WorldWideScience
 
 
1

School-Based Obesity Prevention Intervention in Chilean Children: Effective in Controlling, but not Reducing Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of a 12-month multicomponent obesity prevention intervention. Setting. 9 elementary schools in Santiago, Chile. Subjects. 6–8?y old low-income children (N = 1474). Design. Randomized controlled study; 5 intervention/4 control schools. We trained teachers to deliver nutrition contents and improve the quality of PE classes. We determined % healthy snacks brought from home, children's nutrition knowledge, nutritional status, duration of PE classes, and % time in moderate/vigorous activity (MVA). Effectiveness was determined by comparing ? BMI Z between intervention and control children using PROCMIXED. Results. % obesity increased in boys from both types of schools and in girls from control schools, while decreasing in girls from intervention schools (all nonsignificant). % class time in MVA declined (24.5–16.2) while remaining unchanged (24.8–23.7%) in classes conducted by untrained and trained teachers, respectively. In boys, BMI Z declined (1.33–1.24) and increased (1.22–1.35) in intervention and control schools, respectively. In girls, BMI Z remained unchanged in intervention schools, while increasing significantly in control schools (0.91–1.06, P = 0.024). Interaction group ? time was significant for boys (P < 0.0001) and girls (P = 0.004). Conclusions. This intervention was effective in controlling obesity, but not preventing it. Even though impact was small, results showed that when no intervention is implemented, obesity increases. PMID:24872892

Kain, Juliana; Concha, Fernando; Moreno, Lorena; Leyton, Bárbara

2014-01-01

2

EFFECT OF TEACHING PROGRAMME ON KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE REGARDING PREVENTION OF OBESITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 1998 the World Health Organization declared childhood obesity as a “global epidemic.” It has also been observed that the health problems of adult obesity can be prevented, if obesity is controlled in childhood. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge and attitude regarding prevention of obesity and Correlate the knowledge and attitude regarding prevention of obesity among adolescents in a selected pre-university college. A pre-experimental one group pre-test post-test design was adopted. Convenience sampling technique used for selecting the adolescents. A structured knowledge questionnaire on prevention of obesity and a five-point Likert scale to assess the attitude regarding prevention of obesity were developed as the tools for data collection. The data obtained were analyzed based on the objectives and hypotheses, using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result showed that the mean post-test knowledge and attitude score of adolescents on prevention of obesity was higher than the mean pretest knowledge and attitude score. There was no correlation between knowledge and the attitude. The present study concludes that the teaching programme improved the knowledge and attitude of adolescents regarding prevention of obesity.

Prashanth K and Umarani J

2013-04-01

3

Interventions for preventing obesity in children.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background Obesity prevention is an international public health priority. The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing in child populations throughout the world, impacting on short and long-term health. Obesity prevention strategies for children can change behaviour but efficacy in terms of preventing obesity remains poorly understood. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent obesity in childhood through diet, physical activity and/or li...

Summerbell, C. D.; Waters, E.; Edmunds, L. D.; Kelly, S. A. M.; Brown, T. A.; Campbell, K. J.

2005-01-01

4

Prevention of Overweight and Obesity: How Effective is the Current Public Health Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity is a public health problem that has become epidemic worldwide. Substantial literature has emerged to show that overweight and obesity are major causes of co-morbidities, including type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, various cancers and other health problems, which can lead to further morbidity and mortality. The related health care costs are also substantial. Therefore, a public health approach to develop population-based strategies for the prevention of excess weight gain is of great importance. However, public health intervention programs have had limited success in tackling the rising prevalence of obesity. This paper reviews the definition of overweight and obesity and the variations with age and ethnicity; health consequences and factors contributing to the development of obesity; and critically reviews the effectiveness of current public health strategies for risk factor reduction and obesity prevention.

Jean Woo

2010-02-01

5

Obesity - A Preventable Disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity is a common and preventable disease of clinical and public health importance. It is often a major risk factor for the development of several non-communicable diseases, significant disability and premature death. There is presently a global epidemic of obesity in all age groups and in both developed and developing countries. The increasing prevalence of obesity places a large burden on health care use and costs. Weight loss is associated with significant health and economic benefits. E...

Ofei, F.

2005-01-01

6

The effect of obesity prevention interventions according to socioeconomic position: a systematic review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity prevention is a major public health priority. It is important that all groups benefit from measures to prevent obesity, but we know little about the differential effectiveness of such interventions within particular population subgroups. This review aimed to identify interventions for obesity prevention that evaluated a change in adiposity according to socioeconomic position (SEP) and to determine the effectiveness of these interventions across different socioeconomic groups. A systematic search of published and grey literature was conducted. Studies that described an obesity prevention intervention and reported anthropometric outcomes according to a measure of SEP were included. Evidence was synthesized using narrative analysis. A total of 14 studies were analysed, representing a range of study designs and settings. All studies were from developed countries, with eight conducted among children. Three studies were shown to have no effect on anthropometric outcomes and were not further analysed. Interventions shown to be ineffective in lower SEP participants were primarily based on information provision directed at individual behaviour change. Studies that were shown to be effective in lower SEP participants primarily included community-based strategies or policies aimed at structural changes to the environment. Interventions targeting individual-level behaviour change may be less successful in lower SEP populations. It is essential that our efforts to prevent obesity do not leave behind the most disadvantaged members of society. PMID:24629126

Beauchamp, A; Backholer, K; Magliano, D; Peeters, A

2014-07-01

7

Cost-effectiveness of whole-of-community obesity prevention programs: an overview of the evidence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whole-of-community obesity prevention programs that impact on multiple players and promote community capacity show promise as an important strategy in the fight against global obesity. This paper reviews the economic evaluation literature of multifaceted, community based obesity prevention programs. There are few cost effectiveness studies. Whilst results to date are encouraging, there is considerable uncertainty surrounding the long term results given the lack of evidence regarding sustainability of program effect and a consequent reliance on economic modeling to fill the gaps. More empirical studies of longer duration are needed to demonstrate the longer term effectiveness and cost effectiveness of these programs, and to facilitate identification of the elements necessary for their sustainability. PMID:25209305

Flego, Anna; Keating, Catherine; Moodie, Marj

2014-10-01

8

The effectiveness of community-based programs for obesity prevention and control  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Elizabeth TeixeiraDrexel University College of Nursing and Health Professions, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Obesity is a major public health concern worldwide. The increasing prevalence of obesity in all ages, especially children and adolescents, has gained global attention and it is widely known that obesity increases the risk of many chronic conditions and illnesses, such as Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Obesity is a complex metabolic disorder, however, that is difficult to treat and manage. Therefore, despite the increased awareness about obesity-related health risks, obesity prevention and control has been a major challenge for health professionals. Lifestyle modification is easily prescribed, however, multiple barriers to implementation exist. Barriers include but are not limited to: behavioral and motivational factors, anti-fat bias, access to and reimbursement of educational programs, availability of healthy affordable foods, ongoing support systems that are culturally and community attuned, and comorbidities that limit physical activity and quality of life. Further, the current health care systems are not all designed to focus on health promotion and wellness. These contributing factors complicate weight management and control. Community-based programs are one potentially feasible approach that can assist individuals, families, and communities in developing healthy behaviors that promote and maintain weight loss. This review reports on nine worldwide current studies on the effectiveness of community-based programs in diverse populations targeting obesity. The purpose of this review is to examine evidenced-based interventions that can assist in the development of standard practices in the battle against obesity.Keywords: obesity, community, prevention, physical activity, nutrition

Teixeira ME

2011-12-01

9

The effect of food portion sizes on the obesity prevention using system dynamics modelling  

Science.gov (United States)

The rise in income and population growth have increased the demand for food and induced changes in food habits, food purchasing and consumption patterns in Malaysia. With this transition, one of the plausible causes of weight gain and obesity is the frequent consumption of outside food which is synonymous with bigger portion size. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to develop a system dynamics model to analyse the effect of reducing food portion size on weight and obesity prevention. This study combines the different strands of knowledge comprise of nutrition, physical activity and body metabolism. These elements are synthesized into a system dynamics model called SIMULObese. Findings from this study suggested that changes in eating behavior should not emphasize only on limiting the food portion size consumption. The efforts should also consider other eating events such as controlling the meal frequency and limiting intake of high-calorie food in developing guidelines to prevent obesity.

Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Zulkepli, Jafri Hj; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura

2014-09-01

10

Economic perspectives on pediatric obesity: impact on health care expenditures and cost-effectiveness of preventive interventions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter surveys two segments of the economic literature on pediatric obesity: first, research regarding the impact of childhood obesity on health care expenditure, and second, research evaluating the cost-effectiveness of programs to prevent pediatric obesity. Evidence in support of the hypothesis that obese children and adolescents have higher health care costs than their otherwise similar healthy-weight peers has been found for female adolescents. Studies trying to calculate the complete lifetime health care costs attributable to childhood obesity are missing. Only a small number of studies assessing the cost-effectiveness of preventive obesity interventions among children have been published until now. The results call for the inclusion of nutrition behavior as an intervention target. There is some evidence that childhood obesity prevention might be successful in combining health gains with cost savings. However, it is not possible to rank the interventions according to their cost-effectiveness or to assess the generalizability of their results. Cost-effectiveness increasingly will be a major consideration in public reimbursement decisions. Therefore, evaluation research has to pay more attention to the economic aspects of new health technologies. Without providing good value for money, those technologies probably will not turn from inventions to innovations in health care. Moreover, future research should address various methodological and conceptual challenges and limitations which economic evaluations of preventive interventions into childhood obesity are faced with. PMID:20664220

John, Jürgen

2010-01-01

11

Islamic Fasting: An Effective Strategy for Prevention and Control of Obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A balanced and energy-restricted diet, exercise and behavior modification are the usual approaches used for obesity. Islamic fasting, which has the components of energy restriction and behavior modification, could be a safe nutritional approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity. For this reason, the effect of Islamic Fasting, an abstention from Foods, fluids and sex from dawn to sunset, on food intake, body weight and blood chemistry was studied in ten healthy adult male human subjects. Foods and Fluids intake before and in the first and fourth week of Fasting were recorded. Body weight of the participants was noted before and at the last day of Fasting. Blood samples before, in the second and fourth week of Fasting and two weeks after Fasting were collected. The daily reduction in energy (Food intake ranged from 200-1500 Kcal with an average value of 857? 410 Kcal. During the four weeks of Fasting, loss in body weight ranged from 0.5-6.0 Kg with an average value of 3.2?1.7 Kg. There were no significant differences in glucose, total protein, triglyceride and total, HDL and LDL cholesterol in the blood samples collected before, during and after the Fasting. The data suggest that Islamic Fasting is nutritionally safe and could be used as an effective strategy for prevention and control of obesity.

Alam Khan

2002-01-01

12

Preventive Effect of Boiogito on Metabolic Disorders in the TSOD Mouse, a Model of Spontaneous Obese Type II Diabetes Mellitus.  

Science.gov (United States)

"Boiogito" is a Kampo preparation which has been used since ancient times in patients with obesity of the "asthenic constitution" type, so-called "watery obesity", and its effect has been recognized clinically. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of Boiogito in the TSOD (Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetes) mouse, a model of spontaneous obese type II diabetes mellitus. Boiogito showed a significant anti-obesity effect in TSOD mice by suppressing body weight gain in a dosage-dependent manner. In addition, Boiogito showed significant ameliorative effects on features of metabolic syndrome such as hyperinsulinemia, fasting hyperglycemia and abnormal lipid metabolism. Regarding lipid accumulation in TSOD mice, Boiogito showed a significant suppressive effect on accumulation of subcutaneous fat, but the effect on the visceral fat accumulation that constitutes the basis of metabolic syndrome was weak, and the suppressive effect on insulin resistance was also weak. Furthermore, Boiogito did not alleviate the abnormal glucose tolerance, the hypertension or the peripheral neuropathy characteristically developed in the TSOD mice. In contrast, in the TSNO (Tsumura Suzuki Non-Obesity) mice used as controls, Boiogito suppressed body weight gain and accumulation of subcutaneous and visceral fat. The above results suggested that Boiogito is effective as an anti-obesity drug against obesity of the "asthenic constitution" type in which subcutaneous fat accumulates, but cannot be expected to exert a preventive effect against various symptoms of metabolic syndrome that are based on visceral fat accumulation. PMID:19208721

Shimada, Tsutomu; Akase, Tomoko; Kosugi, Mitsutaka; Aburada, Masaki

2011-01-01

13

Cost-effectiveness of Recruitment Methods in an Obesity Prevention Trial for Young Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Recruitment of participants for clinical trials requires considerable effort and cost. There is no research on the cost-effectiveness of recruitment methods for an obesity prevention trial of young children. Methods This study determined the cost-effectiveness of recruiting 70 families with a child aged 4 to 7 (5.9 ± 1.3) years in Western New York from February, 2003 to November, 2004, for a two year randomized obesity prevention trial to reduce television watching in the home. Results Of the 70 randomized families, 65.7% (n = 46) were obtained through direct mailings, 24.3% (n = 17) were acquired through newspaper advertisements, 7.1 % (n = 5) from other sources (e.g. word of mouth), and 2.9% (n = 2) through posters and brochures. Costs of each recruitment method were computed by adding the cost of materials, staff time, and media expenses. Cost-effectiveness (money spent per randomized participant) was US $0 for other sources, US $227.76 for direct mailing, US $546.95 for newspaper ads, and US $3,020.84 for posters and brochures. Conclusion Of the methods with associated costs, direct mailing was the most cost effective in recruiting families with young children, which supports the growing literature of the effectiveness of direct mailing. PMID:17475318

Robinson, Jodie L.; Fuerch, Janene H.; Winiewicz, Dana D.; Salvy, Sarah J.; Roemmich, James N.; Epstein, Leonard H.

2007-01-01

14

Preventive Effects of Chitosan Coacervate Whey Protein on Body Composition and Immunometabolic Aspect in Obese Mice  

Science.gov (United States)

Functional foods containing bioactive compounds of whey may play an important role in prevention and treatment of obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the prospects of the biotechnological process of coacervation of whey proteins (CWP) in chitosan and test its antiobesogenic potential. Methods. CWP (100?mg·kg·day) was administered in mice with diet-induced obesity for 8 weeks. The animals were divided into four groups: control normocaloric diet gavage with water (C) or coacervate (C-CWP), and high fat diet gavage with water (HF) or coacervate (HF-CWP). Results. HF-CWP reduced weight gain and serum lipid fractions and displayed reduced adiposity and insulin. Adiponectin was significantly higher in HF-CWP group when compared to the HF. The level of LPS in HF-W group was significantly higher when compared to HF-CWP. The IL-10 showed an inverse correlation between the levels of insulin and glucose in the mesenteric adipose tissue in the HF-CWP group. CWP promoted an increase in both phosphorylation AMPK and the amount of ATGL in the mesenteric adipose tissue in HF-CWP group. Conclusion. CWP was able to modulate effects, possibly due to its high biological value of proteins. We observed a protective effect against obesity and improved the inflammatory milieu of white adipose tissue. PMID:25309049

de Souza, Gabriel Inacio de Morais Honorato; Santamarina, Aline Boveto; de Santana, Aline Alves; Lira, Fabio Santos; de Laquila, Rachel; Moreno, Mayara Franzoi; do Nascimento, Claudia Maria da Penha Oller; Esposito, Elisa; Oyama, Lila Missae

2014-01-01

15

Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Consequently, both over-consumption of calories and reduced physical activity are involved in childhood obesity. Almost all researchers agree that prevention could be the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic of obesity. Prevention may include primary prevention of overweight or obesity, secondary prevention or prevention of weight regains following weight loss, and avoidance of more weight increase in obese persons unable to lose weight. Until now, most approaches have focused on changing the behaviour of individuals in diet and exercise. It seems, however, that these strategies have had little impact on the growing increase of the obesity epidemic. While about 50% of the adults are overweight and obese in many countries, it is difficult to reduce excessive weight once it becomes established. Children should therefore be considered the priority population for intervention strategies. Prevention may be achieved through a variety of interventions targeting built environment, physical activity, and diet. Some of these potential strategies for intervention in children can be implemented by targeting preschool institutions, schools or after-school care services as natural setting for influencing the diet and physical activity. All in all, there is an urgent need to initiate prevention and treatment of obesity in children.

Merchant Anwar T

2005-09-01

16

The preventive effect of physical activity on weight maintenance in overweight and obese women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prevalence of obesity has increased recently especially in women. Obesity is related to mortality due to non-communicable diseases and has become a public health issue. Among the two important factors to reduce weight calorie limitation alone is modestly effective in initial weight but can result in weight gain after primary weight reduction is common. Therefore adding physical activity to weight maintenance program can reduce weight gain rebound. The aim of this review article was to identify the preventive effect of physical activity on weight maintenance in overweight women. Articles were selected from PubMed database and screened for the relativity to the study objectives, using scoring systems. Eleven studies were found appropriate. No statistical test was done on the data except simple mean and some descriptive analyses. Physical activity is proved to have a significant effect in weight loss/maintenance both in induction and maintenance period. This effect was more significant in higher intensities. Sever intensity physical activity can be effective in weight maintenance in long term but the effect of moderate and light physical activity could not be evaluated due to lack of data. PMID:24999570

Dashti, Sareh; Esfehani, Ali Jafarzadeh; Leonard Joseph, H J

2014-01-01

17

Comparing the Effectiveness of CDSS on Provider's Behaviors to Implement Obesity Prevention Guidelines  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is a global epidemic demanding the use of clinical decision support tools to help clinicians in the identification, assessment and management of healthy weight gain in children. Over the last decade, numerous systematic reviews have shown that clinical decision support systems (CDSS) have positively impacted clinician’s performance for drug ordering/dosing and preventive care reminders. CDSS that are built into the clinician’s workflow at the point of care also have a positive impact on provider’s performance. There are limited studies that examine CDSS in nursing practice. This paper describes a comparative effectiveness study being conducted in school-based clinics to examine the impact of web-based training with and without a CDSS that contains tailored recommendations. The study involves the use of a CDSS tool focused on cardiovascular risks, HeartSmartKids™. This research is an important example of an interdisciplinary team using information technology to address the global issue of obesity prevention. PMID:24199124

Skiba, Diane J; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Gilbert, Kevin; Gilbert, Lynn; Dandreaux, Danielle

2012-01-01

18

Cost-Effectiveness of a School-Based Obesity Prevention Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: A school-based obesity prevention study (Medical College of Georgia FitKid Project) started in the fall of 2003 in 18 elementary schools. Half of the schools were randomized to an after-school program that included moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, healthy snacks, homework assistance, and academic enrichment. All third graders…

Wang, Li Yan; Gutin, Bernard; Barbeau, Paule; Moore, Justin B.; Hanes, John, Jr.; Johnson, Maribeth H.; Cavnar, Marlo; Thornburg, Janet; Yin, Zenong

2008-01-01

19

Ethical aspects of obesity prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Programs to prevent overweight and obesity are needed in order to improve individual and public health, to support informed choice and to diminish the societal costs associated with overweight. However, lifestyle interventions frequently evoke ethical debate. The potential ethical pitfalls that arise with respect to the prevention of overweight regard consequences for physical health, psychosocial well-being, equality, informed choice, social and cultural values, privacy, the attributions of responsibilities and liberty. For doctors in gastroenterology, it is important to be aware of these ethical pitfalls, either because they apply directly to questions in the consulting-room, or because they help to create awareness of the societal context a patient lives in. An ethical framework is being presented to show which ethical issues play a role in obesity prevention and how they can be prevented, followed by reflection on the ethical issues in interventions and in policy and media debate. PMID:24810191

Ten Have, Marieke

2014-04-01

20

Interventions for preventing obesity in childhood : a systematic review.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing worldwide. Obesity in children impacts on their health in both short- and long-term. Obesity prevention strategies are poorly understood. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent obesity in childhood. Search strategy: Electronic databases were searched from January 1985 to October 1999. Selection criteria: Data from randomized control trials and non-randomized trials with concurre...

Campbell, K.; Waters, E.; O Meara, S.; Summerbell, C. D.

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Preventive Effect of Boiogito on Metabolic Disorders in the TSOD Mouse, a Model of Spontaneous Obese Type II Diabetes Mellitus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

“Boiogito” is a Kampo preparation which has been used since ancient times in patients with obesity of the “asthenic constitution” type, so-called “watery obesity”, and its effect has been recognized clinically. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of Boiogito in the TSOD (Tsumura Suzuki Obese Diabetes) mouse, a model of spontaneous obese type II diabetes mellitus. Boiogito showed a significant anti-obesity effect in TSOD mice by suppressing body weight gain in a ...

Tsutomu Shimada; Tomoko Akase; Mitsutaka Kosugi; Masaki Aburada

2011-01-01

22

Adaptation and dissemination of an evidence-based obesity prevention intervention: design of a comparative effectiveness trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low-income youth are at increased risk for excess weight gain. Although evidence-based prevention programs exist, successful adaptation to provide wide dissemination presents a challenge. Hip-Hop to Health (HH) is a school-based obesity prevention intervention that targets primarily preschool children of low-income families. In a large randomized controlled trial, HH was found to be efficacious for prevention of excessive weight gain. The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed) are USDA-funded nutrition education programs offered to low-income families, and may provide an ideal platform for the wide dissemination of evidence-based obesity prevention programs. A research-practice partnership was established in order to conduct formative research to guide the adaptation and implementation of HH through EFNEP and SNAP-Ed. We present the design and method of a comparative effectiveness trial that will determine the efficacy of HH when delivered by peer educators through these programs compared to the standard EFNEP and SNAP-Ed nutrition education (NE) curriculum. Results from this trial will inform larger scale dissemination. The dissemination of HH through government programs has the potential to increase the reach of efficacious obesity prevention programs that target low-income children and families. PMID:24952282

Buscemi, Joanna; Odoms-Young, Angela; Stolley, Melinda L; Blumstein, Lara; Schiffer, Linda; Berbaum, Michael L; McCaffrey, Jennifer; Montoya, Anastasia McGee; Braunschweig, Carol; Fitzgibbon, Marian L

2014-07-01

23

Childhood obesity: etiology, prevention, and treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents is alarming, particularly in light of its many medical and psychosocial consequences. In this review, we discuss key concepts of nutrition and physical activity. Etiology, prevention, and treatment strategies are also discussed, focusing on the macronutrient content of the diet, portion control, meal patterns, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors. Television viewing, lack of physical activity, and intake of fast food and soft drinks are also examined as potential contributing factors in the obesity epidemic. Children should be helped to develop healthy nutrition and exercise habits early, since interventions are most effective when behaviors are still being formed. PMID:16013226

Philippas, Niki G; Lo, Clifford W

2005-01-01

24

Attitudes to publicly funded obesity treatment and prevention  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to investigate the Danish public’s support for publicly funded obesity treatment and prevention. It was also examined whether levels of support could be explained by dislike of obese people and / or the belief that those who are obese are personally responsible for their condition. A representative survey of members of the Danish public (N=1,141) was conducted using a web-based questionnaire. The survey was designed to assess attitudes to public funding for obesityrelated health care, and to investigate the impact, on those attitudes, of dislike of obese people, the perceived controllability of obesity, self-reported BMI, and additional attitudinal and sociodemographic characteristics. Public funding of some obesity treatments, such as weight-loss surgery, attracted only limited public support. A majority of the Danish public did support ‘softer’ treatment interventions and preventive initiatives. Attitudes to the treatment of obesity were clearly best predicted by the belief that individuals are personally responsible for their own obesity. Dislike of obese persons had no direct effect on the preference for collective treatment initiatives and only a small effect on support for publicly funded obesity prevention. The high level of disapproval for publicly funded obesity treatment should be cause for concern for decision makers aiming to ensure equal access to health care. Since it is the belief that obese people are personally responsible which explains this disapproval, strategies for challenging public opinion on this issue are discussed.

Lund, Thomas BØker; SandØe, Peter

2011-01-01

25

When prevention fails: obesity treatment strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The obesity epidemic has resulted in increasingly urgent calls for large-scale prevention strategies. Meanwhile, effective treatment approaches that result in sustainable weight loss are needed to attenuate the cardiometabolic risks that may lead to comorbid illnesses and early mortality. Public education efforts geared toward those afflicted with obesity should emphasize that a relatively modest reduction in body weight dramatically reduces disease risk, thereby improving overall long-term health. Setting realistic weight loss goals with patients should reduce the overwhelming frustration often associated with the belief that large amounts of weight loss are needed for improved health. This misconception often impedes overweight and obese individuals from seeking treatment. Effective strategies are available to help overweight and obese individuals achieve reasonable weight loss goals. Important challenges exist in preventing weight regain following weight loss intervention. Studies are underway to identify new therapeutic strategies to effectively reduce weight, as well as to provide long-term data on successful weight loss maintenance strategies. PMID:19410674

Aronne, Louis J; Wadden, Thomas; Isoldi, Kathy Keenan; Woodworth, Kristina A

2009-04-01

26

Interventions for preventing obesity in children.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Childhood obesity can cause social, psychological and health problems, and is linked to obesity later in life and poor health outcomes as an adult. Obesity development is related to physical activity and nutrition. To prevent obesity, 55 studies conducted internationally have looked at programmes aiming to improve either or both of these behaviours. Although many studies were able to improve children’s nutrition or physical activity to some extent, only some studies were able to see an ef...

Waters, E.; Silva-sanigorski, A.; Hall, B. J.; Brown, T.; Campbell, K. J.; Gao, Y.; Armstrong, R.; Prosser, L.; Summerbell, C. D.

2011-01-01

27

Maternal Obesity: Consequences and Prevention Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to life expectancy and increased health problems. In keeping with the general international trend of rising prevalence of obesity, maternal obesity prevalence is rising. According to WHO, the prevalence of obesity in pregnancy ranges from 1.8 to 25.3%. Maternal obesity has been identified to be a risk factor for maternal and perinatal mortality. The aim of this article was reviewed in research about maternal obesity in Pubmed, which published between 2009 and 2010. 7 reviews and 13 studies was examined and they presented under this headings: impacts of maternal obesity in pregnancy, obstetric outcomes of maternal obesity, postpartum outcomes of maternal obesity, impact of maternal obesity on breastfeeding, impact of maternal obesity on procedure of anomaly scan and risk determination, maternal obesity and fetal complications, impact of maternal obesity on Apgar scores, obesity and infertility, pregnancy following bariatric surgery, long term effects of obesity, management of maternal obesity. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 353-364

Emre Yanikkerem

2012-06-01

28

Incorporating social network effects into cost-effectiveness analysis: a methodological contribution with application to obesity prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives To develop a methodology for integrating social networks into traditional cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) studies. This will facilitate the economic evaluation of treatment policies in settings where health outcomes are subject to social influence. Design This is a simulation study based on a Markov model. The lifetime health histories of a cohort are simulated, and health outcomes compared, under alternative treatment policies. Transition probabilities depend on the health of others with whom there are shared social ties. Setting The methodology developed is shown to be applicable in any healthcare setting where social ties affect health outcomes. The example of obesity prevention is used for illustration under the assumption that weight changes are subject to social influence. Main outcome measures Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Results When social influence increases, treatment policies become more cost effective (have lower ICERs). The policy of only treating individuals who span multiple networks can be more cost effective than the policy of treating everyone. This occurs when the network is more fragmented. Conclusions (1) When network effects are accounted for, they result in very different values of incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). (2) Treatment policies can be devised to take network structure into account. The integration makes it feasible to conduct a cost-benefit evaluation of such policies. PMID:23117559

Konchak, Chad; Prasad, Kislaya

2012-01-01

29

Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the ...

Merchant Anwar T; Akhtar-Danesh Noori; Dehghan Mahshid

2005-01-01

30

Efficacy Trial of a Selective Prevention Program Targeting Both Eating Disorders and Obesity among Female College Students: 1- and 2-Year Follow-Up Effects  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Evaluate the effects of a prevention program targeting both eating disorders and obesity at 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Method: Female college students at risk for these outcomes because of body image concerns (N = 398) were randomized to the "Healthy Weight 2" group-based 4-hr prevention program, which promotes lasting healthy…

Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan

2013-01-01

31

An Evaluation Framework for Obesity Prevention Policy Interventions  

Science.gov (United States)

As the emphasis on preventing obesity has grown, so have calls for interventions that extend beyond individual behaviors and address changes in environments and policies. Despite the need for policy action, little is known about policy approaches that are most effective at preventing obesity. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and others are funding the implementation and evaluation of new obesity prevention policies, presenting a distinct opportunity to learn from these practice-based initiatives and build the body of evidence-based approaches. However, contributions from this policy activity are limited by the incomplete and inconsistent evaluation data collected on policy processes and outcomes. We present a framework developed by the CDC-funded Center of Excellence for Training and Research Translation that public health practitioners can use to evaluate policy interventions and identify the practice-based evidence needed to fill the gaps in effective policy approaches to obesity prevention. PMID:22742594

Sommers, Janice; Vu, Maihan; Jernigan, Jan; Payne, Gayle; Thompson, Diane; Heiser, Claire; Farris, Rosanne; Ammerman, Alice

2012-01-01

32

Childhood obesity: Determinants, evaluation, and prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood obesity is a grave issue, which needs to be addressed urgently because it leads to several medical and psychosocial problems in children. High prevalence is being increasingly reported in children from developing countries as well. The combination of our genetic propensity to store fat, the ready availability of calorie dense foods, and sedentary lifestyle promotes overweight. The child's food environment at home and parental obesity are strong determinants. Urban poor in developed countries and urban rich in developing countries are both at risk. In developing countries, a number of beliefs passed down over generations are other important determinants. Evaluation includes assessing the child's lifestyle, excluding weight-promoting medication history; poor linear growth needs endocrine evaluation; genetic syndromes should be considered if there are clinical pointers. Overweight children should be evaluated for hypertension, dyslipidemia, T2DM, and NAFLD. Therapeutic lifestyle changes targeting food habits and physical activity through parental participation and social support are the cornerstones of preventing childhood obesity. Active travel and play by making the built environment more accessible, ban on 'junk' food advertising, and effective health education through active participation of clinicians, school systems, and the media will go a long way in reversing anticipated trends in childhood obesity. PMID:23565376

Raychaudhuri, Moutusi; Sanyal, Debmalya

2012-12-01

33

A randomised controlled trial for overweight and obese parents to prevent childhood obesity - Early STOPP (STockholm Obesity Prevention Program  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity have a dramatic negative impact on children's health not only during the childhood but also throughout the adult life. Preventing the development of obesity in children is therefore a world-wide health priority. There is an obvious urge for sustainable and evidenced-based interventions that are suitable for families with young children, especially for families with overweight or obese parents. We have developed a prevention program, Early STOPP, combating multiple obesity-promoting behaviors such unbalanced diet, physical inactivity and disturbed sleeping patterns. We also aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the early childhood obesity prevention in a well-characterized population of overweight or obese parents. This protocol outlines methods for the recruitment phase of the study. Design and methods This randomized controlled trial (RCT targets overweight and/or obese parents with infants, recruited from the Child Health Care Centers (CHCC within the Stockholm area. The intervention starts when infants are one year of age and continues until they are six and is regularly delivered by a trained coach (dietitian, physiotherapist or a nurse. The key aspects of Early STOPP family intervention are based on Swedish recommendations for CHCC, which include advices on healthy food choices and eating patterns, increasing physical activity/reducing sedentary behavior and regulating sleeping patterns. Discussion The Early STOPP trial design addresses weaknesses of previous research by recruiting from a well-characterized population, defining a feasible, theory-based intervention and assessing multiple measurements to validate and interpret the program effectiveness. The early years hold promise as a time in which obesity prevention may be most effective. To our knowledge, this longitudinal RCT is the first attempt to demonstrate whether an early, long-term, targeted health promotion program focusing on healthy eating, physical activity/reduced sedentary behaviors and normalizing sleeping patterns could be effective. If proven so, Early STOPP may protect children from the development of overweight and obesity. Trial registration The protocol for this study is registered with the clinical trials registry clinicaltrials.gov, ID: ES-2010

Cao Yingting

2011-05-01

34

Prevention of obesity : weighing ethical arguments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Taxes on unhealthy food, limits to commercial advertising, a ban on chocolate drink at schools, or compulsory physical exercise for obese employees: efforts to counter the rise in overweight and obesity sometimes raise questions about what is ethically acceptable. This thesis examines how a structured debate can be facilitated about the ethical issues that are involved in the prevention of overweight and obesity. In the first part of this introduction I explain why this questio...

Have, M. Ten

2011-01-01

35

[Primary prevention of adult obesity. an interdisciplinary analysis].  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary prevention of adult obesity requires combined efforts by stakeholders at various societal levels, based on the knowledge from multiple disciplines. The goal of the present study was, therefore, to analyze current preventive approaches and delineate implications for future prevention research and practice by integrating knowledge from genetics, law, economics, psychology, and social ethics (Figure 1). Inconclusive evidence on the etiology of obesity, a complex, multifactorial condition, likely complicates prevention, contributing to a lack of specificity regarding target groups, focus, and techniques of prevention. Given the urgency and significance of the "obesity problem" that requires immediate and effective solutions, it is recommended that the various existing and developing prevention programs are evaluated to ensure orientation at current risk factor research. Results from genetic risk factor research can be used as a rationale to increase specificity of preventive measures regarding identification of high-risk groups, timing, and goals of prevention. Further, it is important to evaluate prevention programs for systematic application of behavior modification techniques and consideration of individual risk factors and resources to ensure promotion of long-term behavior change that leads to weight maintenance and a reduction of incidence rates of obesity in adults (Figure 3). Although the primary prevention of childhood obesity may lead to a reduction of incidence rates of obesity in adults, high rates of adult-onset obesity and the related medical and psychosocial sequelae in adulthood underscore the necessity of preventive efforts for adults. Concerning the environmental basis of obesity prevention, in many countries, the institutional and legal framework of preventive approaches requires further examination in order to improve funding, coordination between multiple stakeholders, and implementation of prevention in the health-care system. Evidence on risk factors for obesity is also crucial to inform network approaches and to justify restrictive legal options for the purpose of prevention. Here, self-defeating sanctions of the relevant industries may be a viable first step toward obesity prevention. As taxes or subsidies are limited in feasibility (Figure 2), relevant industries could be involved in the design and promotion of "healthy" products, stimulating greater request of such products. Network approaches appear suited to involve companies and other relevant stakeholders of prevention efforts on adult obesity. Yet these approaches require greater societal conscience about the severity of the obesity problem in adults and its multifactorial etiology. Recognizing the multifactorial etiology of obesity and acknowledging that weight regulation is only somewhat within personal responsibility may therefore lead to destigmatize obese individuals as the focus is shifted away from blaming them toward a more realistic understanding of this condition. Responsibility for the development of obesity and the prevention of weight gain is in multiple areas: law, policy, industry, health-care institutions, medical professions, and the individual - all should contribute to obesity prevention. Overall, the current analysis shows that an interdisciplinary perspective furthers understanding of the complexity of this condition and can inform public-health strategies on the prevention of adult obesity. PMID:17972027

Hilbert, Anja; Ried, Jens; Schneider, Daniel; Juttner, Clemens; Sosna, Marc; Dabrock, Peter; Lingenfelder, Michael; Voit, Wolfgang; Rief, Winfried; Hebebrand, Johannes

2007-10-01

36

The Role of Schools in Obesity Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

Mary Story, Karen Kaphingst, and Simone French argue that U.S. schools offer many opportunities for developing obesity-prevention strategies by providing more nutritious food, offering greater opportunities for physical activity, and providing obesity-related health services. Meals at school are available both through the U.S. Department of…

Story, Mary; Kaphingst, Karen M.; French, Simone

2006-01-01

37

Pediatric Obesity: It’s Time for Prevention Before Conception Can Maternal Obesity Program Pediatric Obesity?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global increases in obesity have led public health experts to declare this disease a pandemic. Although prevalent in all ages, the dire consequences associated with maternal obesity have a pronounced impact on the long-term health of their children as a result of the intergenerational effects of developmental programming. Previously, fetal under-nutrition has been linked to the predisposition to pediatric obesity explained by the adiposity rebound and ‘catch-up’ growth that occurs when a child born to a nutrient deprived mother is exposed to the obesogenic environment of present day. Given the recent increase in maternal overweight/obesity (OW/OB our attention has shifted from nutrient restriction to overabundance and excess during pregnancy. Consideration must now be given to interventions that could mitigate pregravid body mass index (BMI, attenuate gestational weight gain (GWG and reduce postpartum weight retention (PPWR in an attempt to prevent the downstream signaling of pediatric obesity and halt the intergenerational cycle of weight related disease currently plaguing our world. Thus, this paper will briefly review current research that best highlights the proposed mechanisms responsible for the development of child OW/OB and related sequalae (e.g. type II diabetes (T2D and cardiovascular disease (CVD resulting from maternal obesity.

Zach Ferraro

2008-01-01

38

Childhood Obesity â?? Prevention Begins with Breastfeeding  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast is based on the August, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Childhood obesity is an epidemic in the US. Breastfeeding can help prevent obesity, but one in three moms stop without hospital support. About 95% of hospitals lack policies that fully support breastfeeding moms. Hospitals need to do more to help moms start and continue breastfeeding.  Created: 8/2/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/2/2011.

2011-08-02

39

Programme and policy options for preventing obesity in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

By 2002, China's prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults was 18.9 and 2.9%, respectively. The replacement of traditional Chinese diet with 'Western diet', major declines in all phases of activity and increased sedentary activity are cited as the main reasons explaining the rapid increase in overweight and obesity, which bring major economic and health costs. The Nutrition Improvement Work Management Approach was released in 2010. Overweight and obesity prevention-related policies were added to national planning for disease prevention and control. The Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity of Chinese Adults and the School-age Children and Teenagers Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Control Guidelines in China were promulgated in 2003 and 2007, respectively. Few education programmes have been implemented. Selected academic intervention research projects dominate with a focus on reducing child obesity and promoting healthier diets; increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time; and facilitating changes in family, school, social and cultural environments. Intervention samples are small and have not addressed the increasing rates of obesity throughout the entire population. Government provision of effective policy measures, multisectoral cooperation and increasing corporate social responsibility are keys to curbing the trend towards overweight and obesity in China. PMID:24102781

Wang, H; Zhai, F

2013-11-01

40

Program and Policy Options for Preventing Obesity in China  

Science.gov (United States)

By 2002, China’s prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults was 18.9 percent and 2.9 percent, respectively. The Chinese traditional diet has been replaced by the “Western diet” and major declines in all phases of activity and increased sedentary activity as the main reasons explaining the rapid increase in overweight and obesity, bring major economic and health costs. The Nutrition Improvement Work Management Approach was released in 2010. Overweight and obesity prevention-related policies were added to national planning for disease prevention and control. The Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity of Chinese Adults and the School-age Children and Teenagers Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Control Guidelines in China were promulgated in 2003 and 2007, respectively. Few education programs have been implemented. Selected academic intervention research projects dominate with a focus on reducing child obesity and promoting healthier diets; increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time; and facilitating changes in family, school, social, and cultural environments. Intervention samples are small and have not addressed the increasing rates of obesity throughout the entire population. Government provision of effective policy measures, multisectoral cooperation and increasing corporate social responsibility are keys to curb the trend toward overweight and obesity in China. PMID:24102781

Huijun, Wang; Fengying, Zhai

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Impact of social marketing in the prevention of childhood obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity, mainly childhood obesity, is a worldwide concern. Childhood obesity continues to adulthood, and it is associated with multiple noncommunicable diseases. One important aspect in the fight against obesity is prevention, the earlier, the better. Social marketing is a novel concept being increasingly used as an approach to address social problems and more and more included in the community-based interventions aiming to change unhealthy behaviors. Although there is limited evidence of its effectiveness, it seems that when conscientiously applied, social marketing principles may be useful to change behaviors and thus better health outcomes. PMID:22798001

Gracia-Marco, Luis; Moreno, Luis A; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

2012-07-01

42

Translating evidence based violence and drug use prevention to obesity prevention: development and construction of the Pathways program  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Effective school-based obesity prevention programs are needed to prevent and reduce the growing obesity risk among youth. Utilizing the evidence-rich areas of violence and substance use prevention, translation science may provide an efficient means for developing curricula across multiple health behaviors. This paper introduces Pathways to Health, a school-based obesity prevention program that was developed by translating from evidence-based violence and drug use prevention programs, Promotin...

Sakuma, Kari-lyn K.; Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Pentz, Mary Ann

2012-01-01

43

Maternal Obesity: Consequences and Prevention Strategies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to life expectancy and increased health problems. In keeping with the general international trend of rising prevalence of obesity, maternal obesity prevalence is rising. According to WHO, the prevalence of obesity in pregnancy ranges from 1.8 to 25.3%. Maternal obesity has been identified to be a risk factor for maternal and perinatal mortality. The aim of this article was reviewed in...

Emre Yanikkerem; Selviye Mutlu

2012-01-01

44

My Student Body: Effects of an Internet-Based Prevention Program to Decrease Obesity among College Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To determine the impact of My Student Body (MSB)-Nutrition, an Internet-based obesity prevention program for college students. Participants: Three hundred and twenty ethnically diverse undergraduate students were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: MSB-Nutrition program, an on-campus weight management course, and a comparison group.…

LaChausse, Robert G.

2012-01-01

45

A randomised controlled trial for overweight and obese parents to prevent childhood obesity - Early STOPP (STockholm Obesity Prevention Program)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Overweight and obesity have a dramatic negative impact on children's health not only during the childhood but also throughout the adult life. Preventing the development of obesity in children is therefore a world-wide health priority. There is an obvious urge for sustainable and evidenced-based interventions that are suitable for families with young children, especially for families with overweight or obese parents. We have developed a prevention program, ...

2011-01-01

46

Interventions for preventing obesity in children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Prevention of childhood obesity is an international public health priority given the significant impact of obesity on acute and chronic diseases, general health, development and well-being. The international evidence base for strategies that governments, communities and families can im [...] plement to prevent obesity, and promote health, has been accumulating but remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This review primarily aims to update the previous Cochrane review of childhood obesity prevention research and determine the effectiveness of evaluated interventions intended to prevent obesity in children, assessed by change in Body Mass Index (BMI). Secondary aims were to examine the characteristics of the programs and strategies to answer the questions "What works for whom, why and for what cost?" METHODS: Search methods: The searches were re-run in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO and CINAHL in March 2010 and searched relevant websites. Non-English language papers were included and experts were contacted. Selection criteria: The review includes data from childhood obesity prevention studies that used a controlled study design (with or without randomisation). Studies were included if they evaluated interventions, policies or programs in place for twelve weeks or more. If studies were randomized at a cluster level, six clusters were required. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Data was extracted on intervention implementation, cost, equity and outcomes. Outcome measures were grouped according to whether they measured adiposity, physical activity (PA)-related behaviours or diet-related behaviours. Adverse outcomes were recorded. A meta-analysis was conducted using available BMI or standardized BMI (zBMI) score data with subgroup analysis by age group (0-5, 6-12, 13-18 years, corresponding to stages of developmental and childhood settings). MAIN RESULTS: This review includes 55 studies (an additional 36 studies found for this update). The majority of studies targeted children aged v 6-12 years. The meta-analysis included 37 studies of 27,946 children and demonstrated that programmes were effective at reducing adiposity, although not all individual interventions were effective, and there was a high level of observed heterogeneity (I2 = 82%). Overall, children in the intervention group had a standardised mean difference in adiposity (measured as BMI or zBMI) of -0.15kg/m2 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.21 to -0.09). Intervention effects by age subgroups were -0.26kg/m2 (95% CI -0.53 to 0.00) (0- 5 years), - 0.15 kg/m2 (95% CI -0.23 to -0.08) (6-12 years), and -0.09 kg/m2 (95% CI -0.20 to 0.03) (13-18 years). Heterogeneity was apparent in all three age groups and could not explained by randomisation status or the type, duration or setting of the intervention. Only eight studies reported on adverse effects and no evidence of adverse outcomes such as unhealthy dieting practices, increased prevalence of underweight or body image sensitivities was found. Interventions did not appear to increase health inequalities although this was examined in fewer studies. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found strong evidence to support beneficial effects of child obesity prevention programmes on BMI, particularly for programmes targeted to children aged six to 12 years. However, given the unexplained heterogeneity and the likelihood of small study bias, these findings must be interpreted cautiously. A broad range of programme components were used in these studies and whilst it is not possible to distinguish which of these components contributed most to the beneficial effects observed, our synthesis indicates the following to be promising policies and strategies: school curriculum that includes healthy eating, physical activity and body image; increased sessions for physical activity and the development of fundamental movement skills throughout the school week; improvements in nu

Elizabeth, Waters; Andrea de, Silva-Sanigorski; Belinda J., Burford; Tamara, Brown; Karen J., Campbell; Yang, Gao; Rebecca, Armstrong; Lauren, Prosser; Carolyn D., Summerbell.

47

The prevention of obesity in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

A dramatic increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children in Europe has occurred in the last twenty years, especially the last ten years. The number of overweight children is increasing in the EU by at least 400,000 every year, of which 85,000 are obese. Prevention of further cases is a priority, but the evidence base for child obesity prevention is limited in scope and provides only a few general observations. Prevention will probably require policies that affect not only the family and the school but also affect the wider social context, such as controls on marketing to children and improved safety in the built environment. Scientists and physicians can help to influence policy makers through their professional organisations. PMID:16444177

Lobstein, Tim

2004-08-01

48

Childhood Obesity: Update on Predisposing Factors and Prevention Strategies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity is a global epidemic and children are affected in increasing numbers. Overweight children are at increased risk of becoming overweight adults with associated chronic diseases. In this update, we present key findings from a review of the current literature focused on potential causes and strategies for preventing childhood obesity. We highlight recent evidence regarding the role of genetics, maternal body mass index, postnatal influences, and environmental effects throughout childhood ...

