effective outcomes...
Wolongevicz, Dolores M.; Lei Zhu; Pencina, Michael J.; Ralph B. D'Agostino; Barbara E. Millen; Newby, P K; Kimokoti, Ruth W
Background. Links between dietary quality and abdominal obesity are poorly understood. Objective. To examine the association between an obesity-specific dietary quality index and abdominal obesity risk in women. Methods. Over 12 years, we followed 288 Framingham Offspring/Spouse Study women, aged 30â69 years, without metabolic syndrome risk factors, cardiovascular disease, cancer, or diabetes at baseline. An 11-nutrient obesity-specific dietary quality index was derived using mean ranks of nu...
Chen, Wen; Guo, Junxia; Zhang, Yanzhen; Zhang, Jing
Metabolic syndrome, a cluster of risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, has become a very serious public health concern. A number of studies have provided evidence that taurine has an efficient action against metabolic syndrome, which includes reducing triglycerides to prevent obesity, improving insulin resistance to regulate glucose metabolism, lowering cholesterol (especially decreasing VLDL + LDL cholesterol and increasing HDL cholesterol) to prevent diet-induced hypercholesterolemia, and regulating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the kallikrein-kinin system etc. to reduce blood pressure. This review summarizes the data from in vitro, animal and limited human studies of beneficial effects of taurine on obesity, dyslipidaemia, diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and addresses the possible metabolic and molecular mechanisms of the prevention of metabolic syndrome by taurine. PMID:26918249
Cholestyramine is a cationic polymer prescribed to lower cholesterol in humans. We investigated the effects of cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose (cHEC) on weight loss and metabolic disorders associated with obesity using both hamster and diet-induced obese mouse models. Golden Syrian hamsters and ob...
... obese, follow an unhealthy diet, and have an eating disorder all at the same time. Sometimes, medical problems or treatments cause weight gain, including: Underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism) Medicines such ...
Heitmann, B L; Westerterp, K R; Loos, R J F; SĂžrensen, T I A; O'Dea, K; McLean, P; Jensen, Tina Kold; Eisenmann, J; Speakman, J R; Simpson, S J; Reed, D R; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S
The 9th Stock Conference acknowledged the complex background of genetic, cultural, environmental and evolutionary factors of obesity. Gene-environment interactions underlie the flexibility in body-weight and body-fat regulation, illustrated by the hunter-gatherers' feast and famine lifestyle, the...... programming for obesity via epigenetic changes in response to a 'Western diet' results in production of lipid-poor milk and metabolically efficient pups, contributing to the perpetuation of obesity throughout generations. Evolutionary insight from comparative physiology and ecology indicates that over...... mating on obesity prevalence is unambiguously positive. The complexity that appeared can only be fully appreciated by setting the data into the context of our evolutionary history....
Han Gyu Kim
Full Text Available Purpose:This study was designed to determine the effects of a school-based obesity-management program on obese primary school children. Methods:A total of 995 children (6–12 years old in a primary school were screened in March 2008, and of those, 101 obese students (44 boys and 57 girls, body mass index (BMI ?#249;5 percentile were enrolled for a study group. The school- based, obesity management program, which includes physical exercise and nutritional education, was conducted as part of an extracurricular program for 12 weeks. The measurement of height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure (BP, and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA was performed before and after the program. Results:Height and weight increased significantly (P<0.05. The BMI and obesity index decreased significantly (P<0.01. Systolic and diastolic BP decreased significantly (P<0.01. BMI decreased in 61.4% of boys and 66.7% of girls. Protein and basal metabolic rate (BMR increased significantly on the BIA (P<0.01. Fat decreased significantly (P<0.05. The total body water (TBW and percent body fat (PBF decreased significantly (P<0.01. The changes in protein, fat, TBW, PBF, and BMR significantly correlated to the change in BMI (P<0.05. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, BMI change was significantly correlated to the changes in protein and fat content (P<0.01. Conclusion:The school-based obesity management program is a very effective way to manage obesity for obese primary school children.
... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157363.html Obesity Can Send Kids' Blood Pressure Soaring: Study Losing ... and effective clinical and public health strategies for obesity prevention," said lead researcher Emily Parker. She is ...
Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren
Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively....... The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar...
Sanders, Lee M.; Perrin, Eliana M.; Yin, H. Shonna; Bronaugh, Andrea; Rothman, Russell L.
Children who become overweight by age 2 years have significantly greater risks of long-term health problems, and children in low-income communities, where rates of low adult literacy are highest, are at increased risk of developing obesity. The objective of the Greenlight Intervention Study is to assess the effectiveness of a low-literacy, primary-care intervention on the reduction of early childhood obesity. At 4 primary-care pediatric residency training sites across the US, 865 infant-paren...
Elisângela Vitoriano, Pereira; Jorge de Assis, Costa; Rita de Cássia Gonçalves, Alfenas.
Full Text Available Objective Evaluate the effect of glycemic index (GI) on biochemical parameters, food intake, energy metabolism, anthropometric measures and body composition in overweight subjects.Materials and methods Simple blind study, in which nineteen subjects were randomly assigned to consume in the laboratory [...] two daily low GI (n = 10) or high GI (n = 9) meals, for forty-five consecutive days. Habitual food intake was assessed at baseline. Food intake, anthropometric measures and body composition were assessed at each 15 days. Energy metabolism and biochemical parameters were evaluated at baseline and the end of the study.Results Low GI meals increased fat oxidation, and reduced waist circumference and HOMA-IR, while high GI meals increased daily dietary fiber and energy intake compared to baseline. There was a higher reduction on waist circumference and body fat, and a higher increase on postprandial fat oxidation in response to the LGI meals than after high GI meals. High GI meals increased fasting respiratory coefficient compared to baseline and low GI meals.Conclusion The results of the present study showed that the consumption of two daily low GI meals for forty-five consecutive days has a positive effect on obesity control, whereas, the consumption of high GI meals result has the opposite effect. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2015;59(3):245-51
Zhao, Zhenxiang; Kaestner, Robert; Xu, Xin
In this paper, we used a randomized experiment, the Moving to Opportunity for Fair Housing Demonstration (MTO) study, to assess whether several environmental attributes are causes of obesity. To accomplish our objective, we linked the MTO data with several external data sources that provide information on potential determinants of obesity including food prices, restaurant and food store availability, physical activity facility availability, the prevalence of crime and population density. We find that the environmental factors we examined are unable to explain the observed decrease in obesity associated with the MTO experiment among low-income minority women. PMID:24447507
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reviews scientific evidence to determine which school-based policies and practices are most likely to improve key health behaviors among young people, including physical activity and healthy eating. In this document, the CDC identifies ten strategies to help schools prevent obesity by promotingâŠ
Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts to prevent the development of overweight and obesity have increasingly focused early in the life course as we recognise that both metabolic and behavioural patterns are often established within the first few years of life. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs of interventions are even more powerful when, with forethought, they are synthesised into an individual patient data (IPD prospective meta-analysis (PMA. An IPD PMA is a unique research design where several trials are identified for inclusion in an analysis before any of the individual trial results become known and the data are provided for each randomised patient. This methodology minimises the publication and selection bias often associated with a retrospective meta-analysis by allowing hypotheses, analysis methods and selection criteria to be specified a priori. Methods/Design The Early Prevention of Obesity in CHildren (EPOCH Collaboration was formed in 2009. The main objective of the EPOCH Collaboration is to determine if early intervention for childhood obesity impacts on body mass index (BMI z scores at age 18-24 months. Additional research questions will focus on whether early intervention has an impact on children's dietary quality, TV viewing time, duration of breastfeeding and parenting styles. This protocol includes the hypotheses, inclusion criteria and outcome measures to be used in the IPD PMA. The sample size of the combined dataset at final outcome assessment (approximately 1800 infants will allow greater precision when exploring differences in the effect of early intervention with respect to pre-specified participant- and intervention-level characteristics. Discussion Finalisation of the data collection procedures and analysis plans will be complete by the end of 2010. Data collection and analysis will occur during 2011-2012 and results should be available by 2013. Trial registration number ACTRN12610000789066
Gregory J. Welk; Chen, Senlin; Nam, Yoon Ho; Weber, Tara E
Background SWITCHÂź is an evidence-based childhood obesity prevention program that works through schools to impact parenting practices. The present study was designed as a formative evaluation to test whether an online version of SWITCHÂź would work equivalently as the established print version. Methods Ten elementary schools were matched by socio-economic status and randomly assigned to receive either the print (nâ=â5) or online (nâ=â5) version. A total of 211 children from 22, 3rd grade class...
Agrinier Nelly; Bonsergent Emilie; Briançon Serge; Tessier Sabrina; Legrand Karine; Lecomte Edith; Aptel Evelyne; Hercberg Serge; Collin Jean-François
Abstract Background Given the increase in overweight and obesity prevalence in adolescents in the last decade, effective prevention strategies for these conditions in adolescents are urgently needed. The PRALIMAP (Promotion de l'ALImentation et de l'Activité Physique) trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness for these conditions of 3 health promotion strategies -- educational, screening and environmental -- applied singly or in combination in high schools over a 2-year intervention period. Me...
Knowlden, Adam P
Pediatric obesity is a pertinent public health challenge. Child physical activity and screen time behaviors enacted within the context of the family and home environment are important determinants of pediatric obesity. The purpose of this study was to operationalize five, maternal-facilitated, social cognitive theory constructs for predicting physical activity and screen time behaviors in children. A secondary purpose was to elucidate the function of suppressor variables in the design and implementation of family- and home-based interventions seeking to prevent pediatric obesity. Instrumentation included face and content validity of the measurement tool by a panel of experts, test-retest reliability of the theoretical constructs, and predictive validity of the constructs through structural equation modeling. Physical activity and screen time were modeled separately according to the five selected social cognitive theory constructs. Data were collected from 224 mothers with children between four and six years of age. Specification indices indicated satisfactory fit for the final physical activity and screen time models. Through a series of four procedures, the structural models identified emotional coping and expectations as suppressor variables for self-efficacy. Suppressor variables can complement program design recommendations by providing a suggested ordering to construct integration within an intervention. PMID:24634793
Sensitive to allegations of "nanny state" paternalism, Australian governments support the doctrine that combating obesity is a matter of personal responsibility. Policy-makers endorse the "holistic" approach to obesity prevention, with a view to managing both sides of the nutritional energy equation. This paradigm allows the food and drinks industry to deflect its contributory responsibility for the epidemic and to avoid more stringent regulatory intervention beyond existing self-regulatory and corporate social responsibility regimes. This article argues that the industry must bear shared responsibility for the extent of the obesity crisis, although it cannot bear sole responsibility It defends the public interest case for more invasive, government-led regulation, reframing the crisis as one of public not individual burdens. Mindful of the political risk associated with unfocused calls for regulatory intervention, it articulates a set of regulatory principles to ensure that the interests of consumers and industry are properly acknowledged prior to further regulatory intervention. Finally, the article clarifies the subject, object and content of possible regulatory initiatives, offering an evaluation of their efficacy, practicality and fairness. PMID:26554202
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary 1(3-behenoyl-2,3(1-dioleoyl-rac-glycerol (BOO has been reported to inhibit pancreatic lipase activity in vitro and suppress postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia in humans. In the present study, the anti-obesity activities of BOO and its inhibitory effects on lymphatic triacylglycerol (TAG absorption were investigated in rats. Methods In Experiment 1, rats were fed either BOO or soybean oil (SO diet for 6 weeks. In the BOO diet, 20% of SO was replaced with an experimental oil rich in BOO. In Experiments 2 and 3, rats cannulated in the thoracic duct were administered an emulsions containing trioleoylglycerol (OOO or an oil mixture (OOO:BOO, 9:1. Tri[1-14C]oleoylglycerol (14C-OOO was added to the emulsions administered in Experiment 3. Results No observable differences were detected in food intake or body weight gain between the BOO and SO groups in Experiment 1. Plasma and liver TAG concentrations and visceral fat weights were significantly lower in the BOO group than in the SO group. The apparent absorption rate of fat was significantly lower in the BOO group than in the SO group. In Experiment 2, the lymphatic recovery of oleic and behenic acids was significantly lower at 5 and 6 h after BOO administration than after OOO administration. In Experiment 3, the lymphatic recovery of 14C-OOO was significantly lower at 5 and 6 h after BOO administration than after OOO administration. Conclusions These results suggest that BOO prevents deposition of visceral fat and hepatic TAG by lowering and delaying intestinal absorption of TAG.
Full Text Available Introduction: The intragastric balloon is a minimally invasive technique used to treat obesity by reducing hunger and inducing satiety as a result of gastric volume restriction, thus it could be ideal to treat young people who are thought to be easier to change their eating behavior. Aim: The purpose of this prospective clinical study was to investigate the effectiveness of intragastric balloon on obese adolescents, after a six-month period of treatment. Material: Fourteen adolescents -aged 18,5±2,5 yrs- treated by intragastric balloon were studied prospectively. Mean baseline Body Mass Index [BMI] was 39,8 ± 5,8kg/m2 and %Fatty Mass [FM] 41,7 ± 5,4. The data collected every month for the 6mo period was: Body Weight [BW], BMI, Resting metabolic Rate [RMR] by indirect calorimetry, %FM, %Excessive Weight Loss [%EWL] and %Actual Caloric Intake [%ACI]. Appetite related sensations scores [hunger, satiety, desire for food] were also assessed monthly by visual analogue scales [VAS]. The number of follow-up visits was considered as a marker of compliance. Results: Median baseline values were as follows: BM 118kg [range 80 to 174], BMI 39,1kg/m2 [range 33 to 54] [>95th percentile],%FM 42 [range 33 to 49] and %ACI 116,6 [range 60 to 200,5]. After a 6mo period, just before the removal of the balloon, all measured parameters exhibited a statistically significant reduction: the median BW was found to be 108kg [range 62 to 162, p=0,002], the BMI 37kg/m2 [range 26 to 50, p=0,001], %FM 40 [range 20 to 49, p=0,009], the %EWL was 14,29 [range 3,33 to 69,23, p=0,021] and the %ACI=86 [range 33 to 153,96, p=0,02]. Appetite related sensation score was unchanged.The median number of follow-up visits was 4 [range 2 to 7]. Conclusions: Although the number of follow-up visits during the 6 month treatment generally reveals poor compliance,a small though significant weight loss, as a consequence of reduction in the energy intake is prominent. Based on the above findings, a better pre-procedure screening for the appropriate candidates for treatment as well as a better scheduled approach by a multi-disciplinary group, including a dietician and a psychologist is considered mandatory.
Karnik, Sameera; Kanekar, Amar
Introduction: Childhood obesity is a major public health crisis nationally and internationally. The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased over few years. It is caused by imbalance between calorie intake and calories utilized. One or more factors (genetic, behavioral, and environmental) cause obesity in children. Physical, psychological, and social health problems are caused due to childhood obesity. Hence, effective intervention strategies are being used to prevent and control obesity...
Kim, Christine H J; Mitchell, James B; Bursill, Christina A; Sowers, Anastasia L; Thetford, Angela; Cook, John A; van Reyk, David M; Davies, Michael Jonathan
OBJECTIVE: The nitroxide compound TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl radical) has been shown to prevent obesity-induced changes in adipokines in cell and animal systems. In this study we investigated whether supplementation with TEMPOL inhibits inflammation and atherosclerosis...... decrease in adiponectin. TEMPOL supplementation reversed these effects. When compared to HFD-fed mice, TEMPOL supplementation increased plaque collagen content, decreased lipid content and increased macrophage numbers. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that in a well-established model of obesity......-associated hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis, TEMPOL had a significant impact on body mass, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidaemia and inflammation. TEMPOL may therefore be of value in suppressing obesity, metabolic disorders and increasing atherosclerotic plaque stability....
Santiago Tavares Paes
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature concerning the effects of physical exercise on several metabolic variables related to childhood obesity. DATA SOURCE: A search was performed in Pubmed/MEDLINE and Web of Science databases. The keywords used were as follows: Obesity, Children Obesity, Childhood Obesity, Exercise and Physical Activity. The online search was based on studies published in English, from April 2010 to December 2013. DATA SYNTHESIS: Search queries returned 88,393 studies based on the aforementioned keywords; 4,561 studies were selected by crossing chosen keywords. After applying inclusion criteria, four studies were selected from 182 eligible titles. Most studies found that aerobic and resistance training improves body composition, lipid profile and metabolic and inflammatory status of obese children and adolescents; however, the magnitude of these effects is associated with the type, intensity and duration of practice. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the type, physical exercise promotes positive adaptations to childhood obesity, mainly acting to restore cellular and cardiovascular homeostasis, to improve body composition, and to activate metabolism; therefore, physical exercise acts as a co-factor in fighting obesity.
de Groot Florentine P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a major public health issue; however, only limited evidence is available about effective ways to prevent obesity, particularly in early childhood. Romp & Chomp was a community-wide obesity prevention intervention conducted in Geelong Australia with a target group of 12,000 children aged 0-5 years. The intervention had an environmental and capacity building focus and we have recently demonstrated that the prevalence of overweight/obesity was lower in intervention children, post-intervention. Capacity building is defined as the development of knowledge, skills, commitment, structures, systems and leadership to enable effective health promotion and the aim of this study was to determine if the capacity of the Geelong community, represented by key stakeholder organisations, to support healthy eating and physical activity for young children was increased after Romp & Chomp. Methods A mixed methods evaluation with three data sources was utilised. 1 Document analysis comprised assessment of the documented formative and intervention activities against a capacity building framework (five domains: Partnerships, Leadership, Resource Allocation, Workforce Development, and Organisational Development; 2 Thematic analysis of key informant interviews (n = 16; and 3 the quantitative Community Capacity Index Survey. Results Document analysis showed that the majority of the capacity building activities addressed the Partnerships, Resource Allocation and Organisational Development domains of capacity building, with a lack of activity in the Leadership and Workforce Development domains. The thematic analysis revealed the establishment of sustainable partnerships, use of specialist advice, and integration of activities into ongoing formal training for early childhood workers. Complex issues also emerged from the key informant interviews regarding the challenges of limited funding, high staff turnover, changing governance structures, lack of high level leadership and unclear communication strategies. The Community Capacity Index provided further evidence that the project implementation network achieved a moderate level of capacity. Conclusions Romp & Chomp increased the capacity of organisations, settings and services in the Geelong community to support healthy eating and physical activity for young children. Despite this success there are important learnings from this mixed methods evaluation that should inform current and future community-based public health and health promotion initiatives. Trial Registration Number ANZCTRN12607000374460
Lynch Wesley C; Martz Jill; Eldridge Galen; Bailey Sandra J; Benke Carrie; Paul Lynn
Abstract Background Childhood obesity in rural communities is a serious but understudied problem. The current experiment aims to assess a wide range of obesity risk factors among rural youth and to offer an 8-month intervention program for parents to reduce obesity risk in their preteen child. Methods/Design A two-group, repeated measures design is used to assess the effectiveness of the 4-Health intervention program. Assessments include anthropometric measures, child self-evaluations, parent...
