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1

Cost-Effectiveness of Fiscal Policies to Prevent Obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cost-effective, sustainable strategies are urgently required to curb the global obesity epidemic. To date, fiscal policies such as taxes and subsidies have been driven largely by imperatives to raise revenue or increase supply, rather than to change population behaviours. This paper reviews the economic evaluation literature around the use of fiscal policies to prevent obesity. The cost-effectiveness literature is limited, and more robust economic evaluation studies are required. However, uncertainty and gaps in the effectiveness evidence base need to be addressed first: more studies are needed that collect 'real-world' empirical data, and larger studies with more robust designs and longer follow-up timeframes are required. Reliability of cross-price elasticity data needs to be investigated, and greater consideration given to moderators of intervention effects and the sustainability of outcomes. Economic evaluations should adopt a societal perspective, incorporate a broader spectrum of economic costs and consider other factors likely to affect the implementation of fiscal measures. The paucity of recent cost-effectiveness studies means that definitive conclusions about the value for money of fiscal policies for obesity prevention cannot yet be drawn. However, as in other public health areas such as alcohol and tobacco, early indications are that population-level fiscal policies are likely to be potentially effective and cost-saving.

Moodie M; Sheppard L; Sacks G; Keating C; Flego A

2013-01-01

2

Obesity prevention in children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity continues to be unacceptably high and of public health concern in Europe. During childhood and adolescence, environmental factors are the main drivers of obesity development. Obesity is caused by a chronic energy imbalance involving both dietary intake and physical activity patterns. Several risk factors are influencing obesity development, even starting in the prenatal period. From birth, along life, mainly diet and physical activity/inactivity are the most important drivers on top of genetic susceptibility. The first years of life can therefore be crucial to start preventive interventions that can have an impact on lifestyle and on later overweight and obesity. Schools are an attractive and popular setting for implementing interventions for children. Interventions including a community component are considered to be the most effective. Obesity control will require policy interventions to improve the environments that promote poor dietary intake and physical inactivity rather than individually focused interventions. More solid institutional and health policies are needed together with more effective interventions to obtain evident changes for the prevention of excess adiposity among children.

Moreno LA; Bel-Serrat S; Santaliestra-Pasías AM; Rodríguez G

2013-01-01

3

Obesity prevention programs and policies: Practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of feasibility and effectiveness.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to map obesity prevention activity being implemented by government, non-government, and community-based organizations; to determine practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of the feasibility and effectiveness of a range of evidence-based obesity prevention strategies; and to determine practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of preferred settings for obesity prevention strategies. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study involved a cross-sectional survey of 304 public health practitioners and policy-makers from government, non-government, and community organizations across Victoria, Australia. Participants reported their organizations' current obesity prevention programs and policies, their own perceptions of the feasibility and effectiveness of strategies to prevent obesity and their preferred settings for obesity prevention. RESULTS: Thirty-nine percent had an obesity prevention policy, and 92% were implementing obesity prevention programs. The most common programs focused on education, skill-building, and increasing access to healthy eating/physical activity opportunities. School curriculum-based initiatives, social support for physical activity, and family-based programs were considered the most effective strategies, whereas curriculum-based initiatives, active after-school programs, and providing access to and information about physical activity facilities were deemed the most feasible strategies. Schools were generally perceived as the most preferred setting for obesity prevention. CONCLUSION: Many organizations had obesity prevention programs, but far fewer had obesity prevention policies. Current strategies and those considered feasible and effective are often mismatched with the empirical literature. Systems to ensure better alignment between researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers, and identifying effective methods of translating empirical evidence into practice and policy are required.

Cleland V; McNeilly B; Crawford D; Ball K

2013-09-01

4

Chewing gum having effects of losing weight and preventing obesity  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a chewing gum, in particular to a chewing gum having effects of losing weight and preventing obesity. The invention adopts the technical scheme that the chewing gum comprisesthe following Chinese medicaments by mass: 10 to 25 grams of raw pawpaw, 10 to 25 grams of konjak, 15 to 30 grams of yam, 20 to 35 grams of tuckahoe, 10 to 25 grams of Chinese thorowax root, 15 to 30grams of cinnamon bark, and 5 to 10 grams of oriental waterplantain rhizome. The ratio of calcium pyruvate to stevioside to resin matrix to essence to glycerol to starch is 1: (5-10): (150-250): (1.5:2.0): (5-8): (600-750). The chewing gum is prepared by combining processed and concentrated Chinese medicinal extract and matrix raw materials and during chewing, the effective components of medicaments are absorbed by the human body through releasing so as to achieve the aim of losing weight, and enable people not to produce hunger sensation.

ANDING XU

5

Prevention of Overweight and Obesity: How Effective is the Current Public Health Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity is a public health problem that has become epidemic worldwide. Substantial literature has emerged to show that overweight and obesity are major causes of co-morbidities, including type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, various cancers and other health problems, which can lead to further morbidity and mortality. The related health care costs are also substantial. Therefore, a public health approach to develop population-based strategies for the prevention of excess weight gain is of great importance. However, public health intervention programs have had limited success in tackling the rising prevalence of obesity. This paper reviews the definition of overweight and obesity and the variations with age and ethnicity; health consequences and factors contributing to the development of obesity; and critically reviews the effectiveness of current public health strategies for risk factor reduction and obesity prevention.