Vos, Miriam B.; Welsh, Jean

2010-01-01

49

Childhood obesity treatment and prevention. Psychological perspectives of clinical approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: This work focuses on clinical psychologist’ presence within childhood obesity prevention programmes in several countries. Method: The Authors collected articles considering psychological, biological and social aspects linked to childhood obesity. Results: Studies reveal that childhood obesity prevention programmes are based on biological, medical and educational aspects; clinical psychologists up until now have been engaged almost exclusively in the treatment of obesity. Conclusions: There is a clear need to consider psychological aspects (emotional, cognitive and relational related to the childhood obesity’s causes and involve psychologists in its prevention projects. Keywords: childhood obesity, overweight, multidisciplinary approach, clinical psychology, prevention, treatment

Maria Catena Quattropani

2013-05-01

50

Orlistat in the prevention of diabetes in the obese patient  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Marcio C Mancini, Alfredo HalpernObesity and Metabolic Syndrome Group, Endocrinology and Metabolism Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, BrazilAbstract: There has been an increase in the concern about preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, a disease with great and increasing prevalence. The prevalence of obesity, physical inactivity, Western processed diet, important risk factors for the development of T2DM, are also rising. Free fatty acids are increased in obesity and reduce insulin clearance and increase hepatic glucose production. Implementation of a healthy lifestyle has been show to slow the progression of impaired glucose tolerance to T2DM. Orlistat is an inhibitor of lipase activity, with proved efficacy in body weight reduction and long-term management of obesity and more favorable effects on carbohydrate metabolism and it was prospectively shown in XENDOS study that orlistat promoted long-term weight loss and prevented T2DM onset in obese individuals with normal and impaired glucose tolerance at baseline over four years. This benefit could be associated to the weight loss itself, to the limited absorption of lipids and reduction of plasma free fatty acids, to increased production of incretins or to modulation of secretion of cytokines by adipocytes, all effects secondary to orlistat treatment. A proposed strategy is to identify subjects at highest risk to receive a drug intervention, using lifestyle interventions alone at the community level.Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, prevention, diabesity, obesity, metabolic syndrome, orlistat

Marcio C Mancini

2008-05-01

51

The role of fruit consumption in the prevention of obesity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The global obesity epidemic is associated with a sedentary lifestyle and diets rich in high-fat, high-energy foods. The potential role of fruit in preventing overweight and obesity is related to their relatively low energy density, high content of dietary fibre, and associated increasing satiety effect. The physical disruption of fruit is of considerable importance for satiety, as shown in studies in which fruit juices were less satisfying compared to sugar-equivalent intakes of purees and whole fruits. The potential role of fruit in the prevention of overweight and obesity may be connected to the dietary pattern of fruit intake, and with the possibility that fruit intake may substitute for other, more energy-dense foods. The majority of human prospective cohort studies in adults suggest a preventive effect of increased fruit intake oil body weight gain; whereas a few studies have suggested the opposite, in the case of fruit juices. Prospective studies oil children are few and inconclusive, but suggest associations between fruit intake and body weight that are related to the initial nutritional status. In behavioural intervention studies, subjects are often advised to undergo several changes towards a healthy diet and lifestyle, making it impossible to quantity the specific effect of fruit intake oil body weight. In the few available intervention studies in adults, the Study period was often too short to allow measures of body weight changes, and studies oil overweight or obese subjects may not apply to subjects of normal weight. Intervention studies targeted at school children showed that such schemes call be effective in increasing fruit intake, but a convincing role for increased fruit intake in the prevention of overweight and obesity in children still needs to be established. The present evidence suggests that fruit consumption has a potential role in the prevention of overweight and obesity.

Tetens, Inge; Alinia, Sevil

2009-01-01

52

Metabolic effects of exercise in adolescent obesity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The rise in obesity related morbidity in children and adolescents requires urgent interventions to prevent and delay obesity and its co-morbidity. This thesis focused on exercise programs as a tool to counteract the metabolic effects of obesity in the adolescent population. The main objective was to determine in depth, the metabolic effects of a strictly controlled aerobic and resistance exercise program, respectively, (without additional dietary and lifestyle advice and weight loss). The ...

Heijden, Gert-jan

2010-01-01

53

[Responsibility and solidarity in obesity prevention].  

Science.gov (United States)

Attempts to solve the problem of obesity raise controversies regarding individual responsibility and solidarity. The arguments concern which burdens are to be carried privately and which are to be absorbed collectively. To some extent, the disputes stem from a reluctance to acknowledge that obesity in fact covers two issues: the first, i.e., the social issue, covers the prevalence of obesity and is thus determined by quantity. The second, i.e., the individual issue, is determined by quality and addresses individual behavior and choice. On grounds of this distinction, it can be argued that there is a collective duty to show solidarity with concerned persons. Moreover society as a whole has to acknowledge responsibility with regard to the causation and alteration of conditions that prevent individuals from being as slim as they want to be. Not until autonomy in this respect can be factually exercised, is the claim for self-responsibility legitimate. PMID:19330271

Kaminisky, C

2009-05-01

54

Obesity prevention in children and adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood and adolescent obesity has been increasing in most middle- and high-income countries, and, as with adult obesity, this has been driven by increasingly obesogenic environments, especially the food environment. This constitutes a "market failure," signaling the need for government interventions with policies, programs, and social marketing. Population prevention strategies are critical, and children and adolescents should be the priority populations. Food marketing to children is a central policy issue for governments to address, and comprehensive regulations are needed to provide substantive protection for children. Community-based intervention programs show some real promise in reducing childhood obesity, but the 2 big challenges ahead are to ensure that there is substantial ongoing funding so that the community capacity to promote healthy weights can be scaled up to a national level and to ensure that policies are in place to support these efforts. The social and cultural shifts that support healthy eating and physical activity occur differentially, and special efforts are needed to reduce the socioeconomic gradients associated with childhood obesity. A positive public health approach encompassing environmental, regulatory, sociocultural, and educational strategies offer the best chance of reducing obesity without increasing disordered eating patterns. PMID:19014868

Swinburn, Boyd

2009-01-01

55

Combined Home and School Obesity Prevention Interventions for Children: What Behavior Change Strategies and Intervention Characteristics Are Associated with Effectiveness?  

Science.gov (United States)

This review identifies studies describing interventions delivered across both the home and school/community setting, which target obesity and weight-related nutrition and physical activity behaviors in children. Fifteen studies, published between 1998 and 2010, were included and evaluated for effectiveness, study quality, nutrition/activity…

Hendrie, Gilly A.; Brindal, Emily; Corsini, Nadia; Gardner, Claire; Baird, Danielle; Golley, Rebecca K.

2012-01-01

56

Obesity prevention: recommended strategies and challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lifelong healthy weight maintenance is an important goal for all Americans to avoid the health problems associated with excessive body weight. In those who are overweight, even modest weight loss can reduce the risk of developing diseases associated with obesity. Federal health agencies, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the US Department of Agriculture, have recognized the critical nature of the obesity epidemic and the importance of lifelong weight management. As a result, these agencies have published evidence-based dietary and exercise recommendations, as well as analyses of population-based efforts to achieve weight loss that specifically address strategies to maintain a healthy weight. Despite the availability of recommendations and increased public education efforts, however, obesity rates continue to climb. The rising prevalence of obesity in the United States suggests that current efforts to control weight have been inadequate. Large-scale prevention programs that involve interventions targeting individuals as well as the larger community, including initiatives spearheaded through workplaces and schools, are needed to control weight and reduce the risk of long-term health consequences. PMID:19410673

Wolf, Anne M; Woodworth, Kristina A

2009-04-01

57

Indian students' perspectives on obesity and school-based obesity prevention: a qualitative examination.  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood obesity has recently been reported as a growing problem in low- and middle-income countries. One potential prevention strategy is to apply effective obesity prevention approaches from the United States and/or other Western countries into programs that can be implemented in developing countries such as India. The purpose of this study was to explore Indian students' perceptions of social-contextual factors related to obesity and whether they perceived a role for school-based obesity prevention. This study was conducted as a first step in a model to translate interventions from one culture to another. A total of 183 fourth- and fifth-grade students of middle socioeconomic status participated in focus group discussions. Analyses were guided by the essential principles of qualitative research and informed by social cognitive and social ecological theories. Results yielded five relevant themes: (a) student health behavior knowledge, (b) parental influence on health behavior, (c) school influence on health behavior, (d) media influence on health behavior, and (e) contexts for health promotion intervention. We found that students had moderate knowledge related to health behaviors (i.e., food intake and physical activity); that parents, schools, and the media are all important contributors to healthy and unhealthy behavior; and that schools can play an important role in the prevention of obesity. Results suggest that Indian middle socioeconomic status students are already moderately aware of the health benefits to nutritious food intake and physical activity, but parents, schools, and the media can influence unhealthy behaviors. PMID:24149680

Riggs, Nathaniel; Tewari, Abha; Stigler, Melissa; Rodrigues, Lindsay; Arora, Monika; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Simmons, Rob; Pentz, Mary Ann

2013-11-01

58

School-based obesity prevention in Norway:Correlates of weight statues and intervention effects on physical activity and body composition:The Health in Adolescents Study (HEIA)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prevention of childhood obesity is an international public health priority given the significant impact of obesity on short- and long-term functioning, health and wellbeing. Although recommended in several recent reviews, school-based obesity prevention interventions targeting physical activity and diet have been tested with mixed results. The overall aim of the HEalth in Adolescents (HEIA) study was to design, implement and evaluate a comprehensive intervention program to promote a healthy w...

Grydeland, May

2013-01-01

59

Promoting obesity prevention together with environmental sustainability.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is mounting evidence that current food production, transport, land use and urban design negatively impact both climate change and obesity outcomes. Recommendations to prevent climate change provide an opportunity to improve environmental outcomes and alter our food and physical activity environments in favour of a 'healthier' energy balance. Hence, setting goals to achieve a more sustainable society offers a unique opportunity to reduce levels of obesity. In the case of children, this approach is supported with evidence that even from a young age they show emerging understandings of complex environmental issues and are capable of both internalizing positive environmental values and influencing their own environmental outcomes. Given young children's high levels of environmental awareness, it is easy to see how environmental sustainability messages may help educate and motivate children to make 'healthier' choices. The purpose of this paper is to highlight a new approach to tackling childhood obesity by tapping into existing social movements, such as environmental sustainability, in order to increase children's motivation for healthy eating and physical activity behaviours and thus foster more wholesome communities. We contend that a social marketing framework may be a particularly useful tool to foster behaviour change beneficial to both personal and environmental health by increasing perceived benefits and reducing perceived costs of behaviour change. Consequently, we propose a new framework which highlights suggested pathways for helping children initiate and sustain 'healthier' behaviours in order to inform future research and potentially childhood obesity intervention strategies. PMID:23392756

Skouteris, Helen; Cox, Rachael; Huang, Terry; Rutherford, Leonie; Edwards, Susan; Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy

2014-09-01

60

Pediatric Obesity: It’s Time for Prevention Before Conception Can Maternal Obesity Program Pediatric Obesity?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Global increases in obesity have led public health experts to declare this disease a pandemic. Although prevalent in all ages, the dire consequences associated with maternal obesity have a pronounced impact on the long-term health of their children as a result of the intergenerational effects of developmental programming. Previously, fetal under-nutrition has been linked to the predisposition to pediatric obesity explained by the adiposity rebound and ‘catch-up’ growth that occurs when a ...

Zach Ferraro; Adamo, Kristi B.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Mobile text messaging solutions for obesity prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

Cellular telephony has become a bright example of co-evolution of human society and information technology. This trend has also been reflected in health care and health promotion projects which included cell phones in data collection and communication chain. While many successful projects have been realized, the review of phone-based data collection techniques reveals that the existing technologies do not completely address health promotion research needs. The paper presents approaches which close this gap by extending existing versatile platforms. The messaging systems are designed for a health-promotion research to prevent obesity and obesity-related health disparities among low-income Latino adolescent girls. Messaging and polling mechanisms are used to communicate and automatically process response data for the target constituency. Preliminary survey data provide an insight on phone availability and technology perception for the study group.

Akopian, David; Jayaram, Varun; Aaleswara, Lakshmipathi; Esfahanian, Moosa; Mojica, Cynthia; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Kaghyan, Sahak

2011-02-01

62

Public health and the prevention of obesity: failure or success?  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent decades, obesity has become a major public health problem in developed societies and economies in transition. Rapid social changes that have occurred since the mid 20th century prompted major changes in eating habits and lifestyles, with the gradual abandonment of traditional dietary patterns and culinary techniques, significant decrease in physical activity and increased sedentary time, giving as result in an imbalance in the energy balance. Obesity is a risk factor for many chronic diseases. There is evidence that childhood obesity influences adult health condition. Additionally, obesity in children affects their physical, emotional and social wellbeing. According to some estimates the cost of obesity may represent up to 12% of health cost in some countries. Many actions have been developed since around the year 2000 WHO alerted about the problem. The analysis of the factors involved in the origin of the problem have led to recognize the importance of creating supportive environments for healthier food choices and physical activity to be the easiest and accessible options in common everyday environments, such as schools, workplace or community environment. Evidence is long available that the most effective interventions to prevent childhood obesity should consider multiple strategies and last longer. Today it is also recognized the importance of implementing policies that encourage supportive friendly environments for physical activity and help decisions to opt for healthy eating habits. PMID:24010753

Aranceta Bartrina, Javier

2013-09-01

63

Divergent effects of obesity on fragility fractures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Carla Caffarelli, Chiara Alessi, Ranuccio Nuti, Stefano Gonnelli Department of Medicine, Surgery and Neuroscience, University of Siena, Siena, Italy Abstract: Obesity was commonly thought to be advantageous for maintaining healthy bones due to the higher bone mineral density observed in overweight individuals. However, several recent studies have challenged the widespread belief that obesity is protective against fracture and have suggested that obesity is a risk factor for certain fractures. The effect of obesity on fracture risk is site-dependent, the risk being increased for some fractures (humerus, ankle, upper arm and decreased for others (hip, pelvis, wrist. Moreover, the relationship between obesity and fracture may also vary by sex, age, and ethnicity. Risk factors for fracture in obese individuals appear to be similar to those in nonobese populations, although patterns of falling are particularly important in the obese. Research is needed to determine if and how visceral fat and metabolic complications of obesity (type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, chronic inflammation, etc are causally associated with bone status and fragility fracture risk. Vitamin D deficiency and hypogonadism may also influence fracture risk in obese individuals. Fracture algorithms such as FRAX® might be expected to underestimate fracture probability. Studies specifically designed to evaluate the antifracture efficacy of different drugs in obese patients are not available; however, literature data may suggest that in obese patients higher doses of the bisphosphonates might be required in order to maintain efficacy against nonvertebral fractures. Therefore, the search for better methods for the identification of fragility fracture risk in the growing population of adult and elderly subjects with obesity might be considered a clinical priority which could improve the prevention of fracture in obese individuals. Keywords: bone mineral density, BMI, prevention

Caffarelli C

2014-09-01

64

Patterns of Childhood Obesity Prevention Legislation in the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available IntroductionBecause of the public’s growing awareness of the childhood obesity epidemic, health policies that address obesogenic environments by encouraging healthy eating and increased physical activity are gaining more attention. However, there has been little systematic examination of state policy efforts. This study identified and described state-level childhood obesity prevention legislation introduced and adopted from 2003 through 2005 and attempted to identify regional geographic patterns of introduced legislation.MethodsA scan of legislation from all 50 states identified 717 bills and 134 resolutions that met study inclusion criteria. Analyses examined patterns in the introduction and adoption of legislation by time, topic area, and geography.ResultsOverall, 17% of bills and 53% of resolutions were adopted. The amount of legislation introduced and adopted increased from 2003 through 2005. The topic areas with the most introduced legislation were school nutrition standards and vending machines (n = 238; physical education and physical activity (n = 191; and studies, councils, or task forces (n = 110. Community-related topic areas of walking and biking paths (37%, farmers’ markets (36%, and statewide initiatives (30% had the highest proportion of bills adopted, followed by model school policies (29% and safe routes to school (28%. Some regional geographic patterns in the introduction of legislation were observed. There was no statistical association between state-level adult obesity prevalence and introduction of legislation.ConclusionPublic health and health policy practitioners can use this information to improve advocacy efforts and strengthen the political climate for establishing childhood obesity prevention legislation within state governments. Expanded surveillance (including standardized identification and cataloging of introduced and adopted legislation will enhance the ability to assess progress and identify effective approaches. Future policy research should examine determinants, implementation, and effectiveness of legislation to prevent childhood obesity.

Tegan K. Boehmer, PhD, MPH

2007-07-01

65

Childhood obesity-an insight into preventive strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood obesity is now a global problem throughout the world. The major factors affecting weight regulation and the development of obesity in children are the result of a large number of biological, behavioral, social, environmental, and economic factors and the complex interactions between them that promote a positive energy balance. The changes in the dietary habits with the adoption of sedentary life style increases manifold obesity-related diseases and their complications. An obese child later on grows up to become an obese adult. Therefore, the role of primary prevention along with methodical diet control, behavioral changes, and physical activity are the important strategies against the battle of childhood obesity. PMID:25298951

Kar, Subhranshu Sekhar; Dube, Rajani; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar

2014-10-01

66

Strategies for Preventing and Managing Overweight and Obesity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to reveal the various strategies for preventing and managing overweight and obesity in relation to reducing morbidity and mortality due to overweight and obesity. Thus, overweight and obesity are defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 and > 30.0 kg/m2 respectively. Overweight and obesity are complex multifactorial chronic diseases that develop from an interaction of genotype and the environment. It was therefore concluded...

Agbonlahor, Elvis I.; Ikhioya, Grace O.; Okaka, Richard O.

2009-01-01

67

Evidence-Based Obesity Prevention in Childhood and Adolescence: Critique of Recent Etiological Studies, Preventive Interventions, and Policies123  

Science.gov (United States)

Prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence remains a worthwhile and realistic goal, but preventive efforts have been beset by a number of problems, which are the subject of this review. The review draws on recent systematic reviews and evidence appraisals and has a United Kingdom (UK) perspective because there is a rich evidence base in the United Kingdom that may be helpful to obesity prevention researchers elsewhere. Recent evidence of a leveling off in child and adolescent obesity prevalence in some Western nations should not encourage the belief that the obesity prevention problem has been solved, although a better understanding of recent secular trends might be helpful for prevention strategy in future. An adequate body of evidence provides behavioral targets of preventive interventions, and there are frameworks for prioritizing these targets logically and models for translating them into generalizable interventions with a wide reach (e.g., school-based prevention interventions such as Planet Health). An improved understanding of the “energy gap” that children and adolescents experience would be helpful to the design of preventive interventions and to their tailoring to particular groups. In the United Kingdom, some recent etiological evidence has been taken as indicative of the need for paradigm shifts in obesity prevention, but this evidence from single studies has not been replicated, and paradigm shifts probably occur only rarely. Ensuring that the evidence base on etiology and prevention influences policy effectively remains one of the greatest challenges for childhood obesity researchers. PMID:22798005

Reilly, John J.

2012-01-01

68

Study protocol: effects of the THAO-child health intervention program on the prevention of childhood obesity - The POIBC study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The speeding increase and the high prevalence of childhood obesity is a serious problem for Public Health. Community Based Interventions has been developed to combat against the childhood obesity epidemic. However little is known on the efficacy of these programs. Therefore, there is an urgent need to determine the effect of community based intervention on changes in lifestyle and surrogate measures of adiposity. Methods/design Parallel intervention study including two thousand 2249 children aged 8 to 10 years ( 4th and 5th grade of elementary school) from 4 Spanish towns. The THAO-Child Health Program, a community based intervention, were implemented in 2 towns. Body weight, height, and waist circumferences were measured. Children recorded their dietary intake on a computer-based 24h recall. All children also completed validated computer based questionnaires to estimate physical activity, diet quality, eating behaviors, and quality of life and sleep. Additionally, parental diet quality and physical activity were assessed by validated questionnaires. Discussion This study will provide insight in the efficacy of the THAO-Child Health Program to promote a healthy lifestyle. Additionally it will evaluate if lifestyle changes are accompanied by favorable weight management. Trial registration Trial Registration Number ISRCTN68403446 PMID:25174356

2014-01-01

69

Obesity Prevention Opinions of School Stakeholders: A Qualitative Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: In general, schools are an important setting to implement current recommendations for obesity prevention in children because the vast majority of children attend school. This study investigated the opinions of different school stakeholders on the feasibility and acceptability of current obesity prevention strategies that could be…

Della Torre, Sophie Bucher; Akre, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles

2010-01-01

70

Effectiveness of a diet and physical activity promotion strategy on the prevention of obesity in Mexican school children  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Overweight and obesity in children in Mexico was among the countries with the highest prevalence's in the world. Mexico currently has few innovative and comprehensive experiences to help curb the growth of this serious public health problem. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a nutrition and physical activity strategy, called "Nutrition on the Go" ("nutrición en movimiento") in maintaining the BMI values of school children in the State of Mexico. Methods A two-stage cluster trial was carried out. Sixty schools were selected in the State of Mexico, of which 30 were randomly assigned to the intervention group (IG) and 30 to the control group (CG). A total of 1020 fifth grade school children participated. The intervention strategy aimed to decrease the energy content of school breakfasts and include fruits and vegetables, as well as increase physical activity and the consumption of water during the time spent at school. The strategy was implemented over a 6-month period. Results The estimated probability (EP) of obesity between baseline and the final stage for the IG decreased 1% (Initial EP = 11.8%, 95%CI 9.0, 15.2, final EP = 10.8, 95%CI 8.4, 13.) For the CG, the probability increased 0.9% (baseline EP = 10.6%; 95%CI 8.1, 13.7; final EP = 11.5, 95%CI 9.0, 14.6). The interaction between the intervention and the stage is the average odd time corrected treatment effect, which is statistically significant (p = 0.01) (OR = 0.68, 95%CI 0.52, 091). This represents the interaction between intervention and stage, which is highly significant (p = 0.01) (OR = 0.68; 95%CI 0.52, 091). In addition, girls had a protective effect on obesity (OR = 0.56; 95%CI 0.39, 0.80). Conclusions The intervention strategy is effective in maintaining the BMI of school children. PMID:22381137

2012-01-01

71

Effectiveness of a diet and physical activity promotion strategy on the prevention of obesity in Mexican school children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity in children in Mexico was among the countries with the highest prevalence's in the world. Mexico currently has few innovative and comprehensive experiences to help curb the growth of this serious public health problem. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a nutrition and physical activity strategy, called "Nutrition on the Go" ("nutrición en movimiento" in maintaining the BMI values of school children in the State of Mexico. Methods A two-stage cluster trial was carried out. Sixty schools were selected in the State of Mexico, of which 30 were randomly assigned to the intervention group (IG and 30 to the control group (CG. A total of 1020 fifth grade school children participated. The intervention strategy aimed to decrease the energy content of school breakfasts and include fruits and vegetables, as well as increase physical activity and the consumption of water during the time spent at school. The strategy was implemented over a 6-month period. Results The estimated probability (EP of obesity between baseline and the final stage for the IG decreased 1% (Initial EP = 11.8%, 95%CI 9.0, 15.2, final EP = 10.8, 95%CI 8.4, 13. For the CG, the probability increased 0.9% (baseline EP = 10.6%; 95%CI 8.1, 13.7; final EP = 11.5, 95%CI 9.0, 14.6. The interaction between the intervention and the stage is the average odd time corrected treatment effect, which is statistically significant (p = 0.01 (OR = 0.68, 95%CI 0.52, 091. This represents the interaction between intervention and stage, which is highly significant (p = 0.01 (OR = 0.68; 95%CI 0.52, 091. In addition, girls had a protective effect on obesity (OR = 0.56; 95%CI 0.39, 0.80. Conclusions The intervention strategy is effective in maintaining the BMI of school children.

Shamah Levy Teresa

2012-03-01

72

Ethics and prevention of overweight and obesity: an inventory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Efforts to counter the rise in overweight and obesity, such as taxes on certain foods and beverages, limits to commercial advertising, a ban on chocolate drink at schools or compulsory physical exercise for obese employees, sometimes raise questions about what is considered ethically acceptable. There are obvious ethical incentives to these initiatives, such as improving individual and public health, enabling informed choice and diminishing societal costs. Whereas we consider these positive arguments to put considerable effort in the prevention of overweight indisputable, we focus on potential ethical objections against such an effort. Our intention is to structure the ethical issues that may occur in programmes to prevent overweight and/or obesity in order to encourage further debate. We selected 60 recently reported interventions or policy proposals targeting overweight or obesity and systematically evaluated their ethically relevant aspects. Our evaluation was completed by discussing them in two expert meetings. We found that currently proposed interventions or policies to prevent overweight or obesity may (next to the benefits they strive for) include the following potentially problematic aspects: effects on physical health are uncertain or unfavourable; there are negative psychosocial consequences including uncertainty, fears and concerns, blaming and stigmatization and unjust discrimination; inequalities are aggravated; inadequate information is distributed; the social and cultural value of eating is disregarded; people's privacy is disrespected; the complexity of responsibilities regarding overweight is disregarded; and interventions infringe upon personal freedom regarding lifestyle choices and raising children, regarding freedom of private enterprise or regarding policy choices by schools and other organizations. The obvious ethical incentives to combat the overweight epidemic do not necessarily override the potential ethical constraints, and further debate is needed. An ethical framework to support decision makers in balancing potential ethical problems against the need to do something would be helpful. Developing programmes that are sound from an ethical point of view is not only valuable from a moral perspective, but may also contribute to preventing overweight and obesity, as societal objections to a programme may hamper its effectiveness. PMID:21545391

ten Have, M; de Beaufort, I D; Teixeira, P J; Mackenbach, J P; van der Heide, A

2011-09-01

73

Effect of a child care center-based obesity prevention program on body mass index and nutrition practices among preschool-aged children.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effect of an early childhood obesity prevention program on changes in Body Mass Index (BMI) z-score and nutrition practices. Eight child care centers were randomly assigned to an intervention or attention control arm. Participants were a multiethnic sample of children aged 2 to 5 years old (N = 307). Intervention centers received healthy menu changes and family-based education focused on increased physical activity and fresh produce intake, decreased intake of simple carbohydrate snacks, and decreased screen time. Control centers received an attention control program. Height, weight, and nutrition data were collected at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Analysis examined height, weight, and BMI z-score change by intervention condition (at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months). Pearson correlation analysis examined relationships among BMI z-scores and home activities and nutrition patterns in the intervention group. Child BMI z-score was significantly negatively correlated with the number of home activities completed at 6-month post intervention among intervention participants. Similarly, intervention children consumed less junk food, ate more fresh fruits and vegetables, drank less juice, and drank more 1% milk compared to children at control sites at 6 months post baseline. Ninety-seven percent of those children who were normal weight at baseline were still normal weight 12 months later. Findings support child care centers as a promising setting to implement childhood obesity prevention programs in this age group. PMID:24662896

Natale, Ruby A; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Asfour, Lila; Messiah, Sarah E

2014-09-01

74

Increasing community capacity to prevent childhood obesity: challenges, lessons learned and results from the Romp & Chomp intervention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Obesity is a major public health issue; however, only limited evidence is available about effective ways to prevent obesity, particularly in early childhood. Romp & Chomp was a community-wide obesity prevention intervention conducted in Geelong Australia with a target group of 12,000 children aged 0-5 years. The intervention had an environmental and capacity building focus and we have recently demonstrated that the prevalence of overweight/obesity...

de Groot Florentine P; Robertson Narelle M; Swinburn Boyd A; de Silva-Sanigorski Andrea M

2010-01-01

75

Nutraceutical Approach for Preventing Obesity-Related Colorectal and Liver Carcinogenesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity and its related metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, alterations in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1/IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R axis, and the state of chronic inflammation, increase the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. However, these findings also indicate that the metabolic disorders caused by obesity might be effective targets to prevent the development of CRC and HCC in obese individuals. Green tea catechins (GTCs possess anticancer and chemopreventive properties against cancer in various organs, including the colorectum and liver. GTCs have also been known to exert anti-obesity, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory effects, indicating that GTCs might be useful for the prevention of obesity-associated colorectal and liver carcinogenesis. Further, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA, which improve protein malnutrition and prevent progressive hepatic failure in patients with chronic liver diseases, might be also effective for the suppression of obesity-related carcinogenesis because oral supplementation with BCAA reduces the risk of HCC in obese cirrhotic patients. BCAA shows these beneficial effects because they can improve insulin resistance. Here, we review the detailed relationship between metabolic abnormalities and the development of CRC and HCC. We also review evidence, especially that based on our basic and clinical research using GTCs and BCAA, which indicates that targeting metabolic abnormalities by either pharmaceutical or nutritional intervention may be an effective strategy to prevent the development of CRC and HCC in obese individuals.

Hisataka Moriwaki

2012-01-01

76

Children, Teachers, and Families Working Together to Prevent Childhood Obesity: Intervention Strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity rates for children, adolescents, and adults continue to escalate in the United States and globally. Educators, health specialists, psychologists, and sociologists are studying the complex problems related to early obesity. Like other health problems, prevention and early detection are the most effective strategies. The causes and…

Stegelin, Dolores A.

2008-01-01

77

Strategies for Preventing and Managing Overweight and Obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to reveal the various strategies for preventing and managing overweight and obesity in relation to reducing morbidity and mortality due to overweight and obesity. Thus, overweight and obesity are defined as Body Mass Index (BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 and > 30.0 kg/m2 respectively. Overweight and obesity are complex multifactorial chronic diseases that develop from an interaction of genotype and the environment. It was therefore concluded that overweight and obesity involve the interaction of social, behavioural, cultural, physiological, metabolic and genetic factors. Thus, it was recommended that multi-component intervention which include nutrition and physical activities and strategies such as providing nutrition education or dietary prescription, physical activity, pharmacological and behavioural skills development and training could help to prevent and manage overweight and obesity.

Elvis I. Agbonlahor

2009-01-01

78

Psychosocial Perspectives and the Issue of Prevention in Childhood Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

A dramatic increase in childhood overweight/obesity has been recognized globally over the past 50?years. This observed increase may reflect genetic, as well as psychological, environmental, and socio-cultural influences. In the first part of this review, we present an updated summary of the psychosocial factors associated with this change and discuss possible ways in which they operate. Among these factors, lower socio economic status (in both industrialized and non-industrialized countries), being female, belonging to a minority group, and being exposed to adverse life events may all be associated with a greater risk of childhood overweight/obesity. These influences may be mediated via a variety of mechanisms, in particular above-average food intake of low nutritional quality and reduction in physical activity. Other important psychosocial mediators include the influence of the family and peer environment, and exposure to the media. In the second part of the review, we discuss the potential of psychosocial prevention programs to intervene in the processes involved in the rise of childhood overweight/obesity. Two points are emphasized. First, prevention programs should be multidisciplinary, combining the knowledge of experts from different professions, and taking into consideration the important role of the family environment and relevant influential social organizations, particularly school. Second, effective change is unlikely to occur without large-scale programs carried out on a public policy level. PMID:25133140

Stein, Daniel; Weinberger-Litman, Sarah L.; Latzer, Yael

2014-01-01

79

Psychosocial perspectives and the issue of prevention in childhood obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

A dramatic increase in childhood overweight/obesity has been recognized globally over the past 50?years. This observed increase may reflect genetic, as well as psychological, environmental, and socio-cultural influences. In the first part of this review, we present an updated summary of the psychosocial factors associated with this change and discuss possible ways in which they operate. Among these factors, lower socio economic status (in both industrialized and non-industrialized countries), being female, belonging to a minority group, and being exposed to adverse life events may all be associated with a greater risk of childhood overweight/obesity. These influences may be mediated via a variety of mechanisms, in particular above-average food intake of low nutritional quality and reduction in physical activity. Other important psychosocial mediators include the influence of the family and peer environment, and exposure to the media. In the second part of the review, we discuss the potential of psychosocial prevention programs to intervene in the processes involved in the rise of childhood overweight/obesity. Two points are emphasized. First, prevention programs should be multidisciplinary, combining the knowledge of experts from different professions, and taking into consideration the important role of the family environment and relevant influential social organizations, particularly school. Second, effective change is unlikely to occur without large-scale programs carried out on a public policy level. PMID:25133140

Stein, Daniel; Weinberger-Litman, Sarah L; Latzer, Yael

2014-01-01

80

Prevention of overweight and obesity in preschool children: an updated review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An increasing number of children are becoming overweight and obese. Overweight and obesity are arbitrarily defined as excess adipose tissue in the body. Although many risk factors for overweight and obesity have been identified for school-age children, less is known for preschool children. Prevention of overweight and obesity in preschool children is an international public health priority given the significant impact of obesity on acute and chronic diseases, general health, development and well-being. This review was performed to study determinants and risk factors for overweight and obesity development in early age, effectiveness of preventive strategies in preschool children and outcome measurements of intervention programme in preschool children. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 798-804

Satyanarayana G. Konda

2014-06-01

 
 
 
 
81

Youth advocacy for obesity prevention: the next wave of social change for health.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recommended obesity prevention interventions target multiple levels. Effective advocacy is needed to influence factors at individual, social, environmental, and policy levels. This paper describes the rationale for engaging youth in obesity prevention advocacy efforts targeting environment and policy changes to improve nutrition and physical activity. Advocacy involves education, skill development, and behavior and attitude changes, with the goal of persuading others or taking action. Youth advocacy has been successfully used in substance use prevention, but it is relatively new in obesity prevention. A model is presented to guide intervention and evaluation in youth advocacy for obesity prevention. With youth advocacy as a central construct, the model outlines inputs and outcomes of advocacy at individual, social environment, built environment, and policy levels. The model can be used and refined in youth advocacy evaluation projects. By involving youth in their communities, advocacy can produce ownership, engagement, and future involvement yielding sustainable changes. PMID:24073069

Millstein, Rachel A; Sallis, James F

2011-09-01

82

Recruitment Evaluation of a Preschooler Obesity-Prevention Intervention  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this paper was to compare the recruitment strategies of two recent studies that focused on the parental influences on childhood obesity during the preschool years. The first study was a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of the Mind, Exercise, Nutrition?…?Do It! 2-4 obesity prevention programme and the second was a longitudinal cohort…

Skouteris, Helen; Hill, Briony; McCabe, Marita; Swinburn, Boyd; Sacher, Paul; Chadwick, Paul

2014-01-01

83

Exercise-Based School Obesity Prevention Programs: An Overview  

Science.gov (United States)

Overweight and obesity are major health concerns for young people. Schools are particularly promising environments for preventing and treating obesity. The Institutes of Medicine recommends 60 minutes per day of physical activity for children and youth, including at least 30 minutes at school. Yet the amount of moderate to vigorous physical…

Yetter, Georgette

2009-01-01

84

Effect of a Two-Year Obesity Prevention Intervention on Percentile Changes in Body Mass Index and Academic Performance in Low-Income Elementary School Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives. We assessed the effects of a school-based obesity prevention intervention that included dietary, curricula, and physical activity components on body mass index (BMI) percentiles and academic performance among low-income elementary school children. Methods. The study had a quasi-experimental design (4 intervention schools and 1 control school; 4588 schoolchildren; 48% Hispanic) and was conducted over a 2-year period. Data are presented for the subset of the cohort who qualified for free or reduced-price school lunches (68% Hispanic; n = 1197). Demographic and anthropometric data were collected in the fall and spring of each year, and academic data were collected at the end of each year. Results. Significantly more intervention than control children stayed within normal BMI percentile ranges both years (P = .02). Although not significantly so, more obese children in the intervention (4.4%) than in the control (2.5%) decreased their BMI percentiles. Overall, intervention schoolchildren had significantly higher math scores both years (P < .001). Hispanic and White intervention schoolchildren were significantly more likely to have higher math scores (P < .001). Although not significantly so, intervention schoolchildren had higher reading scores both years. Conclusions. School-based interventions can improve health and academic performance among low-income schoolchildren. PMID:20167892

Messiah, Sarah E.; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Almon, Marie; Agatston, Arthur S.

2010-01-01

85

Removing a Protein Prevents Obesity, Extends Lifespan in Mice  

Science.gov (United States)

... of Events Upcoming and past meetings Follow Us Social media, RSS feeds, and more Follow Us NIDDK > News > Research Updates > Removing a protein prevents obesity, extends lifespan in mice | Share External Link Disclaimer ...

86

Childhood Obesity â?? Prevention Begins with Breastfeeding PSA (:60)  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This 60 second Public Service Announcement (PSA) is based on the August, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Childhood obesity is an epidemic in the US. Breastfeeding can help prevent obesity, but one in three moms stop without hospital support. About 95% of hospitals lack policies that fully support breastfeeding moms. Hospitals need to do more to help moms start and continue breastfeeding.  Created: 8/2/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/2/2011.

2011-08-02

87

Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Recommendations for Future Research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report summarizes the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group’s recommendations on future research directions in childhood obesity prevention and treatment. The Working Group consisted of leaders and representatives from public and private academic and medical institutions with expertise in a variety of health specialties. They reviewed the literature and discussed the findings as well as their own experiences in the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. The Wo...

Pratt, Charlotte A.; Stevens, June; Daniels, Stephen

2008-01-01

88

Motivation and health behavior in the prevention of childhood obesity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objectives of the present thesis were to investigate self-efficacy and motivational interviewing as motivational frameworks for health behavior change in the prevention of childhood obesity, and to explore child health services as a setting for childhood obesity prevention. Specifically, the thesis aimed to (a) develop a measure of parental self-efficacy for promoting healthy physical activity and dietary behaviors in children and assess its psychometric properties, (b) evaluate the effec...

Bohman, Benjamin

2013-01-01

89

Obesity Prevention: Parenting Styles Make a Difference  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood obesity is epidemic in the United States and other industrialized countries across the globe. This trend is alarming, because childhood obesity is associated with the early onset of serious health problems, including Type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, orthopedic problems, behavioral disorders, and asthma. Mounting evidence also…

Winter, Suzanne M.

2009-01-01

90

Obesity prevention in defined (high school) populations  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: A challenge for the widespread dissemination of Internet-based programs designed to produce weight maintenance/loss in defined (high school) populations is to adapt them to local needs and interests, whereas demonstrating effectiveness and salience for both universal and targeted populations. Objective: The objective of this study is to examine the feasibility of providing an inexpensive, Internet-based universal (healthy weight regulation) and targeted (weight maintenance/loss) health program to all ninth-grade students in a high school serving a lower socioecnomic status, diverse population. Design: A total of 118 normal-weight and 64 overweight/obese students in the same ninth-grade class completed a baseline screen and were allocated to a healthy weight regulation program or a weight-loss maintenance program. Both groups simultaneously received a 10-week Internet-based intervention. Program implementation required minimal teacher time. Measurement included self-reported fruit, vegetable and high-fat/-calorie food consumption, self-reported change in body mass index (BMI), weight and shape concerns, as well as program engagement. Results: The program was successfully implemented in nine classes, with minimal help from the investigators. There was a significant increase in self-reported consumption of fruits and vegetables (P=0.001). There was a significant reduction in self-reported BMI in the overweight/obese group (P=0.001). Students found the program helpful and engaging. There was a significant reduction in weight and shape concerns in the high-risk female students, consistent with a reduced risk for the development of an eating disorder. Providing a universal and targeted online healthy weight regulation program to ninth-grade students is feasible and inexpensive. The results suggest the program can serve as ‘core' for future studies using adaptive, continuous quality-improvement designs. PMID:24567839

Taylor, C B; Taylor, K; Jones, M; Shorter, A; Yee, M; Genkin, B; Burrows, A; Kass, A E; Rizk, M; Redman, M; Romer, P; Williams, J; Wilfley, D E

2012-01-01

91

School-based obesity prevention interventions: Practicalities and considerations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pediatric obesity continues to be a major public health concern. Once established it is difficult to treat, therefore well-designed and evaluated prevention interventions are vitally important. Schools have an important role in the prevention of childhood obesity, however, their involvement can be limited by a number of constraints and barriers, which need to be considered when designing interventions. Members of the Prevention Stream of the Australasian Child and Adolescent Obesity Research Network have extensive experience in implementing and evaluating school-based obesity prevention initiatives. Based on their collective experience and evidence from implementation research, the aim of this paper was to highlight six areas to consider when designing, implementing and evaluating obesity prevention initiatives in schools. Further, this paper aimed to provide guidance for overcoming some of the challenges and barriers faced in school-based obesity prevention research. The six key areas discussed include: design and analysis; school-community engagement; planning and recruitment; evaluation; implementation; and feedback and sustainability. PMID:25263839

Jones, R A; Lubans, D R; Morgan, P J; Okely, A D; Parletta, N; Wolfenden, L; de Silva-Sanigorski, A; Gibbs, L; Waters, E

2014-01-01

92

A Meta-Analytic Review of Obesity Prevention Programs for Children and Adolescents: The Skinny on Interventions that Work  

Science.gov (United States)

This meta-analytic review summarizes obesity prevention programs and their effects and investigates participant, intervention, delivery, and design features associated with larger effects. A literature search identified 64 prevention programs seeking to produce weight gain prevention effects, of which 21% produced significant prevention effects…

Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan

2006-01-01

93

Establishing a method to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention to prevent obesity in early childhood. The ToyBox-study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Overweight and obesity in children are recognized as a major health problem. The ToyBox-intervention was developed with the aim of preventing obesity in pre-schoolers. Because it is increasingly important to inform policy makers not only on the effects of prevention interventions, but also on their costs and cost-effectiveness, our purpose was to establish a method to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the ToyBox-intervention. In order to estimate the long-term impact of the ToyBox-intervention on health and societal costs, extrapolations of the intervention effect will be conducted to predict children's weight status (based on the body mass index) at adult age. Effects of the adult weight status on the prevalence of obesity-related complications will be modelled through a Markov model, with a total time horizon of 70 years and a cycle length of 1 year. The model will be conducted in six European countries participating in the ToyBox-intervention, based on country-specific economic and epidemiological data. This study describes the methodological rationale and implementation of an analytic model to examine the cost-effectiveness of the ToyBox-intervention for six European countries, in order to inform decision-makers on the value for money of this intervention in the prevention of obesity in pre-schoolers. PMID:25047383

Pil, L; Putman, K; Cardon, G; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Manios, Y; Androutsos, O; Lateva, M; Iotova, V; Zych, K; Gó?d?, M; González-Gil, E M; De Miguel-Etayo, P; Geyer, C; Birnbaum, J; Annemans, L

2014-08-01

94

Childhood obesity: Determinants, evaluation, and prevention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Childhood obesity is a grave issue, which needs to be addressed urgently because it leads to several medical and psychosocial problems in children. High prevalence is being increasingly reported in children from developing countries as well. The combination of our genetic propensity to store fat, the ready availability of calorie dense foods, and sedentary lifestyle promotes overweight. The child's food environment at home and parental obesity are strong determinants. Urban poor in developed ...

Raychaudhuri, Moutusi; Sanyal, Debmalya

2012-01-01

95

Obesity Revised. Chapter at "Periodontal Disease: Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention"  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract: Obesity, diabetes and oral diseases (dental cariesand periodontal diseases), largely preventable chronic diseases, are described as global pandemic due their distribution and severe consequences. WHO has called for a global action for prevention and promotion of these diseases as a vital investment in urgent need. Diabetes and obesity, showing an increasing trend, lead to disabilities and negatively impacts on the quality of life through life course along with oral diseases. WHO projects that the prevalence of diabetes and deaths/year attrituble to diabetes complications will double worldwide by 2030. Globally, more than 1 billion adults are overweight; almost 300 million of them are clinically obese. Being obese/overweight raises steeply the likelihood of developing DM2. Approximately 85% of people with diabetes are DM2, and of these 90% are obese or overweight. Obesity increases the likelihood of periodontitis which is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide, described as pandemic, and closely related to DM2. Promoting good oral health is significantly essential for prevention and reducing the negative consequences of periodontal diseases, DM2 and obesity, and to maintain good health, as proposed by European health goals by WHO.

Cinar, Ayse Basak

2011-01-01

96

Obesity Prevention in Early Adolescence: Student, Parent, and Teacher Views  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Obesity is a significant health problem among today's youth; however, most school-based prevention programs in this area have had limited success. Focus groups were conducted with seventh- to eighth-grade students, parents, and teachers to provide insight into the development of a comprehensive program for the prevention of adolescent…

Power, Thomas G.; Bindler, Ruth C.; Goetz, Summer; Daratha, Kenneth B.

2010-01-01

97

School-Based Obesity Prevention: Research, Challenges, and Recommendations  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood overweight is one of the most serious problems currently affecting individual and public health. Schools represent a logical site for prevention because children spend 6-8 hours a day there during most of the year. Although reports of school-based overweight or obesity prevention programs exist, there are no summaries specifying which…

Budd, Geraldine M.; Volpe, Stella L.

2006-01-01

98

School Nurses' Experiences With Motivational Interviewing for Preventing Childhood Obesity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Motivational interviewing is a counseling method used to bring about behavior change; its application by school nurses for preventing obesity in children is still new. This study, based on in-depth interviews with 12 school nurses, shows how school nurses adapted motivational interviewing and integrated it into their daily practice along with other methods they knew from the past. Three dilemmas for school nurses were revealed: when the child was severely overweight and the parents did not perceive this as a problem, when the child and the parents were at different stages of motivation to change, and when applying an individualized approach such as motivational interviewing for preventing a complex societal problem, in this instance obesity. The study raises an important issue to consider, with implications for school nursing and obesity prevention: motivational interviewing as either a counseling method or a prevention strategy.

Bonde, Ane HØstgaard; Bentsen, Peter

2014-01-01

99

School nurses' experiences with motivational interviewing for preventing childhood obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Motivational interviewing is a counseling method used to bring about behavior change; its application by school nurses for preventing obesity in children is still new. This study, based on in-depth interviews with 12 school nurses, shows how school nurses adapted motivational interviewing and integrated it into their daily practice along with other methods they knew from the past. Three dilemmas for school nurses were revealed: when the child was severely overweight and the parents did not perceive this as a problem, when the child and the parents were at different stages of motivation to change, and when applying an individualized approach such as motivational interviewing for preventing a complex societal problem, in this instance obesity. The study raises an important issue to consider, with implications for school nursing and obesity prevention: motivational interviewing as either a counseling method or a prevention strategy. PMID:24488337

Bonde, Ane Høstgaard; Bentsen, Peter; Hindhede, Anette Lykke

2014-12-01

100

Creating community action plans for obesity prevention using the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Elements Linked to Obesity) Framework  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Community-based interventions are an important component of obesity prevention efforts. The literature provides little guidance on priority-setting for obesity prevention in communities, especially for socially and culturally diverse populations. This paper reports on the process of developing prioritized, community-participatory action plans for obesity prevention projects in children and adolescents using the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Elements Linked to Obesity) Framework. We combined stake...

Simmons, A.; Mavoa, H. M.; Bell, A. C.; Courten, M.; Schaaf, D.; Schultz, J.; Swinburn, B. A.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

The Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project : project overview and methods  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Obesity is increasing worldwide with the Pacific region having the highest prevalence among adults. The most common precursor of adult obesity is adolescent obesity making this a critical period for prevention. The Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project was a four-country project (Fiji, Tonga, New Zealand and Australia) designed to prevent adolescent obesity. This paper overviews the project and the methods common to the four countries. Each country implemented a community-based intervention programme promoting healthy eating, physical activity and healthy weight in adolescents. A community capacity-building approach was used, with common processes employed but with contextualized interventions within each country. Changes in anthropometric, behavioural and perception outcomes were evaluated at the individual level and school environments and community capacity at the settings level. The evaluation tools common to each are described. Additional analytical studies included economic, socio-cultural and policy studies. The project pioneered many areas of obesity prevention research: using multi-country collaboration to build research capacity; testing a capacity-building approach in ethnic groups with very high obesity prevalence; costing complex, long-term community intervention programmes; systematically studying the powerful socio-cultural influences on weight gain; and undertaking a participatory, national, priority-setting process for policy interventions using simulation modelling of cost-effectiveness of interventions.

Swinburn, B A; Millar, L

2011-01-01

102

The Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project: project overview and methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is increasing worldwide with the Pacific region having the highest prevalence among adults. The most common precursor of adult obesity is adolescent obesity making this a critical period for prevention. The Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project was a four-country project (Fiji, Tonga, New Zealand and Australia) designed to prevent adolescent obesity. This paper overviews the project and the methods common to the four countries. Each country implemented a community-based intervention programme promoting healthy eating, physical activity and healthy weight in adolescents. A community capacity-building approach was used, with common processes employed but with contextualized interventions within each country. Changes in anthropometric, behavioural and perception outcomes were evaluated at the individual level and school environments and community capacity at the settings level. The evaluation tools common to each are described. Additional analytical studies included economic, socio-cultural and policy studies. The project pioneered many areas of obesity prevention research: using multi-country collaboration to build research capacity; testing a capacity-building approach in ethnic groups with very high obesity prevalence; costing complex, long-term community intervention programmes; systematically studying the powerful socio-cultural influences on weight gain; and undertaking a participatory, national, priority-setting process for policy interventions using simulation modelling of cost-effectiveness of interventions. PMID:22008554

Swinburn, B A; Millar, L; Utter, J; Kremer, P; Moodie, M; Mavoa, H; Snowdon, W; McCabe, M P; Malakellis, M; de Courten, M; Waqa, G; Fotu, K F; Roberts, G; Scragg, R

2011-11-01

103

A framework for evaluating the impact of obesity prevention strategies on socioeconomic inequalities in weight.  