Hassn Daneshmandi; Nasim Habibzadeh
Purpose:Obesity has been identified as a risk factor for the development of bulimia nervosa (BN) in those who try to lose weight. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of walking exercise in order to provide a method for overcoming bulimia nervosa in obese young women suffering from bulimia nervosa.Methods: Twenty obese women with bulimia nervosa (body mass index [BMI]>30) and a mean age of 22.00 ± 1.50 years volunteered to participate in this study. They were randomly a...
Berger-Jenkins, Evelyn; Rausch, John; Okah, Ebiere; Tsao, Daisy; Nieto, Andres; Lyda, Elizabeth; Meyer, Dodi; McCord, Mary
Background: Obesity is a public health concern that disproportionately affects underserved and minority communities. Purpose: To evaluate whether a comprehensive obesity prevention program that targets children and school staff in an underserved Hispanic community affects obesity related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among both students and
Berger-Jenkins, Evelyn; Rausch, John; Okah, Ebiere; Tsao, Daisy; Nieto, Andres; Lyda, Elizabeth; Meyer, Dodi; McCord, Mary
Background: Obesity is a public health concern that disproportionately affects underserved and minority communities. Purpose: To evaluate whether a comprehensive obesity prevention program that targets children and school staff in an underserved Hispanic community affects obesity related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among both students andâŠ
Daniele SĂĄ Vido
Full Text Available Objective : The aim of this study was to evaluate the late effects of maternal obesity induced by lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamus on offspring metabolism.Materials and methods : Thirty days after the bilateral lesion of the ventromedial hypothalamus, female rats were mated and divided into 2 groups of pregnant animals: Control (C â false lesion (sham and Obese (OB â lesion. Three months after that, with the groups of mothers, offspring were divided into control and obese animals that received a normocaloric diet (C-N and OB-N, and control and obese animals that received a hypercaloric diet (C-H and OB-H. At 120 days of age, the animals were euthanized and their carcasses, feces and food were submitted to calorimetric analysis to determine energy balance and body composition.Results : During the growth period, offspring from obese mothers showed higher values of body weight and food intake than controls. Obese animals showed higher body weight gain and gross food efficiency than control animals in adulthood. The hypercaloric diet led to increased metabolizable energy intake, percentage of absorbed energy and energy expenditure in both groups. Body composition was only affected by the association of hypercaloric diet and maternal obesity that led to increased body fat.Conclusions : Maternal obesity has led to the development of later overweight in offspring, suggesting fetal programming. According to the trend presented, it is believed that the prolonged intake of hypercaloric diets in adult animals may, as an additional effect, induce worsening of the overweight induced by maternal obesity. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab. 2014;58(3:301-7
Full Text Available Objective: This study is to evaluate the anti-obese effects of glucosamine (GLC and chitosan oligosaccharide (COS on high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Methods: The rats were randomly divided into twelve groups: a normal diet group (NF, a high-fat diet group (HF, Orlistat group, GLC high-, middle-, and low-dose groups (GLC-H, GLC-M, GLC-L, COS1 (COS, number-average molecular weight â€1000 high-, middle-, and low-dose groups (COS1-H, COS1-M, COS1-L, and COS2 (COS, number-average molecular weight â€3000 high-, middle-, and low-dose groups (COS2-H, COS2-M, COS2-L. All groups received oral treatment by gavage once daily for a period of six weeks. Results: Rats fed with COS1 gained the least weight among all the groups (P < 0.01, and these rats lost more weight than those treated with Orlistat. In addition to the COS2-H and Orlistat groups, the serum total cholesterol (CHO and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels were significantly reduced in all treatment groups compared to the HF group (P < 0.01. The various doses of GLC, COS1 and COS2 reduced the expression levels of PPARÎł and LXRÎ± mRNA in the white adipose tissue. Conclusions: The results above demonstrated that GLC, COS1, and COS2 improved dyslipidemia and prevented body weight gains by inhibiting the adipocyte differentiation in obese rats induced by a high-fat diet. Thus, these agents may potentially be used to treat obesity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Schools are the most frequent target for intervention programs aimed at preventing child obesity; however, the overall effectiveness of these programs has been limited. It has therefore been recommended that interventions target multiple ecological levels (community, family, school and individual to have greater success in changing risk behaviors for obesity. This study examined the immediate and short-term, sustained effects of the Switch program, which targeted three behaviors (decreasing children's screen time, increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, and increasing physical activity at three ecological levels (the family, school, and community. Methods Participants were 1,323 children and their parents from 10 schools in two states. Schools were matched and randomly assigned to treatment and control. Measures of the key behaviors and body mass index were collected at baseline, immediately post-intervention, and 6 months post-intervention. Results The effect sizes of the differences between treatment and control groups ranged between small (Cohen's d = 0.15 for body mass index at 6 months post-intervention to large (1.38; parent report of screen time at 6 months post-intervention, controlling for baseline levels. There was a significant difference in parent-reported screen time at post-intervention in the experimental group, and this effect was maintained at 6 months post-intervention (a difference of about 2 hours/week. The experimental group also showed a significant increase in parent-reported fruit and vegetable consumption while child-reported fruit and vegetable consumption was marginally significant. At the 6-month follow-up, parent-reported screen time was significantly lower, and parent and child-reported fruit and vegetable consumption was significantly increased. There were no significant effects on pedometer measures of physical activity or body mass index in the experimental group. The intervention effects were moderated by child sex (for fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and weight status, family involvement (for fruit and vegetable consumption, and child body mass index (for screen time. The perception of change among the experimental group was generally positive with 23% to 62% indicating positive changes in behaviors. Conclusion The results indicate that the Switch program yielded small-to-modest treatment effects for promoting children's fruit and vegetable consumption and minimizing screen time. The Switch program offers promise for use in youth obesity prevention.
Aim: Obesity is an important, complex and chronic disease. Fatty diet is a significant factor causing obesity. It is known that obesity is associated with many chronic disorders such as NonAlcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). However, mechanism of this event is yet unclear. In this study, it was purposed to examine histological effects of fatty diet induced obesity on liver from female obese rats. Methods: Within scope of this aim, the obesity model was performed on animals of the study gro...
Tin, Sze-pui,Pamela; ç°è©©è
Background: Childhood obesity remains a major public health concern. While preventing childhood obesity is important, the effectiveness of existing prevention strategies is indefinite. Important obesity contributors are speculated to be overlooked while the role of well-studied obesity-related factors has been questioned. Objectives: 1) Although the association between lifestyle and obesity is seemingly well-established, how an overlooked dietary factor, breakfast location, associates ...
Full Text Available The interest in genetic manipulations of PPARs is as old as their discovery as receptors of ligands with beneficial clinical activities. Considering the effects of PPAR ligands on critical aspects of systemic physiology, including obesity, lipid metabolism, insulin resistance, and diabetes, gene knockout (KO in mice is the ideal platform for both hypothesis testing and discovery of new PPAR functions in vivo. With the fervent pursuit of the magic bullet to eradicate the obesity epidemic, special emphasis has been placed on the impacts of PPARs on obesity and its associated diseases. As detailed in this review, understanding how PPARs regulate gene expression and basic metabolic pathways is a necessary intermediate en route to deciphering their effects on obesity. Over a decade and dozens of genetic modifications of PPARs into this effort, valuable lessons have been learned, but we are left with more questions to be answered. These lessons and future prospects are the subject of this review.
Comerma-Steffensen, Simon; Grann, Martin; Andersen, Charlotte; Rungby, Jorgen; Simonsen, Ulf
The prevalence of obesity increases and is associated with increases in co-morbidities e.g. type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, stroke, asthma, several forms of cancer, depression, and may result in reduction of expected remaining lifespan. We have...... reviewed the adverse effects on the cardiovascular system of anti-obesity drugs now retracted from the market as well as the cardiovascular profile of current drugs and potential pathways which are considered for treatment of obesity. Fenfluramine, and sibutramine were withdrawn due to increased...... side effects need to be clarified regarding phentermine and lorcaserin. Drugs approved for type 2 diabetes including glucagon like peptide (GLP-1) analogues and metformin also cause moderate weight losses and have a favourable cardiovascular profile, while the anti-obesity potential of nebivolol...
K W Bauer; Neumark-Sztainer, D; Hannan, P. J.; Fulkerson, J. A.; Story, M.
Identifying factors that contribute to students' behavior and weight improvements during school-based obesity prevention interventions is critical for the development of effective programs. The current study aims to determine whether the support and resources that adolescent girls received from their families were associated with improvements in physical activity (PA), television use, dietary intake, body mass index (BMI) and body composition during participation in New Moves, a school-based ...
Taylor, Natalie J; Sahota, Pinki; Sargent, Judith; Barber, Sally; Loach, Jackie; Louch, Gemma; Wright, John
Introduction Interventions that make extensive use of theory tend to have larger effects on behaviour. The Intervention Mapping (IM) framework incorporates theory into intervention design, implementation and evaluation, and was applied to the development of a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention for a multi-ethnic population. Methods IM was applied as follows: 1) Needs assessment of the community and culture; consideration of evidence-base, policy and practice; 2) Identif...
MA, YONGJIE; Liu, Dexi
Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is known to function as a xenobiotic sensor to regulate xenobiotic metabolism through selective transcription of genes responsible for maintaining physiological homeostasis. Here we report that the activation of PXR by pregnenolone 16?-carbonitrile (PCN) in AKR/J mice can prevent the development of high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. The beneficial effects of PCN treatment are seen with reduced lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis in the liver, and lack ...
Visser, R; Atkinson, R L
The first Pan American Conference on Obesity (PACO I) was held in Aruba in June 2011 and was attended by a wide variety of professionals including scientists, clinicians, Ministers of Health and other government officials from a number of Caribbean, Latin American and North American countries. The conference focused on childhood obesity and the participants discussed public health policies that addressed the problem of childhood obesity. These included multi-level, comprehensive strategies to address childhood obesity based on three principles: (a) that primordial and primary prevention with a life-course approach should be the central component of national programs to stop the obesity epidemic, (b) that the multi-level focus should be working across all sectors to modify the âobesogenic' environment that facilitates a positive energy balance and excess weight gain and (c) that developing self-care skills, meaning actions taken by the individual to protect and promote their health and the health of their children, is imperative. At the same time, it was acknowledged that the âobesogenic' environment shows wide variability across countries, and therefore any concerted regional action plan must allow for flexibility and adaptation to each local situation. Finally, education was identified as a critical component for the promotion of health and the prevention of childhood obesity.
Suyeon Kim; Yaacov Barak
The interest in genetic manipulations of PPARs is as old as their discovery as receptors of ligands with beneficial clinical activities. Considering the effects of PPAR ligands on critical aspects of systemic physiology, including obesity, lipid metabolism, insulin resistance, and diabetes, gene knockout (KO) in mice is the ideal platform for both hypothesis testing and discovery of new PPAR functions in vivo. With the fervent pursuit of the magic bullet to eradicate the obesity epidemic, spe...
Li, A; Chan, D.; Wong, E; Yin, J; Nelson, E.; Fok, T
Methods: Sixty four obese patients underwent physical examination, standardised pulmonary function tests (spirometry, lung volumes, and single breath diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide), and DEXA scan measurements. The trunk and subtotal (total - head) body fat mass were used as surrogate index of body adiposity.
Polhamus Barbara; Sherry Bettylou; Wethington Holly R
Abstract Background Screening for obesity and providing appropriate obesity-related counseling in the clinical setting are important strategies to prevent and control childhood obesity. The purpose of this study is to document pediatricians (PEDs) and general practitioners (GPs) with pediatric patients use of BMI-for-age to screen for obesity, confidence in explaining BMI, access to referral clinics, and characteristics associated with screening and counseling to children and their caregivers...
Perry, Cynthia K.; Sumrall, Jasmin C.; Patterson, Megan S.; Walsh, Shana M.; Clendennen, Stephanie C.; Hooker, Steven P.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Goins, Karin V.; Heinrich, Katie M.; OâHara Tompkins, Nancy; Eyler, Amy A.; Jones, Sydney; Tabak, Rachel; Valko, Cheryl
Introduction Health disparities exist between rural and urban residents; in particular, rural residents have higher rates of chronic diseases and obesity. Evidence supports the effectiveness of policy and environmental strategies to prevent obesity and promote health equity. In 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended 24 policy and environmental strategies for use by local communities: the Common Community Measures for Obesity Prevention (COCOMO); 12 strategies focus on physical activity. This review was conducted to synthesize evidence on the implementation, relevance, and effectiveness of physical activityârelated policy and environmental strategies for obesity prevention in rural communities. Methods A literature search was conducted in PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINHAL, and PAIS databases for articles published from 2002 through May 2013 that reported findings from physical activityârelated policy or environmental interventions conducted in the United States or Canada. Each article was extracted independently by 2 researchers. Results Of 2,002 articles, 30 articles representing 26 distinct studies met inclusion criteria. Schools were the most common setting (n = 18 studies). COCOMO strategies were applied in rural communities in 22 studies; the 2 most common COCOMO strategies were âenhance infrastructure supporting walkingâ (n = 11) and âincrease opportunities for extracurricular physical activityâ (n = 9). Most studies (n = 21) applied at least one of 8 non-COCOMO strategies; the most common was increasing physical activity opportunities at school outside of physical education (n = 8). Only 14 studies measured or reported physical activity outcomes (10 studies solely used self-report); 10 reported positive changes. Conclusion Seven of the 12 COCOMO physical activityârelated strategies were successfully implemented in 2 or more studies, suggesting that these 7 strategies are relevant in rural communities and the other 5 might be less applicable in rural communities. Further research using robust study designs and measurement is needed to better ascertain implementation success and effectiveness of COCOMO and non-COCOMO strategies in rural communities. PMID:26741997
Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Ling, Fenjung; Anne, Kaas; Funda, David; Farlov, Helene; Buschard, Karsten
Background A gluten-free diet reduces the incidence of diabetes mellitus in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, but the mechanism is not known. The aim of this study was to examine the possible influence of the diet on the caecal bacterial flora, which may affect the intestinal physiology and mediate...... disease prevention. Methods Two groups of NOD mice from the age of 3 weeks were fed either a gluten-free diet or a standard diet. Each diabetic mouse, when diagnosed, along with a non-diabetic mouse from the same diet group and two nondiabetic mice from the alternate diet group were euthanized and sampled...... both qualitatively and quantitatively substantially altered the composition of the caecal bacterial flora in NOD mice. Although Gram-positive bacteria might influence the beta cells through certain digestive products, it is more likely to assume that any effect on diabetes incidence is immunological...
Agouni, Abdelali; Lagrue-Lak-Hal, Anne-HĂ©lĂšne; Mostefai, Hadj Ahmed; Tesse, Angela; Mulder, Paul; Rouet, Philippe; Desmoulin, Franck; Heymes, Christophe; MartĂnez, Maria Carmen; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson
Background Obesity is associated with increased risks for development of cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological studies report an inverse association between dietary flavonoid consumption and mortality from cardiovascular diseases. We studied the potential beneficial effects of dietary supplementation of red wine polyphenol extract, Provinolsâą, on obesity-associated alterations with respect to metabolic disturbances and cardiovascular functions in Zucker fatty (ZF) rats. Methodology/Princip...
Norman, Ă sa; Nyberg, Gisela; Elinder, Liselotte SchĂ€fer; Berlin, Anita
Background Parental support interventions have shown some effectiveness in improving childrenâs dietary and physical activity habits and preventing overweight and obesity. To date, there is limited research on barriers and facilitators of school-based parental support interventions targeting overweight and obesity. This study aimed to describe barriers and facilitators influencing implementation of the Healthy School Start (HSS) intervention in disadvantaged areas in Stockholm, Sweden, from t...
Taveras Elsie M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents are integral to the implementation of obesity prevention and management recommendations for children. Exploration of barriers to and facilitators of parental decisions to adopt obesity prevention recommendations will inform future efforts to reduce childhood obesity. Methods We conducted 4 focus groups (2 English, 2 Spanish among a total of 19 parents of overweight (BMI â„ 85th percentile children aged 5-17 years. The main discussion focused on 7 common obesity prevention recommendations: reducing television (TV watching, removing TV from child's bedroom, increasing physically active games, participating in community or school-based athletics, walking to school, walking more in general, and eating less fast food. Parents were asked to discuss what factors would make each recommendation more difficult (barriers or easier (facilitators to follow. Participants were also asked about the relative importance of economic (time and dollar costs/savings barriers and facilitators if these were not brought into the discussion unprompted. Results Parents identified many barriers but few facilitators to adopting obesity prevention recommendations for their children. Members of all groups identified economic barriers (time and dollar costs among a variety of pertinent barriers, although the discussion of dollar costs often required prompting. Parents cited other barriers including child preference, difficulty with changing habits, lack of information, lack of transportation, difficulty with monitoring child behavior, need for assistance from family members, parity with other family members, and neighborhood walking safety. Facilitators identified included access to physical activity programs, availability of alternatives to fast food and TV which are acceptable to the child, enlisting outside support, dietary information, involving the child, setting limits, making behavior changes gradually, and parental change in shopping behaviors and own eating behaviors. Conclusions Parents identify numerous barriers to adopting obesity prevention recommendations, most notably child and family preferences and resistance to change, but also economic barriers. Intervention programs should consider the context of family priorities and how to overcome barriers and make use of relevant facilitators during program development.