Ruth S.M. Chan; Jean Woo

2010-01-01

6

Effective behaviour change techniques in the prevention and management of childhood obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rates of childhood obesity are increasing, and it is essential to identify the active components of interventions aiming to prevent and manage obesity in children. A systematic review of behaviour change interventions was conducted to find evidence of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) that are most effective in changing physical activity and/or eating behaviour for the prevention or management of childhood obesity. An electronic search was conducted for Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) published between January 1990 and December 2009. Of 4309 titles and abstracts screened, full texts of 135 articles were assessed, of which 17 published articles were included in this review. Intervention descriptions were coded according to the behaviour-specific CALO-RE taxonomy of BCTs. BCTs were identified and compared across obesity management (n=9) vs prevention (n=8) trials. To assess the effectiveness of individual BCTs, trials were further divided into those that were effective (defined as either a group reduction of at least 0.13 BMI units or a significant difference in BMI between intervention and control groups at follow-up) vs non-effective (reported no significant differences between groups).We reliably identified BCTs utilised in effective and non-effective prevention and management trials. To illustrate the relative effectiveness of each BCT, effectiveness ratios were calculated as the ratio of the number of times each BCT was a component of an intervention in an effective trial divided by the number of times they were a component of all trials. Results indicated six BCTs that may be effective components of future management interventions (provide information on the consequences of behaviour to the individual, environmental restructuring, prompt practice, prompt identification as role model/position advocate, stress management/emotional control training, and general communication skills training), and one that may be effective in prevention interventions (prompting generalisation of a target behaviour). We identified that for management trials, providing information on the consequences of behaviour in general was a feature of non-effective interventions and for prevention trials, providing information on the consequences of behaviour in general, providing rewards contingent on successful behaviour and facilitating social comparison were non-effective.To design effective behaviour change programmes for the prevention and management of childhood obesity, we would recommend utilising the BCTs identified as effective in this review. The impact on intervention effectiveness of combining BCTs should be the topic of further research.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 12 June 2013; doi:10.1038/ijo.2013.107.

Martin J; Chater A; Lorencatto F

2013-06-01

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Economic perspectives on pediatric obesity: impact on health care expenditures and cost-effectiveness of preventive interventions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This chapter surveys two segments of the economic literature on pediatric obesity: first, research regarding the impact of childhood obesity on health care expenditure, and second, research evaluating the cost-effectiveness of programs to prevent pediatric obesity. Evidence in support of the hypothesis that obese children and adolescents have higher health care costs than their otherwise similar healthy-weight peers has been found for female adolescents. Studies trying to calculate the complete lifetime health care costs attributable to childhood obesity are missing. Only a small number of studies assessing the cost-effectiveness of preventive obesity interventions among children have been published until now. The results call for the inclusion of nutrition behavior as an intervention target. There is some evidence that childhood obesity prevention might be successful in combining health gains with cost savings. However, it is not possible to rank the interventions according to their cost-effectiveness or to assess the generalizability of their results. Cost-effectiveness increasingly will be a major consideration in public reimbursement decisions. Therefore, evaluation research has to pay more attention to the economic aspects of new health technologies. Without providing good value for money, those technologies probably will not turn from inventions to innovations in health care. Moreover, future research should address various methodological and conceptual challenges and limitations which economic evaluations of preventive interventions into childhood obesity are faced with.

John J

2010-01-01

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Islamic Fasting: An Effective Strategy for Prevention and Control of Obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A balanced and energy-restricted diet, exercise and behavior modification are the usual approaches used for obesity. Islamic fasting, which has the components of energy restriction and behavior modification, could be a safe nutritional approach for the prevention and treatment of obesity. For this reason, the effect of Islamic Fasting, an abstention from Foods, fluids and sex from dawn to sunset, on food intake, body weight and blood chemistry was studied in ten healthy adult male human subjects. Foods and Fluids intake before and in the first and fourth week of Fasting were recorded. Body weight of the participants was noted before and at the last day of Fasting. Blood samples before, in the second and fourth week of Fasting and two weeks after Fasting were collected. The daily reduction in energy (Food intake) ranged from 200-1500 Kcal with an average value of 857? 410 Kcal. During the four weeks of Fasting, loss in body weight ranged from 0.5-6.0 Kg with an average value of 3.2?1.7 Kg. There were no significant differences in glucose, total protein, triglyceride and total, HDL and LDL cholesterol in the blood samples collected before, during and after the Fasting. The data suggest that Islamic Fasting is nutritionally safe and could be used as an effective strategy for prevention and control of obesity.

Alam Khan; M. Muzaffar Ali Khan Khattak

2002-01-01

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Preventive Effects of Salacia reticulata on Obesity and Metabolic Disorders in TSOD Mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The extracts of Salacia reticulata (Salacia extract), a plant that has been used for the treatment of early diabetes, rheumatism and gonorrhea in Ayurveda, have been shown to have an anti-obesity effect and suppress hyperglycemia. In this study, the effects of Salacia extract on various symptoms of metabolic disorder were investigated and compared using these TSOD mice and non-obese TSNO mice. Body weight, food intake, plasma biochemistry, visceral and subcutaneous fat (X-ray and CT), glucose tolerance, blood pressure and pain tolerance were measured, and histopathological examination of the liver was carried out. A significant dose-dependent decline in the gain in body weight, accumulation of visceral and subcutaneous fat and an improvement of abnormal glucose tolerance, hypertension and peripheral neuropathy were noticed in TSOD mice. In addition, hepatocellular swelling, fatty degeneration of hepatocytes, inflammatory cell infiltration and single-cell necrosis were observed on histopathological examination of the liver in TSOD mice. Salacia extract markedly improved these symptoms upon treatment. Based on the above results, it is concluded that Salacia extract has remarkable potential to prevent obesity and associated metabolic disorders including the development of metabolic syndrome. PMID:19505975

Akase, Tomoko; Shimada, Tsutomu; Harasawa, Yukiko; Akase, Tomohide; Ikeya, Yukinobu; Nagai, Eiichi; Iizuka, Seiichi; Nakagami, Gojiro; Iizaka, Shinji; Sanada, Hiromi; Aburada, Masaki