Science.gov (United States)

We developed a theoretical framework to organize obesity prevention interventions by their likely impact on the socioeconomic gradient of weight. The degree to which an intervention involves individual agency versus structural change influences socioeconomic inequalities in weight. Agentic interventions, such as standalone social marketing, increase socioeconomic inequalities. Structural interventions, such as food procurement policies and restrictions on unhealthy foods in schools, show equal or greater benefit for lower socioeconomic groups. Many obesity prevention interventions belong to the agento-structural types of interventions, and account for the environment in which health behaviors occur, but they require a level of individual agency for behavioral change, including workplace design to encourage exercise and fiscal regulation of unhealthy foods or beverages. Obesity prevention interventions differ in their effectiveness across socioeconomic groups. Limiting further increases in socioeconomic inequalities in obesity requires implementation of structural interventions. Further empirical evaluation, especially of agento-structural type interventions, remains crucial. PMID:25121810

Backholer, Kathryn; Beauchamp, Alison; Ball, Kylie; Turrell, Gavin; Martin, Jane; Woods, Julie; Peeters, Anna

2014-10-01

104

Behavioral counseling to prevent childhood obesity – study protocol of a pragmatic trial in maternity and child health care  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Prevention is considered effective in combating the obesity epidemic. Prenatal environment may increase offspring's risk for obesity. A child starts to adopt food preferences and other behavioral habits affecting weight gain during preschool years. We report the study protocol of a pragmatic lifestyle intervention aiming at primary prevention of childhood obesity. Methods/Design A non-randomized controlled pragmatic trial in maternity and chi...

Mustila Taina; Keskinen Päivi; Luoto Riitta

2012-01-01

105

[Economic aspects of prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents].  

Science.gov (United States)

This article provides an overview of the costs associated with overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, and of the cost effectiveness of preventive and therapeutic interventions. First, the results of cost-of-illness studies from the international literature are presented. These studies show ambiguous results, but indicate moderate excess costs due to obesity for this age group. Subsequently, this paper describes the methods that can be used to analyze the cost effectiveness of preventive and therapeutic interventions. Problems arise from the necessity to estimate long-term effects on costs and health consequences of multiple, associated diseases. A number of economic evaluations of preventive and therapeutic interventions published in the scientific literature have reported favorable cost effectiveness. In order to increase the efficiency of health care, more cost-effective services for overweight and obesity should be developed and used. PMID:21547654

König, H-H; Lehnert, T; Riedel-Heller, S; Konnopka, A

2011-05-01

106

Effects of obesity on bone metabolism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Obesity is traditionally viewed to be beneficial to bone health because of well-established positive effect of mechanical loading conferred by body weight on bone formation, despite being a risk factor for many other chronic health disorders. Although body mass has a positive effect on bone formation, whether the mass derived from an obesity condition or excessive fat accumulation is beneficial to bone remains controversial. The underline pathophysiological relationship between obesity and bone is complex and continues to be an active research area. Recent data from epidemiological and animal studies strongly support that fat accumulation is detrimental to bone mass. To our knowledge, obesity possibly affects bone metabolism through several mechanisms. Because both adipocytes and osteoblasts are derived from a common multipotential mesenchymal stem cell, obesity may increase adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation while decrease osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation. The increased circulating and tissue proinflammatory cytokines in obesity may promote osteoclast activity and bone resorption through modifying the receptor activator of NF-?B (RANK/RANK ligand/osteoprotegerin pathway. Furthermore, the excessive secretion of leptin and/or decreased production of adiponectin by adipocytes in obesity may either directly affect bone formation or indirectly affect bone resorption through up-regulated proinflammatory cytokine production. Finally, high-fat intake may interfere with intestinal calcium absorption and therefore decrease calcium availability for bone formation. Unraveling the relationship between fat and bone metabolism at molecular level may help us to develop therapeutic agents to prevent or treat both obesity and osteoporosis. Obesity, defined as having a body mass index ? 30 kg/m2, is a condition in which excessive body fat accumulates to a degree that adversely affects health 1. The rates of obesity rates have doubled since 1980 2 and as of 2007, 33% of men and 35% of women in the US are obese 3. Obesity is positively associated to many chronic disorders such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, and certain cancers 456. It is estimated that the direct medical cost associated with obesity in the United States is ~$100 billion per year 7. Bone mass and strength decrease during adulthood, especially in women after menopause 8. These changes can culminate in osteoporosis, a disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration resulting in increased bone fracture risk. It is estimated that there are about 10 million Americans over the age of 50 who have osteoporosis while another 34 million people are at risk of developing the disease 9. In 2001, osteoporosis alone accounted for some $17 billion in direct annual healthcare expenditure. Several lines of evidence suggest that obesity and bone metabolism are interrelated. First, both osteoblasts (bone forming cells and adipocytes (energy storing cells are derived from a common mesenchymal stem cell 10 and agents inhibiting adipogenesis stimulated osteoblast differentiation 111213 and vice versa, those inhibiting osteoblastogenesis increased adipogenesis 14. Second, decreased bone marrow osteoblastogenesis with aging is usually accompanied with increased marrow adipogenesis 1516. Third, chronic use of steroid hormone, such as glucocorticoid, results in obesity accompanied by rapid bone loss 1718. Fourth, both obesity and osteoporosis are associated with elevated oxidative stress and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines 1920. At present, the mechanisms for the effects of obesity on bone metabolism are not well defined and will be the focus of this review.

Cao Jay J

2011-06-01

107

Chronobiological Effects on Obesity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The development of obesity is the consequence of a multitude of complex interactions between both genetic and environmental factors. It has been suggested that the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity over the past 30 years has been the result of environmental changes that have enabled the full realization of genetic susceptibility present in the population. Among the many environmental alterations that have occurred in our recent history is the ever-increasing dyssynchrony between ...

Bray, Molly S.; Young, Martin E.

2012-01-01

108

Tools for Identifying and Prioritizing Evidence-Based Obesity Prevention Strategies, Colorado  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Colorado’s adult obesity rate has more than doubled since 1995, prompting its Department of Public Health and Environment to list obesity as its top prevention priority. To initiate comprehensive and effective action, the department used a well-known evidence-based public health framework developed by Brownson and others. This article describes the tools and process developed to conduct 2 of the 7 stages in this framework that challenge public health organizations: reviewing the literature ...

Kaplan, Gabriel E.; Juhl, Ashley L.; Gujral, Indira B.; Hoaglin-wagner, Andrea L.; Gabella, Barbara A.; Mcdermott, Kristin M.

2013-01-01

109

Prevention and Treatment of Obesity - An Over View  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Five major approaches namely dietary, exercise, behavior, combination and pharmacy therapies are used for treatment and control of obesity. In dietary therapy, low-calorie diet (LCD, which provides 800 to 1500 kcal of energy daily; a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD, which provides 250-800 kcal of energy daily and an energy-restricted or hypo caloric diet (HCD, which is based on a person`s estimated daily energy requirement. LCDs can reduce total body weight by an average of 8 percent and help reduce abdominal fat content over a period of approximately 6 months. VLCDs are not recommended for weight loss therapy because the deficits are too great, and nutritional inadequacies will occur unless VLCDs are supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Regular exercise/physical activity should be an integral part of weight loss therapy and weight maintenance. A daily regimen of 30-45 minutes of walking, bicycling or working around the house conveys physical activity`s positive effects on the muscolo-skeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory and endocrine systems, reduces risk of premature mortality, coronary heart disease, hypertension, colon cancer and diabetes. Exercise should be initiated slowly, and the intensity should be increased gradually; starting from small tasks of daily living such as taking the stairs or walking or swimming at a slow pace leading to the more strenuous activities like brisk walking, cycling, exercise, rope jumping and Jogging. Behavior therapy provides methods for overcoming barriers to compliance with dietary and exercise therapies. Combined intervention of an LCD, increased physical activity, and behavior therapy provides the most successful therapy for weight loss and weight maintenance. Islamic way of life (directional eating and lifestyle (worship schedule is the most efficient method for prevention and control of obesity and is one of the best example of combination of diet and exercise therapies. Pharmacotherapy or medication should be the last approach for obesity control.

Aien Khan Afridi

2004-01-01

110

[Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents and preventative measures].  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children is increasing rapidly. This is alarming because obesity is associated with severe chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obesity at young age is related to obesity at adult age. Consequently, the prevention of overweight from childhood onwards is an important issue. Apart from diabetes mellitus type 2 there is an increased risk of orthopaedic complications, respiratory problems, fertility problems, cardiovascular diseases and psychosocial consequences in the form of a negative self-image, emotional and behavioural problems and depression. Environmental and behavioural factors are regarded as the most important causes of the rapid increase in the prevalence of overweight and as the most important starting points for prevention. Most prevention programmes are still in the initial stages. Prevention programmes aimed at stimulating breast feeding and daily physical activity (playing outside) and the restriction of sweetened drinks and watching TV are very promising. With such preventive measures the involvement of both the school and the parents is important. PMID:15532328

Renders, C M; Seidell, J C; van Mechelen, W; Hirasing, R A

2004-10-16

111

Assessing Cost-Effectiveness in Obesity (ACE-Obesity): an overview of the ACE approach, economic methods and cost results  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The aim of the ACE-Obesity study was to determine the economic credentials of interventions which aim to prevent unhealthy weight gain in children and adolescents. We have reported elsewhere on the modelled effectiveness of 13 obesity prevention interventions in children. In this paper, we report on the cost results and associated methods together with the innovative approach to priority setting that underpins the ACE-Obesity study. Methods T...

Swinburn Boyd; Vos Theo; Magnus Anne; Markwick Alison; Moodie Marj; Carter Rob; Haby Michele M

2009-01-01

112

Support for obesity policy: The effect of perceptions of causes for obesity and national identity in Canada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Interventions in Canada to address obesity have largely been limited to individual-level change through education rather than a population-level public policy approach. Little is known about obesity policy support in Canada, and substantial national variation in obesity policy support prevents direct transferability of these policies among nations. Our study recruited 521 young adults for an online survey through leaflets and flyers. We investigated how respondents’ demographics, health characteristics, political attitudes, beliefs regarding causes of obesity, and national identity affected their support for obesity policy. Results showed that there is high support for many obesity policies among Canadian young adults. Including Canadian national identity in regression models was significant in explaining obesity policy support beyond the combined effect of other predictors. Further exploration of national identity, in Canada and elsewhere, has implications for understanding obesity policy support that might assist policy makers in making more informed decisions in addressing obesity.

Ryan Lange

2012-11-01

113

Obesity prevention: the role of policies, laws and regulations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The commercial drivers of the obesity epidemic are so influential that obesity can be considered a robust sign of commercial success - consumers are buying more food, more cars and more energy-saving machines. It is unlikely that these powerful economic forces will change sufficiently in response to consumer desires to eat less and move more or corporate desires to be more socially responsible. When the free market creates substantial population detriments and health inequalities, government policies are needed to change the ground rules in favour of population benefits.Concerted action is needed from governments in four broad areas: provide leadership to set the agenda and show the way; advocate for a multi-sector response and establish the mechanisms for all sectors to engage and enhance action; develop and implement policies (including laws and regulations) to create healthier food and activity environments, and; secure increased and continued funding to reduce obesogenic environments and promote healthy eating and physical activity.Policies, laws and regulations are often needed to drive the environmental and social changes that, eventually, will have a sustainable impact on reducing obesity. An 'obesity impact assessment' on legislation such as public liability, urban planning, transport, food safety, agriculture, and trade may identify 'rules' which contribute to obesogenic environments. In other areas, such as marketing to children, school food, and taxes/levies, there may be opportunities for regulations to actively support obesity prevention. Legislation in other areas such as to reduce climate change may also contribute to obesity prevention ('stealth interventions'). A political willingness to use policy instruments to drive change will probably be an early hallmark of successful obesity prevention. PMID:18534000

Swinburn, Boyd A

2008-01-01

114

Integrating Eating Disorder and Obesity Prevention Programs for Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

Increasingly, researchers in the areas of eating disorders and obesity prevention are recognizing the benefits of collaborative efforts aimed at curbing the spectrum of eating-related disturbances. Research suggests that eating disorders and overweight tend to co-occur, and that individuals cross over from one eating-related disturbance to…

Shaw, Heather; Ng, Janet; Stice, Eric

2007-01-01

115

The Role of Parents in Preventing Childhood Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

As researchers continue to analyze the role of parenting both in the development of childhood overweight and in obesity prevention, studies of child nutrition and growth are detailing the ways in which parents affect their children's development of food- and activity-related behaviors. Ana Lindsay, Katarina Sussner, Juhee Kim, and Steven Gortmaker…

Lindsay, Ana C.; Sussner, Katarina M.; Kim, Juhee; Gortmaker, Steven

2006-01-01

116

Teachers as Partners in the Prevention of Childhood Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a community-school-higher education partnership approach to the prevention of childhood obesity. Public elementary school personnel, primarily teachers, participated in the design and delivery of a curriculum targeting primary caregivers of 8-9-year-old children. Theoretical framework and methodological approaches guided the…

Bruss, Mozhdeh B.; Dannison, Linda; Morris, Joseph R.; Quitugua, Jackie; Palacios, Rosa T.; McGowan, Judy; Michael, Timothy

2010-01-01

117

A Meta-Analytic Review of Obesity Prevention Programs for Children and Adolescents: The Skinny on Interventions that Work  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This meta-analytic review summarizes obesity prevention programs and their effects and investigates participant, intervention, delivery, and design features associated with larger effects. A literature search identified 64 prevention programs seeking to produce weight gain prevention effects, of which 21% produced significant prevention effects that were typically pre to post effects. Larger effects emerged for programs targeting children and adolescents (versus preadolescents) and females, p...

Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan

2006-01-01

118

Early childhood obesity prevention in low-income, urban communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the disproportionately high rates of obesity-related morbidity among low-income, ethnic minority youth, obesity prevention in this population is critical. Prior efforts to curb childhood obesity have had limited public health impact. The present study evaluates an innovative approach to obesity prevention by promoting foundational parenting and child behavioral regulation. This pre-post intervention study evaluated an enhanced version of ParentCorps with 91 families of pre-Kindergarten students in low-income, urban communities. Assessments included tests of knowledge and parent report. Consistent with findings from two randomized controlled trials of ParentCorps, parent knowledge and use of foundational parenting practices increased and child behavior problems decreased. Child nutrition knowledge and physical activity increased and television watching decreased; for boys, sleep problems decreased. Comparable benefits occurred for children at high risk for obesity based on child dysregulation, child overweight, and parent overweight. Results support a "whole child," family-centered approach to health promotion in early childhood. PMID:24702665

Dawson-McClure, Spring; Brotman, Laurie Miller; Theise, Rachelle; Palamar, Joseph J; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Barajas, R Gabriela; Calzada, Esther J

2014-01-01

119

[Strategies for obesity prevention in children and adolescents].  

Science.gov (United States)

Few studies on treatment or prevention of obesity have shown significant results. Theoretically, in children and adolescents as compared to adults, prevention of excessive weight gain should be easy due to the energy expended during growth, associated with more time spent in leisure-time activities. However, numerous factors that stimulate overeating and sedentary behaviors are difficult to overcome. Additionally, most intervention studies have focused on a minor portion of the many factors associated with obesity. Important aspects of the obesity epidemic such as the role of the food industry, fast food chains, advertising, and a lifestyle that limits children to sedentary activities and overeating cannot be explored by a traditional clinical trial design. At any rate, among the published interventions, those including the family in weight-reduction strategies have shown the best results, as compared to children-centered approaches. Meanwhile, studies on specific nutrient or dietary composition (such as calcium, protein, or glycemic index) related to prevention or treatment of obesity have failed to yield good results. Reducing the intake of high-sugar carbonated drinks and juices has shown promising but still inconclusive results. PMID:18670698

Sichieri, Rosely; Souza, Rita Adriana de

2008-01-01

120

Effects of exercise on mobility in obese and non-obese older adults  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coupled with an aging society, the rising obesity prevalence is likely to increase the future burden of physical disability. We set out to determine whether obesity modified the effects of a physical activity intervention designed to prevent mobility disability in older adults. Older adults at risk for disability (N = 424, age range: 70-88 years) were randomized to a 12 month physical activity (PA) intervention involving moderate intensity aerobic, strength, balance and flexibility exercise (...

Manini, T. M.; Newman, A. B.; Fielding, R.; Blair, S. N.; Perri, M. G.; Anton, S. D.; Goodpaster, B. C.; Katula, J.; Rejeski, J.; King, A. C.; Kritchevsky, S. B.; Hsu, F. -c; Pahor, M.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

EPODE approach for childhood obesity prevention: methods, progress and international development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood obesity is a complex issue and needs multi-stakeholder involvement at all levels to foster healthier lifestyles in a sustainable way. 'Ensemble Prévenons l'Obésité Des Enfants' (EPODE, Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) is a large-scale, coordinated, capacity-building approach for communities to implement effective and sustainable strategies to prevent childhood obesity. This paper describes EPODE methodology and its objective of preventing childhood obesity. At a central level, a coordination team, using social marketing and organizational techniques, trains and coaches a local project manager nominated in each EPODE community by the local authorities. The local project manager is also provided with tools to mobilize local stakeholders through a local steering committee and local networks. The added value of the methodology is to mobilize stakeholders at all levels across the public and the private sectors. Its critical components include political commitment, sustainable resources, support services and a strong scientific input--drawing on the evidence-base--together with evaluation of the programme. Since 2004, EPODE methodology has been implemented in more than 500 communities in six countries. Community-based interventions are integral to childhood obesity prevention. EPODE provides a valuable model to address this challenge. PMID:22106871

Borys, J-M; Le Bodo, Y; Jebb, S A; Seidell, J C; Summerbell, C; Richard, D; De Henauw, S; Moreno, L A; Romon, M; Visscher, T L S; Raffin, S; Swinburn, B

2012-04-01

122

EPODE approach for childhood obesity prevention: methods, progress and international development  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary Childhood obesity is a complex issue and needs multistakeholder involvement at all levels to foster healthier lifestyles in a sustainable way. ‘Ensemble Prévenons l'ObésitéDes Enfants’ (EPODE, Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) is a large-scale, coordinated, capacity-building approach for communities to implement effective and sustainable strategies to prevent childhood obesity. This paper describes EPODE methodology and its objective of preventing childhood obesity. At a central level, a coordination team, using social marketing and organizational techniques, trains and coaches a local project manager nominated in each EPODE community by the local authorities. The local project manager is also provided with tools to mobilize local stakeholders through a local steering committee and local networks. The added value of the methodology is to mobilize stakeholders at all levels across the public and the private sectors. Its critical components include political commitment, sustainable resources, support services and a strong scientific input – drawing on the evidence-base – together with evaluation of the programme. Since 2004, EPODE methodology has been implemented in more than 500 communities in six countries. Community-based interventions are integral to childhood obesity prevention. EPODE provides a valuable model to address this challenge. PMID:22106871

Borys, J-M; Le Bodo, Y; Jebb, S A; Seidell, J C; Summerbell, C; Richard, D; De Henauw, S; Moreno, L A; Romon, M; Visscher, T L S; Raffin, S; Swinburn, B

2012-01-01

123

Prevention of childhood obesity in Spain: a focus on policies outside the health sector. SESPAS report 2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is currently a global public health problem. Obesity in early life increases the risk of long-term energy imbalance and adult obesity and its comorbidities, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Since infancy and childhood are critical periods for the adoption of food preferences and physical activity, prevention strategies must intervene in these early periods to promote healthy habits and reduce risk behaviors. Trends in the prevalence of childhood obesity and overweight in Spain have continuously increased in the last three decades. Obesity and overweight currently affect 15 and 20% of Spanish children, respectively, and these percentages are among the highest in Europe. Childhood obesity is determined by social and economic factors pertaining to sectors other than the health system, such as advertising, the built environment, education and the school environment, transportation and the food environment. Following the Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach, the authors identified a series of multisector policy changes that may help to prevent and control the current rising trend of childhood obesity in Spain. The HiAP approach acknowledges that social factors including socioeconomic status, gender differences and the work-life balance are important to develop effective policy changes in the prevention of childhood obesity. A key to success in the prevention of childhood obesity in Spain through policy changes will depend on the ability to establish a policy with the explicit and primary goal of improving health outcomes, despite the anticipated resistance from various sectors and stakeholders. PMID:21074906

Franco, Manuel; Sanz, Belén; Otero, Laura; Domínguez-Vila, Adrián; Caballero, Benjamín

2010-12-01

124

Recruitment into diabetes prevention programs: what is the impact of errors in self-reported measures of obesity?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Error in self-reported measures of obesity has been frequently described, but the effect of self-reported error on recruitment into diabetes prevention programs is not well established. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of using self-reported obesity data from the Finnish diabetes risk score (FINDRISC) on recruitment into the Greater Green Triangle Diabetes Prevention Project (GGT DPP). Methods The GGT DPP was a structured group...

Hernan Andrea; Philpot Benjamin; Janus Edward D; Dunbar James A

2012-01-01

125

Obesity Prevention Programs for Children and Youth: Why Are Their Results so Modest?  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to critically reflect upon the mixed/modest results of the primary studies related to the effectiveness of physical activity enhancement and improving nutritional intake in obesity prevention programs for children and youth. The results of a recent review of this topic that included 57 randomized controlled trials…

Thomas, Helen

2006-01-01

126

Multidisciplinary Approaches Interventions in Prevention of Childhood Obesity: targeted systematic review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractAmong children ages 7–19, about 1 in 3 are overweight and obese (BMI-for-age at or above the 85th percentile of the 2000 CDC growth charts.; 32.1% of all boys and 31.3% of all girls are overweight and obese. Because of the dramatic and alarming increase in childhood obesity and its associated health risks, obesity prevention programs targeting children can and should be developed to promote the health of the public. This study is an overview of different interventions conducted, to guide efforts for an effective management of childhood obesity. The aim of this review was to assess the literature regarding the prevention of childhood obesity. Databases that were accessed for current literature included Medline, Cochrane and CINAHL. A total of 26 articles were found based on the inclusion criteria for this study. Only 38% of studies required parents' participation, the sample sizes of the studies varied considerably from 201 to 3135 children. 92% of studies used randomized controlled trials and the range of intervention duration ranged from eight weeks to four years. Implications for future research and practice are presented.

Hanan Mohamed Tork

2013-01-01

127

Prevention of obesity and diabetes in childbearing women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity and diabetes have become pandemic in the United States, with more than one-third of the US population obese and 8.3% of the population affected by diabetes. Efforts to prevent type 2 diabetes focus primarily on healthy eating and physical activity. In particular, women from at-risk racial and ethnic groups and those who have experienced gestational diabetes are at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Achieving a healthy weight prior to conception, staying within weight gain guidelines during pregnancy, and losing accumulated pregnancy weight postpartum are key prevention factors. Maintaining a healthy weight in the long-term is a challenge. Behavioral psychology and coaching techniques are presented in this article that can be useful in sustaining behaviors that promote a healthy weight. PMID:23647939

Trout, Kimberly K; Ellis, Kathryn K; Bratschie, Alexandra

2013-01-01

128

Obesity Prevention Practices of Elementary School Nurses in Minnesota: Findings from Interviews with Licensed School Nurses  

Science.gov (United States)

Elementary schools are an optimal setting to provide obesity prevention interventions, yet little is known about the obesity prevention practices of elementary school nurses. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into current obesity-related school nursing practice in elementary schools in Minnesota, opinions regarding school nurse-led…

Morrison-Sandberg, Leslie F.; Kubik, Martha Y.; Johnson, Karen E.

2011-01-01

129

Design and methods for evaluating an early childhood obesity prevention program in the childcare center setting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Many unhealthy dietary and physical activity habits that foster the development of obesity are established by the age of five. Presently, approximately 70 percent of children in the United States are currently enrolled in early childcare facilities, making this an ideal setting to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention efforts. We describe here the methods for conducting an obesity prevention randomized trial in the child care setting. Methods/design A randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial is currently being conducted over a three year period (2010-present. The sample consists of 28 low-income, ethnically diverse child care centers with 1105 children (sample is 60% Hispanic, 15% Haitian, 12% Black, 2% non-Hispanic White and 71% of caregivers were born outside of the US. The purpose is to test the efficacy of a parent and teacher role-modeling intervention on children’s nutrition and physical activity behaviors. . The Healthy Caregivers-Healthy Children (HC2 intervention arm schools received a combination of (1 implementing a daily curricula for teachers/parents (the nutritional gatekeepers; (2 implementing a daily curricula for children; (3 technical assistance with meal and snack menu modifications such as including more fresh and less canned produce; and (4 creation of a center policy for dietary requirements for meals and snacks, physical activity and screen time. Control arm schools received an attention control safety curriculum. Major outcome measures include pre-post changes in child body mass index percentile and z score, fruit and vegetable and other nutritious food intake, amount of physical activity, and parental nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, defined by intentions and behaviors. All measures were administered at the beginning and end of the school year for year one and year two of the study for a total of 4 longitudinal time points for assessment. Discussion Although few attempts have been made to prevent obesity during the first years of life, this period may represent the best opportunity for obesity prevention. Findings from this investigation will inform both the fields of childhood obesity prevention and early childhood research about the effects of an obesity prevention program housed in the childcare setting. Trial registration Trial registration number: NCT01722032

Natale Ruby

2013-01-01

130

Hypothyroidism and obesity. Cause or effect?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Overall thyroid dysfunction was found more in obese individuals with varying degree of significance. Detailed studies are required to assess the cause and effect relation between obesity and hypothyroidism.

Abhyuday Verma

2008-08-01

131

Story Immersion in a Health Videogame for Childhood Obesity Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Objective Stories can serve as powerful tools for health interventions. Story immersion refers to the experience of being absorbed in a story. This is among the first studies to analyze story immersion's role in health videogames among children by addressing two main questions: Will children be more immersed when the main characters are similar to them? Do increased levels of immersion relate to more positive health outcomes? Subjects and Methods Eighty-seven 10–12-year-old African-American, Caucasian, and Hispanic children from Houston, TX, played a health videogame, “Escape from Diab” (Archimage, Houston, TX), featuring a protagonist with both African-American and Hispanic phenotypic features. Children's demographic information, immersion, and health outcomes (i.e., preference, motivation, and self-efficacy) were recorded and then correlated and analyzed. Results African-American and Hispanic participants reported higher immersion scores than Caucasian participants (P=0.01). Story immersion correlated positively (P values<0.03) with an increase in Fruit and Vegetable Preference (r=0.27), Intrinsic Motivation for Water (r=0.29), Vegetable Self-Efficacy (r=0.24), and Physical Activity Self-Efficacy (r=0.32). Conclusion Ethnic similarity between videogame characters and players enhanced immersion and several health outcomes. Effectively embedding characters with similar phenotypic features to the target population in interactive health videogame narratives may be important when motivating children to adopt obesity prevention behaviors. PMID:24066276

Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Janice; Buday, Richard; Baranowski, Tom

2012-01-01

132

Conversations About the Weight of America’s Children: Barriers Which Prevent Healthcare Providers from Discussing Childhood Obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify the barriers that prevent practitioners from identifying and counseling parents and caregivers of overweight or obese children. Once identified, barriers were organized into thematic categories (parental, provider, and professional barriers and recommendations were generated to facilitate discussion about childhood obesity between professionals and parents. Childhood obesity is a significant public health problem. Healthcare providers must be able to effectively communicate with caregivers and put childhood obesity at the front of healthcare discussions. This article provides a synthesis of the relevant literature and makes recommendations for healthcare providers to overcome the barriers allowing healthier outcomes for children.

Catherine Blow

2013-10-01

133

Enhancing self-regulation as a strategy for obesity prevention in Head Start preschoolers: the growing healthy study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly one in five 4-year-old children in the United States are obese, with low-income children almost twice as likely to be obese as their middle/upper-income peers. Few obesity prevention programs for low-income preschoolers and their parents have been rigorously tested, and effects are modest. We are testing a novel obesity prevention program for low-income preschoolers built on the premise that children who are better able to self-regulate in the face of psychosocial stressors may be less likely to eat impulsively in response to stress. Enhancing behavioral self-regulation skills in low-income children may be a unique and important intervention approach to prevent childhood obesity. Methods/design The Growing Healthy study is a randomized controlled trial evaluating two obesity prevention interventions in 600 low-income preschoolers attending Head Start, a federally-funded preschool program for low-income children. Interventions are delivered by community-based, nutrition-education staff partnering with Head Start. The first intervention (n?=?200, Preschool Obesity Prevention Series (POPS, addresses evidence-based obesity prevention behaviors for preschool-aged children and their parents. The second intervention (n?=?200 comprises POPS in combination with the Incredible Years Series (IYS, an evidence-based approach to improving self-regulation among preschool-aged children. The comparison condition (n?=?200 is Usual Head Start Exposure. We hypothesize that POPS will yield positive effects compared to Usual Head Start, and that the combined intervention (POPS?+?IYS addressing behaviors well-known to be associated with obesity risk, as well as self-regulatory capacity, will be most effective in preventing excessive increases in child adiposity indices (body mass index, skinfold thickness. We will evaluate additional child outcomes using parent and teacher reports and direct assessments of food-related self-regulation. We will also gather process data on intervention implementation, including fidelity, attendance, engagement, and satisfaction. Discussion The Growing Healthy study will shed light on associations between self-regulation skills and obesity risk in low-income preschoolers. If the project is effective in preventing obesity, results can also provide critical insights into how best to deliver obesity prevention programming to parents and children in a community-based setting like Head Start in order to promote better health among at-risk children. Trial registration number Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01398358

Miller Alison L

2012-11-01

134

Obesidad: Tratamiento no farmacológico y prevención Obesity: treatment and prevention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La obesidad es un importante problema de salud en nuestros días, por el riesgo aumentado de morbilidad y mortalidad, sobre todo por las enfermedades cardiovasculares que provoca. El objetivo de este trabajo fue actualizar los conocimientos acerca del tratamiento no farmacológico y la prevención de la enfermedad. Se expuso que en el 95 % de los casos la obesidad es de origen exógeno o nutricional, y en el 5 %, de causa genética o endocrina. En relación con los factores genéticos, las investigaciones plantean las diferentes mutaciones que se acompañan de fenotipos obesos. Se señalaron los diferentes métodos empleados para el diagnóstico de la obesidad, antropométricamente. Se afirmó que en la actualidad es muy utilizado el IMC y la relación cintura/cadera. Se concluyó que el tratamiento de la obesidad supone modificaciones dietéticas, actividad física e intervención conductual y/o psicológica y que la prevención sigue siendo la acción fundamental para evitar su aparición por lo que los esfuerzos de todos los médicos se deben dirigir hacia este problema de salud.Obesity is an important health problem at present due to the increased risk of morbidity and mortality and, mainly, to the cardiovascular diseases resulting from it. The objective of this paper was to bring up to date the knowledge about the nonpharmacological treatment and the prevention of the disease. It was explained that in 95 % of the cases, obesity has an exogenous or nutritional origin, whereas in the other 5 % its cause is genetic or endocrine. In relation to the genetic factors, the investigations state the different mutations that are accompanied by obese phenotypes.The different anthropometric methods used to diagnose obesity were described. It was confirmed that nowadays the BMI and the waist/hip relationship are widely used. It was concluded that the obesity treatment pressuposes diet modifications, physical activity and behavioral and/or psychological intervention and that prevention is still the fundamental action to prevent the appearance of obesity. Therefore, all doctors should direct their efforts to this health problem.

María Matilde Socarrás Suárez

2002-04-01

135

Harnessing the power of advertising to prevent childhood obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Social marketing integrates communication campaigns with behavioural and environmental change strategies. Childhood obesity programs could benefit significantly from social marketing but communication campaigns on this issue tend to be stand-alone. Methods A large-scale multi-setting child obesity prevention program was implemented in the Hunter New England (HNE) region of New South Wales (NSW), Australia from 2005–2010. The program included a series of communication campaigns promoting the program and its key messages: drinking water; getting physically active and; eating more vegetables and fruit. Pre-post telephone surveys (n?=?9) were undertaken to evaluate awareness of the campaigns among parents of children aged 2–15 years using repeat cross-sections of randomly selected cohorts. A total of 1,367 parents (HNE?=?748, NSW?=?619) participated. Results At each survey post baseline, HNE parents were significantly more likely to have seen, read or heard about the program and its messages in the media than parents in the remainder of the state (p?brand campaign (31%) than those with (20%) but there were no other statistically significant socio-demographic differences in awareness. Conclusions The Good for Kids communication campaigns increased and maintained awareness of childhood obesity prevention messages. Moreover, messages were delivered equitably to diverse socio-demographic groups within the region. PMID:24090174

2013-01-01

136

Efectividad de una intervención en educación alimentaria y actividad física para prevenir obesidad en escolares de la ciudad de Casablanca, Chile (2003-2004 Effectiveness of a dietary and physical activity intervention to prevent obesity in school age children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: With the aim of contributing to he Healthy Goal 2010 of reducing significantly the prevalence of childhood obestiy we developed and implemented during 2003 and 2004, a school-based obesity prevention intervention which included nutrition education and the promotion of physical activity. Aim To report the results of the intervention. Material and methods: The sample included 1760 children (1st to 7th grade from 3 elementary public schools in Casablanca (experimental group and 671 from a similar school located in Quillota, a neighboring city (control. Primary outcomes were body mass index (BMI Zscore, the mile and shuttle-run tests and obesity prevalence. We also compared changes in waist circumference and triceps skinfold between both groups. Effectiveness of the intervention was assessed by analyzing separately the group *age* time interaction for the first 3 outcomes (follow-up-baseline, using a mixed model of covariance and by comparing variations in obesity prevalence between both groups. Results: There was a significant decline in BMI Z scores in experimental schools for both genders, but greater in boys (p <0.001 versus p =0.0034 in girls, while in controls, BMI Z scores increased. Obesity prevalence declined significantly in experimental schools; from 17 to 12.3% and from 14.1 to 10.3% in boys and girls respectively, while in the control group, it remained unchanged. Also, triceps skinfold in girls from Casablanca increased significantly ¡ess than that of control girls. Conclusion: This intervention proved that it is possible to reduce significantly the prevalence of obesity in Chilean schoolchildren attending public elementary schools (Rev Méd Chile 2008, 136:22-30

Juliana Kain B

2008-01-01

137

A systematic review of the effectiveness of taxes on nonalcoholic beverages and high-in-fat foods as a means to prevent obesity trends  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nikolaos Maniadakis,1 Vasiliki Kapaki,1,2 Louiza Damianidi,3Georgia Kourlaba4 1Department of Health Services Organization and Management, National School of Public Health, Athens, 2University of Peloponnese, Peloponnese, 3Department of Allergy, Second Pediatric Clinic, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens School of Medicine, Athens, 4The Stavros Niarchos Foundation – Collaborative Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Outcomes Research (CLEO, First and Second Departments of Pediatrics, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens School of Medicine, Athens, Greece Background: As part of the efforts to curb obesity, a new focus seems to be put on taxing foods that are perceived as being associated with obesity (eg, sugar-sweetened beverages and foods high in fat, sugar, and salt content as a policy instrument to promote healthier diets.Objective: To assess the possible effects of such taxation policies by identifying and analyzing all studies which investigate the impact of price increases on consumption, caloric intake, or weight outcomes.Methods: Electronic data bases were searched with appropriate terms and their combinations. Thereafter, abstracts were reviewed and studies were selected based on predefined criteria. The characteristics of the selected studies and the results were extracted in a special form and consequently were reviewed and synthesized.Results: Price increase may lead to a reduction in consumption of the targeted products, but the subsequent effect on caloric intake may be much smaller. Only a limited number of the identified studies reported weight outcomes, most of which are either insignificant or very small in magnitude to make any improvement in public health.Conclusion: The effectiveness of a taxation policy to curb obesity is doubtful and available evidence in most studies is not very straightforward due to the multiple complexities in consumer behavior and the underling substitution effects. There is need to investigate in-depth the potential underlying mechanisms and the relationship between price-increase policies, obesity, and public health outcomes. Keywords: price, fat tax, sugar-sweetened beverages, calorie(s, elasticity, weight, body mass index

Maniadakis N

2013-10-01

138

Preventing childhood obesity: what are we doing right?  

Science.gov (United States)

After decades of increases, the prevalence of childhood obesity has declined in the past decade in New York City, as measured in children participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) and public school students, with the greatest reductions occurring in the youngest children. Possible explanations were changes in demographics; WIC, day care, and school food policies; citywide obesity prevention policies, media messages; and family and community food consumption. Although the decreases cannot be attributed to any one cause, the most plausible explanation is changes in food consumption at home, prompted by media messages and reinforced by school and child care center policy changes. Continued media messages and policy changes are needed to sustain these improvements and extend them to other age groups. PMID:25033123

Farley, Thomas A; Dowell, Deborah

2014-09-01

139

Photovoice engages rural youth in childhood obesity prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Photovoice is a participatory action research methodology that involves the use of photography and enables people to document, reflect upon, and communicate community needs to policymakers for the purpose of promoting social change. We describe how Photovoice was used to engage rural youth in childhood obesity prevention research and obtain their perspectives of community assets and barriers that influenced children's physical activity and diets in their county. The photographs and stories produced by the youth garnered public interest and were beneficial in raising community awareness of community conditions that may contribute to childhood obesity and the need for environmental change. Utilization of the method also provided a beneficial leadership experience for the youth participants. PMID:21732973

Findholt, Nancy E; Michael, Yvonne L; Davis, Melinda M

2011-01-01

140

[Organization of a center for prevention and treatment of obesity].  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity, a pathology with a multifactorial etiopathogenesis currently has an incidence of around 6% in the adult population in Italy. Considering that this disease provokes a statistically significant reduction of life expectancy, there is an evidence need to create structures which can deal with this problem. For this purpose, the Centre for the prevention and cure of obesity was set up by the Department of Surgery and Anatomy at the University of Palermo in 1990. It makes use of the specialist skills of experts in internal medicine, dieticians, cardiologists, psychologists and surgeons. In particular the authors give a detailed description of the diagnostic iter used and the methods of follow-up adopted for patients undergoing biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) surgery. In conclusion, the authors emphasize the need for a multidisciplinary approach to this pathology since this is the only way of minimizing complications arising during BPD surgery and obtaining the best results. PMID:7991202

Graceffa, G; Pantuso, G; Grassi, N; Salanitro, L; Mastrandrea, G; Attanzio, M T; Latteri, M; Bajardi, G

1994-09-01

 
 
 
 
141

Activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 channel prevents adipogenesis and obesity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We tested the hypothesis that activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 (TRPV1) by capsaicin prevents adipogenesis. TRPV1 channels in 3T3-L1-preadipocytes and visceral adipose tissue from mice and humans were detected by immunoblotting and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The effect of TRPV1 on cytosolic calcium was determined fluorometrically in 3T3-L1-preadipocytes and in human visceral fat tissue. Adipogenesis in stimulated 3T3-L1-preadipocytes was determined by oil red O-staining of intracellular lipid droplets, triglyceride levels, expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, and expression of fatty acid synthase. Long-term feeding experiments were undertaken in wild-type mice and TRPV1 knockout mice. We detected TRPV1 channels in 3T3-L1-preadipocytes and visceral adipose tissue from mice and humans. In vitro, the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin dose-dependently induced calcium influx and prevented the adipogenesis in stimulated 3T3-L1-preadipocytes. RNA interference knockdown of TRPV1 in 3T3-L1-preadipocytes attenuated capsaicin-induced calcium influx, and adipogenesis in stimulated 3T3-L1-preadipocytes was no longer prevented. During regular adipogenesis TRPV1 channels were downregulated which was accompanied by a significant and time-dependent reduction of calcium influx. Compared with lean counterparts in visceral adipose tissue from obese db/db and ob/ob mice, and from obese human male subjects we observed a reduced TRVP1 expression. The reduced TRPV1 expression in visceral adipose tissue from obese humans was accompanied by reduced capsaicin-induced calcium influx. The oral administration of capsaicin for 120 days prevented obesity in male wild type mice but not in TRPV1 knockout mice assigned to high fat diet. We conclude that the activation of TRPV1 channels by capsaicin prevented adipogenesis and obesity.

Zhang, Li Li; Yan Liu, Dao

2007-01-01

142

Efectividad de una intervención en educación alimentaria y actividad física para prevenir obesidad en escolares de la ciudad de Casablanca, Chile (2003-2004) / Effectiveness of a dietary and physical activity intervention to prevent obesity in school age children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: With the aim of contributing to he Healthy Goal 2010 of reducing significantly the prevalence of childhood obestiy we developed and implemented during 2003 and 2004, a school-based obesity prevention intervention which included nutrition education and the promotion of physical activity. [...] Aim To report the results of the intervention. Material and methods: The sample included 1760 children (1st to 7th grade) from 3 elementary public schools in Casablanca (experimental group) and 671 from a similar school located in Quillota, a neighboring city (control). Primary outcomes were body mass index (BMI) Zscore, the mile and shuttle-run tests and obesity prevalence. We also compared changes in waist circumference and triceps skinfold between both groups. Effectiveness of the intervention was assessed by analyzing separately the group *age* time interaction for the first 3 outcomes (follow-up-baseline), using a mixed model of covariance and by comparing variations in obesity prevalence between both groups. Results: There was a significant decline in BMI Z scores in experimental schools for both genders, but greater in boys (p

Juliana, Kain B; Ricardo, Uauy D; Bárbara, Leyton D; Ricardo, Cerda R; Sonia, Olivares C; Fernando, Vio D.

143

Evaluation of a multiple ecological level child obesity prevention program: Switch® what you Do, View, and Chew  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Schools are the most frequent target for intervention programs aimed at preventing child obesity; however, the overall effectiveness of these programs has been limited. It has therefore been recommended that interventions target multiple ecological levels (community, family, school and individual) to have greater success in changing risk behaviors for obesity. This study examined the immediate and short-term, sustained effects of the Switch program, which ...

Callahan Randi; Russell Daniel W; Walsh David A; Reimer Rachel A; Eisenmann Joey C; Welk Greg; Gentile Douglas A; Walsh Monica; Strickland Sarah; Fritz Katie

2009-01-01

144

Advocating for the Prevention of Childhood Obesity: A Call to Action for Nursing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article the authors provide a background for the discussion of childhood obesity, examine factors contributing to overweight and obesity in children, review the literature describing interventions and prevention strategies for childhood overweight, and describe nursing skills to prevent childhood obesity. The literature supports a family-focused approach to influencing dietary habits of very young children, prevention interventions that start early in childhood prior to established poor dietary patterns, and the need for community support and involvement. Given these findings, nurses are encouraged to develop skills, such as advocacy, collaborative leadership, and social marketing skills, that will contribute to the prevention of childhood obesity.

Bobbie Berkowitz

2009-01-01

145

Teachers as Partners in the Prevention of Childhood Obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a community-school-higher education partnership approach to the prevention of childhood obesity. Public elementary school personnel, primarily teachers, participated in the design and delivery of a curriculum targeting primary caregivers of 8-9-year-old children. Theoretical framework and methodological approaches guided the development of a cognitive behavioral lifestyle intervention targeting childhood obesity prevention in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI, a U.S. commonwealth. This project demonstrated that in populations with health disparity, teachers can be a valuable and accessible resource for identifying key health issues of concern to communities and a vital partner in the development of parent and child interventions. Teachers also benefited by gaining knowledge and skills to facilitate student and parent learning and impact on personal and familial health. Successful community-school-higher education partnerships require consideration of local culture and community needs and resources. Moreover, within any community-school–higher education partnership it is essential that a time sensitive and culturally appropriate feedback loop be designed to ensure that programs are responsive to the needs and resources of all stakeholders, and that leaders and policymakers are highly engaged so they can make informed policy decisions.

Mozhdeh B Bruss

2010-01-01

146

The Role of SIRT1 in Preventing Mitochondrial Dysfunction with Obesity and Aging  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mitochondrial function declines with aging and obesity, and has been implicated in the development of many age-related diseases. Caloric restriction (CR) prevents aging and has been shown to induce mitochondrial biogenesis and improve mitochondrial function. These effects may involve increased activity of the \\(NAD^+\\)-dependent deacetylase SIRT1. Indeed, overexpression of SIRT1 reproduces many of the health benefits of CR including induction of mitochondrial biogenesis by deacetylation...

Price, Nathan Loftus

2012-01-01

147

Efecto residual del ejercicio de fuerza muscular en la prevención secundaria de la obesidad infantil / Residual effect of muscle strength exercise in secondary prevention of childhood obesity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La elevada prevalencia de la obesidad en escolares chilenos (23,1%), hace necesario la aplicación de intervenciones que incorporen el ejercicio físico de fuerza muscular, pues éste muestra gran eficacia en niños obesos. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto residual del ejercicio físico de fuerz [...] a muscular sobre la grasa corporal, el síndrome metabólico y la condición física en escolares obesos. Métodos: La muestra incluyó 111 escolares obesos, entre 8 y 13 años, de 3 colegios de la ciudad de Santiago. La intervención temprana (n = 60) ejecutó en paralelo ejercicio físico de fuerza muscular, educación alimentaria y apoyo psicológico durante 3 meses. La intervención tardía (n = 51), incorporó los primeros 3 meses, sólo la intervención educativa y el apoyo psicológico, y el ejercicio se agregó entre los 3 y 6 meses. A los 9 meses post-intervención, se evaluó el efecto residual del ejercicio físico. La grasa corporal se determinó por ecuaciones antropométricas. El síndrome metabólico se diagnóstico por el criterio de Cook. La condición física se evaluó por la distancia recorrida en el test de seis minutos. Resultados: El porcentaje grasa corporal disminuyó al final de la intervención y aumentó post-intervención, con la excepción de los hombres de la intervención temprana. La distancia recorrida se incrementó al final de la intervención, pero se redujo en la post-intervención. El síndrome metabólico, disminuyó al término de la intervención incrementando post-intervención (p Abstract in english Introduction: The high prevalence of the obesity in Chilean students (23,1%), necessitates the application of interventions that incorporate muscle strength exercise, as this shows great efficacy in obese children. Objective: To evaluate the residual effect of muscle strength exercise on body fat, m [...] etabolic syndrome and physical fitness in obese schoolchildren. Methods: The sample included 111 obese schoolchildren, between 8 and 13 years, of 3 schools in the city of Santiago. Early intervention (n = 60) participated in parallel intervention that included muscle strength exercise, nutrition education and psychological support for 3 months. The late intervention (n = 51) incorporated the first 3 months, only the educational intervention and psychological support, and exercise was added between 3 and 6 months. At 9 months post intervention, we evaluated the residual effect of exercise. Body fat was determined by anthropometric equations. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed by the criteria of Cook. Physical fitness was assessed by the distance walked in six minutes test. Results: The body fat percentage decreased at the end of the intervention and post intervention increased with the exception of the men of early intervention. The distance traveled increased at the end of the intervention but declined in the post intervention. Metabolic syndrome, decreased at the end of the intervention increased post intervention (p

Fabián, Vásquez; Erik, Díaz; Lydia, Lera; Jorge, Meza; Isabel, Salas; Pamela, Rojas; Eduardo, Atalah; Raquel, Burrows.

