Full Text Available In 1998 the World Health Organization declared childhood obesity as a “global epidemic.” It has also been observed that the health problems of adult obesity can be prevented, if obesity is controlled in childhood. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge and attitude regarding prevention of obesity and Correlate the knowledge and attitude regarding prevention of obesity among adolescents in a selected pre-university college. A pre-experimental one group pre-test post-test design was adopted. Convenience sampling technique used for selecting the adolescents. A structured knowledge questionnaire on prevention of obesity and a five-point Likert scale to assess the attitude regarding prevention of obesity were developed as the tools for data collection. The data obtained were analyzed based on the objectives and hypotheses, using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result showed that the mean post-test knowledge and attitude score of adolescents on prevention of obesity was higher than the mean pretest knowledge and attitude score. There was no correlation between knowledge and the attitude. The present study concludes that the teaching programme improved the knowledge and attitude of adolescents regarding prevention of obesity.
Prashanth K and Umarani J
Background Obesity prevention is an international public health priority. The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing in child populations throughout the world, impacting on short and long-term health. Obesity prevention strategies for children can change behaviour but efficacy in terms of preventing obesity remains poorly understood. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent obesity in childhood through diet, physical activity and/or li...
Summerbell, C. D.; Waters, E.; Edmunds, L. D.; Kelly, S. A. M.; Brown, T. A.; Campbell, K. J.
Full Text Available Obesity is a public health problem that has become epidemic worldwide. Substantial literature has emerged to show that overweight and obesity are major causes of co-morbidities, including type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, various cancers and other health problems, which can lead to further morbidity and mortality. The related health care costs are also substantial. Therefore, a public health approach to develop population-based strategies for the prevention of excess weight gain is of great importance. However, public health intervention programs have had limited success in tackling the rising prevalence of obesity. This paper reviews the definition of overweight and obesity and the variations with age and ethnicity; health consequences and factors contributing to the development of obesity; and critically reviews the effectiveness of current public health strategies for risk factor reduction and obesity prevention.
Obesity is a common and preventable disease of clinical and public health importance. It is often a major risk factor for the development of several non-communicable diseases, significant disability and premature death. There is presently a global epidemic of obesity in all age groups and in both developed and developing countries. The increasing prevalence of obesity places a large burden on health care use and costs. Weight loss is associated with significant health and economic benefits. E...
Full Text Available Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating energy intake and expenditure and body size mainly occurs in the first 1,000 days of life. Therefore, factors affecting the foetal exposition to maternal metabolic environment and early postnatal nutrition are crucial in modulating the definition of the metabolic programming processes in the brain. Maternal diseases, mainly malnutrition for defect or excess, obesity and diabetes, placental disorders and dysfunctions, maternal use of alcohol and drugs, smoking, affect long term metabolic programming of the foetus with lifelong consequences. Similarly, early nutrition contributes to complete the long-term metabolic regulating framework initiated in the uterus. Breastfeeding, adequate weaning, attention to portion size and diet composition are potential tools for reducing the obesity risk later in childhood. Longitudinal randomized controlled studies are needed for exploring the efficacy of obesity prevention strategies initiated after conception.Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou
A balanced and energy-restricted diet, exercise and behavior modification are the usual approaches used for obesity. Islamic fasting, which has the components of energy restriction and behavior modification, could be a safe nutritional approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity. For this reason, the effect of Islamic Fasting, an abstention from Foods, fluids and sex from dawn to sunset, on food intake, body weight and blood chemistry was studied in ten healthy adult male human subje...
Alam Khan; Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak, M.
Full Text Available Elizabeth TeixeiraDrexel University College of Nursing and Health Professions, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Obesity is a major public health concern worldwide. The increasing prevalence of obesity in all ages, especially children and adolescents, has gained global attention and it is widely known that obesity increases the risk of many chronic conditions and illnesses, such as Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Obesity is a complex metabolic disorder, however, that is difficult to treat and manage. Therefore, despite the increased awareness about obesity-related health risks, obesity prevention and control has been a major challenge for health professionals. Lifestyle modification is easily prescribed, however, multiple barriers to implementation exist. Barriers include but are not limited to: behavioral and motivational factors, anti-fat bias, access to and reimbursement of educational programs, availability of healthy affordable foods, ongoing support systems that are culturally and community attuned, and comorbidities that limit physical activity and quality of life. Further, the current health care systems are not all designed to focus on health promotion and wellness. These contributing factors complicate weight management and control. Community-based programs are one potentially feasible approach that can assist individuals, families, and communities in developing healthy behaviors that promote and maintain weight loss. This review reports on nine worldwide current studies on the effectiveness of community-based programs in diverse populations targeting obesity. The purpose of this review is to examine evidenced-based interventions that can assist in the development of standard practices in the battle against obesity.Keywords: obesity, community, prevention, physical activity, nutrition
The rise in income and population growth have increased the demand for food and induced changes in food habits, food purchasing and consumption patterns in Malaysia. With this transition, one of the plausible causes of weight gain and obesity is the frequent consumption of outside food which is synonymous with bigger portion size. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to develop a system dynamics model to analyse the effect of reducing food portion size on weight and obesity prevention. This study combines the different strands of knowledge comprise of nutrition, physical activity and body metabolism. These elements are synthesized into a system dynamics model called SIMULObese. Findings from this study suggested that changes in eating behavior should not emphasize only on limiting the food portion size consumption. The efforts should also consider other eating events such as controlling the meal frequency and limiting intake of high-calorie food in developing guidelines to prevent obesity.
Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Zulkepli, Jafri Hj; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura
Full Text Available A balanced and energy-restricted diet, exercise and behavior modification are the usual approaches used for obesity. Islamic fasting, which has the components of energy restriction and behavior modification, could be a safe nutritional approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity. For this reason, the effect of Islamic Fasting, an abstention from Foods, fluids and sex from dawn to sunset, on food intake, body weight and blood chemistry was studied in ten healthy adult male human subjects. Foods and Fluids intake before and in the first and fourth week of Fasting were recorded. Body weight of the participants was noted before and at the last day of Fasting. Blood samples before, in the second and fourth week of Fasting and two weeks after Fasting were collected. The daily reduction in energy (Food intake ranged from 200-1500 Kcal with an average value of 857? 410 Kcal. During the four weeks of Fasting, loss in body weight ranged from 0.5-6.0 Kg with an average value of 3.2?1.7 Kg. There were no significant differences in glucose, total protein, triglyceride and total, HDL and LDL cholesterol in the blood samples collected before, during and after the Fasting. The data suggest that Islamic Fasting is nutritionally safe and could be used as an effective strategy for prevention and control of obesity.
The extracts of Salacia reticulata (Salacia extract), a plant that has been used for the treatment of early diabetes, rheumatism and gonorrhea in Ayurveda, have been shown to have an anti-obesity effect and suppress hyperglycemia. In this study, the effects of Salacia extract on various symptoms of metabolic disorder were investigated and compared using these TSOD mice and non-obese TSNO mice. Body weight, food intake, plasma biochemistry, visceral and subcutaneous fat (X-ray and CT), glucose tolerance, blood pressure and pain tolerance were measured, and histopathological examination of the liver was carried out. A significant dose-dependent decline in the gain in body weight, accumulation of visceral and subcutaneous fat and an improvement of abnormal glucose tolerance, hypertension and peripheral neuropathy were noticed in TSOD mice. In addition, hepatocellular swelling, fatty degeneration of hepatocytes, inflammatory cell infiltration and single-cell necrosis were observed on histopathological examination of the liver in TSOD mice. Salacia extract markedly improved these symptoms upon treatment. Based on the above results, it is concluded that Salacia extract has remarkable potential to prevent obesity and associated metabolic disorders including the development of metabolic syndrome. PMID:19505975
Akase, Tomoko; Shimada, Tsutomu; Harasawa, Yukiko; Akase, Tomohide; Ikeya, Yukinobu; Nagai, Eiichi; Iizuka, Seiichi; Nakagami, Gojiro; Iizaka, Shinji; Sanada, Hiromi; Aburada, Masaki
Obesity is a public health problem that has become epidemic worldwide. Substantial literature has emerged to show that overweight and obesity are major causes of co-morbidities, including type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, various cancers and other health problems, which can lead to further morbidity and mortality. The related health care costs are also substantial. Therefore, a public health approach to develop population-based strategies for the prevention of excess weight gain is o...
Jean Woo; Chan, Ruth S. M.
As the emphasis on preventing obesity has grown, so have calls for interventions that extend beyond individual behaviors and address changes in environments and policies. Despite the need for policy action, little is known about policy approaches that are most effective at preventing obesity. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and others are funding the implementation and evaluation of new obesity prevention policies, presenting a distinct opportunity to learn from these pra...
Leeman, Jennifer; Sommers, Janice; Vu, Maihan; Jernigan, Jan; Payne, Gayle; Thompson, Diane; Heiser, Claire; Farris, Rosanne; Ammerman, Alice
Background: The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing worldwide. Obesity in children impacts on their health in both short- and long-term. Obesity prevention strategies are poorly understood. Objective: To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent obesity in childhood. Search strategy: Electronic databases were searched from January 1985 to October 1999. Selection criteria: Data from randomized control trials and non-randomized trials with concurre...
Campbell, K.; Waters, E.; O Meara, S.; Summerbell, C. D.
The extracts of Salacia reticulata (Salacia extract), a plant that has been used for the treatment of early diabetes, rheumatism and gonorrhea in Ayurveda, have been shown to have an anti-obesity effect and suppress hyperglycemia. In this study, the effects of Salacia extract on various symptoms of metabolic disorder were investigated and compared using these TSOD mice and non-obese TSNO mice. Body weight, food intake, plasma biochemistry, visceral and subcutaneous fat (X-ray and CT), glucose...
Tomoko Akase; Tsutomu Shimada; Yukiko Harasawa; Tomohide Akase; Yukinobu Ikeya; Eiichi Nagai; Seiichi Iizuka; Gojiro Nakagami; Shinji Iizaka; Hiromi Sanada; Masaki Aburada
Full Text Available Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to life expectancy and increased health problems. In keeping with the general international trend of rising prevalence of obesity, maternal obesity prevalence is rising. According to WHO, the prevalence of obesity in pregnancy ranges from 1.8 to 25.3%. Maternal obesity has been identified to be a risk factor for maternal and perinatal mortality. The aim of this article was reviewed in research about maternal obesity in Pubmed, which published between 2009 and 2010. 7 reviews and 13 studies was examined and they presented under this headings: impacts of maternal obesity in pregnancy, obstetric outcomes of maternal obesity, postpartum outcomes of maternal obesity, impact of maternal obesity on breastfeeding, impact of maternal obesity on procedure of anomaly scan and risk determination, maternal obesity and fetal complications, impact of maternal obesity on Apgar scores, obesity and infertility, pregnancy following bariatric surgery, long term effects of obesity, management of maternal obesity. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 353-364
Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the ...
Merchant Anwar T; Akhtar-Danesh Noori; Dehghan Mahshid
Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity have a dramatic negative impact on children's health not only during the childhood but also throughout the adult life. Preventing the development of obesity in children is therefore a world-wide health priority. There is an obvious urge for sustainable and evidenced-based interventions that are suitable for families with young children, especially for families with overweight or obese parents. We have developed a prevention program, Early STOPP, combating multiple obesity-promoting behaviors such unbalanced diet, physical inactivity and disturbed sleeping patterns. We also aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the early childhood obesity prevention in a well-characterized population of overweight or obese parents. This protocol outlines methods for the recruitment phase of the study. Design and methods This randomized controlled trial (RCT targets overweight and/or obese parents with infants, recruited from the Child Health Care Centers (CHCC within the Stockholm area. The intervention starts when infants are one year of age and continues until they are six and is regularly delivered by a trained coach (dietitian, physiotherapist or a nurse. The key aspects of Early STOPP family intervention are based on Swedish recommendations for CHCC, which include advices on healthy food choices and eating patterns, increasing physical activity/reducing sedentary behavior and regulating sleeping patterns. Discussion The Early STOPP trial design addresses weaknesses of previous research by recruiting from a well-characterized population, defining a feasible, theory-based intervention and assessing multiple measurements to validate and interpret the program effectiveness. The early years hold promise as a time in which obesity prevention may be most effective. To our knowledge, this longitudinal RCT is the first attempt to demonstrate whether an early, long-term, targeted health promotion program focusing on healthy eating, physical activity/reduced sedentary behaviors and normalizing sleeping patterns could be effective. If proven so, Early STOPP may protect children from the development of overweight and obesity. Trial registration The protocol for this study is registered with the clinical trials registry clinicaltrials.gov, ID: ES-2010
Full Text Available Global increases in obesity have led public health experts to declare this disease a pandemic. Although prevalent in all ages, the dire consequences associated with maternal obesity have a pronounced impact on the long-term health of their children as a result of the intergenerational effects of developmental programming. Previously, fetal under-nutrition has been linked to the predisposition to pediatric obesity explained by the adiposity rebound and ‘catch-up’ growth that occurs when a child born to a nutrient deprived mother is exposed to the obesogenic environment of present day. Given the recent increase in maternal overweight/obesity (OW/OB our attention has shifted from nutrient restriction to overabundance and excess during pregnancy. Consideration must now be given to interventions that could mitigate pregravid body mass index (BMI, attenuate gestational weight gain (GWG and reduce postpartum weight retention (PPWR in an attempt to prevent the downstream signaling of pediatric obesity and halt the intergenerational cycle of weight related disease currently plaguing our world. Thus, this paper will briefly review current research that best highlights the proposed mechanisms responsible for the development of child OW/OB and related sequalae (e.g. type II diabetes (T2D and cardiovascular disease (CVD resulting from maternal obesity.
The primary prevention of adult obesity requires combined efforts by stakeholders at various societal levels, based on the knowledge from multiple disciplines. The goal of the present study was, therefore, to analyze current preventive approaches and delineate implications for future prevention research and practice by integrating knowledge from genetics, law, economics, psychology, and social ethics (Figure 1). Inconclusive evidence on the etiology of obesity, a complex, multifactorial condition, likely complicates prevention, contributing to a lack of specificity regarding target groups, focus, and techniques of prevention. Given the urgency and significance of the "obesity problem" that requires immediate and effective solutions, it is recommended that the various existing and developing prevention programs are evaluated to ensure orientation at current risk factor research. Results from genetic risk factor research can be used as a rationale to increase specificity of preventive measures regarding identification of high-risk groups, timing, and goals of prevention. Further, it is important to evaluate prevention programs for systematic application of behavior modification techniques and consideration of individual risk factors and resources to ensure promotion of long-term behavior change that leads to weight maintenance and a reduction of incidence rates of obesity in adults (Figure 3). Although the primary prevention of childhood obesity may lead to a reduction of incidence rates of obesity in adults, high rates of adult-onset obesity and the related medical and psychosocial sequelae in adulthood underscore the necessity of preventive efforts for adults. Concerning the environmental basis of obesity prevention, in many countries, the institutional and legal framework of preventive approaches requires further examination in order to improve funding, coordination between multiple stakeholders, and implementation of prevention in the health-care system. Evidence on risk factors for obesity is also crucial to inform network approaches and to justify restrictive legal options for the purpose of prevention. Here, self-defeating sanctions of the relevant industries may be a viable first step toward obesity prevention. As taxes or subsidies are limited in feasibility (Figure 2), relevant industries could be involved in the design and promotion of "healthy" products, stimulating greater request of such products. Network approaches appear suited to involve companies and other relevant stakeholders of prevention efforts on adult obesity. Yet these approaches require greater societal conscience about the severity of the obesity problem in adults and its multifactorial etiology. Recognizing the multifactorial etiology of obesity and acknowledging that weight regulation is only somewhat within personal responsibility may therefore lead to destigmatize obese individuals as the focus is shifted away from blaming them toward a more realistic understanding of this condition. Responsibility for the development of obesity and the prevention of weight gain is in multiple areas: law, policy, industry, health-care institutions, medical professions, and the individual - all should contribute to obesity prevention. Overall, the current analysis shows that an interdisciplinary perspective furthers understanding of the complexity of this condition and can inform public-health strategies on the prevention of adult obesity. PMID:17972027
Hilbert, Anja; Ried, Jens; Schneider, Daniel; Juttner, Clemens; Sosna, Marc; Dabrock, Peter; Lingenfelder, Michael; Voit, Wolfgang; Rief, Winfried; Hebebrand, Johannes
Sleep may affect energy balance. Sleep may not be the only answer to the obesity pandemic, but its effect should be considered seriously, as even small changes in the energy balance are beneficial. Good sleep could be part of the obesity prevention approach.
... Risks Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Coronary Heart Disease High Blood Pressure Metabolic Syndrome Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome Physical Activity and Your Heart Send ...
This podcast is based on the August, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Childhood obesity is an epidemic in the US. Breastfeeding can help prevent obesity, but one in three moms stop without hospital support. About 95% of hospitals lack policies that fully support breastfeeding moms. Hospitals need to do more to help moms start and continue breastfeeding. Created: 8/2/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 8/2/2011.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to life expectancy and increased health problems. In keeping with the general international trend of rising prevalence of obesity, maternal obesity prevalence is rising. According to WHO, the prevalence of obesity in pregnancy ranges from 1.8 to 25.3%. Maternal obesity has been identified to be a risk factor for maternal and perinatal mortality. The aim of this article was reviewed in...
Emre Yanikkerem; Selviye Mutlu
Abstract Background Overweight and obesity have a dramatic negative impact on children's health not only during the childhood but also throughout the adult life. Preventing the development of obesity in children is therefore a world-wide health priority. There is an obvious urge for sustainable and evidenced-based interventions that are suitable for families with young children, especially for families with overweight or obese parents. We have developed a prevention program, ...
Cao Yingting; Johansson Elin; Karlsson Håkan; Ekstedt Mirjam; Ek Anna; Svensson Viktoria; Sobko Tanja; Hagströmer Maria; Marcus Claude
Stimulation of the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse immune-system with a single bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination can inhibit the development of diabetes. The optimal dose, and the time and number of vaccinations is still to be clarified. In this study we evaluated the protective effect of repeated BCG vaccinations on preventing diabetes in NOD mice. 17/32 (53%) of the control group, 8/31 (26%) of the single vaccine-treated (at age 35 days) mice, and 7/23 (30%) of the single vaccine-treated (at age 90 days) mice developed diabetes, and none of the repeated BCG vaccination (at age 35 & 90 days, n = 14) animals developed the disease, up to 250 days of age (p < 0.05, compared with controls and each of the single-vaccination groups). While the severity of insulitis was lower in repeatedly BCG-treated mice at age 120 days as compared with controls and single BCG-vaccination groups, we could not detect significant differences in the Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression between the various groups. There were no differences in weight gain and blood hematocrit between the different groups. Our report demonstrates that repeated BCG vaccination is safe and more effective than a single dose in preventing type I diabetes in NOD mice. This data should be considered in planning new human trials with BCG. PMID:9434805
Shehadeh, N; Etzioni, A; Cahana, A; Teninboum, G; Gorodetsky, B; Barzilai, D; Karnieli, E
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Prevention of childhood obesity is an international public health priority given the significant impact of obesity on acute and chronic diseases, general health, development and well-being. The international evidence base for strategies that governments, communities and families can im [...] plement to prevent obesity, and promote health, has been accumulating but remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This review primarily aims to update the previous Cochrane review of childhood obesity prevention research and determine the effectiveness of evaluated interventions intended to prevent obesity in children, assessed by change in Body Mass Index (BMI). Secondary aims were to examine the characteristics of the programs and strategies to answer the questions "What works for whom, why and for what cost?" METHODS: Search methods: The searches were re-run in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO and CINAHL in March 2010 and searched relevant websites. Non-English language papers were included and experts were contacted. Selection criteria: The review includes data from childhood obesity prevention studies that used a controlled study design (with or without randomisation). Studies were included if they evaluated interventions, policies or programs in place for twelve weeks or more. If studies were randomized at a cluster level, six clusters were required. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Data was extracted on intervention implementation, cost, equity and outcomes. Outcome measures were grouped according to whether they measured adiposity, physical activity (PA)-related behaviours or diet-related behaviours. Adverse outcomes were recorded. A meta-analysis was conducted using available BMI or standardized BMI (zBMI) score data with subgroup analysis by age group (0-5, 6-12, 13-18 years, corresponding to stages of developmental and childhood settings). MAIN RESULTS: This review includes 55 studies (an additional 36 studies found for this update). The majority of studies targeted children aged v 6-12 years. The meta-analysis included 37 studies of 27,946 children and demonstrated that programmes were effective at reducing adiposity, although not all individual interventions were effective, and there was a high level of observed heterogeneity (I2 = 82%). Overall, children in the intervention group had a standardised mean difference in adiposity (measured as BMI or zBMI) of -0.15kg/m2 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.21 to -0.09). Intervention effects by age subgroups were -0.26kg/m2 (95% CI -0.53 to 0.00) (0- 5 years), - 0.15 kg/m2 (95% CI -0.23 to -0.08) (6-12 years), and -0.09 kg/m2 (95% CI -0.20 to 0.03) (13-18 years). Heterogeneity was apparent in all three age groups and could not explained by randomisation status or the type, duration or setting of the intervention. Only eight studies reported on adverse effects and no evidence of adverse outcomes such as unhealthy dieting practices, increased prevalence of underweight or body image sensitivities was found. Interventions did not appear to increase health inequalities although this was examined in fewer studies. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found strong evidence to support beneficial effects of child obesity prevention programmes on BMI, particularly for programmes targeted to children aged six to 12 years. However, given the unexplained heterogeneity and the likelihood of small study bias, these findings must be interpreted cautiously. A broad range of programme components were used in these studies and whilst it is not possible to distinguish which of these components contributed most to the beneficial effects observed, our synthesis indicates the following to be promising policies and strategies: school curriculum that includes healthy eating, physical activity and body image; increased sessions for physical activity and the development of fundamental movement skills throughout the school week; improvements in nu
Elizabeth, Waters; Andrea de, Silva-Sanigorski; Belinda J., Burford; Tamara, Brown; Karen J., Campbell; Yang, Gao; Rebecca, Armstrong; Lauren, Prosser; Carolyn D., Summerbell.
Full Text Available Objective: This work focuses on clinical psychologist’ presence within childhood obesity prevention programmes in several countries. Method: The Authors collected articles considering psychological, biological and social aspects linked to childhood obesity. Results: Studies reveal that childhood obesity prevention programmes are based on biological, medical and educational aspects; clinical psychologists up until now have been engaged almost exclusively in the treatment of obesity. Conclusions: There is a clear need to consider psychological aspects (emotional, cognitive and relational related to the childhood obesity’s causes and involve psychologists in its prevention projects. Keywords: childhood obesity, overweight, multidisciplinary approach, clinical psychology, prevention, treatment
Maria Catena Quattropani
Objective: This work focuses on clinical psychologist’ presence within childhood obesity prevention programmes in several countries. Method: The Authors collected articles considering psychological, biological and social aspects linked to childhood obesity. Results: Studies reveal that childhood obesity prevention programmes are based on biological, medical and educational aspects; clinical psychologists up until now have been engaged almost exclusively in the treatment of obesity. Conclusi...
Maria Catena Quattropani; Teresa Buccheri
The increased prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity is not unique to industrialized societies; dramatic increases are occurring in urbanized areas of developing countries. In light of the consensus that obesity is a significant public health concern and that many weight-loss interventions have been unsuccessful in the long term, an exploration of food patterns that are beneficial in the primary prevention of obesity is warranted. The focus of this article is to review the relation between vegetarian diets and obesity, particularly as they relate to childhood obesity. Epidemiologic studies indicate that vegetarian diets are associated with a lower body mass index (BMI) and a lower prevalence of obesity in adults and children. A meta-analysis of adult vegetarian diet studies estimated a reduced weight difference of 7.6 kg for men and 3.3 kg for women, which resulted in a 2-point lower BMI (in kg/m(2)). Similarly, compared with nonvegetarians, vegetarian children are leaner, and their BMI difference becomes greater during adolescence. Studies exploring the risk of overweight and food groups and dietary patterns indicate that a plant-based diet seems to be a sensible approach for the prevention of obesity in children. Plant-based diets are low in energy density and high in complex carbohydrate, fiber, and water, which may increase satiety and resting energy expenditure. Plant-based dietary patterns should be encouraged for optimal health and environmental benefits. Food policies are warranted to support social marketing messages and to reduce the cultural and economic forces that make it difficult to promote plant-based dietary patterns. PMID:20237136
Sabaté, Joan; Wien, Michelle
The global obesity epidemic is associated with a sedentary lifestyle and diets rich in high-fat, high-energy foods. The potential role of fruit in preventing overweight and obesity is related to their relatively low energy density, high content of dietary fibre, and associated increasing satiety effect. The physical disruption of fruit is of considerable importance for satiety, as shown in studies in which fruit juices were less satisfying compared to sugar-equivalent intakes of purees and whole fruits. The potential role of fruit in the prevention of overweight and obesity may be connected to the dietary pattern of fruit intake, and with the possibility that fruit intake may substitute for other, more energy-dense foods. The majority of human prospective cohort studies in adults suggest a preventive effect of increased fruit intake oil body weight gain; whereas a few studies have suggested the opposite, in the case of fruit juices. Prospective studies oil children are few and inconclusive, but suggest associations between fruit intake and body weight that are related to the initial nutritional status. In behavioural intervention studies, subjects are often advised to undergo several changes towards a healthy diet and lifestyle, making it impossible to quantity the specific effect of fruit intake oil body weight. In the few available intervention studies in adults, the Study period was often too short to allow measures of body weight changes, and studies oil overweight or obese subjects may not apply to subjects of normal weight. Intervention studies targeted at school children showed that such schemes call be effective in increasing fruit intake, but a convincing role for increased fruit intake in the prevention of overweight and obesity in children still needs to be established. The present evidence suggests that fruit consumption has a potential role in the prevention of overweight and obesity.
Tetens, Inge; Alinia, Sevil
OBJECTIVES: (1) To evaluate the evidence relating to the effectiveness of methods to prevent and treat obesity, and (2) to provide recommendations for the prevention and treatment of obesity in adults aged 18 to 65 years and for the measurement of the body mass index (BMI) as part of a periodic health examination. OPTIONS: In adults with obesity (BMI greater than 27) management options include weight reduction, prevention of further weight gain or no intervention. OUTCOMES: The long-term (mor...
Douketis, J. D.; Feightner, J. W.; Attia, J.; Feldman, W. F.
Over the years, obesity prevention has been a broadly studied subject by both academicians and practitioners. It is one of the most serious public health issue as it can cause numerous chronic health and psychosocial problems. Research is needed to suggest a population-based strategy for obesity prevention. In the academic environment, the importance of obesity prevention has triggered various problem solving approaches. A good obesity prevention model, should comprehend and cater all complex and dynamics issues. Hence, the main purpose of this paper is to discuss the qualitative and quantitative approaches on obesity prevention study and to provide an extensive literature review on various recent modelling techniques for obesity prevention. Based on these literatures, the comparison of both quantitative and qualitative approahes are highlighted and the justification on the used of system dynamics technique to solve the population of obesity is discussed. Lastly, a potential framework solution based on system dynamics modelling is proposed.
Zulkepli, Jafri; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura
There is mounting evidence that current food production, transport, land use and urban design negatively impact both climate change and obesity outcomes. Recommendations to prevent climate change provide an opportunity to improve environmental outcomes and alter our food and physical activity environments in favour of a 'healthier' energy balance. Hence, setting goals to achieve a more sustainable society offers a unique opportunity to reduce levels of obesity. In the case of children, this approach is supported with evidence that even from a young age they show emerging understandings of complex environmental issues and are capable of both internalizing positive environmental values and influencing their own environmental outcomes. Given young children's high levels of environmental awareness, it is easy to see how environmental sustainability messages may help educate and motivate children to make 'healthier' choices. The purpose of this paper is to highlight a new approach to tackling childhood obesity by tapping into existing social movements, such as environmental sustainability, in order to increase children's motivation for healthy eating and physical activity behaviours and thus foster more wholesome communities. We contend that a social marketing framework may be a particularly useful tool to foster behaviour change beneficial to both personal and environmental health by increasing perceived benefits and reducing perceived costs of behaviour change. Consequently, we propose a new framework which highlights suggested pathways for helping children initiate and sustain 'healthier' behaviours in order to inform future research and potentially childhood obesity intervention strategies. PMID:23392756
Skouteris, Helen; Cox, Rachael; Huang, Terry; Rutherford, Leonie; Edwards, Susan; Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy
Cellular telephony has become a bright example of co-evolution of human society and information technology. This trend has also been reflected in health care and health promotion projects which included cell phones in data collection and communication chain. While many successful projects have been realized, the review of phone-based data collection techniques reveals that the existing technologies do not completely address health promotion research needs. The paper presents approaches which close this gap by extending existing versatile platforms. The messaging systems are designed for a health-promotion research to prevent obesity and obesity-related health disparities among low-income Latino adolescent girls. Messaging and polling mechanisms are used to communicate and automatically process response data for the target constituency. Preliminary survey data provide an insight on phone availability and technology perception for the study group.
Akopian, David; Jayaram, Varun; Aaleswara, Lakshmipathi; Esfahanian, Moosa; Mojica, Cynthia; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Kaghyan, Sahak
In recent decades, obesity has become a major public health problem in developed societies and economies in transition. Rapid social changes that have occurred since the mid 20th century prompted major changes in eating habits and lifestyles, with the gradual abandonment of traditional dietary patterns and culinary techniques, significant decrease in physical activity and increased sedentary time, giving as result in an imbalance in the energy balance. Obesity is a risk factor for many chronic diseases. There is evidence that childhood obesity influences adult health condition. Additionally, obesity in children affects their physical, emotional and social wellbeing. According to some estimates the cost of obesity may represent up to 12% of health cost in some countries. Many actions have been developed since around the year 2000 WHO alerted about the problem. The analysis of the factors involved in the origin of the problem have led to recognize the importance of creating supportive environments for healthier food choices and physical activity to be the easiest and accessible options in common everyday environments, such as schools, workplace or community environment. Evidence is long available that the most effective interventions to prevent childhood obesity should consider multiple strategies and last longer. Today it is also recognized the importance of implementing policies that encourage supportive friendly environments for physical activity and help decisions to opt for healthy eating habits. PMID:24010753
Aranceta Bartrina, Javier
The prevalence of obesity for children and adolescents in Germany has increased during the past 20 years. Because the success rate of therapy is low, prevention seems to be the only solution. Prevention should begin early in life. School is an ideal setting for the implementation of prevention strategies. The aim of this review was to compare results of school-based prevention programs and to identify effective methods. A systematic literature search for studies published between 1990 and 2009 was conducted. A total of 22 studies were considered for inclusion. Combined interventions including nutrition, physical activity, and television viewing modification are effective. The intervention should last for at least one year. Installation of water fountains in schools, implementation of the topics "sugar-containing drinks" and "television viewing" in the curriculum, modification of existing physical education and more physical activity during the school day are effective prevention strategies. PMID:20119665
Brandt, S; Moss, A; Berg, S; Wabitsch, M
BackgroundEmerging evidence supports a relationship between risk factors for obesity and the genesis of the common mental disorders, depression and anxiety. This suggests common mental disorders should be considered as a form of non-communicable disease, preventable through the modification of lifestyle behaviours, particularly diet and physical activity.DiscussionObesity prevention research since the 1970¿s represents a considerable body of knowledge regarding strategies to modify diet and physical activity and so there may be clear lessons from obesity prevention that apply to the prevention of mental disorders. For obesity, as for common mental disorders, adolescence represents a key period of vulnerability. In this paper we briefly discuss relationships between modifiable lifestyle risk factors and mental health, lifestyle risk factor interventions in obesity prevention research, the current state of mental health prevention, and the implications of current applications of systems thinking in obesity prevention research for lifestyle interventions.SummaryWe propose a potential focus for future mental health promotion interventions and emphasise the importance of lessons available from other lifestyle modification intervention programmes. PMID:25204469
Hayward, Joshua; Jacka, Felice N; Waters, Elizabeth; Allender, Steven
Full Text Available IntroductionBecause of the public’s growing awareness of the childhood obesity epidemic, health policies that address obesogenic environments by encouraging healthy eating and increased physical activity are gaining more attention. However, there has been little systematic examination of state policy efforts. This study identified and described state-level childhood obesity prevention legislation introduced and adopted from 2003 through 2005 and attempted to identify regional geographic patterns of introduced legislation.MethodsA scan of legislation from all 50 states identified 717 bills and 134 resolutions that met study inclusion criteria. Analyses examined patterns in the introduction and adoption of legislation by time, topic area, and geography.ResultsOverall, 17% of bills and 53% of resolutions were adopted. The amount of legislation introduced and adopted increased from 2003 through 2005. The topic areas with the most introduced legislation were school nutrition standards and vending machines (n = 238; physical education and physical activity (n = 191; and studies, councils, or task forces (n = 110. Community-related topic areas of walking and biking paths (37%, farmers’ markets (36%, and statewide initiatives (30% had the highest proportion of bills adopted, followed by model school policies (29% and safe routes to school (28%. Some regional geographic patterns in the introduction of legislation were observed. There was no statistical association between state-level adult obesity prevalence and introduction of legislation.ConclusionPublic health and health policy practitioners can use this information to improve advocacy efforts and strengthen the political climate for establishing childhood obesity prevention legislation within state governments. Expanded surveillance (including standardized identification and cataloging of introduced and adopted legislation will enhance the ability to assess progress and identify effective approaches. Future policy research should examine determinants, implementation, and effectiveness of legislation to prevent childhood obesity.
Tegan K. Boehmer, PhD, MPH
Childhood obesity is now a global problem throughout the world. The major factors affecting weight regulation and the development of obesity in children are the result of a large number of biological, behavioral, social, environmental, and economic factors and the complex interactions between them that promote a positive energy balance. The changes in the dietary habits with the adoption of sedentary life style increases manifold obesity-related diseases and their complications. An obese child later on grows up to become an obese adult. Therefore, the role of primary prevention along with methodical diet control, behavioral changes, and physical activity are the important strategies against the battle of childhood obesity. PMID:25298951
Kar, Subhranshu Sekhar; Dube, Rajani; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar
Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity in children in Mexico was among the countries with the highest prevalence's in the world. Mexico currently has few innovative and comprehensive experiences to help curb the growth of this serious public health problem. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a nutrition and physical activity strategy, called "Nutrition on the Go" ("nutrición en movimiento" in maintaining the BMI values of school children in the State of Mexico. Methods A two-stage cluster trial was carried out. Sixty schools were selected in the State of Mexico, of which 30 were randomly assigned to the intervention group (IG and 30 to the control group (CG. A total of 1020 fifth grade school children participated. The intervention strategy aimed to decrease the energy content of school breakfasts and include fruits and vegetables, as well as increase physical activity and the consumption of water during the time spent at school. The strategy was implemented over a 6-month period. Results The estimated probability (EP of obesity between baseline and the final stage for the IG decreased 1% (Initial EP = 11.8%, 95%CI 9.0, 15.2, final EP = 10.8, 95%CI 8.4, 13. For the CG, the probability increased 0.9% (baseline EP = 10.6%; 95%CI 8.1, 13.7; final EP = 11.5, 95%CI 9.0, 14.6. The interaction between the intervention and the stage is the average odd time corrected treatment effect, which is statistically significant (p = 0.01 (OR = 0.68, 95%CI 0.52, 091. This represents the interaction between intervention and stage, which is highly significant (p = 0.01 (OR = 0.68; 95%CI 0.52, 091. In addition, girls had a protective effect on obesity (OR = 0.56; 95%CI 0.39, 0.80. Conclusions The intervention strategy is effective in maintaining the BMI of school children.
Shamah Levy Teresa
Abstract Background Obesity is a major public health issue; however, only limited evidence is available about effective ways to prevent obesity, particularly in early childhood. Romp & Chomp was a community-wide obesity prevention intervention conducted in Geelong Australia with a target group of 12,000 children aged 0-5 years. The intervention had an environmental and capacity building focus and we have recently demonstrated that the prevalence of overweight/obesity...
de Groot Florentine P; Robertson Narelle M; Swinburn Boyd A; de Silva-Sanigorski Andrea M
Background: United States pediatric guidelines recommend that childhood obesity counseling be conducted in the primary care setting. Primary care-based interventions can be effective in improving health behaviors, but also costly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost of a primary care-based obesity prevention intervention targeting children between the ages of two and six years who are at elevated risk for obesity, measured against usual care. Methods: High Five for Kids was a c...
Wright, Davene R.; Taveras, Elsie M.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Horan, Christine M.; Hohman, Katherine H.; Gortmaker, Steven L.; Prosser, Lisa A.
Obesity rates for children, adolescents, and adults continue to escalate in the United States and globally. Educators, health specialists, psychologists, and sociologists are studying the complex problems related to early obesity. Like other health problems, prevention and early detection are the most effective strategies. The causes and…
Stegelin, Dolores A.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to reveal the various strategies for preventing and managing overweight and obesity in relation to reducing morbidity and mortality due to overweight and obesity. Thus, overweight and obesity are defined as Body Mass Index (BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 and > 30.0 kg/m2 respectively. Overweight and obesity are complex multifactorial chronic diseases that develop from an interaction of genotype and the environment. It was therefore concluded that overweight and obesity involve the interaction of social, behavioural, cultural, physiological, metabolic and genetic factors. Thus, it was recommended that multi-component intervention which include nutrition and physical activities and strategies such as providing nutrition education or dietary prescription, physical activity, pharmacological and behavioural skills development and training could help to prevent and manage overweight and obesity.
Elvis I. Agbonlahor
Although obese individuals utilize health care at higher rates than their normal weight counterparts, they may be less likely to receive certain preventive services. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of veterans with visits to 136 national Veterans Affairs (VA) outpatient clinics in the United States in the year 2000. The cohort included 1,699,219 patients: 94% men, 48% white, and 76% overweight or obese. Overweight and obese patients had higher adjusted odds of receiving each of the targeted clinical preventive services as recommended over 5 years compared with normal weight patients. The odds for receiving vaccinations increased linearly with BMI category: influenza (men: odds ratio (OR) = 1.13 for overweight to OR = 1.42 for obese class 3; women: OR = 1.15 for overweight to OR = 1.61 for obese class 3) and pneumococcus (men: OR = 1.02 for overweight to OR = 1.15 for obese class 3; women: OR = 1.08 for overweight to OR = 1.28 for obese class 3). The odds for receiving the cancer screening services typically peaked in the mild-moderately obese categories. The highest OR for prostate cancer screening was in obese class 2 (OR = 1.29); for colorectal cancer, obese class 1 (men: OR = 1.15; women OR = 1.10); for breast cancer screening, obese class 2 (OR = 1.19); and for cervical cancer screening, obese class 2 (OR = 1.06). In a large national sample, obese patients received preventive services at higher, not lower, rates than their normal weight peers. This may be due to the VA health service coverage and performance directives, a more homogeneous patient demographic profile, and/or unmeasured factors related to service receipt. PMID:20203629
Yancy, William S; McDuffie, Jennifer R; Stechuchak, Karen M; Olsen, Maren K; Oddone, Eugene Z; Kinsinger, Linda S; Datta, Santanu K; Fisher, Deborah A; Krause, Katrina M; Østbye, Truls
The primary prevention of childhood obesity requires combined efforts by stakeholders at various societal levels, based on the knowledge from multiple disciplines. The goal of the present study was therefore to analyze current preventive approaches and delineate implications for future prevention research and practice by integrating knowledge from genetics, law, economics, psychology, and social ethics. Inconclusive evidence on the etiology of obesity, a complex, multifactorial condition, likely complicates prevention, leading to a lack of specificity regarding target groups, focus, and techniques. It is recommended to increase the specificity of prevention by explicitly considering risk factor evidence, including evidence on genetic factors. Because the institutional and legal framework of primary obesity prevention in children is insufficient in many countries, considering the risk factors for childhood obesity is also crucial for establishing a basis for legal regulations. Companies from sectors concerned with food intake and physical activity may be involved in preventive action, e.g., for initiating self-defeating sanctions. Long-term behavior change may be enhanced through the systematic application of behavior modification techniques within primary prevention programs. Overall, an interdisciplinary perspective furthers understanding of the complexity of this condition and can inform public health strategies on the primary prevention of childhood obesity. PMID:20054158
Hilbert, Anja; Ried, Jens; Schneider, Daniel; Juttner, Clemens; Sosna, Marc; Dabrock, Peter; Lingenfelder, Michael; Voit, Wolfgang; Rief, Winfried; Hebebrand, Johannes
This 60 second Public Service Announcement (PSA) is based on the August, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Childhood obesity is an epidemic in the US. Breastfeeding can help prevent obesity, but one in three moms stop without hospital support. About 95% of hospitals lack policies that fully support breastfeeding moms. Hospitals need to do more to help moms start and continue breastfeeding. Created: 8/2/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 8/2/2011.
Childhood obesity is epidemic in the United States and other industrialized countries across the globe. This trend is alarming, because childhood obesity is associated with the early onset of serious health problems, including Type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, orthopedic problems, behavioral disorders, and asthma. Mounting evidence also…
Winter, Suzanne M.
Overweight and obesity in children are recognized as a major health problem. The ToyBox-intervention was developed with the aim of preventing obesity in pre-schoolers. Because it is increasingly important to inform policy makers not only on the effects of prevention interventions, but also on their costs and cost-effectiveness, our purpose was to establish a method to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the ToyBox-intervention. In order to estimate the long-term impact of the ToyBox-intervention on health and societal costs, extrapolations of the intervention effect will be conducted to predict children's weight status (based on the body mass index) at adult age. Effects of the adult weight status on the prevalence of obesity-related complications will be modelled through a Markov model, with a total time horizon of 70 years and a cycle length of 1 year. The model will be conducted in six European countries participating in the ToyBox-intervention, based on country-specific economic and epidemiological data. This study describes the methodological rationale and implementation of an analytic model to examine the cost-effectiveness of the ToyBox-intervention for six European countries, in order to inform decision-makers on the value for money of this intervention in the prevention of obesity in pre-schoolers. PMID:25047383
Pil, L; Putman, K; Cardon, G; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Manios, Y; Androutsos, O; Lateva, M; Iotova, V; Zych, K; Gó?d?, M; González-Gil, E M; De Miguel-Etayo, P; Geyer, C; Birnbaum, J; Annemans, L
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Where appropriate, evidence-based methods of prophylaxis are implemented and the burden of VTE can be reduced substantially. Obesity, including morbid obesity, is associated with a high risk of VTE and, unfortunately, fixed doses of US FDA-approved anticoagulant regimens, including unfractionated heparins, low-molecular-weight heparins and factor Xa inhibitors, may not provide optimal VTE ...
Freeman, Andrew L.; Pendleton, Robert C.; Rondina, Matthew T.
Abstract: Obesity, diabetes and oral diseases (dental cariesand periodontal diseases), largely preventable chronic diseases, are described as global pandemic due their distribution and severe consequences. WHO has called for a global action for prevention and promotion of these diseases as a vital investment in urgent need. Diabetes and obesity, showing an increasing trend, lead to disabilities and negatively impacts on the quality of life through life course along with oral diseases. WHO projects that the prevalence of diabetes and deaths/year attrituble to diabetes complications will double worldwide by 2030. Globally, more than 1 billion adults are overweight; almost 300 million of them are clinically obese. Being obese/overweight raises steeply the likelihood of developing DM2. Approximately 85% of people with diabetes are DM2, and of these 90% are obese or overweight. Obesity increases the likelihood of periodontitis which is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide, described as pandemic, and closely related to DM2. Promoting good oral health is significantly essential for prevention and reducing the negative consequences of periodontal diseases, DM2 and obesity, and to maintain good health, as proposed by European health goals by WHO.
Cinar, Ayse Basak
The prevalence and severity of pediatric obesity have dramatically increased since the late 1980s, raising concerns about a subsequent increase in cardiovascular outcomes. Strong evidence, particularly from autopsy studies, supports the concept that precursors of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) begin in childhood, and that pediatric obesity has an important influence on overall CVD risk. Lifestyle patterns also begin early and impact CVD risk. In addition, obesity and other CVD risk factors tend to persist over time. However, whether childhood obesity causes adult CVD directly, or does so by persisting as adult obesity, or both, is less clear. Regardless, sufficient data exist to warrant early implementation of both obesity prevention and treatment in youth and adults. In this Review, we examine the evidence supporting the impact of childhood obesity on adult obesity, surrogate markers of CVD, components of the metabolic syndrome, and the development of CVD. We also evaluate how obesity treatment strategies can improve risk factors and, ultimately, adverse clinical outcomes. PMID:21670745
Nadeau, Kristen J.; Maahs, David M.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Eckel, Robert H.
Full Text Available Still more alarming obesity studies show in fact that it is largely due to incorrect diet and lifestyle. For suitable alternative for prevention of this disease are now considered cereal foods, mainly based on increased fiber content. The importance of dietary fiber for human organism consist primarily in its protective function before civilization diseases. It has beneficial effects on digestive physiology and it is therefore an important factor in the prevention of obesity, but also other diseases. Fiber consumption in developed countries is low and it is below the lower limit of the recommended dose. Slovaks per day take only 10-12 g of fiber, which represents only 47% of the recommended dose. Recent large-scale epidemiological studies have shown that regular consumption of wholegrain cereals can reduce the risk of heart disease and certain cancers by 30 percent. One of the factors that increase the functionality of foods is the so-called indigestible resistant starch. For its the positive impact on the physiology of digestion is referred to as prebiotics new generation of dietary fiber. The increasing availability of tasty, whole grain products rich in fiber could be health benefits. doi:10.5219/76
Obesity is increasing worldwide with the Pacific region having the highest prevalence among adults. The most common precursor of adult obesity is adolescent obesity making this a critical period for prevention. The Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project was a four-country project (Fiji, Tonga, New Zealand and Australia) designed to prevent adolescent obesity. This paper overviews the project and the methods common to the four countries. Each country implemented a community-based intervention programme promoting healthy eating, physical activity and healthy weight in adolescents. A community capacity-building approach was used, with common processes employed but with contextualized interventions within each country. Changes in anthropometric, behavioural and perception outcomes were evaluated at the individual level and school environments and community capacity at the settings level. The evaluation tools common to each are described. Additional analytical studies included economic, socio-cultural and policy studies. The project pioneered many areas of obesity prevention research: using multi-country collaboration to build research capacity; testing a capacity-building approach in ethnic groups with very high obesity prevalence; costing complex, long-term community intervention programmes; systematically studying the powerful socio-cultural influences on weight gain; and undertaking a participatory, national, priority-setting process for policy interventions using simulation modelling of cost-effectiveness of interventions. PMID:22008554
Swinburn, B A; Millar, L; Utter, J; Kremer, P; Moodie, M; Mavoa, H; Snowdon, W; McCabe, M P; Malakellis, M; de Courten, M; Waqa, G; Fotu, K F; Roberts, G; Scragg, R
Obesity is increasing worldwide with the Pacific region having the highest prevalence among adults. The most common precursor of adult obesity is adolescent obesity making this a critical period for prevention. The Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project was a four-country project (Fiji, Tonga, New Zealand and Australia) designed to prevent adolescent obesity. This paper overviews the project and the methods common to the four countries. Each country implemented a community-based intervention programme promoting healthy eating, physical activity and healthy weight in adolescents. A community capacity-building approach was used, with common processes employed but with contextualized interventions within each country. Changes in anthropometric, behavioural and perception outcomes were evaluated at the individual level and school environments and community capacity at the settings level. The evaluation tools common to each are described. Additional analytical studies included economic, socio-cultural and policy studies. The project pioneered many areas of obesity prevention research: using multi-country collaboration to build research capacity; testing a capacity-building approach in ethnic groups with very high obesity prevalence; costing complex, long-term community intervention programmes; systematically studying the powerful socio-cultural influences on weight gain; and undertaking a participatory, national, priority-setting process for policy interventions using simulation modelling of cost-effectiveness of interventions.