2011-06-23

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Preventive Effects of Salacia reticulata on Obesity and Metabolic Disorders in TSOD Mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The extracts of Salacia reticulata (Salacia extract), a plant that has been used for the treatment of early diabetes, rheumatism and gonorrhea in Ayurveda, have been shown to have an anti-obesity effect and suppress hyperglycemia. In this study, the effects of Salacia extract on various symptoms of metabolic disorder were investigated and compared using these TSOD mice and non-obese TSNO mice. Body weight, food intake, plasma biochemistry, visceral and subcutaneous fat (X-ray and CT), glucose tolerance, blood pressure and pain tolerance were measured, and histopathological examination of the liver was carried out. A significant dose-dependent decline in the gain in body weight, accumulation of visceral and subcutaneous fat and an improvement of abnormal glucose tolerance, hypertension and peripheral neuropathy were noticed in TSOD mice. In addition, hepatocellular swelling, fatty degeneration of hepatocytes, inflammatory cell infiltration and single-cell necrosis were observed on histopathological examination of the liver in TSOD mice. Salacia extract markedly improved these symptoms upon treatment. Based on the above results, it is concluded that Salacia extract has remarkable potential to prevent obesity and associated metabolic disorders including the development of metabolic syndrome.

Akase T; Shimada T; Harasawa Y; Akase T; Ikeya Y; Nagai E; Iizuka S; Nakagami G; Iizaka S; Sanada H; Aburada M

2011-01-01

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Childhood Obesity Prevention Programs: Comparative Effectiveness Review and Meta-Analysis  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Childhood obesity is a serious health problem in the United States and worldwide. More than 30 percent of American children and adolescents are overweight or obese. We assessed the effectiveness of childhood obesity prevention programs by reviewing all interventional studies that aimed to improve diet, physical activity, or both and that were conducted in schools, homes, primary care clinics, childcare settings, the community, or combinations of these settings in high-income countries. We also reviewed consumer health informatics interventions. We compared the effects of the interventions on weight-related outcomes (e.g., body mass index [BMI], waist circumference, percent body fat, skinfold thickness, prevalence of obesity and overweight); intermediate outcomes (e.g., diet, physical activity); and obesity-related clinical outcomes (e.g., blood pressure, blood lipids). DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE(®), Embase(®), PsycInfo(®), CINAHL(®), clinicaltrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library through August 11, 2012. METHODS: Two reviewers independently reviewed each article for eligibility. For each study, one reviewer extracted the data and a second reviewer verified the accuracy. Both reviewers assessed the risk of bias for each study. Together, the reviewers graded the strength of the evidence (SOE) supporting interventions—diet, physical activity, or both—in each setting for the outcomes of interest. We quantitatively pooled the results of studies that were sufficiently similar. Only experimental studies with followup of at least 1 year (6 months for studies in school settings) were included. We abstracted data on comparisons of intervention versus control. RESULTS: We identified 34,545 unique citations and included 131 articles describing 124 interventional studies. The majority of the interventions (104 studies) were school based, although many of them included components delivered in other settings. Most were conducted in the United States and in the past decade. Results of four studies were pooled for BMI and four for BMI z-score in the school-only setting; results of five school-home studies were pooled for BMI. Other studies tested interventions delivered at home (n=6), in primary care (n=1), in childcare (n=4), and in the community (n=9). Six studies tested consumer health informatics interventions. For obesity prevention, the following settings and interventions showed benefit: school-based—diet or physical activity interventions (SOE moderate); school-based with a home component—physical activity interventions (SOE high) and both diet and physical activity (SOE moderate); school-based with home and community components—diet and physical activity interventions (SOE high); school-based with a community component—diet and physical activity interventions (SOE moderate); community with a school component—diet and physical activity interventions (SOE moderate). The strength of the evidence is either low or insufficient for the remainder of the interventions and settings. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence is moderate about the effectiveness of school-based interventions for childhood obesity prevention. Physical activity interventions in a school-based setting with a family component or diet and physical activity interventions in a school-based setting with home and community components have the most evidence for effectiveness. More research is needed to test interventions in other settings, such as those testing policy, environmental, and consumer health informatics strategies.

Wang Y; Wu Y; Wilson RF; Bleich S; Cheskin L; Weston C; Showell N; Fawole O; Lau B; Segal J

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Starting early: obesity prevention during infancy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Obesity prevalence among infants and young children has increased rapidly during the past 4 decades, a disturbing trend given early obesity's association with later life obesity and its comorbidities. Fortunately, infancy is a period of great behavioral and metabolic plasticity offering numerous targets for preventive interventions. Modifiable factors that may affect early rapid weight gain and obesity risk include infant sleep duration, feeding to soothe infant distress, and the introduction of solid foods and transitional feeding. We discuss evidence linking these factors to weight outcomes, as well as results from behavioral obesity interventions in infancy, from our laboratory and others'. For example, in a recent pilot intervention, we focused on helping new mothers address three areas of infant behavior hypothesized to affect weight gain and early obesity risk: infant sleeping, crying, and feeding. First-time mothers were randomly assigned to receive either a Soothe/Sleep intervention, an Introduction of Solids intervention, both interventions, or no interventions. The interventions were delivered via home visits and showed positive effects on infant behaviors and weight outcomes at 1 year. Based on evidence from such pilot interventions, we assess the plausibility of targeting behavioral factors in infancy and suggest next steps for early prevention research.

Birch LL; Anzman-Frasca S; Paul IM

2012-01-01

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Preventive Effects of Salacia reticulata on Obesity and Metabolic Disorders in TSOD Mice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The extracts of Salacia reticulata (Salacia extract), a plant that has been used for the treatment of early diabetes, rheumatism and gonorrhea in Ayurveda, have been shown to have an anti-obesity effect and suppress hyperglycemia. In this study, the effects of Salacia extract on various symptoms of ...