2013-04-01

148

Knowledge exchange in the Pacific: The TROPIC (Translational Research into Obesity Prevention Policies for Communities project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Policies targeting obesogenic environments and behaviours are critical to counter rising obesity rates and lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs. Policies are likely to be most effective and enduring when they are based on the best available evidence. Evidence-informed policy making is especially challenging in countries with limited resources. The Pacific TROPIC (Translational Research for Obesity Prevention in Communities project aims to implement and evaluate a tailored knowledge-brokering approach to evidence-informed policy making to address obesity in Fiji, a Pacific nation challenged by increasingly high rates of obesity and concomitant NCDs. Methods The TROPIC project draws on the concept of ‘knowledge exchange’ between policy developers (individuals; organisations and researchers to deliver a knowledge broking programme that maps policy environments, conducts workshops on evidence-informed policy making, supports the development of evidence-informed policy briefs, and embeds evidence-informed policy making into organisational culture. Recruitment of government and nongovernment organisational representatives will be based on potential to: develop policies relevant to obesity, reach broad audiences, and commit to resourcing staff and building a culture that supports evidence-informed policy development. Workshops will increase awareness of both obesity and policy cycles, as well as develop participants’ skills in accessing, assessing and applying relevant evidence to policy briefs. The knowledge-broking team will then support participants to: 1 develop evidence-informed policy briefs that are both commensurate with national and organisational plans and also informed by evidence from the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project and elsewhere; and 2 collaborate with participating organisations to embed evidence-informed policy making structures and processes. This knowledge broking initiative will be evaluated via data from semi-structured interviews, a validated self-assessment tool, process diaries and outputs. Discussion Public health interventions have rarely targeted evidence-informed policy making structures and processes to reduce obesity and NCDs. This study will empirically advance understanding of knowledge broking processes to extend evidence-informed policy making skills and develop a suite of national obesity-related policies that can potentially improve population health outcomes.

Mavoa Helen

2012-07-01

149

Codonopsis lanceolata Extract Prevents Diet-Induced Obesity in C57BL/6 Mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Codonopsis lanceolata extract (CLE) has been used in traditional medicine in the Asian-Pacific region for the treatment of bronchitis, cough, and inflammation. However, it is still unclear whether obesity in mice can be altered by diet supplementation with CLE. To investigate whether CLE could have preventative effects on high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity, male C57BL/6 mice were placed on either a normal chow diet, 60% HFD, or a HFD supplemented with CLE (60, 180, and 360 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks. CLE decreased body weight and subcutaneous and visceral fat weights in HFD-induced obese mice. CLE group mice showed lower fat accumulation and a smaller adipocyte area in the adipose tissue compared with the HFD group mice. CLE group mice exhibited lower serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), glucose, and insulin compared with the HFD group mice. In addition, CLE decreased liver weight and lowered the increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels in HFD-induced obese mice. These results indicate that CLE can inhibit the development of diet-induced obesity and hyperlipidemia in C57BL/6 mice. PMID:25353662

Lee, Jong Seok; Kim, Kui-Jin; Kim, Young-Hyun; Kim, Dan-Bi; Shin, Gi-Hae; Cho, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Bong Kyun; Lee, Boo-Yong; Lee, Ok-Hwan

2014-01-01

150

Codonopsis lanceolata Extract Prevents Diet-Induced Obesity in C57BL/6 Mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Codonopsis lanceolata extract (CLE has been used in traditional medicine in the Asian-Pacific region for the treatment of bronchitis, cough, and inflammation. However, it is still unclear whether obesity in mice can be altered by diet supplementation with CLE. To investigate whether CLE could have preventative effects on high fat diet (HFD-induced obesity, male C57BL/6 mice were placed on either a normal chow diet, 60% HFD, or a HFD supplemented with CLE (60, 180, and 360 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks. CLE decreased body weight and subcutaneous and visceral fat weights in HFD-induced obese mice. CLE group mice showed lower fat accumulation and a smaller adipocyte area in the adipose tissue compared with the HFD group mice. CLE group mice exhibited lower serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL, glucose, and insulin compared with the HFD group mice. In addition, CLE decreased liver weight and lowered the increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine transaminase (ALT levels in HFD-induced obese mice. These results indicate that CLE can inhibit the development of diet-induced obesity and hyperlipidemia in C57BL/6 mice.

Jong Seok Lee

2014-10-01

151

"Greenlight study": a controlled trial of low-literacy, early childhood obesity prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Children who become overweight by age 2 years have significantly greater risks of long-term health problems, and children in low-income communities, where rates of low adult literacy are highest, are at increased risk of developing obesity. The objective of the Greenlight Intervention Study is to assess the effectiveness of a low-literacy, primary-care intervention on the reduction of early childhood obesity. At 4 primary-care pediatric residency training sites across the US, 865 infant-parent dyads were enrolled at the 2-month well-child checkup and are being followed through the 24-month well-child checkup. Two sites were randomly assigned to the intervention, and the other sites were assigned to an attention-control arm, implementing the American Academy of Pediatrics' The Injury Prevention Program. The intervention consists of an interactive educational toolkit, including low-literacy materials designed for use during well-child visits, and a clinician-centered curriculum for providing low-literacy guidance on obesity prevention. The study is powered to detect a 10% difference in the number of children overweight (BMI > 85%) at 24 months. Other outcome measures include observed physician-parent communication, as well as parent-reported information on child dietary intake, physical activity, and injury-prevention behaviors. The study is designed to inform evidence-based standards for early childhood obesity prevention, and more generally to inform optimal approaches for low-literacy messages and health literacy training in primary preventive care. This article describes the conceptual model, study design, intervention content, and baseline characteristics of the study population. PMID:24819570

Sanders, Lee M; Perrin, Eliana M; Yin, H Shonna; Bronaugh, Andrea; Rothman, Russell L

2014-06-01

152

Evolution in Obesity and Chronic Disease Prevention Practice in California Public Health Departments, 2010  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Local health departments (LHDs) are dedicating resources and attention to preventing obesity and associated chronic diseases, thus expanding their work beyond traditional public health activities such as surveillance. This study investigated practices of local health departments in California to prevent obesity and chronic disease. Methods We conducted a web-based survey in 2010 with leaders in California’s LHDs to obtain diverse perspectives on LHDs’ practices to prevent obesity and chronic disease. The departmental response rate for the 2010 survey was 87% (53 of California’s 61 LHDs). Results Although staff for preventing obesity and chronic disease decreased at 59% of LHDs and stayed the same at 26% of LHDs since 2006, LHDs still contributed the same (12%) or a higher (62%) level of effort in these areas. Factors contributing to internal changes to address obesity and chronic disease prevention included momentum in the field of obesity prevention, opportunities to learn from other health departments, participation in obesity and chronic disease prevention initiatives, and flexible funding streams for chronic disease prevention. LHDs that received foundation funding or had a lead person or organizational unit coordinating or taking the lead on activities related to obesity and chronic disease prevention were more likely than other LHDs to engage in some activities related to obesity prevention. Conclusion California LHDs are increasing the intensity and breadth of obesity and chronic disease prevention. Findings provide a benchmark from which further changes in the activities and funding sources of LHD chronic disease prevention practice may be measured. PMID:25393749

Ngo, Samantha; Banthia, Rajni; Flores, George; Prentice, Bob; Boyle, Maria; Samuels, Sarah E.

2014-01-01

153

Prevention of childhood obesity through motivation to physical activity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to review the current worrying situation in terms of physical activity in our country and the problem that leads us to be below the European average, with the attendant problems of obesity, particularly among children, which follow from this. We analyzed the intervention programs that are being used as PIOBIN plan (The Andalusian Plan for Childhood Obesity, effective from 2007-12, based on a national strategy called Naos Strategy and how different studies support that some intrinsic motivation toward physical activity helps to create lasting habits to the practice. We also carry out an analysis of the different Motivation theories and we base our study on the Self-determination Theory of Deci and Ryan (1985, 2000

Carrillo Aguilera, Sonia

2012-07-01

154

School-Based Internet Obesity Prevention Programs for Adolescents: A Systematic Literature Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In response to the childhood obesity epidemic, numerous studies on school-based Internet obesity prevention interventions have been conducted. The purpose of this systematic review is to describe, synthesize, and evaluate the research on school-based Internet obesity prevention programs for adolescents. Medline, CINAHL, and PsycInfo were searched from January 1995 to August 2012 to locate relevant studies. Ninety-one reports were initially identified, with 12 meeting the inc...

Whittemore, Robin; Chao, Ariana; Popick, Rachel; Grey, Margaret

2013-01-01

155

Design and methods for evaluating an early childhood obesity prevention program in the childcare center setting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Many unhealthy dietary and physical activity habits that foster the development of obesity are established by the age of five. Presently, approximately 70 percent of children in the United States are currently enrolled in early childcare facilities, making this an ideal setting to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention efforts. We describe here the methods for conducting an obesity prevention randomized trial in the child care setting. ...

Natale Ruby; Scott Stephanie Hapeman; Messiah Sarah E; Schrack Maria Mesa; Uhlhorn Susan B; Delamater Alan

2013-01-01

156

Contextual Factors Influencing Readiness for Dissemination of Obesity Prevention Programs and Policies  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the realm of obesity prevention research, there have been many promising interventions to improve physical activity and nutrition among diverse target populations. However, very little information is known about the dissemination and replication of these interventions. In 2007 and 2008 as part of a larger obesity prevention initiative,…

Dreisinger, Mariah L.; Boland, Elizabeth M.; Filler, Carl D.; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Hessel, Amy S.; Brownson, Ross C.

2012-01-01

157

Predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors using social cognitive theory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four commonly suggested public health strategies to combat childhood obesity are limiting television viewing, encouraging daily physical activity, increasing fruit and vegetable intake, and increasing water consumption. This study examined the extent to which selected social cognitive theory constructs can predict these four behaviors in upper elementary children. A 52-item valid and reliable scale was administered to 159 fifth graders. Minutes of physical activity was predicted by self-efficacy to exercise and number of times taught at school (R2 = 0.072). Hours of TV watching were predicted by number of times taught about healthy eating at school and self-control through goal setting (R2 = 0.055). Glasses of water consumed were predicted by expectations for drinking water (R2 = 0.091). Servings of fruits and vegetables consumed were predicted by self-efficacy of eating fruits and vegetables (R2 = 0.137). Social cognitive theory offers a practically useful framework for designing primary prevention interventions to reduce childhood obesity. PMID:17686739

Sharma, Manoj; Wagner, Donald I; Wilkerson, Janice

158

Effect of an environmental school-based obesity prevention program on changes in body fat and body weight: a randomized trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study tested the efficacy of two school-based programs for prevention of body weight/fat gain in comparison to a control group, in all participants and in overweight children. The Louisiana (LA) Health study utilized a longitudinal, cluster randomized three-arm controlled design, with 28 months of follow-up. Children (N = 2,060; mean age = 10.5 years, SD = 1.2) from rural communities in grades 4-6 participated in the study. Seventeen school clusters (mean = 123 children/cluster) were randomly assigned to one of three prevention arms: (i) primary prevention (PP), an environmental modification (EM) program, (ii) primary + secondary prevention (PP+SP), the environmental program with an added classroom and internet education component, or (iii) control (C). Primary outcomes were changes in percent body fat and BMI z scores. Secondary outcomes were changes in behaviors related to energy balance. Comparisons of PP, PP+SP, and C on changes in body fat and BMI z scores found no differences. PP and PP+SP study arms were combined to create an EM arm. Relative to C, EM decreased body fat for boys (-1.7 ± 0.38% vs. -0.14 ± 0.69%) and attenuated fat gain for girls (2.9 ± 0.22% vs. 3.93 ± 0.37%), but standardized effect sizes were relatively small (<0.30). In conclusion, this school-based EM programs had modest beneficial effects on changes in percent body fat. Addition of a classroom/internet program to the environmental program did not enhance weight/fat gain prevention, but did impact physical activity and social support in overweight children. PMID:22402733

Williamson, Donald A; Champagne, Catherine M; Harsha, David W; Han, Hongmei; Martin, Corby K; Newton, Robert L; Sothern, Melinda S; Stewart, Tiffany M; Webber, Larry S; Ryan, Donna H

2012-08-01

159

A wild derived quantitative trait locus on mouse chromosome 2 prevents obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic architecture of multifactorial traits such as obesity has been poorly understood. Quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis is widely used to localize loci affecting multifactorial traits on chromosomal regions. However, large confidence intervals and small phenotypic effects of identified QTLs and closely linked loci are impeding the identification of causative genes that underlie the QTLs. Here we developed five subcongenic mouse strains with overlapping and non-overlapping wild-derived genomic regions from an F2 intercross of a previously developed congenic strain, B6.Cg-Pbwg1, and its genetic background strain, C57BL/6J (B6. The subcongenic strains developed were phenotyped on low-fat standard chow and a high-fat diet to fine-map a previously identified obesity QTL. Microarray analysis was performed with Affymetrix GeneChips to search for candidate genes of the QTL. Results The obesity QTL was physically mapped to an 8.8-Mb region of mouse chromosome 2. The wild-derived allele significantly decreased white fat pad weight, body weight and serum levels of glucose and triglyceride. It was also resistant to the high-fat diet. Among 29 genes residing within the 8.8-Mb region, Gpd2, Upp2, Acvr1c, March7 and Rbms1 showed great differential expression in livers and/or gonadal fat pads between B6.Cg-Pbwg1 and B6 mice. Conclusions The wild-derived QTL allele prevented obesity in both mice fed a low-fat standard diet and mice fed a high-fat diet. This finding will pave the way for identification of causative genes for obesity. A further understanding of this unique QTL effect at genetic and molecular levels may lead to the discovery of new biological and pathologic pathways associated with obesity.

Ishikawa Akira

2010-09-01

160

[Food labeling and the prevention of overweight and obesity: a systematic review].  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on a systematic review of articles on food labeling and the prevention of obesity and overweight, in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane Library Plus, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, LILACS, and CINAHL databases. The DeCS/MeSH descriptors were obesity and food labeling. 207 articles were retrieved. Using inclusion and exclusion criteria, 14 articles were selected: 11 were on food labeling and its impact on final food product consumption; 2 were on fast food establishments; 1 on sensory attributes as compared to health recommendations; and 2 on follow-up of interventions. Labeling has a positive effect on final food product consumption, in contrast with fast food restaurants. Sensory attributes were more effective than recommendations on the labels. Follow-up of interventions confirmed the long-term effect of the target interventions. PMID:22124486

Sebastián-Ponce, Miren Itxaso; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

2011-11-01

 
 
 
 
161

Declines in student obesity prevalence associated with a prevention initiative - King County, Washington, 2012.  

Science.gov (United States)

The United States has invested heavily, through public and private sector initiatives, in actions to prevent youth obesity by promoting healthy eating and physical activity. This report documents recent trends in youth obesity in King County, Washington, which implemented a Communities Putting Prevention to Work (CPPW) obesity prevention initiative during 2010-2012, including a school-based component. Similar large-scale obesity prevention initiatives did not occur elsewhere in Washington. Beginning in 2004, the Washington State Department of Health began monitoring youth obesity through the biennially administered Washington State Healthy Youth Survey (HYS). Based on data from this survey, neither King County nor the rest of Washington showed statistically significant changes in obesity prevalence in 2006, 2008, and 2010, relative to 2004. In 2012, however, King County youth obesity prevalence showed a statistically significant decrease, while no change occurred in the remainder of the state. Within King County, CPPW was implemented only in low-income school districts to address geographic inequities in obesity rates. Analysis within King County comparing CPPW and non-CPPW school districts before and after the intervention (2010 versus 2012) revealed a statistically significant decline in obesity prevalence in CPPW schools yet no change in non-CPPW schools. This decline in CPPW schools was significantly different than in non-CPPW schools. These findings suggest that school-based policy, systems, and environment changes might help reduce youth obesity, warranting further evaluation of short- and long-term impacts on population health. PMID:24553199

Kern, Eli; Chan, Nadine L; Fleming, David W; Krieger, James W

2014-02-21

162

Obesity, Chronic Disease, and Economic Growth: A Case for “Big Picture” Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

The discovery of a form of chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation (“metaflammation”) linked with obesity, but also associated with several lifestyle-related behaviours not necessarily causing obesity, suggests a re-consideration of obesity as a direct cause of chronic disease and a search for the main drivers—or cause of causes. Factors contributing to this are considered here within an environmental context, leading to the conclusion that humans have an immune reaction to aspects of the modern techno-industrial environment, to which they have not fully adapted. It is suggested that economic growth—beyond a point—leads to increases in chronic diseases and climate change and that obesity is a signal of these problems. This is supported by data from Sweden over 200 years, as well as “natural” experiments in disrupted economies like Cuba and Nauru, which have shown a positive health effect with economic downturns. The effect is reflected both in human health and environmental problems such as climate change, thus pointing to the need for greater cross-disciplinary communication and a concept shift in thinking on prevention if economic growth is to continue to benefit human health and well-being. PMID:21991431

Egger, Garry

2011-01-01

163

Obesity, chronic disease, and economic growth: a case for "big picture" prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

The discovery of a form of chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation ("metaflammation") linked with obesity, but also associated with several lifestyle-related behaviours not necessarily causing obesity, suggests a re-consideration of obesity as a direct cause of chronic disease and a search for the main drivers-or cause of causes. Factors contributing to this are considered here within an environmental context, leading to the conclusion that humans have an immune reaction to aspects of the modern techno-industrial environment, to which they have not fully adapted. It is suggested that economic growth-beyond a point-leads to increases in chronic diseases and climate change and that obesity is a signal of these problems. This is supported by data from Sweden over 200 years, as well as "natural" experiments in disrupted economies like Cuba and Nauru, which have shown a positive health effect with economic downturns. The effect is reflected both in human health and environmental problems such as climate change, thus pointing to the need for greater cross-disciplinary communication and a concept shift in thinking on prevention if economic growth is to continue to benefit human health and well-being. PMID:21991431

Egger, Garry

2011-01-01

164

Economic evaluation of a community-based obesity prevention program in children: the APPLE project.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effective strategies are urgently required to reduce the prevalence of obesity during growth. Determining which strategies are most successful should also include analysis of their relative costs. To date, few obesity prevention studies in children have reported data concerning cost-effectiveness. The aim of this study was to assess the costs and health benefits of implementing the APPLE (A Pilot Program for Lifestyle and Exercise) project, a 2-year controlled community-based obesity prevention initiative utilizing activity coordinators (ACs) in schools and nutrition promotion in New Zealand children (5-12 years). The marginal costs of the project in 2006 prices were estimated and compared with the kilograms (kg) of weight-gain prevented for children in the intervention relative to the control arm. The children's health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was also measured using the Health Utilities Index (HUI). The total project cost was NZ$357,490, or NZ$1,281 per intervention child for 2 years (NZ$1 = US$0.67 = UK pound 0.35 = EUR euro 0.52). Weight z-score was reduced by 0.18 (0.13, 0.22) units at 2 years and 0.17 (0.11, 0.23) units at 4 years in intervention relative to control children. Mean HUI values did not differ between intervention and control participants. The reduction in weight z-score observed is equivalent to 2.0 kg of weight-gain prevented at 15 years of age. The relatively simple intervention approach employed by the APPLE project was successful in significantly reducing the rate of excessive weight gain in children, with implementation costs of NZ$664-1,708 per kg of weight-gain prevented over 4 years. PMID:19444231

McAuley, Kirsten A; Taylor, Rachael W; Farmer, Victoria L; Hansen, Paul; Williams, Sheila M; Booker, Chris S; Mann, Jim I

2010-01-01

165

Behavioral counseling to prevent childhood obesity – study protocol of a pragmatic trial in maternity and child health care  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention is considered effective in combating the obesity epidemic. Prenatal environment may increase offspring's risk for obesity. A child starts to adopt food preferences and other behavioral habits affecting weight gain during preschool years. We report the study protocol of a pragmatic lifestyle intervention aiming at primary prevention of childhood obesity. Methods/Design A non-randomized controlled pragmatic trial in maternity and child health care clinics. The control group was recruited among families who visited the same clinics one year earlier. Eligibility criteria was mother at risk for gestational diabetes: body mass index???25?kg/m2, macrosomic newborn in any previous pregnancy, immediate family history of diabetes and/or age???40?years. All maternity clinics in town involved in recruitment. The gestational intervention consisted of individual counseling on diet and physical activity by a public health nurse, and of two group counseling sessions. Intervention continues until offspring’s age of five years. An option to participate a group counseling at child’s age 1 to 2?years was offered. The intervention includes advice on healthy diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleeping pattern. The main outcome measure is offspring BMI z-score and its changes by the age of six years. Discussion Early childhood is a critical time period for prevention of obesity. Pragmatic trials targeting this period are necessary in order to find effective obesity prevention programs feasible in normal health care practice. Trial registration Clinical Trials gov NCT00970710

Mustila Taina

2012-07-01

166

Efficacy of technology-based interventions for obesity prevention in adolescents: a systematic review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jyu-Lin Chen,1 Mary Ellen Wilkosz2 1Department of Family Health Care Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 2Nursing Department, Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA, USA Abstract: About one third of adolescents in the USA are overweight and/or obese. Obesity during the adolescent years is associated with many adverse health consequences, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and psychosocial problems. Because of substantial advances in technologies and wide acceptance by adolescents, it is now possible to use technology for healthy weight management and prevention of obesity. This systematic review used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and aimed to evaluate the existing literature reported on the effectiveness of technology-based intervention (web-based, e-learning, and active video games in preventing obesity in adolescents. The primary aim of this review was to explore if components of specific interventions were associated with a reduction in body mass index. Research articles obtained from CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database from1990 to 2014 were reviewed. A total of 131 published articles were identified, and 14 met the inclusion criteria of a randomized or nonrandomized clinical study with body mass index as primary outcome and/or secondary outcomes of diet/physical activity and/or psychosocial function, tested lifestyle interventions to prevent obesity, used technology, and studied adolescents (aged 12–18 years. The results indicated that six of 14 studies found body mass index and/or body fat decreased at short-term (less than 12 months follow-up. Six of eleven studies that examined physical activity or physical activity-related outcomes found an improved physical activity outcome (time playing active video games and increase in physical activity time, while five of seven studies which assessed dietary outcomes indicated improvement in dietary behaviors. Five of seven studies suggested an improvement in psychosocial function (reduced depression, improved self-esteem and efficacy, improvement on Behavior Assessment Scale in adolescents involved in the technology-based intervention. All effective interventions utilized dietary and physical activity strategies as part of intervention components. Because of the variation in duration of intervention (range 10 weeks to 2 years, it is not clear what length of intervention is most effective. Future research should assess the long-term impact of technology-based interventions and evaluate mediators and moderators for weight change in adolescents. Keywords: technology intervention, obesity, adolescents, web-based, exer-gaming 

Chen JL

2014-08-01

167

A parent focused child obesity prevention intervention improves some mother obesity risk behaviors: the Melbourne infant program  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The diets, physical activity and sedentary behavior levels of both children and adults in Australia are suboptimal. The family environment, as the first ecological niche of children, exerts an important influence on the onset of children’s habits. Parent modeling is one part of this environment and a logical focus for child obesity prevention initiatives. The focus on parent’s own behaviors provides a potential opportunity to decrease obesity risk beha...

Campbell Karen J; Crawford David; Spence Alison C; Hesketh Kylie

2012-01-01

168

Obesity intervention on the healthy lifestyle in childhood: results of the PRESTO (PrEvention STudy of Obesity) Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Due to increasing problems with childhood and adolescent obesity in Austria PRESTO (PrEvention STudy of Obesity) created a school based intervention program for promoting a healthy lifestyle in Austrian youth.

Methods: PRESTO was carried out by a multi-disciplinary team including a physician, a psychologist, a nutritionist and an exercise physiologist. The study was carried out in 12 first grade s...

Sabine Dietrich; Angelo Pietrobelli; Sabine Dämon; Kurt Widhalm

2008-01-01

169

Hypothyroidism and obesity: Cause or Effect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to establish relationship between obesity and hypothyroidism and to analyze the frequency of primary hypothyroidism in obese patients and frequency of obesity in primary hypothyroidism patients. We conducted this retrospective, observational study in Department of Endocrinology and Obesity Clinic, Medwin Hospital, Hyderabad, India in March 2008. In the last 18 months (between September 2006 to February 2008), data on 625 consecutive primary hypothyroidism patients (Group I) and 450 patients from obesity clinic (Group II) were analyzed. Frequency difference between the 2 groups was assessed by Chi-square test. In Group I, 278/625 (44%) had body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2. Obesity was higher (46% versus 34%) in overt hypothyroidism than in subclinical hypothyroidism (p=0.21). More patients were overweight in overt hypothyroidism group than in subclinical hypothyroidism group (p=0.02). In obesity patients, overt hypothyroidism was present in 33% and subclinical hypothyroidism in 11% patients. Overall thyroid dysfunction was found more in obese individuals with varying degree of significance. Detailed studies are required to assess the cause and effect relation between obesity and hypothyroidism. (author)

170

mHealth approaches to child obesity prevention: successes, unique challenges, and next directions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood obesity continues to be a significant public health issue. mHealth systems offer state-of-the-art approaches to intervention design, delivery, and diffusion of treatment and prevention efforts. Benefits include cost effectiveness, potential for real-time data collection, feedback capability, minimized participant burden, relevance to multiple types of populations, and increased dissemination capability. However, these advantages are coupled with unique challenges. This commentary discusses challenges with using mHealth strategies for child obesity prevention, such as lack of scientific evidence base describing effectiveness of commercially available applications; relatively slower speed of technology development in academic research settings as compared with industry; data security, and patient privacy; potentially adverse consequences of increased sedentary screen time, and decreased focused attention due to technology use. Implications for researchers include development of more nuanced measures of screen time and other technology-related activities, and partnering with industry for developing healthier technologies. Implications for health practitioners include monitoring, assessing, and providing feedback to child obesity program designers about users' data transfer issues, perceived security and privacy, sedentary behavior, focused attention, and maintenance of behavior change. Implications for policy makers include regulation of claims and quality of apps (especially those aimed at children), supporting standardized data encryption and secure open architecture, and resources for research-industry partnerships that improve the look and feel of technology. Partnerships between academia and industry may promote solutions, as discussed in this commentary. PMID:24294329

Tate, Eleanor B; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; O'Reilly, Gillian; Jordan-Marsh, Maryalice; Gotsis, Marientina; Pentz, Mary Ann; Dunton, Genevieve F

2013-12-01

171

Prevention: The First Line of Defense against Childhood Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood obesity has become an alarming problem in this country. Risk factors associated with childhood obesity include having obese parents, a history of low or high birth weight, Black or Hispanic ethnicity, and low socioeconomic background. Although most healthy American infants and toddlers have adequate diets, many parents and health…

Milano, Kimberly

2007-01-01

172

Louisiana (LA) Health: Design and Methods for a Childhood Obesity Prevention Program in Rural Schools  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a worldwide epidemic of obesity with far-reaching consequences for the health of our nation. Prevention of obesity, especially in children, has been deemed by public health policy makers to be one of the most important objectives for our country. This prevention project, called Louisiana (LA) Health, will test whether modification of environmental and behavioral factors can prevent inappropriate weight gain in children from rural parishes of Louisiana who are enrolled in the fourth t...

Williamson, Donald A.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Harsha, David; Han, Hongmei; Martin, Corby K.; Newton, Robert; Stewart, Tiffany M.; Ryan, Donna H.

2008-01-01

173

What accounts for good practice? Assessment of obesity prevention projects for kindergarten children in Germany  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Objective Up to now, no guideline has been set up that provides criteria for good practice in universal and selective childhood obesity prevention projects for children aged 3 to 6 in the kindergarten setting. Hence, based on guidelines for targeted prevention, the present study not only aims at assessing the current state of German universal and selective childhood obesity prevention projects in kindergartens, but also at deriving criteria of go...

Dreas, Jessica A.; Hassel, Holger

2009-01-01

174

Samoan body and soul: adapting an evidence-based obesity and cancer prevention program.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity-associated chronic diseases persist in Samoan populations in the United States. Samoans and African Americans share cultural similarities such as church affiliation, perceptions of weight and body size, and obesity-related health risks. Adapting an effective energy balance intervention originally designed for African Americans-Body and Soul-might be useful in reducing obesity among U.S. Samoans. To determine potential attractiveness and adaptations, we used aspects of grounded theory to analyze key-informant and focus group interviews with 31 purposively selected Samoans in Hawaii. We incorporated participatory features into the research with Samoan community members conducting parts of the study. From interview narratives, we identified relevant themes from Samoan culture, such as fa'aSamoa or the Samoan way, and specific energy balance activities to include in an obesity and cancer prevention intervention for U.S.-dwelling Samoans. Our findings describe methods to address health disparities by incorporating culturally appropriate health concepts into existing evidence-based interventions. PMID:25212854

Cassel, Kevin D; Braun, Kathryn; Ka'opua, Lana; Soa, Fuamaila; Nigg, Claudio

2014-12-01

175

What works for obesity prevention and treatment in black Americans? Research directions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity prevalence in black/African American children and adults of both sexes is high overall and compared with US whites. What we know, and do not know, about how to enhance the effectiveness of obesity prevention and treatment interventions in African Americans is the focus of the 10 articles in this special issue of Obesity Reviews. The evidence base is limited in quantity and quality and insufficient to provide clear guidance. With respect to children, there is relatively consistent, but not definitive support for prioritizing the systematic implementation and evaluation of child-focused interventions in pre-school and school settings and outside of school time. For adults or all ages, developing and refining e-health approaches and faith-based or other culturally and contextually relevant approaches, including translation of the Diabetes Prevention Program intervention to community settings is indicated. Major evidence gaps were identified with respect to interventions with black men and boys, ways to increase participation and retention of black adults in lifestyle behaviour change programmes, and studies of the impact of environmental and policy changes on eating and physical activity in black communities. Bold steps related to research funding priorities, research infrastructure and methodological guidelines are recommended to improve the quantity and quality of research in this domain. PMID:25196414

Kumanyika, S K; Whitt-Glover, M C; Haire-Joshu, D

2014-10-01

176

Insights in Public Health: The Childhood Obesity Prevention Task Force (ACT 269): Recommendations for Obesity Prevention in Hawai‘i  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity in both adults and children is a critical issue in Hawai‘i, as well as nationally and internationally. Today in Hawai‘i, 57 percent of adults are overweight or obese as are almost 1 in 3 children entering kindergarten. Each year, obesity costs Hawai‘i more than $470 million in medical expenditures alone.1 These staggering human and economic costs underscore the serious need for Hawai‘i to address obesity now.

Richards, Katie; Fuddy, Loretta J.; Greenwood, Mrc; Pressler, Virginia; Rajan, Ranjani; St John, Tonya Lowery; Sinclair, Bronwyn M.; Irvin, Lola

2013-01-01

177

[Regulation of food advertising on television for the prevention of childhood obesity].  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is a serious global epidemic and the prevention strategies implemented have been insufficient. Numerous environmental factors have been associated with risk of obesity and their full consideration in prevention policies is important. The connection between food advertising on television and childhood obesity has been demonstrated. The large number of advertisements for unhealthy foods targeted at children through television and its possible impact on health has led some countries to legislate on this matter. However, a conceptual framework of reference enabling legislation must be internationally defined in order to achieve a real impact in preventing childhood obesity. This paper reviews scientific evidence on the relationship between food advertising and childhood obesity as a basis for developing public policies to regulate food marketing on television. PMID:22696898

Hidalgo, Catalina González; Samur, Eduardo Atalah

2011-09-01

178

"Mi voglio bene": a pediatrician-based randomized controlled trial for the prevention of obesity in Italian preschool children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The first years of life are crucial to start preventive interventions that can have an impact on lifestyle and later overweight and obesity. Under the Italian National Health System (INHS, children are cared for by family pediatricians who perform health balances at regular intervals. The Italian Society of Preventive and Social Pediatrics (SIPPS has designed a randomized controlled trial (RCT to evaluate the effectiveness of family pediatricians for the prevention of childhood obesity in preschool children. We report the rationale and protocol of such trial, named the "Mi voglio bene" ("I love myself" study. Methods "Mi voglio bene" is a parallel-arm RCT. Family pediatricians willing to participate to the trial will be randomly assigned to a control group and to an experimental group. The control group will provide the usual standard of care while the experimental group will implement 10 preventive actions (promotion of breastfeeding, avoidance of solid foods, control of protein intake, avoidance of sugar-sweetened beverages, avoidance of bottle, active means of transportation, identification of early adiposity rebound, limitation of television viewing, promotion of movement, and teaching portion size at 10 time points during a 6-yr follow-up. The main outcome measures is the prevalence of overweight and obesity at 6 years of age. The experimental intervention is expected to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity from 25% to 20% and the study requires a total of 3610 children. Each pediatrician will enroll 30 consecutive newborns into the study so that a total of 120 pediatricians will participate to the study. Discussion "Mi voglio bene" is expected to provide important information for the INHS and possibly other institutional child care settings about the effectiveness of a pediatrician-based approach to the prevention of childhood obesity. We published this study protocol with the aim of opening a discussion with all people interested in fighting childhood obesity and to receive useful criticisms.

Brambilla Paolo

2010-08-01

179

"Mi voglio bene": a pediatrician-based randomized controlled trial for the prevention of obesity in Italian preschool children  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The first years of life are crucial to start preventive interventions that can have an impact on lifestyle and later overweight and obesity. Under the Italian National Health System (INHS), children are cared for by family pediatricians who perform health balances at regular intervals. The Italian Society of Preventive and Social Pediatrics (SIPPS) has designed a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the effectiveness of family pediatricians for the prevention of childhood obesity in preschool children. We report the rationale and protocol of such trial, named the "Mi voglio bene" ("I love myself") study. Methods "Mi voglio bene" is a parallel-arm RCT. Family pediatricians willing to participate to the trial will be randomly assigned to a control group and to an experimental group. The control group will provide the usual standard of care while the experimental group will implement 10 preventive actions (promotion of breastfeeding, avoidance of solid foods, control of protein intake, avoidance of sugar-sweetened beverages, avoidance of bottle, active means of transportation, identification of early adiposity rebound, limitation of television viewing, promotion of movement, and teaching portion size) at 10 time points during a 6-yr follow-up. The main outcome measures is the prevalence of overweight and obesity at 6 years of age. The experimental intervention is expected to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity from 25% to 20% and the study requires a total of 3610 children. Each pediatrician will enroll 30 consecutive newborns into the study so that a total of 120 pediatricians will participate to the study. Discussion "Mi voglio bene" is expected to provide important information for the INHS and possibly other institutional child care settings about the effectiveness of a pediatrician-based approach to the prevention of childhood obesity. We published this study protocol with the aim of opening a discussion with all people interested in fighting childhood obesity and to receive useful criticisms. PMID:20716330

2010-01-01

180

Steps to Growing Up Healthy: a pediatric primary care based obesity prevention program for young children  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Leading medical organizations have called on primary care pediatricians to take a central role in the prevention of childhood obesity. Weight counseling typically has not been incorporated into routine pediatric practice due to time and training constraints. Brief interventions with simple behavior change messages are needed to reach high-risk children, particularly Latino and Black children who are disproportionately affected by obesity and related comorbidities. Steps to Growing Up Healthy (Added Value) is a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of brief motivational counseling (BMC) delivered by primary care clinicians and the added value of supplementing BMC with monthly contact by community health workers (CHW) in the prevention/reversal of obesity in Latino and Black children ages 2-4 years old. Methods/Design Mother-child dyads (targeted n?=?150) are recruited for this 12-month randomized trial at an inner-city pediatric primary care clinic and randomized to: 1) BMC delivered by clinicians and nurses at well, sick, and WIC visits with the goal of reducing obesogenic behaviors (BMC); 2) BMC plus monthly phone calls by a CHW (BMC?+?Phone); or 3) BMC plus monthly home visits by a CHW (BMC?+?Home). During BMC, the medical team facilitates the selection of a specific goal (i.e., reduce sugar sweetened beverage consumption) that is meaningful to the mother and teaches the mother simple behavioral strategies. Monthly contacts with CHWs are designed to identify and overcome barriers to goal progress. Dyads are assessed at baseline and 12 months and the primary outcome is change in the child’s BMI percentile. We hypothesize that BMC?+?Phone and BMC?+?Home will produce greater reductions in BMI percentiles than BMC alone and that BMC?+?Home will produce greater reductions in BMI percentiles than BMC?+?Phone. Discussion Steps to Growing Up Healthy will provide important information about whether a brief primary care-based intervention that utilizes a motivational interviewing and goal setting approach can be incorporated into routine care and is sufficient to prevent/reverse obesity in young children. The study will also explore whether monthly contact with a community health worker bridges the gap between the clinic and the community and is an effective strategy for promoting obesity prevention in high-risk families. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01973153 PMID:24456698

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Creating community action plans for obesity prevention using the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Elements Linked to Obesity) Framework.  

Science.gov (United States)

Community-based interventions are an important component of obesity prevention efforts. The literature provides little guidance on priority-setting for obesity prevention in communities, especially for socially and culturally diverse populations. This paper reports on the process of developing prioritized, community-participatory action plans for obesity prevention projects in children and adolescents using the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Elements Linked to Obesity) Framework. We combined stakeholder engagement processes, the ANGELO Framework (scans for environmental barriers, targeted behaviours, gaps in skills and knowledge) and workshops with key stakeholders to create action plans for six diverse obesity prevention projects in Australia (n = 3), New Zealand, Fiji and Tonga from 2002 to 2005. Some sites included sociocultural contextual analyses in the environmental scans. Target groups were under-5-year-olds (Australia), 4-12-year-olds (Australia) and 13-18-year-olds (all four countries). Over 120 potential behavioural, knowledge, skill and environmental elements were identified for prioritization leading into each 2-day workshop. Many elements were common across the diverse cultural communities; however, several unique sociocultural elements emerged in some cultural groups which informed their action plans. Youth were actively engaged in adolescent projects, allowing their needs to be incorporated into the action plans initiating the process of ownership. A common structure for the action plan promoted efficiencies in the process while allowing for community creativity and innovation. The ANGELO is a flexible and efficient way of achieving an agreed plan for obesity prevention with diverse communities. It is responsive to community needs, combines local and international knowledge and creates stakeholder ownership of the action plan. PMID:19759046

Simmons, A; Mavoa, H M; Bell, A C; De Courten, M; Schaaf, D; Schultz, J; Swinburn, B A

2009-12-01

182

Creating community action plans for obesity prevention using the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Elements Linked to Obesity) Framework  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Community-based interventions are an important component of obesity prevention efforts. The literature provides little guidance on priority-setting for obesity prevention in communities, especially for socially and culturally diverse populations. This paper reports on the process of developing prioritized, community-participatory action plans for obesity prevention projects in children and adolescents using the ANGELO (Analysis Grid for Elements Linked to Obesity) Framework. We combined stakeholder engagement processes, the ANGELO Framework (scans for environmental barriers, targeted behaviours, gaps in skills and knowledge) and workshops with key stakeholders to create action plans for six diverse obesity prevention projects in Australia (n = 3), New Zealand, Fiji and Tonga from 2002 to 2005. Some sites included sociocultural contextual analyses in the environmental scans. Target groups were under-5-year-olds (Australia), 4-12-year-olds (Australia) and 13-18-year-olds (all four countries). Over 120 potentialbehavioural, knowledge, skill and environmental elements were identified for prioritization leading into each 2-day workshop. Many elements were common across the diverse cultural communities; however, several unique sociocultural elements emerged in some cultural groups which informed their action plans. Youth were actively engaged in adolescent projects, allowing their needs to be incorporated into the action plans initiating the process of ownership. A common structure for the action plan promoted efficiencies in the process while allowing for community creativity and innovation. The ANGELO is a flexible and efficient way of achieving an agreed plan for obesity prevention with diverse communities. It is responsive to community needs, combines local and international knowledge and creates stakeholder ownership of the action plan.

Simmons, A; Mavoa, H M

2009-01-01

183

Efficacy of technology-based interventions for obesity prevention in adolescents: a systematic review.  

Science.gov (United States)

About one third of adolescents in the USA are overweight and/or obese. Obesity during the adolescent years is associated with many adverse health consequences, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and psychosocial problems. Because of substantial advances in technologies and wide acceptance by adolescents, it is now possible to use technology for healthy weight management and prevention of obesity. This systematic review used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and aimed to evaluate the existing literature reported on the effectiveness of technology-based intervention (web-based, e-learning, and active video games) in preventing obesity in adolescents. The primary aim of this review was to explore if components of specific interventions were associated with a reduction in body mass index. Research articles obtained from CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database from1990 to 2014 were reviewed. A total of 131 published articles were identified, and 14 met the inclusion criteria of a randomized or nonrandomized clinical study with body mass index as primary outcome and/or secondary outcomes of diet/physical activity and/or psychosocial function, tested lifestyle interventions to prevent obesity, used technology, and studied adolescents (aged 12-18 years). The results indicated that six of 14 studies found body mass index and/or body fat decreased at short-term (less than 12 months) follow-up. Six of eleven studies that examined physical activity or physical activity-related outcomes found an improved physical activity outcome (time playing active video games and increase in physical activity time), while five of seven studies which assessed dietary outcomes indicated improvement in dietary behaviors. Five of seven studies suggested an improvement in psychosocial function (reduced depression, improved self-esteem and efficacy, improvement on Behavior Assessment Scale) in adolescents involved in the technology-based intervention. All effective interventions utilized dietary and physical activity strategies as part of intervention components. Because of the variation in duration of intervention (range 10 weeks to 2 years), it is not clear what length of intervention is most effective. Future research should assess the long-term impact of technology-based interventions and evaluate mediators and moderators for weight change in adolescents. PMID:25177158

Chen, Jyu-Lin; Wilkosz, Mary Ellen

2014-01-01

184

Childhood Obesity: Causes and Prevention. Symposium Proceedings (Washington, DC, October 27, 1998).  

Science.gov (United States)

This report documents the proceedings of a 1998 symposium on the causes and prevention of childhood obesity sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion to focus attention on the growing problem of childhood obesity in the United States and the link between nutrition and health. Following opening…

Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services (USDA), Washington, DC. Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion.

185

Weighing It up: Thinking about the Implications of School Based Obesity Prevention Initiatives  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we explore the tensions that exist between two health promotion discourses prevalent in school based Health Education. We use one example from a widely used curriculum resource and one classroom episode to explore discourses related to obesity prevention, often described as an obesity epidemic by media and health professionals alike.…

Leahy, Deana; Harrison, Lyn

2008-01-01

186

College Teaching and Community Outreaching: Service Learning in an Obesity Prevention Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Service learning can enrich students' knowledge, skills and commitment to occupational goals while positively affecting communities. Undergraduate students in a course on obesity engaged in service learning by assisting with a family-based obesity prevention program, Getting Into Fitness Together (GIFT). Purpose: The impact of GIFT on…

Himelein, Melissa; Passman, Liz; Phillips, Jessica M.

2010-01-01

187

School-Based Obesity Prevention: A Blueprint for Taming the Epidemic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviewed research on school-based obesity prevention programs to identify ways to minimize increasing obesity levels. Seven studies showed change in body mass index and differed from those not finding change in three ways: program implementers were not classroom teachers, intervention targeted middle or high schools, and inactivity reduction was…

Baranowski, Tom; Cullen, Karen W.; Nicklas, Theresa; Baranowski, Janice

2002-01-01

188

CHILE: An Evidence-Based Preschool Intervention for Obesity Prevention in Head Start  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Obesity is a major concern among American Indians and Hispanics. The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) is an evidence-based intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in 16 Head Start (HS) Centers in rural communities. The design and implementation of CHILE are described. Methods: CHILE uses a…

Davis, Sally M.; Sanders, Sarah G.; FitzGerald, Courtney A.; Keane, Patricia C.; Canaca, Glenda F.; Volker-Rector, Renee

2013-01-01

189

Prevention of Obesity and Eating Disorders: A Consideration of Shared Risk Factors  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to the high prevalence of obesity, eating disorders and disordered eating behaviors among youth, researchers in both the obesity and eating disorders fields have proposed using an integrated approach to prevention that addresses the spectrum of weight-related disorders within interventions. The identification of risk factors that are…

Haines, Jess; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2006-01-01

190

Healthy eating and obesity prevention for preschoolers: a randomised controlled trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing effective prevention and intervention programs for the formative preschool years is seen as an essential step in combating the obesity epidemic across the lifespan. The overall goal of the current project is to measure the effectiveness of a healthy eating and childhood obesity prevention intervention, the MEND (Mind Exercise Nutrition Do It! program that is delivered to parents of children aged 2-4 years. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial will be conducted with 200 parents and their 2-4 year old children who attend the MEND 2-4 program in metropolitan and regional Victoria. Parent-child dyads will attend ten 90-minute group workshops. These workshops focus on general nutrition, as well as physical activity and behaviours. They are typically held at community or maternal and child health centres and run by a MEND 2-4 trained program leader. Child eating habits, physical activity levels and parental behaviours and cognitions pertaining to nutrition and physical activity will be assessed at baseline, the end of the intervention, and at 6 and 12 months post the intervention. Informed consent will be obtained from all parents, who will then be randomly allocated to the intervention or wait-list control group. Discussion Our study is the first RCT of a healthy eating and childhood obesity prevention intervention targeted specifically to Australian parents and their preschool children aged 2-4 years. It responds to the call by experts in the area of childhood obesity and child health that prevention of overweight in the formative preschool years should focus on parents, given that parental beliefs, attitudes, perceptions and behaviours appear to impact significantly on the development of early overweight. This is 'solution-oriented' rather than 'problem-oriented' research, with its focus being on prevention rather than intervention. If this is a positive trial, the MEND2-4 program can be implemented as a national program. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000200088

Swinburn Boyd

2010-04-01

191

Effects of obesity on bone metabolism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Obesity is traditionally viewed to be beneficial to bone health because of well-established positive effect of mechanical loading conferred by body weight on bone formation, despite being a risk factor for many other chronic health disorders. Although body mass has a positive effect on bone formation, whether the mass derived from an obesity condition or excessive fat accumulation is beneficial to bone remains controversial. The underline pathophysiological relationship bet...