Swinburn, B A; Millar, L
Abstract Background Prevention is considered effective in combating the obesity epidemic. Prenatal environment may increase offspring's risk for obesity. A child starts to adopt food preferences and other behavioral habits affecting weight gain during preschool years. We report the study protocol of a pragmatic lifestyle intervention aiming at primary prevention of childhood obesity. Methods/Design A non-randomized controlled pragmatic trial in maternity and chi...
Mustila Taina; Keskinen Päivi; Luoto Riitta
Childhood obesity is a recognized public health crisis. This paper reviews the lessons learned from a voluntary initiative to expand insurance coverage for childhood obesity prevention and treatment services in the United States. In-depth telephone interviews were conducted with key informants from 16 participating health plans and employers in 2010-11. Key informants reported difficulty ensuring that both providers and families were aware of the available services. Participating health plans...
Rask, Kimberly J.; Gazmararian, Julie A.; Kohler, Susan S.; Hawley, Jonathan N.; Bogard, Jenny; Brown, Victoria A.
Marcio C Mancini, Alfredo HalpernObesity and Metabolic Syndrome Group, Endocrinology and Metabolism Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, BrazilAbstract: There has been an increase in the concern about preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a disease with great and increasing prevalence. The prevalence of obesity, physical inactivity, Western processed diet, important risk factors for the development of T2DM, are also rising. Free ...
Mancini, Marcio C.; Alfredo Halpern
Full Text Available Five major approaches namely dietary, exercise, behavior, combination and pharmacy therapies are used for treatment and control of obesity. In dietary therapy, low-calorie diet (LCD, which provides 800 to 1500 kcal of energy daily; a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD, which provides 250-800 kcal of energy daily and an energy-restricted or hypo caloric diet (HCD, which is based on a person`s estimated daily energy requirement. LCDs can reduce total body weight by an average of 8 percent and help reduce abdominal fat content over a period of approximately 6 months. VLCDs are not recommended for weight loss therapy because the deficits are too great, and nutritional inadequacies will occur unless VLCDs are supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Regular exercise/physical activity should be an integral part of weight loss therapy and weight maintenance. A daily regimen of 30-45 minutes of walking, bicycling or working around the house conveys physical activity`s positive effects on the muscolo-skeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory and endocrine systems, reduces risk of premature mortality, coronary heart disease, hypertension, colon cancer and diabetes. Exercise should be initiated slowly, and the intensity should be increased gradually; starting from small tasks of daily living such as taking the stairs or walking or swimming at a slow pace leading to the more strenuous activities like brisk walking, cycling, exercise, rope jumping and Jogging. Behavior therapy provides methods for overcoming barriers to compliance with dietary and exercise therapies. Combined intervention of an LCD, increased physical activity, and behavior therapy provides the most successful therapy for weight loss and weight maintenance. Islamic way of life (directional eating and lifestyle (worship schedule is the most efficient method for prevention and control of obesity and is one of the best example of combination of diet and exercise therapies. Pharmacotherapy or medication should be the last approach for obesity control.
Aien Khan Afridi
Abstract Background The aim of the ACE-Obesity study was to determine the economic credentials of interventions which aim to prevent unhealthy weight gain in children and adolescents. We have reported elsewhere on the modelled effectiveness of 13 obesity prevention interventions in children. In this paper, we report on the cost results and associated methods together with the innovative approach to priority setting that underpins the ACE-Obesity study. Methods T...
Swinburn Boyd; Vos Theo; Magnus Anne; Markwick Alison; Moodie Marj; Carter Rob; Haby Michele M
Obesity prevention interventions through dietary and physical activity change have generally not been effective. Limitations on possible program effectiveness are herein identified at every step in the mediating variable model, a generic conceptual framework for understanding how interventions may promote behavior change. To minimize these problems, and thereby enhance likely intervention effectiveness, four sequential types of formative studies are proposed: targeted behavior validation, tar...
Baranowski, T.; Baranowski, J.; Cerin, E.
Full Text Available Interventions in Canada to address obesity have largely been limited to individual-level change through education rather than a population-level public policy approach. Little is known about obesity policy support in Canada, and substantial national variation in obesity policy support prevents direct transferability of these policies among nations. Our study recruited 521 young adults for an online survey through leaflets and flyers. We investigated how respondents’ demographics, health characteristics, political attitudes, beliefs regarding causes of obesity, and national identity affected their support for obesity policy. Results showed that there is high support for many obesity policies among Canadian young adults. Including Canadian national identity in regression models was significant in explaining obesity policy support beyond the combined effect of other predictors. Further exploration of national identity, in Canada and elsewhere, has implications for understanding obesity policy support that might assist policy makers in making more informed decisions in addressing obesity.
As researchers continue to analyze the role of parenting both in the development of childhood overweight and in obesity prevention, studies of child nutrition and growth are detailing the ways in which parents affect their children's development of food- and activity-related behaviors. Ana Lindsay, Katarina Sussner, Juhee Kim, and Steven Gortmaker…
Lindsay, Ana C.; Sussner, Katarina M.; Kim, Juhee; Gortmaker, Steven
Coupled with an aging society, the rising obesity prevalence is likely to increase the future burden of physical disability. We set out to determine whether obesity modified the effects of a physical activity intervention designed to prevent mobility disability in older adults. Older adults at risk for disability (N = 424, age range: 70-88 years) were randomized to a 12 month physical activity (PA) intervention involving moderate intensity aerobic, strength, balance and flexibility exercise (...
Manini, T. M.; Newman, A. B.; Fielding, R.; Blair, S. N.; Perri, M. G.; Anton, S. D.; Goodpaster, B. C.; Katula, J.; Rejeski, J.; King, A. C.; Kritchevsky, S. B.; Hsu, F. -c; Pahor, M.
Prevention-Plus interventions for primary care offer a venue to intervene with both children and parents for child obesity treatment. Such interventions can promote effective parenting practices that encourage healthy eating, physical activity (PA), and lower TV use among children. Test for feasibil...
Full Text Available AbstractAmong children ages 7–19, about 1 in 3 are overweight and obese (BMI-for-age at or above the 85th percentile of the 2000 CDC growth charts.; 32.1% of all boys and 31.3% of all girls are overweight and obese. Because of the dramatic and alarming increase in childhood obesity and its associated health risks, obesity prevention programs targeting children can and should be developed to promote the health of the public. This study is an overview of different interventions conducted, to guide efforts for an effective management of childhood obesity. The aim of this review was to assess the literature regarding the prevention of childhood obesity. Databases that were accessed for current literature included Medline, Cochrane and CINAHL. A total of 26 articles were found based on the inclusion criteria for this study. Only 38% of studies required parents' participation, the sample sizes of the studies varied considerably from 201 to 3135 children. 92% of studies used randomized controlled trials and the range of intervention duration ranged from eight weeks to four years. Implications for future research and practice are presented.
Hanan Mohamed Tork
Health authorities worldwide recommend weight loss as a primary endpoint for effective obesity management. Despite a growing public awareness of the importance of weight loss and the spending of billions of dollars by Americans in attempts to lose weight, obesity prevalence continues to rise. In this report we argue that effective obesity management in today's environment will require a shift in focus from weight loss as the primary endpoint, to improvements in the causal behaviors; diet and exercise/physical activity (PA). We reason that increases in PA combined with a balanced diet are associated with improvement in many of the intermediate risk factors including cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) associated with obesity despite minimal or no weight loss. Consistent with this notion, we suggest that a focus on healthy behaviors for the prevention of additional weight gain may be an effective way of managing obesity in the short term. PMID:25459976
Ross, Robert; Blair, Steve; de Lannoy, Louise; Després, Jean-Pierre; Lavie, Carl J
Elementary schools are an optimal setting to provide obesity prevention interventions, yet little is known about the obesity prevention practices of elementary school nurses. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into current obesity-related school nursing practice in elementary schools in Minnesota, opinions regarding school nurse-led…
Morrison-Sandberg, Leslie F.; Kubik, Martha Y.; Johnson, Karen E.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many unhealthy dietary and physical activity habits that foster the development of obesity are established by the age of five. Presently, approximately 70 percent of children in the United States are currently enrolled in early childcare facilities, making this an ideal setting to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention efforts. We describe here the methods for conducting an obesity prevention randomized trial in the child care setting. Methods/design A randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial is currently being conducted over a three year period (2010-present. The sample consists of 28 low-income, ethnically diverse child care centers with 1105 children (sample is 60% Hispanic, 15% Haitian, 12% Black, 2% non-Hispanic White and 71% of caregivers were born outside of the US. The purpose is to test the efficacy of a parent and teacher role-modeling intervention on children’s nutrition and physical activity behaviors. . The Healthy Caregivers-Healthy Children (HC2 intervention arm schools received a combination of (1 implementing a daily curricula for teachers/parents (the nutritional gatekeepers; (2 implementing a daily curricula for children; (3 technical assistance with meal and snack menu modifications such as including more fresh and less canned produce; and (4 creation of a center policy for dietary requirements for meals and snacks, physical activity and screen time. Control arm schools received an attention control safety curriculum. Major outcome measures include pre-post changes in child body mass index percentile and z score, fruit and vegetable and other nutritious food intake, amount of physical activity, and parental nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, defined by intentions and behaviors. All measures were administered at the beginning and end of the school year for year one and year two of the study for a total of 4 longitudinal time points for assessment. Discussion Although few attempts have been made to prevent obesity during the first years of life, this period may represent the best opportunity for obesity prevention. Findings from this investigation will inform both the fields of childhood obesity prevention and early childhood research about the effects of an obesity prevention program housed in the childcare setting. Trial registration Trial registration number: NCT01722032
Full Text Available A systematic review of the literature was conducted to identify the barriers that prevent practitioners from identifying and counseling parents and caregivers of overweight or obese children. Once identified, barriers were organized into thematic categories (parental, provider, and professional barriers and recommendations were generated to facilitate discussion about childhood obesity between professionals and parents. Childhood obesity is a significant public health problem. Healthcare providers must be able to effectively communicate with caregivers and put childhood obesity at the front of healthcare discussions. This article provides a synthesis of the relevant literature and makes recommendations for healthcare providers to overcome the barriers allowing healthier outcomes for children.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly one in five 4-year-old children in the United States are obese, with low-income children almost twice as likely to be obese as their middle/upper-income peers. Few obesity prevention programs for low-income preschoolers and their parents have been rigorously tested, and effects are modest. We are testing a novel obesity prevention program for low-income preschoolers built on the premise that children who are better able to self-regulate in the face of psychosocial stressors may be less likely to eat impulsively in response to stress. Enhancing behavioral self-regulation skills in low-income children may be a unique and important intervention approach to prevent childhood obesity. Methods/design The Growing Healthy study is a randomized controlled trial evaluating two obesity prevention interventions in 600 low-income preschoolers attending Head Start, a federally-funded preschool program for low-income children. Interventions are delivered by community-based, nutrition-education staff partnering with Head Start. The first intervention (n?=?200, Preschool Obesity Prevention Series (POPS, addresses evidence-based obesity prevention behaviors for preschool-aged children and their parents. The second intervention (n?=?200 comprises POPS in combination with the Incredible Years Series (IYS, an evidence-based approach to improving self-regulation among preschool-aged children. The comparison condition (n?=?200 is Usual Head Start Exposure. We hypothesize that POPS will yield positive effects compared to Usual Head Start, and that the combined intervention (POPS?+?IYS addressing behaviors well-known to be associated with obesity risk, as well as self-regulatory capacity, will be most effective in preventing excessive increases in child adiposity indices (body mass index, skinfold thickness. We will evaluate additional child outcomes using parent and teacher reports and direct assessments of food-related self-regulation. We will also gather process data on intervention implementation, including fidelity, attendance, engagement, and satisfaction. Discussion The Growing Healthy study will shed light on associations between self-regulation skills and obesity risk in low-income preschoolers. If the project is effective in preventing obesity, results can also provide critical insights into how best to deliver obesity prevention programming to parents and children in a community-based setting like Head Start in order to promote better health among at-risk children. Trial registration number Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01398358
Miller Alison L
Overall thyroid dysfunction was found more in obese individuals with varying degree of significance. Detailed studies are required to assess the cause and effect relation between obesity and hypothyroidism.
Full Text Available La obesidad es un importante problema de salud en nuestros días, por el riesgo aumentado de morbilidad y mortalidad, sobre todo por las enfermedades cardiovasculares que provoca. El objetivo de este trabajo fue actualizar los conocimientos acerca del tratamiento no farmacológico y la prevención de la enfermedad. Se expuso que en el 95 % de los casos la obesidad es de origen exógeno o nutricional, y en el 5 %, de causa genética o endocrina. En relación con los factores genéticos, las investigaciones plantean las diferentes mutaciones que se acompañan de fenotipos obesos. Se señalaron los diferentes métodos empleados para el diagnóstico de la obesidad, antropométricamente. Se afirmó que en la actualidad es muy utilizado el IMC y la relación cintura/cadera. Se concluyó que el tratamiento de la obesidad supone modificaciones dietéticas, actividad física e intervención conductual y/o psicológica y que la prevención sigue siendo la acción fundamental para evitar su aparición por lo que los esfuerzos de todos los médicos se deben dirigir hacia este problema de salud.Obesity is an important health problem at present due to the increased risk of morbidity and mortality and, mainly, to the cardiovascular diseases resulting from it. The objective of this paper was to bring up to date the knowledge about the nonpharmacological treatment and the prevention of the disease. It was explained that in 95 % of the cases, obesity has an exogenous or nutritional origin, whereas in the other 5 % its cause is genetic or endocrine. In relation to the genetic factors, the investigations state the different mutations that are accompanied by obese phenotypes.The different anthropometric methods used to diagnose obesity were described. It was confirmed that nowadays the BMI and the waist/hip relationship are widely used. It was concluded that the obesity treatment pressuposes diet modifications, physical activity and behavioral and/or psychological intervention and that prevention is still the fundamental action to prevent the appearance of obesity. Therefore, all doctors should direct their efforts to this health problem.
María Matilde Socarrás Suárez
An increasing number of children are becoming overweight and obese. Overweight and obesity are arbitrarily defined as excess adipose tissue in the body. Although many risk factors for overweight and obesity have been identified for school-age children, less is known for preschool children. Prevention of overweight and obesity in preschool children is an international public health priority given the significant impact of obesity on acute and chronic diseases, general health, development and w...
Konda, Satyanarayana G.; Giri, Purushottam A.; Otiv, Anjali S.
ISSUES ADDRESSED: Community-based programs that affect healthy environments and policies have emerged as an effective response to high obesity levels in populations. Apart from limited individual reports, little is currently known about these programs, limiting the potential to provide effective support, to promote effective practice, prevent adverse outcomes and disseminate intervention results and experience. The aim of the present study was to identify the size and reach of current communi...
Nichols, Ms; Reynolds, Rc; Waters, E.; Gill, T.; King, L.; Swinburn, Ba; Allender, S.
Childhood obesity is a global epidemic. Health videogames are an emerging intervention strategy to combat childhood obesity. This systematic review examined published research on the effect of health videogames on childhood obesity. Fourteen articles examining 28 health videogames published between 2005 and 2013 in English were selected from 2433 articles identified through five major search engines. Results indicated that academic interest in using health videogames for childhood obesity prevention has increased during this time. Most games were commercially available. Most studies were of short duration. Diverse player and game play patterns have been identified. Most studies involved players of both genders with slightly more boys. The majority of players were non-white. Most studies had the players play the games at home, whereas some extended the play setting to school and sports/recreational facilities. Most of the games were commercially available. Positive outcomes related to obesity were observed in about 40 percent of the studies, all of which targeted overweight or obese participants. PMID:24353906
Lu, Amy Shirong; Kharrazi, Hadi; Gharghabi, Fardad; Thompson, Debbe
Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to review the different publications associated with probiotics and obesity, as well as to get some new insights regarding the role of the microbiome in diseases such as obesity. An extensive search for scientific publications (studies in animal models, cells, clinical trials and reviews was performed in the following specialist computer databases (PubMed central (PMC-NCBI, Elsevier Journal, Scielo Spain, Scirus, Science Direct to establish the current status of the potential effect of probiotics in the control of obesity in humans, as well as the relationship between intestinal microbiota and obesity. The intestinal microbiota and oral probiotics have a positive effect on human health, as they can regulate the immune functions and protect from infections and chronic inflammatory processes. Although divergent results have recently been reported, it has been shown but not confirmed that intestinal microbiota might play a role as a new factor associated with the regulation of body weight and obesity-related diseases. The international MetaHIT project has shown that human microbiome populations can be grouped into three different enterotypes. Two of these enterotypes (Bacteroides and Ruminococcus seem to encode functions related to obesity. Although the relationship between intestinal microbiota and obesity are not yet well established, the attempt to manipulate intestinal microbiota through diet is suggested as a new plausible approach to prevent, or modify the risk of, obesity and its related diseases.
Full Text Available In this article the authors provide a background for the discussion of childhood obesity, examine factors contributing to overweight and obesity in children, review the literature describing interventions and prevention strategies for childhood overweight, and describe nursing skills to prevent childhood obesity. The literature supports a family-focused approach to influencing dietary habits of very young children, prevention interventions that start early in childhood prior to established poor dietary patterns, and the need for community support and involvement. Given these findings, nurses are encouraged to develop skills, such as advocacy, collaborative leadership, and social marketing skills, that will contribute to the prevention of childhood obesity.
Efectividad de una intervención en educación alimentaria y actividad física para prevenir obesidad en escolares de la ciudad de Casablanca, Chile (2003-2004) / Effectiveness of a dietary and physical activity intervention to prevent obesity in school age children
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: With the aim of contributing to he Healthy Goal 2010 of reducing significantly the prevalence of childhood obestiy we developed and implemented during 2003 and 2004, a school-based obesity prevention intervention which included nutrition education and the promotion of physical activity. [...] Aim To report the results of the intervention. Material and methods: The sample included 1760 children (1st to 7th grade) from 3 elementary public schools in Casablanca (experimental group) and 671 from a similar school located in Quillota, a neighboring city (control). Primary outcomes were body mass index (BMI) Zscore, the mile and shuttle-run tests and obesity prevalence. We also compared changes in waist circumference and triceps skinfold between both groups. Effectiveness of the intervention was assessed by analyzing separately the group *age* time interaction for the first 3 outcomes (follow-up-baseline), using a mixed model of covariance and by comparing variations in obesity prevalence between both groups. Results: There was a significant decline in BMI Z scores in experimental schools for both genders, but greater in boys (p
Juliana, Kain B; Ricardo, Uauy D; Bárbara, Leyton D; Ricardo, Cerda R; Sonia, Olivares C; Fernando, Vio D.
... to change weight is gradually. Learn more: Childhood Obesity BMI in Children Making a Healthy Home Healthier Kids • Healthier Kids Home • Our Programs • Childhood Obesity Introduction Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is childhood obesity an issue ...
Full Text Available This paper presents a community-school-higher education partnership approach to the prevention of childhood obesity. Public elementary school personnel, primarily teachers, participated in the design and delivery of a curriculum targeting primary caregivers of 8-9-year-old children. Theoretical framework and methodological approaches guided the development of a cognitive behavioral lifestyle intervention targeting childhood obesity prevention in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI, a U.S. commonwealth. This project demonstrated that in populations with health disparity, teachers can be a valuable and accessible resource for identifying key health issues of concern to communities and a vital partner in the development of parent and child interventions. Teachers also benefited by gaining knowledge and skills to facilitate student and parent learning and impact on personal and familial health. Successful community-school-higher education partnerships require consideration of local culture and community needs and resources. Moreover, within any community-school–higher education partnership it is essential that a time sensitive and culturally appropriate feedback loop be designed to ensure that programs are responsive to the needs and resources of all stakeholders, and that leaders and policymakers are highly engaged so they can make informed policy decisions.
Mozhdeh B Bruss
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: La elevada prevalencia de la obesidad en escolares chilenos (23,1%), hace necesario la aplicación de intervenciones que incorporen el ejercicio físico de fuerza muscular, pues éste muestra gran eficacia en niños obesos. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto residual del ejercicio físico de fuerz [...] a muscular sobre la grasa corporal, el síndrome metabólico y la condición física en escolares obesos. Métodos: La muestra incluyó 111 escolares obesos, entre 8 y 13 años, de 3 colegios de la ciudad de Santiago. La intervención temprana (n = 60) ejecutó en paralelo ejercicio físico de fuerza muscular, educación alimentaria y apoyo psicológico durante 3 meses. La intervención tardía (n = 51), incorporó los primeros 3 meses, sólo la intervención educativa y el apoyo psicológico, y el ejercicio se agregó entre los 3 y 6 meses. A los 9 meses post-intervención, se evaluó el efecto residual del ejercicio físico. La grasa corporal se determinó por ecuaciones antropométricas. El síndrome metabólico se diagnóstico por el criterio de Cook. La condición física se evaluó por la distancia recorrida en el test de seis minutos. Resultados: El porcentaje grasa corporal disminuyó al final de la intervención y aumentó post-intervención, con la excepción de los hombres de la intervención temprana. La distancia recorrida se incrementó al final de la intervención, pero se redujo en la post-intervención. El síndrome metabólico, disminuyó al término de la intervención incrementando post-intervención (p Abstract in english Introduction: The high prevalence of the obesity in Chilean students (23,1%), necessitates the application of interventions that incorporate muscle strength exercise, as this shows great efficacy in obese children. Objective: To evaluate the residual effect of muscle strength exercise on body fat, m [...] etabolic syndrome and physical fitness in obese schoolchildren. Methods: The sample included 111 obese schoolchildren, between 8 and 13 years, of 3 schools in the city of Santiago. Early intervention (n = 60) participated in parallel intervention that included muscle strength exercise, nutrition education and psychological support for 3 months. The late intervention (n = 51) incorporated the first 3 months, only the educational intervention and psychological support, and exercise was added between 3 and 6 months. At 9 months post intervention, we evaluated the residual effect of exercise. Body fat was determined by anthropometric equations. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed by the criteria of Cook. Physical fitness was assessed by the distance walked in six minutes test. Results: The body fat percentage decreased at the end of the intervention and post intervention increased with the exception of the men of early intervention. The distance traveled increased at the end of the intervention but declined in the post intervention. Metabolic syndrome, decreased at the end of the intervention increased post intervention (p
Fabián, Vásquez; Erik, Díaz; Lydia, Lera; Jorge, Meza; Isabel, Salas; Pamela, Rojas; Eduardo, Atalah; Raquel, Burrows.
Abstract Background Many unhealthy dietary and physical activity habits that foster the development of obesity are established by the age of five. Presently, approximately 70 percent of children in the United States are currently enrolled in early childcare facilities, making this an ideal setting to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention efforts. We describe here the methods for conducting an obesity prevention randomized trial in the child care setting. ...
Natale Ruby; Scott Stephanie Hapeman; Messiah Sarah E; Schrack Maria Mesa; Uhlhorn Susan B; Delamater Alan
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) was used to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a culturally relevant, science-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), a US Commonwealth in the western Pacific. This cognitive behavioral lifestyle intervention, Project Familia Giya Marianas (PFGM), was offered during the 2005-2007 school years in all CNMI public elementary schools over eight sessions to primary caregivers of 3rd grade children (N = 407). A crossover design was utilized with half of the schools offering the intervention in the Fall term, while the other half delivered the sessions in the Spring term. The primary outcome measure was change in BMI z-score. There was an intervention-dependent effect on BMI z-score, with program impact being a function of baseline BMI and the number of lessons attended. This effect was most apparent in students whose baseline BMI z-score was in healthy range (>/=5 to <85 percentile). In both Asian and Pacific Island groups, children whose caregivers completed 5-8 lessons experienced a significant change in BMI z-score as compared to those with 0 lessons (P < 0.05). Research that integrates multidisciplinary and multimethod approaches is effective in identifying and/or devising solutions to address a complex condition such as childhood obesity. PFGM demonstrated that community participation can be successfully utilized in the development and implementation of childhood obesity prevention programs. PMID:19424164
Bruss, Mozhdeh B; Michael, Timothy J; Morris, Joseph R; Applegate, Brooks; Dannison, Linda; Quitugua, Jackie A; Palacios, Rosa T; Klein, David J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The genetic architecture of multifactorial traits such as obesity has been poorly understood. Quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis is widely used to localize loci affecting multifactorial traits on chromosomal regions. However, large confidence intervals and small phenotypic effects of identified QTLs and closely linked loci are impeding the identification of causative genes that underlie the QTLs. Here we developed five subcongenic mouse strains with overlapping and non-overlapping wild-derived genomic regions from an F2 intercross of a previously developed congenic strain, B6.Cg-Pbwg1, and its genetic background strain, C57BL/6J (B6. The subcongenic strains developed were phenotyped on low-fat standard chow and a high-fat diet to fine-map a previously identified obesity QTL. Microarray analysis was performed with Affymetrix GeneChips to search for candidate genes of the QTL. Results The obesity QTL was physically mapped to an 8.8-Mb region of mouse chromosome 2. The wild-derived allele significantly decreased white fat pad weight, body weight and serum levels of glucose and triglyceride. It was also resistant to the high-fat diet. Among 29 genes residing within the 8.8-Mb region, Gpd2, Upp2, Acvr1c, March7 and Rbms1 showed great differential expression in livers and/or gonadal fat pads between B6.Cg-Pbwg1 and B6 mice. Conclusions The wild-derived QTL allele prevented obesity in both mice fed a low-fat standard diet and mice fed a high-fat diet. This finding will pave the way for identification of causative genes for obesity. A further understanding of this unique QTL effect at genetic and molecular levels may lead to the discovery of new biological and pathologic pathways associated with obesity.
Interventions for prevention and treatment of childhood obesity typically target increases in physical activity and, more recently, reductions in physical inactivity (sedentary behaviour such as television viewing). However, the evidence base for such strategies is extremely limited. The main aim of the present review was to update the systematic review and critical appraisal of evidence in the light of the recent rapid expansion of research in this area. Randomised controlled trials (RCT) that targeted activity or inactivity, that followed up children or adolescents for at least 1 year and that included an objective weight-related outcome measure were included. Trials were appraised using previously published criteria (Harbour & Miller, 2001), and literature search strategies described previously (Reilly et al. 2002) were updated to May 2002. A total of four new RCT, two new systematic reviews and one meta-analysis were identified. The evidence base has increased markedly since the completion of earlier reviews, although high-quality evidence is still lacking. The evidence on childhood obesity prevention is not encouraging, although promising targets for prevention are now clear, notably reduction in sedentary behaviour. There is stronger evidence that targeting activity and/or inactivity might be effective in paediatric obesity treatment, but doubts as to the generalisability of existing interventions, and the clinical relevance of the interventions is unclear. Further research in settings outside the USA is urgently needed, and two ongoing RCT in Scotland are summarised. PMID:14692597
Reilly, John J; McDowell, Zoe C
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2005, we reported on the success of Comprehensive School Health (CSH in improving diets, activity levels, and body weights. The successful program was recognized as a "best practice" and has inspired the development of the Alberta Project Promoting active Living and healthy Eating (APPLE Schools. The project includes 10 schools, most of which are located in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. The present study examines the effectiveness of a CSH program adopted from a "best practice" example in another setting by evaluating temporal changes in diets, activity levels and body weight. Methods In 2008 and 2010, we surveyed grade 5 students from approximately 150 randomly selected schools from the Canadian province of Alberta and students from 10 APPLE Schools. Students completed the Harvard Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire, questions on physical activity, and had their height and weight measured. Multilevel regression methods were used to analyze changes in diets, activity levels, and body weight between 2008 and 2010. Results In 2010 relative to 2008, students attending APPLE Schools were eating more fruits and vegetables, consuming fewer calories, were more physically active and were less likely obese. These changes contrasted changes observed among students elsewhere in the province. Conclusions These findings provide evidence on the effectiveness of CSH in improving health behaviors. They show that an example of "best practice" may lead to success in another setting. Herewith the study provides the evidence that investments for broader program implementation based on "best practice" are justified.
Full Text Available Obesity represents a world health problem, confronted by both adults and children, caused by the invasion of unhealthy foods, but also by a lack of information regarding the long term negative effects of an unbalanced diet.The aim of this research is to prove the beneficial role the correctly and constantly performed therapeutic physical exercise plays in the prevention of child obesity, but also in the fight with unwanted weight, starting from knowing the children's growth and development particularities, the obesity incidence among them, and the long term negative effects this disease has on their health.This research tries to confirm whether by applying therapeutic physical exercises in children, one can see their positive effects on obesity, and whether by applying a well-structured physical exercise program, organized and applied with regularity, one can obtain a drop in the obese children's weight.The means, methods, and procedures that are encompassed in a well structured and individualized program, then applying it perseveringly, correctly, and continuously, lead to the diminishing and correcting of the existing symptoms, preventing the installment of other complications.After applying the prophylactic physiotherapy programs, we can improve the somatoscopic aspect of the individual, the proportionality becomes harmonious, and the body's ability to adapt to the effort is improved.
Cristuta Alina Mihaela
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention is considered effective in combating the obesity epidemic. Prenatal environment may increase offspring's risk for obesity. A child starts to adopt food preferences and other behavioral habits affecting weight gain during preschool years. We report the study protocol of a pragmatic lifestyle intervention aiming at primary prevention of childhood obesity. Methods/Design A non-randomized controlled pragmatic trial in maternity and child health care clinics. The control group was recruited among families who visited the same clinics one year earlier. Eligibility criteria was mother at risk for gestational diabetes: body mass index???25?kg/m2, macrosomic newborn in any previous pregnancy, immediate family history of diabetes and/or age???40?years. All maternity clinics in town involved in recruitment. The gestational intervention consisted of individual counseling on diet and physical activity by a public health nurse, and of two group counseling sessions. Intervention continues until offspring’s age of five years. An option to participate a group counseling at child’s age 1 to 2?years was offered. The intervention includes advice on healthy diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleeping pattern. The main outcome measure is offspring BMI z-score and its changes by the age of six years. Discussion Early childhood is a critical time period for prevention of obesity. Pragmatic trials targeting this period are necessary in order to find effective obesity prevention programs feasible in normal health care practice. Trial registration Clinical Trials gov NCT00970710
Background: Due to increasing problems with childhood and adolescent obesity in Austria PRESTO (PrEvention STudy of Obesity) created a school based intervention program for promoting a healthy lifestyle in Austrian youth.
Methods: PRESTO was carried out by a multi-disciplinary team including a physician, a psychologist, a nutritionist and an exercise physiologist. The study was carried out in 12 first grade s...
Sabine Dietrich; Angelo Pietrobelli; Sabine Dämon; Kurt Widhalm
Objective was to establish relationship between obesity and hypothyroidism and to analyze the frequency of primary hypothyroidism in obese patients and frequency of obesity in primary hypothyroidism patients. We conducted this retrospective, observational study in Department of Endocrinology and Obesity Clinic, Medwin Hospital, Hyderabad, India in March 2008. In the last 18 months (between September 2006 to February 2008), data on 625 consecutive primary hypothyroidism patients (Group I) and 450 patients from obesity clinic (Group II) were analyzed. Frequency difference between the 2 groups was assessed by Chi-square test. In Group I, 278/625 (44%) had body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2. Obesity was higher (46% versus 34%) in overt hypothyroidism than in subclinical hypothyroidism (p=0.21). More patients were overweight in overt hypothyroidism group than in subclinical hypothyroidism group (p=0.02). In obesity patients, overt hypothyroidism was present in 33% and subclinical hypothyroidism in 11% patients. Overall thyroid dysfunction was found more in obese individuals with varying degree of significance. Detailed studies are required to assess the cause and effect relation between obesity and hypothyroidism. (author)
Abstract Objective Up to now, no guideline has been set up that provides criteria for good practice in universal and selective childhood obesity prevention projects for children aged 3 to 6 in the kindergarten setting. Hence, based on guidelines for targeted prevention, the present study not only aims at assessing the current state of German universal and selective childhood obesity prevention projects in kindergartens, but also at deriving criteria of go...
Dreas, Jessica A.; Hassel, Holger
Obesity-associated chronic diseases persist in Samoan populations in the United States. Samoans and African Americans share cultural similarities such as church affiliation, perceptions of weight and body size, and obesity-related health risks. Adapting an effective energy balance intervention originally designed for African Americans--Body and Soul--might be useful in reducing obesity among U.S. Samoans. To determine potential attractiveness and adaptations, we used aspects of grounded theory to analyze key-informant and focus group interviews with 31 purposively selected Samoans in Hawaii. We incorporated participatory features into the research with Samoan community members conducting parts of the study. From interview narratives, we identified relevant themes from Samoan culture, such as "fa'aSamoa", or the Samoan way, and specific energy balance activities to include in an obesity and cancer prevention intervention for U.S.-dwelling Samoans. Our findings describe methods to address health disparities by incorporating culturally appropriate health concepts into existing evidence-based interventions. PMID:25212854
Cassel, Kevin D; Braun, Kathryn; Ka'opua, Lana; Soa, Fuamaila; Nigg, Claudio
The obesity epidemic requires the development of prevention policy targeting individuals most likely to benefit. We used self-reported prepregnancy body weight of all women giving birth in Nova Scotia between 1988 and 2006 to define obesity and evaluated socioeconomic, demographic, and temporal trends in obesity using linear regression. There were 172,373 deliveries in this cohort of 110,743 women. Maternal body weight increased significantly by 0.5?kg per year from 1988, and lower income a...
Dummer, Trevor J. B.; Kirk, Sara F. L.; Penney, Tarra L.; Dodds, Linda; Parker, Louise
Full Text Available Abstract Background The first years of life are crucial to start preventive interventions that can have an impact on lifestyle and later overweight and obesity. Under the Italian National Health System (INHS, children are cared for by family pediatricians who perform health balances at regular intervals. The Italian Society of Preventive and Social Pediatrics (SIPPS has designed a randomized controlled trial (RCT to evaluate the effectiveness of family pediatricians for the prevention of childhood obesity in preschool children. We report the rationale and protocol of such trial, named the "Mi voglio bene" ("I love myself" study. Methods "Mi voglio bene" is a parallel-arm RCT. Family pediatricians willing to participate to the trial will be randomly assigned to a control group and to an experimental group. The control group will provide the usual standard of care while the experimental group will implement 10 preventive actions (promotion of breastfeeding, avoidance of solid foods, control of protein intake, avoidance of sugar-sweetened beverages, avoidance of bottle, active means of transportation, identification of early adiposity rebound, limitation of television viewing, promotion of movement, and teaching portion size at 10 time points during a 6-yr follow-up. The main outcome measures is the prevalence of overweight and obesity at 6 years of age. The experimental intervention is expected to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity from 25% to 20% and the study requires a total of 3610 children. Each pediatrician will enroll 30 consecutive newborns into the study so that a total of 120 pediatricians will participate to the study. Discussion "Mi voglio bene" is expected to provide important information for the INHS and possibly other institutional child care settings about the effectiveness of a pediatrician-based approach to the prevention of childhood obesity. We published this study protocol with the aim of opening a discussion with all people interested in fighting childhood obesity and to receive useful criticisms.
About one third of adolescents in the USA are overweight and/or obese. Obesity during the adolescent years is associated with many adverse health consequences, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and psychosocial problems. Because of substantial advances in technologies and wide acceptance by adolescents, it is now possible to use technology for healthy weight management and prevention of obesity. This systematic review used Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and aimed to evaluate the existing literature reported on the effectiveness of technology-based intervention (web-based, e-learning, and active video games) in preventing obesity in adolescents. The primary aim of this review was to explore if components of specific interventions were associated with a reduction in body mass index. Research articles obtained from CINAHL, Embase, PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane database from1990 to 2014 were reviewed. A total of 131 published articles were identified, and 14 met the inclusion criteria of a randomized or nonrandomized clinical study with body mass index as primary outcome and/or secondary outcomes of diet/physical activity and/or psychosocial function, tested lifestyle interventions to prevent obesity, used technology, and studied adolescents (aged 12-18 years). The results indicated that six of 14 studies found body mass index and/or body fat decreased at short-term (less than 12 months) follow-up. Six of eleven studies that examined physical activity or physical activity-related outcomes found an improved physical activity outcome (time playing active video games and increase in physical activity time), while five of seven studies which assessed dietary outcomes indicated improvement in dietary behaviors. Five of seven studies suggested an improvement in psychosocial function (reduced depression, improved self-esteem and efficacy, improvement on Behavior Assessment Scale) in adolescents involved in the technology-based intervention. All effective interventions utilized dietary and physical activity strategies as part of intervention components. Because of the variation in duration of intervention (range 10 weeks to 2 years), it is not clear what length of intervention is most effective. Future research should assess the long-term impact of technology-based interventions and evaluate mediators and moderators for weight change in adolescents. PMID:25177158
Chen, Jyu-Lin; Wilkosz, Mary Ellen
Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing effective prevention and intervention programs for the formative preschool years is seen as an essential step in combating the obesity epidemic across the lifespan. The overall goal of the current project is to measure the effectiveness of a healthy eating and childhood obesity prevention intervention, the MEND (Mind Exercise Nutrition Do It! program that is delivered to parents of children aged 2-4 years. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial will be conducted with 200 parents and their 2-4 year old children who attend the MEND 2-4 program in metropolitan and regional Victoria. Parent-child dyads will attend ten 90-minute group workshops. These workshops focus on general nutrition, as well as physical activity and behaviours. They are typically held at community or maternal and child health centres and run by a MEND 2-4 trained program leader. Child eating habits, physical activity levels and parental behaviours and cognitions pertaining to nutrition and physical activity will be assessed at baseline, the end of the intervention, and at 6 and 12 months post the intervention. Informed consent will be obtained from all parents, who will then be randomly allocated to the intervention or wait-list control group. Discussion Our study is the first RCT of a healthy eating and childhood obesity prevention intervention targeted specifically to Australian parents and their preschool children aged 2-4 years. It responds to the call by experts in the area of childhood obesity and child health that prevention of overweight in the formative preschool years should focus on parents, given that parental beliefs, attitudes, perceptions and behaviours appear to impact significantly on the development of early overweight. This is 'solution-oriented' rather than 'problem-oriented' research, with its focus being on prevention rather than intervention. If this is a positive trial, the MEND2-4 program can be implemented as a national program. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000200088
The prevalence and severity of pediatric obesity have dramatically increased since the late 1980s, raising concerns about a subsequent increase in cardiovascular outcomes. Strong evidence, particularly from autopsy studies, supports the concept that precursors of adult cardiovascular disease (CVD) begin in childhood, and that pediatric obesity has an important influence on overall CVD risk. Lifestyle patterns also begin early and impact CVD risk. In addition, obesity and other CVD risk factor...
Nadeau, Kristen J.; Maahs, David M.; Daniels, Stephen R.; Eckel, Robert H.
Abstract Obesity is traditionally viewed to be beneficial to bone health because of well-established positive effect of mechanical loading conferred by body weight on bone formation, despite being a risk factor for many other chronic health disorders. Although body mass has a positive effect on bone formation, whether the mass derived from an obesity condition or excessive fat accumulation is beneficial to bone remains controversial. The underline pathophysiological relationship bet...
Cao Jay J
During the past decade, progress has been made in addressing childhood obesity through policy and practice changes that encourage increased physical activity and access to healthy food. With the implementation of these strategies, an understanding of what works to prevent childhood obesity is beginning to emerge. The task now is to consider how best to spread, scale, and sustain promising childhood obesity prevention strategies. In this article we examine a project led by Nemours, a children's health system, to address childhood obesity. We describe Nemours's conceptual approach to spreading, scaling, and sustaining a childhood obesity prevention intervention. We review a component of a Nemours initiative in Delaware that focused on early care and education settings and its expansion to other states through the National Early Care and Education Learning Collaborative to prevent childhood obesity. We also discuss lessons learned. Focusing on the spreading, scaling, and sustaining of promising strategies has the potential to increase the reach and impact of efforts in obesity prevention and help ensure their impact on population health. PMID:25489040
Chang, Debbie I; Gertel-Rosenberg, Allison; Snyder, Kim
Full Text Available Abstract Background The diets, physical activity and sedentary behavior levels of both children and adults in Australia are suboptimal. The family environment, as the first ecological niche of children, exerts an important influence on the onset of children’s habits. Parent modeling is one part of this environment and a logical focus for child obesity prevention initiatives. The focus on parent’s own behaviors provides a potential opportunity to decrease obesity risk behaviors in parents as well. Objective To assess the effect of a parent-focused early childhood obesity prevention intervention on first-time mothers’ diets, physical activity and TV viewing time. Methods The Melbourne InFANT Program is a cluster-randomized controlled trial which involved 542 mothers over their newborn’s first 18?months of life. The intervention focused on parenting skills and strategies, including parental modeling, and aimed to promote development of healthy child and parent behaviors from birth, including healthy diet, increased physical activity and reduced TV viewing time. Data regarding mothers’ diet (food frequency questionnaire, physical activity and TV viewing times (self-reported questionnaire were collected using validated tools at both baseline and post-intervention. Four dietary patterns were derived at baseline using principal components analyses including frequencies of 55 food groups. Analysis of covariance was used to measure the impact of the intervention. Results The scores of both the "High-energy snack and processed foods" and the "High-fat foods" dietary patterns decreased more in the intervention group: -0.22 (?0.42;-0.02 and ?0.25 (?0.50;-0.01, respectively. No other significant intervention vs. control effects were observed regarding total physical activity, TV viewing time, and the two other dietary patterns, i.e. “Fruits and vegetables” and “Cereals and sweet foods”. Conclusions These findings suggest that supporting first-time mothers to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors in their infants impacts maternal dietary intakes positively. Further research needs to assess ways in which we might further enhance those lifestyle behaviors not impacted by the InFANT intervention.
Objectives Obesity and obesity-related disorders are reaching epidemic proportions worldwide. In this review, we summarize the accumulating studies that have emerged in the last few decades demonstrating that bioactives from different natural sources could potentially have anti-obesity effects. Methods We carried out an extensive search of relevant literature from Pubmed, Web of Knowledge, and other online databases for studies where anti-obesity effects were shown by compounds from natural sources. Results Appetite suppression, lipid metabolism regulation, and increase of energy expenditure are the main mechanisms by which anti-obesity effects are exerted. Plants represent the most studied natural source of anti-obesity bioactives. Camellia sinensis is the most representative species exerting several anti-obesity effects. Moreover, probiotics (bacteria which bestow health benefit), such as strains of Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus families, and certain prebiotics (non-viable food components that confers a health benefit on the host associated with modulation of the microbiota effects), such as insulin-type fructans, have also shown capability to combat obesity. Finally, compounds from animal sources, in particular bioactive peptides derived from milk-derived whey and casein protein digestion, high dietary calcium, and omega-3s polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) present in fish oils, have also shown potential anti-obesity effects. Discussion Several anti-obesity effects have been observed in different natural bioactives providing an interesting and potentially safer and more desirable treatment strategy for the development of anti-obesity functional or medical foods. PMID:24621068
Torres-Fuentes, Cristina; Schellekens, Harriët; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F
Introduction: The intragastric balloon is a minimally invasive technique used to treat obesity by reducing hunger and inducing satiety as a result of gastric volume restriction, thus it could be ideal to treat young people who are thought to be easier to change their eating behavior. Aim: The purpose of this prospective clinical study was to investigate the effectiveness of intragastric balloon on obese adolescents, after a six-month period of treatment. Material: Fourteen adolescents -aged 1...
Karagiozoglou-lampoudi, T.; Papakostas, P.; Penna, S.; Pyankova, G.; Kotzampassi, K.
Nitrazepam pharmacokinetics were studied in 14 obese (mean +/- s.e. mean body weight 107 +/- 9 kg; percent ideal body weight [IBW] 166 +/- 12%) and 14 normal body weight (63 +/- 3 kg; percent IBW 98 +/- 2%) subjects. After an overnight fast, each subject ingested 10 mg nitrazepam orally. Nitrazepam concentrations were determined in plasma samples obtained over the following 72 h. Comparison of peak nitrazepam plasma concentration (94.2 +/- 10.3-obese vs 119 +/- 14.6 ng ml-1; NS) and time requ...
Abernethy, D. R.; Greenblatt, D. J.; Locniskar, A.; Ochs, H. R.; Harmatz, J. S.; Shader, R. I.