Akase, Tomoko; Shimada, Tsutomu; Harasawa, Yukiko; Akase, Tomohide; Ikeya, Yukinobu; Nagai, Eiichi; Iizuka, Seiichi

14

Effects of an occupation-based obesity prevention program for children at risk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ABSTRACT Since the prevalence of obesity-related medical conditions in children and adolescents has increased over the past several years obesity prevention has become a vital need for our society and a focus of our professional practice. The primary aim of this pilot study was to increase children's experiences with physical activity and healthy foods to promote self-efficacy related to a healthy lifestyle. Using a pre- and posttest design, the Healthy Choices for Me program was evaluated for its efficacy. Intervention consisted of a 12-week after-school program implemented by occupational therapy students. Elementary-aged children from two lower social economic schools in an urban area participated in the program. Results demonstrated positive changes in food behavior, food self-efficacy, and vegetable consumption for the participants.

Lau C; Stevens D; Jia J

2013-04-01

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Translational research in childhood obesity prevention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article explores the state of translational research in childhood obesity prevention. Five phases of translational research and emerging findings from basic science that could be useful in the design of obesity prevention programs are described. Few intervention studies have been published, and these are dominated by Phase 3 trials (efficacy), conducted in school settings, with a limited number of studies finding significant effects on Body Mass Index or adiposity. Cost-benefit analyses are lacking. Research is needed to translate basic science findings into novel interventions (Phases 1 and 2) and to translate programs with known behavior change capability into dissemination trials (Phase 5). Translation can be facilitated by enhanced communication between basic science and prevention science researchers, the development of interventions for underused settings, using novel strategies, support by institutions and funding agencies for translation, and the design of interventions with translation in mind.

Reynolds KD; Spruijt-Metz D

2006-06-01

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Commentary: Pediatric Obesity: Systems Science Strategies for Prevention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Pediatric obesity is a major public health problem that undermines the physical and mental health of children and increases their risk for adult obesity and other chronic illnesses. Although health care providers, including pediatric psychologists, have implemented prevention programs, effects have been minimal, with no solid evidence of sustainable programs. METHODS: A systems science framework that incorporates the multiple interacting factors that influence pediatric obesity may be useful in guiding prevention. RESULTS: The National Prevention Strategy provides recommendations that can be incorporated into systems science designs, including (1) Healthy and Safe Environments, (2) Clinical and Community Preventive Services, (3) Empowering People, and (4) Elimination of Health Disparities. In addition, our recommendation is that future obesity prevention programs target early in life (pre-pregnancy through toddlerhood) and use multilevel multidisciplinary designs. CONCLUSIONS: The benefits of preventing pediatric obesity extend from the health and well-being of individual children to the economic security of the nation.

Black MM; Hager ER

2013-09-01

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Attitudes to publicly funded obesity treatment and prevention  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to investigate the Danish public’s support for publicly funded obesity treatment and prevention. It was also examined whether levels of support could be explained by dislike of obese people and / or the belief that those who are obese are personally responsible for their condition. A representative survey of members of the Danish public (N=1,141) was conducted using a web-based questionnaire. The survey was designed to assess attitudes to public funding for obesityrelated health care, and to investigate the impact, on those attitudes, of dislike of obese people, the perceived controllability of obesity, self-reported BMI, and additional attitudinal and sociodemographic characteristics. Public funding of some obesity treatments, such as weight-loss surgery, attracted only limited public support. A majority of the Danish public did support ‘softer’ treatment interventions and preventive initiatives. Attitudes to the treatment of obesity were clearly best predicted by the belief that individuals are personally responsible for their own obesity. Dislike of obese persons had no direct effect on the preference for collective treatment initiatives and only a small effect on support for publicly funded obesity prevention. The high level of disapproval for publicly funded obesity treatment should be cause for concern for decision makers aiming to ensure equal access to health care. Since it is the belief that obese people are personally responsible which explains this disapproval, strategies for challenging public opinion on this issue are discussed.

Lund, Thomas BØker; SandØe, Peter

2011-01-01

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Maternal Obesity: Consequences and Prevention Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to life expectancy and increased health problems. In keeping with the general international trend of rising prevalence of obesity, maternal obesity prevalence is rising. According to WHO, the prevalence of obesity in pregnancy ranges from 1.8 to 25.3%. Maternal obesity has been identified to be a risk factor for maternal and perinatal mortality. The aim of this article was reviewed in research about maternal obesity in Pubmed, which published between 2009 and 2010. 7 reviews and 13 studies was examined and they presented under this headings: impacts of maternal obesity in pregnancy, obstetric outcomes of maternal obesity, postpartum outcomes of maternal obesity, impact of maternal obesity on breastfeeding, impact of maternal obesity on procedure of anomaly scan and risk determination, maternal obesity and fetal complications, impact of maternal obesity on Apgar scores, obesity and infertility, pregnancy following bariatric surgery, long term effects of obesity, management of maternal obesity. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000): 353-364

Emre Yanikkerem; Selviye Mutlu

2012-01-01

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An evaluation framework for obesity prevention policy interventions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As the emphasis on preventing obesity has grown, so have calls for interventions that extend beyond individual behaviors and address changes in environments and policies. Despite the need for policy action, little is known about policy approaches that are most effective at preventing obesity. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and others are funding the implementation and evaluation of new obesity prevention policies, presenting a distinct opportunity to learn from these practice-based initiatives and build the body of evidence-based approaches. However, contributions from this policy activity are limited by the incomplete and inconsistent evaluation data collected on policy processes and outcomes. We present a framework developed by the CDC-funded Center of Excellence for Training and Research Translation that public health practitioners can use to evaluate policy interventions and identify the practice-based evidence needed to fill the gaps in effective policy approaches to obesity prevention.