Cao Jay J

2011-01-01

192

Field assessments for obesity prevention in children and adults: physical activity, fitness, and body composition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nutrition and health educators work in community settings implementing lifestyle programs focused on obesity prevention and chronic disease risk reduction. These programs typically focus on improving diet and physical activity (PA) behaviors. Many nutrition educators may not be confident in their ability to select, administer, and interpret PA assessments to effectively evaluate their PA or lifestyle programs. This report will assist educators in identifying and selecting appropriate field-based assessments for measurement of PA, physical fitness, and body composition for children and adults. Specific guidelines, references, and resources are given for selecting assessment methods and test within these 3 areas. PMID:23850013

Lindsay, Anne R; Hongu, Nobuko; Spears, Karen; Idris, Rafida; Dyrek, Anthony; Manore, Melinda M

2014-01-01

193

Ethical Agreement and Disagreement about Obesity Prevention Policy in the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An active area of public health policy in the United States is policy meant to promote healthy eating, reduce overconsumption of food, and prevent overweight/obesity. Public discussion of such obesity prevention policies includes intense ethical disagreement. We suggest that some ethical disagreements about obesity prevention policies can be seen as rooted in a common concern with equality or with autonomy, but there are disagreements about which dimensions of equality or autonomy have priority, and about whether it is justifiable for policies to diminish equality or autonomy along one dimension in order to increase it along another dimension. We illustrate this point by discussing ethical disagreements about two obesity prevention policies.

Anne Barnhill

2013-01-01

194

Policy, systems, and environmentally oriented school-based obesity prevention: opportunities and challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Public health is increasingly emphasizing policy, systems, and environmental (PSE) change as a key strategy for population-level health promotion and disease prevention. When applied to childhood obesity, this strategy typically involves school systems, since children spend large portions of their days in school and are heavily influenced by this environment. While most school systems have implemented nutrition education and physical activity programs for some time, their understanding and use of PSE approaches to obesity prevention is accelerating based on several large federally funded initiatives. As part of one initiative's evaluation, key informant interviews reveal the specific obesity prevention PSE strategies schools are attempting and the corresponding barriers and facilitators to their implementation. These evaluation findings raise several fundamental issues regarding school-based obesity prevention, including the potential role of school personnel, the influence of grant funding on school health initiatives, and the fit between public health and educational priorities. PMID:24702661

Fagen, Michael C; Asada, Yuka; Welch, Sarah; Dombrowski, Rachael; Gilmet, Kelsey; Welter, Christina; Stern, Lori; Barnett, Gina Massuda; Mason, Maryann

2014-01-01

195

NET-Works: Linking families, communities and primary care to prevent obesity in preschool-age children?,??  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity prevention in children offers a unique window of opportunity to establish healthful eating and physical activity behaviors to maintain a healthful body weight and avoid the adverse proximal and distal long-term health consequences of obesity. Given that obesity is the result of a complex interaction between biological, behavioral, family-based, and community environmental factors, intervention at multiple levels and across multiple settings is critical for both short- and long-term effectiveness. The Minnesota NET-Works (Now Everybody Together for Amazing and Healthful Kids) study is one of four obesity prevention and/or treatment trials that are part of the Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment (COPTR) Consortium. The goal of the NET-Works study is to evaluate an intervention that integrates home, community, primary care and neighborhood strategies to promote healthful eating, activity patterns, and body weight among low income, racially/ethnically diverse preschool-age children. Critical to the success of this intervention is the creation of linkages among the settings to support parents in making home environment and parenting behavior changes to foster healthful child growth. Five hundred racially/ethnically diverse, two–four year old children and their parent or primary caregiver will be randomized to the multi-component intervention or to a usual care comparison group for a three-year period. This paper describes the study design, measurement and intervention protocols, and statistical analysis plan for the NET-Works trial. PMID:24120933

Sherwood, Nancy E.; French, Simone A.; Veblen-Mortenson, Sara; Crain, A. Lauren; Berge, Jerica; Kunin-Batson, Alicia; Mitchell, Nathan; Senso, Meghan

2014-01-01

196

Prevention of type 2 diabetes in obese at-risk subjects: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Different intervention strategies can prevent new cases of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in obese subjects. The present systematic review and meta-analysis evaluates the effectiveness of different strategies in prevention of type 2 diabetes in obese subjects. Studies were grouped into five different strategies: (1) physical activity ± diet; (2) anti-diabetic drugs (glitazones, metformin, glinides, alfa-glucosidase inhibitors); (3) antihypertensive drugs (ACE inhibitors, ARB); (4) weight loss-promoting drugs and lipid-lowering drugs (orlistat, bezafibrate, phentermine/topiramate controlled release); and (5) bariatric surgery. Only controlled studies, dealing with subjects BMI ? 30 kg/m(2), were included in the analysis, whether randomized or non-randomized studies. Appropriate methodology (PRISMA statement) was adhered to. Publication bias was formally assessed. Eighteen studies (43,669 subjects, 30,774 with impaired glucose tolerance and/or impaired fasting glucose), published in English language as full papers, were analyzed to identify predictors of new cases of T2DM and were included in a meta-analysis (random-effects model) to study the effect of different strategies. Intervention effect (new cases of diabetes) was expressed as odds ratio (OR), with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). In obese subjects, non-surgical strategies were able to prevent T2DM, with different effectiveness [OR from 0.44 (0.36-0.52) to 0.86 (0.80-0.92)]; in morbidly obese subjects, bariatric surgery was highly effective [OR = 0.10 (0.02-0.49)]. At meta-regression analysis, factors associated with effectiveness were weight loss, young age and fasting insulin levels. Publication bias was present only when considering all studies together. These data indicate that several strategies, with different effectiveness, can prevent T2DM in obese subjects. PMID:25085464

Merlotti, Claudia; Morabito, Alberto; Ceriani, Valerio; Pontiroli, Antonio E

2014-10-01

197

A parent focused child obesity prevention intervention improves some mother obesity risk behaviors: the Melbourne inFANT Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The diets, physical activity and sedentary behavior levels of both children and adults in Australia are suboptimal. The family environment, as the first ecological niche of children, exerts an important influence on the onset of children’s habits. Parent modeling is one part of this environment and a logical focus for child obesity prevention initiatives. The focus on parent’s own behaviors provides a potential opportunity to decrease obesity risk behaviors in parents as well. Objective To assess the effect of a parent-focused early childhood obesity prevention intervention on first-time mothers’ diets, physical activity and TV viewing time. Methods The Melbourne InFANT Program is a cluster-randomized controlled trial which involved 542 mothers over their newborn’s first 18?months of life. The intervention focused on parenting skills and strategies, including parental modeling, and aimed to promote development of healthy child and parent behaviors from birth, including healthy diet, increased physical activity and reduced TV viewing time. Data regarding mothers’ diet (food frequency questionnaire), physical activity and TV viewing times (self-reported questionnaire) were collected using validated tools at both baseline and post-intervention. Four dietary patterns were derived at baseline using principal components analyses including frequencies of 55 food groups. Analysis of covariance was used to measure the impact of the intervention. Results The scores of both the "High-energy snack and processed foods" and the "High-fat foods" dietary patterns decreased more in the intervention group: -0.22 (?0.42;-0.02) and ?0.25 (?0.50;-0.01), respectively. No other significant intervention vs. control effects were observed regarding total physical activity, TV viewing time, and the two other dietary patterns, i.e. “Fruits and vegetables” and “Cereals and sweet foods”. Conclusions These findings suggest that supporting first-time mothers to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors in their infants impacts maternal dietary intakes positively. Further research needs to assess ways in which we might further enhance those lifestyle behaviors not impacted by the InFANT intervention. PMID:22925356

2012-01-01

198

A parent focused child obesity prevention intervention improves some mother obesity risk behaviors: the Melbourne infant program  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The diets, physical activity and sedentary behavior levels of both children and adults in Australia are suboptimal. The family environment, as the first ecological niche of children, exerts an important influence on the onset of children’s habits. Parent modeling is one part of this environment and a logical focus for child obesity prevention initiatives. The focus on parent’s own behaviors provides a potential opportunity to decrease obesity risk behaviors in parents as well. Objective To assess the effect of a parent-focused early childhood obesity prevention intervention on first-time mothers’ diets, physical activity and TV viewing time. Methods The Melbourne InFANT Program is a cluster-randomized controlled trial which involved 542 mothers over their newborn’s first 18?months of life. The intervention focused on parenting skills and strategies, including parental modeling, and aimed to promote development of healthy child and parent behaviors from birth, including healthy diet, increased physical activity and reduced TV viewing time. Data regarding mothers’ diet (food frequency questionnaire, physical activity and TV viewing times (self-reported questionnaire were collected using validated tools at both baseline and post-intervention. Four dietary patterns were derived at baseline using principal components analyses including frequencies of 55 food groups. Analysis of covariance was used to measure the impact of the intervention. Results The scores of both the "High-energy snack and processed foods" and the "High-fat foods" dietary patterns decreased more in the intervention group: -0.22 (?0.42;-0.02 and ?0.25 (?0.50;-0.01, respectively. No other significant intervention vs. control effects were observed regarding total physical activity, TV viewing time, and the two other dietary patterns, i.e. “Fruits and vegetables” and “Cereals and sweet foods”. Conclusions These findings suggest that supporting first-time mothers to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors in their infants impacts maternal dietary intakes positively. Further research needs to assess ways in which we might further enhance those lifestyle behaviors not impacted by the InFANT intervention.

Lioret Sandrine

2012-08-01

199

Healthy Homes/Healthy Kids: A Randomized Trial of a Pediatric Primary Care Based Obesity Prevention Intervention for At-Risk 5-10 Year Olds  

Science.gov (United States)

Pediatric primary care is an important setting in which to address obesity prevention, yet relatively few interventions have been evaluated and even fewer have been shown to be effective. The development and evaluation of cost-effective approaches to obesity prevention that leverage opportunities of direct access to families in the pediatric primary care setting, overcome barriers to implementation in busy practice settings, and facilitate sustained involvement of parents is an important public health priority. The goal of the Healthy Homes/Healthy Kids (HHHK 5-10) randomized controlled trial is to evaluate the efficacy of a relatively low-cost primary care-based obesity prevention intervention aimed at 5 to 10 year old children who are at risk for obesity. Four hundred twenty one parent/child dyads were recruited and randomized to either the obesity prevention arm or a contact control condition that focuses on safety and injury prevention. The HHHK 5-10 obesity prevention intervention combines brief counseling with a pediatric primary care provider during routine well-child visits and follow-up telephone coaching that supports parents in making home environmental changes to support healthful eating, activity patterns, and body weight. The contact control condition combines the same provider counseling with telephone coaching focused on safety and injury prevention messages. This manuscript describes the study design and baseline characteristics of participants enrolled in the HHHK 5-10 trial. PMID:23816490

Sherwood, Nancy E.; Levy, Rona L.; Langer, Shelby L.; Senso, Meghan M.; Crain, A. Lauren; Hayes, Marcia G.; Anderson, Julie D.; Seburg, Elisabeth M.; Jeffery, Robert W.

2014-01-01

200

Public perceptions of the causes and prevention of obesity among primary school children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate lay perceptions of the causes and prevention of obesity among primary school children. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey of randomly selected sample of adults in a shopping centre. SUBJECTS: 315 adults in Melbourne, Australia. MEASUREMENTS: Subjects completed a self-completion questionnaire, in which they rated the importance of 25 possible causes of obesity and the importance of 13 preventive measures on four-point scales: not important; quite important; very importa...

Hardus, P. M.; Vuuren, C. L.; Crawford, D.; Worsley, A.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Sustainable prevention of obesity through integrated strategies: The SPOTLIGHT project’s conceptual framework and design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Europe is high. It is a major cause of the overall rates of many of the main chronic (or non communicable diseases in this region and is characterized by an unequal socio-economic distribution within the population. Obesity is largely determined by modifiable lifestyle behaviours such as low physical activity levels, sedentary behaviour and consumption of energy dense diets. It is increasingly being recognised that effective responses must go beyond interventions that only focus on a specific individual, social or environmental level and instead embrace system-based multi-level intervention approaches that address both the individual and environment. The EU-funded project “sustainable prevention of obesity through integrated strategies” (SPOTLIGHT aims to increase and combine knowledge on the wide range of determinants of obesity in a systematic way, and to identify multi-level intervention approaches that are strong in terms of Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM. Methods/Design SPOTLIGHT comprises a series of systematic reviews on: individual-level predictors of success in behaviour change obesity interventions; social and physical environmental determinants of obesity; and on the RE-AIM of multi-level interventions. An interactive web-atlas of currently running multi-level interventions will be developed, and enhancing and impeding factors for implementation will be described. At the neighbourhood level, these elements will inform the development of methods to assess obesogenicity of diverse environments, using remote imaging techniques linked to geographic information systems. The validity of these methods will be evaluated using data from surveys of health and lifestyles of adults residing in the neighbourhoods surveyed. At both the micro- and macro-levels (national and international the different physical, economical, political and socio-cultural elements will be assessed. Discussion SPOTLIGHT offers the potential to develop approaches that combine an understanding of the obesogenicity of environments in Europe, and thus how they can be improved, with an appreciation of the individual factors that explain why people respond differently to such environments. Its findings will inform governmental authorities and professionals, academics, NGOs and private sector stakeholders engaged in the development and implementation of policies to tackle the obesity epidemic in Europe.

Lakerveld Jeroen

2012-09-01

202

The Role of Child Care Settings in Obesity Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

Mary Story, Karen Kaphingst, and Simone French argue that researchers and policymakers focused on childhood obesity have paid insufficient attention to child care. Although child care settings can be a major force in shaping children's dietary intake, physical activity, and energy balance--and thus in combating the childhood obesity…

Story, Mary; Kaphingst, Karen M.; French, Simone

2006-01-01

203

Childhood Obesity Prevention and Physical Activity in Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The aim of this literature review is to summarise and synthesise the research base concerning childhood obesity and physical activity, particularly in relation to teachers and schools and within a policy context of the UK. The review investigates childhood obesity, physical activity, physical education, the role of teachers, the role of…

Davidson, Fiona

2007-01-01

204

Active Generations: An Intergenerational Approach to Preventing Childhood Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Over the last 3 decades, US obesity rates have increased dramatically as more children and more adults become obese. This study explores an innovative program, Active Generations, an intergenerational nutrition education and activity program implemented in out-of-school environments (after school and summer camps). It utilizes older…

Werner, Danilea; Teufel, James; Holtgrave, Peter L.; Brown, Stephen L.

2012-01-01

205

Obesity in Family Practice: Is Treatment Effective?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity is a common condition which has important effects on health status and longevity. This review examines the efficacy of treatments for both moderate and severe obesity. A plan of treatment combining diet, exercise, and behavioral strategies is outlined. Surgery and its complications are reviewed. Eight management issues, including rate of weight loss, self-help groups, and fringe therapies, are presented. Management recommendations are based on a critical review of the weight loss lite...

Sanborn, Margaret D.; Manske, Stephen R.; Schlegel, Ronald P.

1983-01-01

206

Effective intragastric balloon treatment in obese adolescents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: The intragastric balloon is a minimally invasive technique used to treat obesity by reducing hunger and inducing satiety as a result of gastric volume restriction, thus it could be ideal to treat young people who are thought to be easier to change their eating behavior. Aim: The purpose of this prospective clinical study was to investigate the effectiveness of intragastric balloon on obese adolescents, after a six-month period of treatment. Material: Fourteen adolescents -aged 1...

Karagiozoglou-lampoudi, T.; Papakostas, P.; Penna, S.; Pyankova, G.; Kotzampassi, K.

2009-01-01

207

After-School Based Obesity Prevention Interventions: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to review primary prevention interventions targeting childhood obesity implemented in the after school environment from 2006 and 2011. A total of 20 interventions were found from 25 studies. Children in the interventions ranged from kindergarten to middle schoolers, however a majority was in the 4th and 5th grades. Most of the interventions targeted both physical activity and dietary behaviors. Among those that focused on only one dimension, physical activity was targeted more than diet. The duration of the interventions greatly varied, but many were short-term or brief. Many interventions were also based on some behavioral theory, with social cognitive theory as the most widely used. Most of the interventions focused on short-term changes, and rarely did any perform a follow-up evaluation. A major limitation among after school interventions was an inadequate use of process evaluations. Overall, interventions resulted in modest changes in behaviors and behavioral antecedents, and results were mixed and generally unfavorable with regards to indicators of obesity. Recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness of after school based childhood obesity interventions are presented.

Manoj Sharma

2012-04-01

208

After-School Based Obesity Prevention Interventions: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this article was to review primary prevention interventions targeting childhood obesity implemented in the after school environment from 2006 and 2011. A total of 20 interventions were found from 25 studies. Children in the interventions ranged from kindergarten to middle schoolers, however a majority was in the 4th and 5th grades. Most of the interventions targeted both physical activity and dietary behaviors. Among those that focused on only one dimension, physical activity was targeted more than diet. The duration of the interventions greatly varied, but many were short-term or brief. Many interventions were also based on some behavioral theory, with social cognitive theory as the most widely used. Most of the interventions focused on short-term changes, and rarely did any perform a follow-up evaluation. A major limitation among after school interventions was an inadequate use of process evaluations. Overall, interventions resulted in modest changes in behaviors and behavioral antecedents, and results were mixed and generally unfavorable with regards to indicators of obesity. Recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness of after school based childhood obesity interventions are presented. PMID:22690204

Branscum, Paul; Sharma, Manoj

2012-01-01

209

Obesity intervention on the healthy lifestyle in childhood: results of the PRESTO (PrEvention STudy of Obesity Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Background: Due to increasing problems with childhood and adolescent obesity in Austria PRESTO (PrEvention STudy of Obesity created a school based intervention program for promoting a healthy lifestyle in Austrian youth.

Methods: PRESTO was carried out by a multi-disciplinary team including a physician, a psychologist, a nutritionist and an exercise physiologist. The study was carried out in 12 first grade school classes in Austria (2002-2004, mainly in Vienna (N=260. The control group consisted of 231 subjects. Medical examinations were performed and the participantsf knowledge on good nutrition and dietary habits were collected. Twelve nutrition sessions, one hour per week in each class, were conducted. Teachers were advised to discuss health issues in their classes and specific exercise physiologists were informed about how to integrate appropriate exercises into their lessons.

Results: In comparison with control group, classes who performed PRESTO showed a significant knowledge of nutrition, consuming less unhealthy foods. These effects could be observed in the short term (14 weeks and at follow up (10 months. 24% subjects could be classified as being overweight (BMI .90.Perc..

Conclusions: School-oriented intervention programs/studies, like PRESTO, are a potential way to demonstrate positive effect on nutrition, physical activity and healthy behaviours in youth, especially if carried out on a long-term basis. Ultimately PRESTO has proven to be a suitable programme to be disseminated onto schools throughout Austria.

Sabine Dietrich

2008-03-01

210

Obesity prevention: the role of policies, laws and regulations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The commercial drivers of the obesity epidemic are so influential that obesity can be considered a robust sign of commercial success – consumers are buying more food, more cars and more energy-saving machines. It is unlikely that these powerful economic forces will change sufficiently in response to consumer desires to eat less and move more or corporate desires to be more socially responsible. When the free market creates substantial population detriments and health inequalities, governmen...

Swinburn, Boyd A.

2008-01-01

211

Prevention of Malnutrition in Children, Slimming Yesterday, Obesity Today  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The future of any nation depends on how its children's care, According to their likely future health needs of the adult population model for healthy living and wealth has increased. One of the most pressing health diet. This study is done to aimed investigate the factors influencing malnutrition in children in the past for weight loss and weight gain can be seen today.   Methods and Methods: Related articles referring to achieve in the field of databases to Google scholar, Pub Med, proquest, SID, Magiran, Springer Link,… and studies until 2013 with the key words malnutrition, child, obesity and examine their English.   Results: In the past, malnutrition was associated with weight loss, but for now he has to weight gain and obesity. Childhood obesity is emerging as a phenomenon caused health problems in childhood and adolescence, including hyperlipidemia, obstructive sleep apnea, early puberty, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular. In addition to the health problems of obese children will benefit from the social and psychological problems such as anxiety, fewer friends, loss of confidence, lower education, and fewer chances for marriage.... Overweight in children can be caused by poor eating habits and low activity, which is affected by the parents and the family environment.   Conclusions: Since the patterns learned in childhood affect all life on lifestyle, understand the causes of obesity and to eliminate or reduce them and reinforce the correct patterns of feeding Through education and the incidence is somewhat reduced, especially for parents to deal with this phenomenon.   Keywords: Child,Malnutrition, Obesity    

S Sharafi

2014-04-01

212

A Meta-Analytic Review of Obesity Prevention Programs for Children and Adolescents: The Skinny on Interventions that Work  

Science.gov (United States)

This meta-analytic review summarizes obesity prevention programs and their effects and investigates participant, intervention, delivery, and design features associated with larger effects. A literature search identified 64 prevention programs seeking to produce weight gain prevention effects, of which 21% produced significant prevention effects that were typically pre to post effects. Larger effects emerged for programs targeting children and adolescents (versus preadolescents) and females, programs that were relatively brief, programs solely targeting weight control versus other health behaviors (e.g., smoking), programs evaluated in pilot trials, and programs wherein participants must self-select into the intervention. Other factors, including mandated improvements in diet and exercise, sedentary behavior reduction, delivery by trained interventionists, and parental involvement, were not associated with significantly larger effects. PMID:16910747

Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan

2006-01-01

213

The IDEFICS Community-Oriented Intervention Programme : A New Model for Childhood Obesity Prevention in Europe?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background and objectives: The European Union—as well as other parts of the world—faces a major challenge of increasing incidence of overweight/obesity. In particular, the increase in childhood obesity gives rise to a strong imperative for immediate action. Yet, little is known about the effectiveness of community interventions, and further research in this field is needed. There is, however, a growing consensus that such research should start from the paradigm that the current living environments tend to counteract healthy lifestyles. Questioning these environments thoroughly can help to develop new pathways for sustainable health-promoting communities. Against this background, the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study developed and implemented innovative community-oriented intervention programmes for obesity prevention and healthy lifestyle primarily in children aged 2–10 years in eight European countries: Sweden, Estonia, Germany, Belgium, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Cyprus. Materials and methods: The IDEFICS community-oriented intervention study mobilised an integrated set of interventional efforts at different levels of society, with the aim of facilitating the adoption of a healthy obesity-preventing lifestyle. The overall programme has been composed of 10 modules: three at community level, six at school level and one for parents. The main focus was on diet, physical activity and stress-coping capacity. The sphere of action encompassed both children and their (grand) parents, schools, local public authorities and influential stakeholders in the community. All materials for the interventions were centrally developed and culturally adapted. Results: So far, the following has been achieved: focus group research, literature review and expert consultations were done in an early phase as a basis for the development of the intervention modules. The intervention mapping protocol was followed as guide for structuring the intervention research. The overall intervention programme's duration was 2 years, but a longer-term follow-up programme is under development. Conclusions: This large-scale European effort is expected to contribute significantly to the understanding of this major public health challenge.

Reisch, Lucia

2011-01-01

214

Parental influence and obesity prevention in pre-schoolers: a systematic review of interventions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is difficult to reverse in older children and adults and calls have been made to implement obesity prevention strategies during the formative pre-school years. Childhood obesity experts suggest that prevention of overweight in the pre-school years should focus on parents, because parental beliefs, attitudes, perceptions and behaviours appear to contribute to children's development of excessive weight gain. While evidence suggests that parental variables may be instrumental in the development of obesity, there has been no systematic evaluation of whether intervening to change such variables will positively influence the development of excess adiposity during the pre-school years. This paper is a conceptual and methodological review of the literature on the parental variables targeted in interventions designed to modify risk factors for obesity by promoting healthy eating and/or physical activity and/or reducing sedentary behaviours in families of children aged 2-6 years. There were significant methodological limitations of existing studies and the scientific study of this area is in its infancy. However, the results suggest that the modification of parental variables known to be associated with obesity-promoting behaviours in pre-school children may show promise as an obesity prevention strategy; further research is needed. PMID:20492538

Skouteris, H; McCabe, M; Swinburn, B; Newgreen, V; Sacher, P; Chadwick, P

2011-05-01

215

Steps in the design, development and formative evaluation of obesity prevention-related behavior change trials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Obesity prevention interventions through dietary and physical activity change have generally not been effective. Limitations on possible program effectiveness are herein identified at every step in the mediating variable model, a generic conceptual framework for understanding how interventions may promote behavior change. To minimize these problems, and thereby enhance likely intervention effectiveness, four sequential types of formative studies are proposed: targeted behavior validation, targeted mediator validation, intervention procedure validation, and pilot feasibility intervention. Implementing these studies would establish the relationships at each step in the mediating variable model, thereby maximizing the likelihood that an intervention would work and its effects would be detected. Building consensus among researchers, funding agencies, and journal editors on distinct intervention development studies should avoid identified limitations and move the field forward.

Baranowski Janice

2009-01-01

216

Parenting efficacy and its relationship to the prevention of childhood obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood obesity has become a topic of interest for the health sciences research community due to the childhood obesity epidemic. Pediatric nurse practitioners are in the frontline of prevention for children who are obese or at risk of becoming obese. Serving in this role requires the nurses' ability to measure parenting practices, parents' inner beliefs, and parental control over their child's eating practices. Questionnaires and other tools are needed to understand parents' thoughts on how satisfied they are as parents, their locus of control in their parent-child relationship, and how competent they feel in the parenting role. Many parenting scales related to self-efficacy, competence, locus of control, and satisfaction have been developed over the past decades, but little research development has occurred in relation to child's eating behaviors within nursing. This article will review the current parent efficacy literature and examine its relationship to childhood obesity. PMID:24941509

Grossklaus, Heather; Marvicsin, Donna

2014-01-01

217

Effects of Leptin, Diet and Various Exercises on the Obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research is made to define damages of the obesity, cure processes with body exercises and effects of the leptin on the obesity. In this research, scientific researches about the subject were analyzed carefully and it was handled on these literatures. As a result, it is presented that an inactive life and fatty diets cause the obesity and the leptin influences the anti-obesity. Besides, it is shown that some body exercises reduce the obesity by wasting calories.

2008-01-01

218

The pediatrician's role in community advocacy for childhood obesity prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

As childhood obesity rates continue to rise, increasing numbers of pediatric providers are advocating for healthier environments outside clinic walls. Understanding the role of the pediatrician in childhood obesity advocacy within the context of the socioecological model helps ground engagement efforts. Once a project is underway, applying evidence-based obesity clinical care principles to community-focused work creates a template for engaging with partners and developing an intervention. In addition to content expertise, providers can guide community partners through the project development process, particularly in setting realistic goals and determining relevant, attainable health outcomes. Capitalizing on existing advocacy resources designed for busy pediatricians, specifically those available through national and state chapters of the American Academy of Pediatrics, aids in initiating or continuing any community-engaged effort. PMID:25198447

Wacker, Julia; Bosley, Eric; Bolling, Christopher

2014-09-01

219

Effects of Obesity on Migraine in Women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: With a rapidly increasing prevalence worldwide in recent decades, obesity has started to be an important public health issue in all developed countries. There are few studies focusing on the relationship of obesity with migraine. We intended to study clinical features of migraine in obes women, frequency of attacks, severity and duration of pain, use of prophylactic drugs for migraine,, use of analgesics in attacks and the effects of migraine on daily lives.Material and Methods: In this prospective study, 84 women patients with migraine were classified as group I for those with a body mass index of 30 and over, and group II for those with a body mass index of 25 and less. Groups were compared in socio demographical features, clinical properties, frequency and severity of migraine attacks, prophylactic drugs used for treatment, analgesics used in such attacks and the effects of pain on daily life.Results: It has been found that migraine attacks were significantly earlier in women with obesity. In this group, frequency and severity of migraine attacks, prophylactic drugs used for treatment, analgesics used in such attacks, and restriction of daily activities due to pain differed significantly compared to the group with no obesity.Conclusions: Obesity might be triggering migraine attacks in women thru endogenous mechanisms dependant upon hypothalamic dysfunction and thru exogenous mechanisms dependant upon excess food intake.

Yüksel KAPLAN

2006-12-01

220

Symposium report: the prevention of obesity and NCDs: challenges and opportunities for governments.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is written as a briefing document with the aim of providing support to policy-makers and government officials tackling obesity and related non-communicable diseases. It is based on a symposium Obesity and non-communicable diseases: Learning from international experiences convened by the International Association for the Study of Obesity (now the World Obesity Federation) and its policy section, the International Obesity TaskForce (now World Obesity - Policy and Prevention). The symposium discussed a wide range of proposals to tackle the consumption of unhealthy food products, including interventions in the market through fiscal policies and marketing restrictions, measures to strengthen public health legislation and measures to limit agri-food company lobbying activities. It recognized the need for government leadership and action in order to reduce preventable deaths while improving economic performance and identified a need for governments to take a systems wide approach to tackling obesity and to work with civil society, especially to monitor the drivers of disease and to hold all stakeholders accountable for progress. PMID:24888259

Lobstein, Tim; Brinsden, Hannah

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
221

Obesity Prevention in Young Schoolchildren: Results of a Pilot Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Overweight and obesity occur in 17% of children in the United States. Complications of excess weight in Americans cause 216,000 to 300,000 deaths yearly and cost $147 billion. Methods: A convenience sample of 14 intervention and 15 control schools in the Catholic Diocese of Pittsburgh was used. A program to improve lifestyle (Values…

Manger, William M.; Manger, Lynn S.; Minno, Alexander M.; Killmeyer, Mike; Holzman, Robert S.; Schullinger, John N.; Roccella, Edward J.

2012-01-01

222

Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) prevents obesity by inhibiting angiogenesis in high fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adipose tissue growth and development are thought to be associated with angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling. Because ginseng has been shown to inhibit angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, we hypothesized that adipose tissue growth and obesity can be regulated by Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer). Wild-type C57BL/6J mice were fed for 8 weeks with a low fat diet, a high fat diet (HFD), or HFD supplemented with 0.5% or 5% Korean red ginseng extract. We measured body weight, adipose tissue mass, food intake, MMP activity, and the expression of genes involved in angiogenesis and MMPs. Administering ginseng to HFD-induced obese mice produced reductions in body weight and adipose tissue mass compared with untreated counterparts. Ginseng treatment decreased blood vessel density and MMP activity in adipose tissues. Ginseng also reduced mRNA levels of angiogenic factors (e.g., VEGF-A and FGF-2) and MMPs (e.g., MMP-2 and MMP-9), whereas it increased mRNA levels of angiogenic inhibitors (e.g., TSP-1, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2) in adipose tissues. These results demonstrate that ginseng effectively reduces adipose tissue mass and prevents obesity in diet-induced obese mice and that this process may be mediated in part through the anti-angiogenic actions of ginseng. PMID:23232078

Lee, Hyunghee; Park, Dongmin; Yoon, Michung

2013-03-01

223

Dietary Protein in the Prevention of Diet-Induced Obesity and Co-Morbidities  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: Obesity and related co?morbidities are increasing problems worldwide and nutritional approaches to prevent and alleviate these diseases are thus of great interest. High?protein diets have been shown to prevent and alleviate obesity and co?morbidities in rodents and humans through increased energy expenditure and satiety. Similarly, protein from different sources and in different forms has been shown to modulate obesity and co?morbidities. However, the impact of protein from different sources consumed at normal dietary levels remains to be further elucidated. Obesity?prone C57BL/6J mice were fed obesity?promoting diets with protein from different sources, in different forms and at different levels to evaluate the affect on development of obesity, glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. Results: In the present study the dietary level of protein, 16 versus 32 percent energy from protein, was found to be negligible in development of obesity and co?morbidities in mice. Seafood protein with high endogenous taurine and glycine contents was found to prevent diet?induced adiposity and dyslipidemia, both in ad libitum and pair?fed settings. The ability of seafood proteins to prevent these metabolic disturbances was found to associate with the high endogenous taurine and glycine concentrations and to concur with increased energy expenditure and a tendency towards increased voluntary locomotor activity. Consumption of a seafood protein?mixture prevented diet?induced development of obesity as compared to intake of chicken filet and preserved glucose tolerance compared to casein intake. Hydrolyzed casein was shown to prevent obesity compared to intact casein, which was associated with increased spontaneous locomotor activity in hydrolyzed casein?fed mice. No increase in energy expenditure, as assessed by indirect calorimetry, was observed after four weeks, but after eight weeks adaptations towards increased energy expenditure?capacity was present concurrent with altered energy substrate utilization in hydrolyzed caseinfed mice compared to mice fed the intact protein. Conclusions: We found that the source and form of protein has great impact on development and prevention of diet?induced adiposity, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia and impairment of glucose tolerance through modulations of voluntary locomotor activity, energy expenditure and energy substrate metabolism in mice

Tastesen, Hanne SØrup

2014-01-01

224

Evaluation of the Living 4 Life project: a youth-led, school-based obesity prevention study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Living 4 Life study was a youth-led, school-based intervention to reduce obesity in New Zealand. The study design was quasi-experimental, with comparisons made by two cross-sectional samples within schools. Student data were collected at baseline (n=1634) and at the end of the 3-year intervention (n=1612). A random-effects mixed model was used to test for changes in primary outcomes (e.g. anthropometry and obesity-related behaviours) between intervention and comparison schools. There were no significant differences in changes in anthropometry or behaviours between intervention and comparison schools. The prevalence of obesity in intervention schools was 32% at baseline and 35% at follow-up and in comparison schools was 29% and 30%, respectively. Within-school improvements in obesity-related behaviours were observed in three intervention schools and one comparison school. One intervention school observed several negative changes in student behaviours. In conclusion, there were no significant improvements to anthropometry; this may reflect the intervention's lack of intensity, insufficient duration, or that by adolescence changes in anthropometry and related behaviours are difficult to achieve. School-based obesity prevention interventions that actively involve young people in the design of interventions may result in improvements in student behaviours, but require active support from leaders within their schools. PMID:22008559

Utter, J; Scragg, R; Robinson, E; Warbrick, J; Faeamani, G; Foroughian, S; Dewes, O; Moodie, M; Swinburn, B A

2011-11-01

225

Childhood obesity and prevention in different socio-economic contexts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective To assess recent trends in obesity, health beliefs, and lifestyles in Swedish schoolchildren, with focus on socioeconomic disparities. Method The study was conducted in two areas with high and low socioeconomic status (SES). 340 11–12 year olds participated in three cross-sectional surveys assessing food-related behaviours, physical activity and health beliefs, together with anthropometric examinations. Comparisons were made before and after a community-based intervention (2003 ve...

Magnusson, Maria B.; Sjo?berg, Agneta; Kjellgren, Karin I.; Lissner, Lauren

2011-01-01

226

Childhood Obesity in the Region of Valencia, Spain: Evolution and Prevention Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study there are two main aims. The first one is to model and predict the incidence of obesity in the 3-5 years old population in the coming years in the region of Valencia, Spain. The second aim of this research is to use the constructed model to analyze the possible strategies in order to prevent the spread of obesity. At first a logistic regression statistical analysis of sociocultural variables of children with weight problems is performed. The result of this logistic regression statistical analysis suggests that sociocultural factors in the region of Valencia where the child grows up influence the development of overweight or obesity. Thus, this result permit to consider the hypothesis that the obesity is a health concern that depends on sociocultural factors and it is transmitted by the spread of unhealthy eating habits. In this way the hypothesis permits to construct a mathematical epidemiological type model in order to forecast obesity prevalence and to understand the mechanisms of the obesity spread. Using the constructed epidemiological mathematical model it is predicted that in the coming years, an increasing trend in the overweight and obese 3-5 years old children in the region of Valencia is predicted if the actual parameters of the mathematical model stay invariant. In addition, the different numerical simulations performed with the constructed epidemiological mathematical model indicate that the most likely successful strategy to tackle the obesity is through educational campaigns about the risk of unhealthy eating habits. This study shows how an epidemiological type mathematical model is an interesting tool to study the obesity transmissions dynamics in the population. It is useful to predict the prevalence of the obesity and study strategies to tackle it.

A. Morales

2008-01-01

227

The effect of an early childhood obesity intervention on father's obesity risk behaviors: the Melbourne InFANT Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Background To investigate the effect of an early childhood obesity prevention intervention, incorporating a parent modelling component, on fathers’ obesity risk-related behaviours. Methods Cluster randomized-controlled trial in the setting of pre-existing first-time parents groups organised by Maternal and Child Health Nurses in Victoria, Australia. Participants were 460 first-time fathers mean age?=?34.2 (s.d.4.90) years. Dietary pattern scores of fathers were derived using principal component analysis, total physical activity and total television viewing time were assessed at baseline (infant aged three to four months) and after 15 months. Results No significant beneficial intervention effect was observed on fathers’ dietary pattern scores, total physical activity or total television viewing time. Conclusion Despite a strong focus on parent modelling (targeting parents own diet, physical activity and television viewing behaviours), and beneficial impact on mothers’ obesity risk behaviours, this intervention, with mothers as the point of contact, had no effect on fathers’ obesity risk-related behaviours. Based on the established links between children’s obesity risk-related behaviors and that of their fathers, a need exists for research testing the effectiveness of interventions with a stronger engagement of fathers. PMID:24524293

2014-01-01

228

Active living research: creating and using evidence to support childhood obesity prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

The second phase of Active Living Research (ALR-2, 2007-2012) focused on advancing the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF)'s goal of reversing the childhood obesity epidemic. The mission was to stimulate and support research to identify environmental factors and policies that influence physical activity for children and families to inform effective childhood obesity prevention strategies, with an emphasis on the lower-income and racial/ethnic communities with highest childhood obesity prevalence. The present report describes ALR activities undertaken to accomplish three goals. The first goal-to build an evidence base-was furthered by funding 230 competitive grants to identify and evaluate promising environment and policy changes. More than 300 publications have been produced so far. The second goal-to build an interdisciplinary and diverse field of investigators-was supported through annual conferences and linked journal supplements, academic outreach to multiple disciplines, and grants targeting young investigators and those representing groups historically disadvantaged or underrepresented in RWJF-funded research. The third goal-to use research to inform policy and practice-was advanced through research briefs; webinars; research-translation grants supporting ALR grantees to design communications tailored to decision-maker audiences; active engagement of policymakers and other stakeholders in ALR program meetings and annual conferences; ALR presentations at policy-related meetings; and broad outreach through a widely used website, e-mailed newsletters, and social media. ALR-2 findings and products have contributed to a rapid increase in the evidence base and field of active living research, as documented by an independent program evaluation. PMID:24439355

Sallis, James F; Cutter, Carmen L; Lou, Deborah; Spoon, Chad; Wilson, Amanda L; Ding, Ding; Ponkshe, Prabhu; Cervero, Robert; Patrick, Kevin; Schmid, Thomas L; Mignano, Alexandra; Orleans, C Tracy

2014-02-01

229

Pacific parents' rationale for purchased school lunches and implications for obesity prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pacific children and adolescents are burdened with higher prevalences of obesity compared to other groups in New Zealand. Previous research shows Pacific young people purchase their lunch food items significantly more than other groups. The aim of this study is to describe school lunch food consumption patterns and the influences on these among low-income Pacific adolescents and their parents. Using mixed-methodology design; a self-completion questionnaire was administered to 4216 students who participated in the New Zealand arm of the Obesity Prevention In Communities (OPIC) project. Thirty Pacific households (33 adolescents and 35 parents) were interviewed in the qualitative phase of the study. Results found a greater proportion of Pacific students purchased school food items compared to other ethnic groups. Purchasing school food was related to having higher amounts of daily food money (>=NZD 6-15) and this was associated with increased quantities of soft drink consumption and after-school food purchasing of high-fat, high-sugar snack foods. There were no differences in school food purchasing behaviour by Pacific weight status (n=2485), with both Healthy weight (67.6%) and Obese students (66.9%) sourcing lunch from school canteens or shops outside of school rather than from home. Time-constrained parents confirmed convenience, poverty compensation and valuing students' independence as three reasons for choosing to make money available for students to purchase lunch food items. The social effects of poverty affect the health-promoting behaviours of Pacific communities in New Zealand. Social policies that decrease social inequities should be the intervention priority. PMID:22507616

Teevale, Tasileta; Scragg, Robert; Faeamani, Gavin; Utter, Jennifer

2012-01-01

230

Progress on obesity prevention over 20 years in Australia and New Zealand.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lessons learned from over 20 years of obesity prevention efforts in Australia and New Zealand are presented. The obesity epidemic started in the 1980s but poor monitoring systems meant the rise in obesity prevalence initially went undetected. In the 1990 s, experts started advocating for government action; however, it was the rapid increase in media reports on obesity in the early 2000s which created the pressure for action. Several, comprehensive reports produced some programme investment but no regulatory policies were implemented. The powerful food industry lobby ensured this lack of policies on front-of-pack food labelling, restrictions on unhealthy food marketing to children, or taxes on unhealthy foods. The New Zealand government even backpedalled by rescinding healthy school food guidelines and withdrawing funding for the comprehensive national obesity strategy. In 2007, Australian Governments started a major long term-investment in preventive health in order to improve economic productivity. Other positive initiatives, especially in Australia, were: the establishment of several advocacy organizations; successful, long-term, whole-of-community projects reducing childhood obesity; a national knowledge exchange system for practitioners; and some innovative programmes and social marketing. However, despite multiple reports and strong advocacy, key recommended regulatory policies remain unimplemented, largely due to the private sector interests dominating public policy development. PMID:24102746

Swinburn, B; Wood, A

2013-11-01

231

Myeloperoxidase deletion prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Activation of myeloperoxidase (MPO), a heme protein primarily expressed in granules of neutrophils, is associated with the development of obesity. However, whether MPO mediates high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and obesity-associated insulin resistance remains to be determined. Here, we found that consumption of an HFD resulted in neutrophil infiltration and enhanced MPO expression and activity in epididymal white adipose tissue, with an increase in body weight gain and impaired insulin signaling. MPO knockout (MPO(-/-)) mice were protected from HFD-enhanced body weight gain and insulin resistance. The MPO inhibitor 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide reduced peroxidase activity of neutrophils and prevented HFD-enhanced insulin resistance. MPO deficiency caused high body temperature via upregulation of uncoupling protein-1 and mitochondrial oxygen consumption in brown adipose tissue. Lack of MPO also attenuated HFD-induced macrophage infiltration and expression of proinflammatory cytokines. We conclude that activation of MPO in adipose tissue contributes to the development of obesity and obesity-associated insulin resistance. Inhibition of MPO may be a potential strategy for prevention and treatment of obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:25024373

Wang, Qilong; Xie, Zhonglin; Zhang, Wencheng; Zhou, Jun; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Miao; Zhu, Huaiping; Zou, Ming-Hui

2014-12-01

232

Metabolic effects of obesity: A review.  

Science.gov (United States)

With the many recent advances in the biomedical world, vast changes are taking place in our growing knowledge of the physiological aspects of almost all the tissues and organs of the human body. One of the most prevalent topics of discussion is the question of obesity and its effect on the metabolic changes in the human body. The original classical role of adipose tissue as an energy storage organ has been greatly modified. We now know that it is an endocrine organ, producing adipokines like leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, resistin, apelin, etc, which modulate metabolic processes in the body. Since obesity is associated with an increase in the adipose tissue mass, these hormones may be expected to be produced in increased concentrations and may thus have a significant impact on the macronutrient metabolism. Further, these adipokines may interact with long term energy modulators like insulin. Even though the scientific community has started unravelling the mysteries of the close linkage between obesity, its hormones and their physiological effects, a lot still remains to be discovered. The present discussion makes an attempt to trace the basic modern day concepts of the role of obesity in various metabolic processes. PMID:21537431

Singla, Parul; Bardoloi, Animesh; Parkash, Anuj A

2010-07-15

233

Metabolic effects of obesity: A review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With the many recent advances in the biomedical world, vast changes are taking place in our growing knowledge of the physiological aspects of almost all the tissues and organs of the human body. One of the most prevalent topics of discussion is the question of obesity and its effect on the metabolic changes in the human body. The original classical role of adipose tissue as an energy storage organ has been greatly modified. We now know that it is an endocrine organ, producing adipokines like leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, resistin, apelin, etc, which modulate metabolic processes in the body. Since obesity is associated with an increase in the adipose tissue mass, these hormones may be expected to be produced in increased concentrations and may thus have a significant impact on the macronutrient metabolism. Further, these adipokines may interact with long term energy modulators like insulin. Even though the scientific community has started unravelling the mysteries of the close linkage between obesity, its hormones and their physiological effects, a lot still remains to be discovered. The present discussion makes an attempt to trace the basic modern day concepts of the role of obesity in various metabolic processes.

Parul Singla

2010-07-01

234

An Examination of Educators' Perceptions of the School's Role in the Prevention of Childhood Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood obesity is a prevalent subject of research currently, and many researchers have studied the effectiveness of school programs in battling obesity among students. This case study, utilizing ethnographic tools of observation, interviews, and investigation of artifacts, examines educators' perceptions of the role of the school in the…

Johnson, Sharon Kay Harris

2011-01-01

235

Long-term Fenretinide treatment prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis  

Science.gov (United States)

The synthetic retinoid Fenretinide (FEN) increases insulin sensitivity in obese rodents and is in early clinical trials for treatment of insulin resistance in obese humans with hepatic steatosis (46). We aimed to determine the physiological mechanisms for the insulin-sensitizing effects of FEN. Wild-type mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without FEN from 4–5 wk to 36–37 wk of age (preventive study) or following 22 wk of HF diet-induced obesity (12 wk intervention study). Retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP4) knockout mice were also fed the HFD with or without FEN in a preventive study. FEN had minimal effects on HFD-induced body weight gain but markedly reduced HFD-induced adiposity and hyperleptinemia in both studies. FEN-HFD mice gained epididymal fat but not subcutaneous or visceral fat mass in contrast to HFD mice without FEN. FEN did not have a measurable effect on energy expenditure, food intake, physical activity, or stool lipid content. Glucose infusion rate during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp was reduced 86% in HFD mice compared with controls and was improved 3.6-fold in FEN-HFD compared with HFD mice. FEN improved insulin action on glucose uptake and glycogen levels in muscle, insulin-stimulated suppression of hepatic glucose production, and suppression of serum FFA levels in HFD mice. Remarkably, FEN also reduced hepatic steatosis. In RBP4 knockout mice, FEN reduced the HFD-induced increase in adiposity and hyperleptinemia. In conclusion, long-term therapy with FEN partially prevents or reverses obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in mice on HFD. The anti-adiposity effects are independent of the RBP4 lowering effect. PMID:19826103

Preitner, Frederic; Mody, Nimesh; Graham, Timothy E.; Peroni, Odile D.

2009-01-01

236

Economic and Other Barriers to Adopting Recommendations to Prevent Childhood Obesity: Results of a Focus Group Study with Parents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Parents are integral to the implementation of obesity prevention and management recommendations for children. Exploration of barriers to and facilitators of parental decisions to adopt obesity prevention recommendations will inform future efforts to reduce childhood obesity. Methods We conducted 4 focus groups (2 English, 2 Spanish) among a total of 19 parents of overweight (BMI ? 85th percentile) children aged 5-17 years. The main discussi...

Taveras Elsie M; La Pelle Nancy; Sonneville Kendrin R; Gillman Matthew W; Prosser Lisa A

2009-01-01

237

Preventing childhood obesity during infancy in UK primary care: a mixed-methods study of HCPs' knowledge, beliefs and practice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background There is a strong rationale for intervening in early childhood to prevent obesity. Over a quarter of infants gain weight more rapidly than desirable during the first six months of life putting them at greater risk of obesity in childhood. However, little is known about UK healthcare professionals' (HCPs) approach to primary prevention. This study explored obesity-related knowledge of UK HCPs and the beliefs and current practice of general practitioners (GP...