Background and objectives: The European Union—as well as other parts of the world—faces a major challenge of increasing incidence of overweight/obesity. In particular, the increase in childhood obesity gives rise to a strong imperative for immediate action. Yet, little is known about the effectiveness of community interventions, and further research in this field is needed. There is, however, a growing consensus that such research should start from the paradigm that the current living environments tend to counteract healthy lifestyles. Questioning these environments thoroughly can help to develop new pathways for sustainable health-promoting communities. Against this background, the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study developed and implemented innovative community-oriented intervention programmes for obesity prevention and healthy lifestyle primarily in children aged 2–10 years in eight European countries: Sweden, Estonia, Germany, Belgium, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Cyprus. Materials and methods: The IDEFICS community-oriented intervention study mobilised an integrated set of interventional efforts at different levels of society, with the aim of facilitating the adoption of a healthy obesity-preventing lifestyle. The overall programme has been composed of 10 modules: three at community level, six at school level and one for parents. The main focus was on diet, physical activity and stress-coping capacity. The sphere of action encompassed both children and their (grand) parents, schools, local public authorities and influential stakeholders in the community. All materials for the interventions were centrally developed and culturally adapted. Results: So far, the following has been achieved: focus group research, literature review and expert consultations were done in an early phase as a basis for the development of the intervention modules. The intervention mapping protocol was followed as guide for structuring the intervention research. The overall intervention programme's duration was 2 years, but a longer-term follow-up programme is under development. Conclusions: This large-scale European effort is expected to contribute significantly to the understanding of this major public health challenge.
De Henauw, Stefaan; Verbestel, V.
Full Text Available Introduction: The future of any nation depends on how its children's care, According to their likely future health needs of the adult population model for healthy living and wealth has increased. One of the most pressing health diet. This study is done to aimed investigate the factors influencing malnutrition in children in the past for weight loss and weight gain can be seen today. Methods and Methods: Related articles referring to achieve in the field of databases to Google scholar, Pub Med, proquest, SID, Magiran, Springer Link,… and studies until 2013 with the key words malnutrition, child, obesity and examine their English. Results: In the past, malnutrition was associated with weight loss, but for now he has to weight gain and obesity. Childhood obesity is emerging as a phenomenon caused health problems in childhood and adolescence, including hyperlipidemia, obstructive sleep apnea, early puberty, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular. In addition to the health problems of obese children will benefit from the social and psychological problems such as anxiety, fewer friends, loss of confidence, lower education, and fewer chances for marriage.... Overweight in children can be caused by poor eating habits and low activity, which is affected by the parents and the family environment. Conclusions: Since the patterns learned in childhood affect all life on lifestyle, understand the causes of obesity and to eliminate or reduce them and reinforce the correct patterns of feeding Through education and the incidence is somewhat reduced, especially for parents to deal with this phenomenon. Keywords: Child,Malnutrition, Obesity
Compositions and methods for preventing, treating or controlling conditions or disorders associated with obesity, diet, and nutrition are provided. The methods provided generally involve the administration of an amylin or an amylin agonist to a subject in order to prevent, treat or controlling condi...
Systematic review of school-based interventions that focus on changing dietary intake and physical activity levels to prevent childhood obesity : an update to the obesity guidance produced by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence.
To determine the effectiveness of school-based interventions that focus on changing dietary intake and physical activity levels to prevent childhood obesity. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched (January 2006 to September 2007) for controlled trials of school-based lifestyle interventions, minimum duration of 12 weeks, reporting weight outcome. Thirty-eight studies were included; 15 new studies and 23 studies included within the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence obesity guidan...
Brown, T. A.; Summerbell, C. D.
Full Text Available Introduction: With a rapidly increasing prevalence worldwide in recent decades, obesity has started to be an important public health issue in all developed countries. There are few studies focusing on the relationship of obesity with migraine. We intended to study clinical features of migraine in obes women, frequency of attacks, severity and duration of pain, use of prophylactic drugs for migraine,, use of analgesics in attacks and the effects of migraine on daily lives.Material and Methods: In this prospective study, 84 women patients with migraine were classified as group I for those with a body mass index of 30 and over, and group II for those with a body mass index of 25 and less. Groups were compared in socio demographical features, clinical properties, frequency and severity of migraine attacks, prophylactic drugs used for treatment, analgesics used in such attacks and the effects of pain on daily life.Results: It has been found that migraine attacks were significantly earlier in women with obesity. In this group, frequency and severity of migraine attacks, prophylactic drugs used for treatment, analgesics used in such attacks, and restriction of daily activities due to pain differed significantly compared to the group with no obesity.Conclusions: Obesity might be triggering migraine attacks in women thru endogenous mechanisms dependant upon hypothalamic dysfunction and thru exogenous mechanisms dependant upon excess food intake.
This paper is written as a briefing document with the aim of providing support to policy-makers and government officials tackling obesity and related non-communicable diseases. It is based on a symposium Obesity and non-communicable diseases: Learning from international experiences convened by the International Association for the Study of Obesity (now the World Obesity Federation) and its policy section, the International Obesity TaskForce (now World Obesity - Policy and Prevention). The symposium discussed a wide range of proposals to tackle the consumption of unhealthy food products, including interventions in the market through fiscal policies and marketing restrictions, measures to strengthen public health legislation and measures to limit agri-food company lobbying activities. It recognized the need for government leadership and action in order to reduce preventable deaths while improving economic performance and identified a need for governments to take a systems wide approach to tackling obesity and to work with civil society, especially to monitor the drivers of disease and to hold all stakeholders accountable for progress. PMID:24888259
Lobstein, Tim; Brinsden, Hannah
Abstract Obesity and diabetes are growing health problems worldwide. In this study, dietary provision of Chinese ginseng (0.5?g/kg diet) prevented body weight gain in high-fat (HF) diet-fed mice. Dietary ginseng supplementation reduced body fat mass gain, improved glucose tolerance and whole body insulin sensitivity, and prevented hypertension in HF diet-induced obese mice. Ginseng consumption led to reduced concentrations of plasma insulin and leptin, but had no effect on plasma adiponectin levels in HF diet-fed mice. Body temperature was higher in mice fed the ginseng-supplemented diet but energy expenditure, respiration rate, and locomotive activity were not significantly altered. Dietary intake of ginseng increased fatty acid oxidation in the liver but not in skeletal muscle. Expression of several transcription factors associated with adipogenesis (C/EBP? and PPAR?) were decreased in the adipose tissue of HF diet-fed mice, effects that were mitigated in mice that consumed the HF diet supplemented with ginseng. Abundance of fatty acid synthase (FASN) mRNA was greater in the adipose tissue of mice that consumed the ginseng-supplemented HF diet as compared with control or un-supplemented HF diet-fed mice. Ginseng treatment had no effect on the expression of genes involved in the regulation of food intake in the hypothalamus. These data suggest that Chinese ginseng can potently prevent the development of obesity and insulin resistance in HF diet-fed mice. PMID:25076190
Li, Xiaoxiao; Luo, Jing; Anandh Babu, Pon Velayutham; Zhang, Wei; Gilbert, Elizabeth; Cline, Mark; McMillan, Ryan; Hulver, Matthew; Alkhalidy, Hana; Zhen, Wei; Zhang, Haiyan; Liu, Dongmin
Full Text Available In this study there are two main aims. The first one is to model and predict the incidence of obesity in the 3-5 years old population in the coming years in the region of Valencia, Spain. The second aim of this research is to use the constructed model to analyze the possible strategies in order to prevent the spread of obesity. At first a logistic regression statistical analysis of sociocultural variables of children with weight problems is performed. The result of this logistic regression statistical analysis suggests that sociocultural factors in the region of Valencia where the child grows up influence the development of overweight or obesity. Thus, this result permit to consider the hypothesis that the obesity is a health concern that depends on sociocultural factors and it is transmitted by the spread of unhealthy eating habits. In this way the hypothesis permits to construct a mathematical epidemiological type model in order to forecast obesity prevalence and to understand the mechanisms of the obesity spread. Using the constructed epidemiological mathematical model it is predicted that in the coming years, an increasing trend in the overweight and obese 3-5 years old children in the region of Valencia is predicted if the actual parameters of the mathematical model stay invariant. In addition, the different numerical simulations performed with the constructed epidemiological mathematical model indicate that the most likely successful strategy to tackle the obesity is through educational campaigns about the risk of unhealthy eating habits. This study shows how an epidemiological type mathematical model is an interesting tool to study the obesity transmissions dynamics in the population. It is useful to predict the prevalence of the obesity and study strategies to tackle it.
This review is focused on the effects of obesity on function and expression of potassium (K) channels in the vasculature. Five families of K channels have been identified in the vascular wall, calcium-activated K (KCa) channels, inward-rectifier K (KIR) channels, ATP-sensitive K (KATP) channels, voltage-gated K (KV) channels and two-pore domain K (K2P) channels. In endothelial cells (EC) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) opening of K channels leads to hyperpolarisation followed by vasodilatation. In some vascular beds of animal models of obesity, vasodilatation mediated by KCa3.1 and KCa2.3 channels has been reported to remain unaltered or even increased, whereas vasodilatation involving KCa1.1 channel has consistently been reported to be impaired. Changes in expression and function of KIR and KATP channels have also been associated with impaired vasodilatation in animal models of obesity, and therefore activation of these channels may improve endothelial function and reduce the risk of major cardiovascular events. Expression of KV7.x channels is downregulated in small arteries from hypertensive animals and it would be interesting to assess whether these channels contribute to development of hypertension in obese patients. However, the role of KV7.x and K2P channels in regulation of blood pressure remains unexplored compared to other K channels. In conclusion, obesity and metabolic syndrome alter expression, function and sensitivity of vascular K channel subtypes causing smooth muscle dysfunction and probably endothelial dysfunction which makes these patients particularly prone to premature cardiovascular disease. Modulation of K channel activity by use of openers of e.g. KCa and KATP channels may also be attractive to counteract vascular dysfunction observed in obesity.
Climent, Belen; Simonsen, Ulf
Excessive gestational weight gain has been shown to relate to high postpartum weight retention and the development of overweight and obesity later in life. Since many women are concerned about the health of their baby during pregnancy and are in frequent contact with their health care providers, pregnancy may be an especially powerful “teachable moment” for promoting healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among women. Initial research suggests that helping women gain the recommend...
Activation of myeloperoxidase (MPO), a heme protein primarily expressed in granules of neutrophils, is associated with the development of obesity. However, whether MPO mediates high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and obesity-associated insulin resistance remains to be determined. Here, we found that consumption of an HFD resulted in neutrophil infiltration and enhanced MPO expression and activity in epididymal white adipose tissue, with an increase in body weight gain and impaired insulin signaling. MPO knockout (MPO(-/-)) mice were protected from HFD-enhanced body weight gain and insulin resistance. The MPO inhibitor 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide reduced peroxidase activity of neutrophils and prevented HFD-enhanced insulin resistance. MPO deficiency caused high body temperature via upregulation of uncoupling protein-1 and mitochondrial oxygen consumption in brown adipose tissue. Lack of MPO also attenuated HFD-induced macrophage infiltration and expression of proinflammatory cytokines. We conclude that activation of MPO in adipose tissue contributes to the development of obesity and obesity-associated insulin resistance. Inhibition of MPO may be a potential strategy for prevention and treatment of obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:25024373
Wang, Qilong; Xie, Zhonglin; Zhang, Wencheng; Zhou, Jun; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Miao; Zhu, Huaiping; Zou, Ming-Hui
Full Text Available With the many recent advances in the biomedical world, vast changes are taking place in our growing knowledge of the physiological aspects of almost all the tissues and organs of the human body. One of the most prevalent topics of discussion is the question of obesity and its effect on the metabolic changes in the human body. The original classical role of adipose tissue as an energy storage organ has been greatly modified. We now know that it is an endocrine organ, producing adipokines like leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, resistin, apelin, etc, which modulate metabolic processes in the body. Since obesity is associated with an increase in the adipose tissue mass, these hormones may be expected to be produced in increased concentrations and may thus have a significant impact on the macronutrient metabolism. Further, these adipokines may interact with long term energy modulators like insulin. Even though the scientific community has started unravelling the mysteries of the close linkage between obesity, its hormones and their physiological effects, a lot still remains to be discovered. The present discussion makes an attempt to trace the basic modern day concepts of the role of obesity in various metabolic processes.
Eating and physical activity behaviors associated with adult obesity have early antecedents, yet few studies have focused on obesity prevention interventions targeting very young children. Efforts to prevent obesity beginning at birth seem particularly important in populations at risk for early-onset obesity. National estimates indicate that…
Karanja, Njeri; Aickin, Mikel; Lutz, Tam; Mist, Scott; Jobe, Jared B.; Maupome, Gerardo; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl
Five major approaches namely dietary, exercise, behavior, combination and pharmacy therapies are used for treatment and control of obesity. In dietary therapy, low-calorie diet (LCD), which provides 800 to 1500 kcal of energy daily; a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD), which provides 250-800 kcal of energy daily and an energy-restricted or hypo caloric diet (HCD), which is based on a person`s estimated daily energy requirement. LCDs can reduce total body weight by an average of 8 percent and help ...
Aien Khan Afridi; Mohammad Siddique; Mahpara Safdar; Alam Khan
Obesity is a complex disease which is dramatically increasing worldwide. Following the example of many drugs that were developed from plants molecules, new natural active principles are currently being evaluated in order to prevent or to treat metabolic disorders. Among them, phytoecdysteroids, and mainly 20-hydroxyecdysone present in quinoa, have displayed beneficial pharmacological effects. Thus, they would be potentially active candidates against obesity. The objective of this thesis is to...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Error in self-reported measures of obesity has been frequently described, but the effect of self-reported error on recruitment into diabetes prevention programs is not well established. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of using self-reported obesity data from the Finnish diabetes risk score (FINDRISC on recruitment into the Greater Green Triangle Diabetes Prevention Project (GGT DPP. Methods The GGT DPP was a structured group-based lifestyle modification program delivered in primary health care settings in South-Eastern Australia. Between 2004–05, 850 FINDRISC forms were collected during recruitment for the GGT DPP. Eligible individuals, at moderate to high risk of developing diabetes, were invited to undertake baseline tests, including anthropometric measurements performed by specially trained nurses. In addition to errors in calculating total risk scores, accuracy of self-reported data (height, weight, waist circumference (WC and Body Mass Index (BMI from FINDRISCs was compared with baseline data, with impact on participation eligibility presented. Results Overall, calculation errors impacted on eligibility in 18 cases (2.1%. Of n?=?279 GGT DPP participants with measured data, errors (total score calculation, BMI or WC in self-report were found in n?=?90 (32.3%. These errors were equally likely to result in under- or over-reported risk. Under-reporting was more common in those reporting lower risk scores (Spearman-rho?=??0.226, p-value? Conclusions Overall FINDRISC was found to be an effective tool to screen and recruit participants at moderate to high risk of diabetes, accurately categorising levels of overweight and obesity using self-report data. The results could be generalisable to other diabetes prevention programs using screening tools which include self-reported levels of obesity.
Full Text Available Obesity impacts the U.S. military by affecting the health and readiness of active duty service members and their families. Preventing Obesity in Military Communities (POMC is a comprehensive research program within Patient Centered Medical Homes (PCMHs in three Military Training Facilities. This paper describes three pilot randomized controlled trials that target critical high risk periods for unhealthy weight gain from birth to young adulthood: (1 pregnancy and early infancy (POMC-Mother-Baby, (2 adolescence (POMC-Adolescent, and (3 the first tour of duty after boot camp (POMC-Early Career. Each study employs a two-group randomized treatment or prevention program with follow up. POMC offers a unique opportunity to bring together research and clinical expertise in obesity prevention to develop state-of-the-art programs within PCMHs in Military Training Facilities. This research builds on existing infrastructure that is expected to have immediate clinical benefits to DoD and far-reaching potential for ongoing collaborative work. POMC may offer an economical approach for widespread obesity prevention, from conception to young adulthood, in the U.S. military as well as in civilian communities.
Elena A. Spieker
Obesity impacts the U.S. military by affecting the health and readiness of active duty service members and their families. Preventing Obesity in Military Communities (POMC) is a comprehensive research program within Patient Centered Medical Homes (PCMHs) in three Military Training Facilities. This paper describes three pilot randomized controlled trials that target critical high risk periods for unhealthy weight gain from birth to young adulthood: (1) pregnancy and early infancy (POMC-Mother-Baby), (2) adolescence (POMC-Adolescent), and (3) the first tour of duty after boot camp (POMC-Early Career). Each study employs a two-group randomized treatment or prevention program with follow up. POMC offers a unique opportunity to bring together research and clinical expertise in obesity prevention to develop state-of-the-art programs within PCMHs in Military Training Facilities. This research builds on existing infrastructure that is expected to have immediate clinical benefits to DoD and far-reaching potential for ongoing collaborative work. POMC may offer an economical approach for widespread obesity prevention, from conception to young adulthood, in the U.S. military as well as in civilian communities. PMID:25648176
Spieker, Elena A; Sbrocco, Tracy; Theim, Kelly R; Maurer, Douglas; Johnson, Dawn; Bryant, Edny; Bakalar, Jennifer L; Schvey, Natasha A; Ress, Rachel; Seehusen, Dean; Klein, David A; Stice, Eric; Yanovski, Jack A; Chan, Linda; Gentry, Shari; Ellsworth, Carol; Hill, Joanne W; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Stephens, Mark B
BACKGROUND: Obese individuals who smoke have a 14 year reduction in life expectancy. Both obesity and smoking are independently associated with increased risk of malignancy. Natural killer cells (NK) are critical mediators of anti-tumour immunity and are compromised in obese patients and smokers. We examined whether NK cell function was differentially affected by cigarette smoke in obese and lean subjects. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clinical data and blood were collected from 40 severely obese subjects (BMI>40 kg\\/m(2)) and 20 lean healthy subjects. NK cell levels and function were assessed using flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assays. The effect of cigarette smoke on NK cell ability to kill K562 tumour cells was assessed in the presence or absence of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin. NK cell levels were significantly decreased in obese subjects compared to lean controls (7.6 vs 16.6%, p = 0.0008). NK function was also significantly compromised in obese patients (30% +\\/- 13% vs 42% +\\/-12%, p = 0.04). Cigarette smoke inhibited NK cell ability to kill tumour cell lines (p<0.0001). NK cells from obese subjects were even more susceptible to the inhibitory effects of smoke compared to lean subjects (33% vs 28%, p = 0.01). Cigarette smoke prevented NK cell activation, as well as perforin and interferon-gamma secretion upon tumour challenge. Adiponectin but not leptin partially reversed the effects of smoke on NK cell function in both obese (p = 0.002) and lean controls (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS\\/SIGNIFICANCE: Obese subjects have impaired NK cell activity that is more susceptible to the detrimental effects of cigarette smoke compared to lean subjects. This may play a role in the increase of cancer and infection seen in this population. Adiponectin is capable of restoring NK cell activity and may have therapeutic potential for immunity in obese subjects and smokers.
BACKGROUND: Obese individuals who smoke have a 14 year reduction in life expectancy. Both obesity and smoking are independently associated with increased risk of malignancy. Natural killer cells (NK) are critical mediators of anti-tumour immunity and are compromised in obese patients and smokers. We examined whether NK cell function was differentially affected by cigarette smoke in obese and lean subjects. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Clinical data and blood were collected from 40 severely obese subjects (BMI>40 kg\\/m(2)) and 20 lean healthy subjects. NK cell levels and function were assessed using flow cytometry and cytotoxicity assays. The effect of cigarette smoke on NK cell ability to kill K562 tumour cells was assessed in the presence or absence of the adipokines leptin and adiponectin. NK cell levels were significantly decreased in obese subjects compared to lean controls (7.6 vs 16.6%, p = 0.0008). NK function was also significantly compromised in obese patients (30% +\\/- 13% vs 42% +\\/-12%, p = 0.04). Cigarette smoke inhibited NK cell ability to kill tumour cell lines (p<0.0001). NK cells from obese subjects were even more susceptible to the inhibitory effects of smoke compared to lean subjects (33% vs 28%, p = 0.01). Cigarette smoke prevented NK cell activation, as well as perforin and interferon-gamma secretion upon tumour challenge. Adiponectin but not leptin partially reversed the effects of smoke on NK cell function in both obese (p = 0.002) and lean controls (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS\\/SIGNIFICANCE: Obese subjects have impaired NK cell activity that is more susceptible to the detrimental effects of cigarette smoke compared to lean subjects. This may play a role in the increase of cancer and infection seen in this population. Adiponectin is capable of restoring NK cell activity and may have therapeutic potential for immunity in obese subjects and smokers.
Over the last decades, the prevalence of obesity and related diseases has increased rapidly in the Western world. Obesity is a disorder of energy balance and is associated with hyper-insulinemia, insulin resistance, and abnormalities in lipid metabolism, and it is one of the most important risk factors in the development of Type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, and certain cancers. Because of the lower frequency of these diseases in Asian countries, attention has been turned toward the Asian diet, which consists highly of soy and soy-based products. The health benefits associated with soy consumption have been linked to the content of isoflavones, the main class of the phytoestrogens. As a result of their structural similarities to endogenous estrogens, isoflavones elicit weak estrogenic effects by competing with 17beta-estradiol (E2) for binding to the intranuclear estrogen receptors (ERs) and exert estrogenic or antiestrogenic effects in various tissues. The estrogenic activities of soyisoflavones are thought to play an important role in their health-enhancing properties. Additionally, the isoflavones have been proved to exert non-ER-mediated effects through numerous other pathways. Genistein, daidzein, and glycitein are the principal isoflavones in soy. Genistein is the most thoroughly examined of these, because it is the most prevalent isoflavone in soy and the most active of these compounds, because of its higher binding affinity for the ER. Genistein and daidzein can be obtained in high levels in humans under certain nutritional conditions, and epidemiologic and laboratory data suggest that these compounds could have health benefits in human obesity. This review will focus on the latest results of research on isoflavones and their effect on obesity in cell cultures, rodents, and humans.
Ørgaard, Anne; Jensen, Lotte
The 2013 Pennington Biomedical Research Center's Scientific Symposium focused on the treatment and management of pediatric obesity and was designed to (i) review recent scientific advances in the prevention, clinical treatment and management of pediatric obesity, (ii) integrate the latest published and unpublished findings and (iii) explore how these advances can be integrated into clinical and public health approaches. The symposium provided an overview of important new advances in the field, which led to several recommendations for incorporating the scientific evidence into practice. The science presented covered a range of topics related to pediatric obesity, including the role of genetic differences, epigenetic events influenced by in utero development, pre-pregnancy maternal obesity status, maternal nutrition and maternal weight gain on developmental programming of adiposity in offspring. Finally, the relative merits of a range of various behavioral approaches targeted at pediatric obesity were covered, together with the specific roles of pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery in pediatric populations. In summary, pediatric obesity is a very challenging problem that is unprecedented in evolutionary terms; one which has the capacity to negate many of the health benefits that have contributed to the increased longevity observed in the developed world. PMID:24662696
Katzmarzyk, P T; Barlow, S; Bouchard, C; Catalano, P M; Hsia, D S; Inge, T H; Lovelady, C; Raynor, H; Redman, L M; Staiano, A E; Spruijt-Metz, D; Symonds, M E; Vickers, M; Wilfley, D; Yanovski, J A
Purpose:This study was designed to determine the effects of a school-based obesity-management program on obese primary school children. Methods:A total of 995 children (6–12 years old) in a primary school were screened in March 2008, and of those, 101 obese students (44 boys and 57 girls, body mass index (BMI) ?#249;5 percentile) were enrolled for a study group. The school- based, obesity management program, which includes physical exercise and nutritional education,...
Han Gyu Kim; Goh-woon Lim; Hae Soon Kim; Young Mi Hong
We hypothesized that resveratrol, a natural phytoalexin found in grapes, can prevent oxidative stress, obesity and its related disturbances in obese rats programmed by early weaning. Lactating Wistar rats were separated into two groups: early weaning (EW) - dams who were wrapped with a bandage to interrupt the lactation in the last 3 days of lactation; control - dams whose pups had free access to milk during all lactation. At the 150th day, EW offspring were randomly subdivided into EW+resveratrol (EW+Res) - resveratrol (30 mg/kg/day); EW+vehicle (EW) - rats that received 0.5% (w/v) aqueous methylcellulose. The control group received vehicle. Rats were treated by gavage daily for 30 days. EW offspring developed hyperphagia, higher body weight, visceral obesity, higher systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (+15% and +20%, respectively; PTBARS) and lower plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) and liver glutathione peroxidase activities (+51%, +18%, -58%, -31%, respectively; PTBARS and increased the activity of SOD and catalase in plasma. EW rats presented liver steatosis and higher liver TG, and resveratrol prevented these hepatic alterations. In conclusion, this study demonstrated a potential therapeutic use of resveratrol in preventing obesity and oxidative stress and reducing the risk of hypertension, dyslipidemia and steatosis in adult rats programmed by early weaning. PMID:22959054
Franco, Juliana G; Lisboa, Patrícia C; Lima, Natália S; Amaral, Taline A S; Peixoto-Silva, Nayara; Resende, Angela C; Oliveira, Elaine; Passos, Magna C F; Moura, Egberto G
Performed was a clinical open trial to examine the anti-obesity effect of Bofutsushosan, a Japanese OTC, oriental herbal medicine (ROHTO Pharma. Co., Ltd.) used for constipation release. Subjects were 40-65 years old, 20 females with the body mass index 25-35, who t.i.d. ingested 3 tablets of the medicine, which corresponding to 3.0 g of dried extract of the Bofutsusho material per day, for 6 months (Sep. 2006-Feb. 2007). Before, 3 and 6 months after the beginning of the study, CT imaging was done to measure the fat areas on umbilical cross section for efficacy evaluation, with Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 16. Total, subcutaneous and inter-visceral fat areas were found to be significantly reduced by medication as well as improvement in other body-measure, hematological and biochemical parameters related with obesity and metabolism. No significant adverse effects were found. The medicine can be useful for improvement of the so-called metabolic syndrome not only for obesity and constipation. (R.T.)
Obesity is a growing issue for all children. Many experts say that preventing obesity is largely a matter of eating the right foods and getting enough physical activity. This advice doesn’t recognize the fact that First Nations, Inuit, and Métis children face unique barriers to growing up healthy and strong simply because of theiridentity. This paper discusses how the social determinants of health impact the ability of Aboriginal children to grow up free of obesity. The paper highlights re...
Ferris, Melanie A.
The incidence of obesity, increased weight gain and the popularity of high-fat \\/ high-sugar diets are seriously impacting upon the global population. Billions of individuals are affected, and although diet and lifestyle are of paramount importance to the development of adult obesity, compelling evidence is emerging which suggests that maternal obesity and related disorders may be passed on to the next generation by non-genetic means. The processes acting within the uteri of obese mothers may permanently predispose offspring to a diverse plethora of diseases ranging from obesity and diabetes to psychiatric disorders. This review aims to summarise some of the molecular mechanisms and active processes currently known about maternal obesity and its effect on foetal and neonatal physiology and metabolism. Complex and multifactorial networks of molecules are intertwined and culminate in a pathologically synergistic manner to cause disruption and disorganisation of foetal physiology. This altered phenotype may potentiate the cycle of intergenerational transmission of obesity and related disorders.
Full Text Available Obesity has emerged as a global health issue that is associated with wide spectrum of disorders, including coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, stroke, and venous thromboembolism (VTE. VTE is one of the most common vascular disorders in the United States and Europe and is associated with significant mortality. Although the association between obesity and VTE appears to be moderate, obesity can interact with other environmental or genetic factors and pose a significantly greater risk of VTE among individuals who are obese and who are exposed simultaneously to several other risk factors for VTE. Therefore, identification of potential interactions between obesity and certain VTE risk factors might offer some critical points for VTE interventions and thus minimize VTE morbidity and mortality among patients who are obese. However, current obesity measurements have limitations and can introduce contradictory results in the outcome of obesity. To overcome these limitations, this review proposes several future directions and suggests some avenues for prevention of VTE associated with obesity as well.
The aim of present study was to compare the effects of very low calorie diets - protein rich and dietary fiber rich food based - on gallstones formation during rapid weight loss. 68 patients were involved into the study. The body weight index in all cases exceeding normal value and equaled to 35±4,7 kg/m2. For weight correction purposes during 5 weeks the patients in first group were kept on a 520-800 kcal diet of "Margi" food products, prepared according our technology, and in the second group on a protein rich diet of the same calorie content. The body weight and changes in the gall-bladder wall and content were assessed by sonography before starting the diet, after three weeks from the commencement of the diet and upon its completion. The measurement of the body weight after completion of the 5 week diet revealed decrease by 10.9±1,5kg in the first group and by 11,2±1,1kg in the second group. Sonography disclosed growth in the amount of biliary sludge in 3 cases in the first group and in 9 cases in the second group. The statistical analyses of results indicate successful and nearly equal reduction of body weight by means of dietary fiber rich and protein rich diet, but high fiber consumption showed statistically significant benefits for prevention of biliary slug accumulation. The study showed that, in the respect to weight loss, diets based on fiber rich and protein rich food are equal, but fiber rich diet has considerable privilege in prevention of gallstone disease. Our findings support the presence of known association between increased dietary fiber consumption and reduction of gallstone formation. Obesity and rapid weight loss are risk factors for development of gallstones. Taking in an account the beneficial effect of dietary fiber, the food rich with this nutrient, particularly low-calorie fiber rich food "Margi", can be recommended for rapid weight loss in obese patients. PMID:25020181
Sulaberidze, G; Okujava, M; Liluashvili, K; Tughushi, M; Bezarashvili, S
We applied the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) to develop the Family Stage of Change (FSOC) screening tool. Our goal was to provide practitioners an instrument that measures families’ readiness to change obesity preventing behaviors, in order to optimize family-focused obesity-prevention intervention strategies. We evaluated instrument validity by comparing responses on the FSOC to related items on a validated family behavioral and environmental assessment (Family Nutrition and Physical Acti...
Gunter, Katherine B.; Patrick Abi Nader; Klein, Brendan D.; John, Deborah H.
This article is the second in a two-part review of law's possible role in a regulatory approach to healthier nutrition and obesity prevention in Australia. As discussed in Part 1, law can intervene in support of obesity prevention at a variety of levels: by engaging with the health care system, by targeting individual behaviours, and by seeking to influence the broader, socio-economic and environmental factors that influence patterns of behaviour across the population. Part 1 argued that the ...
Magnusson, Roger S.
The increasing childhood obesity epidemic calls for appropriate measures and effective policies to be applied early in life. Large-scale socioecological frameworks providing a holistic multifactorial and cost-effective approach necessary to support obesity prevention initiatives in this age are however currently missing. To address this missing link, ToyBox-study aims to build and evaluate a cost-effective kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention scheme to prevent obesity in early childhood, which could potentially be expanded on a pan-European scale. A multidisciplinary team of researchers from 10 countries have joined forces and will work to realize this according to a systematic stepwise approach that combines the use of the PRECEDE-PROCEED model and intervention mapping protocol. ToyBox-study will conduct systematic and narrative reviews, secondary data analyses, focus group research and societal assessment to design, implement and evaluate outcome, impact, process and cost effectiveness of the intervention. This is the first time that such a holistic approach has been used on a pan-European scale to promote healthy weight and healthy energy balance-related behaviours for the prevention of early childhood obesity. The results of ToyBox-study will be disseminated among key stakeholders including researchers, policy makers, practitioners and the general population. PMID:22309061
Manios, Y; Grammatikaki, E; Androutsos, O; Chinapaw, M J M; Gibson, E L; Buijs, G; Iotova, V; Socha, P; Annemans, L; Wildgruber, A; Mouratidou, T; Yngve, A; Duvinage, K; de Bourdeaudhuij, I
Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide over the past three decades. Global anti-obesity strategies focus on dietary and lifestyle modifications to slow the development of obesity. Research in the nutrition field has recently aroused considerable interest based on the potential of natural products to counteract obesity. Several studies have identified yerba maté (Ilex paraguariensis as an excellent candidate. In this review, we evaluated the impact of yerba maté on obesity and obesity-related inflammation. Cellular studies demonstrate that yerba maté suppresses adipocyte differentiation and triglyceride accumulation and reduces inflammation. Animal studies show that yerba maté modulates signaling pathways that regulate adipogenesis, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and insulin signaling responses. In summary, the data presented here showed that the use of yerba maté might be useful against obesity, improving the lipid parameters in humans and animal models. In addition, yerba maté modulates the expression of genes that are changed in the obese state and restores them to more normal levels of expression. In doing so, it addresses several of the abnormal and disease-causing factors associated with obesity. Protective and ameliorative effects on insulin resistance were also observed. Thus, as a general conclusion, it seems that yerba maté beverages and supplements might be helpful in the battle against obesity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple factors combine to support a compelling case for interventions that target the development of obesity-promoting behaviours (poor diet, low physical activity and high sedentary behaviour from their inception. These factors include the rapidly increasing prevalence of fatness throughout childhood, the instigation of obesity-promoting behaviours in infancy, and the tracking of these behaviours from childhood through to adolescence and adulthood. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT aims to determine the effectiveness of an early childhood obesity prevention intervention delivered to first-time parents. The intervention, conducted with parents over the infant's first 18 months of life, will use existing social networks (first-time parent's groups and an anticipatory guidance framework focusing on parenting skills which support the development of positive diet and physical activity behaviours, and reduced sedentary behaviours in infancy. Methods/Design This cluster-randomised controlled trial, with first-time parent groups as the unit of randomisation, will be conducted with a sample of 600 first-time parents and their newborn children who attend the first-time parents' group at Maternal and Child Health Centres. Using a two-stage sampling process, local government areas in Victoria, Australia will be randomly selected at the first stage. At the second stage, a proportional sample of first-time parent groups within selected local government areas will be randomly selected and invited to participate. Informed consent will be obtained and groups will then be randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. Discussion The early years hold promise as a time in which obesity prevention may be most effective. To our knowledge this will be the first randomised trial internationally to demonstrate whether an early health promotion program delivered to first-time parents in their existing social groups promotes healthy eating, physical activity and reduced sedentary behaviours. If proven to be effective, INFANT may protect children from the development of obesity and its associated social and economic costs. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN81847050
A meta-analysis was conducted on school-based interventions to reduce obesity in children. Sixty-six (k = 66, N = 31,059) comparisons from 40 published studies from 1997 through 2008 were included in analyses. Results indicated a significant effect for school-based interventions with an overall weighted effect size of r = 0.05. Several moderating…
Cook-Cottone, Catherine; Casey, Carolyn M.; Feeley, Thomas Hugh; Baran, Jennifer
In the last three decades there has been a dramatic, worldwide increase in the incidence of obesity, particularly in Western societies. This trend has required a significant economic investment to treat obesity-related disorders such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. There is an urgent need to understand the factors that contribute to this increase in obesity in order to find new tools that will improve quality of life in affected individuals and to avoid the propagation of obesity to future generations. Endocrine disrupting chemicals have become an important piece of the obesity epidemic puzzle but little is known about the mechanism underlying their effects. In this commentary, we highlight recent work showing that the consequences of ancestral exposure to obesogenic chemicals results in the transmission of obesity-related phenotypes through at least three generations. PMID:25460228
Chamorro-García, Raquel; Blumberg, Bruce
Background. Links between dietary quality and abdominal obesity are poorly understood. Objective. To examine the association between an obesity-specific dietary quality index and abdominal obesity risk in women. Methods. Over 12 years, we followed 288 Framingham Offspring/Spouse Study women, aged 30–69 years, without metabolic syndrome risk factors, cardiovascular disease, cancer, or diabetes at baseline. An 11-nutrient obesity-specific dietary quality index was derived using mean ranks...
Wolongevicz, Dolores M.; Lei Zhu; Pencina, Michael J.; Amp Agostino, Ralph B. D.; Millen, Barbara E.; Newby, P. K.; Kimokoti, Ruth W.
Chronic low grade inflammation is closely linked to obesity-associated insulin resistance. To examine how administration of the anti-inflammatory compound indomethacin, a general cyclooxygenase inhibitor, affected obesity development and insulin sensitivity, we fed obesity-prone male C57BL/6J mice a high fat/high sucrose (HF/HS) diet or a regular diet supplemented or not with indomethacin (±INDO) for 7 weeks. Development of obesity, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance was monitored, and the effect of indomethacin on glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was measured in vivo and in vitro using MIN6 ?-cells. We found that supplementation with indomethacin prevented HF/HS-induced obesity and diet-induced changes in systemic insulin sensitivity. Thus, HF/HS+INDO-fed mice remained insulin-sensitive. However, mice fed HF/HS+INDO exhibited pronounced glucose intolerance. Hepatic glucose output was significantly increased. Indomethacin had no effect on adipose tissue mass, glucose tolerance, or GSIS when included in a regular diet. Indomethacin administration to obese mice did not reduce adipose tissue mass, and the compensatory increase in GSIS observed in obese mice was not affected by treatment with indomethacin. We demonstrate that indomethacin did not inhibit GSIS per se, but activation of GPR40 in the presence of indomethacin inhibited glucose-dependent insulin secretion in MIN6 cells. We conclude that constitutive high hepatic glucose output combined with impaired GSIS in response to activation of GPR40-dependent signaling in the HF/HS+INDO-fed mice contributed to the impaired glucose clearance during a glucose challenge and that the resulting lower levels of plasma insulin prevented the obesogenic action of the HF/HS diet. PMID:24742673
Fjære, Even; Aune, Ulrike L; Røen, Kristin; Keenan, Alison H; Ma, Tao; Borkowski, Kamil; Kristensen, David M; Novotny, Guy W; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Hudson, Brian D; Milligan, Graeme; Xi, Yannan; Newman, John W; Haj, Fawaz G; Liaset, Bjørn; Kristiansen, Karsten; Madsen, Lise
Overfeeding causes rapid synaptic remodeling in hypothalamus feeding circuits. Polysialylation of cell surface molecules is a key step in this neuronal rewiring and allows normalization of food intake. Here we examined the role of hypothalamic polysialylation in the long-term maintenance of body weight, and deciphered the molecular sequence underlying its nutritional regulation. We found that upon high fat diet (HFD), reduced hypothalamic polysialylation exacerbated the diet-induced obese phenotype in mice. Upon HFD, the histone acetyltransferase MOF was rapidly recruited on the St8sia4 polysialyltransferase-encoding gene. Mof silencing in the mediobasal hypothalamus of adult mice prevented activation of the St8sia4 gene transcription, reduced polysialylation, altered the acute homeostatic feeding response to HFD and increased the body weight gain. These findings indicate that impaired hypothalamic polysialylation contribute to the development of obesity, and establish a role for MOF in the brain control of energy balance. PMID:25161885
Brenachot, Xavier; Rigault, Caroline; Nédélec, Emmanuelle; Laderrière, Amélie; Khanam, Tasneem; Gouazé, Alexandra; Chaudy, Sylvie; Lemoine, Aleth; Datiche, Frédérique; Gascuel, Jean; Pénicaud, Luc; Benani, Alexandre
Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation that contributes to defects in energy metabolism and insulin resistance. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3 expression is increased in skeletal muscle of obese humans. SOCS3 inhibits leptin signaling in the hypothalamus and insulin signal transduction in adipose tissue and the liver. Skeletal muscle is an important tissue for controlling energy expenditure and whole-body insulin sensitivity; however, the physiological importance of SOCS3 in this tissue has not been examined. Therefore, we generated mice that had SOCS3 specifically deleted in skeletal muscle (SOCS MKO). The SOCS3 MKO mice had normal muscle development, body mass, adiposity, appetite, and energy expenditure compared with wild-type (WT) littermates. Despite similar degrees of obesity when fed a high-fat diet, SOCS3 MKO mice were protected against the development of hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance because of enhanced skeletal muscle insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and Akt phosphorylation that resulted in increased skeletal muscle glucose uptake. These data indicate that skeletal muscle SOCS3 does not play a critical role in regulating muscle development or energy expenditure, but it is an important contributing factor for inhibiting insulin sensitivity in obesity. Therapies aimed at inhibiting SOCS3 in skeletal muscle may be effective in reversing obesity-related glucose intolerance and insulin resistance.
Beck JØrgensen, Sebastian; O'Neill, Hayley M
Cholestyramine is a cationic polymer prescribed to lower cholesterol in humans. We investigated the effects of cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose (cHEC) on weight loss and metabolic disorders associated with obesity using both hamster and diet-induced obese mouse models. Golden Syrian hamsters and ob...
Obese children have a theoretically increased risk of sustaining an extremity fracture because of potential variations in their bone mineral density, serum leptin levels, and altered balance and gait. Trauma databases suggest an increased rate of extremity fractures in obese children and adolescents involved in polytrauma compared with nonobese children and adolescents. Anesthetic and other perioperative concerns for obese pediatric trauma patients undergoing surgery include higher baseline blood pressures, increased rates of asthma, and obstructive sleep apnea. A child's weight must be considered when choosing the type of implant for fixation of pediatric femoral fractures. Fracture prevention strategies in obese pediatric patients consist of ensuring properly sized safety gear for both motor vehicles and sporting activities and implementing structured weight-loss programs. PMID:22552676
Lazar-Antman, Meredith A; Leet, Arabella I
This research was conducted to assess the effect of a weight management program in Turkish school children with overweight and obesity. Forty one students formed the intervention group while 40 students formed the control group in two elementary schools. Students in intervention group were given seven training sessions in a period of 2.5 months.…
Toruner, Ebru Kilicarslan; Savaser, Sevim
Berberine, a major pharmacological component of the Chinese herb Coptis chinensis, which was originally used to treat bacterial diarrhea, has recently been demonstrated to be clinically effective in alleviating type 2 diabetes. In this study, we revealed that berberine effectively prevented the development of obesity and insulin resistance in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats, which showed decreased food intake. Increases in the levels of serum lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, monocyte chemoatt...
Zhang, Xu; Zhao, Yufeng; Zhang, Menghui; Pang, Xiaoyan; Xu, Jia; Kang, Chaoying; Li, Meng; Zhang, Chenhong; Zhang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Xiaoying; Ning, Guang; Zhao, Liping
Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts to prevent the development of overweight and obesity have increasingly focused early in the life course as we recognise that both metabolic and behavioural patterns are often established within the first few years of life. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs of interventions are even more powerful when, with forethought, they are synthesised into an individual patient data (IPD prospective meta-analysis (PMA. An IPD PMA is a unique research design where several trials are identified for inclusion in an analysis before any of the individual trial results become known and the data are provided for each randomised patient. This methodology minimises the publication and selection bias often associated with a retrospective meta-analysis by allowing hypotheses, analysis methods and selection criteria to be specified a priori. Methods/Design The Early Prevention of Obesity in CHildren (EPOCH Collaboration was formed in 2009. The main objective of the EPOCH Collaboration is to determine if early intervention for childhood obesity impacts on body mass index (BMI z scores at age 18-24 months. Additional research questions will focus on whether early intervention has an impact on children's dietary quality, TV viewing time, duration of breastfeeding and parenting styles. This protocol includes the hypotheses, inclusion criteria and outcome measures to be used in the IPD PMA. The sample size of the combined dataset at final outcome assessment (approximately 1800 infants will allow greater precision when exploring differences in the effect of early intervention with respect to pre-specified participant- and intervention-level characteristics. Discussion Finalisation of the data collection procedures and analysis plans will be complete by the end of 2010. Data collection and analysis will occur during 2011-2012 and results should be available by 2013. Trial registration number ACTRN12610000789066
Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are major transcription factors regulating the expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of cholesterol, fatty acids, and triglycerides. We investigated the effect of the specific SREBP suppressor andrographolide, a natural compound isolated from Andrographis paniculata, on the regulation of SREBP signaling by use of Western blot, reporter gene assay, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. In addition, the antiobesity effects of andrographolide were evaluated in C57BL/6 mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Our results showed that andrographolide downregulated the expressions of SREBPs target genes and decreased cellular lipid accumulation in vitro. Further, andrographolide (100 mg/kg per day) attenuated HFD-induced body weight gain and fat accumulation in liver or adipose tissues, and improved serum lipid levels and insulin or glucose sensitivity in HFD-induced obese mice. Andrographolide effectively suppressed the respiratory quotient, energy expenditure, and oxygen consumption, which may have contributed to the decreased body-weight gain of the obese mice fed with a HFD. Consistently, andrographolide regulated SREBP target genes and metabolism-associated genes in liver or brown adipose tissue, which may have directly contributed to the lower lipid levels and enhanced insulin sensitivity. Taken together, our results indicated that andrographolide ameliorated lipid metabolism and improved glucose use in mice with HFD-induced obesity. Andrographolide has potential as a leading compound in the prevention or treatment of obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:25204338
Ding, Lili; Li, Jinmei; Song, Baoliang; Xiao, Xu; Huang, Wendong; Zhang, Binfeng; Tang, Xiaowen; Qi, Meng; Yang, Qiming; Yang, Qiaoling; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao
Background: Childhood obesity remains a major public health concern. While preventing childhood obesity is important, the effectiveness of existing prevention strategies is indefinite. Important obesity contributors are speculated to be overlooked while the role of well-studied obesity-related factors has been questioned. Objectives: 1) Although the association between lifestyle and obesity is seemingly well-established, how an overlooked dietary factor, breakfast location, associates ...
Tin, Sze-pui; ???
Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary 1(3-behenoyl-2,3(1-dioleoyl-rac-glycerol (BOO has been reported to inhibit pancreatic lipase activity in vitro and suppress postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia in humans. In the present study, the anti-obesity activities of BOO and its inhibitory effects on lymphatic triacylglycerol (TAG absorption were investigated in rats. Methods In Experiment 1, rats were fed either BOO or soybean oil (SO diet for 6 weeks. In the BOO diet, 20% of SO was replaced with an experimental oil rich in BOO. In Experiments 2 and 3, rats cannulated in the thoracic duct were administered an emulsions containing trioleoylglycerol (OOO or an oil mixture (OOO:BOO, 9:1. Tri[1-14C]oleoylglycerol (14C-OOO was added to the emulsions administered in Experiment 3. Results No observable differences were detected in food intake or body weight gain between the BOO and SO groups in Experiment 1. Plasma and liver TAG concentrations and visceral fat weights were significantly lower in the BOO group than in the SO group. The apparent absorption rate of fat was significantly lower in the BOO group than in the SO group. In Experiment 2, the lymphatic recovery of oleic and behenic acids was significantly lower at 5 and 6 h after BOO administration than after OOO administration. In Experiment 3, the lymphatic recovery of 14C-OOO was significantly lower at 5 and 6 h after BOO administration than after OOO administration. Conclusions These results suggest that BOO prevents deposition of visceral fat and hepatic TAG by lowering and delaying intestinal absorption of TAG.
This study considers the effects of globalization, in its economic and social dimensions, on obesity and caloric intake. In assessing these effects using longitudinal analysis, this study adopts an extensive list of controls to account for compositional changes and effects, as well as different specifications. The results suggest a robust association between globalization and both obesity and caloric intake. A one standard deviation increase in globalization is associated with a 20 percent in...