Buhler, Susan; Raine, Kim D; Arango, Manuel; Pellerin, Suzie; Neary, Neil E
Obesity is a major public health issue in Canada that is reaching historically high levels in spite of efforts, targeted primarily at individual behaviour, to promote changes in diet and physical activity. Urgency for change at the population level compels moving "upstream" toward multilevel, societal approaches for obesity prevention. Public health researchers, advocates and policy makers are increasingly recognizing the current food environment, including availability, pricing, and marketing of foods and beverages, promotes overconsumption of unhealthy food and beverage choices and have identified the food environment as a point for intervention for obesity prevention. In April 2011, a consensus conference with invited experts from research, policy and practice fields was held. The conference aimed to build consensus around policy levers to address environmental determinants of obesity, including next logical steps toward further policy action. Using economic policies, such as taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), was discussed as one opportunity to promote healthy eating. This article reports on the consensus discussion that led to recommendations to tax sugar-sweetened beverages as one step in a multipronged comprehensive approach to obesity prevention. This recommendation is based on a synthesis of available evidence, including evidence regarding political feasibility, and potential impacts of a tax. In addition, we present additional primary research using current SSB consumption data to model the economic and behavioural impact of such a tax in Canada. PMID:24070799
Moulos, Ioannis; Maramis, Christos; Mourouzis, Alexandros; Maglaveras, Nicos
The recent immense diffusion of smartphones has significantly upgraded the role of mobile user interfaces in interventions that build and/or maintain healthier lifestyles. Indeed, high-quality, user-centered smartphone applications are able to serve as advanced front-ends to such interventions. These smartphone applications, coupled with portable or wearable sensors, are being employed for monitoring day to day health-related behaviors, including eating and physical activity. Some of them take one step forward by identifying unhealthy behaviors and contributing towards their modification. This work presents the design as well as the preliminary implementation of the mobile user interface of SPLENDID, a novel, sensor-oriented intervention for preventing obesity and eating disorders in young populations. This is implemented by means of an Android application, which is able to monitor the eating and physical activity behaviors of young individuals at risk for obesity and/or eating disorders, subsequently guiding them towards the modification of those behaviors that put them at risk. Behavior monitoring is based on multiple data provided by a set of communicating sensors and self-reported information, while guidance is facilitated through a feedback/encouragement provision and goal setting mechanism. PMID:25991228
Benn, Tyler; Kim, Bohkyung; Park, Young-Ki; Wegner, Casey J; Harness, Ellen; Nam, Tae-Gyu; Kim, Dae-Ok; Lee, Jong Suk; Lee, Ji-Young
Obesity is closely associated with chronic, low-grade inflammation. We investigated if polyphenol-rich blackcurrant extract (BCE) can prevent inflammation in vivo. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a modified AIN-93M control diet containing high fat/high cholesterol (16% fat, 0.25% cholesterol by weight) or the control diet supplemented with 0.1% BCE (wt/wt) for 12 weeks. In BCE-fed mice, the percentage of body weight and adipocyte size of the epididymal fat were significantly lower than those of control mice. There were fewer crown-like structures (CLS) with concomitant decreases in F4/80, cluster of differentiation 68 and inhibitor of nuclear factor ?B kinase ? (IKK?) mRNA in the epididymal adipose of BCE-fed mice. F4/80 and IKK? mRNA levels were positively correlated with CLS number. In the skeletal muscle of mice fed with BCE, mRNA expression of genes involved in energy expenditure and mitochondrial biogenesis, including PPAR?, PPAR?, UCP-2, UCP-3 and mitochondrial transcription factor A, were significantly increased. When splenocytes from BCE-fed mice were stimulated by lipopolysaccharides, tumor necrosis factor ? and interleukin-1? mRNA were significantly lower than control splenocytes. Together, the results suggest that BCE supplementation decreases obesity-induced inflammation in adipose tissue and splenocytes, at least in part, by modulating energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. PMID:25034502
Alberto JosĂ© GarcĂa Rubio
Full Text Available Currently, childhood obesity is one of the most important problems in the world health since in recent years has increased significantly in developed countries. The origin of this problem is due to a lifestyle based on little or no physical activity, coupled with poor and unbalanced diet. This condition, in turn, may adversely affect the formation of students due to low self esteem, depression and other psychological problems. The measures proposed are constant to the families of the students and the students themselves, through weekly lectures and workshops, which will take place in the school itself up. In addition, another measure would be to increase the number of hours of physical activity within the school timetable, taking advantage schedules for recreation and dining.The objective of the above work is to make a proposal, as a tool to prevent and treat overweight and obesity among children from the same education.The hypothesis of the project is that the BMI of the sample of the selected school will be reduced significantly due to changes in habits, promoted from this initiative, thereby improving their school performance. No conclusive results because it has not been implemented so far.Â
Knowlden, Adam P.; Sharma, Manoj; Cottrell, Randall R.; Wilson, Bradley R. A.; Johnson, Marcus Lee
Background. The family and home environment is an influential antecedent of childhood obesity. The purpose of this study was to pilot test The Enabling Mothers to Prevent Pediatric Obesity through Web-Based Education and Reciprocal Determinism (EMPOWER) intervention; a newly developed, theory-based, online program for prevention of childhoodâŠ
Golgis Karimi; Mohd Redzwan Sabran; Rosita Jamaluddin; Kolsoom Parvaneh; Norhafizah Mohtarrudin; Zuraini Ahmad; Huzwah Khazaai; Alireza Khodavandi
Background: Obesity and overweight are major public health problems. Various factors, such as daily nutritional habits, physical inactivity, and genetic, are related to the prevalence of obesity. Recently, it was revealed that the gut microflora may also play an important role in weight management. Thus, this study aimed to determine the anti-obesity effects of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) compared with those of orlistat in an animal model fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Design: Thirty...
Welker, Emily; Lott, Megan; Story, Mary
The school food environment-including when and where children obtain food and the types of options available during the school day-plays an important role in children's consumption patterns. Thus, childhood obesity prevention efforts often focus on altering the school food environment as a mechanism for improving student dietary intake. This review examines the role school food programs and policies play in improving children's diet, weight, and health. Overall, research suggests that significant improvements have been made in school nutrition policies and programs. Due to the recent program changes made as a result of the 2010 Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act, an emphasis was placed on research conducted over the past decade and especially on the evaluation of foods and beverages served and sold since implementation of this national law. This review also examines remaining gaps in the literature and opportunities for further improvements in school food programs and policies. PMID:27066793
Liu, Wei-Xin, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Wang, Ting; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Ying; Xing, Jun-Wei; Zhang, Shen [Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Gu, Shou-Zhi [Department of Anatomy, Seirei Christopher College, Hamamatsu 433-8558 (Japan); Sang, Li-Xuan [Department of Cadre Ward II, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Dai, Cong [Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Wang, Hai-Lan [Guangdong Province Hospital for Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment, Guangzhou 510300, Guangdong (China)
Obesity is associated with increased colonic inflammation, which elevates the risk of colon cancer. Although exercise exerts anti-inflammatory actions in multiple chronic diseases associated with inflammation, it is unknown whether this strategy prevents colonic inflammation in obesity. We hypothesized that voluntary exercise would suppress colonic inflammation in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity by modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-Îł. Male C57Bl/6J mice fed either a control diet (6.5% fat, CON) or a high-fat diet (24% fat, HFD) were divided into sedentary, voluntary exercise or voluntary exercise with PPAR-Îł antagonist GW9662 (10Â mg/kg/day). All interventions took place for 12 weeks. Compared with CON-sedentary group, HFD-sedentary mice gained significantly more body weight and exhibited metabolic disorders. Molecular studies revealed that HFD-sedentary mice had increased expression of inflammatory mediators and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-ÎșB in the colons, which were associated with decreased expression and activity of PPAR-Îł. Voluntary exercise markedly attenuated body weight gain, improved metabolic disorders, and normalized the expression of inflammatory mediators and activation of NF-ÎșB in the colons in HFD-mice while having no effects in CON-animals. Moreover, voluntary exercise significantly increased expression and activity of PPAR-Îł in the colons in both HFD- and CON-animals. However, all of these beneficial effects induced by voluntary exercise were abolished by GW9662, which inhibited expression and activity of PPAR-Îł. The results suggest that decreased PPAR-Îł activity in the colon of HFD-induced obesity may facilitate the inflammatory response and colon carcinogenesis. Voluntary exercise prevents colonic inflammation in HFD-induced obesity by up-regulating PPAR-Îł activity. - Highlights: âą Obesity down-regulates PPAR-Îł in the colon. âą Down-regulated colonic PPAR-Îł may facilitate inflammatory response. âą Exercise prevents colonic inflammation in obesity by up-regulating PPAR-Îł.
Obesity is associated with increased colonic inflammation, which elevates the risk of colon cancer. Although exercise exerts anti-inflammatory actions in multiple chronic diseases associated with inflammation, it is unknown whether this strategy prevents colonic inflammation in obesity. We hypothesized that voluntary exercise would suppress colonic inflammation in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity by modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-Îł. Male C57Bl/6J mice fed either a control diet (6.5% fat, CON) or a high-fat diet (24% fat, HFD) were divided into sedentary, voluntary exercise or voluntary exercise with PPAR-Îł antagonist GW9662 (10Â mg/kg/day). All interventions took place for 12 weeks. Compared with CON-sedentary group, HFD-sedentary mice gained significantly more body weight and exhibited metabolic disorders. Molecular studies revealed that HFD-sedentary mice had increased expression of inflammatory mediators and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-ÎșB in the colons, which were associated with decreased expression and activity of PPAR-Îł. Voluntary exercise markedly attenuated body weight gain, improved metabolic disorders, and normalized the expression of inflammatory mediators and activation of NF-ÎșB in the colons in HFD-mice while having no effects in CON-animals. Moreover, voluntary exercise significantly increased expression and activity of PPAR-Îł in the colons in both HFD- and CON-animals. However, all of these beneficial effects induced by voluntary exercise were abolished by GW9662, which inhibited expression and activity of PPAR-Îł. The results suggest that decreased PPAR-Îł activity in the colon of HFD-induced obesity may facilitate the inflammatory response and colon carcinogenesis. Voluntary exercise prevents colonic inflammation in HFD-induced obesity by up-regulating PPAR-Îł activity. - Highlights: âą Obesity down-regulates PPAR-Îł in the colon. âą Down-regulated colonic PPAR-Îł may facilitate inflammatory response. âą Exercise prevents colonic inflammation in obesity by up-regulating PPAR-Îł
Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising burden of obesity in Tonga is alarming. The promotion of healthy behaviours and environments requires immediate urgent action and a multi-sectoral approach. A three-year community based study titled the Ma'alahi Youth Project (MYP conducted in Tonga from 2005-2008 aimed to increase the capacity of the whole community (schools, churches, parents and adolescents to promote healthy eating and regular physical activity and to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity amongst youth and their families. This paper reflects on the process evaluation for MYP, against a set of Best Practice Principles for community-based obesity prevention. Methods MYP was managed by the Fiji School of Medicine. A team of five staff in Tonga were committed to planning, implementation and evaluation of a strategic plan, the key planks of which were developed during a two day community workshop. Intervention activities were delivered in villages, churches and schools, on the main island of Tongatapu. Process evaluation data covering the resource utilisation associated with all intervention activities were collected, and analysed by dose, frequency and reach for specific strategies. The action plan included three standard objectives around capacity building, social marketing and evaluation; four nutrition; two physical activity objectives; and one around championing key people as role models. Results While the interventions included a wide mix of activities straddling across all of these objectives and in both school and village settings, there was a major focus on the social marketing and physical activity objectives. The intervention reach, frequency and dose varied widely across all activities, and showed no consistent patterns. Conclusions The adolescent obesity interventions implemented as part of the MYP program comprised a wide range of activities conducted in multiple settings, touched a broad spectrum of the population (wider than the target group, but the dose and frequency of activities were generally insufficient and not sustained. Also the project confirmed that, while the MYP resulted in increased community awareness of healthy behaviours, Tonga is still in its infancy in terms of conducting public health research and lacks research infrastructure and capacity.
Haby Michelle M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in community-based interventions (CBIs for health promotion is increasing, with a lot of recent activity in the field. This paper aims, from a state government perspective, to examine the experience of funding and managing six obesity prevention CBIs, to identify lessons learned and to consider the implications for future investment. Specifically, we focus on the planning, government support, evaluation, research and workforce development required. Methods The lessons presented in this paper come from analysis of key project documents, the experience of the authors in managing the projects and from feedback obtained from key program stakeholders. Results CBIs require careful management, including sufficient planning time and clear governance structures. Selection of interventions should be based on evidence and tailored to local needs to ensure adequate penetration in the community. Workforce and community capacity must be assessed and addressed when selecting communities. Supporting the health promotion workforce to become adequately skilled and experienced in evaluation and research is also necessary before implementation. Comprehensive evaluation of future projects is challenging on both technical and affordability grounds. Greater emphasis may be needed on process evaluation complemented by organisation-level measures of impact and monitoring of nutrition and physical activity behaviours. Conclusions CBIs offer potential as one of a mix of approaches to obesity prevention. If successful approaches are to be expanded, care must be taken to incorporate lessons from existing and past projects. To do this, government must show strong leadership and work in partnership with the research community and local practitioners.
Full Text Available Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, positron emission tomography (PET, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brainâbehavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS. Converging evidence points at the value of these non-invasive neuromodulation strategies to study basic mechanisms underlying eating behavior and to treat its disorders. Both of these approaches will be compared in light of recent work in this field, while addressing technical and practical questions. The third part of this review will be dedicated to invasive neuromodulation strategies, such as vagus nerve stimulation (VNS and deep brain stimulation (DBS. In combination with neuroimaging approaches, these techniques are promising experimental tools to unravel the intricate relationships between homeostatic and hedonic brain circuits. Their potential as additional therapeutic tools to combat pharmacorefractory morbid obesity or acute eating disorders will be discussed, in terms of technical challenges, applicability and ethics. In a general discussion, we will put the brain at the core of fundamental research, prevention and therapy in the context of obesity and eating disorders. First, we will discuss the possibility to identify new biological markers of brain functions. Second, we will highlight the potential of neuroimaging and neuromodulation in individualized medicine. Third, we will introduce the ethical questions that are concomitant to the emergence of new neuromodulation therapies.
Val-Laillet, D.; Aarts, E.; Weber, B.; Ferrari, M.; Quaresima, V.; Stoeckel, L.E.; Alonso-Alonso, M.; Audette, M.; Malbert, C.H.; Stice, E.
Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brainâbehavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence points at the value of these non-invasive neuromodulation strategies to study basic mechanisms underlying eating behavior and to treat its disorders. Both of these approaches will be compared in light of recent work in this field, while addressing technical and practical questions. The third part of this review will be dedicated to invasive neuromodulation strategies, such as vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and deep brain stimulation (DBS). In combination with neuroimaging approaches, these techniques are promising experimental tools to unravel the intricate relationships between homeostatic and hedonic brain circuits. Their potential as additional therapeutic tools to combat pharmacorefractory morbid obesity or acute eating disorders will be discussed, in terms of technical challenges, applicability and ethics. In a general discussion, we will put the brain at the core of fundamental research, prevention and therapy in the context of obesity and eating disorders. First, we will discuss the possibility to identify new biological markers of brain functions. Second, we will highlight the potential of neuroimaging and neuromodulation in individualized medicine. Third, we will introduce the ethical questions that are concomitant to the emergence of new neuromodulation therapies. PMID:26110109
Val-Laillet, D; Aarts, E; Weber, B; Ferrari, M; Quaresima, V; Stoeckel, L E; Alonso-Alonso, M; Audette, M; Malbert, C H; Stice, E
Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity may trigger food craving and predict future weight gain. This opens the way to prevention studies using functional and molecular neuroimaging to perform early diagnostics and to phenotype subjects at risk by exploring different neurobehavioral dimensions of the food choices and motivation processes. In the first part of this review, advantages and limitations of neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), pharmacogenetic fMRI and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) will be discussed in the context of recent work dealing with eating behavior, with a particular focus on obesity. In the second part of the review, non-invasive strategies to modulate food-related brain processes and functions will be presented. At the leading edge of non-invasive brain-based technologies is real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback, which is a powerful tool to better understand the complexity of human brain-behavior relationships. rtfMRI, alone or when combined with other techniques and tools such as EEG and cognitive therapy, could be used to alter neural plasticity and learned behavior to optimize and/or restore healthy cognition and eating behavior. Other promising non-invasive neuromodulation approaches being explored are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). Converging evidence points at the value of these non-invasive neuromodulation strategies to study basic mechanisms underlying eating behavior and to treat its disorders. Both of these approaches will be compared in light of recent work in this field, while addressing technical and practical questions. The third part of this review will be dedicated to invasive neuromodulation strategies, such as vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and deep brain stimulation (DBS). In combination with neuroimaging approaches, these techniques are promising experimental tools to unravel the intricate relationships between homeostatic and hedonic brain circuits. Their potential as additional therapeutic tools to combat pharmacorefractory morbid obesity or acute eating disorders will be discussed, in terms of technical challenges, applicability and ethics. In a general discussion, we will put the brain at the core of fundamental research, prevention and therapy in the context of obesity and eating disorders. First, we will discuss the possibility to identify new biological markers of brain functions. Second, we will highlight the potential of neuroimaging and neuromodulation in individualized medicine. Third, we will introduce the ethical questions that are concomitant to the emergence of new neuromodulation therapies. PMID:26110109
Stark, Christina M.; Graham-Kiefer, Meredith L.; Devine, Carol M.; Dollahite, Jamie S.; Olson, Christine M.
Objective: To assess the impact of an online continuing education course on the knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy of nutrition professionals to use an ecological approach to prevent childhood obesity. Design: Quasi-experimental design using intervention and delayed intervention comparison groups with pre/post-course assessments. Setting: OnlineâŠ
Meininger, Janet C.; Reyes, Lisa R.; Selwyn, Beatrice J.; Upchurch, Sandra L.; Brosnan, Christine A.; Taylor, Wendell C.; Villagomez, Evangelina; Quintana, Vianey; Pullis, Bridgette; Caudill, Denise; Sterchy, Sharon; Phillips, Melinda
Background: The involvement of school-age children in participatory research is described in the context of a school district-university partnership to prevent obesity in children. The purpose of this study was to elicit, from children in kindergarten (K) through sixth grade, perceptions of foods and activities that would inform the design of
Process evaluations of large-scale school based programs are necessary to aid in the interpretation of the outcome data. The Louisiana Health (LA Health) study is a multi-component childhood obesity prevention study for middle school children. The Physical Education (PEQ), Intervention (IQ), and F...
He, Hongbo; Yang, Dachun; Ma, Liqun; Luo, Zhidan; Ma, Shuangtao; Feng, Xiaoli; Cao, Tingbing; Yan, Zhencheng; Liu, Daoyan; Tepel, Martin; Zhu, Zhiming
-gamma expression, whereas neither candesartan nor losartan affected PPAR-delta expression. In vivo, long-term administration of telmisartan significantly reduced visceral fat and prevented high-fat diet-induced obesity in wild-type mice and hypertensive rats but not in PPAR-delta knockout mice. Administration of...
Peeri, Michael G.; And Others
Evaluated two strategies for enhancing maintenance of weight loss in the behavioral treatment of obese clients (N=129): relapse prevention training and posttreatment client-therapist contact by mail and telephone. Results showed that all treatments produced substantial initial weight losses, but subjects tended to regain weight during theâŠ
Stark, Christina M.; Graham-Kiefer, Meredith L.; Devine, Carol M.; Dollahite, Jamie S.; Olson, Christine M.