Leeman J; Sommers J; Vu M; Jernigan J; Payne G; Thompson D; Heiser C; Farris R; Ammerman A

2012-01-01

20

Efficacy Trial of a Selective Prevention Program Targeting Both Eating Disorders and Obesity among Female College Students: 1- and 2-Year Follow-Up Effects  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Evaluate the effects of a prevention program targeting both eating disorders and obesity at 1- and 2-year follow-ups. Method: Female college students at risk for these outcomes because of body image concerns (N = 398) were randomized to the "Healthy Weight 2" group-based 4-hr prevention program, which promotes lasting healthy…

Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C. Nathan

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Childhood obesity: Determinants, evaluation, and prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood obesity is a grave issue, which needs to be addressed urgently because it leads to several medical and psychosocial problems in children. High prevalence is being increasingly reported in children from developing countries as well. The combination of our genetic propensity to store fat, the ready availability of calorie dense foods, and sedentary lifestyle promotes overweight. The child's food environment at home and parental obesity are strong determinants. Urban poor in developed countries and urban rich in developing countries are both at risk. In developing countries, a number of beliefs passed down over generations are other important determinants. Evaluation includes assessing the child's lifestyle, excluding weight-promoting medication history; poor linear growth needs endocrine evaluation; genetic syndromes should be considered if there are clinical pointers. Overweight children should be evaluated for hypertension, dyslipidemia, T2DM, and NAFLD. Therapeutic lifestyle changes targeting food habits and physical activity through parental participation and social support are the cornerstones of preventing childhood obesity. Active travel and play by making the built environment more accessible, ban on ‘junk’ food advertising, and effective health education through active participation of clinicians, school systems, and the media will go a long way in reversing anticipated trends in childhood obesity.

Raychaudhuri, Moutusi; Sanyal, Debmalya

2012-01-01

22

Childhood obesity: Determinants, evaluation, and prevention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Childhood obesity is a grave issue, which needs to be addressed urgently because it leads to several medical and psychosocial problems in children. High prevalence is being increasingly reported in children from developing countries as well. The combination of our genetic propensity to store fat, the ready availability of calorie dense foods, and sedentary lifestyle promotes overweight. The child's food environment at home and parental obesity are strong determinants. Urban poor in developed countries and urban rich in developing countries are both at risk. In developing countries, a number of beliefs passed down over generations are other important determinants. Evaluation includes assessing the child's lifestyle, excluding weight-promoting medication history; poor linear growth needs endocrine evaluation; genetic syndromes should be considered if there are clinical pointers. Overweight children should be evaluated for hypertension, dyslipidemia, T2DM, and NAFLD. Therapeutic lifestyle changes targeting food habits and physical activity through parental participation and social support are the cornerstones of preventing childhood obesity. Active travel and play by making the built environment more accessible, ban on 'junk' food advertising, and effective health education through active participation of clinicians, school systems, and the media will go a long way in reversing anticipated trends in childhood obesity.

Raychaudhuri M; Sanyal D

2012-12-01

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A randomised controlled trial for overweight and obese parents to prevent childhood obesity - Early STOPP (STockholm Obesity Prevention Program)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity have a dramatic negative impact on children's health not only during the childhood but also throughout the adult life. Preventing the development of obesity in children is therefore a world-wide health priority. There is an obvious urge for sustainable and evidenced-based interventions that are suitable for families with young children, especially for families with overweight or obese parents. We have developed a prevention program, Early STOPP, combating multiple obesity-promoting behaviors such unbalanced diet, physical inactivity and disturbed sleeping patterns. We also aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the early childhood obesity prevention in a well-characterized population of overweight or obese parents. This protocol outlines methods for the recruitment phase of the study. Design and methods This randomized controlled trial (RCT) targets overweight and/or obese parents with infants, recruited from the Child Health Care Centers (CHCC) within the Stockholm area. The intervention starts when infants are one year of age and continues until they are six and is regularly delivered by a trained coach (dietitian, physiotherapist or a nurse). The key aspects of Early STOPP family intervention are based on Swedish recommendations for CHCC, which include advices on healthy food choices and eating patterns, increasing physical activity/reducing sedentary behavior and regulating sleeping patterns. Discussion The Early STOPP trial design addresses weaknesses of previous research by recruiting from a well-characterized population, defining a feasible, theory-based intervention and assessing multiple measurements to validate and interpret the program effectiveness. The early years hold promise as a time in which obesity prevention may be most effective. To our knowledge, this longitudinal RCT is the first attempt to demonstrate whether an early, long-term, targeted health promotion program focusing on healthy eating, physical activity/reduced sedentary behaviors and normalizing sleeping patterns could be effective. If proven so, Early STOPP may protect children from the development of overweight and obesity. Trial registration The protocol for this study is registered with the clinical trials registry clinicaltrials.gov, ID: ES-2010)

Sobko Tanja; Svensson Viktoria; Ek Anna; Ekstedt Mirjam; Karlsson Håkan; Johansson Elin; Cao Yingting; Hagströmer Maria; Marcus Claude

2011-01-01

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Childhood Obesity â?? Prevention Begins with Breastfeeding  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast is based on the August, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Childhood obesity is an epidemic in the US. Breastfeeding can help prevent obesity, but one in three moms stop without hospital support. About 95% of hospitals lack policies that fully support breastfeeding moms. Hospitals need to do more to help moms start and continue breastfeeding.  Created: 8/2/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/2/2011.

2011-08-02

25

My student body: effects of an internet-based prevention program to decrease obesity among college students.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of My Student Body (MSB)-Nutrition, an Internet-based obesity prevention program for college students. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred and twenty ethnically diverse undergraduate students were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: MSB-Nutrition program, an on-campus weight management course, and a comparison group. METHODS: Students completed baseline and follow-up surveys regarding their nutrition and physical activity behaviors, self-efficacy, stress, attitudes, and body weight. RESULTS: Compared with the on-campus course and a comparison group, the MSB-Nutrition program increased fruit and vegetable consumption, reduced stress, and increased fruit and vegetable self-efficacy but had no significant effect on students' exercise self-efficacy, exercise behavior, or weight loss. CONCLUSIONS: The MSB-Nutrition program was effective in changing students' nutrition behaviors but had no effect on physical activity behaviors or weight loss. Suggestions for improving Internet-based interventions aimed at decreasing obesity rates among college students are offered.