Costa-i-font, Joan; Mas, Nu?ria
Introduction. Physical inactivity and obesity are independent risk factors for atherosclerosis. We analyzed the immunomodulatory capacity of 10-week intensified exercise training (ET) in obese and lean athletes. Markers of the innate immune response were investigated in obese (ONE: ET?40?km/week) and lean athletes (LNE: ET?40?km/week and LE: ET?55?km/week). Methods. Circulating dendritic cells (DC) were analyzed by flow-cytometry for BDCA-1/-2-expression. TLR-2/-4/-7 and MyD88 wer...
Martin Halle; Eva Hoster; Marius Lambert; Zeljka Sisic; Claudia Summo; Arno Schmidt-Trucksäss; Ingrid Emslander; Gernot Hertel; Verena Drexel; Henner Hanssen; Michael Weis; Thomas Nickel
Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a major public health issue; however, only limited evidence is available about effective ways to prevent obesity, particularly in early childhood. Romp & Chomp was a community-wide obesity prevention intervention conducted in Geelong Australia with a target group of 12,000 children aged 0-5 years. The intervention had an environmental and capacity building focus and we have recently demonstrated that the prevalence of overweight/obesity was lower in intervention children, post-intervention. Capacity building is defined as the development of knowledge, skills, commitment, structures, systems and leadership to enable effective health promotion and the aim of this study was to determine if the capacity of the Geelong community, represented by key stakeholder organisations, to support healthy eating and physical activity for young children was increased after Romp & Chomp. Methods A mixed methods evaluation with three data sources was utilised. 1 Document analysis comprised assessment of the documented formative and intervention activities against a capacity building framework (five domains: Partnerships, Leadership, Resource Allocation, Workforce Development, and Organisational Development; 2 Thematic analysis of key informant interviews (n = 16; and 3 the quantitative Community Capacity Index Survey. Results Document analysis showed that the majority of the capacity building activities addressed the Partnerships, Resource Allocation and Organisational Development domains of capacity building, with a lack of activity in the Leadership and Workforce Development domains. The thematic analysis revealed the establishment of sustainable partnerships, use of specialist advice, and integration of activities into ongoing formal training for early childhood workers. Complex issues also emerged from the key informant interviews regarding the challenges of limited funding, high staff turnover, changing governance structures, lack of high level leadership and unclear communication strategies. The Community Capacity Index provided further evidence that the project implementation network achieved a moderate level of capacity. Conclusions Romp & Chomp increased the capacity of organisations, settings and services in the Geelong community to support healthy eating and physical activity for young children. Despite this success there are important learnings from this mixed methods evaluation that should inform current and future community-based public health and health promotion initiatives. Trial Registration Number ANZCTRN12607000374460
de Groot Florentine P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Schools are the most frequent target for intervention programs aimed at preventing child obesity; however, the overall effectiveness of these programs has been limited. It has therefore been recommended that interventions target multiple ecological levels (community, family, school and individual to have greater success in changing risk behaviors for obesity. This study examined the immediate and short-term, sustained effects of the Switch program, which targeted three behaviors (decreasing children's screen time, increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, and increasing physical activity at three ecological levels (the family, school, and community. Methods Participants were 1,323 children and their parents from 10 schools in two states. Schools were matched and randomly assigned to treatment and control. Measures of the key behaviors and body mass index were collected at baseline, immediately post-intervention, and 6 months post-intervention. Results The effect sizes of the differences between treatment and control groups ranged between small (Cohen's d = 0.15 for body mass index at 6 months post-intervention to large (1.38; parent report of screen time at 6 months post-intervention, controlling for baseline levels. There was a significant difference in parent-reported screen time at post-intervention in the experimental group, and this effect was maintained at 6 months post-intervention (a difference of about 2 hours/week. The experimental group also showed a significant increase in parent-reported fruit and vegetable consumption while child-reported fruit and vegetable consumption was marginally significant. At the 6-month follow-up, parent-reported screen time was significantly lower, and parent and child-reported fruit and vegetable consumption was significantly increased. There were no significant effects on pedometer measures of physical activity or body mass index in the experimental group. The intervention effects were moderated by child sex (for fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and weight status, family involvement (for fruit and vegetable consumption, and child body mass index (for screen time. The perception of change among the experimental group was generally positive with 23% to 62% indicating positive changes in behaviors. Conclusion The results indicate that the Switch program yielded small-to-modest treatment effects for promoting children's fruit and vegetable consumption and minimizing screen time. The Switch program offers promise for use in youth obesity prevention.
Full Text Available Introduction: The intragastric balloon is a minimally invasive technique used to treat obesity by reducing hunger and inducing satiety as a result of gastric volume restriction, thus it could be ideal to treat young people who are thought to be easier to change their eating behavior. Aim: The purpose of this prospective clinical study was to investigate the effectiveness of intragastric balloon on obese adolescents, after a six-month period of treatment. Material: Fourteen adolescents -aged 18,5±2,5 yrs- treated by intragastric balloon were studied prospectively. Mean baseline Body Mass Index [BMI] was 39,8 ± 5,8kg/m2 and %Fatty Mass [FM] 41,7 ± 5,4. The data collected every month for the 6mo period was: Body Weight [BW], BMI, Resting metabolic Rate [RMR] by indirect calorimetry, %FM, %Excessive Weight Loss [%EWL] and %Actual Caloric Intake [%ACI]. Appetite related sensations scores [hunger, satiety, desire for food] were also assessed monthly by visual analogue scales [VAS]. The number of follow-up visits was considered as a marker of compliance. Results: Median baseline values were as follows: BM 118kg [range 80 to 174], BMI 39,1kg/m2 [range 33 to 54] [>95th percentile],%FM 42 [range 33 to 49] and %ACI 116,6 [range 60 to 200,5]. After a 6mo period, just before the removal of the balloon, all measured parameters exhibited a statistically significant reduction: the median BW was found to be 108kg [range 62 to 162, p=0,002], the BMI 37kg/m2 [range 26 to 50, p=0,001], %FM 40 [range 20 to 49, p=0,009], the %EWL was 14,29 [range 3,33 to 69,23, p=0,021] and the %ACI=86 [range 33 to 153,96, p=0,02]. Appetite related sensation score was unchanged.The median number of follow-up visits was 4 [range 2 to 7]. Conclusions: Although the number of follow-up visits during the 6 month treatment generally reveals poor compliance,a small though significant weight loss, as a consequence of reduction in the energy intake is prominent. Based on the above findings, a better pre-procedure screening for the appropriate candidates for treatment as well as a better scheduled approach by a multi-disciplinary group, including a dietician and a psychologist is considered mandatory.
Abstract Background Screening for obesity and providing appropriate obesity-related counseling in the clinical setting are important strategies to prevent and control childhood obesity. The purpose of this study is to document pediatricians (PEDs) and general practitioners (GPs) with pediatric patients use of BMI-for-age to screen for obesity, confidence in explaining BMI, access to referral clinics, and characteristics associated with screening and counseling to children and...
Polhamus Barbara; Sherry Bettylou; Wethington Holly R
Obesity is not a single disease, but a variety of conditions resulting from different mechanisms and associated with various types and degrees of risks. To determine who should lose weight, how much weight should be lost, and how to undertake weight loss, the following types of information are needed: personal-demographic data, developmental patterns, family history, energy balance, body composition/fat distribution, psychological/behavioral measures, endocrine/metabolic measures, complicatio...
Callaway, C. W.
Abstract Objective: Obesity is critically important to maternal and fetal health during the perinatal period. We have detected an increasing prevalence of maternal obesity in recent years and investigated its complications during pregnancy. Methods: A total of 931 pregnant females were investigated between March 2012 and March 2013. The patients were divided into four groups: body mass index (BMI)?dystocia, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, abnormal heart rate pattern and postpartum infection rates were found in the obese group during the perinatal period. Adverse maternal effects in obese cases were significantly more frequent than those in normal-weight cases. Preterm birth, perinatal mortality, low APGAR scores, newborn intensive care unit requirement, hypoglycemia and macrosomia rates were significantly higher in obese cases than those in non-obese cases. However, low birth weight infant rate was higher in the low BMI cases than that in the other BMI categories (p?0.01). Conclusion: We conclude that obesity is an important factor associated with pregnancy complications and the increase in maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality. PMID:25327177
Avc?, Muhittin Eftal; Sanl?kan, Fatih; Celik, Mehmet; Avc?, An?l; Kocaer, Mustafa; Göçmen, Ahmet
Full Text Available The interest in genetic manipulations of PPARs is as old as their discovery as receptors of ligands with beneficial clinical activities. Considering the effects of PPAR ligands on critical aspects of systemic physiology, including obesity, lipid metabolism, insulin resistance, and diabetes, gene knockout (KO in mice is the ideal platform for both hypothesis testing and discovery of new PPAR functions in vivo. With the fervent pursuit of the magic bullet to eradicate the obesity epidemic, special emphasis has been placed on the impacts of PPARs on obesity and its associated diseases. As detailed in this review, understanding how PPARs regulate gene expression and basic metabolic pathways is a necessary intermediate en route to deciphering their effects on obesity. Over a decade and dozens of genetic modifications of PPARs into this effort, valuable lessons have been learned, but we are left with more questions to be answered. These lessons and future prospects are the subject of this review.
We examined the hypolipidemic effect of propolis in a mouse obesity model induced by a high fat-diet. C57BL/6N mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum and given propolis extract intragastrically at 0 mg/kg (control), 5 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg twice daily for 10 d. Compared with mice in the control group, mice in the propolis extract-administrated groups displayed a reduction in all of the following parameters: body weight gain, weight of visceral adipose tissue, liver and serum triglycerides, cholesterol, and non-esterified fatty acids. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of the liver showed down-regulation of mRNA expression associated with fatty acid biosynthesis, including fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha, and sterol regulatory element binding protein in the propolis-administrated mice. Subsequently, obese C57BL/6N mice that had been administered a high-fat diet were given propolis extract at 0 mg/kg (control), 2.5 mg/kg or 25 mg/kg for 4 weeks. The propolis extract treated mice showed a decrease in weight gain, a reduction of serum non-esterified fatty acids, and lipid accumulation in the liver. These results suggest that propolis extract prevented and mitigated high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia by down-regulating the expression of genes associated with lipid metabolism. PMID:19952422
Koya-Miyata, Satomi; Arai, Norie; Mizote, Akiko; Taniguchi, Yoshifumi; Ushio, Shimpei; Iwaki, Kanso; Fukuda, Shigeharu
Exercise is recognized to prevent and attenuate several metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Obesity is commonly related to cardiovascular diseases, frequently resulting in heart failure and death. To elucidate the effects of acute exercise in heart tissue from obese animals, 12-week-old C57BL6/J obese (ob/ob) and non-obese (ob/OB) mice were submitted to a single bout of swimming and had their hearts analyzed by proteomic techniques. Mice were divided into three groups: control (ob/ob, n?=?3; ob/OB, n?=?3); a moderate intensity consisting of 20 min of swimming around 90% of Maximal Lactate Steady State (ob/ob, n?=?3; ob/OB, n?=?3), and a high intensity exercise performed as an incremental overload test (ob/ob, n?=?3; ob/OB, n?=?3). Obesity modulations were analyzed by comparing ob/ob and ob/OB control groups. Differential 2-DE analysis revealed that single session of exercise was able to up-regulate: myoglobin (ob/ob), aspartate aminotransferase (ob/OB) and zinc finger protein (ob/OB) and down-regulate: nucleoside diphosphate kinase B (ob/OB), mitochondrial aconitase (ob/ob and ob/OB) and fatty acid binding protein (ob/ob). Zinc finger protein and ?-actin were up-regulated by the effect of obesity on heart proteome. These data demonstrate the immediate response of metabolic and stress-related proteins after exercise so as contractile protein by obesity modulation on heart proteome. PMID:23018614
Petriz, Bernardo A; Cunha, Verusca N; Villeth, Gabriela R C; Mehta, Ângela; Rocha, Luiz A O; Silva, Osmar N; Almeida, Jeeser A; Morais, Pamella K; Simões, Herbert G; Franco, Octávio L
Measurement of obesity among 364 adults with mental retardation indicated that rates of obesity were significantly higher among females than males; subjects with severe mental retardation had the lowest overall rates of obesity; and residents of a state-operated institution had lower obesity rates than group home, family, and Intermediate Care…
Rimmer, James H.; And Others
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a strong rationale for intervening in early childhood to prevent obesity. Over a quarter of infants gain weight more rapidly than desirable during the first six months of life putting them at greater risk of obesity in childhood. However, little is known about UK healthcare professionals' (HCPs approach to primary prevention. This study explored obesity-related knowledge of UK HCPs and the beliefs and current practice of general practitioners (GPs and practice nurses in relation to identifying infants at risk of developing childhood obesity. Method Survey of UK HCPs (GPs, practice nurses, health visitors, nursery, community and children's nurses. HCPs (n = 116 rated their confidence in providing infant feeding advice and completed the Obesity Risk Knowledge Scale (ORK-10. Semi-structured interviews with a sub-set of 12 GPs and 6 practice nurses were audio recorded, taped and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was applied using an interpretative, inductive approach. Results GPs were less confident about giving advice about infant feeding than health visitors (p = 0.001 and nursery nurses (p = 0.009 but more knowledgeable about the health risks of obesity (p Six main themes emerged from the interviews: 1 Attribution of childhood obesity to family environment, 2 Infant feeding advice as the health visitor's role, 3 Professional reliance on anecdotal or experiential knowledge about infant feeding, 4 Difficulties with recognition of, or lack of concern for, infants "at risk" of becoming obese, 5 Prioritising relationship with parent over best practice in infant feeding and 6 Lack of shared understanding for dealing with early years' obesity. Conclusions Intervention is needed to improve health visitors and nursery nurses' knowledge of obesity risk and GPs and practice nurses' capacity to identify and manage infants' at risk of developing childhood obesity. GPs value strategies that maintain relationships with vulnerable families and interventions to improve their advice-giving around infant feeding need to take account of this. Further research is needed to determine optimal ways of intervening with infants at risk of obesity in primary care.
Swift Judy A
Obesity is closely associated with chronic, low-grade inflammation. We investigated if polyphenol-rich blackcurrant extract (BCE) can prevent inflammation in vivo. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a modified AIN-93M control diet containing high fat/high cholesterol (16% fat, 0.25% cholesterol by weight) or the control diet supplemented with 0.1% BCE (wt/wt) for 12 weeks. In BCE-fed mice, the percentage of body weight and adipocyte size of the epididymal fat were significantly lower than those of control mice. There were fewer crown-like structures (CLS) with concomitant decreases in F4/80, cluster of differentiation 68 and inhibitor of nuclear factor ?B kinase ? (IKK?) mRNA in the epididymal adipose of BCE-fed mice. F4/80 and IKK? mRNA levels were positively correlated with CLS number. In the skeletal muscle of mice fed with BCE, mRNA expression of genes involved in energy expenditure and mitochondrial biogenesis, including PPAR?, PPAR?, UCP-2, UCP-3 and mitochondrial transcription factor A, were significantly increased. When splenocytes from BCE-fed mice were stimulated by lipopolysaccharides, tumor necrosis factor ? and interleukin-1? mRNA were significantly lower than control splenocytes. Together, the results suggest that BCE supplementation decreases obesity-induced inflammation in adipose tissue and splenocytes, at least in part, by modulating energy metabolism in skeletal muscle. PMID:25034502
Benn, Tyler; Kim, Bohkyung; Park, Young-Ki; Wegner, Casey J; Harness, Ellen; Nam, Tae-Gyu; Kim, Dae-Ok; Lee, Jong Suk; Lee, Ji-Young
This dissertation details the effects of obesity on the mechanical properties and structure of cortical bone. Obesity is associated with greater bone mineral content that might be expected to protect against fracture, which has been observed in adults. Paradoxically however, the incidence of bone fractures has been found to increase in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Femora from adolescent and adult mice fed a high-fat diet are investigated for changes in shape, tissue structure, as well as tissue-level and whole-bone mechanical properties. Results indicate increased bone size, reduced size-independent mechanical properties, but maintained size-dependent mechanical properties. Other changes in cortical bone response to obesity are observed with advancing age. This study indicates that bone quantity and bone quality play important compensatory roles in determining fracture risk, and that fracture risk may not be lessened for adults as previously thought.
Obesity is now one of the public health concerns in China. Many factors are contributing to obesity. However, the underlying mechanism is not clear. As it is hard to cure it once obesity occurs, the most effective and encouraging strategies is prevention. Risk factors should be identified in order to develop prevention strategies
Sedentary lifestyles and increased pollution brought about by industrialization pose major challenges to the prevention of both obesity and chronic respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Obesity has emerged as an important risk factor for these respiratory diseases, and in many instances weight loss is associated with important symptomatic improvement. Moreover, obesity may influence the ...
Poulain, Magali; Doucet, Marie?ve; Major, Genevie?ve C.; Drapeau, Vicky; Se?rie?s, Fre?de?ric; Boulet, Louis-philippe; Tremblay, Angelo; Maltais, Franc?ois
Obesity is now a worldwide health problem. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a gut hormone that is secreted following the ingestion of food and modulates energy metabolism. Previous studies reported that lowering diet-induced GIP secretion improved energy homeostasis in animals and humans, and attenuated diet-induced obesity in mice. Therefore, food-derived GIP regulators may be used in the development of foods that prevent obesity. Rice bran oil and its components are known to have beneficial effects on health. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clarify the effects of the oil-soluble components of rice bran on postprandial GIP secretion and obesity in mice. Triterpene alcohols [cycloartenol (CA) and 24-methylene cycloartanol (24Me)], ?-sitosterol, and campesterol decreased the diet-induced secretion of GIP in C57BL/6J mice. Mice fed a high-fat diet supplemented with a triterpene alcohol and sterol preparation (TASP) from rice bran for 23 wk gained less weight than control mice. Indirect calorimetry revealed that fat utilization was higher in TASP-fed mice than in control mice. Fatty acid oxidation-related gene expression in the muscles of mice fed a TASP-supplemented diet was enhanced, whereas fatty acid synthesis-related gene expression in the liver was suppressed. The treatment of HepG2 cells with CA and 24Me decreased the gene expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c. In conclusion, we clarified for the first time that triterpene alcohols and sterols from rice bran prevented diet-induced obesity by increasing fatty acid oxidation in muscles and decreasing fatty acid synthesis in the liver through GIP-dependent and GIP-independent mechanisms. PMID:25257874
Fukuoka, Daisuke; Okahara, Fumiaki; Hashizume, Kohjiro; Yanagawa, Kiyotaka; Osaki, Noriko; Shimotoyodome, Akira
In hypertensive rodents, retinoic acid (RA) prevents adverse cardiac remodelling and improves myocardial infarction outcome, but its role in obesity-related changes of cardiac tissue are unclear. We hypothesized that all-trans RA (ATRA) treatment will improve the cardioprotective oxytocin-natriuretic peptides (OT-NP) system, preventing apoptosis and collagen accumulation in hearts of ob/ob mice, a mouse model of obesity and insulin resistance. Female 9-week-old B6.V-Lep/J ob/ob mice (n = 16) were divided into 2 groups: 1 group (n = 8) treated with 100 ?g of ATRA dissolved in 100 ?L of corn oil (vehicle) delivered daily (?2 ?g·g body weight(-1)·day(-1)) by stomach intubation for 16 days, and 1 group (n = 8) that received the vehicle alone. A group of nonobese littermate mice (n = 9) served as controls. Ob/ob mice exhibited obesity, hyperglycaemia, and downregulation of the cardiac OT-NP system, including the mRNA for the transcription factor GATA4, OT receptor and brain NP, and the protein expression for endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Hearts from ob/ob mice also demonstrated increased apoptosis and collagen accumulation. ATRA treatment induced weight loss and decreased adipocytes diameter in the visceral fat, thus reducing visceral obesity, which is associated with a high risk for cardiovascular disease. RA treatment was associated with a reduction in hyperglycemia and a normalization of the OT-NP system's expression in the hearts of ob/ob mice. Furthermore, ATRA treatment prevented apoptosis and collagen accumulation in hearts of ob/ob mice. The present study indicates that ATRA treatment was effective in restoring the cardioprotective OT-NP system and in preventing abnormal cardiac remodelling in the ob/ob mice. PMID:25017112
Manolescu, Daniel-Constantin; Jankowski, Marek; Danalache, Bogdan A; Wang, Donghao; Broderick, Tom L; Chiasson, Jean-Louis; Gutkowska, Jolanta
Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising burden of obesity in Tonga is alarming. The promotion of healthy behaviours and environments requires immediate urgent action and a multi-sectoral approach. A three-year community based study titled the Ma'alahi Youth Project (MYP conducted in Tonga from 2005-2008 aimed to increase the capacity of the whole community (schools, churches, parents and adolescents to promote healthy eating and regular physical activity and to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity amongst youth and their families. This paper reflects on the process evaluation for MYP, against a set of Best Practice Principles for community-based obesity prevention. Methods MYP was managed by the Fiji School of Medicine. A team of five staff in Tonga were committed to planning, implementation and evaluation of a strategic plan, the key planks of which were developed during a two day community workshop. Intervention activities were delivered in villages, churches and schools, on the main island of Tongatapu. Process evaluation data covering the resource utilisation associated with all intervention activities were collected, and analysed by dose, frequency and reach for specific strategies. The action plan included three standard objectives around capacity building, social marketing and evaluation; four nutrition; two physical activity objectives; and one around championing key people as role models. Results While the interventions included a wide mix of activities straddling across all of these objectives and in both school and village settings, there was a major focus on the social marketing and physical activity objectives. The intervention reach, frequency and dose varied widely across all activities, and showed no consistent patterns. Conclusions The adolescent obesity interventions implemented as part of the MYP program comprised a wide range of activities conducted in multiple settings, touched a broad spectrum of the population (wider than the target group, but the dose and frequency of activities were generally insufficient and not sustained. Also the project confirmed that, while the MYP resulted in increased community awareness of healthy behaviours, Tonga is still in its infancy in terms of conducting public health research and lacks research infrastructure and capacity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in community-based interventions (CBIs for health promotion is increasing, with a lot of recent activity in the field. This paper aims, from a state government perspective, to examine the experience of funding and managing six obesity prevention CBIs, to identify lessons learned and to consider the implications for future investment. Specifically, we focus on the planning, government support, evaluation, research and workforce development required. Methods The lessons presented in this paper come from analysis of key project documents, the experience of the authors in managing the projects and from feedback obtained from key program stakeholders. Results CBIs require careful management, including sufficient planning time and clear governance structures. Selection of interventions should be based on evidence and tailored to local needs to ensure adequate penetration in the community. Workforce and community capacity must be assessed and addressed when selecting communities. Supporting the health promotion workforce to become adequately skilled and experienced in evaluation and research is also necessary before implementation. Comprehensive evaluation of future projects is challenging on both technical and affordability grounds. Greater emphasis may be needed on process evaluation complemented by organisation-level measures of impact and monitoring of nutrition and physical activity behaviours. Conclusions CBIs offer potential as one of a mix of approaches to obesity prevention. If successful approaches are to be expanded, care must be taken to incorporate lessons from existing and past projects. To do this, government must show strong leadership and work in partnership with the research community and local practitioners.
Haby Michelle M
This report from the field describes the design, implementation, and early evaluation results of the Healthy Weight Collaborative, a federally-supported learning collaborative to develop, test, and disseminate an integrated change package of six promising, evidence-based clinical and community-based strategies to prevent and treat obesity for children and families. PMID:23727968
Hargreaves, Margaret B; Honeycutt, Todd; Orfield, Cara; Vine, Michaela; Cabili, Charlotte; Morzuch, Michaella; Fisher, Sylvia K; Briefel, Ronette
Introduction. Interest has grown in how systems thinking could be used in obesity prevention. Relationships between key actors, represented by social networks, are an important focus for considering intervention in systems. Method. Two long day care centers were selected in which previous obesity prevention programs had been implemented. Measures showed ways in which physical activity and dietary policy are conversations and actions transacted through social networks (interrelationships) within centers, via an eight item closed-ended social network questionnaire. Questionnaire data were collected from (17/20; response rate 85%) long day care center staff. Social network density and centrality statistics were calculated, using UCINET social network software, to examine the role of networks in obesity prevention. Results. “Degree” (influence) and “betweeness” (gatekeeper) centrality measures of staff inter-relationships about physical activity, dietary, and policy information identified key players in each center. Network density was similar and high on some relationship networks in both centers but markedly different in others, suggesting that the network tool identified unique center social dynamics. These differences could potentially be the focus of future team capacity building. Conclusion. Social network analysis is a feasible and useful method to identify existing obesity prevention networks and key personnel in long day care centers. PMID:23986867
Barnett, Lisa M.; Foulkes, Chad; Hawe, Penelope; Allender, Steven
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar a abordagem terapêutica da obesidade infantil, bem como aspectos de seu diagnóstico e prevenção. FONTES DOS DADOS: Foi realizada busca de artigos científicos através das bases de dados MEDLINE, Ovid, Highwire e Scielo. As palavras-chave utilizadas foram: "childhood obesity" e também combinações junto a "treatment", "prevention" e "consequence". Dentre os artigos provenientes da busca incluíam-se artigos de revisão, estudos observacionais, ensaios clínicos e posições de consenso. Percebida a relevância, também se buscou diretamente referências indicadas. O período de coleta de dados foi de 1998 a 2003. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Foram encontrados vários trabalhos de prevalência no Brasil. No entanto, poucos trazem resultados de programas educativos aplicáveis em nosso meio. CONCLUSÕES: Deve-se prevenir a obesidade infantil com medidas adequadas de prescrição de dieta na infância desde o nascimento, além de se estudar mais sobre programas de educação que possam ser aplicados no nível primário de saúde e nas escolas.OBJECTIVE: To review therapeutic approaches to childhood obesity and also its diagnosis and prevention. SOURCES OF DATA: Searches were performed of scientific papers held on the MEDLINE, Ovid, Highwire and Scielo databases. Keywords utilized were: "childhood obesity" and a variety of combinations of this term with "treatment", "prevention" and "consequence". The search returned papers including review articles, observational studies, clinical trials and consensus statements. Bibliographical references in these articles were also investigated if it was perceived that they were relevant. Data was collected from 1998 to 2003. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: While a number of different Brazilian prevalence studies were found, few gave details of the results of educational programs in our country. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood obesity must be prevented through prescriptive diets from birth throughout childhood. Educational programs that might be applicable to primary health care or schools should receive further study.
Elza D. de Mello
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Revisar a abordagem terapêutica da obesidade infantil, bem como aspectos de seu diagnóstico e prevenção. FONTES DOS DADOS: Foi realizada busca de artigos científicos através das bases de dados MEDLINE, Ovid, Highwire e Scielo. As palavras-chave utilizadas foram: "childhood obesity" e també [...] m combinações junto a "treatment", "prevention" e "consequence". Dentre os artigos provenientes da busca incluíam-se artigos de revisão, estudos observacionais, ensaios clínicos e posições de consenso. Percebida a relevância, também se buscou diretamente referências indicadas. O período de coleta de dados foi de 1998 a 2003. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Foram encontrados vários trabalhos de prevalência no Brasil. No entanto, poucos trazem resultados de programas educativos aplicáveis em nosso meio. CONCLUSÕES: Deve-se prevenir a obesidade infantil com medidas adequadas de prescrição de dieta na infância desde o nascimento, além de se estudar mais sobre programas de educação que possam ser aplicados no nível primário de saúde e nas escolas. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To review therapeutic approaches to childhood obesity and also its diagnosis and prevention. SOURCES OF DATA: Searches were performed of scientific papers held on the MEDLINE, Ovid, Highwire and Scielo databases. Keywords utilized were: "childhood obesity" and a variety of combinations of [...] this term with "treatment", "prevention" and "consequence". The search returned papers including review articles, observational studies, clinical trials and consensus statements. Bibliographical references in these articles were also investigated if it was perceived that they were relevant. Data was collected from 1998 to 2003. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: While a number of different Brazilian prevalence studies were found, few gave details of the results of educational programs in our country. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood obesity must be prevented through prescriptive diets from birth throughout childhood. Educational programs that might be applicable to primary health care or schools should receive further study.
Elza D. de, Mello; Vivian C., Luft; Flavia, Meyer.
The main objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an obesity prevention intervention which included nutrition education and physical activity applied to low income Chilean children in a longitudinal three-year follow-up study. Participants included all 4-7 year old children from 7 public schools located in a low socioeconomic district of Santiago. The main aspects of the intervention were: training of teachers so they could apply an educational program on healthy eating, increase in physical education classes from 3 to 4 per week, and improvement of their quality. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) were assessed yearly in 597 children. We calculated BMI, BMI Z, % normal (N), overweight (OW) and obesity (OB), WC > 90th percentile (NHANES III) and fitness (6MWD/height). Annual changes in BMI Z, WC, 6MWD and fitness were assessed, using repeated measures ANOVA and the test of proportions. Knowledge in healthy eating was assessed during 2 of the 3 years. Results showed that % OB remained unchanged for 2 years (17%) but increased to 19.3% at follow-up. BMI Z increased from 0.3 to 0.38 (p = 0.052) in the N, remained unchanged in the OW, while decreasing significantly in the OB (2.73 to 2.41 p 90 th percentile decreased in the OW and OB; 6 MWD was higher in the OW, but the increase in distance overtime was greater among the N. Overall fitness improved, however it was only significant among the N (p = 0.0002). There was a significant increase in food knowledge. We conclude that in spite of a decrease in BMI Z of the OB, an improvement in fitness in the N and food knowledge in all the children, obesity increased at follow-up. This study shows that in school-based obesity programs it is necessary to apply more intense interventions with another type of methodology; otherwise this condition will continue to rise. PMID:23477209
Kain, Juliana; Leyton, Bárbara; Concha, Fernando; Weisstaub, Gerardo; Lobos, Luz; Bustos, Nelly; Vio, Fernando
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a 12 week program of physical exercise (PE) on butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in obese adolescents. This study compared obese adolescents (N = 54) before and after PE, regarding the relative intensity (RI) and activity of different molecular f [...] orms (G1, G2, G4 and G1-ALB) of BChE found in plasma. Waist circumference (WC) and lipid profile were also assessed before and after PE. It was shown that before PE, mean plasma BChE activity was significantly higher in obese than in non-obese adolescents and that it was significantly reduced after PE, becoming similar to that found in non-obese adolescents. Lipid profile and WC also changed in response to PE. These results are consistent with studies that found a correlation between BChE and lipid metabolism and suggest that PE may have led to a physiological regularization of plasma BChE activity. Although mean BChE activity of each isoform was significantly reduced by PE, their RI did not change. This is in accordance with a previous suggestion that this proportion is maintained under factors such as obesity, and may therefore be important for BChE functions.
Isabela M.W., Silva; Neiva, Leite; Dellyana, Boberg; Thais J., Chaves; Gerusa M., Eisfeld; Gisele M., Eisfeld; Gleyse F., Bono; Ricardo L.R., Souza; Lupe, Furtado-Alle.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Comprehensive, multi-level approaches are required to address obesity. One important target for intervention is the economic domain. The purpose of this study was to synthesize existing evidence regarding the impact of economic policies targeting obesity and its causal behaviours (diet, physical activity, and to make specific recommendations for the Canadian context. Methods Arksey and O'Malley's (2005 methodological framework for conducting scoping reviews was adopted for this study and this consisted of two phases: 1 a structured literature search and review, and 2 consultation with experts in the research field through a Delphi survey and an in-person expert panel meeting in April 2010. Results Two key findings from the scoping review included 1 consistent evidence that weight outcomes are responsive to food and beverage prices. The debate on the use of food taxes and subsidies to address obesity should now shift to how best to address practical issues in designing such policies; and 2 very few studies have examined the impact of economic instruments to promote physical activity and clear policy recommendations cannot be made at this time. Delphi survey findings emphasised the relatively modest impact any specific economic instrument would have on obesity independently. Based on empirical evidence and expert opinion, three recommendations were supported. First, to create and implement an effective health filter to review new and current agricultural polices to reduce the possibility that such policies have a deleterious impact on population rates of obesity. Second, to implement a caloric sweetened beverage tax. Third, to examine how to implement fruit and vegetable subsidies targeted at children and low income households. Conclusions In terms of economic interventions, shifting from empirical evidence to policy recommendation remains challenging. Overall, the evidence is not sufficiently strong to provide clear policy direction. Additionally, the nature of the experiments needed to provide definitive evidence supporting certain policy directions is likely to be complex and potentially unfeasible. However, these are not reasons to take no action. It is likely that policies need to be implemented in the face of an incomplete evidence base.
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish En las últimas décadas la obesidad se ha convertido en un importante problema de salud pública en las sociedades desarrolladas y economías en transición. Los rápidos cambios sociales acontecidos desde mediados del siglo 20 impulsaron importantes transformaciones en los hábitos alimentarios y estilos [...] de vida, con el progresivo abandono de los modelos alimentarios y técnicas culinarias tradicionales, importante disminución de la actividad física y aumento del tiempo de sedentarismo, dando como resultado un desequilibrio en el balance energético. La obesidad es un factor de riesgo asociado para muchas enfermedades crónicas. En los niños además de condicionar su salud como adultos, afecta su salud física, emocional y social durante la niñez. Según algunas estimaciones el coste de la obesidad puede representar hasta el 12% del gasto sanitario en algunos países. Se han desarrollado muchas acciones desde que en torno al año 2000 la OMS alertara sobre el problema. El análisis de los factores implicados en el origen del problema han llevado a reconocer la importancia de crear ambientes favorables para que las opciones alimentarias y de actividad física más saludables sean las más fáciles y asequibles en las actividades y entornos cotidianos más habituales, como colegios, medio laboral, entorno comunitario. Desde hace tiempo se dispone de evidencia de que las intervenciones más efectivas para la prevención de la obesidad infantil deben contemplar múltiples estrategias y prolongarse en el tiempo. Hoy además reconocemos la importancia de poner en marcha políticas que favorezcan entornos amables que estimulen la práctica de actividad física, favorezcan decisiones que permitan configurar hábitos alimentarios más saludables. Abstract in english In recent decades, obesity has become a major public health problem in developed societies and economies in transition. Rapid social changes that have occurred since the mid 20th century prompted major changes in eating habits and lifestyles, with the gradual abandonment of traditional dietary patte [...] rns and culinary techniques, significant decrease in physical activity and increased sedentary time, giving as result in an imbalance in the energy balance. Obesity is a risk factor for many chronic diseases. There is evidence that childhood obesity influences adult health condition. Additionally, obesity in children affects their physical, emotional and social wellbeing. According to some estimates the cost of obesity may represent up to 12% of health cost in some countries. Many actions have been developed since around the year 2000 WHO alerted about the problem. The analysis of the factors involved in the origin of the problem have led to recognize the importance of creating supportive environments for healthier food choices and physical activity to be the easiest and accessible options in common everyday environments, such as schools, workplace or community environment. Evidence is long available that the most effective interventions to prevent childhood obesity should consider multiple strategies and last longer. Today it is also recognized the importance of implementing policies that encourage supportive friendly environments for physical activity and help decisions to opt for healthy eating habits.
Javier, Aranceta Bartrina.
Background Childhood obesity rates in minority populations continue to rise despite leveling national trends. Although interventions that address social and environmental factors exist, processes that create demand for policy and environmental change within communities have not been identified. Community Context We developed a pilot program in South Omaha, a Nebraska Latino community, based on the community readiness model (CRM), called SaludableOmaha. We used CRM to explore the potential of youth advocacy to shift individual and community norms regarding obesity prevention in South Omaha and to advocate for health-promoting community environments. Methods We used CRM to assess supply and demand for health programs, engage the community, determine the community’s baseline readiness to address childhood obesity, and guide youth advocacy program development. We conducted our project in 2 phases. In the first, we trained a cohort of youth. In the second, the youth cohort created and launched a Latino health movement, branded as SaludableOmaha. A third phase, which is currently under way, is directed at institutionalizing youth advocacy in communities. Outcome At baseline, the community studied was at a low stage of readiness for change. Our program generated infrastructure and materials to support the growth and institutionalization of youth advocacy as a means of increasing community readiness for addressing obesity prevention. Interpretation CRM is an important tool for addressing issues such as childhood obesity in underserved communities because it provides a framework for matching interventions to the community. Community partnerships such as SaludableOmaha can aid the adoption of obesity prevention programs. PMID:23217590
Frerichs, Leah; Brittin, Jeri; Stewart, Catherine; Robbins, Regina; Riggs, Cara; Mayberger, Susan; Cervantes, Alberto
Full Text Available Dimitrios K Papamargaritis, Dimitrios J Pournaras, Carel W Le RouxImperial Weight Centre, Imperial College London, London, UKAbstract: Obesity is an epidemic disease, and its prevalence is predicted to rise in the future. Many health and social comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, arthritis, infertility, eating disorders, unemployment, and low quality of life, have been associated with obesity. Nowadays, bariatric surgery is the only effective treatment for severe obesity. An increasing body of literature demonstrates significant remission of obesity-related comorbidities and an increase in life expectancy after surgical treatment. Unfortunately, serious complications can appear after surgery, and the careful preoperative assessment of patients is necessary to estimate the indications and contraindications of bariatric surgery. Recent studies report the lower complication and mortality rates when bariatric procedures are performed in high-volume centers. The purpose of this review is to describe the techniques of the currently used surgical procedures and the clinical effectiveness of bariatric surgery. Additionally, the possible complications and mortality rates after bariatric surgery are discussed.Keywords: obesity, surgery, assessment, clinical effectiveness, complications
Dimitrios K Papamargaritis
Childhood obesity has become an epidemic on a worldwide scale. This article gives an overview of the progress made in childhood and adolescent obesity research in the last decade, with a particular emphasis on the transdisciplinary and complex nature of the problem. The following topics are addressed: 1) current definitions of childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity; 2) demography of childhood and adolescent obesity both in the US and globally; 3) current topics in the physiology of f...
Oxytocin has been suggested as a novel therapeutic against obesity, because it induces weight loss and improves glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese rodents. A recent clinical pilot study confirmed the oxytocin-induced weight-reducing effect in obese nondiabetic subjects. Nevertheless, the mechanisms involved and the impact on the main comorbidity associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, are unknown. Lean and ob/ob mice (model of obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and diabetes) were treated for 2...
Altirriba, Jordi; Poher, Anne-laure; Caillon, Aure?lie; Arsenijevic, Denis; Veyrat-durebex, Christelle; Lyautey, Jacqueline; Dulloo, Abdul; Rohner-jeanrenaud, Franc?oise
Background Abdominal obesity predicts a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Over the past several decades, prevalence of abdominal obesity has increased markedly in industrialized countries like the U.S. No previous analyses, however, have evaluated whether there are birth cohort effects for abdominal obesity. Estimating cohort effects is necessary to forecast future health trends and understand past population-level trends. Methods This analysis evaluated whether there were birth cohort effects for abdominal obesity for the Silent Generation (born 1925-1945), children of the Great Depression; Baby Boomers (born 1946-1964); or Generation X (born 1965-1980). Cohort effects for prevalence of abdominal obesity were estimated using the median polish method with data collected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 1988 and 2008. Respondents were aged 20-74 years. Results After taking into account age effects and ubiquitous secular changes, the Silent Generation and Generation X had higher cohort-specific prevalence of abdominal obesity than the Baby Boomers. Effects were more pronounced in women than men. Conclusions This work presents a novel finding: evidence that the birth cohorts of the post-World War II Baby Boom appeared to have uniquely low cohort effects on abdominal obesity. The growing prosperity of the post-World-War II U.S. may have exposed the Baby Boom generation to lower levels of psychosocial and socioeconomic stress than previous or subsequent generations. By identifying factors associated with the Baby Boomers’ low cohort-specific sensitivity to the obesogenic environment, the obesity prevention community can identify early-life factors that can protect future generations from excess weight gain. PMID:23229734
Robinson, Whitney R.; Utz, Rebecca L.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Martin, Chantel L.; Yang, Yang
Non-fasting triglyceridemia is much closer associated to cardiovascular risk compared to fasting triglyceridemia. We hypothesized that there would be acute differential effects of four common dietary proteins (cod protein, whey isolate, gluten, and casein) on postprandial lipemia in obese non-diabetic subjects. To test the hypothesis we conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study with crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins i.e. cod protein, whey protein, gluten or casein. Eleven obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, body mass index: 30.3-42.0 kg/m(2)) participated and blood samples were drawn in the 8-h postprandial period. Supplementation of a fat rich mixed meal with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia (P = .048) compared to supplementation with cod protein and gluten. This was primarily due to lower triglyceride concentration in the chylomicron rich fraction (P = .0293). Thus, we have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial metabolism of four dietary proteins supplemented to a fat rich mixed meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Supplementation with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia compared to supplementation with cod and gluten. As postprandial lipemia is closely correlated to cardiovascular disease, long-term dietary supplementation with whey protein may prove beneficial in preventing cardiovascular disease in obese non-diabetic subjects.
Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Mortensen, Lene S
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Netherlands, the first adolescents with diabetes mellitus type 2 as a result of obesity have recently been diagnosed. Therefore, it is very important that programs aiming at the prevention of type 2 diabetes of obese adolescents are developed and evaluated. Methods Go4it is a multidisciplinary group treatment that focuses on: 1 increasing awareness of the current dietary and physical activity behaviour (i.e. energy balance behaviour, 2 improving diet, 3 decreasing sedentary behaviour, 4 increasing levels of physical activity, and 5 coping with difficult situations. Go4it consists of 7 sessions with an interval of 2–3 weeks. The effectiveness of the multidisciplinary group treatment compared with usual care (i.e. referral to a dietician was evaluated in a randomised controlled trial. We examined effects on BMI(sds, body composition, energy expenditure, glucose tolerance and insulin resistance (primary outcome measure, as well as dietary and physical activity behaviour and quality of life. An economic evaluation from a societal perspective was conducted alongside the randomised trial to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the multidisciplinary treatment program vs. usual care. Discussion In this paper we described a multidisciplinary treatment program (Go4it for obese adolescents and the design of a randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation to evaluate its effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (ISRCTN27626398.
Weijs Peter JM
It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity require systems-level approaches that include the skills of registered dietitians, as well as consistent and integrated messages and environmental support across all sectors of society to achieve sustained dietary and physical-activity behavior change. This position paper provides guidance and recommendations for levels of intervention targeting overweight and obesity prevention and treatment from preschool age through adolescence. Methods included a review of the literature from 2009 to April 2012, including the Academy's 2009 evidence analysis school-based reviews. Multicomponent interventions show the greatest impact for primary prevention; thus, early childhood and school-based interventions should integrate behavioral and environmental approaches that focus on dietary intake and physical activity using a systems-level approach targeting the multilevel structure of the socioecological model as well as interactions and relationships between levels. Secondary prevention and tertiary prevention/treatment should emphasize sustained family-based, developmentally appropriate approaches that include nutrition education, dietary counseling, parenting skills, behavioral strategies, and physical-activity promotion. For obese youth with concomitant serious comorbidities, structured dietary approaches and pharmacologic agents should be considered, and weight-loss surgery can be considered for severely obese adolescents. Policy and environmental interventions are recommended as feasible and sustainable ways to support healthful lifestyles for children and families. The Academy supports commitment of resources for interventions, policies, and research that promote healthful eating and physical-activity behaviors to ensure that all youth have the opportunity to achieve and maintain a weight that is optimal for health. PMID:24054714
Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kirk, Shelley; Ritchie, Lorrene; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie
Background. The family and home environment is an influential antecedent of childhood obesity. The purpose of this study was to pilot test The Enabling Mothers to Prevent Pediatric Obesity through Web-Based Education and Reciprocal Determinism (EMPOWER) intervention; a newly developed, theory-based, online program for prevention of childhood obesity. Method. The two-arm, parallel group, randomized, participant-blinded trial targeted mothers with children between 4 and 6 years of age. Measures were collected at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks to evaluate programmatic effects on constructs of social cognitive theory (SCT) and obesity-related behaviors. Process evaluation transpired concurrently with each intervention session. Results. Fifty-seven participants were randomly assigned to receive either experimental EMPOWER (n = 29) or active control Healthy Lifestyles (n = 28) intervention. Significant main effects were identified for child physical activity, sugar-free beverage consumption, and screen time, indicating that both groups improved in these behaviors. A significant group-by-time interaction was detected for child fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption as well as the SCT construct of environment in the EMPOWER cohort. An increase of 1.613 cups of FVs (95% confidence interval = [0.698, 2.529]) was found in the experimental group, relative to the active control group. Change score analysis found changes in the home environment accounted for 31.4% of the change in child FV intake for the experimental group. Conclusions. Child physical activity, sugar-free beverage consumption, and screen time improved in both groups over the course of the trial. Only the theory-based intervention was efficacious in increasing child FV consumption. The EMPOWER program was robust for inducing change in the home environment leading to an increase in child FV intake (Cohen's f = 0.160). PMID:25161168
Knowlden, Adam P; Sharma, Manoj; Cottrell, Randall R; Wilson, Bradley R A; Johnson, Marcus Lee
Full Text Available Even moderate, but persistent weight-loss ameliorates most of the related diseases in obesity. Besides the consequences of the metabolic syndrome, this includes less well-known obesity-associated changes, such as impaired fertility, menstrual disorders, psychic changes, total leucocyte-count as a parameter of immunity and the impaired pulmonary function in asthma and sleep-apnoea. Life-expectancy is prolonged by diminution of visceral fat depots, whilst weight-loss by shrinking of fat-free body-mass seems to have a contrary effect.
Telmisartan shows antihypertensive and several pleiotropic effects that interact with metabolic pathways. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that telmisartan prevents adipogenesis in vitro and weight gain in vivo through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-delta-dependent pathways in several tissues. In vitro, telmisartan significantly upregulated PPAR-delta expression in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Other than enhancing PPAR-delta expression by 68.2+/-17.3% and PPAR-delta activity by 102.0+/-9.0%, telmisartan also upregulated PPAR-gamma expression, whereas neither candesartan nor losartan affected PPAR-delta expression. In vivo, long-term administration of telmisartan significantly reduced visceral fat and prevented high-fat diet-induced obesity in wild-type mice and hypertensive rats but not in PPAR-delta knockout mice. Administration of telmisartan did not influence food intake in mice. Telmisartan influenced several lipolytic and energy uncoupling related proteins (UCPs) and enhanced phosphorylated protein kinase A and hormone sensitive lipase but reduced perilipin expression and finally inhibited adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Telmisartan-associated reduction of adipogenesis in preadipocytes was significantly blocked after PPAR-delta gene knockout. Chronic telmisartan treatment upregulated the expressions of protein kinase A, hormone-sensitive lipase, and uncoupling protein 1 but reduced perilipin expression in adipose tissue and increased uncoupling protein 2 and 3 expression in skeletal muscle in wild-type mice but not in PPAR-delta knockout mice. We conclude that telmisartan prevents adipogenesis and weight gain through activation of PPAR-delta-dependent lipolytic pathways and energy uncoupling in several tissues.