Objective: To assess the impact of an online continuing education course on the knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy of nutrition professionals to use an ecological approach to prevent childhood obesity. Design: Quasi-experimental design using intervention and delayed intervention comparison groups with pre/post-course assessments. Setting: Online
Liu, Wei-Xin; Wang, Ting; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Ying; Xing, Jun-Wei; Zhang, Shen; Gu, Shou-Zhi; Sang, Li-Xuan; Dai, Cong; Wang, Hai-Lan
Obesity is associated with increased colonic inflammation, which elevates the risk of colon cancer. Although exercise exerts anti-inflammatory actions in multiple chronic diseases associated with inflammation, it is unknown whether this strategy prevents colonic inflammation in obesity. We hypothesized that voluntary exercise would suppress colonic inflammation in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity by modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-Îł. Male C57Bl/6J mice fed either a control diet (6.5% fat, CON) or a high-fat diet (24% fat, HFD) were divided into sedentary, voluntary exercise or voluntary exercise with PPAR-Îł antagonist GW9662 (10 mg/kg/day). All interventions took place for 12 weeks. Compared with CON-sedentary group, HFD-sedentary mice gained significantly more body weight and exhibited metabolic disorders. Molecular studies revealed that HFD-sedentary mice had increased expression of inflammatory mediators and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-ÎșB in the colons, which were associated with decreased expression and activity of PPAR-Îł. Voluntary exercise markedly attenuated body weight gain, improved metabolic disorders, and normalized the expression of inflammatory mediators and activation of NF-ÎșB in the colons in HFD-mice while having no effects in CON-animals. Moreover, voluntary exercise significantly increased expression and activity of PPAR-Îł in the colons in both HFD- and CON-animals. However, all of these beneficial effects induced by voluntary exercise were abolished by GW9662, which inhibited expression and activity of PPAR-Îł. The results suggest that decreased PPAR-Îł activity in the colon of HFD-induced obesity may facilitate the inflammatory response and colon carcinogenesis. Voluntary exercise prevents colonic inflammation in HFD-induced obesity by up-regulating PPAR-Îł activity. PMID:25701789
Dimitrios K Papamargaritis
Full Text Available Dimitrios K Papamargaritis, Dimitrios J Pournaras, Carel W Le RouxImperial Weight Centre, Imperial College London, London, UKAbstract: Obesity is an epidemic disease, and its prevalence is predicted to rise in the future. Many health and social comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, arthritis, infertility, eating disorders, unemployment, and low quality of life, have been associated with obesity. Nowadays, bariatric surgery is the only effective treatment for severe obesity. An increasing body of literature demonstrates significant remission of obesity-related comorbidities and an increase in life expectancy after surgical treatment. Unfortunately, serious complications can appear after surgery, and the careful preoperative assessment of patients is necessary to estimate the indications and contraindications of bariatric surgery. Recent studies report the lower complication and mortality rates when bariatric procedures are performed in high-volume centers. The purpose of this review is to describe the techniques of the currently used surgical procedures and the clinical effectiveness of bariatric surgery. Additionally, the possible complications and mortality rates after bariatric surgery are discussed.Keywords: obesity, surgery, assessment, clinical effectiveness, complications
Full Text Available Abstract Background Comprehensive, multi-level approaches are required to address obesity. One important target for intervention is the economic domain. The purpose of this study was to synthesize existing evidence regarding the impact of economic policies targeting obesity and its causal behaviours (diet, physical activity, and to make specific recommendations for the Canadian context. Methods Arksey and O'Malley's (2005 methodological framework for conducting scoping reviews was adopted for this study and this consisted of two phases: 1 a structured literature search and review, and 2 consultation with experts in the research field through a Delphi survey and an in-person expert panel meeting in April 2010. Results Two key findings from the scoping review included 1 consistent evidence that weight outcomes are responsive to food and beverage prices. The debate on the use of food taxes and subsidies to address obesity should now shift to how best to address practical issues in designing such policies; and 2 very few studies have examined the impact of economic instruments to promote physical activity and clear policy recommendations cannot be made at this time. Delphi survey findings emphasised the relatively modest impact any specific economic instrument would have on obesity independently. Based on empirical evidence and expert opinion, three recommendations were supported. First, to create and implement an effective health filter to review new and current agricultural polices to reduce the possibility that such policies have a deleterious impact on population rates of obesity. Second, to implement a caloric sweetened beverage tax. Third, to examine how to implement fruit and vegetable subsidies targeted at children and low income households. Conclusions In terms of economic interventions, shifting from empirical evidence to policy recommendation remains challenging. Overall, the evidence is not sufficiently strong to provide clear policy direction. Additionally, the nature of the experiments needed to provide definitive evidence supporting certain policy directions is likely to be complex and potentially unfeasible. However, these are not reasons to take no action. It is likely that policies need to be implemented in the face of an incomplete evidence base.
LĂ©vesque, Lise; Ozdemir, Vural; Godard, BĂ©atrice
The goal of nutrigenomics is to develop nutritional interventions targeted to individual genetic make-up. Obesity is a prime candidate for nutrigenomics research. Personalized approaches to prevention of diseases associated with obesity may be available in the near future. Nevertheless, in the context of limited resources, access to a nutrigenomics personalized health service raises questions around equity. Using focus groups, the present qualitative research study provides empirical data on ethical concerns and values surrounding the nutrigenomics-guided personalized nutrition for obesity prevention. Eight focus groups were convened including 27 healthy individuals and 21 individuals who self-identified as obese or at risk of obesity. The transcripts of the focus group were analyzed according to the qualitative method of grounded theory. Responsibility, reciprocity, and solidarity emerged as the key ethical criteria perceived by the respondents to be significant in terms of how health professionals should determine access to personalized nutrition services. Still, exclusion of individuals from specific nutrigenomic services is likely to conflict with the imperatives of medical deontology and contemporary social consensus. The representation of equity in this paper is novel: it considers the intersection of nutrigenomics and personalized nutritional interventions specifically in the context of limited public resources for health services. PMID:19040373
Obesity is now one of the public health concerns in China. Many factors are contributing to obesity. However, the underlying mechanism is not clear. As it is hard to cure it once obesity occurs, the most effective and encouraging strategies is prevention. Risk factors should be identified in order to develop prevention strategies
Astrup, Arne; RĂ¶ssner, Stephan; Gaal, Luc van; Rissanen, Aila; Niskanen, Leo; Hakim, Mazin Al; Madsen, Jesper; Rasmussen, Mads F.; Lean, Michael E.J.; NN8022-1807 Study Group
BACKGROUND: The frequency of obesity has risen dramatically in recent years but only few safe and effective drugs are currently available. We assessed the effect of liraglutide on bodyweight and tolerability in obese individuals without type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We did a double-blind, placebo...... individuals (76%, n=70) lost more than 5% weight with liraglutide 3.0 mg that with placebo (30%, n=29) or orlistat (44%, n=42). Liraglutide reduced blood pressure at all doses, and reduced the prevalence of prediabetes (84-96% reduction) with 1.8-3.0 mg per day. Nausea and vomiting occurred more often in...... individuals on liraglutide than in those on placebo, but adverse events were mainly transient and rarely led to discontinuation of treatment. INTERPRETATION: Liraglutide treatment over 20 weeks is well tolerated, induces weight loss, improves certain obesity-related risk factors, and reduces prediabetes...
Childhood obesity has become an epidemic on a worldwide scale. This article gives an overview of the progress made in childhood and adolescent obesity research in the last decade, with a particular emphasis on the transdisciplinary and complex nature of the problem. The following topics are addressed: 1) current definitions of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity; 2) demography of childhood and adolescent obesity both in the US and globally; 3) current topics in the physiology of f...
Frerichs, Leah; Brittin, Jeri; Stewart, Catherine; Robbins, Regina; Riggs, Cara; Mayberger, Susan; Cervantes, Alberto
Background Childhood obesity rates in minority populations continue to rise despite leveling national trends. Although interventions that address social and environmental factors exist, processes that create demand for policy and environmental change within communities have not been identified. Community Context We developed a pilot program in South Omaha, a Nebraska Latino community, based on the community readiness model (CRM), called SaludableOmaha. We used CRM to explore the potential of youth advocacy to shift individual and community norms regarding obesity prevention in South Omaha and to advocate for health-promoting community environments. Methods We used CRM to assess supply and demand for health programs, engage the community, determine the communityâs baseline readiness to address childhood obesity, and guide youth advocacy program development. We conducted our project in 2 phases. In the first, we trained a cohort of youth. In the second, the youth cohort created and launched a Latino health movement, branded as SaludableOmaha. A third phase, which is currently under way, is directed at institutionalizing youth advocacy in communities. Outcome At baseline, the community studied was at a low stage of readiness for change. Our program generated infrastructure and materials to support the growth and institutionalization of youth advocacy as a means of increasing community readiness for addressing obesity prevention. Interpretation CRM is an important tool for addressing issues such as childhood obesity in underserved communities because it provides a framework for matching interventions to the community. Community partnerships such as SaludableOmaha can aid the adoption of obesity prevention programs. PMID:23217590
Altirriba, Jordi; Poher, Anne-Laure; Caillon, AurĂ©lie; Arsenijevic, Denis; Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle; Lyautey, Jacqueline; Dulloo, Abdul; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, FranĂ§oise
Oxytocin has been suggested as a novel therapeutic against obesity, because it induces weight loss and improves glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese rodents. A recent clinical pilot study confirmed the oxytocin-induced weight-reducing effect in obese nondiabetic subjects. Nevertheless, the mechanisms involved and the impact on the main comorbidity associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, are unknown. Lean and ob/ob mice (model of obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and diabetes) were treated for 2...
Wallia, S; Bhopal, R S; Douglas, A; Bhopal, R; Sharma, A; Hutchison, A; Murray, G; Gill, J; Sattar, N; Lawton, J; Tuomilehto, J; Mcknight, J; Forbes, J; Lean, M; Sheikh, A
Type 2 diabetes is extremely common in South Asians, e.g. in men from Pakistani and Indian populations it is about three times as likely as in the general population in England, despite similarities in body mass index. Lifestyle interventions reduce the incidence of diabetes. Trials in Europe and North America have not, however, reported on the impact on South Asian populations separately or provided the details of their cross-cultural adaptation processes. Prevention of diabetes and obesity in South Asians (PODOSA) is a randomized, controlled trial in Scotland of an adapted, lifestyle intervention aimed at reducing weight and increasing physical activity to reduce type 2 diabetes in Indians and Pakistanis. The trial was adapted from the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. We describe, reflect on and discuss the following key issues: The core adaptations to the trial design, particularly the delivery of the intervention in homes by dietitians rather than in clinics. The use of both a multilingual panel and professional translators to help translate and/or develop materials. The processes and challenges of phonetic translation. How intervention resources were adapted, modified, newly developed and translated into Urdu and Gurmukhi (written Punjabi). The insights gained in PODOSA (including time pressures on investigators, imperfections in the adaptation process, the power of verbal rather than written information, the utilization of English and the mother-tongue languages simultaneously by participants and the costs) might help the research community, given the challenge of health promotion in multi-ethnic, urban societies. PMID:23574693
Blanke, Katja; Schlegel, Franziska; Raasch, Walter; Bader, Michael; DĂ€hnert, Ingo; Dhein, Stefan; Salameh, Aida
Aim: Obesity is a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. Recently it was shown that overexpression of the Mas-receptor antagonist angiotensin(1-7) could prevent from diet-induced obesity. However, it remained unclear whether diet-induced obesity and angiotensin(1-7) overexpression might also have effects on the cardiovascular system in these rats. Methods:Twenty three male Sprague Dawley rats were fed with standard chow (SD+chow, n = 5) or a cafeteria diet (SD+CD, n = 6) for 5 months. To investigate the effect of angiotensin(1-7) transgenic rats, expressing an angiotensin(1-7)-producing fusion protein in testis were used. These transgenic rats also received a 5 month's feeding period with either chow (TGR+chow, n = 6) or cafeteria diet (TGR+CD, n = 6), respectively. Hemodynamic measurements (pressure-volume loops) were carried out to assess cardiac function and blood pressure. Subsequently, hearts were explanted and investigated according to the Langendorff technique. Furthermore, cardiac remodeling in these animals was investigated histologically. Results:After 5 months cafeteria diet feeding rats showed a significantly increased body weight, which could be prevented in transgenic rats. However, there was no effect on cardiac performance after cafeteria diet in non-transgenic and transgenic rats. Moreover, overexpression of angiotensin(1-7) deteriorated cardiac contractility as indicated by impaired dp/dt. Furthermore, histological analysis revealed that cafeteria diet led to myocardial fibrosis in both, control and transgenic rats and this was not inhibited by an overproduction of angiotensin(1-7). Conclusion:These results indicate that an overexpression of circulating angiotensin(1-7) prevents a cafeteria diet-induced increase in body weight, but does not affect cardiac performance in this experimental rat model of obesity. Furthermore, overexpression of angiotensin(1-7) alone resulted in an impairment of cardiac function. PMID:26733884
Mulheron, Joyal; Vonasek, Kara
Studies show that childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. Today, more than 23 million American children--or nearly one in every three--are overweight or obese. If childhood obesity is left unaddressed, a generation of individuals could face health, social, and economic challenges that promise to stress governmentâŠ
The new German prevention act attempts to deal with the influx of obesity and chronic diseases by educating and informing. It seeks to change individual behaviour and supress lifestyle-related risk factors. In the past, however this behavioural prevention strategy has proved ineffective. A structural prevention strategy, as requested by the WHO, should additionally be put into effect with measures that reach all walks of life, not just the health-conscious people in society. It proposes the following: Â· At least one hour of daily physical activity or sport at school and kindergarten. Â· A differential food tax that makes unhealthy foods more expensive and healthy foods cheaper (taxing sugary / fatty foods). Â· Mandatory quality standards for kindergarten and school meals. Â· Banning food advertising targeted at children. PMID:26445263
Palomo Atance, E; BahĂllo Curieses, P; Bueno Lozano, G; Feliu Rovira, A; Gil-Campos, M; Lechuga-Sancho, A M; Ruiz Cano, R; Vela Desojo, A
Childhood obesity is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease and early mortality. This paper summarises the currently available evidence on the implications of dietary factors on the development and prevention of obesity in paediatric patients. Evidence-based recommendations are: promote the consumption of slowly absorbed carbohydrates and reduce those with a high-glycaemic-index, avoid intake of sugar-sweetened beverages. Fat may provide up to 30-35% of the daily energy intake and saturated fat should provide no more than 10% of daily energy intake; reduce cholesterol intake, avoid formula milk with a high protein content during the first year; promote higher fibre content in the diet, reduce sodium intake, and have at least four meals a day, avoiding regular consumption of fast food and snacks. PMID:26212421
Tüfek, Nur Hande; Altunkaynak, Muhammad Eyüp; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Kaplan, Süleyman
Thymoquinone (TQ) is a phytochemical compound found in the plant Nigella sativa. It has antioxidant and anti-cancer effects. This study investigated the effects of TQ on obesity and testicular structure of high-fat-diet (HFD) fed rats. Obese control (OC) and obese thymoquinone (OT) groups were fed a special diet containing 40% of total calories from fat. Non-obese control (NC) and non-thymoquinone (NT) groups were fed a standard diet for nine weeks. Then, intraperitoneal TQ injections were carried out to the OT and NT groups for six weeks and testes were removed. Catalase and myeloperoxidase activity were determined in rat testis tissue. Stereological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical changes were evaluated in the testes of the rats. In stereological studies, mean volumes of testis and seminiferous tubules, the number of spermatogenic cells and also Leydig cells in the OC group were reduced, but these values significantly increased in the OT group. Apoptotic cells were observed in the OC group in comparison to the OT group. The number of healthy sperms were reduced in the OC group, whereas the majority showed anomalies in the head, neck, and tail. The number of healthy sperm was increased and the anomalies significantly reduced by using TQ in both the NT, and especially the OT group. TQ like antioxidants may improve fertility by means of increasing the healthy sperm number and preventing sperm anomalies. PMID:26043060
Full Text Available Even moderate, but persistent weight-loss ameliorates most of the related diseases in obesity. Besides the consequences of the metabolic syndrome, this includes less well-known obesity-associated changes, such as impaired fertility, menstrual disorders, psychic changes, total leucocyte-count as a parameter of immunity and the impaired pulmonary function in asthma and sleep-apnoea. Life-expectancy is prolonged by diminution of visceral fat depots, whilst weight-loss by shrinking of fat-free body-mass seems to have a contrary effect.
Drager, Luciano F.; Li, Jianguo; Reinke, Christian; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Jun, Jonathan C.; POLOTSKY, Vsevolod Y.
Obesity causes insulin resistance (IR) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but the relative contribution of sleep apnea is debatable. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a hallmark of sleep apnea, on IR and NAFLD in lean mice and mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO). Mice (C57BL/6J), 68 weeks of age were fed a high fat (n = 18) or regular (n = 16) diet for 12 weeks and then exposed to CIH or control conditions (room air) for ...
Currie, Janet; DellaVigna, Stefano; Moretti, Enrico; Pathania, Vikram
We investigate the health consequences of changes in the supply of fast food using the exact geographical location of fast food restaurants. Specifically, we ask how the supply of fast food affects the obesity rates of 3 million school children and the weight gain of over 1 million pregnant women. We find that among 9th grade children, a fast food restaurant within a tenth of a mile of a school is associated with at least a 5.2 percent increase in obesity rates. There is no discernable effect...
Comerma-Steffensen, Simon; Grann, Martin; Andersen, Charlotte U; Rungby, Jorgen; Simonsen, Ulf
The prevalence of obesity increases and is associated with increases in co-morbidities e.g. type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, stroke, asthma, several forms of cancer, depression, and may result in reduction of expected remaining lifespan. We have reviewed the adverse effects on the cardiovascular system of anti-obesity drugs now retracted from the market as well as the cardiovascular profile of current drugs and potential pathways which are considered for treatment of obesity. Fenfluramine, and sibutramine were withdrawn due to increased cardiovascular risk, while an inverse agonist at cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors, rimonobant was withdrawn due to serious psychiatric problems. At present there are only few treatments available including orlistat and, phentermine alone or in combination with topiramate and lorcaserin, although cardiovascular side effects need to be clarified regarding phentermine and lorcaserin. Drugs approved for type 2 diabetes including glucagon like peptide (GLP-1) analogues and metformin also cause moderate weight losses and have a favourable cardiovascular profile, while the anti-obesity potential of nebivolol remains unexplored. Pathways with anti-obesity potential include sirtuin activation, blockade of transient receptor potential (TRPV1) channels, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and 2 inhibitors, uncoupling protein activators, bile acids, crotonins, CB1 antagonists, but the cardiovascular profile remains to be investigated. For type 2 diabetes, new drug classes with possible advantageous cardiovascular profiles, e.g. GLP-1 analogues and sodium-glucose co-transport type 2 inhibitors, are associated with weight loss and are currently being evaluated as anti-obesity drugs. PMID:24846238
Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia A.; Bammann, Karin; Eiben, Gabriele; Kourides, Yiannis; KovĂĄcs, Eva; Lauria, Fabio; Konstabel, Kenn; M. Santaliesta-Pasias, Alba; Vyncke, Krishna; Pigeot, Iris
This study analyzes peer effects on childhood obesity using data from the first two waves of the IDEFICS study, which applies several anthropometric and other measures of fatness to approximately 14,000 children aged two to nine participating in both waves in 16 regions of eight European countries...
Dixon, Helen; Scully, Maree; Durkin, Sarah; Brennan, Emily; Cotter, Trish; Maloney, Sarah; OâHara, Blythe J; Wakefield, Melanie
Background Mass media communications are an important component of comprehensive interventions to address population levels of overweight and obesity, yet we have little understanding of the effective characteristics of specific advertisements (ads) on this topic. This study aimed to quantitatively test audience reactions to existing adult-focused public health television ads addressing overweight and obesity to determine which ads have the highest levels of message acceptance, argument stren...