Lachausse RG

2012-01-01

26

Program and Policy Options for Preventing Obesity in China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

By 2002, China's prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults was 18.9 percent and 2.9 percent, respectively. The Chinese traditional diet has been replaced by the "Western diet" an dmajor declines in all phases of activity and increased sedentary activity as the main reasons explaining the rapid increase in overweight and obesity, bring major economic and health costs. The Nutrition Improvement Work Management Approach was released in 2010. Overweight and obesity prevention-related policies were added to national planning for disease prevention and control. The Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity of Chinese Adults and the School-age Children and Teenagers Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Control Guidelines in China were promulgated in 2003 and 2007, respectively. Few education programs have been implemented. Selected academic intervention research projects dominate with a focus on reducing child obesity and promoting healthier diets; increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time; and facilitating changes in family, school, social, and cultural environments. Intervention samples are small and have not addressed the increasing rates of obesity throughout the entire population. Government provision of effective policy measures, multisectoral cooperation and increasing corporate social responsibility are keys to curb the trend toward overweight and obesity in China.

Wang H; Zhai F

2013-09-01

27

ANTI-OBESITY AND ANTI-DYSLIPIDEMIC EFFECTS OF OIL PALM PHENOLICS IN PREVENTING ATHEROSCLEROSIS AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Water-soluble phenolics from the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) possess significant antioxidant and health-promoting properties. This invention documents the effects of administering oil palm phenolics to mice, with the aim of identifying whether these compounds possess significant anti-obesity or anti-dyslipidemics properties for the prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. We first explored the gene expression changes caused by oil palm phenolics in livers of mice given a low-fat normal diet, in which fatty acid beta oxidation genes were up-regulated while five cholesterol biosynthesis genes were down-regulated. In addition, the weight gain of mice given oil palm palm phenolics was delayed, suggesting that oil palm phenolics may play a role in delaying the onset of obesity. Using Illumina microarrays, we found that the atherogenic diet caused oxidative stress, up-regulated the inflammatory response and increased the turnover of metabolites and cells in the liver, spleen and heart. In contrast, we found that oil palm phenolics showed signs of attenuating the effects of the atherogenic diet in mice. The extract increased unfolded protein response in the liver, while attenuated antigen presentation and processing in the spleen. Oil palm phenolics also increased the expression of antioxidant genes in the heart. A majority of the genes regulated by oil palm phenolics in the different organs showed a difference in direction of regulation when compared to the atherogenic diet.

SAMBANTHAMURTHI RAVIGADEVI; TAN YEW AI; P MANICKAM KALYANA SUNDRAM; WAHID MOHD BASRI

28

Framing the Consequences of Childhood Obesity to Increase Public Support for Obesity Prevention Policy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objectives. We examined the effects of messages describing consequences of childhood obesity on public attitudes about obesity prevention policy. Methods. We collected data from 2 nationally representative Internet-based surveys. First, respondents (n?=?444) evaluated the strength of 11 messages about obesity's consequences as reasons for government action. Second, we randomly assigned respondents (n?=?2494) to a control group or to treatment groups shown messages about obesity consequences. We compared groups' attitudes toward obesity prevention, stratified by political ideology. Results. Respondents perceived a message about the health consequences of childhood obesity as the strongest rationale for government action; messages about military readiness, bullying, and health care costs were rated particularly strong by conservatives, moderates, and liberals, respectively. A message identifying the consequences of obesity on military readiness increased conservatives' perceptions of seriousness, endorsement of responsibility beyond the individual, and policy support, compared with a control condition. Conclusions. The public considers several consequences of childhood obesity as strong justification for obesity prevention policy. Activating new or unexpected values in framing a health message could raise the health issue's salience for particular subgroups of the public. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print September 12, 2013: e1-e7. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301271).

Gollust SE; Niederdeppe J; Barry CL

2013-09-01

29

Latino church leaders' perspectives on childhood obesity prevention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity among Latino children is an increasing concern. Churches are settings that a majority of Latino families frequent on a regular basis. In addition to religious worship, churches supply social, emotional, and material support. Therefore, churches may be promising venues for obesity-prevention interventions engaging families and communities. PURPOSE: To qualitatively examine Latino church leaders' perspectives on childhood obesity and insights on obesity-prevention programming in faith-based community settings in South Texas. METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted between 2009 and 2011 with a purposive sample of 35 Latino church leaders from 18 churches in San Antonio, Texas. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Inductive analysis was performed to identify themes. RESULTS: The results revealed that participants were knowledgeable about the severity and health consequences of childhood obesity, and the extent to which it was affecting members of their congregations. Participants discussed the interconnection between one's faith and health (i.e., one's body as "God's Temple"). They suggested that churches could serve as a conduit for obesity-prevention programs that offer faith-oriented health education, cooking classes, and fun physical activity opportunities for both parents and children. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals the strong potential of faith-based communities to serve as an intervention setting with the needed infrastructure for implementing effective obesity-prevention strategies.

He M; Wilmoth S; Bustos D; Jones T; Leeds J; Yin Z

2013-03-01

30

Childhood obesity: know it to prevent it.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Obesity can be defined as an excess of adipose tissue. It is associated to a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia. The results of the Italian survey called Okkio alla Salute (2010), which was attended over 42'000 students of third-class of primary school and 44'000 parents, confirm bad eating habits, sedentary lifestyles and excess weight. In particular, 22,9% of the children resulted overweight and 11,1% obese. The prevalence of obesity is higher in the south of Italy than in the north and in males rather than in females. Moreover, parents do not always have a real idea of the physical aspect of their son: 36% of the mothers of overweight or obese children are do not believe their child is overweight. Just 29% of them think that the quantity of food eaten by their child is excessive. The relative risk for an obese child to become an obese adult increases with the age and is directly correlated to the severity of overweight. Among obese children of preschool age, 26 to 41% will be an obese adult., Among scholar children, the percentage increases to 69%. The paper describes a multidisciplinary approach the disease, in fact, dietary and behavioural modifications, associated with physical activity, have the purpose of educate overweight and of preventing the onset of complications or reducing their severity if already present and reversible.