He, Hongbo; Yang, Dachun
The prevalence of obesity increases and is associated with increases in co-morbidities e.g. type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, stroke, asthma, several forms of cancer, depression, and may result in reduction of expected remaining lifespan. We have reviewed the adverse effects on the cardiovascular system of anti-obesity drugs now retracted from the market as well as the cardiovascular profile of current drugs and potential pathways which are considered for treatment of obesity. Fenfluramine, and sibutramine were withdrawn due to increased cardiovascular risk, while an inverse agonist at cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors, rimonobant was withdrawn due to serious psychiatric problems. At present there are only few treatments available including orlistat and, phentermine alone or in combination with topiramate and lorcaserin, although cardiovascular side effects need to be clarified regarding phentermine and lorcaserin. Drugs approved for type 2 diabetes including glucagon like peptide (GLP-1) analogues and metformin also cause moderate weight losses and have a favourable cardiovascular profile, while the anti-obesity potential of nebivolol remains unexplored. Pathways with anti-obesity potential include sirtuin activation, blockade of transient receptor potential (TRPV1) channels, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and 2 inhibitors, uncoupling protein activators, bile acids, crotonins, CB1 antagonists, but the cardiovascular profile remains to be investigated. For type 2 diabetes, new drug classes with possible advantageous cardiovascular profiles, e.g. GLP-1 analogues and sodium-glucose co-transport type 2 inhibitors, are associated with weight loss and are currently being evaluated as anti-obesity drugs. PMID:24846238
Comerma-Steffensen, Simon; Grann, Martin; Andersen, Charlotte U; Rungby, Jorgen; Simonsen, Ulf
The prevalence of obesity increases and is associated with increases in co-morbidities e.g. type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, stroke, asthma, several forms of cancer, depression, and may result in reduction of expected remaining lifespan. We have reviewed the adverse effects on the cardiovascular system of anti-obesity drugs now retracted from the market as well as the cardiovascular profile of current drugs and potential pathways which are considered for treatment of obesity. Fenfluramine, and sibutramine were withdrawn due to increased cardiovascular risk, while an inverse agonist at cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors, rimonobant was withdrawn due to serious psychiatric problems. At present there are only few treatments available including orlistat and, phentermine alone or in combination with topiramate and lorcaserin, although cardiovascular side effects need to be clarified regarding phentermine and lorcaserin. Drugs approved for type 2 diabetes including glucagon like peptide (GLP-1) analogues and metformin also cause moderate weight losses and have a favourable cardiovascular profile, while the anti-obesity potential of nebivolol remains unexplored. Pathways with anti-obesity potential include sirtuin activation, blockade of transient receptor potential (TRPV1) channels, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 and 2 inhibitors, uncoupling protein activators, bile acids, crotonins, CB1 antagonists, but the cardiovascular profile remains to be investigated. For type 2 diabetes, new drug classes with possible advantageous cardiovascular profiles, e.g. GLP-1 analogues and sodium-glucose co-transport type 2 inhibitors, are associated with weight loss and are currently being evaluated as anti-obesity drugs.
Comerma-Steffensen, Simon; Grann, Martin
Obesity modifies the body geometry by adding mass to different regions and it influences the biomechanics of activities of daily living. Weight influences postural stability, but there is no consensus as to whether the different fat distribution in males and females produces gender-related effects on balance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of body weight increases on postural performance in males and females. A total of 22 obese females (BMI: 41.1+/-4.1 kg/m2) and 22 obese males (BMI: 40.2+/-5 kg/m2) were analyzed during a static posture trial on a force platform in standardized conditions. Twenty healthy subjects (10 females, 10 males) constituted the control group. We computed the following parameters related to the center of pressure (CoP): velocity and displacements along the antero-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral axis (ML). We found several statistically significant differences between healthy and obese men, in particular regarding the AP and ML CoP parameters, which were correlated to body weight (r=0.36-0.58). The comparison between healthy and obese females pointed out statistically significant differences in AP parameters and no significant differences in ML displacements. Body weight was found to correlate with AP parameters (r=0.36-0.74), but not with ML displacements. The increased body mass seems to produce AP instability in both genders and ML destabilization only in males. Rehabilitation programs should take these findings into account by adopting specific interventions to improve ML control in obese males, and through weight loss and strengthening of ankle flexors/extensors in both genders. PMID:19325540
Menegoni, Francesco; Galli, Manuela; Tacchini, Elena; Vismara, Luca; Cavigioli, Marco; Capodaglio, Paolo
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased during the past decades and is now considered an urgent public health problem. Although stabilizing trends in obesity prevalence have been identified in parts of Europe, preventive efforts in children are still needed. Using the socio-ecological approach as the underlying theoretical perspective, the IDEFICS project aimed to develop, implement and evaluate a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in eight European countries. The aim of the present manuscript was to describe the content and developmental process of the IDEFICS intervention. Methods The intervention mapping protocol (IMP was used to develop the community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in 3 to 10 years old children. It is a theory- and evidence-based tool for the structured planning and development of health promotion programs that requires the completion of six different steps. These steps were elaborated by two coordinating centers and discussed with the other participating centers until agreement was reached. Focus group research was performed in all participating centers to provide an informed basis for intervention development. Results The application of the IMP resulted in an overall intervention framework with ten intervention modules targeting environmental and personal factors through the family, the school and the community. The summary results of the focus group research were used to inform the development of the overall intervention. The cultural adaptation of the overall intervention was realised by using country specific focus group results. The need for cultural adaptation was considered during the entire process to improve program adoption and implementation. A plan was developed to evaluate program effectiveness and quality of implementation. Conclusions The IDEFICS project developed a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity by using to the intervention mapping heuristic. The IDEFICS intervention consists of a general and standardized intervention framework that allows for cultural adaptation to make the intervention feasible and to enhance deliverability in all participating countries. The present manuscript demonstrates that the development of an intervention is a long process that needs to be done systematically. Time, human resources and finances need to be planned beforehand to make interventions evidence-based and culturally relevant.
Weight loss can reduce the increased cardiovascular risk associated with obesity. Pharmacotherapy is a recognized weight loss treatment option; however, cardiovascular safety issues with some previous weight loss drugs raise concerns for newly approved pharmacotherapies. Phentermine is approved for short-term obesity treatment in conjunction with lifestyle modifications, but is commonly used chronically. Topiramate, approved for treating epilepsy and preventing migraines, also induces weight loss. A single-dose combination of low-dose phentermine and topiramate extended-release was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration as an adjunct to lifestyle intervention for the chronic treatment of overweight/obese adults. This review summarizes and evaluates the cardiovascular risk/benefit profile associated with phentermine and topiramate, individually and in combination. Cardiovascular data associated with long-term use of phentermine and topiramate extended-release indicate that this combination may be a safe and effective option for reducing weight in overweight/obese patients at low-to-intermediate cardiovascular risk.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivitives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0.
Jordan, Jens; Astrup, Arne
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a prevalent disease worldwide and during its conventional treatment, vascular complications remain unavoidable. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (GBP) is able to induce the remission of T2DM. However, studies of duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB), a modified procedure of GBP, are being carried out to investigate its ability to induce the remission of T2DM and protect the aorta from atherosclerosis. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of DJB on the rate of T2DM remission and the prevention of atherosclerosis in the aorta in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes without obesity, and to explore the mechanism of DJB in protecting the aorta from atherosclerosis. A T2DM rat model was established with a high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin. Surgery was performed to analyze its effects on glucose homeostasis, lipid metabolism, inflammation and pathological changes. Furthermore, changes in c-jun NH2-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) and inhibitor of ?B kinase (IKK?) genes in the aorta following DJB surgery were examined. Levels of blood glucose, lipids, insulin and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? were significantly elevated in the T2DM diabetic model compared with the non-diabetic control. A gradual recovery was observed in the DJB group following surgery. Foam cells and atherosclerotic plaques appeared in the ascending aortic tissue in the sham-surgery and T2DM groups, whereas only slight lesions were observed in the DJB group. The expression levels of JNK1 and IKK? genes in the aorta were significantly increased in the sham-operated and T2DM groups compared with those in the DJB and normal control groups. The present study demonstrated that DJB caused remission of T2DM without weight loss in non-obese rats. Thus, DJB may delay or prevent the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis in the aorta and this may occur through the JNK1 and nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) signaling pathways. PMID:25120614
Chen, Xuan; Huang, Zhen; Ran, Wenhua; Liao, Gang; Zha, Lang; Wang, Ziwei
Outside-of-school time (OST; i.e. before/after-school hours, summer time), theory-based interventions are potential strategies for addressing increased obesity among African American youth. This review assessed interventions across multiple settings that took place during OST among African American youth aged 5-18 years old. Seven databases were searched for studies published prior to October 2013; 28 prevention and treatment interventions that assessed weight or related behaviours as a primary or secondary outcome were identified. Overall, these studies reported heterogeneous intervention length, theoretical frameworks, methodological quality, outcomes, cultural adaption and community engagement; the latter two attributes have been identified as potentially important intervention strategies when working with African Americans. Although not always significant, generally, outcomes were in the desired direction. When examining programmes by time of intervention (i.e. after-school, summer time, time not specified or multiple time periods), much of the variability remained, but some similarities emerged. After-school studies generally had a positive impact on physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption and caloric intake, or body composition. The single summer time intervention showed a trend towards reduced body mass index. Overall findings suggest that after-school and summer programmes, alone or perhaps in combination, offer potential benefits for African American youth and could favourably influence diet and physical activity behaviour. PMID:25196405
Barr-Anderson, D J; Singleton, C; Cotwright, C J; Floyd, M F; Affuso, O
This paper presents a system dynamics policy model of nutritional food market transformation, tracing over-time interactions between the nutritional quality of supply, consumer food choice, population health, and governmental policy. Applied to the Canadian context and with body mass index as the primary outcome, we examine policy portfolios for obesity prevention, including (1) industry self-regulation efforts, (2) health- and nutrition-sensitive governmental policy, and (3) efforts to foster health- and nutrition-sensitive innovation. This work provides novel theoretical and practical insights on drivers of nutritional market transformations, highlighting the importance of integrative policy portfolios to simultaneously shift food demand and supply for successful and self-sustaining nutrition and health sensitivity. We discuss model extensions for deeper and more comprehensive linkages of nutritional food market transformation with supply, demand, and policy in agrifood and health/health care. These aim toward system design and policy that can proactively, and with greater impact, scale, and resilience, address single as well as double malnutrition in varying country settings. PMID:24593850
Struben, Jeroen; Chan, Derek; Dubé, Laurette
Abstract Background Despite the growing emphasis on the inclusion of ethnic minority patients in research, there is little published on the recruitment of these populations especially to randomised, community based, lifestyle intervention trials in the UK. Methods We share our experience of recruitment to screening in the PODOSA (Prevention of Diabetes and Obesity in South Asians) trial, which screened 1319 recruits (target 1800) for trial eligibility. A multi-p...
Tuomilehto Jaakko; Sharma Anu; Sattar Naveed; Murray Gordon; McKnight John; Lawton Julia; Gill Jason MR; Forbes John F; Bhopal Ruby; Bhopal Raj S; Douglas Anne; Wallia Sunita; Wild Sarah H; Sheikh Aziz
OBJECTIVES: "Pause-2-Play" is an obesity prevention program targeting screen-related sedentary behaviours and increasing physical activity among elementary school students. The program consisted of a Behavioural Modification Curriculum and a Health Promoting Afterschool Program. This pilot study reports program feasibility, practicability, and impact. METHODS: the 12-week pilot program was implemented with 32 grade five and six students. Program feasibility and practicability were assessed us...
Gregory Killough; Danielle Battram; Joanne Kurtz; Gillian Mandich; Laura Francis; Meizi He
Abstract Background Efforts to prevent the development of overweight and obesity have increasingly focused early in the life course as we recognise that both metabolic and behavioural patterns are often established within the first few years of life. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions are even more powerful when, with forethought, they are synthesised into an individual patient data (IPD) prospective meta-analysis (PMA). An IPD PMA is a unique research desig...
Simes John; Rissel Chris; Mihrshahi Seema; Magarey Anthea; Hesketh Kylie; Daniels Lynne A; Campbell Karen; Baur Louise A; Askie Lisa M; Taylor Barry; Taylor Rachael; Voysey Merryn; Wen Li
Full Text Available Abstract Background The home and neighborhood environments may be important in obesity prevention by virtue of food availability, food preparation, cues and opportunities for physical activity, and family support. To date, little research has examined how home and neighborhood environments in rural communities may support or hinder healthy eating and physical activity. This paper reports characteristics of rural homes and neighborhoods related to physical activity environments, availability of healthy foods, and family support for physical activity and maintaining an ideal body weight. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 60 African American and White adults over 50 years of age in two rural counties in Southwest Georgia. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two members of the research team using standard methods of qualitative analysis. Themes were then identified and data matrices were used to identify patterns by gender or race. Results Neighborhood features that supported physical activity were plenty of land, minimal traffic and living in a safe and friendly neighborhood. The major barrier was lack of recreational facilities. The majority of participants were not physically active with their family members due to schedule conflicts and lack of time. Family member-initiated efforts to encourage physical activity met with mixed results, with refusals, procrastination, and increased activity all reported. Participants generally reported it was easy to get healthy foods, although cost barriers and the need to drive to a larger town for a supermarket with good variety were noted as obstacles. Family conversations about weight had occurred for about half of the participants, with reactions ranging from agreement about the need to lose weight to frustration. Conclusion This study suggests that successful environmental change strategies to promote physical activity and healthy eating in rural neighborhoods may differ from those used in urban neighborhoods. The findings also provide insight into the complexities of family support for physical activity and maintaining a healthy weight. Addressing socio-ecologic factors has the potential to increase healthy behaviors and decrease the prevalence of obesity among rural residents.
This dissertation examines methods used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of childhood obesity interventions in order to help decision-makers prioritize among competing health programs using standardized outcomes. Chapter 1 generates inputs for use in cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) of childhood obesity interventions. In Chapter 1.1, I use data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to predict expenditures associated with obesity in childhood and adolescence. I found that obese childre...
This study evaluated the anti-obesity effects of HT048, a combination of C. pinnatifida fruit and C. unshiu peel extracts, in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. 4-Week-old male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into normal and high fat diet (HFD) groups. The HFD groups were further divided into five groups treated with distilled water, orlistat (40 mg/kg, twice daily, p.o) and HT048 (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg, twice daily, p.o.) for 12 weeks. Orlistat, an anti-obesity drug, was used as p...
Hocheol Kim; Ho-Young Choi; Nak Hoon Kim; Bhakta Prasad Gaire; Sang Woug Park; Juyeon Park; MiKyung Song; Dong Wook Lim
Childhood obesity has become an epidemic on a worldwide scale. This article gives an overview of the progress made in childhood and adolescent obesity research in the last decade, with a particular emphasis on the transdisciplinary and complex nature of the problem. The following topics are addressed: (1) current definitions of childhood and…
The nation faces an obesity crisis, especially among low-income children and children of color. Today, nearly one-third of children and adolescents are overweight or obese, and physical inactivity is a leading cause of this epidemic. Equitable transportation policy that fosters healthy, opportunity-rich communities has a critical role to play in…
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2012
Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species are postulated to be involved in systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with obesity. Activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs generate extremely high amounts of reactive oxygen species, but these are normally targeted at pathogens inside intracellular phagosomes. The same beneficial antimicrobial functions, if not controlled, contribute to the tissue damaging effects of inflammatory reactions. The evidence from conventional epidemiology strongly implies fruits and vegetables in protection against oxidative stress. In our study, the in vitro effects of Aronia melanocarpa juice on oxidative metabolism and apoptosis of neutrophils from obese and non-obese individuals has been investigated. We tested 15 obese patients (aged 45 ±9 years, women, BMI = 34 ±4.9 kg/m2. Nine healthy subjects (BMI = 22.2 ±1.6 kg/m2 were enrolled as controls. Neutrophils were isolated and oxidant production, in response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, was characterized by using luminol dependent chemiluminescence (CL and flow cytometric dichlorofluorescin oxidation assay. Caspase-3 activity, a marker of apoptosis execution, in human neutrophils, measured by a cleavage of the fluorogenic substrate Ac-DEVD-AMC. Additional experiments to assess the direct toxic effect of the aronia polyphenols were also carried out. Neutrophils from obese individuals had a significantly higher H2O2 production and CL response compared to controls (p < 0.05. The oxidative metabolism of PMNs was decreased by aronia juice treatment in both of groups, obese and non-obese individuals. The caspase-3 activity depended on the time of aronia juice treatment and was markedly increased in phorbol-treated cells incubated with polyphenols for 24 hours. This natural product exert beneficial effects in cells and may, therefore, be useful in the treatment of obesity disorders.
Abstract Aim Obesity is generally linked to complications in lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a proprietary extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CQR-300) to that of a proprietary formulation containing CQR-300 (CORE) on weight, blood lipids, and oxidative stress in overweight and obese people. Methods The first part of the study investigated the in vitro antioxidant properties of CQR-300 and...
Agbor Gabriel A; Soukontoua Yves B; Fomekong Gilles I; Enyegue Damaris; Oben Julius E
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia, the food industry and public health groups are locked in serious struggle for regulatory influence over the terms of front-of-pack food labelling. Clear, unambiguous labelling of the nutritional content of pre-packaged foods and of standardized food items sold in chain restaurants is consistent with the prevailing philosophy of 'personal responsibility'. An interpretive, front-of-pack labelling scheme has the capacity to encourage healthier patterns of eating, and to be a catalyst for improvements in the nutritional quality of food products through re-formulation. On the other hand, the strength of opposition of the Australian Food and Grocery Council to 'Traffic Light Labelling', and its efforts to promote a non-interpretive, voluntary scheme, invite the interpretation that the food industry is resistant to any reforms that could destabilise current (unhealthy purchasing patterns and the revenues they represent. Discussion This article argues that although policies that aim to educate consumers about the nutritional content of food are welcome, they are only one part of a broader basket of policies that are needed to make progress on obesity prevention and public health nutrition. However, to the extent that food labelling has the capacity to inform and empower consumers to make healthier choices - and to be a catalyst for improving the nutritional quality of commercial recipes - it has an important role to play. Furthermore, given the dietary impact of meals eaten in fast food and franchise restaurants, interpretive labelling requirements should not be restricted to pre-packaged foods. Summary Food industry resistance to an interpretive food labelling scheme is an important test for government, and a case study of how self-interest prompts industry to promote weaker, voluntary schemes that pre-empt and undermine progressive public health regulation.
Magnusson Roger S
The prevalence of obesity and its associated health problems have increased sharply in the past 2 decades. New revisions to Medicare policy will allow funding for obesity treatments of proven efficacy. The authors review studies of the long-term outcomes of calorie-restricting diets to assess whether dieting is an effective treatment for obesity.…
Mann, Traci; Tomiyama, A. Janet; Westling, Erika; Lew, Ann-Marie; Samuels, Barbra; Chatman, Jason
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the impact of obesity in type 2 diabetes (T2D on adipocytokines (adiponectin, leptin and resistin and inflammatory markers (TNF-?, IL-6 and hsCRP as cardiovascular risk factors. A cross-sectional study comparing the basal levels of adipocytokines and inflammatory markers was done in 18 obese (BMI ? 30 kg/m2 (group A, 21 overweight (25 kg/m2 ? BMI < 30 kg/m2 (group B, 25 non-obese T2D patients (group C and 15 non-obese controls (group D. The lowest levels of adiponectin and the highest levels of leptin, resistin, TNF-?, IL-6 and hsCRP were found in group A. Adiponectin levels were significantly lower, and resistin, TNF-?, and hsCRP levels were elevated in group C vs. D. However, leptin and IL-6 levels differed significantly between groups A and B, but not between groups C and D. Moreover, we found a significant negative correlation between adiponectin and TNF-?, but not with other markers, which was independent of the presence of obesity. In contrast, leptin and resistin correlated with the inflammatory markers, and this correlation was obesity-dependent. Our results suggest that obesity influences cardiovascular risk primarily through changes in leptin and resistin and less efficiently at the level of adiponectin.
This study aimed to analyse the impact of obesity in type 2 diabetes (T2D) on adipocytokines (adiponectin, leptin and resistin) and inflammatory markers (TNF-?, IL-6 and hsCRP) as cardiovascular risk factors. A cross-sectional study comparing the basal levels of adipocytokines and inflammatory markers was done in 18 obese (BMI ? 30 kg/m²) (group A), 21 overweight (25 kg/m² ? BMI < 30 kg/m²) (group B), 25 non-obese T2D patients (group C) and 15 non-obese controls (group D). The lowest levels of adiponectin and the highest levels of leptin, resistin, TNF-?, IL-6 and hsCRP were found in group A. Adiponectin levels were significantly lower, and resistin, TNF-?, and hsCRP levels were elevated in group C vs. D. However, leptin and IL-6 levels differed significantly between groups A and B, but not between groups C and D. Moreover, we found a significant negative correlation between adiponectin and TNF-?, but not with other markers, which was independent of the presence of obesity. In contrast, leptin and resistin correlated with the inflammatory markers, and this correlation was obesity-dependent. Our results suggest that obesity influences cardiovascular risk primarily through changes in leptin and resistin and less efficiently at the level of adiponectin. PMID:24736687
Rajkovic, Natasa; Zamaklar, Miroslava; Lalic, Katarina; Jotic, Aleksandra; Lukic, Ljiljana; Milicic, Tanja; Singh, Sandra; Stosic, Ljubica; Lalic, Nebojsa M
The study was carried out to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aegle marmelos leaves extracts and its phytochemical constituents in vitro and in vivo. The dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and n-butanol extracts of A. marmelos leaves were studied for their lipolytic effect. Lipolysis was measured by determining the amount of glycerol released at 12 h and 24 h at 50 ?g/ml and 100 ?g/ml concentrations. Phytochemical investigation of the most active DCM extract yielded 14 compounds. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their lipolytic effects at 50 ?M and 100 ?M. The most active compounds, umbelliferone and esculetin were further screened for their antiobesity effects in vivo in the high fat diet (HFD) induced obese rat model. Umbelliferone and esculetin reduced body weight, total triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and glucose level in their respective HFD groups. A. marmelos DCM extract and compounds isolated from it have the potential of counteracting the obesity by lipolysis in adipocytes. PMID:23632084
Karmase, Aniket; Birari, Rahul; Bhutani, Kamlesh K
The study aims to investigate the effects of education in an obesity-control program (EOCP) on the percentage of body fat and flexibility in obese women in Korea. Women with over 30% body fat were offered EOCP between July 2012 and October 2012. The EOCP consisted of an educational program, exercise program, and counseling. The numbers of participants both in the EOCP and control group were 17. The study was analyzed by Wilcoxon signed-rank test using the Statistical Analysis System package. The EOCP participants presented statistically significant increases in the degree of forward trunk flexion, but only the percentage of the body fat showed differences within the EOCP group. The EOCP improved flexibility in obese women, and can be used in local obesity-control programs. PMID:24372859
Song, Min-Sun; Yoo, Yong-Kwon; Kim, Nam-Cho
Catherine Rolland, Michelle Hession, Iain BroomCentre for Obesity Research and Epidemiology, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, Scotland, UKBackground: Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ by releasing adipokines which have important roles in the regulation of inflammation and insulin sensitivity. Although there is evidence of improvement in circulating levels of adipokines with weight loss, few studies relate such changes to specific diets. We investigated the effects of weight lo...
Hession M; Dell, C.; Roll; Broom I
Full Text Available Obesity and its concomitant health risks are among the most common conditions managed by health care practitioners. The limited long-term effectiveness of conventional weight management has led to researching alternative medicine and one which is widely accepted is the herbal products by virtue of its safety in long term use. The study was conducted to evaluate effect of caplet of Garcinia extract with reference to reduction in BMI and skin fold thickness in obese individuals. This study was performed according to a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, design. Subjects aged 18 to 60 years with Obesity as decided by BMI > 25 Kg/m2 to 35 Kg/m2 falling in the category of overweight and class I obesity were included in the study. A total of 110 individuals participated in the study. Subjects were randomly assigned into two groups of 55 each to receive treatment for 4 months with Garcinia or matching placebo at a dose of 1 caplet twice daily. All the subjects completed the study as stipulated. At the end of 4 months, Garcinia group had significant reduction in BMI and skin fold thickness when compared to the placebo group and baseline values respectively. No severe adverse effect was observed at any time in the study period. Compliance to treatment was good. It is therefore expected that Garcinia may be useful for the prevention and reduction of obesity.
Few studies have been performed in humans to investigate the effect of caloric restriction and consequent biomass reduction on hemorheologic parameters and their results are not concurrent. In a previous paper we analyzed the rheological behavior of the blood in the IIMb/Fmbeta inbred obese and hypertriglyceridemic strain in relation to its eumetabolic control [G.N. Hernández, C. Dabin, M.C. Gayol and M.L. Rasia, Hemorheological variables in a rat model of hypertriglyceridemic obesity and diabetes, Veterinary Res. Commun. 26 (2002), 625-635]. In this obese line it was shown a higher blood and plasma viscosity and an impaired red cell deformability compared to the eumetabolic one. The increased plasma viscosity was significantly and positively associated with fibrinogenaemia and lipidaemia and the impaired erythrocyte deformability with cholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridaemia. The present study has been designed to find out the effect of a 30% food restriction on several biochemical and hemorheological parameters of these obese rats. Restriction resulted in a mean body weight 45% lower than ad libitum controls, preventing obesity and hypertriglyceridemia with minimal effect on glucose metabolism. Regarding hemorheological parameters, caloric restriction led to a decrease in blood viscosity, due to the reduction in erythrocyte concentration, but not because of any improvement in erythrocyte deformability. PMID:15310942
Hernández, Gladis N; Luis, Cinara; Rasia, Marta L
Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic, multifactorial, increasing prevalence, which along with being overweight affects more than half the population in developed countries. The aim of this paper is to set basic guidelines regarding the training load, frequency, duration, intensity, etc. in physical activity programs aimed at obese people, propose three concrete guidelines for action. The aim is to contribute to a better understanding of physical activity programs in this population.
Gema Torres Luque
Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation that contributes to defects in energy metabolism and insulin resistance. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3 expression is increased in skeletal muscle of obese humans. SOCS3 inhibits leptin signaling in the hypothalamus and insulin signal transduction in adipose tissue and the liver. Skeletal muscle is an important tissue for controlling energy expenditure and whole-body insulin sensitivity; however, the physiological importance...
Jorgensen, Sebastian Beck; O’neill, Hayley M.; Sylow, Lykke; Honeyman, Jane; Hewitt, Kimberly A.; Palanivel, Rengasamy; Fullerton, Morgan D.; O?berg, Lisa; Balendran, Anudharan; Galic, Sandra; Poel, Chris; Trounce, Ian A.; Lynch, Gordon S.; Schertzer, Jonathan D.; Steinberg, Gregory R.
The study objective was to investigate the effects of melatonin on obesity and obesity-associated systolic hypertension and dyslipidemia in young male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, an experimental model of the metabolic syndrome. ZDF rats (n=30) and lean littermates (ZL) (n=30) were used. At 6wk of age, both lean and fatty animals were subdivided into three groups (n=10): naive (N), vehicle-treated (V), and melatonin-treated (M) (10mg/kg/day) for 6wk. Vehicle and melatonin were added to the drinking water. Melatonin reduced mean weight gain (51±2/100g BW) versus N-ZDF group (58±3, P<0.05) without food intake differences. M-ZDF rats showed an apparent reduction in systolic hypertension that proved not to be statistically significant, and a significant improvement in dyslipidemia, with a reduction in hypertriglyceridemia from 580±40 to 420.6±40.9mg/dL (P<0.01). Melatonin raised high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in ZDF (from 81.6±4.9 to 103.1±4.5mg/dL, P<0.01) and ZL rats (from 62.8±4.8 to 73.5±4.8mg/dL, P<0.05) and significantly reduced low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in ZDF rats from 5.20±0.4 to 4.14±0.3?mg/dL (P<0.05) but had no effect on total cholesterol levels. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of a positive effect of melatonin on overweight and lipid pattern of obese Zucker diabetic rats, supporting the proposition that melatonin administration may ameliorate overweight and lipid metabolism in humans. Because these benefits occurred in youth, before advanced metabolic and vascular complications, melatonin might help to prevent cardiovascular disease associated with obesity and dyslipidemia. PMID:21087312
Agil, Ahmad; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Ruiz, Rosario; Abuhamadah, Sawsan; El-Mir, Mohamad-Yehia; Vázquez, Gumersindo Fernández
Full Text Available Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk formulas. Nutrition in infancy has been implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity, and a longer duration of breastfeeding appears to protect against its development. Diet-related differences in serum leptin and ghrelin values in infancy might explain anthropometric differences and differences in dietary habits between breast-fed and formula-fed infants also later in life. However, there are still gaps in our understanding of how hormones present in breast milk affect children. Here we examine the data related to hormones contained in mother's milk and their potential protective effect on subsequent obesity.
Full Text Available Data accumulated over recent years have significantly advanced our understanding of growth factors, cytokines, and hormones in breast milk. Here we deal with leptin, adiponectin, IGF-I, ghrelin, and the more recently discovered hormones, obestatin, and resistin, which are present in breast milk and involved in food intake regulation and energy balance. Little is known about these compounds in infant milk formulas. Nutrition in infancy has been implicated in the long-term tendency to obesity, and a longer duration of breastfeeding appears to protect against its development. Diet-related differences in serum leptin and ghrelin values in infancy might explain anthropometric differences and differences in dietary habits between breast-fed and formula-fed infants also later in life. However, there are still gaps in our understanding of how hormones present in breast milk affect children. Here we examine the data related to hormones contained in mother's milk and their potential protective effect on subsequent obesity.
Full Text Available This study evaluated the anti-obesity effects of HT048, a combination of C. pinnatifida fruit and C. unshiu peel extracts, in high-fat diet (HFD-induced obese rats. 4-Week-old male Sprague Dawley (SD rats were divided into normal and high fat diet (HFD groups. The HFD groups were further divided into five groups treated with distilled water, orlistat (40 mg/kg, twice daily, p.o and HT048 (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg, twice daily, p.o. for 12 weeks. Orlistat, an anti-obesity drug, was used as positive control in the HFD-induced obese rats. We measured the food intake, body weight, epididymal adipose tissue and liver weights, and serum total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, alanine transaminase (ALT, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels. The body weight and epididymal adipose tissue and liver weights of the HT048 100 and 300 mg/kg treated groups were significantly lower than that of the HFD control group. Also, serum TC, TG, ALT, and AST levels in the HT048 100 and 300 mg/kg treated groups were significantly decreased. Moreover, the orlistat treated group showed significantly reduced body weight and improved serum lipoprotein, compared with the HFD control group. These results show that HT048 supplements improved obesity-related body weight and serum lipoprotein parameters in a HFD-induced obese rat model.
The lack of significant treatment and prevention progress highlights the need for a more expanded strategy. Given the robust association between socioeconomic factors and obesity, combined with new insights into how socioeconomic disadvantage affects both behaviour and biology, a new causal model is proposed. The model posits that psychological and emotional distress is a fundamental link between socioeconomic disadvantage and weight gain. At particular risk are children growing up in a disharmonious family environment, mainly caused by parental socioeconomic disadvantage, where they are exposed to parental frustrations, relationship discord, a lack of support and cohesion, negative belief systems, unmet emotional needs and general insecurity. Without adequate resilience, such experiences increase the risk of psychological and emotional distress, including low self-esteem and self-worth, negative emotions, negative self-belief, powerlessness, depression, anxiety, insecurity and a heightened sensitivity to stress. These inner disturbances eventually cause a psycho-emotional overload, triggering a cascade of weight gain-inducing effects including maladaptive coping strategies such as eating to suppress negative emotions, chronic stress, appetite up-regulation, low-grade inflammation and possibly reduced basal metabolism. Over time, this causes obesity, circular causality and further weight gain. Tackling these proposed root causes of weight gain could potentially improve both treatment and prevention outcomes. PMID:24931366
Capsaicinoids show several pharmacological effects including weight loss. However, their pungency limits the long-term use through the gastrointestinal tract. In that sense, the goal of this study was to prepare capsaicinoids-loaded poly(?-caprolactone) microparticles as an oral carrier in order to improve their gastric tolerability and to make feasible the long-term treatment of obesity. Formulations containing 3, 5 and 10% capsaicinoids were successfully obtained by simple emulsion/solvent evaporation method. Values of encapsulation efficiency above 90% were achieved. Microparticles showed spherical shape and smooth surface. The particle size was suitable for oral use in order to provide an extended release through the gastrointestinal tract. No chemical bond was observed between drug and polymer. Microencapsulation led to drug amorphization. Formulations prolonged the release of capsaicinoids without changing the release kinetic (biexponential model). Microencapsulation increased the gastric tolerability of capsaicinoids because it prevented inflammatory processes in the stomach of rats. Microparticles containing 5% capsaicinoids demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of Lee index, mesenteric and retroperitoneal fat pads of rats with obesity induced by hypothalamic lesion using monosodium l-glutamate. In summary, capsaicinoids-loaded poly(?-caprolactone) microparticles are low-irritative oral controlled-release carriers for a long-term use in obesity. PMID:24857502
Almeida, Martinha A; Nadal, Jessica M; Grassiolli, Sabrina; Paludo, Katia S; Zawadzki, Sônia F; Cruz, Letícia; Paula, Josiane P; Farago, Paulo V
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity in rural communities is a serious but understudied problem. The current experiment aims to assess a wide range of obesity risk factors among rural youth and to offer an 8-month intervention program for parents to reduce obesity risk in their preteen child. Methods/Design A two-group, repeated measures design is used to assess the effectiveness of the 4-Health intervention program. Assessments include anthropometric measures, child self-evaluations, parent self-evaluations, and parent evaluations of child. County Extension agents from 21 rural Montana counties recruit approximately 150 parent–child dyads and counties are semi-randomly assigned to the active intervention group (4-Health Educational Program or a “best-practices” (Healthy Living Information control group. Discussion This study will shed light on the effectiveness of this parent-only intervention strategy in reducing obesity risk factors among rural preteens. The 4-Health program is designed to provide information and skills development for busy rural parents that will increase healthy lifestyles of their preteen children and improve the parents’ ability to intervene effectively in the lives of their families during this critical developmental period. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01510587
Lynch Wesley C
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) results from increased hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis, and is closely linked to liver one-carbon (C1) metabolism. We assessed in C57BL6/N mice whether NAFLD induced by a high-fat (HF) diet over 8 weeks can be reversed by additional 4 weeks of a dietary methyl-donor supplementation (MDS). MDS in the obese mice failed to reverse NAFLD, but prevented the progression of hepatic steatosis associated with major changes in key hepatic C1-metabolite...
Dahlhoff, Christoph; Worsch, Stefanie; Sailer, Manuela; Hummel, Bjo?rn A.; Fiamoncini, Jarlei; Uebel, Kirsten; Obeid, Rima; Scherling, Christian; Geisel, Ju?rgen; Bader, Bernhard L.; Daniel, Hannelore
Objectives This paper aimed to systematically evaluate the mental health and well-being outcomes observed in previous community-based obesity prevention interventions in adolescent populations. Setting Systematic review of literature from database inception to October 2014. Articles were sourced from CINAHL, Global Health, Health Source: Nursing and Academic Edition, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES and PsycINFO, all of which were accessed through EBSCOhost. The Cochrane Database was also searched to identify all eligible articles. PRISMA guidelines were followed and search terms and search strategy ensured all possible studies were identified for review. Participants Intervention studies were eligible for inclusion if they were: focused on overweight or obesity prevention, community-based, targeted adolescents (aged 10–19?years), reported a mental health or well-being measure, and included a comparison or control group. Studies that focused on specific adolescent groups or were treatment interventions were excluded from review. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary outcomes were measures of mental health and well-being, including diagnostic and symptomatic measures. Secondary outcomes included adiposity or weight-related measures. Results Seven studies met the inclusion criteria; one reported anxiety/depressive outcomes, two reported on self-perception well-being measures such as self-esteem and self-efficacy, and four studies reported outcomes of quality of life. Positive mental health outcomes demonstrated that following obesity prevention, interventions included a decrease in anxiety and improved health-related quality of life. Quality of evidence was graded as very low. Conclusions Although positive outcomes for mental health and well-being do exist, controlled evaluations of community-based obesity prevention interventions have not often included mental health measures (n=7). It is recommended that future interventions incorporate mental health and well-being measures to identify any potential mechanisms influencing adolescent weight-related outcomes, and equally to ensure interventions are not causing harm to adolescent mental health. PMID:25564145
Hoare, Erin; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Millar, Lynne; Nichols, Melanie; Allender, Steven
Ageing can be modulated by genetic as well as nutritional interventions. In female Drosophila melanogaster, lifespan is maximized at intermediate concentrations of sucrose as the carbohydrate source, and yeast as the protein source. Dampening the signal through the insulin/IGF signalling (IIS) pathway, by genetic ablation of median neurosecretory cells (mNSCs) that produce insulin-like peptides, extends lifespan and counteracts the detrimental effects of excess yeast. However, how IIS reduction impacts health on a high-sugar diet remains unclear. We find that, while the ablation of the mNSCs can extend lifespan and delay the age-related decline in the health of the neuromuscular system irrespective of the amount of dietary sugar, it cannot rescue the lifespan-shortening effects of excess sugar. On the other hand, ablation of mNSCs can prevent adult obesity resulting from excess sugar, and this effect appears independent from the canonical effector of IIS, dfoxo. Our study indicates that while treatments that reduce IIS have anti-ageing effects irrespective of dietary sugar, additional interventions may be required to achieve full benefits in humans, where excessive sugar consumption is a growing problem. At the same time, pathways regulated by IIS may be suitable targets for treatment of obesity. PMID:25520354
Al Saud, Sara Naif; Summerfield, Adam C; Alic, Nazif
Full Text Available Primary paediatric health care is the foundation for preventative child health. In light of the recent obesity epidemic, paediatricians find themselves at the frontline of identification and management of childhood obesity. However, it is well recognized that evidence based approaches to obesity prevention and subsequent translation of this evidence into practice are critically needed. This paper explores the role of primary care in obesity prevention and introduces a novel application and development of a primary care research network in Canada—TARGet Kids!—to develop and translate an evidence-base on effective screening and prevention of childhood obesity.
Catherine S. Birken
Full Text Available The prevalence of overweight and obesity and their associated metabolic disorders are considered a major threat to the public’s health. While several diet and exercise programs are available for weight loss and prevention of weight regain, progress is often slow and disappointing. Recently, natural bioactive phytochemicals present in foods have been discovered for their potential health benefit effects on the prevention of chronic disorders such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory and metabolic diseases including obesity.Polyphenols are a class of naturally-occurring phytochemicals, of which some such as catechins, anthocynines, resveratrol and curcumin have been shown to modulate physiological and molecular pathways that are involved in energy metabolism, adiposity, and obesity. The potential in vivo, beneficial effects of these polyphenols on adiposity and obesity as complementary agents in the up-regulation of energy expenditure have emerged by investigating these compounds in cell cultures, animal models of obesity and in some human clinical and epidemiological studies. In this brief review, the efficacy of the above-named polyphenols and their potential efficacy to modulate obesity and some associated disorders are discussed.
During the last years, the list of resveratrol effects has grown in parallel with the number of other members of the polyphenol family described to modulate glucose or lipid handling. In the same time, more than ten human studies on the influence of resveratrol supplementation on two related metabolic diseases, obesity and diabetes, have indicated that impressive beneficial effects co-exist with lack of demonstration of clinical relevance, irrespective of the daily dose ingested (0.075 to 1.5 g per capita) or the number of studied patients. Such contrasting observations have been proposed to depend on the degree of insulin resistance of the patients incorporated in the study. To date, no definitive conclusion can be drawn on the antidiabetic or antiobesity benefits of resveratrol. On the opposite, studies on animal models of diabesity consistently indicated that resveratrol impairs diverse insulin actions in adipocytes, blunting glucose transport, lipogenesis and adipogenesis. Since resveratrol also favours lipolysis and limits the production of proinflammatory adipokines, its administration in rodents results in limitation of fat deposition, activation of hexose uptake into muscle, improvement of insulin sensitivity, and facilitation of glucose disposal. Facing to a somewhat disappointing extrapolation to man of these promising antidiabetic and antiobesity properties, attention must be paid to re-examine resveratrol targets, especially those attainable after polyphenol ingestion and to re-define the responses to low doses. In this context, human adipocytes are proposed as a convenient model for the screening of "novel" polyphenols that can reproduce, outclass, or reinforce resveratrol metabolic actions, Moreover, the use of combination of polyphenols is proposed to treat diabesity complications in view of recently reported synergisms. Lastly, multidisciplinar approaches are recommended for future investigations, considering the wide range of polyphenol actions that induce body fat reduction, liver disease mitigation, muscle function improvement, cardiovascular and renal protection. PMID:25139462
Carpene, C; Gomez-Zorita, S; Deleruyelle, S; Carpene, M A
Background A gluten-free diet reduces the incidence of diabetes mellitus in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, but the mechanism is not known. The aim of this study was to examine the possible influence of the diet on the caecal bacterial flora, which may affect the intestinal physiology and mediate disease prevention. Methods Two groups of NOD mice from the age of 3 weeks were fed either a gluten-free diet or a standard diet. Each diabetic mouse, when diagnosed, along with a non-diabetic mouse from the same diet group and two nondiabetic mice from the alternate diet group were euthanized and sampled for classical bacteriological examination. Results Nine out of 19 (47%) standard-fed mice and 1 out of 19 (5%) gluten-free-fed mice developed diabetes (p < 0.01). Mice on the gluten-free diet had significantly fewer aerobically (p < 0.01) and microaerophilically (p < 0.001) cultivated bacteria in their intestines than standard-fed mice. Non-diabetic mice also had significantly fewer microa erophilic and anaerobic bacteria than diabetic mice (p < 0.05). These differences were primarily due to a difference in the Gram-positive flora. Conclusions The gluten-free diet compared to the standard diet both qualitatively and quantitatively substantially altered the composition of the caecal bacterial flora in NOD mice. Although Gram-positive bacteria might influence the beta cells through certain digestive products, it is more likely to assume that any effect on diabetes incidence is immunological. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Ling, Fenjung
Although pediatric providers have traditionally assessed and treated childhood obesity and associated health-related conditions in the clinic setting, there is a recognized need to expand the provider role. We reviewed the literature published from 2005 to 2012 to (1) provide examples of the spectrum of roles that primary care providers can play in the successful treatment and prevention of childhood obesity in both clinic and community settings and (2) synthesize the evidence of important ch...
Vine, Michaela; Hargreaves, Margaret B.; Briefel, Ronette R.; Orfield, Cara
Obesity has been associated with an increased risk of falls among older people. However, it is not certain whether factors commonly associated with falls and/or obesity mediate this risk. This research examines whether specific diseases, sedentary behavior, mood, pain, and medication use mediate the association between obesity and falls. A representative sample of community-living individuals aged 65+ years in New South Wales (NSW), Australia were surveyed regarding their experience of falls, height, weight, lifestyle and general health within a 12 month period. Intervening variable effects were examined using Freedman and Schatzkin's difference in coefficients tests and regression analyses were used to estimate relative risks. Obesity was associated with a 25% higher risk (95%confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.41; panxiety or depression (t=3.038; p=0.002), and diabetes (t=3.032; p=0.002). Sedentary behavior, chronic health conditions and medication use were identified as mediators for the association between obesity and falls in community living older people. Interventions aimed at weight reduction and increased activity may have benefits not only for fall prevention, but also for the mediating health, mood and lifestyle factors identified here. PMID:25307955
Mitchell, Rebecca J; Lord, Stephen R; Harvey, Lara A; Close, Jacqueline C T
Based on chart review for a representative cluster sample of North Carolina Medicaid enrollees aged 3 to 5 years (n = 1951) and 13 to 16 years (n = 1922) years, this study describes prevalence, practice patterns, and comorbidities related to overweight/obese immediately prior to 2007 Expert Recommendations. In total, 16% of children in both age groups were overweight, and 20% (ages 3–5 years) and 25% (ages 13–16 years) were obese. For 3- to 5-year-olds, body mass index percentile was infr...
Lazorick, Suzanne; Peaker, Brandy; Perrin, Eliana M.; Schmid, Dorothee; Pennington, Tamerra; Yow, Angie; Dubard, C. Annette
Background: Obesity and its related metabolic complications are an increasing problem worldwide. A high fat diet in combination with sucrose has been shown to induce obesity and development of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in rodents. C57BL/6J mice were fed high fat diets with sucrose- or protein based background, and supplemented with either corn- or fish oil. These experiments were conducted to determine whether macronutrient composition and type of dietary fat can modulate diet-induced obesity, and associated metabolic consequences. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is escalating, and in view of the increased consumption of obesogenic diets with high levels of dietary carbohydrates and fat, the metabolic consequences of cyclooxygenase-inhibition warrants investigation. Results: High fat/high sucrose diets increased obesity development and expression of macrophage infiltration markers in the adipose tissue. By increasing the amount of dietary protein, at the expanse of sucrose, the obesogenic effect of the HF diet was prevented. The reduced obesogenic effect of the high fat/high protein diet was associated with increased expression of genes related to hepatic gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis, in addition to genes related to thermogenesis. Fish oil enriched diets with polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, are shown to prevent diet-induced obesity, however, this effect was blunted with increased sucrose content in the diet. The obesogenic high fat/high diet in combination with indomethacin, a nonselective cyclooxygenase cyclooxygenase-inhibitor, reduces energy efficiency and fat mass in C57BL/6J mice. Despite prevention of obesity development, indomethacin treatment was associated with hyperglycemia and reduced glucose tolerance. Body weight was not affected when indomethacin was combined with a low fat diet. This further highlights the importance of the background diet and macronutrient composition of experimental diets. Conclusions: In summary, our results demonstrate that the composition of background diet modulates the obesogenic effect of the high fat diet. The obesogenic effect of a high fat/ high sucrose diet can also be prevented with inclusion of indomethacin in the diet.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive weight gain during pregnancy and subsequent postpartum weight retention may contribute to the epidemic of obesity among women of childbearing age. Preventing excessive gestational weight gain (GWG to optimize maternal, fetal and infant wellbeing is therefore of great importance. A number of dietary interventions in this area has been conducted with inconsistent results, which has made it difficult to identify effective strategies to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy among normal weight, overweight and obese women. The primary objective of this review was to evaluate the effect of dietary interventions for reducing GWG. The secondary objective was to examine the impact of these interventions on different child and maternal health outcomes. Method The PUBMED, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL and the LILACS databases were searched for relevant articles. All published randomized controlled trials (RCT and quasi-randomized controlled trials (QCT, with concurrent controls, on dietary interventions during pregnancy were considered. Results were presented using relative risk (RR for categorical data and weighted mean difference (WMD for continuous data. Data were primarily analyzed with a fixed-effect model and a random-effects model was used in the presence of heterogeneity. No date and language restrictions were applied. Results In total, 13 studies were included in this review and 10 trials contributed data on total GWG. Dietary intervention significantly reduced total GWG (n = 1434; WMD = -1.92 kg; 95% CI = -3.65/-0.19; p = 0.03, weight retention at six months postpartum (n = 443; WMD = -1.90 kg; 95% CI = -2.69/-1.12; p Conclusion Dietary advice during pregnancy appears effective in decreasing total GWG and long-term postpartum weight retention, but so far there is limited evidence for further benefits on infant and maternal health.