Reifsnider, Elizabeth; McCormick, David P.; Cullen, Karen W.; Szalacha, Laura; Moramarco, Michael W; Diaz, Abigail; Reyna, Lucy
Background Early and rapid growth in Infants is strongly associated with early development and persistence of obesity in young children. Substantial research has linked child obesity/overweight to increased risks for serious health outcomes, which include adverse physical, psychological, behavioral, or social consequences. Methods/design The goal of this study is to compare the effectiveness of structured Community Health Worker (CHW)- provided home visits, using an intervention created throu...
Murase, Takatoshi; Misawa, Koichi; Haramizu, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yoshihiko; Hase, Tadashi
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine kinase that is implicated in the control of energy metabolism and is considered to be a molecular target for the suppression of obesity and the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Here, we identified and characterized nootkatone, a constituent of grapefruit, as a naturally occurring AMPK activator. Nootkatone induced an increase in AMPKalpha1 and -alpha2 activity along with an increase in the AMP/ATP ratio and an increase the phosphorylation of AMPKalpha and the downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), in C(2)C(12) cells. Nootkatone-induced activation of AMPK was possibly mediated both by LKB1 and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase. Nootkatone also upregulated PPARgamma coactivator-1alpha in C(2)C(12) cells and C57BL/6J mouse muscle. In addition, administration of nootkatone (200 mg/kg body wt) significantly enhanced AMPK activity, accompanied by LKB1, AMPK, and ACC phosphorylation in the liver and muscle of mice. Whole body energy expenditure evaluated by indirect calorimetry was also increased by nootkatone administration. Long-term intake of diets containing 0.1% to 0.3% (wt/wt) nootkatone significantly reduced high-fat and high-sucrose diet-induced body weight gain, abdominal fat accumulation, and the development of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperleptinemia in C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, endurance capacity, evaluated as swimming time to exhaustion in BALB/c mice, was 21% longer in mice fed 0.2% nootkatone than in control mice. These findings indicate that long-term intake of nootkatone is beneficial toward preventing obesity and improving physical performance and that these effects are due, at least in part, to enhanced energy metabolism through AMPK activation in skeletal muscle and liver. PMID:20501876
Dietz, William H; Baur, Louise A; Hall, Kevin; Puhl, Rebecca M; Taveras, Elsie M; Uauy, Ricardo; Kopelman, Peter
Although the caloric deficits achieved by increased awareness, policy, and environmental approaches have begun to achieve reductions in the prevalence of obesity in some countries, these approaches are insufficient to achieve weight loss in patients with severe obesity. Because the prevalence of obesity poses an enormous clinical burden, innovative treatment and care-delivery strategies are needed. Nonetheless, health professionals are poorly prepared to address obesity. In addition to biases and unfounded assumptions about patients with obesity, absence of training in behaviour-change strategies and scarce experience working within interprofessional teams impairs care of patients with obesity. Modalities available for the treatment of adult obesity include clinical counselling focused on diet, physical activity, and behaviour change, pharmacotherapy, and bariatric surgery. Few options, few published reports of treatment, and no large randomised trials are available for paediatric patients. Improved care for patients with obesity will need alignment of the intensity of therapy with the severity of disease and integration of therapy with environmental changes that reinforce clinical strategies. New treatment strategies, such as the use of technology and innovative means of health-care delivery that rely on health professionals other than physicians, represent promising options, particularly for patients with overweight and patients with mild to moderate obesity. The co-occurrence of undernutrition and obesity in low-income and middle-income countries poses unique challenges that might not be amenable to the same strategies as those that can be used in high-income countries. PMID:25703112
Marina Sanchez; Shirin Panahi; Angelo Tremblay
Obesity is a serious public health issue affecting both children and adults. Prevention and management of obesity is proposed to begin in childhood when environmental factors exert a long-term effect on the risk for obesity in adulthood. Thus, identifying modifiable factors may help to reduce this risk. Recent evidence suggests that gut microbiota is involved in the control of body weight, energy homeostasis and inflammation and thus, plays a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. Prebiotic...
Anderson Annie; Rawlins Emma; Baker Graham; Maynard Maria J; Harding Seeromanie
Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a major public health concern with serious implications for the sustainability of healthcare systems. Studies in the US and UK have shown that ethnicity is consistently associated with childhood obesity, with Black African origin girls in particular being more vulnerable to overweight and obesity than their White peers. Little is known, however, about what promotes or hinders engagement with prevention programmes among ethnic minority children. Methods...
Branscum, Paul; Sharma, Manoj; Wang, Lihshing Leigh; Wilson, Bradley R A; Rojas-Guyler, Liliana
The purpose of this study was to pilot test the Comics for Health program, a theory-based nutrition and physical activity intervention for children. Twelve after-school programs were randomized to either a theory-based (n = 37) or a knowledge-based (n = 34 children) version of the intervention. Pretests, posttests, and 3-month follow-up tests were administered to evaluate the programmatic effects on body mass index percentile, obesity-related behaviors, and constructs of social cognitive theory. Both interventions found significant, yet modest effects for fruit and vegetable consumption (P < .005), physical activities (P < .004), and water and sugar-free beverage consumption (P < .001) and self-efficacy for fruit and vegetable consumption (P < .015) and physical activities (P < .009). PMID:23168347
Elza D. de Mello; Luft, Vivian C; Flavia Meyer
OBJETIVO: Revisar a abordagem terapĂȘutica da obesidade infantil, bem como aspectos de seu diagnĂłstico e prevenĂ§ĂŁo. FONTES DOS DADOS: Foi realizada busca de artigos cientĂficos atravĂ©s das bases de dados MEDLINE, Ovid, Highwire e Scielo. As palavras-chave utilizadas foram: "childhood obesity" e tambĂ©m combinaĂ§Ă”es junto a "treatment", "prevention" e "consequence". Dentre os artigos provenientes da busca incluĂam-se artigos de revisĂŁo, estudos observacionais, ensaios clĂnicos e posiĂ§Ă”es de conse...
Imessaoudene, Asmahan; Merzouk, Hafida; Berroukeche, Farid; Mokhtari, Nassima; Bensenane, Bachir; Cherrak, Sabri; Merzouk, Sid Ahmed; Elhabiri, Mourad
Obesity is characterized by iron deficiency, carbohydrate and fat alterations as well as oxidative stress. Iron status monitoring is recommended because of the conventional oral iron preparations that frequently exacerbate the already present oxidative stress. Iron complexation by natural antioxidants can be exploited. We herein investigated the metabolic effects of quercetin (25mg/kg/day), iron (2.5mg Fe/kg/day) or quercetin-iron complexes (molar ratio 5:1; 25mg/2.5mg/kg/day) in animal models of obesity. Our results emphasized that obese rats displayed metabolic alterations that were worsened by iron supplementation. In contrast, quercetin used alone or as iron complex clearly prevented adipose fat accumulation and alleviated the hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, liver steatosis and oxidative stress. In addition, it induced a modulation of lipase activities in obese rats. Interestingly, quercetin-iron complexes showed enhanced beneficial effects such as a corrected iron deficiency in obese rats when compared to quercetin alone. In conclusion, antianemic, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of the quercetin-iron complexes shed a light on their beneficial use against obesity-related metabolic alterations. PMID:26895671
Salazar, Maria L.; Lea S. Eiland
Childhood obesity is increasing in prevalence in the United States. Comorbid diseases once thought of as adult issues such as hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, are now being encountered in the pediatric population as a result of obesity. Primary prevention is still the most cost-effective approach to this growing problem. In terms of management, the treatment of obesity in children is not identical to that in adults. Thus far, the only accepted weight loss therapy for children are die...
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: QT prolongation and obesity are associated with ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. The relationship between uncomplicated obesity and QT interval prolongation is not clear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of uncomplicated obesity on QT interval in young men. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 122 men, including 59 obese patients and 63 controls, were recruited into the study. Patients with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and ischemic heart disease were ineligible. Body mass index (BMI of all patients was calculated. QT interval was measured from the precordial lead â V5, and corrected QT (QTC was calculated using the Bazettâs formula. RESULTS: Mean age, BMI, and waist circumference (WC of obese patients and controls were as follows: 22.0 Â±3.0 years, 36.2 Â±2.2 kg/mÂČ, and 114 Â±8.1 cm; 22.6 Â±2.9 years, 24.7 Â±2.5 kg/mÂČ, and 81.6 Â±7.5 cm, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the obese and control groups with regard to BMI and WC (P <0.001. Furthermore, statistically significant differences were observed between the 2 groups in terms of QTC (407.9 Â±17.1 ms vs. 397.7 Â±14.0 ms, respectively, P <0.001, systolic (126.9 Â±8.2 mmHg vs. 114.2 Â±11.1 mmHg, respectively, P <0.001 and diastolic blood pressure (78.3 Â±4.5 mmHg vs. 66.9 Â±10 mmHg, respectively, P <0.001. There was a positive correlation between QTC interval and both WC (r = 0.357, P <0.001 and BMI (r = 0.424, P <0.001. There was no association between QTC and blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Uncomplicated obesity in young men is associated with QT interval prolongation. Weight gain may inversely affect cardiac repolarization in uncomplicated obesity.
Cecile Rausch Herscovici
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a school-based obesity prevention program that seeks to change food intake among students at schools in Rosario, Argentina. METHODS: This was a prospective study involving 405 children 9-11 years of age at six schools in the poor areas of Rosario, Argentina, in May-October 2008. After matching for socioeconomic status, schools were selected by simple randomization; participants were assessed at baseline (T1 and again 6 months later, after completion of the intervention (T2. The program focused on increasing the children's knowledge of healthy nutrition and exercise through four workshops; educating the parents/caregivers; and offering healthy options at the school snack bar. The main outcome measures were the children's intake of healthy and unhealthy foods (assessed with a weekly food frequency questionnaire and their body mass index (BMI. RESULTS: Of the 387 children assessed at T1, 369 were reassessed at T2 (205 intervention; 164 control. Girls at the schools where the intervention occurred increased their intake of three of the five healthy food items promoted by the program (fruits, vegetables, low-sugar cereals. Statistical significance was reached for skim milk (P = 0.03 and for pure orange juice (P = 0.05. Boys of both the intervention and control groups failed to improve their intake of healthy foods, but those of the intervention arm significantly reduced their intake of hamburgers and hot dogs (P = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Girls were more amenable to improving their dietary intake. Overall, the program was more likely to increase consumption of healthy food than to decrease intake of unhealthy foods. Gender differences should be taken into account when designing preventive interventions.
Herrick, C. B.
Recent calls for a critical geographical approach to public health have facilitated an engagement with a new range of research topics and methodologies, of which obesity is a particularly prescient example. This thesis aims to first, examine and compare obesity's historical emergence in the UK and US through three conceptual spheres: governmentality the political economy of food and cultural anthropologies of consumption. Second, this work questions what obesity, as both a biomedical epidemic...
The discovery of a form of chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation (metaflammation) linked with obesity, but also associated with several lifestyle-related behaviours not necessarily causing obesity, suggests a re-consideration of obesity as a direct cause of chronic disease and a search for the main driversor cause of causes. Factors contributing to this are considered here within an environmental context, leading to the conclusion that humans have an immune reaction to aspects of the mo...
Faubion, Robin Johannsen; Brown, Jessica; Bindler, Ruth C.; Miller, Kris
Background One-third of the US population is obese, and childhood obesity has tripled since the late 1970s. Childhood obesity is a significant health issue requiring interventions on individual, interpersonal, community, organizational, and policy levels. Community coalitions offer successful strategies for engaging community partners with health improvement goals. Community Context In 2008, Yakima County, an agricultural community in eastern Washington, was ranked the eighth fattest city in ...
Obesity, which results from an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, has become a major health risk factor worldwide, causing numerous and various diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. Fucoxanthin, a specific carotenoid in brown algae, has garnered much attention for its anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects attributable to a unique mechanism. Fucoxanthin induces uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in white adipose tissue (WAT). That inner membrane mitochondrial protein, UCP1, can dissipate energy through oxidation of fatty acids and heat production. Furthermore, fucoxanthin improves insulin resistance and ameliorates blood glucose levels through down-regulation of adipocytokines related to insulin resistance in WAT and up-regulation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in skeletal muscle. Algae fucoxanthin is a beneficial compound for the prevention of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:25748372
Schoffman, Danielle E.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Jones, Sonya J.; Wilcox, Sara
Mobile applications (apps) offer a novel way to engage children in behavior change, but little is known about content of commercially available apps for this population. We analyzed the content of apps for iPhone/iPad for pediatric weight loss, healthy eating (HE), and physical activity (PA). Fifty-seven apps were downloaded and tested by two independent raters. Apps were coded for: inclusion of the Expert Committee for Pediatric Obesity Prevention's (ECPOP) eight recommended strategies (e.g....
Laws, R.; Campbell, K. J.; van der Pligt, P.; Ball, K.; Lynch, J; Russell, G.; Taylor, R.; Denney-Wilson, E.
Background Because parents with young children access primary health care services frequently, a key opportunity arises for Maternal and Child Health (MCH) nurses to actively work with families to support healthy infant feeding practices and lifestyle behaviours. However, little is known regarding the extent to which MCH nurses promote obesity prevention practices and how such practices could be better supported. Methods This mixed methods study involved a survey of 56 MCH nurses (response ra...
Aljunaibi, Abdulla; Abdulle, Abdishakur; Nagelkerke, Nico
Parental participation is a key factor in the prevention and management of childhood obesity, thus parental recognition of weight problems is essential. We estimated parental perceptions and their determinants in the Emirati population. We invited 1541 students (grade 1â12; 50% boys) and their parents, but only 1440 (6â19 years) and their parents consented. Of these, 945 Emirati nationals provided data for analysis. Anthropometric and demographic variables were measured by standard methods. C...
Hoare, Erin; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Millar, Lynne; Nichols, Melanie; Allender, Steven
Objectives This paper aimed to systematically evaluate the mental health and well-being outcomes observed in previous community-based obesity prevention interventions in adolescent populations. Setting Systematic review of literature from database inception to October 2014. Articles were sourced from CINAHL, Global Health, Health Source: Nursing and Academic Edition, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO, all of which were accessed through EBSCOhost. The Cochrane Database was also searched to id...
Meyers, Linda D.; Murphy, Suzanne P.; Yaktine, Ann L.
The Institute of Medicineâs Food and Nutrition Board had a productive year, with important expert committee reports on the Supplemental Food Assistance Program, physical fitness, and accelerating obesity prevention efforts that provided grounding for dietary guidance and nutrition policies and programs. This summary describes Food and Nutrition Board activities, including current thinking on dietary reference intakes. The summary also highlights consensus reports on defining and measuring Sup...
Simes John; Rissel Chris; Mihrshahi Seema; Magarey Anthea; Hesketh Kylie; Daniels Lynne A; Campbell Karen; Baur Louise A; Askie Lisa M; Taylor Barry; Taylor Rachael; Voysey Merryn; Wen Li
Abstract Background Efforts to prevent the development of overweight and obesity have increasingly focused early in the life course as we recognise that both metabolic and behavioural patterns are often established within the first few years of life. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions are even more powerful when, with forethought, they are synthesised into an individual patient data (IPD) prospective meta-analysis (PMA). An IPD PMA is a unique research design where several t...
Flattum, Colleen; Friend, Sarah; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary
Over the past decade, motivational interviewing has been used by health professionals to promote health behavior changes and help individuals increase their motivation or âreadinessâ to change. This paper describes a preliminary study used to evaluate the feasibility of motivational interviewing as a component in a school-based obesity prevention program, New Moves. New Moves is a program for inactive adolescent high school girls who are overweight or at risk for becoming overweight due to lo...
Azevedo, Kathryn J.; Mendoza, Sonia; FernĂĄndez, MarĂa; Haydel, K. Farish; Fujimoto, Michelle; Tirumalai, Evelyn C.; Thomas N Robinson
Our evaluation study identifies facilitators and barriers to participation among families participating in the treatment arm of Stanford ECHALE. This culturally tailored obesity prevention trial consisted of a combined intervention with two main treatment components: 1) a folkloric dance program; and 2) a screen time reduction curriculum designed for 7â11 year old Latinas and their families. We conducted 83 interviews (40 parents and 43 girls) in participant homes after 6 mo...
Full Text Available Purpose:Obesity has been identified as a risk factor for the development of bulimia nervosa (BN in those who try to lose weight. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of walking exercise in order to provide a method for overcoming bulimia nervosa in obese young women suffering from bulimia nervosa.Methods: Twenty obese women with bulimia nervosa (body mass index [BMI]>30 and a mean age of 22.00 Â± 1.50 years volunteered to participate in this study. They were randomly assigned to exercise (n=10 and control (n=10 groups. Both groups underwent anthropometric measurements and blood analysis before and after the training program. Exercise program included 30-minute walking sessions at 50-75% of maximal heart rate,3 days per week and for 2 months.Results: After 2 months significant changes were observed in all anthropometric variables (P<0.001.Percent body fat, fat mass, BMI, body weight and lean mass changes in response to training were significant in the exercise group (P<0.001.Conclusion:This study demonstrated that moderate aerobic exercises such as moderate walking are suitable behavior therapies for overcoming bulimia nervosa in obese young women.