Bozzola M; Bozzola E; Abela S; Amato S

2012-05-01

31

An internet obesity prevention program for adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To compare the effectiveness of two school-based internet obesity prevention programs for diverse adolescents on body mass index (BMI), health behaviors, and self-efficacy, and to explore moderators of program efficacy. It was hypothesized that the addition of coping skills training to a health education and behavioral support program would further enhance health outcomes. METHODS: A randomized clinical trial with cluster randomization by class and repeated measures with follow-up at 3 and 6 months was conducted (n = 384). BMI was assessed by use of standard procedures. Sedentary behavior, physical activity, nutrition behavior, self-efficacy, and satisfaction were assessed with self-report measures. Data analysis consisted of mixed model analyses with autoregressive covariance structure for repeated data by use of intent-to-treat procedures. RESULTS: The mean age of students was 15.31 years (±0.69), with a mean BMI of 24.69 (±5.58). The majority were girls (62%) and of diverse race/ethnicity (65% non-white). There were no significant differences between groups on any outcomes and no change in BMI over time. There were significant improvements in health behaviors (sedentary behavior, moderate and vigorous physical activity, healthy eating, fruit and vegetable intake, sugar beverages, and junk food intake) and self-efficacy. Gender and lesson completion moderated select health outcomes. There was excellent participation and high satisfaction with the programs. CONCLUSIONS: School-based internet obesity prevention programs are appealing to adolescents and improve health behaviors. The differential effect of coping skills training may require longer follow-up.

Whittemore R; Jeon S; Grey M

2013-04-01

32

Designing Insurance to Promote Use of Childhood Obesity Prevention Services  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood obesity is a recognized public health crisis. This paper reviews the lessons learned from a voluntary initiative to expand insurance coverage for childhood obesity prevention and treatment services in the United States. In-depth telephone interviews were conducted with key informants from 16 participating health plans and employers in 2010-11. Key informants reported difficulty ensuring that both providers and families were aware of the available services. Participating health plans and employers are beginning new tactics including removing enrollment requirements, piloting enhanced outreach to selected physician practices, and educating providers on effective care coordination and use of obesity-specific billing codes through professional organizations. The voluntary initiative successfully increased private health insurance coverage for obesity services, but the interviews described variability in implementation with both best practices and barriers identified. Increasing utilization of obesity-related health services in the long term will require both family- and provider-focused interventions in partnership with improved health insurance coverage.

Rask, Kimberly J.; Gazmararian, Julie A.; Kohler, Susan S.; Hawley, Jonathan N.; Bogard, Jenny; Brown, Victoria A.

2013-01-01

33

Designing insurance to promote use of childhood obesity prevention services.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Childhood obesity is a recognized public health crisis. This paper reviews the lessons learned from a voluntary initiative to expand insurance coverage for childhood obesity prevention and treatment services in the United States. In-depth telephone interviews were conducted with key informants from 16 participating health plans and employers in 2010-11. Key informants reported difficulty ensuring that both providers and families were aware of the available services. Participating health plans and employers are beginning new tactics including removing enrollment requirements, piloting enhanced outreach to selected physician practices, and educating providers on effective care coordination and use of obesity-specific billing codes through professional organizations. The voluntary initiative successfully increased private health insurance coverage for obesity services, but the interviews described variability in implementation with both best practices and barriers identified. Increasing utilization of obesity-related health services in the long term will require both family- and provider-focused interventions in partnership with improved health insurance coverage.

Rask KJ; Gazmararian JA; Kohler SS; Hawley JN; Bogard J; Brown VA

2013-01-01

34

Preventive effect of embelin from embelia ribes on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

A high-fat diet (HFD) results in hyperlipidemia and an increase in oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preventive effect of embelin against hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in HFD-induced obesity in rats. Male Wistar rats aged 12 weeks (150-200 g) were fed with an HFD for a period of 28 days to induce experimental obesity. HFD-induced obese rats were treated with embelin (50 mg/kg) or orlistat (10 mg/kg) for 21 days. A range of parameters were tested including body weight gain, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, visceral fat pad weights, serum levels of glucose, insulin, leptin, apolipoprotein B (ApoB), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH). Twenty-one days of embelin (50 mg/kg) treatment produced effects similar to orlistat in reducing body weight gain, blood pressure, visceral fat pad weight, serum lipid levels, as well as coronary artery risk and atherogenic indices of HFD-fed rats. Embelin treatment also lowered the serum levels of glucose by 24.77 %, insulin by 35.03 %, and leptin by 43.39 %. Furthermore, embelin treatment significantly (p < 0.01) decreased the hepatic TBARS levels, while increasing the SOD, CAT, and GSH levels in obese rats. The present study indicated the preventive effect of embelin in HFD-induced obesity and its related complications. Embelin could be valuable in the development of new drug therapies to prevent obesity, hyperlipidemia, and oxidative stress. PMID:22450777