Adegboye Amanda RA
Full Text Available Poucos estudos obtiveram resultados favoráveis na prevenção da obesidade. Teoricamente, crianças e adolescentes, se comparados aos adultos, poderiam mais facilmente prevenir o ganho excessivo de peso, pois estão crescendo e têm maior possibilidade de gastar energia em atividades de lazer. Entretanto, não se consegue superar os muitos fatores que concorrem para a crescente epidemia de obesidade e as intervenções na sua maioria abordam uma fração muito pequena dos fatores que geram a obesidade. Aspectos importantes, como o papel da indústria de alimentos, das cadeias de fast food, das propagandas, de um estilo de vida que mantêm as crianças cada vez mais sedentárias e submetidas a um hiperconsumo calórico, não têm espaço nos desenhos de estudos tradicionais. Das intervenções publicadas, as que integram a família no tratamento têm obtido melhores resultados. Estudos com elementos isolados da dieta como cálcio, proteína, fibras e índice glicêmico não têm mostrado eficácia, e embora não conclusivos, os resultados referentes à redução de bebidas com alto teor de açúcar e redução do sedentarismo são promissores.Few studies on treatment or prevention of obesity have shown significant results. Theoretically, in children and adolescents as compared to adults, prevention of excessive weight gain should be easy due to the energy expended during growth, associated with more time spent in leisure-time activities. However, numerous factors that stimulate overeating and sedentary behaviors are difficult to overcome. Additionally, most intervention studies have focused on a minor portion of the many factors associated with obesity. Important aspects of the obesity epidemic such as the role of the food industry, fast food chains, advertising, and a lifestyle that limits children to sedentary activities and overeating cannot be explored by a traditional clinical trial design. At any rate, among the published interventions, those including the family in weight-reduction strategies have shown the best results, as compared to children-centered approaches. Meanwhile, studies on specific nutrient or dietary composition (such as calcium, protein, or glycemic index related to prevention or treatment of obesity have failed to yield good results. Reducing the intake of high-sugar carbonated drinks and juices has shown promising but still inconclusive results.
Although process elements that define community-based participatory research (CBPR) are well articulated and provide guidance for bringing together researchers and communities, additional models to implement CBPR are needed. One potential model for implementing and monitoring CBPR is Action Learning Collaboratives (ALCs); short term, team-based learning processes that are grounded in quality improvement. Since 2010, the Prevention Research Center at Dartmouth (PRCD) has used ALCs with three communities as a platform to design, implement and evaluate CBPR. The first ALC provided an opportunity for academia and community leadership to strengthen their relationships and knowledge of respective assets through design and evaluation of community-based QI projects. Building on this work, we jointly designed and are implementing a second ALC, a cross-community research project focused on obesity prevention in vulnerable populations. An enhanced community capacity now exists to support CBPR activities with a high degree of sophistication and decreased reliance on external facilitation. PMID:23727965
Bazos, Dorothy A; Schifferdecker, Karen E; Fedrizzi, Rudolph; Hoebeke, Jaime; Ruggles, Laural; Goldsberry, Yvonne
Economic development in developing societies characterized by industrialization, urbanization, and globalization has seen the emergence of an epidemic of diet- and life-style-related chronic degenerative diseases. A research project was initiated under the aegis of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, Austria under its Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) to promote the use of stable isotopic techniques to document the extent of the problem and to understand the determinants of this epidemic. The principal objectives of this CRP involving countries both in the North and the South are to define the magnitude of the problem of obesity and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in developing countries, to identify the vulnerable groups at increased risk, and to attempt to describe the metabolic and physiological mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. These comparative international studies of obesity and NIDDM are looking at the effects of childhood malnutrition (Brazil) and socioeconomic differentials (Mexico) on adult risk factors; the composition of the daily diet on obesity (Chile); levels of patterns of physical activity of older adults (China) as well as their influence on weight gain and obesity (Cuba, Nigeria); the impact of body composition and energy expenditure on the evolution frank diabetes from impaired glucose tolerance (Jamaica), and of body compositional changes and the role of inflammatory cytokines on impaired glucose tolerance (India). The last study conducted in New Zealand was aimed at comparing the energy expenditures of Maori (Pacific Island) with New Zealanders of European descent. PMID:12362790
Shetty, Prakash; Iyengar, Venkatesh; Sawaya, Ana; Diaz, Erik; Ma, Guansheng; Hernandez-Triana, Manuel; Yajnik, Chittaranjan; Forrester, Terrence; Valencia, Mauro; Rush, Elaine; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Jahoor, Farook; Roberts, Susan
Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF), common in patients with sleep apnea, correlates with the development of obesity. We hypothesized that SF differentially affects neurobehavior in lean wild-type (WT) and obese pan-leptin receptor knockout (POKO) mice fed the same normal diet. First, we established an SF paradigm by interrupting sleep every 2 min during the inactive light span. The maneuver was effective in decreasing sleep duration and bout length, and in increasing sleep state transition and waking, without significant rebound sleep in the dark span. Changes of sleep architecture were evident in the light span and consistent across days 1-10 of SF. There was reduced NREM, shortened sleep latency, and increased state transitions. During the light span of the first day of SF, there also was reduction of REM and increased delta power of slow-wave sleep. Potential effects of SF on thermal pain threshold, locomotor activity, and anxiety were then tested. POKO mice had a lower circadian amplitude of pain latency than WT mice in the hot plate test, and both groups had lowest tolerance at 4 pm (zeitgeber time (ZT) 10) and longest latency at 4 am (ZT 22). SF increased the pain threshold in WT but not in POKO mice when tested at 8 a.m. (ZT 2). Both the POKO mutation and SF resulted in reduced physical activity and increased anxiety, but there was no additive effect of these two factors. Overall, SF and the POKO mutation differentially regulate mouse behavior. The results suggest that obesity can blunt neurobehavioral responses to SF. PMID:25152064
He, Junyun; Kastin, Abba J; Wang, Yuping; Pan, Weihong
Given the burgeoning obesity problem among Latino youth and concomitant health problems (Spiotta & Luma, 2008), school counselors have begun to recognize the need for culturally sensitive programming to promote healthy lifestyles. More theoretical, evidence-based programs are needed, however, to ensure Latino youth receive appropriate…
Cook, Amy L.; Hayden, Laura A.
The prevalence of overweight and obesity and their associated metabolic disorders are considered a major threat to the public’s health. While several diet and exercise programs are available for weight loss and prevention of weight regain, progress is often slow and disappointing. Recently, natural bioactive phytochemicals present in foods have been discovered for their potential health benefit effects on the prevention of chronic disorders such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, inflammato...
Mohsen Meydani; Hasan, Syeda T.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor. This study tested the effect of obesity reduction on preserving left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and attenuating inflammation, oxidative stress and LV remodeling in obese mice. Methods and results Eight-week-old C57BL/6?J mice (n=24 were equally divided into control (fed a control diet for 22?weeks, obesity (high-fat diet, 22?weeks, and obese reduction (OR (high-fat diet, 14?weeks; then control diet, 8?weeks. Animals were sacrificed at post 22-week high-fat diet and the LV myocardium collected. Heart weight, body weight, abdominal-fat weight, total cholesterol level and fasting blood glucose were higher in obesity than in control and OR (all p Conclusion Impaired LVEF, enhanced LV remodeling, inflammation, fibrosis, oxidative stress and apoptosis were reversed by reduction in mouse obesity.
Although pediatric providers have traditionally assessed and treated childhood obesity and associated health-related conditions in the clinic setting, there is a recognized need to expand the provider role. We reviewed the literature published from 2005 to 2012 to (1) provide examples of the spectrum of roles that primary care providers can play in the successful treatment and prevention of childhood obesity in both clinic and community settings and (2) synthesize the evidence of important characteristics, factors, or strategies in successful community-based models. The review identified 96 articles that provide evidence of how primary care providers can successfully prevent and treat childhood obesity by coordinating efforts within the primary care setting and through linkages to obesity prevention and treatment resources within the community. By aligning the most promising interventions with recommendations published over the past decade by the Institute of Medicine, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and other health organizations, we present nine areas in which providers can promote the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity through efforts in clinical and community settings: weight status assessment and monitoring, healthy lifestyle promotion, treatment, clinician skill development, clinic infrastructure development, community program referrals, community health education, multisector community initiatives, and policy advocacy. PMID:23710345
Vine, Michaela; Hargreaves, Margaret B; Briefel, Ronette R; Orfield, Cara
Full Text Available Abstract Background The global mortality caused by cardiovascular disease increases with weight. The Framingham study showed that obesity is a cardiovascular risk factor independent of other risks such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and smoking. Moreover, the main problem in the management of weight-loss is its maintenance, if it is achieved. We have designed a study to determine whether a group motivational intervention, together with current clinical practice, is more efficient than the latter alone in the treatment of overweight and obesity, for initial weight loss and essentially to achieve maintenance of the weight achieved; and, secondly, to know if this intervention is more effective for reducing cardiovascular risk factors associated with overweight and obesity. Methods This 26-month follow up multi-centre trial, will include 1200 overweight/obese patients. Random assignment of the intervention by Basic Health Areas (BHA: two geographically separate groups have been created, one of which receives group motivational intervention (group intervention, delivered by a nurse trained by an expert phsychologist, in 32 group sessions, 1 to 12 fortnightly, and 13 to 32, monthly, on top of their standard program of diet, exercise, and the other (control group, receiving the usual follow up, with regular visits every 3 months. Discussion By addressing currently unanswered questions regarding the maintenance in weight loss in obesity/overweight, upon the expected completion of participant follow-up in 2012, the IMOAP trial should document, for the first time, the benefits of a motivational intervention as a treatment tool of weight loss in a primary care setting. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01006213
González Burgillos Ma José
Full Text Available Background: Surgical intervention has been recently advocated in the treatment of morbid obesity. The objective of this study was to review surgery as an alternative in the treatment of morbidly obese adolescents. Materials and Methods: This research was conducted by searching English websites such as PubMed, Up to Date, and Google Scholar, as well as some Persian websites including SID, Iranmedex, and Magiran. Articles published from 2000 to 2010 on interventional and clinical trials were reviewed for treatment of morbid obesity in adolescents. Keywords used in internet searches include obesity; adolescence; and surgery.Results: The results obtained from the studies indicated that 4% of American adolescents suffer from morbid obesity. So far, pharmacological treatment and other approaches toward this type of obesity have been inefficient. Hence, surgery was employed as one of the new approaches to the treatment of this disorder. According to the National Health Institute criteria, in the treatment of adolescent candidates for surgery, anthropometric measurements are performed together with the measurement of other co-morbidities of obesity. Adolescents whose percentiles are ?99 are considered as morbidly obese patients. Conclusion: The results of the studies suggested that for the extremely obese adolescents, who do not respond to other types of medical interventions within 6 months, surgery can be performed. Adolescents with BMI of ?40 kg/m2 and skeletal maturity, or those with co morbidities of obesity, or 13-year-old girls and boys ?15 years of age can be candidates for surgery. However, the side effects of obesity should not be neglected. Therefore, before the adolescent obesity become morbid obesity, preventive measures should be taken through changes in lifestyle.
The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in dialysis patients is high and further increases after transplantation due to weight gain and the detrimental metabolic effects of immunosuppressive drugs. Corticosteroids cause insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, abnormal glucose metabolism and arterial hypertension. The calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus is diabetogenic by inhibiting insulin secretion, whereas cyclosporine causes hypertension and increases cholesterol levels. Mtor antagonists are responsible for hyperlipidemia and abnormal glucose metabolism by mechanisms that also implicate insulin resistance. The metabolic syndrome in transplant recipients has numerous detrimental effects such as increasing the risk of new onset diabetes, cardiovascular disease events and patient death. In addition, it has also been linked with accelerated loss of graft function, proteinuria and ultimately graft loss. Prevention and management of the metabolic syndrome are based on increasing physical activity, promotion of weight loss and control of cardiovascular risk factors. Bariatric surgery before or after renal transplantation in patients with body mass index >35 kg/m(2) is an option but its long term effects on graft and patient survival have not been investigated. Steroid withdrawal and replacement of tacrolimus with cyclosporine facilitate control of diabetes, whereas replacement of cyclosporine and mtor antagonists can improve hyperlipidemia. The new costimulation inhibitor belatacept has potent immunosuppressive properties without metabolic adverse effects and will be an important component of immunosuppressive regimens with better metabolic risk profile. Medical treatment of cardiovascular risk factors has to take potential drug interactions with immunosuppressive medication and drug accumulation due to renal insufficiency into account. PMID:24507957
Wissing, Karl Martin; Pipeleers, Lissa
Recent epidemic increases in the U.S. prevalence of obesity and diabetes are a consequence of widespread environmental changes affecting energy balance and its regulation. These environmental changes range from exposure to endocrine disrupting pollutants to shortened sleep duration to physical inactivity to excess caloric intake. Overall, we need a better understanding of the factors affecting individual susceptibility and resistance to adverse exposures and behaviors and of determinants of i...
Ershow, Abby G.
Abstract Background Kids - 'Go for your life' (K-GFYL) is an award-based health promotion program being implemented across Victoria, Australia. The program aims to reduce the risk of childhood obesity by improving the socio-cultural, policy and physical environments in children's care and educational settings. Membership of the K-GFYL program is open to all primary and pre-schools and early childhood services across the State. Once in the program, member schools and services ...
Gibbs Lisa; Honisett Suzy; Carpenter Lauren; Prosser Lauren; de Silva-Sanigorski Andrea; Moodie Marj; Sheppard Lauren; Swinburn Boyd; Waters Elizabeth
Based on chart review for a representative cluster sample of North Carolina Medicaid enrollees aged 3 to 5 years (n = 1951) and 13 to 16 years (n = 1922) years, this study describes prevalence, practice patterns, and comorbidities related to overweight/obese immediately prior to 2007 Expert Recommendations. In total, 16% of children in both age groups were overweight, and 20% (ages 3-5 years) and 25% (ages 13-16 years) were obese. For 3- to 5-year-olds, body mass index percentile was infrequently recorded (22%) or plotted on growth charts (24%), and weight status category was rarely documented (10%). Results were similar for adolescents (21%, 20%, and 12%, respectively). In both groups, documentation of counseling in nutrition or physical activity was rare (16% for ages 3-5 years; 7% for ages 13-16 years). In adolescents, approximately 20% received recommended laboratory screening and overweight/ obesity was significantly associated with chart-documented asthma, back pain, prediabetes, gastroesophageal reflux disease, hypertension, and sleep apnea. Whether improvements in documentation of care followed these new guidelines deserves further research. PMID:21525083
Lazorick, Suzanne; Peaker, Brandy; Perrin, Eliana M; Schmid, Dorothee; Pennington, Tamerra; Yow, Angie; DuBard, C Annette
Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) following total knee arthroplasty is a major burden for patients and health systems. Prevention of this challenging complication through implementation of effective strategies should be a priority. These strategies should encompass various levels of patient care. Multiple modifiable risk factors such as uncontrolled hyperglycemia, obesity, smoking, substance abuse, and nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus have been described for PJI. Preoperative recognition and mitigation of these risk factors along with optimization of nonmodifiable risk factors such as kidney, liver, or immune system insufficiency can considerably decrease the risk of PJI. A comprehensive perioperative protocol should involve optimization of the operative environment to reduce the number of bacteria and particulates in the air. Several surgical and nonsurgical details of intraoperative care such as maintenance of normothermia, skin preparation, surgical field irrigation, wound closure, and duration of surgical and anesthetic procedure can influence the occurrence of PJI. Prophylactic perioperative antibiotic administration is probably one of the most important strategies in preventing PJI. Implementation of surgical safety checklist can diminish the risk of perioperative complications, particularly surgical site infection. Controversy regarding efficacy, efficiency, and optimization of some preventive measures continues to exist due to inconsistency or inadequacy of available evidence. Novel research has focused on designing PJI-resistant implants and developing vaccines that target molecule components with major role in the process of bacterial adhesion to the implant or periprosthetic tissues. PMID:24792971
Alijanipour, Pouya; Heller, Snir; Parvizi, Javad
On irradiated white rats (750 r) the effect of insulin on the content of fat in the bone marrow was studied. Fatty inclusions were calculated under the microscope in histological sections of the thighbone with the help of a grid divided into 256 squares. The results of investigations showed that during insulin administration the number of fat cells in the bone marrow of irradiated rats in comparison with the control group significantly decreased in 5 and 10 days. In 15 days when the reverse development of the fatty process starts, the effect of insulin is less marked. It is supposed that the obesity of the bone marrow under the effect of insulin decreases due to the early established stimulation of the bone marrow hemopoietic tissue by the hormone regeneration
Objective: To examine the effects of a sixmonth aerobic exercise program on pulmonary function and cardiorespiratory capacity in obese women.?Materials and Methods: A total of 50 subjects 25 obese women who neither did regular exercise nor applied a special diet program, and 25 healthy controls were included in the study. Body mass index (BMI), maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) and pulmonary function tests (PFT) values were measured as evaluation parameters in both groups. Obese women wer...
Sarsan, Ays?e; Alkan, Hakan; Bas?er, Sevin; Yildiz, Necmettin; O?zgen, Merih; Ardic?, Fu?sun
Background. Arterial hypertension is a multicausal chronic disease often accompanied by obesity. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of diet therapy in the treatment of obese hypertensives with and without antihypertensive therapy. Methods. The investigation was conducted at the Department of Nutrition on a sample of 110 obese hypertensive patients on diet therapy. Subjects were divided into two groups: the group on diet therapy with antihypertensive drugs E1 (n=78), and t...
Vasiljevi? Na?a; Paunovi? Katarina; Backovi? Dušan; Jorga Jagoda B.; Risti? Gordana N.; Ple?aš Draga; Stojanovi? Svetlana
The aim of this study is to find out the effect of slow jogging and recreational games on speed and explosive power among obese boys. Forty five obese boys were selected from the Arya International School, Varanasi. For this research, the subjects were divided randomly into three equal groups namely one control and two experimental groups consisting of fifteen obese boys in each group. The subject's age ranged between 12 to 14 years. Experimental groups were given 12 weeks...
Vasanthi, G.; Rajnish Kumar
Abstract Background Obesity has adverse physical, social, and economic consequences that can negatively affect quality of life (QOL). Thus the aim of this study was to verify the effects of a long-term multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention on QOL, body image, anxiety, depression and binge eating in obese adolescents. Methods Sixty-six obese adolescents (41 girls and 25 boys; BMI: 35.62 ± 4.18 kg/m2) were recruited from the Multidisciplinary Obesit...
Tufik Sergio; Carnier June; Tock Lian; Caranti Danielle; de Piano Aline; Prado Wagner; Antunes Hanna; Lofrano-Prado Mara; de Mello Marco; Dâmaso Ana R
Full Text Available Catherine Rolland, Michelle Hession, Iain BroomCentre for Obesity Research and Epidemiology, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, Scotland, UKBackground: Adipose tissue functions as an endocrine organ by releasing adipokines which have important roles in the regulation of inflammation and insulin sensitivity. Although there is evidence of improvement in circulating levels of adipokines with weight loss, few studies relate such changes to specific diets. We investigated the effects of weight loss achieved by two different diets on circulating adipokine levels in obese individuals.Methods: A total of 120 obese patients (body mass index ? 35 kg/m2 underwent a three-month screening period on a low-fat, reduced-calorie diet. Patients failing to achieve a 5% weight loss using this approach were randomly allocated to either a low carbohydrate/high protein diet (n = 17 or to a commercial very low calorie diet (LighterLife®, n = 14 for a period of nine months.Results: At nine months, a significant weight loss was only maintained for LighterLife® (?32.3 ± 22.7 kg, P < 0.0001 but not on the low carbohydrate/high protein diet. Changes in adiponectin (15.8 ± 17.1 ng/mL versus ?0.8 ± 6.2 ng/mL, P = 0.003 and leptin (?17.6 ± 24.3 ng/mL versus ?3.0 ± 9.2 ng/mL, P = 0.049 at nine months were significantly greater for LighterLife® than for the low carbohydrate/high protein diet, which may reflect greater weight loss and decrease in fat mass. Changes in tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 did not differ significantly between the dietary interventions at nine months.Conclusion: A significant weight loss of 23.8% from baseline weight was observed using a very low calorie diet and resulted in significant improvements in circulating levels of leptin, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, and adiponectin, which are likely to be due to weight loss and not macronutrient intake.Keywords: weight loss, adipokine, obesity
Berberine, a major pharmacological component of the Chinese herb Coptis chinensis, which was originally used to treat bacterial diarrhea, has recently been demonstrated to be clinically effective in alleviating type 2 diabetes. In this study, we revealed that berberine effectively prevented the development of obesity and insulin resistance in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rats, which showed decreased food intake. Increases in the levels of serum lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and leptin and decrease in the serum level of adiponectin corrected for body fat in HFD-fed rats were also significantly retarded by the co-administration of berberine at 100 mg/kg body weight. Bar-coded pyrosequencing of the V3 region of 16S rRNA genes revealed a significant reduction in the gut microbiota diversity of berberine-treated rats. UniFrac principal coordinates analysis revealed a marked shift of the gut microbiota structure in berberine-treated rats away from that of the controls. Redundancy analysis identified 268 berberine-responding operational taxonomic units (OTUs), most of which were essentially eliminated, whereas a few putative short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria, including Blautia and Allobaculum, were selectively enriched, along with elevations of fecal SCFA concentrations. Partial least square regression models based on these 268 OTUs were established (Q(2)>0.6) for predicting the adiposity index, body weight, leptin and adiponectin corrected for body fat, indicating that these discrete phylotypes might have a close association with the host metabolic phenotypes. Taken together, our findings suggest that the prevention of obesity and insulin resistance by berberine in HFD-fed rats is at least partially mediated by structural modulation of the gut microbiota, which may help to alleviate inflammation by reducing the exogenous antigen load in the host and elevating SCFA levels in the intestine. PMID:22880019
Zhang, Xu; Zhao, Yufeng; Zhang, Menghui; Pang, Xiaoyan; Xu, Jia; Kang, Chaoying; Li, Meng; Zhang, Chenhong; Zhang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Yifei; Li, Xiaoying; Ning, Guang; Zhao, Liping
Viola mandshurica W. Becker has been used as an expectorant, diuretic, and anti-inflammatory agent. We evaluated the effects of V. mandshurica ethanol extract (VME) on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice. HPLC analysis showed that the VME contained 11.95 ± 0.37 mg/g esculetin and 0.13 ± 0.01 mg/g scopoletin. Orally administered VME decreased the body weight, adipose tissue mass, adipocyte size, and triglyceride and leptin serum concentrations. In contrast, VME increased serum adiponectin concentrations and adiponectin expression levels in epididymal adipose tissues. VME also significantly reversed the HFD-induced elevation of the mRNA and protein levels of lipogenic genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, fatty-acid synthase, and adipocyte protein 2. Moreover, VME reversed the HFD-induced inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-coA carboxylase phosphorylation in epididymal adipose tissues. Furthermore, treatment of VME and esculetin in 3T3-L1 cells inhibited adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation. These results suggest that VME exerts anti-obesity effects in HFD-induced obese mice by activating AMPK and suppressing PPAR? expression in adipose tissues. PMID:24879516
Sung, Yoon-Young; Kim, Dong-Seon; Kim, Ho Kyoung
Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited data are available on the development and feasibility piloting of school-based interventions to prevent and reduce obesity in children. Clear documentation of the rationale, process of development and content of such interventions is essential to enable other researchers to understand why interventions succeed or fail. Methods This paper describes the development of the Healthy Lifestyles Programme (HeLP, a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in children, through the first 4 steps of the Intervention Mapping protocol (IM. The intervention focuses on the following health behaviours, i reduction of the consumption of sweetened fizzy drinks, ii increase in the proportion of healthy snacks consumed and iii reduction of TV viewing and other screen-based activities, within the context of a wider attempt to improve diet and increase physical activity. Results Two phases of pilot work demonstrated that the intervention was acceptable and feasible for schools, children and their families and suggested areas for further refinement. Feedback from the first pilot phase suggested that the 9-10 year olds were both receptive to the messages and more able and willing to translate them into possible behaviour changes than older or younger children and engaged their families to the greatest extent. Performance objectives were mapped onto 3 three broad domains of behaviour change objectives - establish motivation, take action and stay motivated - in order to create an intervention that supports and enables behaviour change. Activities include whole school assemblies, parents evenings, sport/dance workshops, classroom based education lessons, interactive drama workshops and goal setting and runs over three school terms. Conclusion The Intervention Mapping protocol was a useful tool in developing a feasible, theory based intervention aimed at motivating children and their families to make small sustainable changes to their eating and activity behaviours. Although the process was time consuming, this systematic approach ensures that the behaviour change techniques and delivery methods link directly to the Programme's performance objectives and their associated determinants. This in turn provides a clear framework for process analysis and increases the potential of the intervention to realise the desired outcome of preventing and reducing obesity in children.
Greaves Colin J
Abstract Berry consumption can prevent bone loss. However, the effects of different berries with distinct anthocyanin composition have not been thoroughly examined. The present study compared the effects of blueberry, blackberry, and black currant on bone health using a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. To investigate the effect of different berry supplements against a high-fat (HF) diet in vivo, 40 HF diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL mice were assigned into four groups and fed a HF diet (35% w/w) with or without berry supplementation for 12 weeks (n=10). We measured adipose tissue mass (epididymal and retroperitoneal), plasma antioxidant, bone-related biomarkers, femur bone mineral density (BMD), and bone mineral content (proximal and distal). Adipose masses were negatively correlated with proximal BMD, but positively associated with plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentrations (Pblackberry group (P<.05). However, berry supplementation did not affect bone mass compared with control. The present study demonstrates a negative relationship between fat mass and bone mass. In addition, our findings suggest that the anthocyanin composition of berries will affect bone turnover, warranting further research to investigate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:25198411
Lee, Sang Gil; Kim, Bohkyung; Soung, Do Yu; Vance, Terrence; Lee, Jong Suk; Lee, Ji-Young; Koo, Sung I; Kim, Dae-Ok; Drissi, Hicham; Chun, Ock K
Full Text Available Objective: Obesity is currently the most prevalent nutritional disease of children and adolescents, prevention and treatment of which, is required. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of dietary behavior modification on anthropometric indices in the obese adolescent female students of Shiraz, 2007. Methods: In this Quasi-experimental research, 53 obese adolescent girls (BMI>95th percentile, aged 11 to 15 years, participated in a behavior modification program which lasted for 16 weeks (4 hours each week. The Subjects were chosen from two different schools and were assigned to two groups of experimental (=24 and control (=29 randomly. The Program included teaching problem solving, stress management (yoga, teaching healthy eating, physical behavior and parent education. Anthropometric indices were assessed just before and after the program and also two months later for follow up. The data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5 by using descriptive and analytic test and the statistical significance was considered at P<0.05.Findings: There were significant differences in changes in body weight (-2.75 kg vs. 0.62 kg, BMI (-1.07 kg/m2 vs. 0.24 kg/m2 and arm circumference (-2.31 cm vs. 0.5 cm in the experimental versus the control group (P<0.001.Conclusion: This study reveals that behavioral modification program has a great effect on decreasing the body mass index. Parents, school nurses and other support groups should be encouraged to participate in this program.
Childhood obesity is prevalent, is of consequence, and disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minority populations. By the preschool years, racial/ethnic disparities in obesity prevalence and substantial differences in many risk factors for obesity are already present, suggesting that disparities in obesity prevalence have their origins in the earliest stages of life. The reasons for racial/ethnic variation in obesity are complex and may include differences in cultural beliefs and practices...
Pen?a, Michelle-marie; Dixon, Brittany; Taveras, Elsie M.
Background Overweight and obesity are considerable public health issues internationally as well as in Sweden. On a global level, the obesity prevalence has nearly doubled over the last 30 years. Currently in Sweden, more than one third of all women, and slightly more than half of all men, are either overweight or obese. The long-term results of obesity treatment programs are modest as reported by other studies. The importance of extending the focus to not only obesity treatment, but also prev...
Full Text Available Background and Aims: The metabolic risks associated with obesity are greater for South Asian populations compared with White or other ethnic groups, and levels of obesity in childhood are known to track into adulthood. Tackling obesity in South Asians is therefore a high priority. The rationale for this systematic review is the suggestion that there may be differential effectiveness in diet and physical activity interventions in South Asian populations compared with other ethnicities. The research territory of the present review is an emergent, rather than mature, field of enquiry, but is urgently needed. Thus the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effectiveness of diet and physical activity interventions to prevent or treat obesity in South Asians living in or outside of South Asia and to describe the characteristics of effective interventions. Methods: Systematic review of any type of lifestyle intervention, of any length of follow-up that reported any anthropometric measure for children or adults of South Asian ethnicity. There was no restriction on the type of comparator; randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, and before-after studies were included. A comprehensive search strategy was implemented in five electronic databases: ASSIA, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Embase, Medline and Social Sciences Citation Index. The search was limited to English language abstracts published between January 2006 and January 2014. References were screened; data extraction and quality assessment were carried out by two reviewers. Results are presented in narrative synthesis and meta-analysis. Results: Twenty-nine studies were included, seven children, 21 adult and one mixed age. No studies in children under six were identified. Sixteen studies were conducted in South Asia, ten in Europe and three in USA. Effective or promising trials include physical activity interventions in South Asian men in Norway and South Asian school-children in the UK. A home-based, family-orientated diet and physical activity intervention improved obesity outcomes in South Asian adults in the UK, when adjusted for baseline differences. Meta-analyses of interventions in children showed no significant difference between intervention and control for body mass index or waist circumference. Meta-analyses of adult interventions showed significant improvement in weight in data from two trials adjusted for baseline differences (mean difference ?1.82 kgs, 95% confidence interval ?2.48 to ?1.16 and in unadjusted data from three trials following sensitivity analysis (mean difference ?1.20 kgs, 95% confidence interval ?2.23 to ?0.17. Meta-analyses showed no significant differences in body mass index and waist circumference for adults. Twenty of 24 intervention groups showed improvements in adult body mass index from baseline to follow-up; average change in high quality studies (n = 7 ranged from 0.31 to ?0.8 kg/m2. There was no evidence that interventions were more or less effective according to whether the intervention was set in South Asia or not, or by socio-economic status. Conclusions: Meta-analysis of a limited number of controlled trials found an unclear picture of the effects of interventions on body mass index for South Asian children. Meta-analyses of a limited number of controlled trials showed significant improvement in weight for adults but no significant differences in body mass index and waist circumference. One high quality study in South Asian children found that a school-based physical activity intervention that was delivered within the normal school day which was culturally sensitive, was effective. There is also evidence of culturally appropriate approaches to, and characteristics of, effective interventions in adults which we believe could be transferred and used to develop effective interventions in children.
Economic development in developing societies characterized by industrialization, urbanization and globalization has seen the emergence of an epidemic of diet and life-style related chronic degenerative diseases. A research project has been initiated under the aegis of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, Austria, under its Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) to promote the use of stable isotopic techniques to document the extent of the problem and to understand the determinants of this epidemic. The principal objectives of this CRP involving countries both in the North and the South are to define the magnitude of the problem of obesity and non-insulin Dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in developing countries, to identify the vulnerable groups at increased risk and to attempt to describe the metabolic and physiological mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. These comparative international studies of obesity and NIDDM are looking at the effects of childhood malnutrition (Brazil and socio-economic differentials (Mexico) on adult risk factors; the composition of the daily diet on obesity (Chile); levels of patterns of physical activity of older adults (China) as well as their influence on weight gain and obesity (Cuba, Nigeria); the impact of body composition and energy expenditure on the evolution frank diabetes from impaired glucose tolerance (Jamaica), and of body compositional changes and the role of inflammatory cytokines on impaired glucose tolerance (India). The last study conducted in New Zealand was aimed at comparing the energy expenditures of Maori (Pacific Island) with New Zealanders of European descent. The findings of the CRP of the MEA in this area carried out in several countries are presented in this article. (author)
Full Text Available Introduction: Postcesarean infection can cause maternal mortality and morbidity. Use of prophylactic antibiotics could decrease surgical site infection. Despite using prophylactic antibiotics in obese women, compared to normal weighted women the rate of wound infection is higher in this group. The aim of this study is to compare prophylactic effect of azithromycin and cephalexin on febrile morbidity and postcesarean infection in women with BMI > 30. Methods and Materials: This randomized controlled double blind clinical trial was done on 231 women with BMI > 30 who underwent elective cesarean section. Patients were randomly divided to intervention and control groups. Keflin 2 gr IV was administered 0.5 hr before surgery for both intervention and control groups. Cefalexin (placebo every 6 hr and azythromycin (placebo every 12 hr for control group and cephalexin 500 mg every 6 hr and azithromycin 250 mg every 12 hr for intervention group were administered for 48 hrs. Patients were under observation till 1 month after surgery. Fever, wound infection, endometritis and hospitalization were compared between two groups with SPSS v. 18. Results: A total of 231 patients 113 (48.9% were enrolled in intervention group and 118 (51.1% in control group with mean age of (28.53 ± 5.51 recruited. BMI distribution did not differ in the two groups. Hospitalization in control group was significantly higher than that in intervention group (2.58 ± 0.99 vs (2.11 ± 0.45 (P value < 0.001. BMI in intervention group with and without fever was (34.62 ± 2.64 and (30.89 ± 2.80, respectively (P value < 0.001. In control group, BMI in patients with and without fever was (38.60 ± 2.80 and (31.29 ± 1.28, respectively (P value = 0.001. Fever and endometritis simultaneously was seen in 3 (2.7% of intervention group and 8 (6.8% of control group. In interventions 3 (2.7% had fever but no endometritis and 2 (1.8% had endometritis but no fever (P < 0.001. In control group, 23 (19.5% patients had fever but no endometritis and 4 (3.4% patients had endometritis but no fever (P value < 0.001. Febrile patients in control group 31 (26.3% were significantly more than those in intervention group 6 (5.3% (P value < 0.001. Discussion: Administration of prophylactic azithromycin and cephalexin resulted in a decrease in febrile morbidity and length of hospital stay and is recommended. BMI of patients with fever was significantly higher in both intervention and control groups compared to those who didn’t experience fever. Postcesarean endometritis wasn’t significantly different in two groups. Postcesarean wound infection wasn’t seen in any group.
Obesity has emerged as a global health issue that is associated with wide spectrum of disorders, including coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, stroke, and venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTE is one of the most common vascular disorders in the United States and Europe and is associated with significant mortality. Although the association between obesity and VTE appears to be moderate, obesity can interact with other environmental or genetic factors and pose a significantly ...
Genyan Yang; Christine De Staercke; Craig Hooper, W.
Journal article "Deficiency of carbohydrate-activated transcription factor ChREBP prevents obesity and improves plasma glucose control in leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice," by Kosaku Uyeda, Katsumi Iizuka, and Bonnie Miller, found in the American Journal of Phsiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism.
Kosaku Uyeda (UT Southwestern Medical Center Biochemistry)
TUDCA treatment preserved ERG b-waves and the outer nuclear layer in Bardet-Biedl syndrome mice and prevented obesity assessed at P120. TUDCA treatment preserved ERG b-waves and the outer nuclear layer in rd10 mice to P30.
Drack, Arlene V.; Dumitrescu, Alina V.; Bhattarai, Sajag; Gratie, Daniel; Stone, Edwin M.; Mullins, Robert; Sheffield, Val C.
Background: Childhood obesity has become a global epidemic. It is related to several chronic diseases such as essential hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and renal disease. The relationship between the degree of obesity and lung functions is well defined in adults, but limited information is available about the childhood period. Aims: This study aims to determine the impact of the degree of obesity on the pulmonary functions of school children and adolescents. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Methods: Included in the study were a total of 170 school children and adolescents (9–17 years old) referred to our paediatric outpatient clinic. Of these subjects, 42 were lean and non-obese (BMI % 85, 95, 97). Anthropometric measurements were taken and spirometry was performed on all subjects. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity 25–75 (FEV25–75) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were used to measure the ventilatory functions for all the subjects. Results: The groups showed no significant differences in age or gender. Despite no statistically significant differences in FEV1, FVC, or FEV1/FVC, there were significant reductions in PEF (p<0.001) and FEV25–75 (p<0.001) in the overweight, obese and morbidly obese subjects, when compared with those who were non-obese. Conclusion: Overweight, obese and morbidly obese children have no obstructive abnormalities compared with healthy lean subjects. PMID:25337419
Torun, Emel; Cakir, Erkan; Özgüç, Fatma; Özgen, ?lker Tolga
Students training in obesity research, prevention, and management face the challenge of developing expertise in their chosen academic field while at the same time recognizing that obesity is a complex issue that requires a multidisciplinary and multisectoral approach. In appreciation of this challenge, the Canadian Obesity Network (CON) has run an interdisciplinary summer training camp for graduate students, new career researchers, and clinicians for the past 8 years. This paper evaluates the effects of attending this training camp on trainees' early careers. We use social network analysis to examine the professional connections developed among trainee Canadian obesity researchers who attended this camp over its first 5 years of operation (2006-2010). We examine four relationships (knowing, contacting, and meeting each other, and working together) among previous trainees. We assess the presence and diversity of these relationships among trainees across different years and disciplines and find that interdisciplinary contact and working relationships established at the training camp have been maintained over time. In addition, we evaluate the qualitative data on trainees' career trajectories and their assessments of the impact that the camp had on their careers. Many trainees report that camp attendance had a positive impact on their career development, particularly in terms of establishing contacts and professional relationships. Both the quantitative and the qualitative results demonstrate the importance of interdisciplinary training and relationships for career development in the health sciences. PMID:25336965
Godley, Jenny; Glenn, Nicole M; Sharma, Arya M; Spence, John C
Obesity promotes a cascade of secondary pathologies including diabetes, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, inflammation, thrombosis, hypertension, the metabolic syndrome, and OSA, which collectively heighten the risk for cardiovascular disease. Obesity may also be an independent moderator of cardiac risk apart from these comorbid conditions. Rates of obesity and cardiac disease continue to rise in a parallel and exponential manner. Because obesity is potentially one of the most modifiable mediators of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, effective treatment and prevention interventions should have a profound and favorable impact on public health.
Zalesin, Kerstyn C
Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a major public health crisis nationally and internationally. The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased over few years. It is caused by imbalance between calorie intake and calories utilized. One or more factors (genetic, behavioral, and environmental cause obesity in children. Physical, psychological, and social health problems are caused due to childhood obesity. Hence, effective intervention strategies are being used to prevent and control obesity in children. The purpose of this paper is to address various factors influencing childhood obesity, a variety of interventions and governmental actions addressing obesity and the challenges ahead for managing this epidemic. In order to collect materials for this review a detailed search of CINAHL, MEDLINE, ERIC, Academic Search Premier databases was carried out for the time period 1999 2011. Some of the interventions used were family based, school based, community based, play based, and hospital based. The effective school based interventions were seen targeting physical activity along with healthy diet education. The major challenges faced by these intervention programs are financial, along with stigmatization of obese children. Governments along with other health care organizations are taking effective actions like policy changing and environmentally safe interventions for children to improve physical activity. Childhood obesity can be tackled at the population level by education, prevention and sustainable interventions related to healthy nutrition practices and physical activity promotion.
The connections between gut microbiota, energy homeostasis, and inflammation and its role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related disorders are increasingly recognized. We aimed to investigate the effect of the probiotic strain Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33 on a series of biomarkers related to inflammation and the metabolic syndrome (MS) in adolescents with obesity.
GØbel, Rikke Juul; Larsen, Nadja
Obese asthma is characterised by infiltration of adipose tissue by activated macrophages and mast cells. The aim of this study was to examine the age and sex effects of immunometabolism in obese asthma. Obese and non-obese asthmatic children and adults underwent spirometry, body composition assessment by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and measurement of serum soluble CD163 (sCD163), tryptase, C-reactive protein (CRP) and other adipocytokines. Plasma CRP (pandroid fat in obese female children (r=0.70, p=0.003) and obese female adults (r=0.65, p=0.003). In obese female children, sCD163 was inversely associated with forced expiratory volume in 1?s?% predicted (r=-0.55, p=0.02) and was positively associated with the Asthma Control Questionnaire (r=0.57, p=0.02). Obese children with asthma have sex-specific macrophage activation, which may contribute to worse asthma control and lung function. The heterogeneous systemic inflammatory profile across age and sex suggests the existence of sub-phenotypes in obese asthma at the molecular level. PMID:25186264
Periyalil, Hashim A; Wood, Lisa G; Scott, Hayley A; Jensen, Megan E; Gibson, Peter G
The current obesity epidemic in the United States has deleterious effects on the health of the population. Temporally related to the increase in obesity is an increase in the prevalence of urolithiasis. Epidemiologic studies have shown that the incident stone risk increases with body mass index. Obesity can increase stone risk in multiple ways. Excess nutritional intake increases traffic of lithogenic substances such as calcium, oxalate, and uric acid. Metabolic syndrome, commonly associated with obesity, alters renal acid-base metabolism, resulting in a lower urine pH and increased risk of uric acid stone disease. The low urine pH is caused by deficient ammonia production, which appears to be related to insulin resistance. Even weight-loss programs to combat obesity can influence stone risk. Contemporary bariatric surgery has been shown to frequently cause hyperoxaluria with associated stone formation and even oxalate nephropathy. Commonly used low-carbohydrate diets increase the risk of both calcium and uric acid stones. Certainly, the many health risks of obesity, including urolithiasis, necessitate weight loss, but recognition of the potential complications of such therapies is required to prevent induction of new and equally severe medical problems. The optimal approach to weight control that minimizes stone risk needs to be determined. PMID:19095201
Asplin, John R
The aim was to study how, and to what degree, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), as assessed by children and their mothers, was related to overweight and obesity among children aged seven to nine years. Mother-child pairs of 149 non-overweight, 95 overweight and 16 obese children participated. We assessed HRQOL by the children's self-report and parent proxy report module of the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales. We found that non-overweight children scored HRQOL slightly higher than overweight ones but significantly higher than did obese children. The same pattern was seen for the mothers' proxy HRQOL score and mothers in general scored higher than the children did. The results indicate that mothers in general were not sufficiently aware of how overweight and obesity affect their children's HRQOL. The psychosocial dimension of HRQOL was the most important aspect for the children. Thus, there is a need for information of mothers/parents about the impact of overweight and obesity on children's HRQOL. Such intervention by health professionals may among other interventions help to prevent and reduce overweight and obesity among children and thus help to increase the children's HRQOL throughout their lives. PMID:25326541
Brødsgaard, Anne; Wagner, Lis; Peitersen, Birgit; Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Poulsen, Ingrid
Childhood obesity is an issue of serious medical and social concern. In developing countries including India, it is a phenomenon seen in higher socioeconomic strata due to the adoption of a western lifestyle. Consumption of high calorie food, lack of physical activity and increased screen time are major risk factors for childhood obesity apart from other genetic, prenatal factors and socio-cultural practices. Obese children and adolescents are at increased risk of medical and psychological complications. Insulin resistance is commonly present especially in those with central obesity and manifests as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, polycystic ovarian syndrome and metabolic syndrome. Obese children and adolescents often present to general physicians for management. The latter play a key role in prevention and treatment of obesity as it involves lifestyle modification of the entire family. This article aims at discussing the approach to diagnosis and work-up, treatment and preventive strategies for childhood obesity from a general physician's perspective. PMID:23255079
Seth, Anju; Sharma, Rajni
Background Despite its insulin sensitizing effects, pioglitazone may induce weight gain leading to an increased risk of development of insulin resistance. A novel sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, canagliflozin, provides not only glycemic control but also body weight reduction through an insulin-independent mechanism. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of these agents on body weight control and insulin sensitivity. Methods Effects of combination therapy with canagliflozin and pioglitazone were evaluated in established diabetic KK-Ay mice and prediabetic Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Results In the KK-Ay mice, the combination therapy further improved glycemic control compared with canagliflozin or pioglitazone monotherapy. Furthermore, the combination significantly attenuated body weight and fat gain induced by pioglitazone and improved hyperinsulinemia. In the ZDF rats, early intervention with pioglitazone monotherapy almost completely prevented the progressive development of hyperglycemia, and no further improvement was observed by add-on treatment with canagliflozin. However, the combination significantly reduced pioglitazone-induced weight gain and adiposity and improved the Matsuda index, suggesting improved whole-body insulin sensitivity. Conclusions Our study indicates that combination therapy with canagliflozin and pioglitazone improves insulin sensitivity partly by preventing glucotoxicity and, at least partly, by attenuating pioglitazone-induced body weight gain in two different obese diabetic animal models. This combination therapy may prove to be a valuable option for the treatment and prevention of obese type 2 diabetes. PMID:25615826
Watanabe, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Keiko; Taniuchi, Nobuhiko; Horai, Yasushi; Kuriyama, Chiaki; Ueta, Kiichiro; Arakawa, Kenji; Senbonmatsu, Takaaki; Shiotani, Masaharu
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although dental caries is a preventable disease, it is still common and remains a public health problem. One of the potentially effective preventive measures is the use of lasers. The purpose of this study was to review the studies about use of laser irradiation on the inhibition of carious lesions and the effectiveness of different commercial laser type (Nd:YAG, CO2, and Argon.METHODS: A literature search included journal databases, existing systematic reviews, and studies identified by content experts. Studies meeting inclusion criteria were assessed for quality.RESULTS: Some studies have demonstrated the potential preventive effect of laser irradiation on sound enamel; the effect of irradiation on white spot lesions is still unclear. The effects of irradiating demineralized enamel surfaces coupled with the use of topical fluoride application is also still unclear and further research needs to be conducted in this area. Laser irradiation alone can significantly enhance acid resistance of sound enamel surfaces and prevent caries progression.CONCLUSION: Combined use of topical fluoride application and laser irradiation on sound enamel surfaces has provided the best protection against caries initiation and progression. Laser irradiation was of limited value in managing incipient carious lesions. Argon laser use may be easier clinically due to its large and visible beam diameter, which allows for irradiation of the whole surface of the tooth instead of the overlapping and time consuming pattern of the CO2 laser.