Nathan Dilip; Redsell Sarah A

2011-01-01

238

Laboratory, Epidemiological, and Human Intervention Studies Show That Tea (Camellia sinensis) May Be Useful in the Prevention of Obesity12  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceae) and tea polyphenols have been studied for the prevention of chronic diseases, including obesity. Obesity currently affects >20% of adults in the United States and is a risk factor for chronic diseases such as type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Given this increasing public health concern, the use of dietary agents for the prevention of obesity would be of tremendous benefit. Whereas many laboratory studies have demonstrated the potential eff...

Grove, Kimberly A.; Lambert, Joshua D.

2010-01-01

239

A Community-Based Intervention to Prevent Obesity Beginning at Birth among American Indian Children: Study Design and Rationale for the PTOTS Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Eating and physical activity behaviors associated with adult obesity have early antecedents, yet few studies have focused on obesity prevention interventions targeting very young children. Efforts to prevent obesity beginning at birth seem particularly important in populations at risk for early-onset obesity. National estimates indicate that…

Karanja, Njeri; Aickin, Mikel; Lutz, Tam; Mist, Scott; Jobe, Jared B.; Maupome, Gerardo; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

2012-01-01

240

The cost of a primary care-based childhood obesity prevention intervention  

Science.gov (United States)

Background United States pediatric guidelines recommend that childhood obesity counseling be conducted in the primary care setting. Primary care-based interventions can be effective in improving health behaviors, but also costly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost of a primary care-based obesity prevention intervention targeting children between the ages of two and six years who are at elevated risk for obesity, measured against usual care. Methods High Five for Kids was a cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial that aimed to modify children’s nutrition and TV viewing habits through a motivational interviewing intervention. We assessed visit-related costs from a societal perspective, including provider-incurred direct medical costs, provider-incurred equipment costs, parent time costs and parent out-of-pocket costs, in 2011 dollars for the intervention (n?=?253) and usual care (n?=?192) groups. We conducted a net cost analysis using both societal and health plan costing perspectives and conducted one-way sensitivity and uncertainty analyses on results. Results The total costs for the intervention group and usual care groups in the first year of the intervention were $65,643 (95% CI [$64,522, $66,842]) and $12,192 (95% CI [$11,393, $13,174]). The mean costs for the intervention and usual care groups were $259 (95% CI [$255, $264]) and $63 (95% CI [$59, $69]) per child, respectively, for a incremental difference of $196 (95% CI [$191, $202]) per child. Children in the intervention group attended a mean of 2.4 of a possible 4 in-person visits and received 0.45 of a possible 2 counseling phone calls. Provider-incurred costs were the primary driver of cost estimates in sensitivity analyses. Conclusions High Five for Kids was a resource-intensive intervention. Further studies are needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of the intervention relative to other pediatric obesity interventions. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00377767. PMID:24472122

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Prevention and Treatment of Obesity - An Over View  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Five major approaches namely dietary, exercise, behavior, combination and pharmacy therapies are used for treatment and control of obesity. In dietary therapy, low-calorie diet (LCD), which provides 800 to 1500 kcal of energy daily; a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD), which provides 250-800 kcal of energy daily and an energy-restricted or hypo caloric diet (HCD), which is based on a person`s estimated daily energy requirement. LCDs can reduce total body weight by an average of 8 percent and help ...

Aien Khan Afridi; Mohammad Siddique; Mahpara Safdar; Alam Khan

2004-01-01

242

Do youth sports prevent pediatric obesity? A systematic review and commentary.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sport is a promising setting for obesity prevention among youth, but little is known about whether it prevents obesity. We reviewed research comparing sport participants with nonparticipants on weight status, physical activity, and diet. Among 19 studies, we found no clear pattern of association between body weight and sport participation. Among 17 studies, we found that sport participants are more physically active than those who do not participate. We found seven studies that compared the diet of sport participants with non-participants. These studies reported that youth involved in sport were more likely to consume fruits, vegetables, and milk, and also more likely to eat fast food and drink sugar-sweetened beverages and consume more calories overall. It is unclear from these results whether sports programs, as currently offered, protect youth from becoming overweight or obese. Additional research may foster understanding about how sport, and youth sport settings, can help promote energy balance and healthy body weight. PMID:22071397

Nelson, Toben F; Stovitz, Steven D; Thomas, Megan; LaVoi, Nicole M; Bauer, Katherine W; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

2011-01-01

243

Examining the evidence for policy and environmental strategies to prevent childhood obesity in black communities: new directions and next steps.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exposure to physical and policy environments that limit availability, affordability and appeal of healthy eating and active living options is higher for U.S. blacks than whites. This may contribute to high risk of obesity in black communities and limit effectiveness of preventive interventions. Here, we assess applicability to black Americans of findings from a prior evidence review system designed to accelerate the discovery and application of policy and environmental strategies for childhood obesity prevention and assess external validity. The database included 600 peer-reviewed articles reporting data from 396 sets of studies (study groupings) published from January 2000 through May 2009 and pertained to 24 types of policy and environmental strategies. Only 33 study groupings (~8%) included ? 50% black Americans or reported subgroup analyses. Of 10 evaluation studies for interventions rated as effective for all populations in the primary review, 8 suggested effectiveness of child-focused interventions in school or child care settings for obesity- or physical activity-related outcomes in black Americans. Overall findings highlight the need for rigorous evaluations of interventions that reach black children in community or institutional settings, and conceptual frameworks and research designs geared to identifying ethnic or ethnicity-income group differences in intervention effects. PMID:25196413

Kumanyika, S K; Swank, M; Stachecki, J; Whitt-Glover, M C; Brennan, L K

2014-10-01

244

Recruitment into diabetes prevention programs: what is the impact of errors in self-reported measures of obesity?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Error in self-reported measures of obesity has been frequently described, but the effect of self-reported error on recruitment into diabetes prevention programs is not well established. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of using self-reported obesity data from the Finnish diabetes risk score (FINDRISC on recruitment into the Greater Green Triangle Diabetes Prevention Project (GGT DPP. Methods The GGT DPP was a structured group-based lifestyle modification program delivered in primary health care settings in South-Eastern Australia. Between 2004–05, 850 FINDRISC forms were collected during recruitment for the GGT DPP. Eligible individuals, at moderate to high risk of developing diabetes, were invited to undertake baseline tests, including anthropometric measurements performed by specially trained nurses. In addition to errors in calculating total risk scores, accuracy of self-reported data (height, weight, waist circumference (WC and Body Mass Index (BMI from FINDRISCs was compared with baseline data, with impact on participation eligibility presented. Results Overall, calculation errors impacted on eligibility in 18 cases (2.1%. Of n?=?279 GGT DPP participants with measured data, errors (total score calculation, BMI or WC in self-report were found in n?=?90 (32.3%. These errors were equally likely to result in under- or over-reported risk. Under-reporting was more common in those reporting lower risk scores (Spearman-rho?=??0.226, p-value? Conclusions Overall FINDRISC was found to be an effective tool to screen and recruit participants at moderate to high risk of diabetes, accurately categorising levels of overweight and obesity using self-report data. The results could be generalisable to other diabetes prevention programs using screening tools which include self-reported levels of obesity.

Hernan Andrea

2012-07-01

245

Dietary and metabolic effects of a 2-year lifestyle intervention in overweight and obese children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background Childhood overweight and obesity have increased during the past decades and there is a need for effective intervention programs both for treatment and prevention to interrupt the increased trend. Overweight and obesity result from a combination of genetic predisposition and lifestyle where an imbalance in energy intake (EI) and total energy expenditure (TEE) is the key factor. The objective of this thesis is to evaluate the impact of a 2-year lifestyle intervention on food habits, ...

Waling, Maria

2011-01-01

246

Influence of Perceptions on School Nurse Practices to Prevent Childhood Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Comprehensive childhood obesity prevention (COP) strategies should include increasing school nurse involvement. This study was conducted to determine the influence of key school nurse perceptions (self-efficacy, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers) on participation in COP practices at the individual child and school level. Florida…

Quelly, Susan B.

2014-01-01

247

The effects of soy isoflavones on obesity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Over the last decades, the prevalence of obesity and related diseases has increased rapidly in the Western world. Obesity is a disorder of energy balance and is associated with hyper-insulinemia, insulin resistance, and abnormalities in lipid metabolism, and it is one of the most important risk factors in the development of Type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, and certain cancers. Because of the lower frequency of these diseases in Asian countries, attention has been turned toward the Asian diet, which consists highly of soy and soy-based products. The health benefits associated with soy consumption have been linked to the content of isoflavones, the main class of the phytoestrogens. As a result of their structural similarities to endogenous estrogens, isoflavones elicit weak estrogenic effects by competing with 17beta-estradiol (E2) for binding to the intranuclear estrogen receptors (ERs) and exert estrogenic or antiestrogenic effects in various tissues. The estrogenic activities of soyisoflavones are thought to play an important role in their health-enhancing properties. Additionally, the isoflavones have been proved to exert non-ER-mediated effects through numerous other pathways. Genistein, daidzein, and glycitein are the principal isoflavones in soy. Genistein is the most thoroughly examined of these, because it is the most prevalent isoflavone in soy and the most active of these compounds, because of its higher binding affinity for the ER. Genistein and daidzein can be obtained in high levels in humans under certain nutritional conditions, and epidemiologic and laboratory data suggest that these compounds could have health benefits in human obesity. This review will focus on the latest results of research on isoflavones and their effect on obesity in cell cultures, rodents, and humans.

Ørgaard, Anne; Jensen, Lotte

2008-01-01

248

Natural killer cells in obesity: impaired function and increased susceptibility to the effects of cigarette smoke.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: Obese individuals who smoke have a 14 year reduction in life expectancy. Both obesity and smoking are independently associated with increased risk of malignancy. Natural killer cells (NK) are critical mediators of anti-tumour immunity and are compromised in obese patients and smokers. We examined whether NK cell function was differentially affected by cigarette smoke in obese and lean subjects. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clinical data and blood were collected from 40 severely obese subjects (BMI>40 kg\\/m(2)) and 20 lean healthy subjects. NK cell levels and function were assessed using flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assays. The effect of cigarette smoke on NK cell ability to kill K562 tumour cells was assessed in the presence or absence of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin. NK cell levels were significantly decreased in obese subjects compared to lean controls (7.6 vs 16.6%, p = 0.0008). NK function was also significantly compromised in obese patients (30% +\\/- 13% vs 42% +\\/-12%, p = 0.04). Cigarette smoke inhibited NK cell ability to kill tumour cell lines (p<0.0001). NK cells from obese subjects were even more susceptible to the inhibitory effects of smoke compared to lean subjects (33% vs 28%, p = 0.01). Cigarette smoke prevented NK cell activation, as well as perforin and interferon-gamma secretion upon tumour challenge. Adiponectin but not leptin partially reversed the effects of smoke on NK cell function in both obese (p = 0.002) and lean controls (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS\\/SIGNIFICANCE: Obese subjects have impaired NK cell activity that is more susceptible to the detrimental effects of cigarette smoke compared to lean subjects. This may play a role in the increase of cancer and infection seen in this population. Adiponectin is capable of restoring NK cell activity and may have therapeutic potential for immunity in obese subjects and smokers.

O'Shea, Donal

2012-02-01

249

Natural killer cells in obesity: impaired function and increased susceptibility to the effects of cigarette smoke.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: Obese individuals who smoke have a 14 year reduction in life expectancy. Both obesity and smoking are independently associated with increased risk of malignancy. Natural killer cells (NK) are critical mediators of anti-tumour immunity and are compromised in obese patients and smokers. We examined whether NK cell function was differentially affected by cigarette smoke in obese and lean subjects. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clinical data and blood were collected from 40 severely obese subjects (BMI>40 kg\\/m(2)) and 20 lean healthy subjects. NK cell levels and function were assessed using flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assays. The effect of cigarette smoke on NK cell ability to kill K562 tumour cells was assessed in the presence or absence of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin. NK cell levels were significantly decreased in obese subjects compared to lean controls (7.6 vs 16.6%, p = 0.0008). NK function was also significantly compromised in obese patients (30% +\\/- 13% vs 42% +\\/-12%, p = 0.04). Cigarette smoke inhibited NK cell ability to kill tumour cell lines (p<0.0001). NK cells from obese subjects were even more susceptible to the inhibitory effects of smoke compared to lean subjects (33% vs 28%, p = 0.01). Cigarette smoke prevented NK cell activation, as well as perforin and interferon-gamma secretion upon tumour challenge. Adiponectin but not leptin partially reversed the effects of smoke on NK cell function in both obese (p = 0.002) and lean controls (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS\\/SIGNIFICANCE: Obese subjects have impaired NK cell activity that is more susceptible to the detrimental effects of cigarette smoke compared to lean subjects. This may play a role in the increase of cancer and infection seen in this population. Adiponectin is capable of restoring NK cell activity and may have therapeutic potential for immunity in obese subjects and smokers.

O'Shea, Donal

2010-01-01

250

Prevention or Surgical Treatment of Gallstones in Patients Undergoing Gastric Bypass Surgery for Obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well known that obesity is a risk for gallstone formation and biliary sludge. Additionally, it has been clearly shown that rapid weight loss following bariatric surgery is a risk factor for cholesterol cholelithiasis. Multiple serious complications from gallstones such as cholecystitis, cholangitis, gallstone pancreatitis, and cholecystenteric fistulae may occur. Thus, it is necessary to employ medical or surgical methods to prevent or treat gallstones in this group. Therapy should be individualized. Although there is a high incidence of gallstones in this group, only a minority of individuals will develop symptomatic disease. When used in patients who are compliant, ursodeoxycholic acid therapy can be effective to prevent gallstone formation during rapid weight loss. The cost effectiveness of routine ursodeoxycholic acid therapy compared with the potential costs of complicated gallstone disease needs to be further investigated. Combined cholecystectomy with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery is a safe and appropriate therapeutic option in those with preoperatively known gallstones, biliary sludge, and prior episodes of cholecystitis. However, routine cholecystectomy at the time of gastric bypass surgery is not warranted for all patients because of the increased time of operation and postoperative hospitalization, as well as all the potential complications after cholecystectomy. The approach of routine cholecystectomy in this setting subjects many patients to an unnecessary procedure because the majority will not develop symptoms or complications of gallstones. Furthermore, cholecystectomy is technically easier to perform after weight loss occurs. PMID:15010023

Sreenarasimhaiah, Jayaprakash

2004-04-01

251

[Self-regulation effect in dietary control of obesity].  

Science.gov (United States)

Problems associated with excess bodyweight and obesity are increasing worldwide. These problems increase risks of metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disorders and hypertension. Improving diet and exercise control and self-monitoring, self-evaluating and self-adjusting are critical to modify risky lifestyles. In this paper, the author's designed a diet control protocol and then applied it to an obese adult. The project ran from Feb 2nd to July 30th, 2009, and used the principles and concepts of self-regulation theory, a daily diet plan, and body weight chart to guide the patient to consider and appreciate the gaps between his behavior and the standard in order to encourage improvement. The processes related to the goal and effect are significant. By learning self-regulation skills the patient's weight declined from 106.1kg to 84.4kg. Self-efficacy also improved. The author predict the efficacy of the approach in helping prevent chronic disease. The author wishes to share their experience with nursing colleagues and propose this protocol as an effective diet control approach for obese patients. PMID:21678274

Lin, Tsai-Rung

2011-06-01

252

Targeting policy for obesity prevention: identifying the critical age for weight gain in women.  

Science.gov (United States)

The obesity epidemic requires the development of prevention policy targeting individuals most likely to benefit. We used self-reported prepregnancy body weight of all women giving birth in Nova Scotia between 1988 and 2006 to define obesity and evaluated socioeconomic, demographic, and temporal trends in obesity using linear regression. There were 172,373 deliveries in this cohort of 110,743 women. Maternal body weight increased significantly by 0.5?kg per year from 1988, and lower income and rural residence were both associated significantly with increasing obesity. We estimated an additional 82,000 overweight or obese women in Nova Scotia in 2010, compared to the number that would be expected from obesity rates of just two decades ago. The critical age for weight gain was identified as being between 20 and 24 years. This age group is an important transition age between adolescence and adulthood when individuals first begin to accept responsibility for food planning, purchasing, and preparation. Policy and public health interventions must target those most at risk, namely, younger women and the socially deprived, whilst tackling the marketing of low-cost energy-dense foods at the expense of healthier options. PMID:22518300

Dummer, Trevor J B; Kirk, Sara F L; Penney, Tarra L; Dodds, Linda; Parker, Louise

2012-01-01

253

Targeting Policy for Obesity Prevention: Identifying the Critical Age for Weight Gain in Women  

Science.gov (United States)

The obesity epidemic requires the development of prevention policy targeting individuals most likely to benefit. We used self-reported prepregnancy body weight of all women giving birth in Nova Scotia between 1988 and 2006 to define obesity and evaluated socioeconomic, demographic, and temporal trends in obesity using linear regression. There were 172,373 deliveries in this cohort of 110,743 women. Maternal body weight increased significantly by 0.5?kg per year from 1988, and lower income and rural residence were both associated significantly with increasing obesity. We estimated an additional 82,000 overweight or obese women in Nova Scotia in 2010, compared to the number that would be expected from obesity rates of just two decades ago. The critical age for weight gain was identified as being between 20 and 24 years. This age group is an important transition age between adolescence and adulthood when individuals first begin to accept responsibility for food planning, purchasing, and preparation. Policy and public health interventions must target those most at risk, namely, younger women and the socially deprived, whilst tackling the marketing of low-cost energy-dense foods at the expense of healthier options. PMID:22518300

Dummer, Trevor J. B.; Kirk, Sara F. L.; Penney, Tarra L.; Dodds, Linda; Parker, Louise

2012-01-01

254

"Healthy Eating - Healthy Action": evaluating New Zealand's obesity prevention strategy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background New Zealand rates of obesity and overweight have increased since the 1980s, particularly among indigenous M?ori people, Pacific people and those living in areas of high deprivation. New Zealand's response to the obesity epidemic has been The Healthy Eating-Healthy Action: Oranga Kai - Oranga Pumau (HEHA Strategy ('the Strategy', launched in 2003. Because the HEHA Strategy explicitly recognises the importance of evaluation and the need to create an evidence base to support future initiatives, the Ministry of Health has commissioned a Consortium of researchers to evaluate the Strategy as a whole. Methods This paper discusses the Consortium's approach to evaluating the HEHA Strategy. It includes an outline of the conceptual framework underpinning the evaluation, and describes the critical components of the evaluation which are: judging to what extent stakeholders were engaged in the process of the strategy implementation and to what extent their feedback was incorporated in to future iterations of the Strategy (continuous improvement, to what extent the programmes, policies, and initiatives implemented span the target populations and priority areas, whether there have been any population changes in nutrition and/or physical activity outcomes or behaviours relating to those outcomes, and to what extent HEHA Strategy and spending can be considered value for money. Discussion This paper outlines our approach to evaluating a complex national health promotion strategy. Not only does the Evaluation have the potential to identify interventions that could be adopted internationally, but also the development of the Evaluation design can inform other complex evaluations.

Tanuvasa Ausaga

2009-12-01

255

Evaluation of medical and health economic effectiveness of bariatric surgery (obesity surgery) versus conservative strategies in adult patients with morbid obesity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Obesity with its associated medical, psychological, social, and economic complications is considered a chronic, multifactorial disorder. Given the magnitude of the challenge obesity, there is a clear need for preventive as well as therapeutic measures and strategies on an individual and a public health level. Objectives: The goal of this health technology assessment (HTA)-report is to summarise the current literature on bariatric surgery, to evaluate their medical effectiveness/ef...

Von Schulenburg, Johann-matthias; Willich, Stefan N.; Vauth, Christoph; Roll, Stefanie; Sto?ber, Yvonne; Bockelbring, Angelina

2008-01-01

256

Digging deeper into obesity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The growing problem of obesity is associated with multiple morbidities, including increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, sleep apnea, and cancer. Obesity promotes disability, decreases productivity, and shortens life span. Although much attention has been focused on diet and exercise, these strategies alone are not effective in preventing obesity and maintaining weight loss. Moreover, the development of pharmacological approaches for obesity treatment has been dogged by poor...

Ahima, Rexford S.

2011-01-01

257

Effects of a 12-week, school-based obesity management program on obese primary school children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose:This study was designed to determine the effects of a school-based obesity-management program on obese primary school children. Methods:A total of 995 children (6&#8211;12 years old) in a primary school were screened in March 2008, and of those, 101 obese students (44 boys and 57 girls, body mass index (BMI) ?#249;5 percentile) were enrolled for a study group. The school- based, obesity management program, which includes physical exercise and nutritional education,...

Han Gyu Kim; Goh-woon Lim; Hae Soon Kim; Young Mi Hong,

2010-01-01

258

Clinical effects of Bofutsushosan to obese patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performed was a clinical open trial to examine the anti-obesity effect of Bofutsushosan, a Japanese OTC, oriental herbal medicine (ROHTO Pharma. Co., Ltd.) used for constipation release. Subjects were 40-65 years old, 20 females with the body mass index 25-35, who t.i.d. ingested 3 tablets of the medicine, which corresponding to 3.0 g of dried extract of the Bofutsusho material per day, for 6 months (Sep. 2006-Feb. 2007). Before, 3 and 6 months after the beginning of the study, CT imaging was done to measure the fat areas on umbilical cross section for efficacy evaluation, with Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 16. Total, subcutaneous and inter-visceral fat areas were found to be significantly reduced by medication as well as improvement in other body-measure, hematological and biochemical parameters related with obesity and metabolism. No significant adverse effects were found. The medicine can be useful for improvement of the so-called metabolic syndrome not only for obesity and constipation. (R.T.)

259

Childhood Obesity in the Region of Valencia, Spain: Evolution and Prevention Strategies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study there are two main aims. The first one is to model and predict the incidence of obesity in the 3-5 years old population in the coming years in the region of Valencia, Spain. The second aim of this research is to use the constructed model to analyze the possible strategies in order to prevent the spread of obesity. At first a logistic regression statistical analysis of sociocultural variables of children with weight problems is performed. The result of this logistic regress...

Morales, A.; Jodar, L.; Gonzalez, G.; Santonja, F. J.; Villanueva, R. J.; Rubio, C.

2008-01-01

260

Are conjugated linolenic acid isomers an alternative to conjugated linoleic acid isomers in obesity prevention?  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite its benefits, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may cause side effects after long-term administration. Because of this and the controversial efficacy of CLA in humans, alternative biomolecules that may be used as functional ingredients have been studied in recent years. Thus, conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA) has been reported to be a potential anti-obesity molecule which may have additional positive effects related to obesity. According to the results reported in obesity, CLNA needs to be given at higher doses than CLA to be effective. However, because of the few studies conducted so far, it is still difficult to reach clear conclusions about the potential use of these CLNAs in obesity and its related changes (insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, or inflammation). PMID:24029409

Miranda, Jonatan; Arias, Noemi; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; del Puy Portillo, María

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
261

Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories ...

262

Predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors using social cognitive theory among upper elementary African-American children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood obesity is a major public health problem in the African-American community. Commonly suggested public health strategies to reduce childhood obesity are limiting television viewing, encouraging daily moderately intense physical activity of at least 60 minutes per day, increasing fruit and vegetable intake to five or more cups per day, and increasing water consumption. This study examined the extent to which selected social cognitive theory constructs can predict these four behaviors in African-American upper elementary children. A 56-item valid and reliable scale was administered to 222 students. Glasses of water consumed were predicted by self-control for drinking water and self-efficacy for drinking water (R2 = 0.123). Fruits and vegetables consumed were predicted by self-efficacy for eating fruits and vegetables (R2 = 0.083). For designing primary prevention interventions to reduce childhood obesity in the African-American community, social cognitive theory provides a useful framework. PMID:24928610

Elmore, Shakeyrah; Sharma, Manoj

263

Evaluation of “One Body, One Life”: A Community-Based Family Intervention for the Prevention of Obesity in Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Service evaluation of a community-based healthy lifestyle programme, designed for families aimed at preventing obesity. Physiological and behaviour measures were recorded at the beginning and end of the programme. Out of a total of 454 participants, 358 (79%) completed. From these completers 293 (64%) were analysed as there was sufficient data. The use of “high visibility recruitment” led to 77% of completers being from Coventry's two most deprived population quintiles. Ethnic minorities were also well represented. There were statistically significant self-reported behaviour changes, with improvements in fruit and vegetables eaten and decrease in consumption of crisps, snacks, and take away foods. There were also significant increases in physical activity. There were small but statistically significant improvements in BMI/BMI percentile for adults and children who started the programme overweight/obese. These results demonstrate the programmes' effectiveness in enabling behaviour change, and attracting participants from deprived communities. PMID:22028958

Towey, Marsha; Harrell, Ruth; Lee, Berni

2011-01-01

264

Preventing childhood obesity, phase II feasibility study focusing on South Asians: BEACHeS  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To assess feasibility and acceptability of a multifaceted, culturally appropriate intervention for preventing obesity in South Asian children, and to obtain data to inform sample size for a definitive trial. Design Phase II feasibility study of a complex intervention. Setting 8 primary schools in inner city Birmingham, UK, within populations that are predominantly South Asian. Participants 1090 children aged 6–8?years took part in the intervention. 571 (85.9% from South Asian background) underwent baseline measures. 85.5% (n=488) were followed up 2?years later. Interventions The 1-year intervention consisted of school-based and family-based activities, targeting dietary and physical activity behaviours. The intervention was modified and refined throughout the period of delivery. Main outcome measures Acceptability and feasibility of the intervention and of measurements required to assess outcomes in a definitive trial. The difference in body mass index (BMI) z-score between arms was used to inform sample size calculations for a definitive trial. Results Some intervention components (increasing school physical activity opportunities, family cooking skills workshops, signposting of local leisure facilities and attending day event at a football club) were feasible and acceptable. Other components were acceptable, but not feasible. Promoting walking groups was neither acceptable nor feasible. At follow-up, children in the intervention compared with the control group were less likely to be obese (OR 0.41; 0.19 to 0.89), and had lower adjusted BMI z-score (?0.15 kg/m2; 95% CI ?0.27 to ?0.03). Conclusions The feasibility study informed components for an intervention programme. The favourable direction of outcome for weight status in the intervention group supports the need for a definitive trial. A cluster randomised controlled trial is now underway to assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Trial registration number ISRCTN51016370. PMID:24722198

Adab, Peymane; Pallan, Miranda J; Cade, Janet; Ekelund, Ulf; Barrett, Timothy; Daley, Amanda; Deeks, Jonathan; Duda, Joan; Gill, Paramjit; Parry, Jayne; Bhopal, Raj; Cheng, K K

2014-01-01

265

Inhibition of NADPH oxidase prevents acute lung injury in obese rats following severe trauma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lung capillary filtration coefficient (Kf) and impacts of oxidative stress have not been determined in the setting of severe trauma, especially in obese patients who exhibit increased lung injury. We hypothesized that severe trauma leads to a greater increase in lung Kf in obesity due to exacerbated production of and/or vulnerability to oxidative stress. Severe trauma was induced in lean and obese Zucker rats by muscle injury, fibula fracture, and bone component injection to both hindlimbs, with or without 24-h treatments of apocynin, a NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor. Lung wet/dry weight ratios, lung vascular Kf, lung neutrophil counts, lung NOX and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and plasma IL-6 levels were measured 24 h after trauma. In an additional study, lungs were isolated from nontrauma lean and obese rats to determine the acute effect of phenazime methosulfate, a superoxide donor, on pulmonary vascular Kf. After trauma, compared with lean rats, obese rats exhibited greater increases in lung capillary Kf, neutrophil accumulation, NOX and MPO activity, and plasma IL-6. The lung wet/dry weight ratio was increased in obese rats but not in lean rats. Apocynin treatment decreased lung Kf, neutrophil counts, NOX and MPO activities, wet/dry weight ratio, and plasma IL-6 in obese rats. Phenazime methosulfate treatment resulted in a greater increase in lung Kf in nontrauma obese rats compared with nontrauma lean rats. These results suggest that obese rats are susceptible to lung injury following severe trauma due to increased production of and responsiveness to pulmonary oxidative stress. PMID:24414071

Xiang, Lusha; Lu, Silu; Mittwede, Peter N; Clemmer, John S; Hester, Robert L

2014-03-01

266

Relationships between the Family Environment and School-Based Obesity Prevention Efforts: Can School Programs Help Adolescents Who Are Most in Need?  

Science.gov (United States)

Identifying factors that contribute to students' behavior and weight improvements during school-based obesity prevention interventions is critical for the development of effective programs. The current study aims to determine whether the support and resources that adolescent girls received from their families were associated with improvements in…

Bauer, K. W.; Neumark-Sztainer, D.; Hannan, P. J.; Fulkerson, J. A.; Story, M.

2011-01-01

267

Preventing Risk for Obesity by Promoting Self-Regulation and Decision-Making Skills: Pilot Results from the PATHWAYS to Health Program (PATHWAYS)  

Science.gov (United States)

The overall aim of the two school-based pilot studies was to evaluate whether an approach to prevention that focused on changing child impulse control, decision making, and social competence can be effective in changing attitudes toward food intake and physical activity as risk factors for obesity. The strategy used was to translate specific…

Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn Kobayakawa; Pentz, Mary Ann

2007-01-01

268

Using an Opinion Poll to Build an Obesity-Prevention Social Marketing Campaign for Low-Income Asian and Hispanic Immigrants: Report of Findings  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To gain opinions from low-income, limited-English-speaking Hispanic and Asian immigrants for formative research in a social marketing campaign. Design: Nineteen questions on obesity prevention-related topics were embedded into a larger random digit-dial survey investigating the effects of language and cultural barriers on health care…

Sugerman, Sharon; Backman, Desiree; Foerster, Susan B.; Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Linares, Amanda; Fong, Amy

2011-01-01

269

Preventing Obesity in Canada’s Aboriginal Children: Not Just a Matter of Eating Right and Getting Active  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity is a growing issue for all children. Many experts say that preventing obesity is largely a matter of eating the right foods and getting enough physical activity. This advice doesn’t recognize the fact that First Nations, Inuit, and Métis children face unique barriers to growing up healthy and strong simply because of theiridentity. This paper discusses how the social determinants of health impact the ability of Aboriginal children to grow up free of obesity. The paper highlights results from a community-based research project conducted amongst Aboriginal parents and service providers in Ontario who wish to prevent obesity amongst their ownyoung children and clients. Research was carried out over two years to help develop a “toolkit” and training program to help service provides increase efforts to prevent obesity amongst First Nations, Inuit, and Métis children from the ages of 2 to 6 in Ontario.

Melanie A. Ferris

2011-05-01

270

The development of a network for community-based obesity prevention: the CO-OPS Collaboration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based interventions are a promising approach and an important component of a comprehensive response to obesity. In this paper we describe the Collaboration of COmmunity-based Obesity Prevention Sites (CO-OPS Collaboration in Australia as an example of a collaborative network to enhance the quality and quantity of obesity prevention action at the community level. The core aims of the CO-OPS Collaboration are to: identify and analyse the lessons learned from a range of community-based initiatives aimed at tackling obesity, and; to identify the elements that make community-based obesity prevention initiatives successful and share the knowledge gained with other communities. Methods Key activities of the collaboration to date have included the development of a set of Best Practice Principles and knowledge translation and exchange activities to promote the application (or use of evidence, evaluation and analysis in practice. Results The establishment of the CO-OPS Collaboration is a significant step toward strengthening action in this area, by bringing together research, practice and policy expertise to promote best practice, high quality evaluation and knowledge translation and exchange. Future development of the network should include facilitation of further evidence generation and translation drawing from process, impact and outcome evaluation of existing community-based interventions. Conclusions The lessons presented in this paper may help other networks like CO-OPS as they emerge around the globe. It is important that networks integrate with each other and share the experience of creating these networks.

King Lesley

2011-02-01

271

A holistic food labelling strategy for preventing obesity and dental caries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Obesity and dental caries in childhood are among the major public health concerns described as a global pandemic because of their global distribution and severe consequences. A consensus has developed as to a recently emerging and alarming common risk factor that leads to the double burden of dental caries and obesity; energy-dense foods (sugar-coated cereals, high-sugar yogurt, soft drinks) are becoming very popular among children because of their dense marketing, cheaper price, increased supply and variety. Implementation of health-promoting and -supporting marketing strategies for healthy food can be one initial cornerstone for successful application of the common risk factor approach in prevention of obesity and dental caries, as also suggested by World Health Organization. Labelling healthy food with a 'health-friendly' logo, illustrating that the teeth and the heart are both parts of the whole body (standing side by side supporting each other as close friends), both happy and protected because of consumption of healthy food for the whole body, can promote the foods that are friendly to health of the whole body, implementing the common risk factor approach under a single theme. Labelling healthy food as 'health-friendly' based on an international consensus will provide a clear and uniform picture of what is healthy to eat and result in an international integrated programme for prevention of obesity and caries.

Cinar, A B; Murtomaa, H

2009-01-01

272

The effects of obesity on venous thromboembolism: A review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity has emerged as a global health issue that is associated with wide spectrum of disorders, including coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, stroke, and venous thromboembolism (VTE. VTE is one of the most common vascular disorders in the United States and Europe and is associated with significant mortality. Although the association between obesity and VTE appears to be moderate, obesity can interact with other environmental or genetic factors and pose a significantly greater risk of VTE among individuals who are obese and who are exposed simultaneously to several other risk factors for VTE. Therefore, identification of potential interactions between obesity and certain VTE risk factors might offer some critical points for VTE interventions and thus minimize VTE morbidity and mortality among patients who are obese. However, current obesity measurements have limitations and can introduce contradictory results in the outcome of obesity. To overcome these limitations, this review proposes several future directions and suggests some avenues for prevention of VTE associated with obesity as well.

Genyan Yang

2012-11-01

273

Dietary fiber's benefit for gallstone disease prevention during rapid weight loss in obese patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of present study was to compare the effects of very low calorie diets - protein rich and dietary fiber rich food based - on gallstones formation during rapid weight loss. 68 patients were involved into the study. The body weight index in all cases exceeding normal value and equaled to 35±4,7 kg/m2. For weight correction purposes during 5 weeks the patients in first group were kept on a 520-800 kcal diet of "Margi" food products, prepared according our technology, and in the second group on a protein rich diet of the same calorie content. The body weight and changes in the gall-bladder wall and content were assessed by sonography before starting the diet, after three weeks from the commencement of the diet and upon its completion. The measurement of the body weight after completion of the 5 week diet revealed decrease by 10.9±1,5kg in the first group and by 11,2±1,1kg in the second group. Sonography disclosed growth in the amount of biliary sludge in 3 cases in the first group and in 9 cases in the second group. The statistical analyses of results indicate successful and nearly equal reduction of body weight by means of dietary fiber rich and protein rich diet, but high fiber consumption showed statistically significant benefits for prevention of biliary slug accumulation. The study showed that, in the respect to weight loss, diets based on fiber rich and protein rich food are equal, but fiber rich diet has considerable privilege in prevention of gallstone disease. Our findings support the presence of known association between increased dietary fiber consumption and reduction of gallstone formation. Obesity and rapid weight loss are risk factors for development of gallstones. Taking in an account the beneficial effect of dietary fiber, the food rich with this nutrient, particularly low-calorie fiber rich food "Margi", can be recommended for rapid weight loss in obese patients. PMID:25020181

Sulaberidze, G; Okujava, M; Liluashvili, K; Tughushi, M; Bezarashvili, S

2014-06-01

274

SPRING: an RCT study of probiotics in the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus in overweight and obese women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is increasing in the child-bearing population as are the rates of gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes is associated with higher rates of Cesarean Section for the mother and increased risks of macrosomia, higher body fat mass, respiratory distress and hypoglycemia for the infant. Prevention of gestational diabetes through life style intervention has proven to be difficult. A Finnish study showed that ingestion of specific probiotics altered the composition of the gut microbiome and thereby metabolism from early gestation and decreased rates of gestational diabetes in normal weight women. In SPRING (the Study of Probiotics IN the prevention of Gestational diabetes, the effectiveness of probiotics ingestion for the prevention of gestational diabetes will be assessed in overweight and obese women. Methods/design SPRING is a multi-center, prospective, double-blind randomized controlled trial run at two tertiary maternity hospitals in Brisbane, Australia. Five hundred and forty (540 women with a BMI > 25.0 kg/m2 will be recruited over 2 years and receive either probiotics or placebo capsules from 16 weeks gestation until delivery. The probiotics capsules contain > 1x109 cfu each of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 per capsule. The primary outcome is diagnosis of gestational diabetes at 28 weeks gestation. Secondary outcomes include rates of other pregnancy complications, gestational weight gain, mode of delivery, change in gut microbiome, preterm birth, macrosomia, and infant body composition. The trial has 80% power at a 5% 2-sided significance level to detect a >50% change in the rates of gestational diabetes in this high-risk group of pregnant women. Discussion SPRING will show if probiotics can be used as an easily implementable method of preventing gestational diabetes in the high-risk group of overweight and obese pregnant women.

Nitert Marloes Dekker

2013-02-01

275

Optimal Defaults in the Prevention of Pediatric Obesity: From Platform to Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

The term “optimal defaults” refers to imparting pre-selected choices which are designed to produce a desired behavior change. The concept is attractive to policymakers because it steers people toward desirable behaviors while preserving free choice through the ability to opt out. It has been found to be a powerful behavioral determinant in areas such as pension plan enrollment, organ donation, and green energy utilization. We discuss how optimal defaults can be applied to pediatric obesity prevention in several domains including public policy, institutional, private sector, and home environment. Although there are obstacles to overcome in implementing optimal defaults, it is a promising component to incorporate in a multi-level strategy for preventing pediatric obesity.

Radnitz, Cynthia; Loeb, Katharine L; DiMatteo, Julie; Keller, Kathleen L.; Zucker, Nancy; Schwartz, Marlene B.

2014-01-01

276

The Effect of Obesity on the Labor Market  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a growing health problem in many countries, including Iceland. Obese people are at greater risk of several health problems, such as type II diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, stroke, knee and back problems and several types of cancers. The results of studies on the relationship between obesity and labor-market outcomes show negative effects for women, while the effects for men are limited. The aim of this study was mainly to examine the relationship between obesit...

Harpa Hrund Berndsen 1981

2011-01-01

277

A systematic policy approach to changing the food system and physical activity environments to prevent obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

As obesity prevention becomes an increasing health priority in many countries, including Australia and New Zealand, the challenge that governments are now facing is how to adopt a systematic policy approach to increase healthy eating and regular physical activity. This article sets out a structure for systematically identifying areas for obesity prevention policy action across the food system and full range of physical activity environments. Areas amenable to policy intervention can be systematically identified by considering policy opportunities for each level of governance (local, state, national, international and organisational) in each sector of the food system (primary production, food processing, distribution, marketing, retail, catering and food service) and each sector that influences physical activity environments (infrastructure and planning, education, employment, transport, sport and recreation). Analysis grids are used to illustrate, in a structured fashion, the broad array of areas amenable to legal and regulatory intervention across all levels of governance and all relevant sectors. In the Australian context, potential regulatory policy intervention areas are widespread throughout the food system, e.g., land-use zoning (primary production within local government), food safety (food processing within state government), food labelling (retail within national government). Policy areas for influencing physical activity are predominantly local and state government responsibilities including, for example, walking and cycling environments (infrastructure and planning sector) and physical activity education in schools (education sector). The analysis structure presented in this article provides a tool to systematically identify policy gaps, barriers and opportunities for obesity prevention, as part of the process of developing and implementing a comprehensive obesity prevention strategy. It also serves to highlight the need for a coordinated approach to policy development and implementation across all levels of government in order to ensure complementary policy action. PMID:18534001

Sacks, Gary; Swinburn, Boyd A; Lawrence, Mark A

2008-01-01

278

After-School Based Obesity Prevention Interventions: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this article was to review primary prevention interventions targeting childhood obesity implemented in the after school environment from 2006 and 2011. A total of 20 interventions were found from 25 studies. Children in the interventions ranged from kindergarten to middle schoolers, however a majority was in the 4th and 5th grades. Most of the interventions targeted both physical activity and dietary behaviors. Among those that focused on only one dimension, physical activity w...

Manoj Sharma; Paul Branscum

2012-01-01

279

Using the Community Readiness Model to select communities for a community-wide obesity prevention intervention.  

Science.gov (United States)

To build on a growing interest in community-based obesity prevention programs, methods are needed for matching intervention strategies to local needs and assets. We used the Community Readiness Model (CRM), a structured interview guide and scoring system, to assess community readiness to act on childhood obesity prevention, furthering a replication study of a successful intervention. Using the CRM protocol, we conducted interviews with 4 stakeholders in each of 10 communities of similar size, socioeconomic status, and perceived readiness to implement a community-wide obesity prevention intervention. Communities were in California, Florida, Illinois, Massachusetts, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee. The 4 stakeholders were the mayor or city manager, the school superintendent, the school food service director, and a community coalition representative. Interviews were recorded and professionally transcribed. Pairs of trained reviewers scored the transcriptions according to CRM protocol. The CRM assesses 9 stages of readiness for 6 dimensions: existing community efforts to prevent childhood obesity, community knowledge about the efforts, leadership, community climate, knowledge about the issue, and resources. We calculated an overall readiness score for each community from the dimension scores. Overall readiness scores ranged from 2.97 to 5.36 on the 9-point scale. The mean readiness score, 4.28 (SD, 0.68), corresponds with a "preplanning" level of readiness. Of the 6 dimensions, community climate varied the least (mean score, 3.11; SD, 0.64); leadership varied the most (mean score, 4.79; SD, 1.13). The CRM quantified a subjective concept, allowing for comparison among 10 communities. Dimension scores and qualitative data from interviews helped in the selection of 6 communities for a replication study. PMID:22005643

Sliwa, Sarah; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Clark, Valerie; Collins, Jessica; Edwards, Ruth; Hyatt, Raymond R; Junot, Bridgid; Nahar, Elizabeth; Nelson, Miriam E; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D

2011-11-01

280

Whole-Body Vibration Training Effect on Physical Performance and Obesity in Mice  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to verify the beneficial effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on exercise performance, physical fatigue and obesity in mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups: normal group (n=6), fed standard diet (control), and experimental group (n=18), fed a HFD. After 4-week induction, followed by 6-week WBV of 5 days per week, the 18 obese mice were divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group): HFD with sedentary control (HFD), HFD with WBV at relatively low-intensity (5.6 Hz, 0.13 g) (HFD+VL) or high-intensity (13 Hz, 0.68 g) (HFD+VH). A trend analysis revealed that WBV increased the grip strength in mice. WBV also dose-dependently decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels and increased glucose level after the swimming test. WBV slightly decreased final body weight and dose-dependently decreased weights of epididymal, retroperitoneal and perirenal fat pads and fasting serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, CK, glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol. Therefore, WBV could improve exercise performance and fatigue and prevent fat accumulation and obesity-associated biochemical alterations in obese mice. It may be an effective intervention for health promotion and prevention of HFD-induced obesity.

Huang, Chi-Chang; Tseng, Tzu-Ling; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chung, Yi-Hsiu; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Wu, Jyh-Horng

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Whole-body vibration training effect on physical performance and obesity in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to verify the beneficial effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) training on exercise performance, physical fatigue and obesity in mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups: normal group (n=6), fed standard diet (control), and experimental group (n=18), fed a HFD. After 4-week induction, followed by 6-week WBV of 5 days per week, the 18 obese mice were divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group): HFD with sedentary control (HFD), HFD with WBV at relatively low-intensity (5.6 Hz, 0.13 g) (HFD+VL) or high-intensity (13 Hz, 0.68 g) (HFD+VH). A trend analysis revealed that WBV increased the grip strength in mice. WBV also dose-dependently decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels and increased glucose level after the swimming test. WBV slightly decreased final body weight and dose-dependently decreased weights of epididymal, retroperitoneal and perirenal fat pads and fasting serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, CK, glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol. Therefore, WBV could improve exercise performance and fatigue and prevent fat accumulation and obesity-associated biochemical alterations in obese mice. It may be an effective intervention for health promotion and prevention of HFD-induced obesity. PMID:25317067

Huang, Chi-Chang; Tseng, Tzu-Ling; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chung, Yi-Hsiu; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Wu, Jyh-Horng

2014-01-01

282

The Memphis Girls health Enrichment Multi-site Studies (GEMS): An Evaluation of the Efficacy of a Two-Year Obesity Prevention Intervention in African-American Girls  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To determine the efficacy of a 2-year obesity prevention intervention in African-American girls. Design Memphis GEMS (Girls health Enrichment Multi-site Studies) was a controlled trial in which girls were randomly assigned to an obesity prevention or alternative intervention. Setting Local community centers and YMCAs in Memphis, Tennessee. Participants Girls ages 8-to-10 years (n=303) who were identified by a parent as African-American and had body mass index (BMI) ?25th percentile for age or one parent with BMI ?25 kg/m2. Interventions Group behavioral counseling to promote healthy eating and increased physical activity (obesity prevention intervention) or self-esteem and social efficacy (alternative intervention). Main Outcome Measure BMI at 2 years. Results BMI increased in all girls with no treatment effect (obesity prevention minus alternative) at 2 years (0.09, 95% CI: ?0.40, 0.58) kg/m2. Two-year treatment effects in the expected direction were observed for servings/day of sweetened beverages (?0.19, 95% CI=?0.39, 0.09), water (0.21, 95% CI=0.03, 0.40), and vegetables (0.15, 95% CI=?0.02, 0.30), but there were no effects on physical activity. Post-hoc analyses suggested a treatment effect in younger girls (interaction P=.081). BMI difference at 2 years was ?2.41 [?4.38, 0.02] in girls initially aged 8 and ?1.02 [?2.31, 0.27] kg/m2 in those initially aged 10. Conclusions The lack of significant BMI change at 2 years indicates that this intervention alone is insufficient for obesity prevention. Effectiveness may require more explicit behavioral change goals and a stronger physical activity component as well as supportive changes in environmental contexts. PMID:21041593

Klesges, Robert C.; Obarzanek, Eva; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Murray, David M.; Klesges, Lisa M.; Relyea, George E.; Stockton, Michelle B.; Lanctot, Jennifer Q.; Beech, Bettina M.; McClanahan, Barbara S.; Sherrill-Mittleman, Deborah; Slawson, Deborah L.