Nova, Esther; PĂ©rez de Heredia, FĂĄtima; GĂłmez-MartĂnez, Sonia; Marcos, AscensiĂłn
The microbiota and the human host maintain a symbiotic association. Nowadays, metagenomic analyses are providing valuable knowledge on the diversity and functionality of the gut microbiota. However, with regard to the definition of a "healthy microbiota" and the characterization of the dysbiosis linked to obesity, there is still not a clear answer. Despite this fact, attempts have been made to counteract obesity through probiotic supplementation. A literature search of experimental studies relevant to the topic was performed in PubMed database with the keywords "probiotic" and "obesity" and restricted to those with "Lactobacillus" or "Bifidobacterium" in the title. So far, evidence of an antiobesity effect of different lactobacilli and bifidobacteria has been mainly obtained from animal models of dietary-induced obesity. Using these experimental models, a substantial number of studies have reported reductions in weight gain and, in particular, fat tissue mass at different locations following administration of bacteria, as compared with controls. Antiatherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects-including regulation of expression of lipogenic and lipolytic genes in the liver, reduction in liver steatosis, improvement of blood lipid profile and glucose tolerance, decreased endotoxemia, and regulation of inflammatory pathways-are also reported in many of them. The number of human studies focused on probiotic administration for obesity management is still very scarce, and it is too soon to judge their potential efficacy, especially when considering the fact that the actions of probiotics are always strain specific and the individual response varies according to intrinsic factors, the overall composition of diet, and their interactions. PMID:26869611
Full Text Available Abstract Background Kids - 'Go for your life' (K-GFYL is an award-based health promotion program being implemented across Victoria, Australia. The program aims to reduce the risk of childhood obesity by improving the socio-cultural, policy and physical environments in children's care and educational settings. Membership of the K-GFYL program is open to all primary and pre-schools and early childhood services across the State. Once in the program, member schools and services are centrally supported to undertake the health promotion (intervention activities. Once the K-GFYL program 'criteria' are reached the school/service is assessed and 'awarded'. This paper describes the design of the evaluation of the statewide K-GFYL intervention program. Methods/Design The evaluation is mixed method and cross sectional and aims to: 1 Determine if K-GFYL award status is associated with more health promoting environments in schools/services compared to those who are members only; 2 Determine if children attending K-GFYL award schools/services have higher levels of healthy eating and physical activity-related behaviors compared to those who are members only; 3 Examine the barriers to implementing and achieving the K-GFYL award; and 4 Determine the economic cost of implementing K-GFYL in primary schools Parent surveys will capture information about the home environment and child dietary and physical activity-related behaviors. Environmental questionnaires in early childhood settings and schools will capture information on the physical activity and nutrition environment and current health promotion activities. Lunchbox surveys and a set of open-ended questions for kindergarten parents will provide additional data. Resource use associated with the intervention activities will be collected from primary schools for cost analysis. Discussion The K-GFYL award program is a community-wide intervention that requires a comprehensive, multi-level evaluation. The evaluation design is constrained by the lack of a non-K-GFYL control group, short time frames and delayed funding of this large scale evaluation across all intervention settings. However, despite this, the evaluation will generate valuable evidence about the utility of a community-wide environmental approach to preventing childhood obesity which will inform future public health policies and health promotion programs internationally. Trial Registration ACTRN12609001075279
Full Text Available Abstract Background The home and neighborhood environments may be important in obesity prevention by virtue of food availability, food preparation, cues and opportunities for physical activity, and family support. To date, little research has examined how home and neighborhood environments in rural communities may support or hinder healthy eating and physical activity. This paper reports characteristics of rural homes and neighborhoods related to physical activity environments, availability of healthy foods, and family support for physical activity and maintaining an ideal body weight. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 60 African American and White adults over 50 years of age in two rural counties in Southwest Georgia. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two members of the research team using standard methods of qualitative analysis. Themes were then identified and data matrices were used to identify patterns by gender or race. Results Neighborhood features that supported physical activity were plenty of land, minimal traffic and living in a safe and friendly neighborhood. The major barrier was lack of recreational facilities. The majority of participants were not physically active with their family members due to schedule conflicts and lack of time. Family member-initiated efforts to encourage physical activity met with mixed results, with refusals, procrastination, and increased activity all reported. Participants generally reported it was easy to get healthy foods, although cost barriers and the need to drive to a larger town for a supermarket with good variety were noted as obstacles. Family conversations about weight had occurred for about half of the participants, with reactions ranging from agreement about the need to lose weight to frustration. Conclusion This study suggests that successful environmental change strategies to promote physical activity and healthy eating in rural neighborhoods may differ from those used in urban neighborhoods. The findings also provide insight into the complexities of family support for physical activity and maintaining a healthy weight. Addressing socio-ecologic factors has the potential to increase healthy behaviors and decrease the prevalence of obesity among rural residents.
Azevedo, Kathryn J.; Mendoza, Sonia; Fernández, María; Haydel, K. Farish; Fujimoto, Michelle; Tirumalai, Evelyn C.; Robinson, Thomas N.
Our evaluation study identifies facilitators and barriers to participation among families participating in the treatment arm of Stanford ECHALE. This culturally tailored obesity prevention trial consisted of a combined intervention with two main treatment components: 1) a folkloric dance program; and 2) a screen time reduction curriculum designed for 711 year old Latinas and their families. We conducted 83 interviews (40 parents and 43 girls) in participant homes after 6 months of enrollment in the ECHALE trial. The Spradley ethnographic method and NVivo 8.0 were used to code and analyze narrative data. Three domains emerged for understanding participation: 1) family cohesiveness; 2) perceived gains; and 3) culturally relevant program structure. Two domains emerged for non-participation: program requirements and perceived discomforts. Non-parametric, Spearmans rank correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the relationships with participant attendance data. Sustained participation was most strongly influenced by the domain perceived gains when parents reported better self-esteem, confidence, improved attitude, improved grades, etc. (Spearman r=.45, P=.003). Alternatively, under the domain, perceived discomforts, with subthemes such as child bullying, participation in the combined intervention was inversely associated with attendance (Spearman r=.38, P=.02). Family-centered, school-based, community obesity prevention programs that focus on tangible short-term gains for girls may generate greater participation rates, enhance social capital, and promote community empowerment. These factors can be emphasized in future obesity prevention program design and implementation. (Ethn Dis. 2013; 23:452461) PMID:24392608
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that a proportion of children as young as two years are already overweight. This indicates that obesity prevention programs that commence as early as possible and are family-focused are needed. This Healthy Beginnings Trial aims to determine the efficacy of a community-based randomized controlled trial (RCT of a home visiting intervention in preventing the early onset of childhood overweight and obesity. The intervention will be conducted over the first two years of life to increase healthy feeding behaviours and physical activity, decrease physical inactivity, enhance parent-child interaction, and hence reduce overweight and obesity among children at 2 and 5 years of age in the most socially and economically disadvantaged areas of Sydney, Australia. Methods/design This RCT will be conducted with a consecutive sample of 782 first time mothers with their newborn children. Pregnant women who are expecting their first child, and who are between weeks 24 and 34 of their pregnancy, will be invited to participate in the trial at the antenatal clinic. Informed consent will be obtained and participants will then be randomly allocated to the intervention or the control group. The allocation will be concealed by sequentially numbered, sealed opaque envelopes containing a computer generated random number. The intervention comprises eight home visits from a specially trained community nurse over two years and pro-active telephone support between the visits. Main outcomes include a duration of breastfeeding measured at 6 and 12 months, b introduction of solids measured at 4 and 6 months, c nutrition, physical activity and television viewing measured at 24 months, and d overweight/obesity status at age 2 and 5 years. Discussion The results of this trial will ascertain whether the home based early intervention is effective in preventing the early onset of childhood overweight and obesity. If proved to be effective, it will result in a series of recommendations for policy and practical methods for promoting healthy feeding and physical activity of children in the first two years of life with particular application to families who are socially and economically disadvantaged.
Schroeder, Mariana; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Shbiro, Liat; Marco, Asaf; Hyun, Jayson; Moran, Timothy H.; Bi, Sheng; Weller, Aron
Understanding the early factors affecting obesity development in males and females may help to prevent obesity and may lead to the discovery of more effective treatments for those already obese. The Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat model of obesity is characterized by hyperphagia-induced obesity, due to a spontaneous lack of CCK1 receptors. In the present study, we focused on the behavioral and physiological aspects of obesity development from weaning to adulthood. We examined bo...
Childhood obesity has become an epidemic on a worldwide scale. This article gives an overview of the progress made in childhood and adolescent obesity research in the last decade, with a particular emphasis on the transdisciplinary and complex nature of the problem. The following topics are addressed: (1) current definitions of childhood andâŠ
Childhood obesity has become an epidemic on a worldwide scale. This article gives an overview of the progress made in childhood and adolescent obesity research in the last decade, with a particular emphasis on the transdisciplinary and complex nature of the problem. The following topics are addressed: (1) current definitions of childhood and
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012
The nation faces an obesity crisis, especially among low-income children and children of color. Today, nearly one-third of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, and physical inactivity is a leading cause of this epidemic. Equitable transportation policy that fosters healthy, opportunity-rich communities has a critical role to play inâŠ
Beck JĂžrgensen, Sebastian; O'Neill, Hayley M; Sylow, Lykke; Honeyman, Jane; Hewitt, Kimberly A; Palanivel, Rengasamy; Fullerton, Morgan D; Ăberg, Lisa; Balendran, Anudharan; Galic, Sandra; van der Poel, Chris; Trounce, Ian A; Lynch, Gordon S; Schertzer, Jonathan D; Steinberg, Gregory R
Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation that contributes to defects in energy metabolism and insulin resistance. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3 expression is increased in skeletal muscle of obese humans. SOCS3 inhibits leptin signaling in the hypothalamus and insulin ...
Wearing, Jessica R.; Nollen, Nikki; Befort, Christie; Davis, Ann M.; Agemy, Carolina K.
Background: Pediatric obesity is a serious and prevalent problem. Smartphone technology, which is becoming increasingly available to children of diverse backgrounds, presents a unique opportunity to instill healthy behaviors before the onset of obesity. Past studies have examined the use of smartphone applications as tools of health behavior modification for adults. The present study examines the content of children's exercise and nutrition smartphone apps.
Purpose: Ureteroscopy involves fluoroscopy which potentially results in considerable amount of radiation dose to the patient. Purpose of this study was two-fold: (a) to develop the effective dose computational model for obese and non-obese patients undergoing left and right ureteroscopy, and (b) to evaluate the utility of a commercial Monte Carlo software for dose assessment in ureteroscopy. Methods: Organ dose measurements were performed on an adult male anthropomorphic phantom, representing the non-obese patients, with 20 high-sensitivity MOSFET detectors and two 0.18cc ionization chambers placed in selected organs. Fat-equivalent paddings were placed around the abdominal region to simulate for obese patients. Effective dose (ED) was calculated using ICRP 103 tissue weighting factors and normalized to the effective dose rate in miliSivert per second (mSv/s). In addition, a commercial Monte Carlo (MC) dose estimation program was used to estimate ED for the non-obese model, with table attenuation correction applied to simulate clinical procedure. Results: For the equipment and protocols involved in this study, the MOSFETderived ED rates for the obese patient model (âLeftâ: 0.0092Â±0.0004 mSv/s; âRightâ: 0.0086Â±0.0004 mSv/s) was found to be more than twice as much as that to the non-obese patient model (âLeftâ: 0.0041Â±0.0003 mSv/s; âRightâ: 0.0036Â±0.0007 mSv/s). The MC-derived ED rates for the non-obese patient model (âLeftâ: 0.0041 mSv/s; âRightâ: 0.0036 mSv/s; with statistical uncertainty of 1%) showed a good agreement with the MOSFET method. Conclusion: The significant difference in ED rate between the obese and non-obese patient models shows the limitation of directly applying commercial softwares for obese patients and leading to considerable underestimation of ED. Although commercial softwares offer a convenient means of dose estimation, but the utility may be limited to standard-man geometry as the software does not account for table attenuation, obese patient geometry, and differences between the anthropomorphic phantom and MC mathematical phantom
Wang, C; Nguyen, G; Chung, Y; Yoshizumi, T [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Cabrera, F; Lipkin, M [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Shin, R [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States)
Purpose: Ureteroscopy involves fluoroscopy which potentially results in considerable amount of radiation dose to the patient. Purpose of this study was two-fold: (a) to develop the effective dose computational model for obese and non-obese patients undergoing left and right ureteroscopy, and (b) to evaluate the utility of a commercial Monte Carlo software for dose assessment in ureteroscopy. Methods: Organ dose measurements were performed on an adult male anthropomorphic phantom, representing the non-obese patients, with 20 high-sensitivity MOSFET detectors and two 0.18cc ionization chambers placed in selected organs. Fat-equivalent paddings were placed around the abdominal region to simulate for obese patients. Effective dose (ED) was calculated using ICRP 103 tissue weighting factors and normalized to the effective dose rate in miliSivert per second (mSv/s). In addition, a commercial Monte Carlo (MC) dose estimation program was used to estimate ED for the non-obese model, with table attenuation correction applied to simulate clinical procedure. Results: For the equipment and protocols involved in this study, the MOSFETderived ED rates for the obese patient model (Left: 0.0092±0.0004 mSv/s; Right: 0.0086±0.0004 mSv/s) was found to be more than twice as much as that to the non-obese patient model (Left: 0.0041±0.0003 mSv/s; Right: 0.0036±0.0007 mSv/s). The MC-derived ED rates for the non-obese patient model (Left: 0.0041 mSv/s; Right: 0.0036 mSv/s; with statistical uncertainty of 1%) showed a good agreement with the MOSFET method. Conclusion: The significant difference in ED rate between the obese and non-obese patient models shows the limitation of directly applying commercial softwares for obese patients and leading to considerable underestimation of ED. Although commercial softwares offer a convenient means of dose estimation, but the utility may be limited to standard-man geometry as the software does not account for table attenuation, obese patient geometry, and differences between the anthropomorphic phantom and MC mathematical phantom.
Mariana Aguiar Matos
Full Text Available Obesity-induced inflammation can be related to the development of various disorders associated with this condition, such as insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus. In obesity, monocytes migrate into the adipose tissue, where they differentiate into macrophages, contributing to the inflammatory process that takes place in obese tissues. Physical training is one of the main non-pharmacological modalities used in obesity treatment and/or prevention, and among exercise benefits is its anti-inflammatory effect. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of monocytes subsets in sensitive or insulin resistant obese individuals and evaluate the effect of a high intensity interval training (HIIT program on monocytes subsets frequency. Sixteen obese subjects were divided into two groups according to the presence (HOMA-IR ? 2.71 or absence of insulin resistance: 1- insulin sensitive obese (OB, n = 8; 32 ± 11 years, BMI 35 ± 4 kg/m2, HOMA-IR 1.7 ± 0.5 mmol.?U/L Č, fat percentage 42 ± 8%; 2- insulin-resistant obese (OBR, n = 8; 26 ± 4 years, BMI 38 ± 5 kg/m2, HOMA-IR 5.2 ± 2.4 mmol.?U/L Č, fat percentage 44 ± 8%. For pre-exercise analysis obese volunteers were matched to healthy eutrophic individuals (control, n = 8; 31 ± 10 years, BMI 21 ± 2 kg/m2, HOMA-IR 1.1 ± 0.5 mmol.?U/L Č, fat percentage 29.7 ± 7.8%. OB and OBR groups were submitted to 8 weeks of HIIT, performed 3 times/week, (stimulus 8 to 12; 80 to 110% of maximum power. Blood samples were collected before the start of training and 72 hours after the last training session. The frequency of monocytes subsets (classical CD14++CD16-, intermediate CD14++CD16+, and nonclassical CD14+CD16++ was determined by flow cytometry (BD FACSCanto II. Before HIIT, both OB and OBR showed a higher frequency of non-classical monocytes (6.3 ± 3.4% and 7.2 ± 5.7% OB and OBR, respectively compared to control eutrophic individuals (2.4 ± 2.1% (p = 0.01. No difference on the frequency of classic (p = 0.23 and intermediate monocytes (p = 0.74 was observed between groups. There was no HIIT effect on the frequency of intermediate (p = 0.30, classical (p = 0.62 or non-classical (p = 0.43 monocytes. We conclude that obesity, by itself, leads to increase in the frequency of non-classical monocytes. High intensity interval training, during 8 weeks, did not alter monocytes subsets frequency in obese individuals.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies of public perceptions of obesity interventions have been quantitative and based on general population surveys. This study aims to explore the opinions and attitudes of obese individuals towards population and individual interventions for obesity in Australia. Methods Qualitative methods using in-depth semi-structured telephone interviews with a community sample of obese adults (Body Mass Index â„30. Theoretical, purposive and strategic recruitment techniques were used to ensure a broad sample of obese individuals with different types of experiences with their obesity. Participants were asked about their attitudes towards three population based interventions (regulation, media campaigns, and public health initiatives and three individual interventions (tailored fitness programs, commercial dieting, and gastric banding surgery, and the effectiveness of these interventions. Results One hundred and forty two individuals (19-75 years were interviewed. Participants strongly supported non-commercial interventions that were focused on encouraging individuals to make healthy lifestyle changes (regulation, physical activity programs, and public health initiatives. There was less support for interventions perceived to be invasive or high risk (gastric band surgery, stigmatising (media campaigns, or commercially motivated and promoting weight loss techniques (commercial diets and gastric banding surgery. Conclusion Obese adults support non-commercial, non-stigmatising interventions which are designed to improve lifestyles, rather than promote weight loss.
Alperstein Garth; Wardle Karen; Rissel Chris; Baur Louise A; Wen Li; Simpson Judy M
Abstract Background Studies have shown that a proportion of children as young as two years are already overweight. This indicates that obesity prevention programs that commence as early as possible and are family-focused are needed. This Healthy Beginnings Trial aims to determine the efficacy of a community-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a home visiting intervention in preventing the early onset of childhood overweight and obesity. The intervention will be conducted over the first...
Gerards Sanne MPL; Dagnelie Pieter C; Jansen Maria WJ; De Vries Nanne K; Kremers Stef PJ
Abstract Background The recruitment of participants for childhood overweight and obesity prevention interventions can be challenging. The goal of this study was to identify barriers that Dutch youth health care (YHC) professionals perceive when referring parents of overweight children to an obesity prevention intervention. Methods Sixteen YHC professionals (nurses, physicians and management staff) from eleven child health clinics participated in semi-structured interviews. An intervention imp...
Berries are rich in polyphenols such as anthocyanins. Various favorable functions of berries cannot be explained by their anti-oxidant properties, and thus, berries are now receiving great interest as food ingredients with "beyond antioxidant" functions. In this review, we discuss the potential health benefits of anthocyanin-rich berries, with a focus on prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes. To better understand the physiological functionality of berries, the exact molecular mechanism of their anti-obesity and anti-diabetes effect should be clarified. Additionally, the relationship of metabolites and degradation products with health benefits derived from anthocyanins needs to be elucidated. The preventive effects of berries and anthocyanin-containing foods on the metabolic syndrome are not always supported by findings of interventional studies in humans, and thus further studies are necessary. Use of standardized diets and conditions by all research groups may address this problem. Berries are tasty foods that are easy to consume, and thus, investigating their health benefits is critical for health promotion and disease prevention. PMID:27058561
Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species are postulated to be involved in systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with obesity. Activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs generate extremely high amounts of reactive oxygen species, but these are normally targeted at pathogens inside intracellular phagosomes. The same beneficial antimicrobial functions, if not controlled, contribute to the tissue damaging effects of inflammatory reactions. The evidence from conventional epidemiology strongly implies fruits and vegetables in protection against oxidative stress. In our study, the in vitro effects of Aronia melanocarpa juice on oxidative metabolism and apoptosis of neutrophils from obese and non-obese individuals has been investigated. We tested 15 obese patients (aged 45 Â±9 years, women, BMI = 34 Â±4.9 kg/m2. Nine healthy subjects (BMI = 22.2 Â±1.6 kg/m2 were enrolled as controls. Neutrophils were isolated and oxidant production, in response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, was characterized by using luminol dependent chemiluminescence (CL and flow cytometric dichlorofluorescin oxidation assay. Caspase-3 activity, a marker of apoptosis execution, in human neutrophils, measured by a cleavage of the fluorogenic substrate Ac-DEVD-AMC. Additional experiments to assess the direct toxic effect of the aronia polyphenols were also carried out. Neutrophils from obese individuals had a significantly higher H2O2 production and CL response compared to controls (p < 0.05. The oxidative metabolism of PMNs was decreased by aronia juice treatment in both of groups, obese and non-obese individuals. The caspase-3 activity depended on the time of aronia juice treatment and was markedly increased in phorbol-treated cells incubated with polyphenols for 24 hours. This natural product exert beneficial effects in cells and may, therefore, be useful in the treatment of obesity disorders.