We hypothesized that estradiol treatment would improve vascular dysfunction commonly associated with obesity, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance. A sham operation or 17beta-estradiol pellet implantation was performed in male lean and obese Zucker rats. Maximal vasoconstriction (VC) to phenylephrine (PE) and potassium chloride was exaggerated in control obese rats compared with lean rats, but estradiol significantly attenuated VC in the obese rats. Estradiol reduced the PE EC50 in all groups. This effect was cyclooxygenase independent, because preincubation with indomethacin reduced VC response to PE similarly in a subset of control and estrogen-treated lean rats. Endothelium-independent vasodilation (VD) to sodium nitroprusside was similar among groups, but endothelium-dependent VD to ACh was significantly impaired in obese compared with lean rats. Estradiol improved VD in lean and obese rats by decreasing EC50 but impaired function by decreasing maximal VD. The shift in EC50 corresponded to an upregulation in nitric oxide synthase III protein expression in the aorta of the estrogen-treated obese rats. In summary, estrogen treatment improves vascular function in male insulin-resistant, obese rats, partially via an upregulation of nitric oxide synthase III protein expression. These effects are counteracted by adverse factors, such as hyperlipidemia and, potentially, a release of an endothelium-derived contractile agent.
Brooks-Asplund, Esther M.; Shoukas, Artin A.; Kim, Soon-Yul; Burke, Sean A.; Berkowitz, Dan E.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased rapidly during the last three decades in the Netherlands. It is assumed that mainly environmental factors have contributed to this trend. Parental overweight and low social economic status are risk factors for childhood obesity. Childhood obesity affects self-esteem and has negative consequences on cognitive and social development. Obese children tend to become obese adults, which increases the risk for developing cardiovascular complications, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and psychosocial problems. Additionally, the secretion of several gastrointestinal hormones, responsible for appetite and food intake, is impaired in obese subjects. Weight reduction through lifestyle changes in order to change health risks is, until now, suggested as the preferred treatment for childhood obesity. The objective of this study is the effect evaluation of a family-based cognitive behavioral multidisciplinary lifestyle treatment. The intervention aims to establish long-term weight reduction and stabilization, reduction of obesity-related health consequences and improvement of self-image by change of lifestyle and learning cognitive behavioral techniques. Study design/Methods In this randomized clinical trial newly presented children with obesity (8-17 years old are divided, by randomization, in an intervention and control group, both consisting of 40 obese children. The intervention is carried out in groups of 8-11 children, and consists of respectively 7 and 5 separate group meetings for the children and their parents and 1 joint group meeting of 2 ½ hours. Main topics are education on nutrition, self-control techniques, social skills, physical activity and improvement of self-esteem. The control group is given advice on physical activity and nutrition. For normal data comparison, data were collected of 40 normal-weight children, 8-17 years old. Discussion Because of the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity and the impact on the individual as well as on society, prevention and treatment of obesity in children is of great importance. For evaluation of short- and long-term effects of the treatment, measurements are taken before and after 3 months of treatment, and after 12 and 24 months follow-up. During these visits clinical and biochemical data are determined, cardiovascular fitness tests are performed and quality of life questionnaires are completed. Trial registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register ISRCTN36146436
Kruyff Carolien C
Full Text Available The study objective is to examine the effects of age and sex on the association between various obesity parameters and lipid profile. The measurements of whole body obesity (body fat, body fat % and BMI, abdominal obesity (waist to hip ratio, waist to thigh ratio and waist circumference and lipid profile (HDL, LDL, VLDL, total cholesterol and triglyceride were performed on 112 telecom workers in Palembang (84 men and 28 women, age 25, 35, 45, and 55 years. All lipid parameters results depend on sex and age of subjects. The association between obesity assessments and HDL or LDL was independent of sex and age of subjects, whereas the association between obesity assessments and total cholesterol, VLDL and triglyceride is dependent on sex and age of subjects. Abdominal obesity has greater effect on VLDL and triglyceride levels than on other lipid parameters. Whole body obesity has equal effects on all lipid parameters. When comparing results of male and female subjects, obesity measurements and lipid profile association is stronger in male subjects of almost all age groups. The exception is a stronger association between abdominal obesity and VLDL or triglyceride levels in 45 years old female subjects. Obesity measurements and VLDL or triglyceride level association is independent of age, whereas obesity and total cholesterol association is stronger in younger subjects. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:251-6Keywords: Lipid profile, fat distribution, obesity, abdominal obesity
Full Text Available Abstract Background Olive oil and its minor constituents have been recommended as important dietary therapeutic interventions in preventive medicine. However, a question remains to be addressed: what are the effects of olive oil and its phenolic compounds on obesity-induced cardiac metabolic changes? Methods Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups (n = 24/group: (C receiving standard-chow; (Ob receiving hypercaloric-chow. After 21 days C and Ob groups were divided into four subgroups (n = 6/group:(C standard-chow and saline; (C-Olivestandard-chow and olive-oil (3.0 g/kg.day; (C-Oleuropeinstandard-chow and oleuropein (0.023 mg/kg/day; (C-Cafeic standard-chow and cafeic-acid (2.66 mg/kg/day; (Obreceiving hypercaloric-chow and saline;(Ob-Olive hypercaloric-chow and olive-oil;(Ob-Oleuropein hypercaloric-chow and oleuropein;(Ob-Cafeic hypercaloric-chow and cafeic-acid. Treatments were given twice a week during 21 days. Results After 42 days, obesity was evidenced in Ob rats from enhanced body-weight, surface-area, and body-mass-index. Energy-expenditure, oxygen consumption(VO2 and fat-oxidation were lower in Ob-group than in C. Despite no morphometric changes, Ob-Olive, Ob-Oleuropein and Ob-Cafeic groups had higher VO2, fat-oxidation, myocardial beta-hydroxyacyl coenzyme-A dehydrogenase and lower respiratory-quotient than Ob. Citrate-synthase was highest in Ob-Olive group. Myocardial lipid-hydroperoxide(LH and antioxidant enzymes were unaffected by olive-oil and its compounds in obesity condition, whereas LH was lower and total-antioxidant-substances were higher in C-Olive and C-Oleuropein than in C. Conclusions The present study demonstrated for the first time that olive-oil, oleuropein and cafeic-acid enhanced fat-oxidation and optimized cardiac energy metabolism in obesity conditions. Olive oil and its phenolic compounds improved myocardial oxidative stress in standard-fed conditions.
Rocha Katiucha KHR
Morinda citrifolia (Noni) has been extensively used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2,000 years. It has been reported to have broad therapeutic effects, including anticancer activity, in both clinical practice and laboratory animal models. The mechanism for these effects remains unknown. The hypothesis that Morinda citrifolia possesses a cancer preventive effect at the initiation stage of carcinogenesis was studied. Our preliminary data indicated that 10% Tahitian Noni Liquid Dietary Supplement or Tahitian Noni Juice (TNJ), made from Morinda citrifolia fruit by Morinda Inc, in drinking water for one week was able to prevent DMBA-DNA adduct formation. The levels of DMBA-DNA adducts were reduced by 30% in the heart, 41% in the lung, 42% in the liver, and 80% in the kidney of female SD rats. Even more dramatic results were obtained in male C57 BL-6 mice: 10% TNJ was able to reduce DMBA-DNA adduct formation by 60% in the heart, 50% in the lung, 70% in the liver, and 90% in the kidney. In order to explore the mechanism of this preventive effect, the antioxidant activity of TNJ was examined in vitro by lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) and tetrazolium nitroblue (TNB) assays. In the LPO assay, LPO oxidizes leucomethylene blue to methylene blue in the presence of hemoglobin. The resultant blue color was quantified at 660 nm spectrophotometrically. In the TNB assay, superoxide anion radicals (SAR) reduce TNB into formazan blue that was also measured by absorption at 602 nm. TNJ showed a dose-dependent inhibition of both LPO and SAR in our system. The antioxidant activity of TNJ was compared to the effects of vitamin C, grape seed powder (GSP), and pycnogenol (PYC) at the daily dose per serving level recommended by U.S.RDAs or manufacturers. The results suggest that prevention of carcinogen-DNA adduct formation and the antioxidant activity of TNJ may contribute to the cancer preventive effect of Morinda citrifolia. PMID:11795436
Wang, M Y; Su, C
Citrus depressa Hayata (commonly known as shiikuwasa) is cultivated in the northern areas of Okinawa, Japan, and used as a juice. In this study, we examined the anti-obesity effects and mechanism of action of shiikuwasa peel extract (SE) using high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Mice were fed a low-fat diet (LFD), HFD or HFD containing 1% or 1.5% (w/w) SE (HFD+1 SE and HFD+1.5 SE, respectively) for 5 weeks. The body weight gain and white adipose tissue weight were significantly decreased in the HFD+1.5 SE group compared with the HFD group. The plasma triglyceride and leptin levels were also significantly reduced in the HFD+1.5 SE group compared with the HFD group. Histological examinations showed that the sizes of the adipocytes were significantly smaller in the HFD+1.5 SE group than in the HFD group. The HFD+1.5 SE group also showed significantly lower mRNA levels of lipogenesis-related genes, such as activating protein 2, stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1, acetyl-CoA-carboxylase 1, fatty acid transport protein and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, than the HFD group. These results suggest that the anti-obesity effects of SE may be elicited by regulating the expressions of lipogenesis-related genes in white adipose tissue. PMID:21216135
Lee, Young-Sil; Cha, Byung-Yoon; Saito, Kiyoto; Choi, Sun-Sil; Wang, Xiao Xing; Choi, Bong-Keun; Yonezawa, Takayuki; Teruya, Toshiaki; Nagai, Kazuo; Woo, Je-Tae
Gymnema sylvestre R. BR. (Asclepiadaceae) has been used frequently in traditional Indian folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes. Study was performed in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in murine model. Obesity was induced by oral feeding of HFD for 28 days. The anti obesity effect of water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre extract (120 mg/kg, p.o. for 21 days) in HFD fed rats was evaluated by the measurement of body weight gain, food intake, hemodynamic changes (systolic, diastolic, mean blood pressure and heart rate), serum lipid profiles (triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol), leptin, insulin, glucose, apolipoproteins A1 and B, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and antioxidant enzymes such as reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels in liver tissues. Organs and visceral fat pad weight were measured. Histopathological studies were also carried out. Water soluble fraction of G. sylvestre ethanolic extract and rimonabant significantly reduced serum lipids, leptin, insulin, glucose, apolipoprotein B and LDH levels while it significantly increased the HDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1 and antioxidant enzymes levels in liver tissue as compared to the HFD fed rats. Histopathological studies of tissues showed no pathological changes. The results of this study show that water soluble fraction of G. sylvestre extract possess antiobesity effect. PMID:23842942
Kumar, V; Bhandari, U; Tripathi, C D; Khanna, G
The latest exhaustive survey of dietary patterns in infants from the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) in North America documents and quantifies current trends in infant feeding. These include higher than generally recommended energy, protein, and saturated fat intakes. The majority of infants are bottle fed at some point in their first year of life, and their weaning diet often includes low intakes of fruits and vegetables, with high starchy, rather than green or yellow, vegetables. Early introduction of solids, use of cow's milk prior to 1 year of age, and high juice intake in the first 2 years - all less desirable diet practices - are improving, but are still prevalent. More preschoolers are likely to get sweets or sweetened beverages than a serving of fruit or a vegetable on a given day. These food intake patterns mimic the adult American diet and are associated with an increased risk of obesity in childhood and later life. But more importantly, these patterns appear to be set as early as 18 months of age, and by 20 months of age, they mimic the adult diet. Despite increase in total energy intake, and greater variety of foods, the basic characteristics of macronutrient intake distribution and food group contribution of energy to the diet before 2 years of age remain remarkably stable and similar to the family table. Obesity prevention needs to include specific targets in terms of breastfeeding and adequate formula feeding, as well as appropriate introduction of weaning foods with goals of changing the inadequate patterns documented in the FITS. These interventions will also require addressing parent and caregiver behaviors, including attending to hunger satiety cues (responsive feeding), and shaping early food preferences. This needs to be done starting at birth, in the first months of life. Early intervention offers a unique and potentially efficacious opportunity to shape the future dietary patterns of the next generation. PMID:23970213
Saavedra, Jose M; Deming, Denise; Dattilo, Anne; Reidy, Kathleen
As obesity rates increase, the protection of obese occupants will become increasingly important in vehicle and restraint design. As a first step in this effort, this study seeks to compare the kinematics, dynamics, and injuries of obese post mortem human surrogates (PMHS) to (approximately) 50th percentile adult male PMHS in frontal impact sled tests with a force-limiting, pre-tensioning restraint system. Forty-eight km/h, frontal impact sled tests were performed with a sled buck representing the rear seat occupant compartment of a 2004 mid-sized sedan. The restraint system consisted of a 3-point belt with a pretensioner and a progressive force-limiter at the retractor. The test subjects were either obese PMHS or approximately 50th percentile adult male PMHS. Instrumentation included accelerometer packages on the spine. Deformation of the subjects' chests were measured using chestbands placed nominally at the superior-inferior locations of the 4th and 8th ribs. Tension in the restraint system was measured at the upper shoulder belt, lower shoulder belt, and the lap belt. Motion of the head, shoulder, pelvis, and knee were recorded using high-speed video. Two obese PMHS (average mass 137 kg, average stature 186 cm) and three approximately mid-sized male PMHS (average mass 68 kg, average stature 176 cm) were tested. The obese PMHS exhibited significantly greater forward motion of the head and the pelvis compared to the mid-sized PMHS. The obese PMHS also exhibited backwards torso rotation at the time of maximum forward excursion, whereas the mid-sized PMHS did not. The obese PMHS exhibited average maximum chest compressions of approximately 44% (± 9% standard deviation) of their initial chest depths, and exhibited 26 g (± 2 g) average 3 ms clip maximum chest resultant acceleration. In comparison, the mid-sized PMHS exhibited averages of 29% (± 9%) maximum chest compression and 35 g (± 4 g) maximum 3 ms clip chest acceleration. The obese PMHS exhibited 7 and 2 rib fractures, with maximum chest AIS scores of 3 and 2. The mid-sized PMHS exhibited 12, 2, and 17 rib fractures, with maximum chest AIS scores of 4, 1, and 4, respectively. This study is the first (to the authors' knowledge) to compare the kinematic, dynamic, and injury behaviors of obese and mid-sized PMHS in frontal impact sled tests with a force-limiting, pretensioning restraint system. The unfavorable kinematics observed with the obese PMHS highlights the difficulty of designing restraint systems to adequately restrain obese occupants, even with currently available advanced restraint technologies. PMID:20184830
Forman, Jason; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J.; Lessley, David; Kindig, Matthew; Kent, Richard; Bostrom, Ola
An increasing body of scientific literature suggests that dietary components may exert cancer preventive effects. Tea, soy, cruciferous vegetables and other foods have been investigated for their cancer preventive potential. Some non-edible mushrooms like Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) have a history use, both alone and in conjunction with standard therapies, for the treatment of various diseases including cancer in some cultures. They have shown efficacy in a number of scientific studies. By comparison, the potential cancer preventive effects of edible mushrooms have been less well-studied. With similar content of putative effective anticancer compounds such as polysaccharides, proteoglycans, steroids, etc., one might predict that edible mushrooms would also demonstrate anticancer and cancer preventive activity. In this review, available data for five commonly-consumed edible mushrooms: button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), A. blazei, oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus), shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes), and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms is discussed. The results of animal model and human intervention studies, as well as supporting in vitro mechanistic studies are critically evaluated. Weaknesses in the current data and topics for future work are highlighted. PMID:22583406
Xu, Tongtong; Beelman, Robert B; Lambert, Joshua D
In the present study, the long term effect of chromium picolinate (intake 30 and 60 days) on lipid profile, testosterone, thyroid hormones, corticosterone and insulin was studied in obese male rats. A total of 48 male albino rats were arranged into four equal groups. The rats were distributed into four equal main groups: 1- Normal rats left without any treatment and served as a control group. 2- Normal rats treated with chromium picolinate at a dose of 40 ?g/kg/day. 3-Obese rats (after the induction of obesity) using fed high fat diet. 4- Obese rats treated with chromium picolinate. The results obtained showed that normal rats treated with chromium picolinate for 30 or 60 days had no changes in total cholesterol, triglycerides, total lipids, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) when compared with the control group. The testosterone and corticosterone levels were significantly decreased in rats treated with chromium picolinate for 60 days. Insulin level was significantly increased in treated rats for 60 days when compared with the control ones. In obese rats, the lipid profile and corticosterone were significantly increased at 30 and 60 days, while the insulin levels were increased in obese rats fed on high fat diet for 30 days as compared with the control rats. The administration of chromium picolinate to obese rats succeeded to decrease the lipid profile, corticosterone (at 60 days) and insuline (at 30 daysone (at 60 days) and insuline (at 30 days) when compared with the obese rats. It could be concluded from this study that chromium picolinate possess beneficial effects in decreasing lipid profile in obese rats. Therefore, additional of chromium picolinate may be useful in obese rats to burn excess body fat and in treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Since it cause decrease in testosterone level, its use was advised to restrict to relatively old age
We investigated the anti-obesity effects of the adrenal androgen, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), on genetically predisposed obese lethal yellow mice (Ay/Aw). Secondly, we tested the hypothesis that DHEA promotes its anti-obesity effects by decreasing the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH). We subjected four genotype-sex combinations of yellow and agouti (control) mice to four dietary treatments and determined weight changes, food consumption, and G6PDH activity. Although G6PDH activities of yellow mice were considerably decreased in the 0.4% DHEA treatment group, they were elevated in the 0.0 and 0.1% DHEA treatment groups. In contrast, G6PDH activities of DHEA-treated control agouti mice remained relatively constant. These studies confirm that DHEA prevents the Ay gene from promoting excess fat deposition via some mechanism(s) other than reduced dietary intake. However, the overall absence of agreement between weight change (gain or loss) and G6PDH activity suggests that the anti-obesity activity of DHEA is not mediated via G6PDH. Since yellow obese (Ay/Aw) mice were found to be more susceptible to DHEA's effects than their agouti (Aw/Aw) littermates, Ay appears to induce an altered metabolism in Ay/Aw mice which is more susceptible to the effects of DHEA than the normal metabolism of Aw/Aw mice. PMID:2955075
Granholm, N H; Staber, L D; Wilkin, P J
Full Text Available Abstract Aim Obesity is generally linked to complications in lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a proprietary extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CQR-300 to that of a proprietary formulation containing CQR-300 (CORE on weight, blood lipids, and oxidative stress in overweight and obese people. Methods The first part of the study investigated the in vitro antioxidant properties of CQR-300 and CORE using 3 different methods, while the second part of the study was a double-blind placebo controlled design, involving initially 168 overweight and obese persons (38.7% males; 61.3% females; ages 19–54, of whom 153 completed the study. All participants received two daily doses of CQR-300, CORE, or placebo and were encouraged to maintain their normal levels of physical activity. Anthropometric measurements and blood sampling were done at the beginning and end of the study period. Results CQR-300 as well as CORE exhibited antioxidant properties in vitro. They also acted as in vivo antioxidants, bringing about significant (p Conclusion CQR-300 (300 mg daily and CORE (1028 mg daily brought about significant reductions in weight and blood glucose levels, while decreasing serum lipids thus improving cardiovascular risk factors. The increase in plasma 5-HT and creatinine for both groups hypothesizes a mechanism of controlling appetite and promoting the increase of lean muscle mass by Cissus quadrangularis, thereby supporting the clinical data for weight loss and improving cardiovascular health.
Agbor Gabriel A
This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…
Reilly, John J.
Obesity is one of the most important health problems, which many people suffer from it. As a chronic disease, it is a precipitating factor for many medical conditions like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, sleep apnea syndrome and some malignancies (breast, uterus, prostate and colon carcinoma). With attention to this fact that obesity is an independent risk factor associated with significant increase in morbidity and mortality, treatment of overweight ...
Afkhami-ardekani, M.; Sedghi, H.
Because leptin reduces food intake and body weight, the coexistence of elevated leptin levels with obesity is widely interpreted as evidence of “leptin resistance.” Indeed, obesity promotes multiple cellular processes that attenuate leptin signaling (referred to here as “cellular leptin resistance”), and which amplify the extent of weight gain induced by genetic and environmental factors. As commonly employed, however, the term “leptin resistance” embraces a range of phenomena tha...
Myers, Martin G.; Leibel, Rudolph L.; Seeley, Randy J.; Schwartz, Michael W.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: "Pause-2-Play" is an obesity prevention program targeting screen-related sedentary behaviours and increasing physical activity among elementary school students. The program consisted of a Behavioural Modification Curriculum and a Health Promoting Afterschool Program. This pilot study reports program feasibility, practicability, and impact. METHODS: the 12-week pilot program was implemented with 32 grade five and six students. Program feasibility and practicability were assessed using a qualitative approach. Intervention effects were assessed by comparing pre-post changes in BMI, body composition, fitness scores, screen time, and cognitive variables related to screening viewing behaviours. RESULTS: "Pause-2-Play" was perceived as a useful, fun program with numerous benefits including: children trying new snacks, feeling fitter and better about one's own body shape, and becoming more aware of a healthy lifestyle. The intervention resulted in a statistically significant reduction in percent body fat and an increase in fat-free mass index in overweight children; a decrease in waist circumference and an increase in fat-free mass index were observed in normal weight children. The intervention also statistically improved fitness scores in both normal weight and overweight children. CONCLUSIONS: "Pause-2-Play" was feasible, practical, and favourably changed body composition and fitness level.OBJETIVOS: "Pause-2-Play" é um programa de prevenção da obesidade direcionado aos comportamentos sedentários relacionados ao uso de monitores de computador e televisores, visando promover a atividade física entre estudantes de escolas de educação básica. O programa trata-se de um currículo de modificação comportamental e um programa extracurricular de promoção de saúde. Este estudo-piloto relata sobre a viabilidade, praticidade e impacto do programa. MÉTODOS: o programa de doze semanas foi implementado com 32 alunos escolares do quinto e sexto grau. A viabilidade e a praticidade do programa foram avaliadas a partir de uma abordagem qualitativa. Os efeitos da intervenção foram avaliados por meio de comparação de mudanças de IMC pré e pós, composição corporal, escores de capacidade física, tempo passado diante um monitor ou televisor, e variáveis cognitivos relacionados aos comportamentos que envolvem o uso de monitor ou televisor. RESULTADOS: percebeu-se que "Pause-2-Play" foi um programa útil e lúdico cujos vários benefícios incluíam: o fato das crianças ter experimentado novos alimentos, uma sensação de melhor forma física e uma auto-imagem da forma do corpo mais positiva, e uma conscientização aumentada em relação a estilos de vida saudáveis. A intervenção resultou numa redução estatisticamente significativa na porcentagem de gordura corporal e um aumento no índice de massa livre de gordura em crianças portadoras de sobrepeso; um decréscimo na circunferência da cintura e um aumento no índice de massa livre de gordura foram observados em crianças eutróficas. Além disso, a intervenção levou a uma melhoria nos escores de capacidade física tanto entre as crianças eutróficas como entre as portadoras de sobrepeso. CONCLUSÕES: "Pause-2-Play" mostrou se viável e praticável e mudou a composição corporal e os níveis de capacidade física de forma favorável.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: "Pause-2-Play" é um programa de prevenção da obesidade direcionado aos comportamentos sedentários relacionados ao uso de monitores de computador e televisores, visando promover a atividade física entre estudantes de escolas de educação básica. O programa trata-se de um currículo de modifi [...] cação comportamental e um programa extracurricular de promoção de saúde. Este estudo-piloto relata sobre a viabilidade, praticidade e impacto do programa. MÉTODOS: o programa de doze semanas foi implementado com 32 alunos escolares do quinto e sexto grau. A viabilidade e a praticidade do programa foram avaliadas a partir de uma abordagem qualitativa. Os efeitos da intervenção foram avaliados por meio de comparação de mudanças de IMC pré e pós, composição corporal, escores de capacidade física, tempo passado diante um monitor ou televisor, e variáveis cognitivos relacionados aos comportamentos que envolvem o uso de monitor ou televisor. RESULTADOS: percebeu-se que "Pause-2-Play" foi um programa útil e lúdico cujos vários benefícios incluíam: o fato das crianças ter experimentado novos alimentos, uma sensação de melhor forma física e uma auto-imagem da forma do corpo mais positiva, e uma conscientização aumentada em relação a estilos de vida saudáveis. A intervenção resultou numa redução estatisticamente significativa na porcentagem de gordura corporal e um aumento no índice de massa livre de gordura em crianças portadoras de sobrepeso; um decréscimo na circunferência da cintura e um aumento no índice de massa livre de gordura foram observados em crianças eutróficas. Além disso, a intervenção levou a uma melhoria nos escores de capacidade física tanto entre as crianças eutróficas como entre as portadoras de sobrepeso. CONCLUSÕES: "Pause-2-Play" mostrou se viável e praticável e mudou a composição corporal e os níveis de capacidade física de forma favorável. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: "Pause-2-Play" is an obesity prevention program targeting screen-related sedentary behaviours and increasing physical activity among elementary school students. The program consisted of a Behavioural Modification Curriculum and a Health Promoting Afterschool Program. This pilot study rep [...] orts program feasibility, practicability, and impact. METHODS: the 12-week pilot program was implemented with 32 grade five and six students. Program feasibility and practicability were assessed using a qualitative approach. Intervention effects were assessed by comparing pre-post changes in BMI, body composition, fitness scores, screen time, and cognitive variables related to screening viewing behaviours. RESULTS: "Pause-2-Play" was perceived as a useful, fun program with numerous benefits including: children trying new snacks, feeling fitter and better about one's own body shape, and becoming more aware of a healthy lifestyle. The intervention resulted in a statistically significant reduction in percent body fat and an increase in fat-free mass index in overweight children; a decrease in waist circumference and an increase in fat-free mass index were observed in normal weight children. The intervention also statistically improved fitness scores in both normal weight and overweight children. CONCLUSIONS: "Pause-2-Play" was feasible, practical, and favourably changed body composition and fitness level.
Gregory, Killough; Danielle, Battram; Joanne, Kurtz; Gillian, Mandich; Laura, Francis; Meizi, He.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is not only associated with adult obesity but also with increased risk of adult onset of type 2 diabetes and subsequent coronary heart disease. The potential effects of school-based health intervention programmes on cardiovascular risk and surrogate markers are unclear, as only few studies have attempted to investigate a complete risk profile including a detailed laboratory analysis or micro- and macrovascular function. In this study a comprehensive school-based randomized intervention programme will be investigated in 10-14-year old children addressing the influence of lifestyle intervention on inactivity, cardiometabolic risk factors and early signs of vascular disease. Methods/Design 15 secondary schools in Southern Germany are randomly assigned to intervention or control schools. Children in the fifth grade (10-11 years will be observed over four years. The study combines a school-based with a home-based approach, aiming at children, teachers and parents. The main components are weekly lifestyle-lessons for children, taught by regular classroom teachers to increase physical activity in- and outside of school, to improve eating patterns at school and at home, to reduce media consumption and to amplify well-being. In 4-6 annual meetings, teachers receive information about health-related topics with worksheets for children and supporting equipment, accounting for school-specific needs and strategies. Parents' trainings are provided on a regular basis. All examinations are performed at the beginning and at the end of every school year. Anthropometry includes measurements of BMI, waist and upper arm circumferences, skinfold thickness as well as peripheral blood pressure. Blood sampling includes lipid parameters, insulin, glucose, hsCRP, adiponectin, and IL-6 as well as testosteron and estrogen to determine maturation status. Vascular function is non-invasively assessed by measuring arterial stiffness in large arteries using a sphygmograph and by analysing arteriolar and venular diameters in the retinal microcirculation using a non-mydriatric vessel analyser. A questionnaire is filled out to determine daily physical activity, motivational factors, dietary habits, quality of life (KINDL-R and socio-economic data. Physical fitness is assessed by a six-item test battery. Discussion Our study aims to provide a feasible long-term intervention strategy to re-establish childhood health and to prevent obesity-related cardiovascular dysfunction in children. Trial Registration NCT00988754
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Obesity has been linked to higher inflammatory status and periodontal breakdown. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of obesity on alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four female Wistar rats were randomly divided into [...] two groups: obese (n=13), which were fed with "cafeteria diet" (CAF diet - high amounts of sucrose and fat) for 90 days in order to gain weight, and non-obese (n=11) regularly fed rats. Ligature-induced experimental periodontitis was created in all animals. Body weight differed statistically between obese and non-obese groups (277.59 and 223.35 g, respectively) at the moment of the ligature placement. Morphometric registration of alveolar bone loss was carried out after 30 days of ligature placement to determine the effect of obesity on the progression of experimental periodontitis. RESULTS: Intra-group comparisons showed significantly higher alveolar bone loss mean values in maxillary teeth with ligature (P
Giliano Nicolini, Verzeletti; Eduardo José, Gaio; Daniele Sigal, Linhares; Cassiano Kuchenbecker, Rösing.
Over the last decades polyetiological metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes have emerged as a global epidemic. Efficient strategies for prevention and treatment include dietary intervention and the development of validated nutraceuticals. Safe extracts of edible plants provide a resource of structurally diverse molecules that can effectively interfere with multifactorial diseases. In this study, we describe the application of ethanolic lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) leaves extract for the treatment of insulin-resistance and dyslipidemia in mice. We show that lemon balm extract (LBE) activates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which have key roles in the regulation of whole body glucose and lipid metabolism. Application of LBE (0.6 mg/mL) to human primary adipocytes resulted in specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor target gene expression. LBE treatment of insulin-resistant high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice (200 mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks considerably reduced hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, plasma triacylglycerol, nonesterified fatty acids and LDL/VLDL cholesterol levels. Taken together, ethanolic lemon balm extract can potentially be used to prevent or concomitantly treat type 2 diabetes and associated disorders such as dyslipidemia and hypercholesterolemia. PMID:24272914
Weidner, Christopher; Wowro, Sylvia J; Freiwald, Anja; Kodelja, Vitam; Abdel-Aziz, Heba; Kelber, Olaf; Sauer, Sascha
Atherosclerosis/cardiovascular disease are major causes of morbidity/mortality in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D), and have been associated with activation of innate immune cells, their diapedesis to the arterial intima and formation of the atherosclerotic plaque. While in obesity/T2D immune cell activation likely depends on dysregulated metabolism, the interaction between individual metabolic factors typical of these conditions (hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia), innate immune cell activation, and the progression of atherosclerosis remains unclear. We, therefore, measured by flow cytometry cell surface expression of CD11b, CD14, CD16, CD62L, and CD66b, known markers of granulocyte (Gc) and monocyte (Mc) activation, in five healthy, five obese, and five T2D subjects, during 4-h i.v. infusions of 20% dextrose (raising blood sugar levels to ~220 mg/dL), 20% Intralipid (raising trygliceride levels to ~6 mmol/L), or a combination of the two. We hypothesized that both glucose and lipids would increase Gc/Mc surface marker expression, and simultaneous infusion would have an additive or synergistic effect. Surprisingly, though, infusion of glucose alone had little effect, while lipids, alone or combined with glucose, significantly increased expression of several markers (such as CD11b in Gc and Mc, and CD66 b in GC) within 60-90 min. Less pronounced increases in systemic inflammatory cytokines also occurred in obese and T2D subject, with no acute changes in gene expression of the the proinflammatory genes NF?B and CCR2. Our results suggest that lipids may be stronger acute contributors to innate cell activation than acute hyperglycemia per se, possibly helping shape more effective preventive dietary guidelines in T2D. PMID:25677544
Horvath, Peter; Oliver, Stacy R; Zaldivar, Frank P; Radom-Aizik, Shlomit; Galassetti, Pietro R
The aims of this study were to evaluate obesity-related dietary behaviors and to determine long-term exercise effects on obesity and blood lipid profiles in elderly Korean subjects. A total of 120 subjects, aged 60-75 yr, were recruited, and obesity-related dietary behaviors were determined. An exercise intervention was conducted with 35 qualified elderly females for 6 months, and body composition and blood lipids were measured 6 times at 4 week intervals. At baseline, mean BMI (kg/m2) was 24...
Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Jong Hyun; Shin, Dong Joo; Choi, Dal Woong; Park, Soo Jin; Kang, Nam-e; Kim, Young Soon
It has been hypothesized that a reduced nephron endowment exacerbates the hypertensive and renal effects of obesity. We therefore examined the impact of diet-induced obesity on renal structure and function, and arterial pressure in a genetic model of reduced nephron endowment, the GDNF Heterozygous (HET) mouse. 6wk-old male GDNF WT and HET mice were placed on control or high fat (HFF) diet for 20 weeks. 24 hr arterial pressure, heart rate and activity (radiotelemetry), creatinine clearance and albumin excretion were measured, and kidneys collected (histopathology, collagen content). Bodyweights of HFF WT (50.6±1.2 g) and HET (48.8±1.4 g) mice were ?14 g greater than control mice (37.3±1.3 g, 36.4±1.1 g respectively; Pdiet<0.001). Obesity led to significantly greater 24 hr MAP (Pdiet<0.001), heart rate (Pdiet<0.01) and lower locomotor activity (Pdiet<0.01) in HET and WT mice. Whilst there was no significant impact of genotype on 24 hr MAP response to obesity, night-time MAP of obese HET mice was significantly greater than obese WT mice (122.3±1.6 vs 116.9±1.3 mmHg; P<0.05). 24 hr creatinine clearance was 50%, and albumin excretion 180% greater in obese WT and HET mice compared to controls (Pdiet<0.05) but this response did not differ between genotypes. Obesity induced glomerulomegaly, glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial expansion and increased collagen accumulation (total, collagen I, V and IV; Pdiet<0.001). Obese GDNF HET mice had exacerbated total renal collagen (P<0.01), and greater levels of the collagen I subtype compared to kidneys of obese WT mice. In summary, obese nephron-deficient GDNF HET mice were able to maintain the high creatinine clearances of obese WT mice but at the expense of higher MAP and greater renal fibrosis. Whilst modest, our findings support the hypothesis that a reduced nephron endowment increases the susceptibility to obesity-induced kidney disease and hypertension. PMID:24019901
Gurusinghe, Seshini; Brown, Russell D.; Cai, Xiaochu; Samuel, Chrishan S.; Ricardo, Sharon D.; Thomas, Merlin C.; Kett, Michelle M.
A community engagement process identifies environmental priorities to prevent early childhood obesity: the Children's Healthy Living (CHL) program for remote underserved populations in the US Affiliated Pacific Islands, Hawaii and Alaska.
Underserved minority populations in the US Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI), Hawaii, and Alaska display disproportionate rates of childhood obesity. The region's unique circumstance should be taken into account when designing obesity prevention interventions. The purpose of this paper is to (a), describe the community engagement process (CEP) used by the Children's Healthy Living (CHL) Program for remote underserved minority populations in the USAPI, Hawaii, and Alaska (b) report community-identified priorities for an environmental intervention addressing early childhood (ages 2-8 years) obesity, and (c) share lessons learned in the CEP. Four communities in each of five CHL jurisdictions (Alaska, American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, Hawai'i) were selected to participate in the community-randomized matched-pair trial. Over 900 community members including parents, teachers, and community leaders participated in the CEP over a 14 month period. The CEP was used to identify environmental intervention priorities to address six behavioral outcomes: increasing fruit/vegetable consumption, water intake, physical activity and sleep; and decreasing screen time and intake of sugar sweetened beverages. Community members were engaged through Local Advisory Committees, key informant interviews and participatory community meetings. Community-identified priorities centered on policy development; role modeling; enhancing access to healthy food, clean water, and physical activity venues; and healthy living education. Through the CEP, CHL identified culturally appropriate priorities for intervention that were also consistent with the literature on effective obesity prevention practices. Results of the CEP will guide the CHL intervention design and implementation. The CHL CEP may serve as a model for other underserved minority island populations. PMID:24043557
Fialkowski, Marie Kainoa; DeBaryshe, Barbara; Bersamin, Andrea; Nigg, Claudio; Leon Guerrero, Rachael; Rojas, Gena; Areta, Aufa'i Apulu Ropeti; Vargo, Agnes; Belyeu-Camacho, Tayna; Castro, Rose; Luick, Bret; Novotny, Rachel
Objectives. We assessed the perceived need for and the effectiveness of the Be Our Voice advocacy training. In this training, health care professionals learned public health strategies to advocate for environmental systems changes to prevent childhood obesity in their communities. Methods. We assessed 13 trainings across 8 pilot sites. We conducted 2 rounds of surveys with participants—pre-training (n?=?287, 84% response rate) and immediately post-training (n?=?254, 75% response rate)—and semi-structured interviews with participants after training (n?=?25). Results. We uncovered essential and promising elements of the training. Primary care providers found the Be Our Voice training effective at building their comfort with and motivation for engaging in public health advocacy; they reported achieving learning objectives, and they had positive responses to the training overall and to specific sessions. They articulated the need for the training and plans for advocacy in their communities. Conclusions. The Be Our Voice training provides an opportunity to integrate primary care providers into public health, community-based advocacy. It may be a model for future educational offerings for health care professionals in graduate and postgraduate training and in practice. PMID:22698054
Mirkin, Rachelle; Heatherley, Priya Nair; Homer, Charles J.
Full Text Available Objective: To examine the effects of a sixmonth aerobic exercise program on pulmonary function and cardiorespiratory capacity in obese women.?Materials and Methods: A total of 50 subjects 25 obese women who neither did regular exercise nor applied a special diet program, and 25 healthy controls were included in the study. Body mass index (BMI, maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max and pulmonary function tests (PFT values were measured as evaluation parameters in both groups. Obese women were enrolled to a supervised hospitalbased bicycle aerobic exercise program for six months at an individualized target heart rate range (5085% of heart reserve, with an increasing frequency and duration. Evaluation parameters were reevaluated after the exercise program and were compared with the preexercise values.Results: VO2max, forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume at first second (FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and maximum midexpiratory flow rate (FEF2575 were significantly lower in obese women (p<0.05. There was a statistically significant decrease at BMI and statistically significant increase at VO2max, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and FEF2575 among obese women after completing the 6month exercise program.Conclusion: It was shown that obese women had lower cardiopulmonary capacity and PFTs when compared to nonobese ones and, aerobic exercise could improve cardiopulmonary capacity and PFTs in obese women. Turk J Phys Med Rehab 2013;59:1404.
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a 24-week exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic syndrome markers, and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin among obese middle-aged women. [Subjects] The subjects were 14 obese middle-aged women. [Methods] The exercise program involved walking at 50-60% of the maximum oxygen consumption, 3 times a week, for 24 weeks. Body composition analysis, blood pressure measurements, and blood analysis were performed before the exercise program and at weeks 6, 12, 18, and 24. [Results] The results showed that after 24 weeks in the exercise program, the obesity indices and metabolic risk factors, namely, weight, body fat, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and triglycerides decreased significantly, whereas HDLC, a metabolic improvement factor, increased significantly. Additionally, VO2max increased significantly, together with the level of total and HMW adiponectins. Correlation analysis of the changes in measured variables (? score) during resulting from the 24-week exercise program showed that body fat had a significant negative correlation and VO2max had a significant positive correlation with HMW adiponectin. [Conclusion] Among obese middle-aged women, regular exercise increases cardiorespiratory fitness and HMW adiponectin expression and therefore can be effective in the prevention and treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:25435686
Kim, Dae-Young; Seo, Byoung-Do; Kim, Dong-Je
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of both swimming and resistance training on tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-10 expression, adipocyte area and lipid profiles in rats fed a high-fat diet. METHODS: The study was conducted over an eight-week period on Wista [...] r adult rats, who were divided into six groups as follows (n = 10 per group): sedentary chow diet, sedentary high-fat diet, swimming plus chow diet, swimming plus high-fat diet, resistance training plus chow diet, and resistance training plus high-fat diet. Rats in the resistance training groups climbed a vertical ladder with weights on their tails once every three days. The swimming groups swam for 60 minutes/day, five days/week. RESULTS: The high-fat diet groups had higher body weights, a greater amount of adipose tissue, and higher tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in the visceral adipose tissue. Furthermore, the high-fat diet promoted a negative change in the lipid profile. In the resistance training high-fat group, the tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression was lower than that in the swimming high-fat and sedentary high-fat groups. Moreover, smaller visceral and retroperitoneal adipocyte areas were found in the resistance training high-fat group than in the sedentary high-fat group. In the swimming high-fat group, the tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression was lower and the epididymal and retroperitoneal adipocyte areas were smaller compared with the sedentary high-fat group. CONCLUSION: The results showed that both exercise modalities improved the lipid profile, adiposity and obesity-associated inflammation in rats, suggesting their use as an alternative to control the deleterious effects of a high-fat diet in humans.
Guilherme Fleury Fina, Speretta; Marisa Cristina, Rosante; Fernanda Oliveira, Duarte; Richard Diego, Leite; Anderson Diogo de Souza, Lino; Rafael Arquias, Andre; João Guilherme de Oliveira, Silvestre; Heloisa Sobreiro Selistre de, Araujo; Ana Claudia Garcia de Oliveira, Duarte.
Obesity accelerates morbidity and mortality and has been described by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an epidemic in many industrialised nations [101,102]. Diet, exercise and lifestyle recommendations have proven to be mostly ineffective in adequately preventing or treating the progression of this public health disease. Existing drug treatment is limited by the scarce number of safe and well-tolerated drugs with proven long-term efficacy in maintaining weight loss. Numerous anti-obesity drugs in development have promise. Yet, despite that obesity is the single most common nutritional problem in many developed nations and despite the devastating health consequences of this unchecked epidemic, investigational anti-obesity drugs face unique and significant challenges due to past and current experiences with anti-obesity drugs. It is anticipated that new anti-obesity drugs for this serious, multifaceted metabolic disease will become as safe and effective and as medically accepted as the treatment of other metabolic disorders such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia or Type 2 diabetes mellitus. This may be particularly important, given that these metabolic disorders may be largely due to or exacerbated by obesity itself. PMID:12225242
Bays, Harold; Dujovne, Carlos
In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive. Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Date Released: 3/6/2014.
Full Text Available Obesity is a serious, chronic disease that can negatively affect the health of any number of systems in your body. People who are overweight or obese have a much greater risk of developing everything from heart disease and Type 2 diabetes to bone and joint disease. Currently, about 35 percent of women and 31 percent of men are considered seriously overweight, and 15 percent of children between the ages of six and 19 are overweight. Public health officials say the results of physical inactivity and poor diet are catching up to tobacco as a significant threat to health. Body Mass Index (BMI is commonly used to evaluate whether a person is overweight or obese. Method: Analytical methods was used for this article by reviewing relevant publications, primarily based on the online sports medicine journals available on Internet, Wikipedia, Pub Med, Google Scholar and National Hospitals.
Abstract Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with obesity, insulin resistance (IR) and diabetes. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) rapidly mitigates OSA in obese subjects but its metabolic effects are not well-characterized. We postulated that CPAP will decrease IR, ghrelin and resistin and increase adiponectin levels in this setting. Methods In a pre- and post-treatment, within-subject design, insulin and appetite-regulating hormones...
Hirshkowitz Max; Sharafkhaneh Hossein; Garcia Jose M; Elkhatib Rania; Sharafkhaneh Amir
Background. Chronic plaque psoriasis is frequently associated with obesity. The effect of a low-calorie diet on psoriasis has not been investigated. Objective. The objective was to investigate whether moderate weight loss increases the therapeutic response to topical treatment in obese patients with chronic stable plaque-type psoriasis. Material and Method. A 24-week clinical trial was conducted in 10 patients. The efficacy of a low-calorie diet with topical treatment was compared with baseli...
Wanjarus Roongpisuthipong; Marinya Pongpudpunth; Chulaporn Roongpisuthipong; Natta Rajatanavin
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is a major public health concern with serious implications for the sustainability of healthcare systems. Studies in the US and UK have shown that ethnicity is consistently associated with childhood obesity, with Black African origin girls in particular being more vulnerable to overweight and obesity than their White peers. Little is known, however, about what promotes or hinders engagement with prevention programmes among ethnic minority children. Methods/Design This paper describes the background and design of an exploratory study conducted in London, UK. The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility, efficacy and cultural acceptability of child- and family-based interventions to reduce risk factors for childhood and adolescent obesity among ethnic minorities. It investigated the use of a population approach (in schools and a targeted approach (in places of worship. We used a mixture of focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and structured questionnaires to explore what children, parents, grandparents, teachers and religious leaders think hinder and promote engagement with healthy eating and active living choices. We assessed the cultural appropriateness of validated measures of physical activity, dietary behaviour and self efficacy, and of potential elements of interventions informed by the data collected. We are also currently assessing the potential for wider community support (local councils, community networks, faith forums etc of the intervention. Discussion Analysis of the data is ongoing but the emergent findings suggest that while the school setting may be better for the main implementation of healthy lifestyle interventions, places of worship provide valuable opportunities for family and culturally specific support for implementation. Tackling the rise in childhood and adolescent obesity is a policy priority, as reflected in a range of government initiatives. The study will enhance such policy by developing the evidence base about culturally acceptable interventions to reduce the risk of obesity in children.