2010-01-01

283

Chronic melatonin consumption prevents obesity-related metabolic abnormalities and protects the heart against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury in a prediabetic model of diet-induced obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity, a major risk factor for ischemic heart disease, is associated with increased oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant status. Melatonin, a potent free radical scavenger and antioxidant, has powerful cardioprotective effects in lean animals but its efficacy in obesity is unknown. We investigated the effects of chronic melatonin administration on the development of the metabolic syndrome as well as ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Male Wistar rats received a control diet, a control diet with melatonin, a high-calorie diet, or a high-calorie diet with melatonin (DM). Melatonin (4?mg/kg/day) was administered in the drinking water. After 16?wk, biometric and blood metabolic parameters were measured. Hearts were perfused ex vivo for the evaluation of myocardial function, infarct size (IFS) and biochemical changes [activation of PKB/Akt, ERK, p38 MAPK, AMPK, and glucose transporter (GLUT)-4 expression). The high-calorie diet caused increases in body weight (BW), visceral adiposity, serum insulin and triglycerides (TRIG), with no change in glucose levels. Melatonin treatment reduced the BW gain, visceral adiposity, blood TRIG, serum insulin, homeostatic model assessment index and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the DIO group. Melatonin reduced IFS in DIO and control groups and increased percentage recovery of functional performance of DIO hearts. During reperfusion, hearts from melatonin-treated rats had increased activation of PKB/Akt, ERK42/44 and reduced p38 MAPK activation. Chronic melatonin treatment prevented the metabolic abnormalities induced by DIO and protected the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury. These beneficial effects were associated with activation of the reperfusion injury salvage kinases pathway. PMID:21073520

Nduhirabandi, Frederic; Du Toit, Eugene F; Blackhurst, Dee; Marais, David; Lochner, Amanda

2011-03-01

284

Both linoleic and ?-linolenic acid prevent insulin resistance but have divergent impacts on skeletal muscle mitochondrial bioenergetics in obese Zucker rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The therapeutic use of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in preserving insulin sensitivity has gained interest in recent decades; however, the roles of linoleic acid (LA) and ?-linolenic acid (ALA) remain poorly understood. We investigated the efficacy of diets enriched with either LA or ALA on attenuating the development of insulin resistance (IR) in obesity. Following a 12-wk intervention, LA and ALA both prevented the shift toward an IR phenotype and maintained muscle-specific insulin sensitivity otherwise lost in obese control animals. The beneficial effects of ALA were independent of changes in skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and oxidative capacity, as obese control and ALA-treated rats showed similar increases in these parameters. However, ALA increased the propensity for mitochondrial H2O2 emission and catalase content within whole muscle and reduced markers of oxidative stress (4-HNE and protein carbonylation). In contrast, LA prevented changes in markers of mitochondrial content, respiratory function, H2O2 emission, and oxidative stress in obese animals, thereby resembling levels seen in lean animals. Together, our data suggest that LA and ALA are efficacious in preventing IR but have divergent impacts on skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and function. Moreover, we propose that LA has value in preserving insulin sensitivity in the development of obesity, thereby challenging the classical view that n-6 PUFAs are detrimental. PMID:24844257

Matravadia, Sarthak; Herbst, Eric A F; Jain, Swati S; Mutch, David M; Holloway, Graham P

2014-07-01

285

The effective factors in obesity of Neishabur children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Increase in the prevalence of childhood and adolescence obesity in recent years caused many investigations to be held on effective factors on childhood obesity. Environmental factors have a strong impact and are investigated in many studies worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the effective factors in Neishabur primary school children.Materials and Method: Using two stage cluster sampling from 60 Neishbur primary schools, all students who had body mass index(BMI ?95 percentile, were identified as obese (n=114 and 102 students of the same age and gender were indicated as non-obese pupils. Data were collected by questionnaires. Results: Our analyzed data showed that the mean birth weight in obese cases was significantly more than the others. The ratio of first and second born children in obese group was higher than of the non-obese. The ratio of pupils starting complementary feeding earlier than 6 month of age was significantly higher in obese (80.7% than non-obese children (46.1%. Conclusion: High birth weight, birth order and early treatment with complementary foods were associated with obesity among Neishabur primary school children. This should be noted in interventional planning

Fereshteh Baygi

2012-09-01

286

Economic effects of interventions to reduce obesity in Israel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Obesity is a major risk factor for many diseases. The paper calculates the economic impact and the cost per Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY) resulting from the adoption of eight interventions comprising the clinical and part of the community components of the National Prevention and Health Promotion Program (NPHPP) of the Israeli Ministry of Health (MOH) which represents the obesity control implementation arm of the MOH Healthy Israel 2020 Initiative....

Ginsberg Gary M

2012-01-01

287

School-Based Obesity Prevention Interventions for Chilean Children During the Past Decades: Lessons Learned12  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity in Chilean children has increased markedly over the past decades. School-based obesity prevention interventions have been launched by the Ministry of Health and academic groups to tackle this condition. We summarize the main characteristics of the interventions that we have conducted and reflect on the lessons learned. Since 2002, we conducted 1 pilot study, a 2-y controlled intervention including 6- to 12–y-old children (Casablanca), another pilot study, and a 2-y controlled intervention including teachers and their 4- to 9–y-old students (Macul). Both interventions consisted of training teachers to deliver contents on healthy eating, increasing physical education classes, and, additionally in Macul, teachers participated in a wellness program. BMI Z-score and obesity prevalence were compared among children in intervention and control schools by year and among students of intervention and control teachers. In the Casablanca study, the impact was greatest on the younger children during the first school year when the study received the full funding that was required. In Macul, although intervention teachers exhibited improvements in anthropometry and blood measures, the impact on the children was not related to their results. The main lessons learned from these experiences are random allocation of schools, although methodologically desirable, is not always possible; participation of parents is very limited; obesity is not recognized as a problem; and increasing physical activity and implementing training programs for teachers is difficult due to an inflexible curriculum and lack of teachers’ time. Unless these barriers are overcome, obesity prevention programs will not produce positive and lasting outcomes. PMID:22798002

Kain, Juliana; Uauy, Ricardo; Concha, Fernando; Leyton, Barbara; Bustos, Nelly; Salazar, Gabriela; Lobos, Luz; Vio, Fernando

2012-01-01

288

Ethical Standards to Guide the Development of Obesity Policies and Programs; Comment on “Ethical Agreement and Disagreement about Obesity Prevention Policy in the United States”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The recent report by Barnhill and King about obesity prevention policy raises important issues for discussion and analysis. In response, this article raises four points for further consideration. First, a distinction between equality and justice needs to be made and consistently maintained. Second, different theories of justice highlight one additional important source of disagreement about the ethical propriety of the proposed obesity prevention policies. Third, another point of contention arises with respect to different understandings of the principle of respect for autonomy due to its often-mistaken equation with simple, unfettered freedom. Finally, based on a more robust definition of autonomy, the key issues in obesity prevention policies can be suitably re-framed in terms of whether they advance just social conditions that enable people to realize human capabilities to the fullest extent possible.

David Buchanan

2013-11-01

289

‘Ready. Set. ACTION!’ A theater-based obesity prevention program for children: a feasibility study  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the feasibility of implementing an innovative theater-based after-school program, ‘Ready. Set. ACTION!’, to reach ethnically diverse and low-income children and their parents with obesity prevention messages. The study population included 96 children and 61 parents. Children were in fourth to sixth grade and 41% were overweight at baseline. Program impact was evaluated with a pre/post-randomized controlled study design, but a major focus was placed on the process evaluation conducted in the intervention schools. Intervention children and parents reported high program satisfaction and that they had made changes or intended to make positive changes in their behaviors due to program participation. However, few meaningful differences between the intervention and control conditions were found at follow-up. Thus, the combined process and impact evaluation results suggest that the intervention was effective in leading to increased awareness of the need for behavioral change, but was not powerful enough on its own to lead to behavioral change. From this feasibility study, we concluded that Ready. Set. ACTION! offers promise as a creative intervention strategy. The next research step may be to incorporate theater-based programs into more comprehensive school-based interventions, with both educational and environmental components, and evaluate program impact. PMID:18622011

Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Haines, Jess; Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Hannan, Peter J.; Robins, Michael; Morris, Bonnie; Petrich, Christine A.

2009-01-01

290

A systematic approach for the development of a kindergarten-based intervention for the prevention of obesity in preschool age children: the ToyBox-study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing childhood obesity epidemic calls for appropriate measures and effective policies to be applied early in life. Large-scale socioecological frameworks providing a holistic multifactorial and cost-effective approach necessary to support obesity prevention initiatives in this age are however currently missing. To address this missing link, ToyBox-study aims to build and evaluate a cost-effective kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention scheme to prevent obesity in early childhood, which could potentially be expanded on a pan-European scale. A multidisciplinary team of researchers from 10 countries have joined forces and will work to realize this according to a systematic stepwise approach that combines the use of the PRECEDE-PROCEED model and intervention mapping protocol. ToyBox-study will conduct systematic and narrative reviews, secondary data analyses, focus group research and societal assessment to design, implement and evaluate outcome, impact, process and cost effectiveness of the intervention. This is the first time that such a holistic approach has been used on a pan-European scale to promote healthy weight and healthy energy balance-related behaviours for the prevention of early childhood obesity. The results of ToyBox-study will be disseminated among key stakeholders including researchers, policy makers, practitioners and the general population. PMID:22309061

Manios, Y; Grammatikaki, E; Androutsos, O; Chinapaw, M J M; Gibson, E L; Buijs, G; Iotova, V; Socha, P; Annemans, L; Wildgruber, A; Mouratidou, T; Yngve, A; Duvinage, K; de Bourdeaudhuij, I

2012-03-01

291

Prevenção primária de doenças cardiovasculares na obesidade infantojuvenil: efeito anti-inflamatório do exercício físico / Early prevention of cardiovascular diseases in juvenile obesity: the anti-inflammatory effect of physical exercise  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A pandemia da obesidade juvenil e do sedentarismo está relacionada com o maior risco de doenças cardiovasculares no futuro. Ambas com fisiopatologia inflamatória, essas condições têm atraído significativa atenção científica. O início dos eventos que agridem o endotélio vascular pode ocorrer na infân [...] cia, porém, sinais clínicos da aterosclerose geralmente só aparecem na fase adulta. O tecido adiposo é hoje reconhecido por seu papel ativo, induzindo a produção de citocinas pró e anti-inflamatórias, como o fator de necrose tumoral-alfa, as interleucinas 1, 6 e 10, a proteína C-reativa e outras. Há várias evidências de que os níveis sanguíneos dessas citocinas se encontram mais altos em indivíduos com excesso de peso, inclusive crianças e adolescentes. A prevenção precoce, desde a infância, apresenta-se como a melhor maneira de evitar os danos da obesidade na fase adulta, enquanto o potencial da prática regular de exercícios físicos tem se mostrado surpreendente. Sua ação anti-inflamatória se manifesta através de menores concentrações séricas de interleucina 6, de proteína C-reativa e leptina, além de aumentos na adiponectina. Observa-se escassez de estudos randomizados e controlados avaliando as relações entre obesidade, inflamação e exercícios para a população jovem. Com resultados às vezes controversos, a maioria das conclusões é procedentede estudos com adultos. O objetivo desta revisão é avaliar o papel anti-inflamatório, e assim cardioprotetor, da atividade física regular na obesidade infantojuvenil. Abstract in english Nowadays, juvenile obesity and physical inactivity are pandemic conditions which relate to a greater future risk of cardiovascular diseases. From an inflammatory point of view, they have attracted massive scientific attention. The beginning of the events related to atherosclerosis may occur in child [...] hood, generating endothelial and metabolic dysfunction; however, the symptoms usually only appear later on, in adulthood. The fat tissue is recognized as being metabolically active, stimulating the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as the tumoral necrosis factor, interleukines 1, 6 and 10, C-reactive protein, among others. There is plenty of evidence that the serum levels of these citokines are higher in overweight individuals, including children and adolescents. Early prevention as young as possible is the best way to avoid future consequences of obesity. In this context, the potential benefits of regular physical exercise have been surprising. Researchers have shown evidence of anti-inflammatory responses, including lower levels of interleukine 6, C-reactive protein, leptin, besides higher levels of adiponectins after engagement in regular physical activity. However, we still have few controlled randomized studies addressing the relations between obesity, inflammation and exercise for the pediatric population. There are controversial findings in this field, and many of them come from adult studies. Thus, the purpose of the present review is to evaluate the metabolic role of physical exercise in juvenile obesity, aiming at heart protection.

Márcia Braz, Rossetti; Raquel Rodrigues, Britto; Rocksane de Carvalho, Norton.

2009-12-01

292

Prevenção primária de doenças cardiovasculares na obesidade infantojuvenil: efeito anti-inflamatório do exercício físico Early prevention of cardiovascular diseases in juvenile obesity: the anti-inflammatory effect of physical exercise  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A pandemia da obesidade juvenil e do sedentarismo está relacionada com o maior risco de doenças cardiovasculares no futuro. Ambas com fisiopatologia inflamatória, essas condições têm atraído significativa atenção científica. O início dos eventos que agridem o endotélio vascular pode ocorrer na infância, porém, sinais clínicos da aterosclerose geralmente só aparecem na fase adulta. O tecido adiposo é hoje reconhecido por seu papel ativo, induzindo a produção de citocinas pró e anti-inflamatórias, como o fator de necrose tumoral-alfa, as interleucinas 1, 6 e 10, a proteína C-reativa e outras. Há várias evidências de que os níveis sanguíneos dessas citocinas se encontram mais altos em indivíduos com excesso de peso, inclusive crianças e adolescentes. A prevenção precoce, desde a infância, apresenta-se como a melhor maneira de evitar os danos da obesidade na fase adulta, enquanto o potencial da prática regular de exercícios físicos tem se mostrado surpreendente. Sua ação anti-inflamatória se manifesta através de menores concentrações séricas de interleucina 6, de proteína C-reativa e leptina, além de aumentos na adiponectina. Observa-se escassez de estudos randomizados e controlados avaliando as relações entre obesidade, inflamação e exercícios para a população jovem. Com resultados às vezes controversos, a maioria das conclusões é procedentede estudos com adultos. O objetivo desta revisão é avaliar o papel anti-inflamatório, e assim cardioprotetor, da atividade física regular na obesidade infantojuvenil.Nowadays, juvenile obesity and physical inactivity are pandemic conditions which relate to a greater future risk of cardiovascular diseases. From an inflammatory point of view, they have attracted massive scientific attention. The beginning of the events related to atherosclerosis may occur in childhood, generating endothelial and metabolic dysfunction; however, the symptoms usually only appear later on, in adulthood. The fat tissue is recognized as being metabolically active, stimulating the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as the tumoral necrosis factor, interleukines 1, 6 and 10, C-reactive protein, among others. There is plenty of evidence that the serum levels of these citokines are higher in overweight individuals, including children and adolescents. Early prevention as young as possible is the best way to avoid future consequences of obesity. In this context, the potential benefits of regular physical exercise have been surprising. Researchers have shown evidence of anti-inflammatory responses, including lower levels of interleukine 6, C-reactive protein, leptin, besides higher levels of adiponectins after engagement in regular physical activity. However, we still have few controlled randomized studies addressing the relations between obesity, inflammation and exercise for the pediatric population. There are controversial findings in this field, and many of them come from adult studies. Thus, the purpose of the present review is to evaluate the metabolic role of physical exercise in juvenile obesity, aiming at heart protection.

Márcia Braz Rossetti

2009-12-01

293

The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT an early intervention to prevent childhood obesity: Cluster-randomised controlled trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple factors combine to support a compelling case for interventions that target the development of obesity-promoting behaviours (poor diet, low physical activity and high sedentary behaviour from their inception. These factors include the rapidly increasing prevalence of fatness throughout childhood, the instigation of obesity-promoting behaviours in infancy, and the tracking of these behaviours from childhood through to adolescence and adulthood. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT aims to determine the effectiveness of an early childhood obesity prevention intervention delivered to first-time parents. The intervention, conducted with parents over the infant's first 18 months of life, will use existing social networks (first-time parent's groups and an anticipatory guidance framework focusing on parenting skills which support the development of positive diet and physical activity behaviours, and reduced sedentary behaviours in infancy. Methods/Design This cluster-randomised controlled trial, with first-time parent groups as the unit of randomisation, will be conducted with a sample of 600 first-time parents and their newborn children who attend the first-time parents' group at Maternal and Child Health Centres. Using a two-stage sampling process, local government areas in Victoria, Australia will be randomly selected at the first stage. At the second stage, a proportional sample of first-time parent groups within selected local government areas will be randomly selected and invited to participate. Informed consent will be obtained and groups will then be randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. Discussion The early years hold promise as a time in which obesity prevention may be most effective. To our knowledge this will be the first randomised trial internationally to demonstrate whether an early health promotion program delivered to first-time parents in their existing social groups promotes healthy eating, physical activity and reduced sedentary behaviours. If proven to be effective, INFANT may protect children from the development of obesity and its associated social and economic costs. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN81847050

Campbell Karen

2008-03-01

294

On the Prevention of Obesity and a Philosophy for Healthy Living  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Overweight and obesity have now reached historical, maximal peak values, with nearly one-third of world population suffering from these conditions. We are now witnessing the impact of this epidemic upon the global health status, with non-communicable diseases on the rise. We have also witnessed the shortcomings and failures of past actions taken when obesity is already present. In this essay the author reviews efforts made in the past regarding identification and treatment of obesity, and propose that actions should be taken before the onset of this disease, by motivating people to make intelligent, healthy choices when it comes to food and physical activity. A philosophy for healthy living should become central to the intervention actions, for them to be successful and sustained. Prevention of obesity should involve all those concerned irregardless of their position in society and curricular training, in order to create a multi-lateral, multi-national effort that will protect our families and our children from the consequences of this epidemic.

Richard Visser

2012-06-01

295

Long-term effects of childhood obesity on morbidity and mortality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity tracks from childhood into adulthood, and the persistence of obesity rises with age among obese children. Early onset obesity was suggested as a risk factor for morbidity and mortality later in life. In both sexes, rates of diabetes, coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, hip fracture and gout were increased in those who were overweight as adolescents. Especially in females, obesity at late adolescence was associated with several and relevant psychosocial consequences in adulthood. Finally, a higher mortality risk for all causes of death, especially atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease and colorectal cancer, was demonstrated in males but not in females who were overweight during high school years. Although the persistence of excess adiposity from childhood to adulthood is a morbidity risk factor, it is not known if total body fat or body fat distribution is the main factor responsible. In particular, a specific role for the intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) in childhood, independently from that of total body fat, on morbidity risk in adulthood was not demonstrated yet. The association between childhood obesity and adult morbidity and mortality strongly suggests that a more effective prevention and treatment of childhood obesity should be pursued. PMID:11408761

Maffeis, C; Tatò, L

2001-01-01

296

Are you talking to ME? The importance of ethnicity and culture in childhood obesity prevention and management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood obesity is prevalent, is of consequence, and disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minority populations. By the preschool years, racial/ethnic disparities in obesity prevalence and substantial differences in many risk factors for obesity are already present, suggesting that disparities in obesity prevalence have their origins in the earliest stages of life. The reasons for racial/ethnic variation in obesity are complex and may include differences in cultural beliefs and practices, level of acculturation, ethnicity-based differences in body image, and perceptions of media, sleep, and physical activity. In addition, racial/ethnic differences in obesity may evolve as a consequence of the socio- and environmental context in which families live. The primary care setting offers unique opportunities to intervene and alter the subsequent course of health and disease for children at risk for obesity. Regular visits during childhood allow both detection of elevated weight status and offer opportunities for prevention and treatment. Greater awareness of the behavioral, social–cultural, and environmental determinants of obesity among ethnic minority populations could assist clinicians in the treatment of obesity among diverse pediatric populations. Specific strategies include beginning prevention efforts early in life before obesity is present and recognizing and querying about ethnic- and culturally specific beliefs and practices, the role of the extended family in the household, and parents' beliefs of the causative factors related to their child's obesity. Efforts to provide culturally and linguistically appropriate care, family-based treatment programs, and support services that aim to uncouple socioeconomic factors from adverse health outcomes could improve obesity care for racial/ethnic minority children. PMID:22799474

Peña, Michelle-Marie; Dixon, Brittany; Taveras, Elsie M

2012-02-01

297

Are You Talking to ME? The Importance of Ethnicity and Culture in Childhood Obesity Prevention and Management  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Childhood obesity is prevalent, is of consequence, and disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minority populations. By the preschool years, racial/ethnic disparities in obesity prevalence and substantial differences in many risk factors for obesity are already present, suggesting that disparities in obesity prevalence have their origins in the earliest stages of life. The reasons for racial/ethnic variation in obesity are complex and may include differences in cultural beliefs and practices, level of acculturation, ethnicity-based differences in body image, and perceptions of media, sleep, and physical activity. In addition, racial/ethnic differences in obesity may evolve as a consequence of the socio- and environmental context in which families live. The primary care setting offers unique opportunities to intervene and alter the subsequent course of health and disease for children at risk for obesity. Regular visits during childhood allow both detection of elevated weight status and offer opportunities for prevention and treatment. Greater awareness of the behavioral, social–cultural, and environmental determinants of obesity among ethnic minority populations could assist clinicians in the treatment of obesity among diverse pediatric populations. Specific strategies include beginning prevention efforts early in life before obesity is present and recognizing and querying about ethnic- and culturally specific beliefs and practices, the role of the extended family in the household, and parents' beliefs of the causative factors related to their child's obesity. Efforts to provide culturally and linguistically appropriate care, family-based treatment programs, and support services that aim to uncouple socioeconomic factors from adverse health outcomes could improve obesity care for racial/ethnic minority children. PMID:22799474

Pena, Michelle-Marie; Dixon, Brittany

2012-01-01

298

Programmed cell death-4 deficiency prevents diet-induced obesity, adipose tissue inflammation, and insulin resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Programmed cell death-4 (PDCD4), a selective protein translation inhibitor, has shown proinflammatory effect in some inflammatory diseases, but its roles in obesity remain unestablished. This study aims to investigate the effects of PDCD4 on obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Surprisingly, high-fat diet (HFD)-fed PDCD4-deficient (PDCD4(-/-)) mice exhibited an absolutely lean phenotype together with improved insulin sensitivity. Compared with wild-type obese mice, HFD-fed PDCD4(-/-) mice showed higher energy expenditure, lower epididymal fat weight, and reduced macrophage infiltration inflammatory cytokine secretion in white adipose tissue (WAT). Alleviated hepatic steatosis along with decreased plasma levels of triglyceride and cholesterol was also observed in these mice. Importantly, PDCD4 appeared to disturb lipid metabolism via inhibiting the expression of liver X receptor (LXR)-?, a master modulator of lipid homeostasis, which was elevated in HFD-fed PDCD4(-/-) mice accompanied by upregulation of its target genes and relieved endoplasmic reticulum stress in WAT. These data demonstrate that PDCD4 deficiency protects mice against diet-induced obesity, WAT inflammation, and insulin resistance through restoring the expression of LXR-?, thereby proposing PDCD4 as a potential target for treating obesity-associated diseases. PMID:23990362

Wang, Qun; Dong, Zhaojing; Liu, Xianglan; Song, Xingguo; Song, Qiang; Shang, Qianwen; Jiang, Yang; Guo, Chun; Zhang, Lining

2013-12-01

299

Life Course Impact of School-Based Promotion of Healthy Eating and Active Living to Prevent Childhood Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The Alberta Project Promoting active Living and healthy Eating in Schools (APPLE Schools) is a comprehensive school health program that is proven feasible and effective in preventing obesity among school aged children. To support decision making on expanding this program, evidence on its long-term health and economic impacts is particularly critical. In the present study we estimate the life course impact of the APPLE Schools programs in terms of future body weights and avoided health care costs. Method We modeled growth rates of body mass index (BMI) using longitudinal data from the National Population Health Survey collected between 1996–2008. These growth rate characteristics were used to project BMI trajectories for students that attended APPLE Schools and for students who attended control schools (141 randomly selected schools) in the Canadian province of Alberta. Results Throughout the life course, the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) was 1.2% to 2.8% (1.7 on average) less among students attending APPLE Schools relative to their peers attending control schools. The life course prevalence of obesity was 0.4% to 1.4% (0.8% on average) less among APPLE Schools students. If the APPLE Schools program were to be scaled up, the potential cost savings would be $33 to 82 million per year for the province of Alberta, or $150 to 330 million per year for Canada. Conclusions These projected health and economic benefits seem to support broader implementation of school-based health promotion programs. PMID:25025581

Tran, Bach Xuan; Ohinmaa, Arto; Kuhle, Stefan; Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Veugelers, Paul J.

2014-01-01

300

Taxation as prevention and as a treatment for obesity: the case of sugar-sweetened beverages.  

Science.gov (United States)

The contemporary American food environment makes energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages the "default" option for most consumers. Economic interventions like taxes can shift the relative prices of unhealthy foods to nudge consumers towards healthier options. Beverages with added sugar are a good starting point for food taxation; they constitute over 10 percent of caloric intake nationwide and provide little or no nutritional value. Current levels of taxation on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are too low to affect consumer behavior, but the implementation of a penny-per-ounce excise tax could lead to substantial public health benefits. Current estimates predict that a tax that raised the cost of SSBs by 20 percent could lead to an average reduction of 3.8 pounds per year for adults, causing the prevalence of obesity to decline from 33 to 30 percent. SSB taxes would also generate considerable revenue for public health and obesity prevention programs. Although the beverage industry is fighting such taxes with massive lobbying and public relations campaigns, support for the policies is increasing, especially when revenue is earmarked for obesity prevention. PMID:21492083

Novak, Nicole L; Brownell, Kelly D

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Development of an Internet-Based Obesity Prevention Program for Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Childhood obesity is a growing problem, particularly in rural, Louisiana school children. Traditionally, school-based obesity prevention programs have used a primary prevention approach. Finding methods to deliver secondary prevention programs to large numbers of students without singling out overweight students has been a challenge. An innovative approach to achieving this goal is through use of an Internet intervention targeted toward a student's weight status. This article describes the Louisiana (LA) Health Internet intervention, including the student Web site, the Internet counselor Web site, and the Internet counseling process. Method The LA Health Internet intervention had separate interfaces for students and Internet counselors. The main features of the student site were behavioral weight loss lessons, lesson activities, chat with an Internet counselor, and email. The Internet counselor site contained these same features, plus a student directory and various means of obtaining student information to guide counseling. Based on their baseline weight status, students received lessons and counseling that promoted either weight loss or weight maintenance. Intervention was delivered during class time, and teachers scheduled Internet counseling sessions with intervention personnel. Results The LA Health Internet intervention was initially implemented within 14 schools; 773 students were granted access to the site. From Fall 2007 to Spring 2009, 1174 hours of Internet counselor coverage was needed to implement the Internet counseling component of this intervention Conclusion The LA Health Internet intervention is an innovative and feasible method of delivering a secondary prevention program within a school setting to large numbers of students. PMID:20513340

Gabriele, Jeanne M.; Stewart, Tiffany M.; Sample, Alicia; Davis, Allison B.; Allen, Ray; Martin, Corby K.; Newton, Robert L.; Williamson, Donald A.

2010-01-01

302

Associations of ghrelin with eating behaviors, stress, metabolic factors, and telomere length among overweight and obese women: preliminary evidence of attenuated ghrelin effects in obesity?  

Science.gov (United States)

Ghrelin regulates homeostatic food intake, hedonic eating, and is a mediator in the stress response. In addition, ghrelin has metabolic, cardiovascular, and anti-aging effects. This cross-sectional study examined associations between total plasma ghrelin, caloric intake based on 3day diet diaries, hedonic eating attitudes, stress-related and metabolic factors, and leukocyte telomere length in overweight (n=25) and obese women (n=22). We hypothesized associations between total plasma ghrelin and eating behaviors, stress, metabolic, cardiovascular, and cell aging factors among overweight women, but not among obese women due to lower circulating ghrelin levels and/or central resistance to ghrelin. Confirming previous studies demonstrating lowered plasma ghrelin in obesity, ghrelin levels were lower in the obese compared with overweight women. Among the overweight, ghrelin was positively correlated with caloric intake, giving in to cravings for highly palatable foods, and a flatter diurnal cortisol slope across 3days. These relationships were non-significant among the obese group. Among overweight women, ghrelin was negatively correlated with insulin resistance, systolic blood pressure, and heart rate, and positively correlated with telomere length. Among the obese subjects, plasma ghrelin concentrations were negatively correlated with insulin resistance, but were not significantly correlated with blood pressure, heart rate or telomere length. Total plasma ghrelin and its associations with food intake, hedonic eating, and stress are decreased in obesity, providing evidence consistent with the theory that central resistance to ghrelin develops in obesity and ghrelin's function in appetite regulation may have evolved to prevent starvation in food scarcity rather than cope with modern food excess. Furthermore, ghrelin is associated with metabolic and cardiovascular health, and may have anti-aging effects, but these effects may be attenuated in obesity. PMID:24462487

Buss, Julia; Havel, Peter J; Epel, Elissa; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Daubenmier, Jennifer

2014-05-01

303

UNCROC and the prevention of childhood obesity: the right not to have food advertisements on television.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses how legal rights-based discourse could inform the response of Australian State and federal governments to the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity. The authors contend that the principles in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (a treaty which has been ratified but not implemented) are capable of providing a basis for a legislative program to prevent childhood obesity. It is argued that an approach to legislation which is grounded on the basis of children's rights would require that there be restrictions on advertising food to children. The authors set out specific proposals for legislative reforms which the federal Parliament could enact to implement the Convention so as to restrict advertising to children. The scope of the discussion is then expanded to consider the implications of rights-based discourse in broader public health contexts. PMID:18807794

Ingleby, Richard; Prosser, Lauren; Waters, Elizabeth

2008-08-01

304

Deletion of skeletal muscle SOCS3 prevents insulin resistance in obesity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation that contributes to defects in energy metabolism and insulin resistance. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3 expression is increased in skeletal muscle of obese humans. SOCS3 inhibits leptin signaling in the hypothalamus and insulin signal transduction in adipose tissue and the liver. Skeletal muscle is an important tissue for controlling energy expenditure and whole-body insulin sensitivity; however, the physiological importance of SOCS3 in this tissue has not been examined. Therefore, we generated mice that had SOCS3 specifically deleted in skeletal muscle (SOCS MKO). The SOCS3 MKO mice had normal muscle development, body mass, adiposity, appetite, and energy expenditure compared with wild-type (WT) littermates. Despite similar degrees of obesity when fed a high-fat diet, SOCS3 MKO mice were protected against the development of hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance because of enhanced skeletal muscle insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and Akt phosphorylation that resulted in increased skeletal muscle glucose uptake. These data indicate that skeletal muscle SOCS3 does not play a critical role in regulating muscle development or energy expenditure, but it is an important contributing factor for inhibiting insulin sensitivity in obesity. Therapies aimed at inhibiting SOCS3 in skeletal muscle may be effective in reversing obesity-related glucose intolerance and insulin resistance.

Beck JØrgensen, Sebastian; O'Neill, Hayley M

2013-01-01

305

Anti-Obesity Effect of Artemisia capillaris Extracts in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study evaluated the anti-obesity effects of Artemisia capillaris extracts in high-fat diet (HFD-induced obese rats. After six weeks feeding with HFD, Wistar male rats (12-weeks-old were divided into three groups: HFD-control group and HFD mixed with 0.4% and 0.8% Artemisia capillaris extracts treated groups. After seven weeks of treatments, the body weight gain of the 0.4% and 0.8% A. capillaris extracts treated groups were significantly less than that of the HFD-control group by 11.8% and 15.4%, respectively. Also, A. capillaris extracts treated groups showed significantly lower serum TG, TC and LDL-c levels in a dose-related manner, while causing the reverse effect in serum HDL-c, and exhibited a hepatoprotective effects in vivo, indicated by reduced hepatic lipid contents, and serum ALT and AST levels. These results show that A. capillaris extracts may prevent body weight increases and improve dyslipidemia in HFD-induced obese rats by enhancing their lipid metabolism.

Yu-Jung Jang

2013-08-01

306

Anti-obesity effect of Artemisia capillaris extracts in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the anti-obesity effects of Artemisia capillaris extracts in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. After six weeks feeding with HFD, Wistar male rats (12-weeks-old) were divided into three groups: HFD-control group and HFD mixed with 0.4% and 0.8% Artemisia capillaris extracts treated groups. After seven weeks of treatments, the body weight gain of the 0.4% and 0.8% A. capillaris extracts treated groups were significantly less than that of the HFD-control group by 11.8% and 15.4%, respectively. Also, A. capillaris extracts treated groups showed significantly lower serum TG, TC and LDL-c levels in a dose-related manner, while causing the reverse effect in serum HDL-c, and exhibited a hepatoprotective effects in vivo, indicated by reduced hepatic lipid contents, and serum ALT and AST levels. These results show that A. capillaris extracts may prevent body weight increases and improve dyslipidemia in HFD-induced obese rats by enhancing their lipid metabolism. PMID:23917113

Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Yun Tai; Jang, Yu-Jung; Kim, Young-Eon; Han, Daeseok

2013-01-01

307

Comparison of child obesity prevention and control content in mainstream and Spanish-language US parenting magazines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mass media coverage of child obesity is rising, paralleling the child obesity epidemic's growth, and there is evidence that parents seek parenting advice from media sources. Yet little to no research has examined the coverage of child obesity in parenting magazines or Spanish-language media. The purpose of this study was to use qualitative and quantitative content analysis methods to identify, quantify, and compare strategies for child obesity prevention and control presented in mainstream and Spanish-language US parenting magazines. Child obesity-related editorial content in 68 mainstream and 20 Spanish-language magazine issues published over 32 months was gathered. Magazine content was coded with a manual developed by refining themes from the sample and from an evidence-based child obesity prevention action plan. Seventy-three articles related to child obesity prevention and control were identified. Most focused on parental behavior change rather than environmental change, and only 3 in 10 articles referred to the social context in which parental behavior change takes place. Child obesity-focused articles were not given high prominence; only one in four articles in the entire sample referred to child obesity as a growing problem or epidemic. Key differences between genres reflect culturally important Latino themes, including family focus and changing health beliefs around child weight status. Given mass media's potential influence on parenting practices and public perceptions, nutrition communication professionals and registered dietitians need to work to reframe media coverage of childhood obesity as an environmental problem that requires broad-based policy solutions. Spanish-speaking media can be an ally in helping Latina women change cultural health beliefs around child weight status. PMID:23260730

Kalin, Sari R; Fung, Teresa T

2013-01-01

308

Effects of a 12-week, school-based obesity management program on obese primary school children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose:This study was designed to determine the effects of a school-based obesity-management program on obese primary school children. Methods:A total of 995 children (6&#8211;12 years old in a primary school were screened in March 2008, and of those, 101 obese students (44 boys and 57 girls, body mass index (BMI ?#249;5 percentile were enrolled for a study group. The school- based, obesity management program, which includes physical exercise and nutritional education, was conducted as part of an extracurricular program for 12 weeks. The measurement of height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure (BP, and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA was performed before and after the program. Results:Height and weight increased significantly (P&lt;0.05. The BMI and obesity index decreased significantly (P&lt;0.01. Systolic and diastolic BP decreased significantly (P&lt;0.01. BMI decreased in 61.4% of boys and 66.7% of girls. Protein and basal metabolic rate (BMR increased significantly on the BIA (P&lt;0.01. Fat decreased significantly (P&lt;0.05. The total body water (TBW and percent body fat (PBF decreased significantly (P&lt;0.01. The changes in protein, fat, TBW, PBF, and BMR significantly correlated to the change in BMI (P&lt;0.05. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, BMI change was significantly correlated to the changes in protein and fat content (P&lt;0.01. Conclusion:The school-based obesity management program is a very effective way to manage obesity for obese primary school children.

Han Gyu Kim

2010-03-01

309

A Controlled Evaluation of a School-Based Obesity Prevention in Turkish School Children  

Science.gov (United States)

This research was conducted to assess the effect of a weight management program in Turkish school children with overweight and obesity. Forty one students formed the intervention group while 40 students formed the control group in two elementary schools. Students in intervention group were given seven training sessions in a period of 2.5 months.…

Toruner, Ebru Kilicarslan; Savaser, Sevim

2010-01-01

310

Hydroxytyrosol prevents diet-induced metabolic syndrome and attenuates mitochondrial abnormalities in obese mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

A Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil has profound influence on health outcomes including metabolic syndrome. However, the active compound and detailed mechanisms still remain unclear. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a major polyphenolic compound in virgin olive oil, has received increased attention for its antioxidative activity and regulation of mitochondrial function. Here, we investigated whether HT is the active compound in olive oil exerting a protective effect against metabolic syndrome. In this study, we show that HT could prevent high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance in C57BL/6J mice after 17 weeks supplementation. Within liver and skeletal muscle tissues, HT could decrease HFD-induced lipid deposits through inhibition of the SREBP-1c/FAS pathway, ameliorate HFD-induced oxidative stress by enhancing antioxidant enzyme activities, normalize expression of mitochondrial complex subunits and mitochondrial fission marker Drp1, and eventually inhibit apoptosis activation. Moreover, in muscle tissue, the levels of mitochondrial carbonyl protein were decreased and mitochondrial complex activities were significantly improved by HT supplementation. In db/db mice, HT significantly decreased fasting glucose, similar to metformin. Notably, HT decreased serum lipid, at which metformin failed. Also, HT was more effective at decreasing the oxidation levels of lipids and proteins in both liver and muscle tissue. Similar to the results in the HFD model, HT decreased muscle mitochondrial carbonyl protein levels and improved mitochondrial complex activities in db/db mice. Our study links the olive oil component HT to diabetes and metabolic disease through changes that are not limited to decreases in oxidative stress, suggesting a potential pharmaceutical or clinical use of HT in metabolic syndrome treatment. PMID:24316371

Cao, Ke; Xu, Jie; Zou, Xuan; Li, Yuan; Chen, Cong; Zheng, Adi; Li, Hao; Li, Hua; Szeto, Ignatius Man-Yau; Shi, Yujie; Long, Jiangang; Liu, Jiankang; Feng, Zhihui

2014-02-01

311

Feasibility and Acceptability of an Early Childhood Obesity Prevention Intervention: Results from the Healthy Homes, Healthy Families Pilot Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. This study examined the feasibility and acceptability of a home-based early childhood obesity prevention intervention designed to empower low-income racially/ethnically diverse parents to modify their children's health behaviors. Methods. We used a prospective design with pre-/posttest evaluation of 50 parent-child pairs (children aged 2 to 5 years) to examine potential changes in dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors among children at baseline and four-month follow-up. Results. 39 (78%) parent-child pairs completed evaluation data at 4-month follow-up. Vegetable intake among children significantly increased at follow-up (0.54 cups at 4 months compared to 0.28 cups at baseline, P = 0.001) and ounces of fruit juice decreased at follow-up (11.9 ounces at 4 months compared to 16.0 ounces at baseline, P = 0.036). Sedentary behaviors also improved. Children significantly decreased time spent watching TV on weekdays (P obesity prevention intervention is feasible, acceptable and demonstrates short-term effects on dietary and sedentary behaviors of low-income racially/ethnically diverse children.

Gorham, Gemma

2014-01-01

312

Make a Difference at Your School! CDC Resources Can Help You Implement Strategies to Prevent Obesity Among Children and Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reviews scientific evidence to determine which school-based policies and practices are most likely to improve key health behaviors among young people, including physical activity and healthy eating. In this document, the CDC identifies ten strategies to help schools prevent obesity by promoting…

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008

2008-01-01

313

Are field-based exergames useful in preventing childhood obesity? A systematic review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exergames have started to find their way into field-based settings, such as schools, communities and homes, as a possible solution to curbing physical inactivity and childhood obesity. However, a clear view of the effects of field-based exergaming on children's obesity-related outcomes is lacking. Hence, a systematic review on this topic is warranted. This review synthesizes the impact of field-based exergames on children's physical and psychosocial outcomes. A total of 34 articles conducted in field-based settings were identified from 104 peer-reviewed publications that investigated the effects of exergames. Upon screening, these articles met the inclusion criteria and a high inter-rater agreement for inclusion was reached between the authors. The effects of field-based exergames on children's habitual physical activity (PA) and obesity-related outcomes (e.g. weight loss, body composition) remain unclear due to design problems, measurement issues and other methodology concerns. In addition, exergame is appealing to children, although strategies are warranted to sustain their interests. In summary, exergames are desirable as a promising addition to promote PA and health. Professionals may integrate exergames at field settings to promote a physically active lifestyle among children with the goal of curbing childhood obesity. PMID:24602072

Gao, Z; Chen, S

2014-08-01

314

The Early Prevention of Obesity in CHildren (EPOCH) Collaboration - an Individual Patient Data Prospective Meta-Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Efforts to prevent the development of overweight and obesity have increasingly focused early in the life course as we recognise that both metabolic and behavioural patterns are often established within the first few years of life. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions are even more powerful when, with forethought, they are synthesised into an individual patient data (IPD) prospective meta-analysis (PMA). An IPD PMA is a unique research design where several trials are identified for inclusion in an analysis before any of the individual trial results become known and the data are provided for each randomised patient. This methodology minimises the publication and selection bias often associated with a retrospective meta-analysis by allowing hypotheses, analysis methods and selection criteria to be specified a priori. Methods/Design The Early Prevention of Obesity in CHildren (EPOCH) Collaboration was formed in 2009. The main objective of the EPOCH Collaboration is to determine if early intervention for childhood obesity impacts on body mass index (BMI) z scores at age 18-24 months. Additional research questions will focus on whether early intervention has an impact on children's dietary quality, TV viewing time, duration of breastfeeding and parenting styles. This protocol includes the hypotheses, inclusion criteria and outcome measures to be used in the IPD PMA. The sample size of the combined dataset at final outcome assessment (approximately 1800 infants) will allow greater precision when exploring differences in the effect of early intervention with respect to pre-specified participant- and intervention-level characteristics. Discussion Finalisation of the data collection procedures and analysis plans will be complete by the end of 2010. Data collection and analysis will occur during 2011-2012 and results should be available by 2013. Trial registration number ACTRN12610000789066 PMID:21106110

2010-01-01

315

The Early Prevention of Obesity in CHildren (EPOCH Collaboration - an Individual Patient Data Prospective Meta-Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts to prevent the development of overweight and obesity have increasingly focused early in the life course as we recognise that both metabolic and behavioural patterns are often established within the first few years of life. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs of interventions are even more powerful when, with forethought, they are synthesised into an individual patient data (IPD prospective meta-analysis (PMA. An IPD PMA is a unique research design where several trials are identified for inclusion in an analysis before any of the individual trial results become known and the data are provided for each randomised patient. This methodology minimises the publication and selection bias often associated with a retrospective meta-analysis by allowing hypotheses, analysis methods and selection criteria to be specified a priori. Methods/Design The Early Prevention of Obesity in CHildren (EPOCH Collaboration was formed in 2009. The main objective of the EPOCH Collaboration is to determine if early intervention for childhood obesity impacts on body mass index (BMI z scores at age 18-24 months. Additional research questions will focus on whether early intervention has an impact on children's dietary quality, TV viewing time, duration of breastfeeding and parenting styles. This protocol includes the hypotheses, inclusion criteria and outcome measures to be used in the IPD PMA. The sample size of the combined dataset at final outcome assessment (approximately 1800 infants will allow greater precision when exploring differences in the effect of early intervention with respect to pre-specified participant- and intervention-level characteristics. Discussion Finalisation of the data collection procedures and analysis plans will be complete by the end of 2010. Data collection and analysis will occur during 2011-2012 and results should be available by 2013. Trial registration number ACTRN12610000789066

Simes John

2010-11-01

316

Weight loss and physical activity for disease prevention in obese older adults: an important role for lifestyle management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Weight loss in older adults has been a controversial topic for more than a decade. An obesity paradox has been previously described and the issue of weight status on health outcomes remains a highly debated topic. However, there is little doubt that physical activity (PA) has a myriad of benefits in older adults, especially in obese individuals who are inactive and have a poor cardiometabolic profile. In this review, we offer a critical view to clarify misunderstandings regarding the obesity paradox, particularly as it relates to obese older adults. We also review the evidence on PA and lifestyle interventions for the improvement of cardiorespiratory fitness, which can prevent disease and provide benefits to obese older adults, independent of weight changes. PMID:25183491

Valencia, Willy Marcos; Stoutenberg, Mark; Florez, Hermes

2014-10-01

317

Andrographolide prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice by suppressing the sterol regulatory element-binding protein pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are major transcription factors regulating the expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of cholesterol, fatty acids, and triglycerides. We investigated the effect of the specific SREBP suppressor andrographolide, a natural compound isolated from Andrographis paniculata, on the regulation of SREBP signaling by use of Western blot, reporter gene assay, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. In addition, the antiobesity effects of andrographolide were evaluated in C57BL/6 mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Our results showed that andrographolide downregulated the expressions of SREBPs target genes and decreased cellular lipid accumulation in vitro. Further, andrographolide (100 mg/kg per day) attenuated HFD-induced body weight gain and fat accumulation in liver or adipose tissues, and improved serum lipid levels and insulin or glucose sensitivity in HFD-induced obese mice. Andrographolide effectively suppressed the respiratory quotient, energy expenditure, and oxygen consumption, which may have contributed to the decreased body-weight gain of the obese mice fed with a HFD. Consistently, andrographolide regulated SREBP target genes and metabolism-associated genes in liver or brown adipose tissue, which may have directly contributed to the lower lipid levels and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Taken together, our results indicated that andrographolide ameliorated lipid metabolism and improved glucose use in mice with HFD-induced obesity. Andrographolide has potential as a leading compound in the prevention or treatment of obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:25204338

Ding, Lili; Li, Jinmei; Song, Baoliang; Xiao, Xu; Huang, Wendong; Zhang, Binfeng; Tang, Xiaowen; Qi, Meng; Yang, Qiming; Yang, Qiaoling; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao

2014-11-01

318

Economic effects of interventions to reduce obesity in Israel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a major risk factor for many diseases. The paper calculates the economic impact and the cost per Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY resulting from the adoption of eight interventions comprising the clinical and part of the community components of the National Prevention and Health Promotion Program (NPHPP of the Israeli Ministry of Health (MOH which represents the obesity control implementation arm of the MOH Healthy Israel 2020 Initiative. Methods Health care costs per person were calculated by body mass index (BMI by applying Israeli cost data to aggregated results from international studies. These were applied to BMI changes from eight intervention programmes in order to calculate reductions in direct treatment costs. Indirect cost savings were also estimated as were additional costs due to increased longevity of program participants. Data on costs and QALYs gained from Israeli and International dietary interventions were combined to provide cost-utility estimates of an intervention program to reduce obesity in Israel over a range of recidivism rates. Results On average, persons who were overweight (25 ? BMI For overweight (25 ? BMI A program directed at the entire Israeli population aged 20 and over, using a variety of eight different interventions would cost 2.07 billion NIS overall. In the baseline scenario (with an assumed recidivism rate of 50% per annum, approximately 620,000,000 NIS would be recouped in the form of decreased treatment costs and indirect costs, increased productivity and decreased absenteeism. After discounting the 89,000,000 NIS additional health costs attributable to these extra life years, it is estimated that the total net costs to society would be 1.55 billion NIS. This total net cost was relatively stable to increases in the program's recidivism rates, but highly sensitive to reductions in recidivism rates. Under baseline assumptions, implementation of the cluster of interventions would save 32,671 discounted QALYs at a cost of only 47,559 NIS per QALY, less than half of the Israeli per capita GNP (104,000 NIS. Thus implementation of these components of the NPHPP should be considered very cost-effective. Conclusion Despite the large costs of such a large national program to control obesity, cost-utility analysis strongly supports its introduction.