Xu, Shi-Ping; Mao, Xue-Ying; Cheng, Xue; Chen, Bin
The effect of casein glycomacropeptide (GMP) as a specific regulating mediator in obese rats induced by high-fat (HF) diet was investigated. Male obese Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats induced by high-fat diet for 8 weeks period were fed high-fat, high-fat with GMP of 100 mg/kg BW (HFLG), 200 mg/kg BW (HFMG) and 400mg/kg BW (HFHG) for 6 weeks. Compared with the high-fat control (HFC) group GMP supplementation significantly decreased adipose tissue weight, activity of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH). Hepatic lipid droplet size, plasma and hepatic lipid levels markedly reduced. Moreover, GMP reduces plasma total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol as well as hepatic-cholesterol and triglycerides. The liver steatosis observed in obese rats was also prevented by GMP supplement. In addition, GMP significantly diminished mitochondrial and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) production, and obviously elevated the activities of mitochondrial and hepatic superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Leptin production and proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-? and IL-6 secretion decreased. Taken together, GMP can reduce lipid accumulation and enhance antioxidant capability of obese rats. It suggests that GMP can counteract high-fat diet-induced obesity, which might make it a potential ingredient with anti-obesity activity. PMID:23416648
Helitzer, Deborah L; Davis, Sally M; Gittelsohn, Joel; Going, Scott B; Murray, David M; Snyder, Patricia; Steckler, Allan B
We describe the development, implementation, and use of the process evaluation component of a multisite, primary obesity prevention trial for American Indian schoolchildren. We describe the development and pilot testing of the instruments, provide some examples of the criteria for instrument selection, and provide examples of how process evaluation results were used to document and refine intervention components. The theoretical and applied framework of the process evaluation was based on diffusion theory, social learning theory, and the desire for triangulation of multiple modes of data collection. The primary objectives of the process evaluation were to systematically document the training process, content, and implementation of 4 components of the intervention. The process evaluation was developed and implemented collaboratively so that it met the needs of both the evaluators and those who would be implementing the intervention components. Process evaluation results revealed that observation and structured interviews provided the most informative data; however, these methods were the most expensive and time consuming and required the highest level of skill to undertake. Although the literature is full of idealism regarding the uses of process evaluation for formative and summative purposes, in reality, many persons are sensitive to having their work evaluated in such an in-depth, context-based manner as is described. For this reason, use of structured, quantitative, highly objective tools may be more effective than qualitative methods, which appear to be more dependent on the skills and biases of the researcher and the context in which they are used. PMID:10195608
Tang, Liang; Yang, Xiaoying; Gao, Xiaohang; Du, Haiping; Han, Yanqi; Zhang, Didi; Wang, Zhiyuan; Sun, Lijun
Besides resulting in a dramatic increase in skeletal muscle mass, myostatin (MSTN) deficiency has a positive effect on bone formation. However, the issue about whether blocking MSTN can inhibit obesity-induced bone loss has not been previously investigated. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of MSTN blocking on bone quality in high-fat (HF), diet-induced obese rats using a prepared polyclonal antibody for MSTN (MsAb). Twenty-four rats were randomly assigned to the Control, HF and HFâ+âMsAb groups. Rats in the HFâ+âMsAb group were injected once a week with purified MsAb for eight weeks. The results showed that MsAb significantly reduced body and fat weight, and increased muscle mass and strength in the HF group. MicroCT analysis demonstrated that obesity-induced bone loss and architecture deterioration were significantly mitigated by MsAb treatment, as evidenced by increased bone mineral density, bone volume over total volume, trabecular number and thickness, and decreased trabecular separation and structure model index. However, neither HF diet nor MsAb treatment had an impact on femoral biomechanical properties including maximum load, stiffness, energy absorption and elastic modulus. Moreover, MsAb significantly increased adiponectin concentrations, and decreased TNF-Î± and IL-6 levels in diet-induced obese rats. Taken together, blocking MSTN by MsAb improves bone quality in diet-induced obese rats through a mechanotransduction pathway from skeletal muscle, and the accompanying changes occurring in the levels of circulating adipokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines may also be involved in this process. It indicates that the administration of MSTN antagonists may be a promising therapy for treating obesity and obesity-induced bone loss. PMID:26438721
Veerman, J Lennert; Barendregt, Jan J.; Forster, Megan; Vos, Theo
Aims Obesity causes a high disease burden in Australia and across the world. We aimed to analyse the cost-effectiveness of weight reduction with pharmacotherapy in Australia, and to assess its potential to reduce the disease burden due to excess body weight. Methods We constructed a multi-state life-table based Markov model in Excel in which body weight influences the incidence of stroke, ischemic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, post-menopausal br...
Mann, Traci; Tomiyama, A. Janet; Westling, Erika; Lew, Ann-Marie; Samuels, Barbra; Chatman, Jason
The prevalence of obesity and its associated health problems have increased sharply in the past 2 decades. New revisions to Medicare policy will allow funding for obesity treatments of proven efficacy. The authors review studies of the long-term outcomes of calorie-restricting diets to assess whether dieting is an effective treatment for obesity.âŠ
Mann, Traci; Tomiyama, A. Janet; Westling, Erika; Lew, Ann-Marie; Samuels, Barbra; Chatman, Jason
The prevalence of obesity and its associated health problems have increased sharply in the past 2 decades. New revisions to Medicare policy will allow funding for obesity treatments of proven efficacy. The authors review studies of the long-term outcomes of calorie-restricting diets to assess whether dieting is an effective treatment for obesity.
Full Text Available Among early adolescents (10â14 years, poor diet quality along with physical inactivity can contribute to an increased risk of obesity and associated biomarkers for chronic disease. Approximately one-third of United States (USA children in this age group are overweight or obese. Therefore, attention to factors affecting dietary intake as one of the primary contributors to obesity is important. Early adolescents consume foods and beverages during eating occasions that occur with and without parental supervision. Parents may influence eating behaviors of early adolescents during eating occasions when they are present or during independent eating occasions by engaging in practices that affect availability of foods and beverages, and through perceived normative beliefs and expectations for intake. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to describe the influence of parenting practices on eating behaviors in general and when specifically applied to independent eating occasions of early adolescents. This information may be helpful to inform parenting interventions targeting obesity prevention among early adolescents focusing on independent eating occasions.
Magnusson Roger S
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia, the food industry and public health groups are locked in serious struggle for regulatory influence over the terms of front-of-pack food labelling. Clear, unambiguous labelling of the nutritional content of pre-packaged foods and of standardized food items sold in chain restaurants is consistent with the prevailing philosophy of 'personal responsibility'. An interpretive, front-of-pack labelling scheme has the capacity to encourage healthier patterns of eating, and to be a catalyst for improvements in the nutritional quality of food products through re-formulation. On the other hand, the strength of opposition of the Australian Food and Grocery Council to 'Traffic Light Labelling', and its efforts to promote a non-interpretive, voluntary scheme, invite the interpretation that the food industry is resistant to any reforms that could destabilise current (unhealthy purchasing patterns and the revenues they represent. Discussion This article argues that although policies that aim to educate consumers about the nutritional content of food are welcome, they are only one part of a broader basket of policies that are needed to make progress on obesity prevention and public health nutrition. However, to the extent that food labelling has the capacity to inform and empower consumers to make healthier choices - and to be a catalyst for improving the nutritional quality of commercial recipes - it has an important role to play. Furthermore, given the dietary impact of meals eaten in fast food and franchise restaurants, interpretive labelling requirements should not be restricted to pre-packaged foods. Summary Food industry resistance to an interpretive food labelling scheme is an important test for government, and a case study of how self-interest prompts industry to promote weaker, voluntary schemes that pre-empt and undermine progressive public health regulation.
Williams, PJ; Kurlak, LO; Perkins, AC; Budge, H; T. Stephenson; Keisler, D; Symonds, ME; Gardner, DS
Obesity has been suggested to have a detrimental impact on kidney structure and function, leading to focal glomerulosclerosis and hypertension. It is also associated with hyperleptinemia and elevated renal sympathetic nerve activity. Prenatal undernutrition promotes postnatal obesity, hypertension, and an altered renal structure and function. In this study, we examined the effects of prenatal nutrient restriction and juvenile obesity in sheep. We found that juvenile obesity led to chronic hyp...
Tufik Sergio; Carnier June; Tock Lian; Caranti Danielle; de Piano Aline; Prado Wagner; Antunes Hanna; Lofrano-Prado Mara; de Mello Marco; DĂąmaso Ana R
Abstract Background Obesity has adverse physical, social, and economic consequences that can negatively affect quality of life (QOL). Thus the aim of this study was to verify the effects of a long-term multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention on QOL, body image, anxiety, depression and binge eating in obese adolescents. Methods Sixty-six obese adolescents (41 girls and 25 boys; BMI: 35.62 Â± 4.18 kg/m2) were recruited from the Multidisciplinary Obesity Intervention Program outpatient clinic, a...
Rajkovic, Natasa; Zamaklar, Miroslava; Lalic, Katarina; Jotic, Aleksandra; Lukic, Ljiljana; Milicic, Tanja; Singh, Sandra; Stosic, Ljubica; Lalic, Nebojsa M
This study aimed to analyse the impact of obesity in type 2 diabetes (T2D) on adipocytokines (adiponectin, leptin and resistin) and inflammatory markers (TNF-?, IL-6 and hsCRP) as cardiovascular risk factors. A cross-sectional study comparing the basal levels of adipocytokines and inflammatory markers was done in 18 obese (BMI ? 30 kg/mČ) (group A), 21 overweight (25 kg/mČ ? BMI < 30 kg/mČ) (group B), 25 non-obese T2D patients (group C) and 15 non-obese controls (group D). The lowest levels of adiponectin and the highest levels of leptin, resistin, TNF-?, IL-6 and hsCRP were found in group A. Adiponectin levels were significantly lower, and resistin, TNF-?, and hsCRP levels were elevated in group C vs. D. However, leptin and IL-6 levels differed significantly between groups A and B, but not between groups C and D. Moreover, we found a significant negative correlation between adiponectin and TNF-?, but not with other markers, which was independent of the presence of obesity. In contrast, leptin and resistin correlated with the inflammatory markers, and this correlation was obesity-dependent. Our results suggest that obesity influences cardiovascular risk primarily through changes in leptin and resistin and less efficiently at the level of adiponectin. PMID:24736687
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the impact of obesity in type 2 diabetes (T2D on adipocytokines (adiponectin, leptin and resistin and inflammatory markers (TNF-?, IL-6 and hsCRP as cardiovascular risk factors. A cross-sectional study comparing the basal levels of adipocytokines and inflammatory markers was done in 18 obese (BMI ? 30 kg/m2 (group A, 21 overweight (25 kg/m2 ? BMI < 30 kg/m2 (group B, 25 non-obese T2D patients (group C and 15 non-obese controls (group D. The lowest levels of adiponectin and the highest levels of leptin, resistin, TNF-?, IL-6 and hsCRP were found in group A. Adiponectin levels were significantly lower, and resistin, TNF-?, and hsCRP levels were elevated in group C vs. D. However, leptin and IL-6 levels differed significantly between groups A and B, but not between groups C and D. Moreover, we found a significant negative correlation between adiponectin and TNF-?, but not with other markers, which was independent of the presence of obesity. In contrast, leptin and resistin correlated with the inflammatory markers, and this correlation was obesity-dependent. Our results suggest that obesity influences cardiovascular risk primarily through changes in leptin and resistin and less efficiently at the level of adiponectin.
Anne Martin; Janet Hanley; Rajeeb Rashid
Background: The prevalence of adolescent obesity is high in the UK. Engaging adolescent boys and girls in health behaviour related to the prevention of obesity proves to be challenging. Mobile and wireless technology shows promise for increasing knowledge and motivation to increase physical activity and healthy eating by capturing the interest of many adolescents. However, solutions for overcoming the novelty effect to enable habit formation and thus long-lasting behaviour change needs to be ...
van Nassau, Femke; Singh, Amika S.; Cerin, Ester; Salmon, Jo; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes; ChinAPaw, Mai JM
Background The Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) programme is an evidence-based obesity prevention programme tailored to adolescents attending the first two years of prevocational education in the Netherlands. The initial programme showed promising results during an effectiveness trial. The programme was adapted and prepared for nationwide dissemination. To gain more insight into the process of translating evidence-based approaches into âreal worldâ (i.e., ânaturalâ) conditions, ...
Fatemeh Esteki Ghashghaei
Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is strongly associated with coronary heart disease and it is known as an independent risk factor. So, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of phase II comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation program on obesity indexes, functional capacity, lipid profiles, and fasting blood sugar in obese and non-obese female patients with coronary heart disease and to compare changes in these groups. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and five women with coronary heart disease participated in our study. At the beginning of study, body mass index, functional capacity, and lipid profiles and fasting blood sugar were evaluated; then, these patients were divided into two groups, patients who had BMIâ„30 were known as obese and who had BMI<30 were known as non-obese patients. All of them completed the period of cardiac rehabilitation program, and 2 months later, all risk factors were examined for the second time in each group. Data were analyzed with SPSS software version 15. For comparing the mean of outcomes, independent t-tests and paired t-tests were used. Results: Data revealed that unless in weight (P=0.00 and functional capacity (P=0.001, there were no significant differences in obese and non-obese female patients, at baseline. As a result of the cardiac rehabilitation program, both groups had significant improvement in functional capacity (P=0.00, weight reduction (P=0.00, triglyceride (P=0.01 and P=0.02, respectively, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.01, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (P=0.00 and P=0.003, respectively. As well, significant improvement was observed in high-density lipoprotein (P=0.01 only in obese female, and non-obese female had significant differences in total cholesterol (P=0.003. However, there were not significant changes in total cholesterol (P=0.05 and fasting blood sugar (P=0.09 in obese female. Also, non-obese females didnâČt have favorable differences in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P=0.23 and fasting blood sugar (P=0.13. In addition, comparing two groups didnâČt show any significant differences in each risk factors except BMI (P=0.03. Conclusion: Our study revealed that comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation program results in significant improvement in cardiovascular risk factors and functional capacity at all levels of BMI in female with coronary heart disease.
Liu, Chen; Elmquist, Joel K.
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, and obesity-related illnesses have become a leading preventable cause of death. Childhood obesity is also growing in frequency, and the impact of a lifetime spent in the overweight state is only beginning to emerge in the literature. In this issue of the JCI, Bumaschny et al. used a genetic mouse model to investigate the self-perpetuating nature of obesity and shed some light on why it can become increasingly difficult to lose wei...
Claydon, Elizabeth; Austin, Anna; Smith, Megan V
Considerable racial health disparities exist, especially in mental health and obesity. However, few approaches exist to address obesity and mental health simultaneously in minority groups. An intervention to address mental health in a low-income, minority group of urban mothers was designed using results from a needs assessment. Participating women were asked to rank their top health concerns and personal goals. Along with mental health concerns and basic needs, the majority of mothers desired assistance with improving their physical well-being. These results are surprising, but lend credence to creating interventions that aim to address both mental health and obesity concerns simultaneously. PMID:26303902
Akadiri Yessoufou; Magloire P. Nekoua; Adam Gbankoto; Yohana Mashalla; Kabirou Moutairou
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are increasingly being used to prevent cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes and obesity. In this paper, we report data on the observed effects of omega-3 PUFA on major metabolic disorders and immune system disruption during gestational diabetes and their consequences on macrosomia. While controversies still exist about omega-3 PUFA effects on antioxidant status regarding the level of omega-3 PUFA in diet supplementation, their lipid-lowering ...
Full Text Available Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk formulas. Nutrition in infancy has been implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity, and a longer duration of breastfeeding appears to protect against its development. Diet-related differences in serum leptin and ghrelin values in infancy might explain anthropometric differences and differences in dietary habits between breast-fed and formula-fed infants also later in life. However, there are still gaps in our understanding of how hormones present in breast milk affect children. Here we examine the data related to hormones contained in mother's milk and their potential protective effect on subsequent obesity.
Full Text Available Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk formulas. Nutrition in infancy has been implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity, and a longer duration of breastfeeding appears to protect against its development. Diet-related differences in serum leptin and ghrelin values in infancy might explain anthropometric differences and differences in dietary habits between breast-fed and formula-fed infants also later in life. However, there are still gaps in our understanding of how hormones present in breast milk affect children. Here we examine the data related to hormones contained in mother's milk and their potential protective effect on subsequent obesity.
Slining Meghan; Walker Elizabeth M; Cradock Angie; Benjamin Sara E; Gillman Matthew W
ABSTRACT Objective To describe and contrast individual state nutrition and physical activity regulations related to childhood obesity for child care centers and family child care homes in the United States. Methods We conducted a review of regulations for child care facilities for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. We examined state regulations and recorded key nutrition and physical activity items that may contribute to childhood obesity. Items included in this review were: 1) Water...
LaFrance Jeffrey; Janssen Ian; Ferrence Roberta; DubĂ© Laurette; Drewnowski Adam; Donnelly Peter; Cawley John; Cash Sean B; Auld M. Christopher; Arbour-Nicitopoulos Kelly; Andreyeva Tatiana; Nguyen, Van; Grootendorst Paul; Faulkner Guy EJ; Lakdawalla Darius
Abstract Background Comprehensive, multi-level approaches are required to address obesity. One important target for intervention is the economic domain. The purpose of this study was to synthesize existing evidence regarding the impact of economic policies targeting obesity and its causal behaviours (diet, physical activity), and to make specific recommendations for the Canadian context. Methods Arksey and O'Malley's (2005) methodological framework for conducting scoping reviews was adopted f...
Val-Laillet, D.; Aarts, E.; B Weber; Ferrari, M; Quaresima, V.; Stoeckel, L.E.; Alonso-Alonso, M.; Audette, M.; MALBERT, C.H.; E. Stice
Functional, molecular and genetic neuroimaging has highlighted the existence of brain anomalies and neural vulnerability factors related to obesity and eating disorders such as binge eating or anorexia nervosa. In particular, decreased basal metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and striatum as well as dopaminergic alterations have been described in obese subjects, in parallel with increased activation of reward brain areas in response to palatable food cues. Elevated reward region responsivity...
Chen JL; Wilkosz ME
Jyu-Lin Chen,1 Mary Ellen Wilkosz2 1Department of Family Health Care Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 2Nursing Department, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA, USA Abstract: About one third of adolescents in the USA are overweight and/or obese. Obesity during the adolescent years is associated with many adverse health consequences, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and psychosocial problems. Because of substantial advances ...
Rossmeisl, Martin; JĂlkovĂĄ, Zuzana; JelenĂk, TomĂĄĆĄ; Hensler, Michal; Mohamed-Ali, V.; Bryhn, M.
RoÄ. 15, Suppl. (2007), A 185-A186. ISSN 1930-7381. [The Obesity Society 2007 Annual Scientific Meeting. 20.10.2007-24.10.2007, New Orleans] R&D Projects: GA ÄR GA303/07/0708 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : cpo1 * obesity * high-fat diet * decosahexaenoic acid Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition
Knowlden, Adam P.