Full Text Available Objectives : This study was to investigate the effect of Nationl Health Services for obesity patients by oriental medical treatment. Methods : We analyzed 46 obesity patient joined to Oriental Treatment for Obesity in Sunchang Medical Center with BCA(bocy component analysis, after we had treated them with our obesity program. We analyzed changes of BCA during before and after treatment, and analyzed items in BCA are weight(kg, amount of muscle(kg, amount of body fat(kg, body fat rate(% and BMI(body mass index. Results : 1. Weight, amount of muscle, amount of body fat, body fat rate and BMI were decreased in after treatment, but they didn't have statistical significance. 2. This studies suggest oriental treatment for obesity may be an effective overweigh group(BMI 25?30, because it had statistical significance(p<0.05. 3. It appears that oriental treatment for obesity have an effect in National Health Services
Exercise improves health but few data are available regarding benefits of exercise in offspring exposed to developmental programming. There is currently a worldwide epidemic of obesity. Obesity in pregnant women predisposes offspring to obesity. Maternal obesity has well documented effects on offspring reproduction. Few studies address ability of offspring exercise to reduce adverse outcomes. We observed increased oxidative stress and impaired sperm function in rat offspring of obese mothers. We hypothesized that regular offspring exercise reverses adverse effects of maternal obesity on offspring sperm quality and fertility. Female Wistar rats ate chow (C) or high-energy, obesogenic diet (MO) from weaning through lactation, bred at postnatal day (PND) 120, and ate their pregnancy diet until weaning. All offspring ate C diet from weaning. Five male offspring (different litters) ran on a wheel for 15 min, 5 times/week from PND 330 to 450 and were euthanized at PND 450. Average distance run per session was lower in MO offspring who had higher body weight, adiposity index, and gonadal fat and showed increases in testicular oxidative stress biomarkers. Sperm from MO offspring had reduced antioxidant enzyme activity, lower sperm quality, and fertility. Exercise in MO offspring decreased testicular oxidative stress, increased sperm antioxidant activity and sperm quality, and improved fertility. Exercise intervention has beneficial effects on adiposity index, gonadal fat, oxidative stress markers, sperm quality, and fertility. Thus regular physical exercise in male MO offspring recuperates key male reproductive functions even at advanced age: it's never too late. PMID:25502750
Santos, Mery; Rodríguez-González, Guadalupe L; Ibáñez, Carlos; Vega, Claudia C; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Zambrano, Elena
The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of obesity on occupant responses in frontal crashes using whole-body human finite element (FE) models representing occupants with different obesity levels. In this study, the geometry of THUMS 4 midsize male model was varied using mesh morphing techniques with target geometries defined by statistical models of external body contour and exterior ribcage geometry. Models with different body mass indices (BMIs) were calibrated against cadaver test data under high-speed abdomen loading and frontal crash conditions. A parametric analysis was performed to investigate the effects of BMI on occupant injuries in frontal crashes based on the Taguchi method while controlling for several vehicle design parameters. Simulations of obese occupants predicted significantly higher risks of injuries to the thorax and lower extremities in frontal crashes compared with non-obese occupants, which is consistent with previous field data analyses. These higher injury risks are mainly due to the increased body mass and relatively poor belt fit caused by soft tissues for obese occupants. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using a parametric human FE model to investigate the obesity effects on occupant responses in frontal crashes. PMID:24666169
Shi, Xiangnan; Cao, Libo; Reed, Matthew P; Rupp, Jonathan D; Hu, Jingwen
Full Text Available In recent years, obesity is the most common metabolic disease emerging as a global problem especially in developed nations. The discovery of bioactive compounds from natural plant extracts is one possible way to control obesity and prevent or reduce the risks of getting various obesity-related diseases. In this study, we elucidated that Nepetae spica extract significantly reduced the body weight gain induced through feeding a high-fat diet to C57BL/6 mice. The treatment of Nepetae spica extract significantly reduced the adipose tissue weight to 1.5/100 g of body weight in high-fat mice. When their adipose tissue morphology was investigated for histochemical staining, the distribution of cell size in the high-fat diet groups was hypertrophied compared with those from Nepetae spica extract-treated mice. In addition, in Nepetae spica extract-treated mice, a significant reduction of serum triglyceride and T-cholesterol was observed at to 13% and 16%, respectively. These results suggest that Nepetae spica extract could be useful for prevention or treatment of obesity.
Background: Curtailing childhood obesity is a public health imperative. Although multicomponent school-based programs reduce obesity among children, less is known about the implementation fidelity of these interventions. This study examines process evaluation findings for the Healthy, Energetic Ready, Outstanding, Enthusiastic, Schools (HEROES)…
Lederer, Alyssa M.; King, Mindy H.; Sovinski, Danielle; Seo, Dong-Chul; Kim, Nayoung
Full Text Available Obesity, especially upper body fat distribution, has become an increasingly important medical problem in children and adolescents. Outcomes related to childhood obesity include, as in adult population, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, left ventricular hypertrophy, obstructive sleep apnea, orthopedic and socio-psychological problems. Obese children are at approximately 3-fold higher risk for hypertension from non-obese ones. Obesity-hypertension appears to be characterized by a preponderance of isolated systolic hypertension, increased heart rate and blood pressure variability, increased levels of plasma catecholamine and aldosterone, and salt-sensitivity. Lifestyle changes of weight loss, healthier diet and regular physical exercise are effective in obesity-hypertension control, though pharmacological treatment is frequently necessary. Screening for dyslipidemia and impaired glucose tolerance should be performed in paediatric patients with obese hypertension on regular basis, at least once annually or semiannually to discover metabolic syndrome and to prevent its increased cardiovascular risk. Of course, prevention of obesity is the primary goal. .
Obesity is a world wide epidemic; it is becoming more usual to be overweight or obese than to be normal weight. Obesity increases the risk of an extensive range of diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, hypertension, depression and some types of cancer. Adipose tissue is more than a storage organ for surplus energy - it is also a setting for complex metabolic processes and adipose tissue releases substances that interact with other parts of the body to influence several systems including food intake and energy metabolism. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is one of the signalling systems that control feeding behaviour. The ECS is implicated in many functions, such as pain, memory, addiction, inflammation, and feeding, and could be considered a stress recovery system. It also seems to integrate nutrient intake, metabolism and storage maintaining homeostatic balance. The ECS is a recently discovered system, and research indicates hyperactivity in obesity. The aim of this thesis is to elaborate on the relationships of this widespread system and its elements in adipose tissue in obesity. Study I is a 4 weeks rat intervention study to investigate whether weight independent effect of Rimonabant treatment exists. We found that food intake-tolerance development could be circumvented by cyclic administration of Rimonabant and implications of weight independent effects of treatment. Study II is a cross-sectional study to establish the expression of cannabinoid receptor 1 from various adipose tissue depots of lean and obese persons. In this study we conclude, that the subcutaneous adipose tissue express more CBR1 than the visceral depot in lean, but comparable levels in obese. Study III is a 10 weeks human intervention study to asses the effects on the ECS of 10% weight loss. We found reduction in the ECS in obesity that normalised with weight loss. Our results clearly show the presence of all the components of the ECS in human adipose tissue, and suggest that the ECS is reduced in adipose tissue in obesity. Our results do not support the hypothesis of hyperactivity of the ECS in human obesity. Possible future treatment of obesity with CBR1 antagonist could involve cyclic treatment of specific peripheral compounds. PMID:21466769
Bennetzen, Marianne Faurholt
Obesity is a world wide epidemic; it is becoming more usual to be overweight or obese than to be normal weight. Obesity increases the risk of an extensive range of diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, hypertension, depression and some types of cancer. Adipose tissue is more than a storage organ for surplus energy - it is also a setting for complex metabolic processes and adipose tissue releases substances that interact with other parts of the body to influence several systems including food intake and energy metabolism. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is one of the signalling systems that control feeding behaviour. The ECS is implicated in many functions, such as pain, memory, addiction, inflammation, and feeding, and could be considered a stress recovery system. It also seems to integrate nutrient intake, metabolism and storage maintaining homeostatic balance. The ECS is a recently discovered system, and research indicates hyperactivity in obesity. The aim of this thesis is to elaborate on the relationships of this widespread system and its elements in adipose tissue in obesity. Study I is a 4 weeks rat intervention study to investigate whether weight independent effect of Rimonabant treatment exists. We found that food intake-tolerance development could be circumvented by cyclic administration of Rimonabant and implications of weight independent effects of treatment. Study II is a cross-sectional study to establish the expression of cannabinoid receptor 1 from various adipose tissue depots of lean and obese persons. In this study we conclude, that the subcutaneous adipose tissue express more CBR1 than the visceral depot in lean, but comparable levels in obese. Study III is a 10 weeks human intervention study to asses the effects on the ECS of 10% weight loss. We found reduction in the ECS in obesity that normalised with weight loss. Our results clearly show the presence of all the components of the ECS in human adipose tissue, and suggest that the ECS is reduced in adipose tissue in obesity. Our results do not support the hypothesis of hyperactivity of the ECS in human obesity. Possible future treatment of obesity with CBR1 antagonist could involve cyclic treatment of specific peripheral compounds.
Bennetzen, Marianne Faurholt; Pedersen, Steen BØnlØkke
Full Text Available Aim: To compare diets between obese and non-obese in children. Methods: Thirty-four obese and ten non-obese school children were recruited and their habitual factors of obesity were asked. Intakes of food in the obesity and non-obesity groups were checked using a model nutritional balance chart (MNBC. Results: Average intake ratio of food relative to ideal food intake was significantly higher in the non-obesity group than the obesity group. The relationship between obesity and exercise was significant but not significant for intake ratio of food, times watching TV and playing games. Conclusion: Food intake is not a primary factor of obesity but exercise is a key factor for obesity in school children. Since the effect of diet intervention in obese children was slight, exercise habit would be a more important strategy to reduce obesity than diet in school children.
Cinchonine (C19H22N2O) is a natural compound of Cinchona bark. Although cinchonine's antiplatelet effect has been reported in the previous study, antiobesity effect of cinchonine has never been studied. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether cinchonine reduces high-fat-diet- (HFD-) induced adipogenesis and inflammation in the epididymal fat tissues of mice and to explore the underlying mechanisms involved in these reductions. HFD-fed mice treated with 0.05% dietary cincho...
Jung, Sung A.; Miseon Choi; Sohee Kim; Rina Yu; Taesun Park
The beta adrenergic system plays a key role in regulating energy balance through the stimulation of both thermogenesis and lipid mobilization in brown and white adipose tissues in human and various animal models. Recent studies have suggested that a missense Trp64Arg mutation in the beta3 adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) gene was involved in obesity and insulin resistance. We have investigated the effect of this mutation on obesity-related phenotypes in two cohorts: the Québec Family Study (QFS) ...
Gagnon, J.; Maurie?ge, P.; Roy, S.; Sjo?stro?m, D.; Chagnon, Y. C.; Dionne, F. T.; Oppert, J. M.; Pe?russe, L.; Sjo?stro?m, L.; Bouchard, C.
Full Text Available Jenny Godley,1 Nicole M Glenn,2 Arya M Sharma,3 John C Spence4 1Department of Sociology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2School of Public Health, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 3Department of Medicine, 4Sedentary Living Laboratory, Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: Students training in obesity research, prevention, and management face the challenge of developing expertise in their chosen academic field while at the same time recognizing that obesity is a complex issue that requires a multidisciplinary and multisectoral approach. In appreciation of this challenge, the Canadian Obesity Network (CON has run an interdisciplinary summer training camp for graduate students, new career researchers, and clinicians for the past 8 years. This paper evaluates the effects of attending this training camp on trainees' early careers. We use social network analysis to examine the professional connections developed among trainee Canadian obesity researchers who attended this camp over its first 5 years of operation (2006–2010. We examine four relationships (knowing, contacting, and meeting each other, and working together among previous trainees. We assess the presence and diversity of these relationships among trainees across different years and disciplines and find that interdisciplinary contact and working relationships established at the training camp have been maintained over time. In addition, we evaluate the qualitative data on trainees' career trajectories and their assessments of the impact that the camp had on their careers. Many trainees report that camp attendance had a positive impact on their career development, particularly in terms of establishing contacts and professional relationships. Both the quantitative and the qualitative results demonstrate the importance of interdisciplinary training and relationships for career development in the health sciences. Keywords: social network analysis, training, research collaboration, interdisciplinary
Despite the capacity of estrogens to favorably regulate body composition and glucose homeostasis, their use to combat obesity and type 2 diabetes is not feasible, because they promote sex steroid-responsive cancers. The novel selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) bazedoxifene acetate (BZA) uniquely antagonizes both breast cancer development and estrogen-related changes in the female reproductive tract. How BZA administered with conjugated estrogen (CE) or alone impacts metabolism is unknown. The effects of BZA or CE + BZA on body composition and glucose homeostasis were determined in ovariectomized female mice fed a Western diet for 10-12 wk. In contrast to vehicle, estradiol (E?), CE, BZA, and CE + BZA equally prevented body weight gain by 50%. In parallel, all treatments caused equal attenuation of the increase in body fat mass invoked by the diet as well as the increases in subcutaneous and visceral white adipose tissue. Diet-induced hepatic steatosis was attenuated by E? or CE, and BZA alone or with CE provided even greater steatosis prevention; all interventions improved pyruvate tolerance tests. Glucose tolerance tests and HOMA-IR were improved by E?, CE, and CE + BZA. Whereas E? or CE alone invoked a uterotrophic response, BZA alone or CE + BZA had negligible impact on the uterus. Thus, CE + BZA affords protection from diet-induced adiposity, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance with minimal impact on the female reproductive tract in mice. These combined agents may provide a valuable new means to favorably regulate body composition and glucose homeostasis and combat fatty liver. PMID:24939737
Barrera, Jose; Chambliss, Ken L; Ahmed, Mohamed; Tanigaki, Keiji; Thompson, Bonne; McDonald, Jeffrey G; Mineo, Chieko; Shaul, Philip W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening for obesity and providing appropriate obesity-related counseling in the clinical setting are important strategies to prevent and control childhood obesity. The purpose of this study is to document pediatricians (PEDs and general practitioners (GPs with pediatric patients use of BMI-for-age to screen for obesity, confidence in explaining BMI, access to referral clinics, and characteristics associated with screening and counseling to children and their caregivers. Methods The authors used 2008 DocStyles survey data to examine these practices at every well child visit for children aged two years and older. Counseling topics included: physical activity, TV viewing time, energy dense foods, fruits and vegetables, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Chi-square tests were used to examine differences in proportions and logistic regression to identify characteristics associated with screening and counseling. Results The final analytic sample included 250 PEDs and 621 GPs. Prevalence of using BMI-for-age to screen for obesity at every well child visit was higher for PEDs than GPs (50% vs. 22%, ?2 = 67.0, p ? 0.01; more PEDs reported being very/somewhat confident in explaining BMI (94% vs. GPs, 87%, p In general, PEDs reported higher counseling prevalence than GPs. There were significant differences in the following topics: TV viewing (PEDs, 79% vs. GPs, 61%, ?2 = 19.1, p ? 0.0001; fruit and vegetable consumption (PEDs, 87% vs. GPs, 78%, ?2 = 6.4, p ? 0.01. The only characteristics associated with use of BMI for GPs were being female (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.5-3.5 and serving mostly non-white patients (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1-2.9; there were no significant associations for PEDs. Conclusions The findings for use of BMI-for-age, counseling habits, and access to a pediatric obesity specialty clinic leave room for improvement. More research is needed to better understand why BMI-for-age is not being used to screen at every well child visit, which may increase the likelihood overweight and obese patients receive counseling and referrals for additional services. The authors also suggest more communication between PEDs and GPs through professional organizations to increase awareness of existing resources, and to enhance access and referral to pediatric obesity specialty clinics.
Menopause and premature gonadal steroid deficiency are associated with increases in fat mass and body weight. Ovariectomized (OVX) mice also show reduced locomotor activity. Glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide (GIP) is known to play an important role both in fat metabolism and locomotor activity. Therefore, we hypothesized that the effects of estrogen on the regulation of body weight, fat mass, and spontaneous physical activity could be mediated in part by GIP signaling. To test this...
Isken, Frank; Pfeiffer, Andreas F. H.; Nogueiras, Rube?n; Osterhoff, Martin A.; Ristow, Michael; Thorens, Bernard; Tscho?p, Matthias H.; Weickert, Martin O.
Cancer is the eventual outcome of the transformation of normal cells by DNA-reactive, genotoxic carcinogens and the growth promotion of mutated cells by enhancing factors. It is important to discriminate between genotoxic carcinogens and nongenotoxic chemicals because their mechanisms of action are quite distinct. Their dose-response curves, reversibility, and organ- and species-specificity are also quite distinct. Thus, the mode of action of agents involved in cancer causation and development needs careful analysis. Genotoxic carcinogens are mutagenic, form DNA adducts, and lead to the formation of hydroxy radicals and inappropriate peroxidation reactions that the antioxidants in vegetables, fruits, and tea can effectively decrease. About 35% of known cancers are associated with tobacco use and about 55% with inappropriate nutritional habits. Cancer induction can be decreased by (1) avoiding the formation of carcinogens, (2) reducing their metabolic activation, or (3) increasing their detoxification. Nutritional factors play a major role in cancer prevention. Vegetables, fruits, and the beverage, tea, provide select means to prevent activation of carcinogens or to increase their detoxification. Salting and pickling of certain foods generate direct-acting mutagens and carcinogens that affect the stomach and probably the esophagus. Thus, controlling salt use and increasing vegetable and fruit intake can prevent these diseases. Frying and broiling protein foods generate heterocyclic amines that affect the colon, breast, prostate, and pancreas, and their formation is decreased by antioxidants. Heterocyclic amines are converted to reactive components by specific cytochrome P450 enzymes and N-acetyltransferases. The tobacco-specific nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons undergo specific activation and detoxification processes. These reactions are controlled by antioxidants such as quercetin in vegetables, polyphenols in tea, genistein and daidzin in soy, sulforaphane in broccoli, and 3-methylindole and isothiocyanates in such protective foods. In the Western world, the type and amount of fat play a critical role that operates through specific promoting mechanisms to modify the action of genotoxic carcinogens. In most Western countries where mixed fats and oils are consumed, the total amount of fat at 35 to 40% of calories acts as a powerful promoter. On the other hand, in Italy and Greece, where the monounsaturated oil, olive oil, is used almost exclusively without promoting effect, little enhancement by fat is observed. Also, in the Mediterranean region, meats, mainly veal, are not browned to the point of generating heterocyclic amines. Wheat bran fiber increases stool bulk and eliminates carcinogens and the promoters of colon and breast cancers. Thus, the current base of knowledge on the mechanisms of cancer causation provides effective ways of preventing most types of cancer, the definitive means of cancer control. PMID:15281219
Weisburger, J H
In this study, we investigated whether cacao liquor procyanidin (CLPr) extract, which consists of 4.3% catechin, 6.1% epicatechin, 39.4% procyanidins and others, ameliorated hyperglycemia and obesity in C57BL/6 mice fed a control or high-fat diet for 13 weeks. CLPr suppressed high-fat diet-induced hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance and fat accumulation in white adipose tissue. CLPr also promoted translocation of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase ? (AMPK?) in the plasma membrane of skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue. Phosphorylation of AMPK? was also enhanced in the liver and white adipose tissue. CLPr up-regulated the gene and protein expression levels of uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 in brown adipose tissue and UCP-3 in skeletal muscle. These results indicate that CLPr is a beneficial food material for the prevention of hyperglycemia and obesity. Activation of AMPK?, translocation of GLUT4 and up-regulation of UCP expression in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue are involved in the molecular mechanisms by which CLPr prevents hyperglycemia and obesity. PMID:22465028
Yamashita, Yoko; Okabe, Masaaki; Natsume, Midori; Ashida, Hitoshi
Full Text Available Abstract Background Forming implementation intentions (specifying when, where and how to act has been proposed as a potentially effective and inexpensive intervention, but has mainly been studied in controlled settings for straightforward behaviors. Purpose To examine if forming implementation intentions (II could be used in large-scale, population-based interventions that aim to promote more complex and clinically relevant behavior change, we tested the impact of different II on increasing daily physical activity (PA aimed at weight maintenance among 709 Dutch adults. Methods At T0, participants were randomly allocated to a control group or to form II for 1 a prescribed action (walking, 2 self-selected activities, 3 self-selected activities and repeat making these II two times. All participants were asked to increase PA by at least two hours a week (15–20 minutes per day. Post-tests took place two weeks (response 85%, three months (response 78% and six months (response 79% post-intervention. Results No main effects of II formation on BMI or physical activity were found. Intention to increase physical activity moderated the effects of repeated II, but not of the other II conditions. Forming repeated II had a positive effect on total PA and number of active days for respondents with strong intentions. Conclusion Implementation intention interventions may not yet be ready for implementation on its own for large-scale obesity prevention in the general public. Future research should test strategies for optimal II formation in both initiating and maintaining behavioral change. Trial registration ISRCTN81041724
New and more effective nutritional measures are urgently needed for the prevention of obesity. The role of Ca and vitamin D in obesity has been recently implicated. Low Ca intake and low vitamin D status have been linked with an increased risk of obesity in epidemiological studies; however, clinical intervention trials designed to test this association have produced controversial results. The suggested anti-obesity mechanisms of Ca and vitamin D include the regulation of adipocyte death (apoptosis), adipogenesis and lipid metabolism. Dietary Ca has been also shown to increase faecal fat excretion. The potential role of Ca and vitamin D in shifting energy balance towards a more negative state is an area of considerable interest. Ultimately, a review of recent research findings does not allow the reaching of a definitive conclusion that increasing Ca intake and rising vitamin D status will influence fat mass and body weight or decrease the risk of obesity and overweight. PMID:22588363
Song, Qingming; Sergeev, Igor N
To determine if amino acid uptake by muscle of the obese Zucker rat is impaired, epitrochlearis (EPI) and soleus strip (SOL) muscles from 32 pairs of female lean (Fa/-) and obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats were incubated using [14C]?-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB). Because contractile activity also influences amino acid uptake, the effect of acute endurance exercise on amino acid uptake by skeletal muscle from lean and obese rats was also studied. Muscle wet and dry weights were similar in lean and obese rats. However, both muscle protein content and concentration from obese rats were significantly reduced. In preliminary studies, pinning EPI at resting length during incubation significantly increased AIB uptake and reduced muscle water accumulation. AIB uptake was similar in stripped and intact SOL. Lean and obese rats were studied at rest or following a 1 hr treadmill run at 8% grade Muscles were pinned, and preincubated for 30 min at 37 degree C in Krebs Ringer bicarbonate buffer (KRB) containing 5mM glucose under 95:5 O2/CO2, followed by 30, 60, 120, or 180 min of incubation in KRB with 0.5 mM AIB, [14C]-AIB to measure amino acid, and [3H]-inulin to determine extracellular water
Objective: To determine the effect of visfatin on blood lipid levels in balb/c strain of albino mice. Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and duration of study: The study was carried out at the department of Physiology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi and National Institute of Health Sciences, Islamabad from April to December 2007. Material and Methods: One hundred and twenty balb/c strain albino mice were procured from NIH, Islamabad. After taking base line blood samples, mice were divided randomly into four groups. Animals in groups I and II were made obese by feeding high fat / high carbohydrate diet whereas mice in Groups III and IV were induced diabetes mellitus by injecting streptozotocin. Groups I (obese) and III (diabetic) served as controls whereas groups II (obese treated) and IV (diabetic treated) were administered visfatin injection. Terminal intracardiac blood sample was used to measure the serum lipid and visfatin levels. Results: Serum lipid levels were found increased in obese and diabetic groups as compared to healthy mice. The administration of recombinant-histidine soluble (mice) visfatin significantly (p< 0.01) decreased the serum lipid levels with concomitant increase in HDL levels (p< 0.01) in obese and diabetic groups of mice and were comparable with baseline normal values of healthy controls. Conclusion: Visfatin is a potential antilipidemic adipocytokine that probably modulates insulin sensitivity and decreases atherogenic lipids (triglyc and decreases atherogenic lipids (triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL and VLDL) with concomitant increase in HDL in obesity and diabetes mellitus. (author)
Full Text Available Objective: To study the effects of electroacupuncture and diet adjusting on insulin resistance in rats with nutrition obesity, and the role of electroacupuncture and diet adjusting in the treatment of obesity.Methods: Obesity was induced in rats by high-fat diet. Rats with nutrition obesity were randomly divided into high-fat diet (HD group, high-fat diet plus electroacupuncture (HA group, normal diet (ND group and normal diet plus electroacupuncture (NA group, with another group of SD rats as normal control (NC. After 15 days, all the rats' body weight and length were measured, the Lee's index was calculated, and the levels of total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, free fatty acid (FFA, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, fasting insulin (FINS and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-? were detected.Results: Compared with the HD group, food intake, body weight and viscera fat weight of the rats with nutrition obesity in the HA group and the NA group were markedly reduced (P<0.05. The levels of blood serum TC, FFA and IR index in the NA group were obviously lower than those in the HD group (P<0.01. The levels of TNF-? and FINS in the NA group were lower than those in the HD group (P<0.05.Conclusion: Electroacupuncture plus diet adjusting can decrease the levels of serum TNF-? and FINS of the obesity rats, and improve the state of insulin resistance
Full Text Available We discuss the quantitative indicators, the analysis of which gives an idea of the strengths and means at the disposal of forensic health care. We discuss the possibility of using the existing statistical monitoring system for a dynamic assessment of the quality of the measures for primary prevention of socially dangerous acts and implementation of compulsory medical measures at the regional and federal levels. We emphasize the quality indicators of the process for specialized assistance: security environment, organizational culture, training and upgrading the skills of staff, completeness and quality of psychosocial interventions, the degree of profiling the psycho-educational work, the quality of psychotherapeutic contact and its dynamics. We discuss the problem of the validity of the criteria of rehabilitation interventions success by compliance with the methodological principles for the evaluation of their effectiveness. We suggest ways to improve the effectiveness of regional mental health services for the prevention of socially dangerous acts, approaches to peer review and monitoring of the work
The prevalence of overweight and obesity in childhood has increased dramatically over the last decade (Sassi 2010). The PathMate project has therefore the objective to build and evaluate a healthcare information system (HIS) that has direct effects on the performance of obesity expert and teenager teams and indirect effects on the outcomes of obesity programs in Switzerland. A structured design-science methodology for the development of the HIS is adopted (Janzen et al. 2010). Design workshop...
Epidemiological studies estimate that greater than 60% of the adult US population may be categorized as either overweight or obese and there is a growing appreciation that obesity affects the functional integrity of the central nervous system (CNS). We recently developed a lentivirus (LV) vector that produces an insulin receptor (IR) antisense RNA sequence (IRAS) that when injected into the hypothalamus selectively decreases IR signaling in hypothalamus, resulting in increased body weight, peripheral adiposity and plasma leptin levels. To test the hypothesis that this obesity/hyperleptinemic phenotype would impair hippocampal synaptic transmission, we examined short term potentiation (STP) and long term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus of rats that received the LV-IRAS construct or the LV-Control construct in the hypothalamus (hypo-IRAS and hypo-Con, respectively). Stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals elicits STP that develops into LTP in the CA1 region of hypo-Con rats; conversely, hypo-IRAS rats exhibit STP that fails to develop into LTP. To more closely examine the potential role of hyperleptinemia in these electrophysiological deficits, hypo-IRAS were subjected to mild food restriction paradigms that would either: 1) prevent the development of the obesity phenotype; or 2) reverse an established obesity phenotype in hypo-IRAS rats. Both of these paradigms restored LTP in the CA1 region and reversed the decreases in the phosphorylated/total ratio of GluA1 Ser845 AMPA receptor subunit expression observed in the hippocampus of hypo-IRAS rats. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that obesity impairs hippocampal synaptic transmission and support the hypothesis that these deficits are mediated through the impairment of hippocampal leptin activity. PMID:21036186
Grillo, Claudia A; Piroli, Gerardo G; Evans, Ashlie N; Macht, Victoria A; Wilson, Steven P; Scott, Karen A; Sakai, Randall R; Mott, David D; Reagan, Lawrence P
A new FAO report on how to estimate the energy and protein requirements of individuals is imminent and has direct application to the management of obese patients. Energy needs, although variable form individual to individual, are reasonably stable unless gross overfeeding or prolonged semi-starvation occurs; unconscious appetite control is surprisingly important. No longer will energy needs be expressed per kg body weight, a reference point difficult to apply to obese subjects anyway. There are now equations for estimating basal metabolic rate (BMR) these can be appled to obese subjects to give BMR in MJ per day; for kcal from kJ divide by 4.184. The equations apply to all races although north Europeans and Americans tend to have high values and Indians low. An obese patient has a higher BMR than a normal person of the same height. Lean body mass is increased in obesity so some long term loss is inevitable with slimming and accounts for the persistent fall in BMR on weight loss. Energy and protein needs are just the beginning of dietary management. Obese patients are prone to cardiovascular and gall bladder disease. A low fat diet is important and a polyunsaturated: saturated ratio (P:S) of 0.5 to 1.0 is appropriate: higher ratios will exacerbate cholestasis in the biliary tract which can be precipitated by weight loss. New evidence suggests that cereal fibre intake is important for preventing secondary bile salt recycling from the colon with its effect on biliary cholesterol saturation. Therefore long term high cereal (not bran) fibre intakes are as important in obese patients as is a low fat diet. High carbohydrate diets produce a slightly higher metabolism rate than iso-energetic diets. Low sugar diets lead to slightly lower energy intakes. Trace element deficient diets can lead to obesity so the obese patient and his family should be advised and shown how to permanently adjust to a 'prudent' diet. The short term approach to management is usually a waste of time. PMID:6514654
James, W P
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Bone marrow is organized in specialized microenvironments known as 'marrow niches'. These are important for the maintenance of stem cells and their hematopoietic progenitors whose homeostasis also depends on other cell types present in the tissue. Extrinsic factors, such as infection and inflammator [...] y states, may affect this system by causing cytokine dysregulation (imbalance in cytokine production) and changes in cell proliferation and self-renewal rates, and may also induce changes in the metabolism and cell cycle. Known to relate to chronic inflammation, obesity is responsible for systemic changes that are best studied in the cardiovascular system. Little is known regarding the changes in the hematopoietic system induced by the inflammatory state carried by obesity or the cell and molecular mechanisms involved. The understanding of the biological behavior of hematopoietic stem cells under obesity-induced chronic inflammation could help elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in other inflammatory processes, such as neoplastic diseases and bone marrow failure syndromes.
Bruno Deltreggia, Benites; Simone Cristina Olenscki, Gilli; Sara Teresinha Olalla, Saad.
Abstract Background Multiple factors combine to support a compelling case for interventions that target the development of obesity-promoting behaviours (poor diet, low physical activity and high sedentary behaviour) from their inception. These factors include the rapidly increasing prevalence of fatness throughout childhood, the instigation of obesity-promoting behaviours in infancy, and the tracking of these behaviours from childhood through to adolescence and adulthood. The...
Campbell Karen; Hesketh Kylie; Crawford David; Salmon Jo; Ball Kylie; McCallum Zoë
The prevalence of obesity in both the developed and developing world have increased, which leads to diverse health outcomes and is placing a heavy burden on the economy. Abdominal obesity proved to be one of the main features in predicting metabolic and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and may be the link that unifies the metabolic syndrome (MS) through pro-inflammatory pathways. While the pathogenesis of the MS and each of its components are complex and not well understood...
The consistent use of latex condoms continues to be advocated for primary prevention of HIV infection despite limited quantitative evidence regarding the effectiveness of condoms in blocking the sexual transmission of HIV. Although recent meta-analyses of condom effectiveness suggest that condoms are 60 to 70% effective when used for HIV prophylaxis, these studies do not isolate consistent condom use, and therefore provide only a lower bound on the true effectiveness of correct and consistent condom use. A reexamination of HIV seroconversion studies suggests that condoms are 90 to 95% effective when used consistently, i.e. consistent condom users are 10 to 20 times less likely to become infected when exposed to the virus than are inconsistent or non-users. Similar results are obtained utilizing model-based estimation techniques, which indicate that condoms decrease the per-contact probability of male-to-female transmission of HIV by about 95%. Though imperfect, condoms provide substantial protection against HIV infection. Condom promotion therefore remains an important international priority in the fight against AIDS. PMID:9141163
Pinkerton, S D; Abramson, P R
Full Text Available Obesity is defined as excess weight for a given height, taking the concept of body mass index. Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs either when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body can not effectively use the insulin it produces, which regulates blood glucose levels. Several epidemiological investigations are being made in almost all countries in order to evaluate obesity especially in young ages. In obesity and obesity with type II diabetes in the general population exercise will show to be at least 60 minutes duration and 50% of maximum heart rate for adults to exercise 1-3 times per a week at least, lasting 30-60 minutes and low heart rate in children and decrease of adipose tissue after various forms of exercise lasting 40 to 80 minutes per a day and lasting 4-8 months. The protocols that had a positive effect had been tension in 50-70% maximum heart rate. Patients were tested with obesity and diabetes type II, were observed that through the exercise had decreased body weight and had positive effects on glycemic control, lipoproteins and lipids. The type of exercise with the best results were aerobic, with tension 40-60% of maximum heart rate and 60-80% of VO2max, while the frequency of exercise was 3 times per a week for 6-14 months.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has adverse physical, social, and economic consequences that can negatively affect quality of life (QOL. Thus the aim of this study was to verify the effects of a long-term multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention on QOL, body image, anxiety, depression and binge eating in obese adolescents. Methods Sixty-six obese adolescents (41 girls and 25 boys; BMI: 35.62 ± 4.18 kg/m2 were recruited from the Multidisciplinary Obesity Intervention Program outpatient clinic, and were submitted to a multidisciplinary lifestyle therapy (short-term = 12 weeks and long-term = 24 weeks, composed of medical, dietary, exercise and psychological programs. Validated self-report questionnaires were used to assess symptoms of anxiety Trait/State (STAI; depression (BDI; binge eating (BES, body image dissatisfaction (BSQ and QOL (SF-36. Data were analyzed by means of scores; comparisons were made by ANOVA for repeated measures, and Tukey's test as post-hoc and Students T test. Results Long-term therapy decreased depression and binge eating symptoms, body image dissatisfaction, and improved QOL in girls, whereas, for boys, 24 weeks, were effective to reduce anxiety trait/state and symptoms of binge eating, and to improve means of dimensions of QOL (p Conclusion A long-term multidisciplinary lifestyle therapy is effective to control psychological aspects and to improve QOL in obese adolescents.
Background Obesity has adverse physical, social, and economic consequences that can negatively affect quality of life (QOL). Thus the aim of this study was to verify the effects of a long-term multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention on QOL, body image, anxiety, depression and binge eating in obese adolescents. Methods Sixty-six obese adolescents (41 girls and 25 boys; BMI: 35.62 ± 4.18 kg/m2) were recruited from the Multidisciplinary Obesity Intervention Program outpatient clinic, and were submitted to a multidisciplinary lifestyle therapy (short-term = 12 weeks and long-term = 24 weeks), composed of medical, dietary, exercise and psychological programs. Validated self-report questionnaires were used to assess symptoms of anxiety Trait/State (STAI); depression (BDI); binge eating (BES), body image dissatisfaction (BSQ) and QOL (SF-36). Data were analyzed by means of scores; comparisons were made by ANOVA for repeated measures, and Tukey's test as post-hoc and Students T test. Results Long-term therapy decreased depression and binge eating symptoms, body image dissatisfaction, and improved QOL in girls, whereas, for boys, 24 weeks, were effective to reduce anxiety trait/state and symptoms of binge eating, and to improve means of dimensions of QOL (p < .05). Conclusion A long-term multidisciplinary lifestyle therapy is effective to control psychological aspects and to improve QOL in obese adolescents. PMID:19575801
Lofrano-Prado, Mara Cristina; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Prado, Wagner Luiz do; de Piano, Aline; Caranti, Danielle Arisa; Tock, Lian; Carnier, June; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Dâmaso, Ana R
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a growing concern in Sweden. Children with overweight and obesity run a high risk of becoming obese as adults, and are likely to develop comorbidities. Despite the immense demand, there is still a lack of evidence-based comprehensive prevention programmes targeting pre-school children and their families in primary health care settings. The aims are to describe the design and methodology of the PRIMROSE cluster-randomised controlled trial, assess the relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire, and describe the baseline characteristics of the eligible young children and their mothers. METHODS/DESIGN: The PRIMROSE trial targets first-time parents and their children at Swedish child health centres (CHC) in eight counties in Sweden. Randomisation is conducted at the CHC unit level. CHC nurses employed at the participating CHC received training in carrying out the intervention alongside their provision of regular services. The intervention programme, starting when the child is 8-9 months of age and ending at age 4, is based on social cognitive theory and employs motivational interviewing. Primary outcomes are children's body mass index and waist circumference at four years. Secondary outcomes are children's and mothers' eating habits (assessed by a food frequency questionnaire), and children's and mothers' physical activity (measured by accelerometer and a validated questionnaire), and mothers' body mass index and waist circumference. DISCUSSION: The on-going population-based PRIMROSE trial, which targets childhood obesity, is embedded in the regular national (routine) preventive child health services that are available free-of-charge to all young families in Sweden. Of the participants (n?=?1369), 489 intervention and 550 control mothers (75.9%) responded to the validated physical activity and food frequency questionnaire at baseline (i.e., before the first intervention session, or, for children in the control group, before they reached 10 months of age). The food frequency questionnaire showed acceptable relative validity when compared with an 8-day food diary. We are not aware of any previous RCT, concerned with the primary prevention of childhood obesity through sessions at CHC that addresses healthy eating habits and physical activity in the context of a routine child health services programme. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN16991919.
Döring, Nora; Hansson, Lena M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have reported the preventive effects of probiotics on obesity. Among commensal bacteria, bifidobacteria is one of the most numerous probiotics in the mammalian gut and are a type of lactic acid bacteria. The aim of this study was to assess the antiobesity and lipid-lowering effects of Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from healthy Korean on high fat diet-induced obese rats. Methods Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups as follows: (1 SD group, fed standard diet; (2 HFD group, fed high fat diet; and (3 HFD-LAB group, fed high fat diet supplemented with LAB supplement (B. pseudocatenulatum SPM 1204, B. longum SPM 1205, and B. longum SPM 1207; 108 ~ 109 CFU. After 7 weeks, the body, organ, and fat weights, food intake, blood serum levels, fecal LAB counts, and harmful enzyme activities were measured. Results Administration of LAB reduced body and fat weights, blood serum levels (TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglyceride, glucose, leptin, AST, ALT, and lipase levels, and harmful enzyme activities (?-glucosidase, ?-glucuronidase, and tryptophanase, and significantly increased fecal LAB counts. Conclusion These data suggest that Bifidobacterium spp. used in this study may have beneficial antiobesity effects.
The prevalence of obesity has increased epidemically during the past four decades and worldwide more than half a billion adults are now obese. Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer, which are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Thus, effective strategies to reduce obesity-related morbidity and mortality are essential. It has been hypothesized that the microbes in the human gut are involved in the development of obesity-related diseases and that intake of nutrients affecting the gut microbial community in specific ways, can be a new strategy for prevention. The main purpose of this PhD was to explore the effect of dietary modulation of the gut microbiota on disease markers in obese individuals.
Brahe, Lena Kirchner
Caraway (Carum carvi L.), a potent medicinal plant, is traditionally used for treating obesity. This study investigates the weight-lowering effects of caraway extract (CE) on physically active, overweight and obese women through a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Seventy overweight and obese, healthy, aerobic-trained, adult females were randomly assigned to two groups (n = 35 per group). Participants received either 30?mL/day of CE or placebo without changing the...
Mahnaz Kazemipoor; Che Wan Jasimah Bt wan Mohamed Radzi; Majid Hajifaraji; Batoul Sadat Haerian; Mohammad Hossein Mosaddegh; Cordell, Geoffrey A.
The consumption of green tea has been associated with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. There have been some studies on the influence of green tea on the mineral status of obese subjects, but they have not yielded conclusive results. The aim of the present study is to examine the effects of green tea extract on the mineral, body mass, lipid profile, glucose, and antioxidant status of obese patients. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted. Forty-six obese patie...
Suliburska, Joanna; Bogdanski, Pawel; Szulinska, Monika; Stepien, Marta; Pupek-musialik, Danuta; Jablecka, Anna
Overweight and obesity are highly prevalent in developed countries and are also becoming more frequent in the developing world. Overweight and obese patients have elevated levels of several inflammatory markers and this inflammatory state might contribute to their increased vascular risk. We summarize the effects of lifestyle changes, antiobesity agents, and bariatric surgery on serological inflammatory markers in overweight and obese patients. Most studies showed a decrease in inflammation w...
Christos Savopoulos; Hatzitolios, Apostolos I.; Niki Katsiki; Dimitroula, Hariklia V.; Konstantinos Tziomalos
Obesity is the main nutritional problem and one of the most important health problems in developed societies. Central to the challenge of obesity prevention and management is a thoroughly understanding of its determinants. Multiple socio-cultural, socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors--often interrelated and many of them still unknown or poorly understood--can contribute to the establishment and perpetuation of obese phenotypes. Here, we address current research challenges regarding basic aspects of obesity and emerging science for its control, including brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and browning of white fat as possible therapeutic targets for obesity, the influence of the microbioma, and genetics, epigenetics, nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of obesity. We also highlight hot topics in relation to food and lifestyle as determinants of obesity, including the brain mechanisms underlying environmental motivation to eat, the biological control of spontaneous physical activity, the possible role of concrete foods and food components, and the importance of early life nutrition and environment. Challenges regarding the connections of obesity with other alterations and pathologies are also briefly addressed, as well as social and economical challenges in relation to healthy food production and lifestyle for the prevention of obesity, and technological challenges in obesity research and management. The objective is to give a panoramic of advances accomplished and still ahead relevant to the different stakeholders engaged in understanding and combating obesity. PMID:24010755
Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa
Based on their proposed metabolic effects, we examined whether fish oil (FO) and SCFA, alone or in combination, accelerate weight loss and the resultant metabolic improvements. Obesity was induced in male C57BL/6J mice by high-energy feeding for 10 weeks. The mice were transferred to a low-fat diet (2·5w%) for 4 weeks, the source of fat being either FO, a lard–safflower oil mix (control), or both types combined with SCFA. Weight, fasting insulin, tissue and serum lipid concentrations, as well as mRNA amount of genes related to adipose inflammation and hepatic fat oxidation were determined. All groups lost weight and showed reduced fasting insulin concentrations and reduced liver TAG. However, weight loss on the control-fat diet caused significant increase in hepatic and cardiac NEFA. Substituting 20 % of the fat with SCFA increased weight loss by 48 % and reduced fasting insulin 1·5-fold more than the no-SCFA diets. It furthermore significantly increased the amount of mRNA for PPAR-?, and decreased the mRNA amount for NF-?B in the liver and white adipose tissue. The FO diets enhanced improvement of tissue lipid levels. Thus, FO improved liver TAG and NEFA levels compared with weight loss on the control diet. Combining FO and SCFA further reduced tissue NEFA accumulation. In conclusion, we found that dietary SCFA had a significant impact on gene expression in the liver and adipose tissue, and that the effect of FO on tissue NEFA content was modified by SCFA. Thus, interactions between fatty acids should be considered when studying the effects of specific fatty acids.
Pedersen, Maiken HØjgaard; Lauritzen, Lotte
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish La obesidad infantil continúa siendo un serio problema de salud pública en todo el mundo. Las cifras actuales en España son alarmantes, y se sitúan en torno al 35,4%. Hay varias hipótesis que apuntan a que el modelo de balance energético como causa de la obesidad infantil no se sostiene. Y aunque la [...] s razones genéticas parecen explicar hasta el 30% de la probabilidad de llegar a ser obeso, se ha sugerido que esta herencia podría ser influenciable por factores ambientales entre los que se encuentra la actividad física (AF) vigorosa. Aunque las últimas revisiones señalan que existe evidencia suficiente sobre la efectividad de las intervenciones para prevenir la obesidad en niños de 6-12 años, la heterogeneidad del efecto encontrado en los resultados y la posibilidad de sesgos de diseño y de publicación de los estudios hacen que los resultados deban interpretarse con cautela. En España la intervención MOVI, un programa extraescolar de AF de carácter recreativo, ha conseguido disminuir la adiposidad, y mejorar el perfil lipídico. Para superar potenciales limitaciones de la primera intervención, se diseñó una segunda edición. Los objetivos de esta revisión fueron: 1) analizar los últimos datos de la epidemia de la obesidad infantil en España; y 2) describir las principales características del programa MOVI-2, y en general de las intervenciones que han sido efectivas para prevenir la obesidad en niños. Abstract in english Children obesity is considered a serious public health problem around the world. In Spain, the prevalence of overweight/obesity is reaching alarming figures, exceeding 35% of the children. Several hypotheses suggest that the energy balance model does not fit very well when analyzing the causes of th [...] e current obesity epidemic and, although genetics seems to explain up to 30% of the likelihood to become obese in infancy, has been suggested that genetics might be influenced by environment factors including vigorous physical activity (PA). Some recent systematic reviews indicate that there is enough evidence about the effectiveness of interventions to prevent obesity in children 6-12 years old; however, the heterogeneity of the effect, and the potential selection, information and publication biases that undermine the validity of these studies, thus their results should be interpreted with caution. In Spain, an extracurricular PA program of leisure-time (MOVI) has evidenced some effectiveness on reducing the adiposity and on improving the lipid profile in schoolchildren. To overcome some weakness of MOVI program, a second edition of this study was designed. The objectives of this review are twofold: 1) to analyze latest data of the obesity epidemic in Spain; and 2) to describe the main features of MOVI-2 program, and overall of the successful interventions to prevent children obesity.
Vicente, Martínez Vizcaíno; Jorge, Cañete García-Prieto; Blanca, Notario-Pacheco; Mairena, Sánchez-López.
Full Text Available Healthy public policy plays a central role in creating environments that are supportive of health. Breastfeeding, widely supported as the optimal mode for infant feeding, is a critical factor in promoting infant health. In 2005, the Canadian province of Nova Scotia introduced a provincial breastfeeding policy. This paper describes the process and outcomes of an evaluation into the implementation of the policy. This evaluation comprised focus groups held with members of provincial and district level breastfeeding committees who were tasked with promoting, protecting and supporting breastfeeding in their districts. Five key themes were identified, which were an unsupportive culture of breastfeeding; the need for strong leadership; the challenges in engaging physicians in dialogue around breastfeeding; lack of understanding around the International Code of Marketing o