Ginsberg Gary M

2012-04-01

319

Understanding the Social Networks That Form within the Context of an Obesity Prevention Intervention  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Antiobesity interventions have generally failed. Research now suggests that interventions must be informed by an understanding of the social environment. Objective. To examine if new social networks form between families participating in a group-level pediatric obesity prevention trial. Methods. Latino parent-preschool child dyads (N = 79) completed the 3-month trial. The intervention met weekly in consistent groups to practice healthy lifestyles. The control met monthly in inconsistent groups to learn about school readiness. UCINET and SIENA were used to examine network dynamics. Results. Children's mean age was 4.2 years (SD = 0.9), and 44% were overweight/obese (BMI ? 85th percentile). Parents were predominantly mothers (97%), with a mean age of 31.4 years (SD = 5.4), and 81% were overweight/obese (BMI ? 25). Over the study, a new social network evolved among participating families. Parents selectively formed friendship ties based on child BMI z-score, (t = 2.08; P < .05). This reveals the tendency for mothers to form new friendships with mothers whose children have similar body types. Discussion. Participating in a group-level intervention resulted in new social network formation. New ties were greatest with mothers who had children of similar body types. This finding might contribute to the known inability of parents to recognize child overweight. PMID:22655175

Gesell, Sabina B.; Bess, Kimberly D.; Barkin, Shari L.

2012-01-01

320

Spatial mobility and environmental effects on obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we used a randomized experiment, the Moving to Opportunity for Fair Housing Demonstration (MTO) study, to assess whether several environmental attributes are causes of obesity. To accomplish our objective, we linked the MTO data with several external data sources that provide information on potential determinants of obesity including food prices, restaurant and food store availability, physical activity facility availability, the prevalence of crime and population density. We find that the environmental factors we examined are unable to explain the observed decrease in obesity associated with the MTO experiment among low-income minority women. PMID:24447507

Zhao, Zhenxiang; Kaestner, Robert; Xu, Xin

2014-07-01

 
 
 
 
321

Chardonnay grape seed procyanidin extract supplementation prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in hamsters by improving adipokine imbalance and oxidative stress markers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies reported the effects of polyphenols but not for grape polyphenols towards obesity. We analysed the effects of a polyphenolic grape seed extract (GSE) on obesity and oxidative stress in hamsters receiving a high-fat diet (HFD). Three groups of hamsters received a standard diet (STD), or a HFD plus a daily gavage with water (Control, HFD) or a solution of GSE (HFD + GSE) for 12 wk. Plasma glucose, triglycerides (TG), insulin, leptin and adiponectin were measured. Oxidative stress was assessed by cardiac production of superoxide anion and NAD(P)H oxidase expression. After 12 wk, HFD increased abdominal fat as compared with standards. GSE avoided this feature. HFD led to higher plasma glucose, TG, insulin and greater insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values. GSE prevented in part these effects, reducing insulinemia and leptinemia by 16.5 and 45%, respectively, whereas adiponectin level increased by 61% compared with obese controls. GSE lowered glycemia and HOMA-IR and strongly prevented cardiac production of superoxide by 74% and NAD(P)H oxidase expression by 30%. This is the first time that chronic consumption of grape phenolics is shown to reduce obesity development and related metabolic pathways including adipokine secretion and oxidative stress. PMID:19035554

Décordé, Kelly; Teissèdre, Pierre-Louis; Sutra, Thibault; Ventura, Emilie; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max

2009-05-01

322

The wage effects of obesity: a longitudinal study.  

Science.gov (United States)

We use National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) data to examine the effects of obesity on wages by gender. Sample means indicate that both men and women experience a persistent obesity wage penalty over the first two decades of their careers. We then control for a standard set of socioeconomic and familial variables but find that standard covariates do not explain why obese workers experience persistent wage penalties. This suggests that other variables -- including job discrimination, health-related factors and/or obese workers' behavior patterns -- may be the channels through which obesity adversely affects wages. The study closes with a discussion of the public policy implications suggested by these findings. PMID:15362180

Baum, Charles L; Ford, William F

2004-09-01

323

Safe and effective management of the obese patient.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased dramatically in the recent decades, and obesity is now a major public health problem. Obesity negatively influences an individual's health by increasing mortality and raising the risk for multiple medical conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and coronary heart disease. In addition, the obese individual is often the brunt of social discrimination. Weight loss has been shown to reduce the risk for many of these comorbid conditions. A multifaceted approach to the obese patient should include identifying potential causes for weight gain, outlining medical conditions that would benefit by weight loss, and tailoring a weight loss program that is safe and effective for the individual. Components of a successful weight loss program include dietary intervention, recommendations for physical activity, behavior modification, and, in a select group of patients, pharmacologic or surgical intervention. PMID:10593355

Collazo-Clavell, M L

1999-12-01

324

Increasing community capacity to prevent childhood obesity: challenges, lessons learned and results from the Romp & Chomp intervention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a major public health issue; however, only limited evidence is available about effective ways to prevent obesity, particularly in early childhood. Romp & Chomp was a community-wide obesity prevention intervention conducted in Geelong Australia with a target group of 12,000 children aged 0-5 years. The intervention had an environmental and capacity building focus and we have recently demonstrated that the prevalence of overweight/obesity was lower in intervention children, post-intervention. Capacity building is defined as the development of knowledge, skills, commitment, structures, systems and leadership to enable effective health promotion and the aim of this study was to determine if the capacity of the Geelong community, represented by key stakeholder organisations, to support healthy eating and physical activity for young children was increased after Romp & Chomp. Methods A mixed methods evaluation with three data sources was utilised. 1 Document analysis comprised assessment of the documented formative and intervention activities against a capacity building framework (five domains: Partnerships, Leadership, Resource Allocation, Workforce Development, and Organisational Development; 2 Thematic analysis of key informant interviews (n = 16; and 3 the quantitative Community Capacity Index Survey. Results Document analysis showed that the majority of the capacity building activities addressed the Partnerships, Resource Allocation and Organisational Development domains of capacity building, with a lack of activity in the Leadership and Workforce Development domains. The thematic analysis revealed the establishment of sustainable partnerships, use of specialist advice, and integration of activities into ongoing formal training for early childhood workers. Complex issues also emerged from the key informant interviews regarding the challenges of limited funding, high staff turnover, changing governance structures, lack of high level leadership and unclear communication strategies. The Community Capacity Index provided further evidence that the project implementation network achieved a moderate level of capacity. Conclusions Romp & Chomp increased the capacity of organisations, settings and services in the Geelong community to support healthy eating and physical activity for young children. Despite this success there are important learnings from this mixed methods evaluation that should inform current and future community-based public health and health promotion initiatives. Trial Registration Number ANZCTRN12607000374460

de Groot Florentine P

2010-08-01

325

Childhood obesity and adverse health effects in Hong Kong.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hong Kong soon became aware of the importance of ensuring the optimum growth of their children with growth standards for Hong Kong being set out in 1962. By 1972 it was already clear that childhood obesity was emerging as a problem and increasing in prevalence and by 1987 an international workshop on nutrition, held in Hong Kong, was being alerted to this issue. Then 10 years later obesity featured as a major issue in the programme of the Asian Congress of Pediatrics with the local contributors highlighting the evidence already available in Hong Kong of the wide range of metabolic, cardiovascular, physical and psychological complications of obesity in the local community. The school health service was given a prominent role and there are now guidelines not only in relation to the standards of school lunches but also for the need to enhance the physical activity of children and involve a new educational community wide approach as part of a major co-coordinated effort within Hong Kong. Professional and community workers together with the government now have a comprehensive determination to tackle the challenge of obesity prevention. So Hong Kong intends to play a major role in the international response to the formation of the Global Alliance for the prevention of obesity and its associated chronic diseases. PMID:18307706

Chan, C

2008-03-01

326

Effect of Antioxidants Supplementation or Restricted Diet on Oxidative Stress in a Rat Model of Diet-Induced Obesity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction & Objective: Obesity is independently associated with increased oxidative stress in men and women. Natural antioxidants showed substantial antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo. The aim of this study was to examine the preventive effect of antioxidant supplements and/or restricted diet on the stress oxidative index (8-Iso-PGF2?) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in obese rats induced by a high-fat (HF) diet. Material and Methods: In this experimental study f...

Vahidinia, A. A.; Shaker Hosseini, R.; Mahjub, H.

2011-01-01

327

Childhood obesity: political developments in Europe and related perspectives for future action on prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dramatically increasing prevalence of obesity, especially among children, has become a major public health problem in Europe. In reaction to this alarming trend, a series of initiatives and actions has been launched in recent years. As the potential impact of these activities is widely unknown so far, we underline the need for adequate evaluation of these measures. The aim of this paper is to report the latest developments in the fight against obesity at different political levels across Europe, with special attention to the major results of the recent World Health Organization European Ministerial Conference on Counteracting Obesity. In accordance with the main principles of the European Charter on Counteracting Obesity adopted at the meeting, immediate action should be taken now by implementing the few available schemes with proven effectiveness. Finally, given the lack of appropriate evaluation, we consider it particularly important to establish national research centres to collect country-specific data that are to be evaluated together by a central European administration department. Based on the results of such a comprehensive data pool, concrete strategies could be developed for future policy building. PMID:17727620

Fussenegger, D; Pietrobelli, A; Widhalm, K

2008-01-01

328

Lifestyle, self-esteem and obesity among children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Childhood obesity remains a major public health concern. While preventing childhood obesity is important, the effectiveness of existing prevention strategies is indefinite. Important obesity contributors are speculated to be overlooked while the role of well-studied obesity-related factors has been questioned. Objectives: 1) Although the association between lifestyle and obesity is seemingly well-established, how an overlooked dietary factor, breakfast location, associates ...

Tin, Sze-pui; ???

2013-01-01

329

Modifying the food environment for childhood obesity prevention: challenges and opportunities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevention of childhood obesity is a global priority. However, a range of complex social and environmental influences is implicated in the development of obesity and chronic disease that goes beyond the notion of individual choice. A population-level approach recognises the importance of access to and availability of healthy foods outside the home. These external food environments, in restaurants, supermarkets, and in school, or recreation and sports settings, are often characterised by energy dense, nutrient-poor food items that do not reflect the current nutritional guidelines for health. In addition, our understanding of these broader influences on nutritional intake is still limited. Particularly, lacking is a clear understanding of what constitutes the food environment, as well as robust measures of components of the food environment across different contexts. Therefore, this review summarises the literature on food environments of relevance to childhood obesity prevention, with a focus on places where children live, learn and play. Specifically, the paper highlights the approaches and challenges related to defining and measuring the food environment, discusses the aspects of the food environment unique to children and reports on environmental characteristics that are being modified within community, school and recreational settings. Results of the review show the need for a continued focus on understanding the intersection between individual behaviour and external factors; improved instrument development, especially regarding validity and reliability; clearer reported methodology including protocols for instrument use and data management; and considering novel study design approaches that are targeted at measuring the relationship between the individual and their food environment. PMID:24423112

Penney, Tarra L; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Shearer, Cindy; McIsaac, Jessie-Lee; Kirk, Sara F L

2014-05-01

330

Estrogen signaling prevents diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance in male mice with obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of insulin resistance in the liver is a key event that drives dyslipidemia and predicts diabetes and cardiovascular risk with obesity. Clinical data show that estrogen signaling in males helps prevent adiposity and insulin resistance, which may be mediated through estrogen receptor-? (ER?). The tissues and pathways that mediate the benefits of estrogen signaling in males with obesity are not well defined. In female mice, ER? signaling in the liver helps to correct pathway-selective insulin resistance with estrogen treatment after ovariectomy. We assessed the importance of liver estrogen signaling in males using liver ER?-knockout (LKO) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). We found that the LKO male mice had decreased insulin sensitivity compared with their wild-type floxed (fl/fl) littermates during hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps. Insulin failed to suppress endogenous glucose production in LKO mice, indicating liver insulin resistance. Insulin promoted glucose disappearance in LKO and fl/fl mice similarly. In the liver, insulin failed to induce phosphorylation of Akt-Ser(473) and exclude FOXO1 from the nucleus in LKO mice, a pathway important for liver glucose and lipid metabolism. Liver triglycerides and diacylglycerides were also increased in LKO mice, which corresponded with dysregulation of insulin-stimulated ACC phosphorylation and DGAT1/2 protein levels. Our studies demonstrate that estrogen signaling through ER? in the liver helps prevent whole body and hepatic insulin resistance associated with HFD feeding in males. Augmenting hepatic estrogen signaling through ER? may lessen the impact of obesity on diabetes and cardiovascular risk in males. PMID:24691030

Zhu, Lin; Martinez, Melissa N; Emfinger, Christopher H; Palmisano, Brian T; Stafford, John M

2014-05-15

331

Evaluation of a Coordinated School-Based Obesity Prevention Program in a Hispanic Community: Choosing Healthy and Active Lifestyles for Kids/healthy Schools Healthy Families  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Obesity is a public health concern that disproportionately affects underserved and minority communities. Purpose: To evaluate whether a comprehensive obesity prevention program that targets children and school staff in an underserved Hispanic community affects obesity related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among both students and…

Berger-Jenkins, Evelyn; Rausch, John; Okah, Ebiere; Tsao, Daisy; Nieto, Andres; Lyda, Elizabeth; Meyer, Dodi; McCord, Mary

2014-01-01

332

Assessing implementation fidelity and adaptation in a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little research has assessed the fidelity, adaptation or integrity of activities implemented within community-based obesity prevention initiatives. To address this gap, a mixed-method process evaluation was undertaken in the context of the South Australian Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL) initiative. An ecological coding procedure assessed fidelity and adaptation of activity settings, targets and strategies implemented in the second year of four communities. Implementation integrity reflected fidelity and adaptation to local context, whereas efforts resulting in significant deviations from the original plan were deemed to lack fidelity and integrity. Staff implemented 284 strategies in 205 projects. Results show that 68.3 and 2.1% of strategies were implemented with fidelity or adapted, respectively. Overall, 70.4% of all strategies were implemented with integrity. Staff experienced barriers with 29.6% of strategies. Chi-square analyses show statistically significant associations between implementation integrity and strategy type, intervention and behavioural targets. These relationships are weak to modest. The strongest relationship was found between implementation integrity and proximal target. Staff experienced implementation barriers at the coalition, policy, organization, interpersonal and community levels. The greatest range of barriers was encountered working with organizations. To overcome these barriers, staff took greater ownership, invested more time, persisted and allocated more financial resources. PMID:25214513

Richards, Zoe; Kostadinov, Iordan; Jones, Michelle; Richard, Lucie; Cargo, Margaret

2014-12-01

333

Evaluation of a multiple ecological level child obesity prevention program: Switch® what you Do, View, and Chew  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Schools are the most frequent target for intervention programs aimed at preventing child obesity; however, the overall effectiveness of these programs has been limited. It has therefore been recommended that interventions target multiple ecological levels (community, family, school and individual to have greater success in changing risk behaviors for obesity. This study examined the immediate and short-term, sustained effects of the Switch program, which targeted three behaviors (decreasing children's screen time, increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, and increasing physical activity at three ecological levels (the family, school, and community. Methods Participants were 1,323 children and their parents from 10 schools in two states. Schools were matched and randomly assigned to treatment and control. Measures of the key behaviors and body mass index were collected at baseline, immediately post-intervention, and 6 months post-intervention. Results The effect sizes of the differences between treatment and control groups ranged between small (Cohen's d = 0.15 for body mass index at 6 months post-intervention to large (1.38; parent report of screen time at 6 months post-intervention, controlling for baseline levels. There was a significant difference in parent-reported screen time at post-intervention in the experimental group, and this effect was maintained at 6 months post-intervention (a difference of about 2 hours/week. The experimental group also showed a significant increase in parent-reported fruit and vegetable consumption while child-reported fruit and vegetable consumption was marginally significant. At the 6-month follow-up, parent-reported screen time was significantly lower, and parent and child-reported fruit and vegetable consumption was significantly increased. There were no significant effects on pedometer measures of physical activity or body mass index in the experimental group. The intervention effects were moderated by child sex (for fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and weight status, family involvement (for fruit and vegetable consumption, and child body mass index (for screen time. The perception of change among the experimental group was generally positive with 23% to 62% indicating positive changes in behaviors. Conclusion The results indicate that the Switch program yielded small-to-modest treatment effects for promoting children's fruit and vegetable consumption and minimizing screen time. The Switch program offers promise for use in youth obesity prevention.

Callahan Randi

2009-09-01

334

Maternal over weight and obesity: its effect on pregnancy outcome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity in pregnancy remains a significant health problem that result in physiological, emotional, social and economic consequences on woman, their families and society. Obesity is considered one of the nutritional problems complicating pregnancy in our country. This study was conducted in antenatal clinic at out patient department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, BIRDEM Hospital, one of the countries largest tertiary level hospitals, during January 2007 to December 2008. During the study period of two years, a total no. of 100 cases were enrolled in two groups. Out of this 50 were control and 50 were over weight and obese. In this study, Mean of height, weight and BMI of the over weight and obese group were 5.21±0.21, 79.35±13.66, 32.36±4.76 respectively. The Mean of birth weight, APGAR score after 1 min and after 5 min of the over weight and obese group were 3.07±0.75, 7.10±1.11, 9.92±0.98 respectively and in normal weight group were 2.74±0.55, 7.40±1.56, 9.92±1.83 respectively. There was significant difference in birth weight, APGAR score after 1 min between the groups (p0.05). Regarding the fetal outcome in this study, 20% of the over weight and obese group delivered macrosomic baby in comparison to only 4% in the normal weight group. On the other hand 46% of the case group had to refer their babies to the neonatal unit in comparison to only 12% in the control group. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) (46%) and Preeclampsia (44%) developed more in obese group. Eighty eight (88%) of obese and overweight mother experienced in caesarean delivery. Asphyxia, Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS), congenital anomaly and prenatal death were more in the over weight and obese group than normal weight group. Thus, overweight and obesity has got significant deleterious effect on maternal and perinatal outcomes of pregnancy. PMID:21522090

Mazumder, U; Sarker, S; Riaz, B K; Chowdhury, T A

2011-04-01

335

New insights on diabetes mellitus and obesity in Africa-Part 2: prevention, screening and economic burden.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence has been accumulating on the importance of the rising burden of diabetes mellitus on the African continent at an increasingly higher pace. In the first paper of this series of two companion papers, recent evidence on the prevalence, pathogenesis and comorbidities of obesity and diabetes mellitus in Africa were summarised. In this second paper, we focus on recent developments pertaining to the prevention, screening and the economic burden of diabetes and obesity on the continent. There are indications that awareness on diabetes and chronic diseases at large has increased in Africa in recent times. However, the care for diabetes largely remains suboptimal in most countries, which are not adequately prepared to face the prevention and control of diabetes, as the costs of caring for the condition pose a tremendous challenge to most local economies. Moreover, translation strategies to prevent and control diabetes and obesity, on the continent, are still to be evaluated. PMID:23680890

Kengne, Andre Pascal; Sobngwi, Eugene; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin-Basile; Mbanya, Jean-Claude

2013-08-01

336

The Nutrition and Physical Activity Program to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases: Monitoring Progress in Funded States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To help address the challenges posed by the obesity epidemic in the United States, the U.S. Congress authorized the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to establish the Nutrition and Physical Activity Program to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases. In this article, we summarize the progress of the first 20 states funded by this program. The data presented are based on the information provided by the states in their semiannual progress monitoring reports on program activities from January through June 2004. The states have made progress in developing capacity and infrastructure for their programs, including leveraging financial resources and developing strong partnerships. In addition, they are planning and initiating environmental changes through legislation, and, although less frequently, through policies and other changes such as expanding physical activity opportunities. Collectively, the states are making progress in planning and implementing activities to prevent and control obesity and other chronic diseases.

Sue Lin Yee, MA, MPH

2005-12-01

337

Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

... 330-346. United States Department of Agriculture. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. Accessed April 21, 2012. Wadden TA, Volger S, Sarwer DB, et al. A two year randomized trial of obesity treatment in primary care practice. N Engl J Med . 2011;365:1969-1979

338

Honeysuckle anthocyanin supplementation prevents diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the anti-obesity effects of honeysuckle anthocyanins (HA) in a high fat diet-induced mouse model. The mice were initially fed with a low-fat diet (LFD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks. After that, the HFD-fed mice were divided into five groups, with 12 mice in each group, including a HFD group, a HFD plus Orlistat group, and three HFD plus HA (at a dose of 50, 100, or 200 mg kg(-1)) groups, for another 8-week experiment. HA at 100 or 200 mg kg(-1) can suppress body weight gain, reduce serum and liver lipid profiles, ameliorate impaired hepatic function, and significantly increase serum adiponectin concentration while decreasing serum insulin and leptin levels. These results suggest that the anti-obesity effect of HA might be through the blockage of lipid accumulation. PMID:24081320

Wu, Tao; Yu, Zhuoping; Tang, Qiong; Song, Haizhao; Gao, Zichun; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Xiaodong

2013-11-01

339

The Effect of Exercise in Obese Women with Bulimia Nervosa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose:Obesity has been identified as a risk factor for the development of bulimia nervosa (BN) in those who try to lose weight. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of walking exercise in order to provide a method for overcoming bulimia nervosa in obese young women suffering from bulimia nervosa.Methods: Twenty obese women with bulimia nervosa (body mass index [BMI]>30) and a mean age of 22.00 ± 1.50 years volunteered to participate in this study. They were randomly ...

Hassn Daneshmandi; Nasim Habibzadeh

2010-01-01

340

The novel dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor teneligliptin prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity accompanied with increased energy expenditure in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4)-deficient mice exhibit prevention of obesity with increased energy expenditure, whereas currently available DPP-4 inhibitors do not induce similar changes. We investigated the impact of the novel DPP-4 inhibitor teneligliptin on body weight, energy expenditure, and obesity-related manifestations in diet-induced obese mice. Six-weeks-old C57BL/6N mice were fed a high-fat diet (60%kcal fat) ad libitum and administered teneligliptin (30 or 60mg/kg) via drinking water for 10 weeks. Mice fed a high-fat diet showed accelerated body weight gain. In contrast, compared with the vehicle group, the administration of teneligliptin reduced body weight to 88% and 71% at dose of 30mg/kg/day and 60mg/kg/day, respectively. Although there was no change in locomotor activity, indirect calorimetry studies showed that teneligliptin (60mg/kg) increased oxygen consumption by 22%. Adipocyte hypertrophy and hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet were suppressed by teneligliptin. The mean adipocyte size in the 60-mg/kg treatment group was 44% and hepatic triglyceride levels were 34% of the levels in the vehicle group. Furthermore, treatment with teneligliptin (60mg/kg) reduced plasma levels of insulin to 40% and increased the glucose infusion rate to 39%, as measured in the euglycemic clamp study, indicating its beneficial effect on insulin resistance. We showed for the first time that the DPP-4 inhibitor prevents obesity and obesity-related manifestations with increased energy expenditure. Our findings suggest the potential utility of teneligliptin for the treatment of a broad spectrum of metabolic disorders related to obesity beyond glycemic control. PMID:24309217

Fukuda-Tsuru, Sayaka; Kakimoto, Tetsuhiro; Utsumi, Hiroyuki; Kiuchi, Satoko; Ishii, Shinichi

2014-01-15

 
 
 
 
341

Antiobesity effects of Kaempferia parviflora in spontaneously obese type II diabetic mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kaempferia parviflora Wall. Ex Baker (KP) has been used as a folk medicine in Laos and Thailand to lower blood glucose levels, improve blood flow, and increase vitality. This study investigated the preventive effects of KP on obesity and its downstream symptoms (various metabolic disorders) using Tsumura, Suzuki, Obese Diabetes (TSOD) mice, a multifactorial genetic disease animal model in which metabolic diseases develop spontaneously, similar to metabolic syndrome in humans, and Tsumura, Suzuki, Non-Obesity (TSNO) mice as the corresponding control mice. When feed that was mixed with KP (1 or 3%) was given ad libitum to TSOD and TSNO mice for 8 weeks, body weight increase, visceral fat accumulation, lipid metabolism abnormalities, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, hypertension, and peripheral neuropathy were suppressed in TSOD mice, but no marked differences were observed in TSNO mice. Because KP had preventive effects on metabolic diseases, including antiobesity effects, only in obese animals, we propose that KP will be extremely valuable as a medicine or component of food in alternative health care. PMID:20814753

Akase, Tomoko; Shimada, Tsutomu; Terabayashi, Susumu; Ikeya, Yukinobu; Sanada, Hiromi; Aburada, Masaki

2011-01-01

342

Physician practices related to use of BMI-for-age and counseling for childhood obesity prevention: A cross-sectional study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Screening for obesity and providing appropriate obesity-related counseling in the clinical setting are important strategies to prevent and control childhood obesity. The purpose of this study is to document pediatricians (PEDs) and general practitioners (GPs) with pediatric patients use of BMI-for-age to screen for obesity, confidence in explaining BMI, access to referral clinics, and characteristics associated with screening and counseling to children and...

Polhamus Barbara; Sherry Bettylou; Wethington Holly R

2011-01-01

343

Outcome results for the Ma'alahi Youth Project, a Tongan community-based obesity prevention programme for adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tonga has a very high prevalence of obesity with steep increases during youth, making adolescence a critical time for obesity prevention. The Ma'alahi Youth Project, the Tongan arm of the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project, was a 3-year, quasi-experimental study of community-based interventions among adolescents in three districts on Tonga's main island (Tongatapu) compared to the island of Vava'u. Interventions focused mainly on capacity building, social marketing, education and activities promoting physical activity and local fruit and vegetables. The evaluation used a longitudinal design (mean follow-up duration 2.4 years). Both intervention and comparison groups showed similar large increases in overweight and obesity prevalence (10.1% points, n?=?815; 12.6% points, n?=?897 respectively). Apart from a small relative decrease in percentage body fat in the intervention group (-1.5%, P?obesity among Tongan adolescents. Community-based interventions in such populations with high obesity prevalence may require more intensive or longer interventions, as well as specific strategies targeting the substantial socio-cultural barriers to achieving a healthy weight. PMID:22008558

Fotu, K F; Millar, L; Mavoa, H; Kremer, P; Moodie, M; Snowdon, W; Utter, J; Vivili, P; Schultz, J T; Malakellis, M; McCabe, M P; Roberts, G; Swinburn, B A

2011-11-01

344

Red wine polyphenols prevent metabolic and cardiovascular alterations associated with obesity in Zucker fatty rats (Fa/Fa).  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with increased risks for development of cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological studies report an inverse association between dietary flavonoid consumption and mortality from cardiovascular diseases. We studied the potential beneficial effects of dietary supplementation of red wine polyphenol extract, Provinols, on obesity-associated alterations with respect to metabolic disturbances and cardiovascular functions in Zucker fatty (ZF) rats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIP...

Agouni, Abdelali; Lagrue-lak-hal, Anne-he?le?ne; Mostefai, Hadj Ahmed; Tesse, Angela; Mulder, Paul; Rouet, Philippe; Desmoulin, Franck; Heymes, Christophe; Marti?nez, Maria Carmen; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

2009-01-01

345

Economic and other barriers to adopting recommendations to prevent childhood obesity: results of a focus group study with parents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents are integral to the implementation of obesity prevention and management recommendations for children. Exploration of barriers to and facilitators of parental decisions to adopt obesity prevention recommendations will inform future efforts to reduce childhood obesity. Methods We conducted 4 focus groups (2 English, 2 Spanish among a total of 19 parents of overweight (BMI ? 85th percentile children aged 5-17 years. The main discussion focused on 7 common obesity prevention recommendations: reducing television (TV watching, removing TV from child's bedroom, increasing physically active games, participating in community or school-based athletics, walking to school, walking more in general, and eating less fast food. Parents were asked to discuss what factors would make each recommendation more difficult (barriers or easier (facilitators to follow. Participants were also asked about the relative importance of economic (time and dollar costs/savings barriers and facilitators if these were not brought into the discussion unprompted. Results Parents identified many barriers but few facilitators to adopting obesity prevention recommendations for their children. Members of all groups identified economic barriers (time and dollar costs among a variety of pertinent barriers, although the discussion of dollar costs often required prompting. Parents cited other barriers including child preference, difficulty with changing habits, lack of information, lack of transportation, difficulty with monitoring child behavior, need for assistance from family members, parity with other family members, and neighborhood walking safety. Facilitators identified included access to physical activity programs, availability of alternatives to fast food and TV which are acceptable to the child, enlisting outside support, dietary information, involving the child, setting limits, making behavior changes gradually, and parental change in shopping behaviors and own eating behaviors. Conclusions Parents identify numerous barriers to adopting obesity prevention recommendations, most notably child and family preferences and resistance to change, but also economic barriers. Intervention programs should consider the context of family priorities and how to overcome barriers and make use of relevant facilitators during program development.

Taveras Elsie M

2009-12-01

346

[The effect of probiotic therapy on development of experimental obesity in rats caused by monosodium glutamate].  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of a mixture of probiotic strains (2:1:1 Lactobacillus casei IMVB-7280, Bifidobacterium animalis VKL, Bifidobacterium animalis VKB) on the development of experimental obesity in rats induced by neonatal administration of monosodium glutamate has been studied. It was shown that in rats of 4 months age, the injection of monosodium glutamate (4 mg/g) at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 days after birth elicited abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome. An intermittent administration of a probiotic mixture to rats treated with monosodium prevented the development of obesity. In the group of rats treated with probiotics, anthropometric parameters (weight and body length, Lee index, body mass index) did not differ from the level of intact rats. Visceral fat mass was decreased by probiotics by 38.5% (P Probiotics improved lipid metabolism: reduced the level of VLDL by 32.2% (P Probiotic strains restored the secretion of adipocytes hormones (leptin and adiponectin) to the normal level of intact animals. The results show the effectiveness of probiotics for the prevention of obesity. PMID:25007523

Savcheniuk, O A; Virchenko, O V; Falalieieva, T M; Beregova, T V; Babenko, L P; Lazarenko, L M; Spivak, M Ia

2014-01-01

347

Omega-3 fatty acids: a review of the effects on adiponectin and leptin and potential implications for obesity management.  

Science.gov (United States)

An increase in adiposity is associated with altered levels of biologically active proteins. These include the hormones adiponectin and leptin. The marked change in circulating concentrations of these hormones in obesity has been associated with the development of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Variations in dietary lipid consumption have also been shown to impact obesity. Specifically, omega-3 fatty acids have been correlated with the prevention of obesity and subsequent development of chronic disease sequalae. This review explores animal and human data relating to the effects of omega-3 fatty acids (marine lipids) on adiponectin and leptin, considering plausible mechanisms and potential implications for obesity management. Current evidence suggests a positive, dose-dependent relationship between omega-3 fatty acid intake and circulating levels of adiponectin. In obese subjects, this may translate into a reduced risk of developing cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In non-obese subjects, omega-3 is observed to decrease circulating levels of leptin; however, omega-3-associated increases in leptin levels have been observed in obese subjects. This may pose benefits in the prevention of weight regain in these subjects following calorie restriction. PMID:24129365

Gray, B; Steyn, F; Davies, P S W; Vitetta, L

2013-12-01

348

Preventing childhood obesity during infancy in UK primary care: a mixed-methods study of HCPs' knowledge, beliefs and practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a strong rationale for intervening in early childhood to prevent obesity. Over a quarter of infants gain weight more rapidly than desirable during the first six months of life putting them at greater risk of obesity in childhood. However, little is known about UK healthcare professionals' (HCPs approach to primary prevention. This study explored obesity-related knowledge of UK HCPs and the beliefs and current practice of general practitioners (GPs and practice nurses in relation to identifying infants at risk of developing childhood obesity. Method Survey of UK HCPs (GPs, practice nurses, health visitors, nursery, community and children's nurses. HCPs (n = 116 rated their confidence in providing infant feeding advice and completed the Obesity Risk Knowledge Scale (ORK-10. Semi-structured interviews with a sub-set of 12 GPs and 6 practice nurses were audio recorded, taped and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was applied using an interpretative, inductive approach. Results GPs were less confident about giving advice about infant feeding than health visitors (p = 0.001 and nursery nurses (p = 0.009 but more knowledgeable about the health risks of obesity (p Six main themes emerged from the interviews: 1 Attribution of childhood obesity to family environment, 2 Infant feeding advice as the health visitor's role, 3 Professional reliance on anecdotal or experiential knowledge about infant feeding, 4 Difficulties with recognition of, or lack of concern for, infants "at risk" of becoming obese, 5 Prioritising relationship with parent over best practice in infant feeding and 6 Lack of shared understanding for dealing with early years' obesity. Conclusions Intervention is needed to improve health visitors and nursery nurses' knowledge of obesity risk and GPs and practice nurses' capacity to identify and manage infants' at risk of developing childhood obesity. GPs value strategies that maintain relationships with vulnerable families and interventions to improve their advice-giving around infant feeding need to take account of this. Further research is needed to determine optimal ways of intervening with infants at risk of obesity in primary care.

Swift Judy A

2011-06-01

349

Building a strategy for obesity prevention one piece at a time: the case of sugar-sweetened beverage taxation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is a major public health issue in Canada that is reaching historically high levels in spite of efforts, targeted primarily at individual behaviour, to promote changes in diet and physical activity. Urgency for change at the population level compels moving "upstream" toward multilevel, societal approaches for obesity prevention. Public health researchers, advocates and policy makers are increasingly recognizing the current food environment, including availability, pricing, and marketing of foods and beverages, promotes overconsumption of unhealthy food and beverage choices and have identified the food environment as a point for intervention for obesity prevention. In April 2011, a consensus conference with invited experts from research, policy and practice fields was held. The conference aimed to build consensus around policy levers to address environmental determinants of obesity, including next logical steps toward further policy action. Using economic policies, such as taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), was discussed as one opportunity to promote healthy eating. This article reports on the consensus discussion that led to recommendations to tax sugar-sweetened beverages as one step in a multipronged comprehensive approach to obesity prevention. This recommendation is based on a synthesis of available evidence, including evidence regarding political feasibility, and potential impacts of a tax. In addition, we present additional primary research using current SSB consumption data to model the economic and behavioural impact of such a tax in Canada. PMID:24070799

Buhler, Susan; Raine, Kim D; Arango, Manuel; Pellerin, Suzie; Neary, Neil E

2013-04-01

350

Effects of olive oil and its minor phenolic constituents on obesity-induced cardiac metabolic changes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Olive oil and its minor constituents have been recommended as important dietary therapeutic interventions in preventive medicine. However, a question remains to be addressed: what are the effects of olive oil and its phenolic compounds on obesity-induced cardiac metabolic changes? Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups (n = 24/group): (C) receiving standard-chow; (Ob) receiving hypercaloric-chow. After 21 days C and Ob...

Khr, Rocha Katiucha; Rf, Seiva Fa?bio; Mx, Ebaid Geovana; Souza Gisele A; Lb, Novelli Ethel

2010-01-01

351

Barriers to successful recruitment of parents of overweight children for an obesity prevention intervention: a qualitative study among youth health care professionals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The recruitment of participants for childhood overweight and obesity prevention interventions can be challenging. The goal of this study was to identify barriers that Dutch youth health care (YHC) professionals perceive when referring parents of overweight children to an obesity prevention intervention. Methods Sixteen YHC professionals (nurses, physicians and management staff) from eleven child health clinics participated in semi-structured ...

Mpl, Gerards Sanne; Dagnelie Pieter C; Wj, Jansen Maria; De Vries Nanne K; Pj, Kremers Stef

2012-01-01

352

The maternal womb: a novel target for cancer prevention in the era of the obesity pandemic?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The dramatic rise in worldwide prevalence of obesity has necessitated the search for more efficacious anti-obesity strategies to counter the increased cancer risks in overweight and obese individuals. The mechanistic pathways linking obesity status with adult chronic diseases such as cancer remain incompletely understood. A growing body of evidence suggests that novel approaches and interventional agents to disrupt the feed-forward cycle of maternal to offspring obesity transfer that is initi...

Simmen, Frank A.; Simmen, Rosalia C. M.

2011-01-01

353

A population perspective on obesity prevention : lessons learned from Sweden and the U.S.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity prevalences are increasing in Sweden and the US. Obesity has many health consequences and health risks are associated with small increases in weight and marked obesity. Cross-sectional and panel surveys from northern Sweden and upstate NY provide the basis for furthering understanding of body mass index (BMI) development. BMI and weight change (+/-3%) were used to evaluate obesity and weight loss, maintenance, or gain. The 1989 prevalences of obesity were 9.6% and 21.3% in Sweden and ...

Nafziger, Anne

2006-01-01

354

Polyphenol-rich blackcurrant extract prevents inflammation in diet-induced obese mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is closely associated with chronic, low-grade inflammation. We investigated if polyphenol-rich blackcurrant extract (BCE) can prevent inflammation in vivo. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a modified AIN-93M control diet containing high fat/high cholesterol (16% fat, 0.25% cholesterol by weight) or the control diet supplemented with 0.1% BCE (wt/wt) for 12 weeks. In BCE-fed mice, the percentage of body weight and adipocyte size of the epididymal fat were significantly lower than those of control mice. There were fewer crown-like structures (CLS) with concomitant decreases in F4/80, cluster of differentiation 68 and inhibitor of nuclear factor ?B kinase ? (IKK?) mRNA in the epididymal adipose of BCE-fed mice. F4/80 and IKK? mRNA levels were positively correlated with CLS number. In the skeletal muscle of mice fed with BCE, mRNA expression of genes involved in energy expenditure and mitochondrial biogenesis, including PPAR?, PPAR?, UCP-2, UCP-3 and mitochondrial transcription factor A, were significantly increased. When splenocytes from BCE-fed mice were stimulated by lipopolysaccharides, tumor necrosis factor ? and interleukin-1? mRNA were significantly lower than control splenocytes. Together, the results suggest that BCE supplementation decreases obesity-induced inflammation in adipose tissue and splenocytes, at least in part, by modulating energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. PMID:25034502

Benn, Tyler; Kim, Bohkyung; Park, Young-Ki; Wegner, Casey J; Harness, Ellen; Nam, Tae-Gyu; Kim, Dae-Ok; Lee, Jong Suk; Lee, Ji-Young

2014-10-01

355

Preventing maternal and early childhood obesity: the fetal flaw in Australian perinatal care.  

Science.gov (United States)

Almost half of Australian women of child-bearing age are overweight or obese, with a rate of 30-50% reported in early pregnancy. Maternal adiposity is a costly challenge for Australian obstetric care, with associated serious maternal and neonatal complications. Excess gestational weight gain is an important predictor of offspring adiposity into adulthood and higher maternal weight later in life. Current public health and perinatal care approaches in Australia do not adequately address excess perinatal maternal weight or gestational weight gain. This paper argues that the failure of primary health-care providers to offer systematic advice and support regarding women's weight and related lifestyle behaviours in child-bearing years is an outstanding 'missed opportunity' for prevention of inter-generational overweight and obesity. Barriers to action could be addressed through greater attention to: clinical guidelines for maternal weight management for the perinatal period, training and support of maternal health-care providers to develop skills and confidence in raising weight issues with women, a variety of weight management programs provided by state maternal health services, and clear referral pathways to them. Attention is also required to service systems that clearly define roles in maternal weight management and ensure consistency and continuity of support across the perinatal period. PMID:24176286

Miller, Margaret; Hearn, Lydia; van der Pligt, Paige; Wilcox, Jane; Campbell, Karen J

2014-01-01

356

Predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors using social cognitive theory: children in China.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four commonly suggested public health strategies to combat childhood obesity are limiting television viewing, encouraging daily physical activity, increasing fruit and vegetable intake, and increasing water consumption. This study examined the extent to which selected social cognitive theory constructs can predict these four behaviors in upper elementary Chinese children. A 55-item valid and reliable scale was administered to 282 fifth-graders. Minutes of physical activity was predicted by self-efficacy to exercise and number of times taught at school (R2 = 0.198). Hours of TV watching was predicted by self-efficacy of watching less than two hours of TV (R2 = 0.155). Glasses of water consumed was predicted by self-efficacy for drinking water, gender, and number of times taught about physical activity at school (R2 = 0.100). Servings of fruits and vegetables consumed was predicted by self-efficacy of eating fruits and vegetables (R2 = 0.197). Social cognitive theory offers a useful framework for designing primary prevention interventions to reduce childhood obesity. PMID:17686715

Murnan, Judy; Sharma, Manoj; Lin, Danhua

357

The effects of obesity on pulmonary function  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Methods: Sixty four obese patients underwent physical examination, standardised pulmonary function tests (spirometry, lung volumes, and single breath diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide), and DEXA scan measurements. The trunk and subtotal (total - head) body fat mass were used as surrogate index of body adiposity.

Li, A.; Chan, D.; Wong, E.; Yin, J.; Nelson, E.; Fok, T.

2003-01-01

358

The Effects of Obesity on Murine Cortical Bone  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation details the effects of obesity on the mechanical properties and structure of cortical bone. Obesity is associated with greater bone mineral content that might be expected to protect against fracture, which has been observed in adults. Paradoxically however, the incidence of bone fractures has been found to increase in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Femora from adolescent and adult mice fed a high-fat diet are investigated for changes in shape, tissue structure, as well as tissue-level and whole-bone mechanical properties. Results indicate increased bone size, reduced size-independent mechanical properties, but maintained size-dependent mechanical properties. Other changes in cortical bone response to obesity are observed with advancing age. This study indicates that bone quantity and bone quality play important compensatory roles in determining fracture risk, and that fracture risk may not be lessened for adults as previously thought.

Martin, Sophi

359

Effects of obesity and chronic low back pain on gait  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is often associated with low back pain (LBP. Despite empirical evidence that LBP induces gait abnormalities, there is a lack of quantitative analysis of the combined effect of obesity and LBP on gait. The aim of our study was to quantify the gait pattern of obese subjects with and without LBP and normal-mass controls by using Gait Analysis (GA, in order to investigate the cumulative effects of obesity and LBP on gait. Methods Eight obese females with chronic LBP (OLG; age: 40.5 ± 10.1 years; BMI: 42.39 ± 5.47 Kg/m2, 10 obese females (OG; age: 33.6 ± 5.2 years; BMI: 39.26 ± 2.39 Kg/m2 and 10 healthy female subjects (CG; age: 33.4 ± 9.6 years; BMI: 22.8 ± 3.2 Kg/m2, were enrolled in this study and assessed with video recording and GA. Results and Discussion OLG showed longer stance duration and shorter step length when compared to OG and CG. They also had a low pelvis and hip ROM on the frontal plane, a low knee flexion in the swing phase and knee range of motion, a low dorsiflexion in stance and swing as compared to OG. No statistically significant differences were found in ankle power generation at push-off between OLG and OG, which appeared lower if compared to CG. At hip level, both OLG and OG exhibited high power generation levels during stance, with OLG showing the highest values. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that the association of obesity and LBP affects more the gait pattern than obesity alone. OLG were in fact characterised by an altered knee and ankle strategy during gait as compared to OG and CG. These elements may help optimizing rehabilitation planning and treatment in these patients.

Galli Manuela

2011-09-01

360

Clinical practice: the effect of obesity in children with congenital heart disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many parts of the world. This epidemic has also affected children and adults with congenital heart disease (CHD). Over one quarter of children with CHD are overweight or obese. Important comorbidities are associated with obesity including type 2 diabetes, systemic hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and obstructive sleep apnea. Obese children with CHD often have the traditional risk factors such as genetic predisposition, sedentary lifestyle, and poor dietary habits. However, they may also have unique risk factors such as higher caloric needs in early infancy and exercise restriction in childhood. Similar to children with normal hearts, those with CHD have higher left ventricular mass and abnormal vascular function and are more likely to have systemic hypertension. In the long term, these comorbidities may have a more profound effect on children who have underlying functional and/or anatomical abnormalities of the heart. As more children with CHD are now surviving into adulthood, investigating therapeutic interventions to treat and prevent obesity in this population is of utmost importance. Recommendations for safe physical activity, recreation sport, and exercise training for children with CHD have recently been published. These guidelines may help health care providers to change their practice of exercise restriction. PMID:22549315

Cohen, Meryl S

2012-08-01

 
 
 
 
361

Process evaluation of a community-based adolescent obesity prevention project in Tonga  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising burden of obesity in Tonga is alarming. The promotion of healthy behaviours and environments requires immediate urgent action and a multi-sectoral approach. A three-year community based study titled the Ma'alahi Youth Project (MYP conducted in Tonga from 2005-2008 aimed to increase the capacity of the whole community (schools, churches, parents and adolescents to promote healthy eating and regular physical activity and to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity amongst youth and their families. This paper reflects on the process evaluation for MYP, against a set of Best Practice Principles for community-based obesity prevention. Methods MYP was managed by the Fiji School of Medicine. A team of five staff in Tonga were committed to planning, implementation and evaluation of a strategic plan, the key planks of which were developed during a two day community workshop. Intervention activities were delivered in villages, churches and schools, on the main island of Tongatapu. Process evaluation data covering the resource utilisation associated with all intervention activities were collected, and analysed by dose, frequency and reach for specific strategies. The action plan included three standard objectives around capacity building, social marketing and evaluation; four nutrition; two physical activity objectives; and one around championing key people as role models. Results While the interventions included a wide mix of activities straddling across all of these objectives and in both school and village settings, there was a major focus on the social marketing and physical activity objectives. The intervention reach, frequency and dose varied widely across all activities, and showed no consistent patterns. Conclusions The adolescent obesity interventions implemented as part of the MYP program comprised a wide range of activities conducted in multiple settings, touched a broad spectrum of the population (wider than the target group, but the dose and frequency of activities were generally insufficient and not sustained. Also the project confirmed that, while the MYP resulted in increased community awareness of healthy behaviours, Tonga is still in its infancy in terms of conducting public health research and lacks research infrastructure and capacity.

Pomana Siosifa

2011-05-01

362

All-trans retinoic acid stimulates gene expression of the cardioprotective natriuretic peptide system and prevents fibrosis and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes of obese ob/ob mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

In hypertensive rodents, retinoic acid (RA) prevents adverse cardiac remodelling and improves myocardial infarction outcome, but its role in obesity-related changes of cardiac tissue are unclear. We hypothesized that all-trans RA (ATRA) treatment will improve the cardioprotective oxytocin-natriuretic peptides (OT-NP) system, preventing apoptosis and collagen accumulation in hearts of ob/ob mice, a mouse model of obesity and insulin resistance. Female 9-week-old B6.V-Lep/J ob/ob mice (n = 16) were divided into 2 groups: 1 group (n = 8) treated with 100 ?g of ATRA dissolved in 100 ?L of corn oil (vehicle) delivered daily (?2 ?g·g body weight(-1)·day(-1)) by stomach intubation for 16 days, and 1 group (n = 8) that received the vehicle alone. A group of nonobese littermate mice (n = 9) served as controls. Ob/ob mice exhibited obesity, hyperglycaemia, and downregulation of the cardiac OT-NP system, including the mRNA for the transcription factor GATA4, OT receptor and brain NP, and the protein expression for endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Hearts from ob/ob mice also demonstrated increased apoptosis and collagen accumulation. ATRA treatment induced weight loss and decreased adipocytes diameter in the visceral fat, thus reducing visceral obesity, which is associated with a high risk for cardiovascular disease. RA treatment was associated with a reduction in hyperglycemia and a normalization of the OT-NP system's expression in the hearts of ob/ob mice. Furthermore, ATRA treatment prevented apoptosis and collagen accumulation in hearts of ob/ob mice. The present study indicates that ATRA treatment was effective in restoring the cardioprotective OT-NP system and in preventing abnormal cardiac remodelling in the ob/ob mice. PMID:25017112

Manolescu, Daniel-Constantin; Jankowski, Marek; Danalache, Bogdan A; Wang, Donghao; Broderick, Tom L; Chiasson, Jean-Louis; Gutkowska, Jolanta