Pediatric obesity is a pertinent public health challenge. Child physical activity and screen time behaviors enacted within the context of the family and home environment are important determinants of pediatric obesity. The purpose of this study was to operationalize five, maternal-facilitated, social cognitive theory constructs for predicting physical activity and screen time behaviors in children. A secondary purpose was to elucidate the function of suppressor variables in the design and imp...
Yiannikouris, Frederique; Gupte, Manisha; Putnam, Kelly; Thatcher, Sean; Charnigo, Richard; Rateri, Debra L.; Daugherty, Alan; Cassis, Lisa A.
Previous studies demonstrated that diet-induced obesity increased plasma angiotensin II concentrations and elevated systolic blood pressures in male mice. Adipocytes express angiotensinogen and secrete angiotensin peptides. We hypothesize that adipocyte-derived angiotensin II mediates obesity-induced increases in systolic blood pressure in male high fat-fed C57BL/6 mice. Systolic blood pressure was measured by radiotelemetry during week 16 of low fat or high fat feeding in Agtfl/fl and adipoc...
Swift Judy A
Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of risk factors are associated with the development of childhood obesity which can be identified during infancy. These include infant feeding practices, parental response to infant temperament and parental perception of infant growth and appetite. Parental beliefs and understanding are crucial determinants of infant feeding behaviour; therefore any intervention would need to take account of their views. This study aimed to explore UK parents' beliefs concerning their infant's size, growth and feeding behaviour and parental receptiveness to early intervention aimed at reducing the risk of childhood obesity. Method Six focus groups were undertaken in a range of different demographic localities, with parents of infants less than one year of age. The focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis applied using an interpretative, inductive approach. Results 38 parents (n = 36 female, n = 2 male, age range 19-45 years (mean 30.1 years, SD 6.28 participated in the focus groups. 12/38 were overweight (BMI 25-29.99 and 8/38 obese (BMI >30. Five main themes were identified. These were a parental concern about breast milk, infant contentment and growth; b the belief that the main cause of infant distress is hunger is widespread and drives inappropriate feeding; c rationalisation for infants' larger size; d parental uncertainty about identifying and managing infants at risk of obesity and e intentions and behaviour in relation to a healthy lifestyle. Conclusions There are a number of barriers to early intervention with parents of infants at risk of developing obesity. Parents are receptive to prevention prior to weaning and need better support with best practice in infant feeding. In particular, this should focus on helping them understand the physiology of breast feeding, how to differentiate between infant distress caused by hunger and other causes and the timing of weaning. Some parents also need guidance about how to recognize and prepare healthy foods and facilitate physical activity for their infants.
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This paper aims to identify the mediating mechanisms of a school-based obesity prevention program (DOiT. Methods The DOiT-program was implemented in Dutch prevocational secondary schools and evaluated using a controlled, cluster-randomised trial (September 2003 to May 2004. We examined mediators of effects regarding (1 consumption of sugar containing beverages (SCB; (2 consumption of high caloric snacks; (3 screen-viewing behaviour; and (4 active commuting to school. To improve these behaviours the DOiT-program tried to influence the following potentially mediating variables: attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control, and habit-strength. Results Both in boys (n = 418 and girls (n = 436 the DOiT-intervention reduced SCB consumption (between group difference in boys = -303.5 ml/day, 95% CI: -502.4;-104.5, between group difference in girls = -222.3 ml/day, 95% CI: -371.3;-73.2. The intervention did not affect the other examined behaviours. In girls, no intervention effect on hypothetical mediators was found nor evidence of any mediating mechanisms. Boys in intervention schools improved their attitude towards decreasing SCB consumption, while this behaviour became less of a habit. Indeed, attitude and habit strength were significant mediators of the DOiT-intervention's effect (4.5 and 3.8%, respectively on SCB consumption among boys. Conclusion Our findings imply that interventions aimed at EBRB-change should be gender-specific. Future studies aimed at reducing SCB consumption among boys should target attitude and habit strength as mediating mechanisms. Our study did not resolve the mediating mechanisms in girls. Trial registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register ISRCTN87127361
Background: Obesity and its related metabolic complications are an increasing problem worldwide. A high fat diet in combination with sucrose has been shown to induce obesity and development of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in rodents. C57BL/6J mice were fed high fat diets with sucros......- or protein based background, and supplemented with either corn- or fish oil. These experiments were conducted to determine whether macronutrient composition and type of dietary fat can modulate diet-induced obesity, and associated metabolic consequences. The use of non-steroidal anti...... macrophage infiltration markers in the adipose tissue. By increasing the amount of dietary protein, at the expanse of sucrose, the obesogenic effect of the HF diet was prevented. The reduced obesogenic effect of the high fat/high protein diet was associated with increased expression of genes related to...... hepatic gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis, in addition to genes related to thermogenesis. Fish oil enriched diets with polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, are shown to prevent diet-induced obesity, however, this effect was blunted with increased sucrose content in the diet. The obesogenic high fat...
Snowdon, W; Thow, A M
The Pacific Island countries experience some of the highest rates of obesity in the world in part due to substantial dietary changes that mirror changes in the food supply in the region. Economic and political ties, donor aid, and trade links are key drivers of the changing availability and accessibility of processed and imported foods. Pacific Island countries have been innovative in developing trade-related policy approaches to create a less obesogenic food environment. Taxation-based approaches that affect pricing in the region include increased import and excise tariffs on sugared beverages and other high-sugar products, monosodium glutamate, and palm oil and lowered tariffs on fruits and vegetables. Other approaches highlight some higher-fat products through labeling and controlling the supply of high-fat meats. The bans on high-fat turkey tails and mutton flaps highlight the politics, trade agreements and donor influences that can be significant barriers to the pursuit of policy options. Countries that are not signatories to trade agreements may have more policy space for innovative action. However, potential effectiveness and practicality require consideration. The health sector's active engagement in the negotiation of trade agreements is a key way to support healthier trade in the region. PMID:24102909
Gerusa Eisfeld Milano
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of aquatic exercise and nutritionalguidance on the body composition of obese children and adolescents. Thirty obese childrenaged 10 to 16 years, with a body mass index (BMI above the 95th percentile according to theclassification proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2000, weredivided into two groups: the first group started learning to swim (GSwim, n = 10 and the secondgroup underwent a deep water running program (GDeep, n = 20. Weight, height, BMI, BMIZ-scores, relative and absolute fat, and relative and absolute lean body mass were evaluated atbaseline and after 12 weeks. The program consisted of 12 meetings for nutritional guidance (oncea week and 36 sessions of exercise (three times per week. MANOVA and Fisherâs exact testwere used for statistical analysis, with the level of significance set at p < 0.05. After 12 weeks,GDeep showed a significant reduction in BMI, BMI Z-scores and relative and absolute fat,and an increase in relative and absolute lean body mass. Significant differences were observedbetween GDeep and GSwim in terms of the reduction in body fat (p = 0.014 and the increasein lean mass (p = 0.006. A program of deep water running together with nutritional guidancemay promote significant changes in the body composition of obese children and adolescents dueto the cyclic characteristic of this physical activity.
Jayasinghe, Thilini N.; Chiavaroli, Valentina; Holland, David J.; Cutfield, Wayne S.; O'Sullivan, Justin M
Key Points The microbiome has been implicated in the development of obesity. Conventional therapeutic methods have limited effectiveness for the treatment of obesity and prevention of related complications. Gut microbiome transplantation may represent an alternative and effective therapy for the treatment of obesity. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Despite a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and growing treatment options, a significant proportion o...
Lynch Wesley C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity in rural communities is a serious but understudied problem. The current experiment aims to assess a wide range of obesity risk factors among rural youth and to offer an 8-month intervention program for parents to reduce obesity risk in their preteen child. Methods/Design A two-group, repeated measures design is used to assess the effectiveness of the 4-Health intervention program. Assessments include anthropometric measures, child self-evaluations, parent self-evaluations, and parent evaluations of child. County Extension agents from 21 rural Montana counties recruit approximately 150 parentchild dyads and counties are semi-randomly assigned to the active intervention group (4-Health Educational Program or a best-practices (Healthy Living Information control group. Discussion This study will shed light on the effectiveness of this parent-only intervention strategy in reducing obesity risk factors among rural preteens. The 4-Health program is designed to provide information and skills development for busy rural parents that will increase healthy lifestyles of their preteen children and improve the parents ability to intervene effectively in the lives of their families during this critical developmental period. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01510587
The lack of significant treatment and prevention progress highlights the need for a more expanded strategy. Given the robust association between socioeconomic factors and obesity, combined with new insights into how socioeconomic disadvantage affects both behaviour and biology, a new causal model is proposed. The model posits that psychological and emotional distress is a fundamental link between socioeconomic disadvantage and weight gain. At particular risk are children growing up in a disharmonious family environment, mainly caused by parental socioeconomic disadvantage, where they are exposed to parental frustrations, relationship discord, a lack of support and cohesion, negative belief systems, unmet emotional needs and general insecurity. Without adequate resilience, such experiences increase the risk of psychological and emotional distress, including low self-esteem and self-worth, negative emotions, negative self-belief, powerlessness, depression, anxiety, insecurity and a heightened sensitivity to stress. These inner disturbances eventually cause a psycho-emotional overload, triggering a cascade of weight gain-inducing effects including maladaptive coping strategies such as eating to suppress negative emotions, chronic stress, appetite up-regulation, low-grade inflammation and possibly reduced basal metabolism. Over time, this causes obesity, circular causality and further weight gain. Tackling these proposed root causes of weight gain could potentially improve both treatment and prevention outcomes. PMID:24931366
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To describe and contrast individual state nutrition and physical activity regulations related to childhood obesity for child care centers and family child care homes in the United States. Methods We conducted a review of regulations for child care facilities for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. We examined state regulations and recorded key nutrition and physical activity items that may contribute to childhood obesity. Items included in this review were: 1 Water is freely available; 2 Sugar-sweetened beverages are limited; 3 Foods of low nutritional value are limited; 4 Children are not forced to eat; 5 Food is not used as a reward; 6 Support is provided for breastfeeding and provision of breast milk; 7 Screen time is limited; and 8 Physical activity is required daily. Results Considerable variation exists among state nutrition and physical activity regulations related to obesity. Tennessee had six of the eight regulations for child care centers, and Delaware, Georgia, Indiana, and Nevada had five of the eight regulations. Conversely, the District of Columbia, Idaho, Nebraska and Washington had none of the eight regulations. For family child care homes, Georgia and Nevada had five of the eight regulations; Arizona, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oregon, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, and West Virginia had four of the eight regulations. California, the District of Columbia, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, and Nebraska did not have any of the regulations related to obesity for family child care homes. Conclusion Many states lack specific nutrition and physical activity regulations related to childhood obesity for child care facilities. If widely implemented, enhancing state regulations could help address the obesity epidemic in young children in the United States.
Nguyen, Phuong T
Given the several morbid conditions associated with obesity, as well as its increasing prevalence and its difficult treatment, it is necessary that efficient preventive measures be found. Simple measures, without potential adverse effects and a low cost should be a priority. The inverse association between breast-feeding and obesity suggests a role for breast-feeding in the reduction of obesity prevalence in later life. This protective effect of breastfeeding is supported by many epidemiologi...
Oike, Hideaki; Sakurai, Mutsumi; Ippoushi, Katsunari; Kobori, Masuko
Recent findings have uncovered intimate relationships between circadian clocks and energy metabolism. Epidemiological studies have shown that the frequency of obesity and metabolic disorders increases among shift-workers. Here we found that a chronic shift in light/dark (LD) cycles comprising an advance of six hours twice weekly, induced obesity in mice. Under such conditions that imitate jet lag/shift work, body weight and glucose intolerance increased, more fat accumulated in white adipose tissues and the expression profiles of metabolic genes changed in the liver compared with normal LD conditions. Mice fed at a fixed 12 h under the LD shift notably did not develop symptoms of obesity despite isocaloric intake. These results suggest that jet lag/shift work induces obesity as a result of fluctuating feeding times and it can be prevented by fixing meal times. This rodent model of obesity might serve as a useful tool for understanding why shift work induces metabolic disorders. PMID:26297949
Popkin, B; Monteiro, C; Swinburn, B
The Bellagio 'Conference on Program and Policy Options for Preventing Obesity in the Low- and Middle-Income Countries' (LMICs) was organized to pull together the current. We need not reiterate the importance of this topic or the speed of change in eating, drinking and moving facing us across the globe. The conference emerges from need to significantly step up the policies and programs to reduce obesity by learning from some current examples of best practice and strengthening the role of the academic and civil society players in translating global evidence and experience into action at the national level. There is also a need to empower the younger generation of scholars and activists in these countries to carry on this effort. The meeting was also timely because a number of funding agencies in the United States, Canada and the UK, at least, are beginning to focus attention on this topic. This set of papers provides not only examples of existing best practice but also a road map ahead for LMICs in the various areas of action needed to reduce obesity across LMICs. The meeting highlighted critical barriers to implementation that have blocked many initiatives. PMID:24102826
Ceschia, Arianna; Giacomini, Stefano; Santarossa, Simone; Rugo, Miriam; Salvadego, Desy; Da Ponte, Alessandro; Driussi, Caterina; Mihaleje, Martina; Poser, Stefano; Lazzer, Stefano
The prevalence of obesity in children has increased dramatically during the past decades in Europe and understanding physical fitness and its components in children is critical to design and implement effective interventions. The objective of the present study was to analyse the association between physical fitness (aerobic, speed, agility, power, flexibility and balance) and body mass index (BMI) in pre-pubertal children. A total of 2411 healthy schoolchildren (7-11 years) participated in this study. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition were assessed by skinfold thickness. Physical fitness was measured by nine physical fitness tests: endurance running, 20 m running speed, agility, handgrip strength, standing long jump and squat jump, sit and reach, medicine ball forward throw and static balance. No relevant differences were observed between boys and girls regarding anthropometric characteristics, body composition and physical fitness. However, overweight and obese children showed significantly lower physical fitness levels in endurance running, speed and agility (mean: +18.8, +5.5 and +14.5% of time to complete tasks, respectively), lower limb power normalised to body mass (-23.3%) and balance tests (number of falls: +165.5%) than their normal weight counterparts. On the other hand, obesity did not affect handgrip, throwing and flexibility. In conclusion, increased BMI was associated with lower performance capabilities limiting proper motor skill development, which directly affects the ability of children to take on sports skills. Actions undertaken to promote children's wellness and fitness should be prioritised and introduced early in life with the aim of enhancing physical fitness as well as preventing overweight and obesity. PMID:25866877
Bleich, Sara N; Jones-Smith, Jesse; Jones, Hannah; O'Hara, Marguerite; Rutkow, Lainie
We documented childhood obesity legislative activity in all 50 US states that occurred in parallel to the first year of Voices for Healthy Kids (Voices), a campaign to mobilize evidence-based legislation addressing childhood obesity. We identified 217 bills in the year before Voices (November 2012 to October 2013) and 304 bills at follow-up (November 2013 to October 2014). In states with active Voices grantees, the bill enactment rate was 50% higher (increasing from 10% at baseline to 15% at follow-up). PMID:26794169
Simona Ianosi Edith; Alexandra Comes; Gabriela Jimborean
Obesity is a disease with severe health consequences and increased risk of mortality. The most commonly used criteria to assess the presence and the severity of obesity are body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and the presence of the health conditions caused or worsened by obesity. Worldwide obesity has more than doubled in the last 4 decades. Obesity is the second of the leading preventable causes of death worldwide (after smoking). Obesity has a plurifactorial pathoge...
Poâe, Eli K.; Heerman, William J.; Mistry, Rishi S.; Barkin, Shari L.
Growing Right Onto Wellness (GROW) is a randomized controlled trial that tests the efficacy of a family-centered, community-based, behavioral intervention to prevent childhood obesity among preschool-aged children. Focusing on parent-child pairs, GROW utilizes a multi-level framework, which accounts for macro (i.e., built-environment) and micro (i.e., genetics) level systems that contribute to the childhood obesity epidemic.
Regber, Susann; MĂ„rild, Staffan; Johansson Hanse, Jan
Background Overweight and obesity in preschool children have increased worldwide in the past two to three decades. Child Health Centers provide a key setting for monitoring growth in preschool children and preventing childhood obesity. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 15 nurses working at Child Health Centers in southwest Sweden in 2011 and 2012. All interviews were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim and imported to QSR NâVivo 9 software. Data were analyzed deductively...
Rawlins, E.; Baker, G; Maynard, M.; Harding, S
Background: Ethnicity is a consistent correlate of obesity; however, little is known about the perceptions and beliefs that may influence engagement with obesity prevention programmes among ethnic minority children. Barriers to (and facilitators of) healthy lifestyles were examined in the qualitative arm of the London (UK) DiEt and Active Living (DEAL) study. Methods: Children aged 8â13Â years and their parents, from diverse ethnic groups, were recruited through schools and through places ...
Chang, Mei-Wei; Nitzke, Susan; Brown, Roger; RESNICOW, KEN
Background Over 45% of American women 20â39Â years old are at risk for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other health conditions because they are overweight or obese. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is disproportionately high among low-income women. This paper describes the study design and rationale of a community based intervention (Mothers In Motion, MIM) aimed to prevent weight gain among low-income overweight and obese mothers18-39Â years old by promoting stress managem...
Maryam Esmaeilzadeh; Hossein Bagheri; Yashar Rezaei
INTRODUCTION: Although dental caries is a preventable disease, it is still common and remains a public health problem. One of the potentially effective preventive measures is the use of lasers. The purpose of this study was to review the studies about use of laser irradiation on the inhibition of carious lesions and the effectiveness of different commercial laser type (Nd:YAG, CO2, and Argon).METHODS: A literature search included journal databases, existing systematic reviews, and studies ide...
Wrobel, Sylvia B.; Griffen, Ward O.; Anderson, James W.; Whitaker, E. Berton; Wiegert, H. Thomas; Searle, Maureen; Engelberg, Joseph
Surgical treatment of morbid, familial, juvenile-onset obesity in a 37-year-old, 260-pound, mother of three children by jejunoileal bypass was subsequently converted to gastric bypass. The resulting weight loss of 110 pounds resulted in personality changes and changes in family dynamics and was followed by divorce. Medical, psychosocial, and economic aspects of the case are discussed.
Asians and other non-caucasians are generally more susceptible to obesity related chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Viscous soluble dietary fibers such as cereal beta-glucans and psyllium reduce plasma cholesterol and postprandial glycemia in humans. We have stud...
Keener, Dana; Goodman, Kenneth; Lowry, Amy; Zaro, Susan; Khan, Laura Kettel
America has a serious weight problem. Two-thirds of adults and nearly one-fifth of children in the United States are overweight, placing them at greater risk for heart disease, diabetes, and other chronic diseases including cancer and arthritis. Furthermore, obesity and its related health problems are placing a major strain on the U.S. health careâŠ