Chaudhari, Hemantkumar Somabhai; Bhandari, Uma; Khanna, Geetika

2012-03-26

35

Preventive effect of embelin from embelia ribes on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A high-fat diet (HFD) results in hyperlipidemia and an increase in oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preventive effect of embelin against hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in HFD-induced obesity in rats. Male Wistar rats aged 12 weeks (150-200 g) were fed with an HFD for a period of 28 days to induce experimental obesity. HFD-induced obese rats were treated with embelin (50 mg/kg) or orlistat (10 mg/kg) for 21 days. A range of parameters were tested including body weight gain, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, visceral fat pad weights, serum levels of glucose, insulin, leptin, apolipoprotein B (ApoB), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH). Twenty-one days of embelin (50 mg/kg) treatment produced effects similar to orlistat in reducing body weight gain, blood pressure, visceral fat pad weight, serum lipid levels, as well as coronary artery risk and atherogenic indices of HFD-fed rats. Embelin treatment also lowered the serum levels of glucose by 24.77 %, insulin by 35.03 %, and leptin by 43.39 %. Furthermore, embelin treatment significantly (p < 0.01) decreased the hepatic TBARS levels, while increasing the SOD, CAT, and GSH levels in obese rats. The present study indicated the preventive effect of embelin in HFD-induced obesity and its related complications. Embelin could be valuable in the development of new drug therapies to prevent obesity, hyperlipidemia, and oxidative stress.

Chaudhari HS; Bhandari U; Khanna G

2012-05-01

36

Advances and controversies in the design of obesity prevention trials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because randomized controlled trial designs are used more frequently to evaluate obesity prevention programs, nuances in the methodology used for this application become apparent. Areas of attention are the selection of outcome measures with high validity, attention to the description of the intervention, the use of analyses that match the sampling design, and dealing with loss to follow-up. We recommend increased use of preliminary or evidentiary research designed to develop and test intervention components and hypothesized mediators before fully powered, randomized, obesity prevention trials are attempted. Both randomized and observational designs can be used for the purpose. Attention to design issues will ultimately lead to more successful, cost-effective randomized trials, and more rapid movement toward efficacious and effective obesity prevention programs. PMID:17890483

Stevens, June; Taber, Daniel R; Murray, David M; Ward, Dianne S

2007-09-01

37

Advances and controversies in the design of obesity prevention trials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Because randomized controlled trial designs are used more frequently to evaluate obesity prevention programs, nuances in the methodology used for this application become apparent. Areas of attention are the selection of outcome measures with high validity, attention to the description of the intervention, the use of analyses that match the sampling design, and dealing with loss to follow-up. We recommend increased use of preliminary or evidentiary research designed to develop and test intervention components and hypothesized mediators before fully powered, randomized, obesity prevention trials are attempted. Both randomized and observational designs can be used for the purpose. Attention to design issues will ultimately lead to more successful, cost-effective randomized trials, and more rapid movement toward efficacious and effective obesity prevention programs.

Stevens J; Taber DR; Murray DM; Ward DS

2007-09-01

38

Orlistat in the prevention of diabetes in the obese patient  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Marcio C Mancini, Alfredo HalpernObesity and Metabolic Syndrome Group, Endocrinology and Metabolism Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, BrazilAbstract: There has been an increase in the concern about preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a disease with great and increasing prevalence. The prevalence of obesity, physical inactivity, Western processed diet, important risk factors for the development of T2DM, are also rising. Free fatty acids are increased in obesity and reduce insulin clearance and increase hepatic glucose production. Implementation of a healthy lifestyle has been show to slow the progression of impaired glucose tolerance to T2DM. Orlistat is an inhibitor of lipase activity, with proved efficacy in body weight reduction and long-term management of obesity and more favorable effects on carbohydrate metabolism and it was prospectively shown in XENDOS study that orlistat promoted long-term weight loss and prevented T2DM onset in obese individuals with normal and impaired glucose tolerance at baseline over four years. This benefit could be associated to the weight loss itself, to the limited absorption of lipids and reduction of plasma free fatty acids, to increased production of incretins or to modulation of secretion of cytokines by adipocytes, all effects secondary to orlistat treatment. A proposed strategy is to identify subjects at highest risk to receive a drug intervention, using lifestyle interventions alone at the community level.Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, prevention, diabesity, obesity, metabolic syndrome, orlistat

Marcio C Mancini; Alfredo Halpern

2008-01-01

39

[Responsibility and solidarity in obesity prevention].  

Science.gov (United States)

Attempts to solve the problem of obesity raise controversies regarding individual responsibility and solidarity. The arguments concern which burdens are to be carried privately and which are to be absorbed collectively. To some extent, the disputes stem from a reluctance to acknowledge that obesity in fact covers two issues: the first, i.e., the social issue, covers the prevalence of obesity and is thus determined by quantity. The second, i.e., the individual issue, is determined by quality and addresses individual behavior and choice. On grounds of this distinction, it can be argued that there is a collective duty to show solidarity with concerned persons. Moreover society as a whole has to acknowledge responsibility with regard to the causation and alteration of conditions that prevent individuals from being as slim as they want to be. Not until autonomy in this respect can be factually exercised, is the claim for self-responsibility legitimate. PMID:19330271

Kaminisky, C

2009-05-01

40

[Responsibility and solidarity in obesity prevention].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Attempts to solve the problem of obesity raise controversies regarding individual responsibility and solidarity. The arguments concern which burdens are to be carried privately and which are to be absorbed collectively. To some extent, the disputes stem from a reluctance to acknowledge that obesity in fact covers two issues: the first, i.e., the social issue, covers the prevalence of obesity and is thus determined by quantity. The second, i.e., the individual issue, is determined by quality and addresses individual behavior and choice. On grounds of this distinction, it can be argued that there is a collective duty to show solidarity with concerned persons. Moreover society as a whole has to acknowledge responsibility with regard to the causation and alteration of conditions that prevent individuals from being as slim as they want to be. Not until autonomy in this respect can be factually exercised, is the claim for self-responsibility legitimate.

Kaminisky C

2009-05-01

 
 
 
 
41

Barriers to obesity prevention in Head Start.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Head Start provides early childhood education to nearly one million low-income children, through federal grants to more than 2,000 local programs. About one-third of children who enter Head Start are overweight or obese. But program directors face difficulty in implementing policies and practices to address obesity-and in our national survey, they identified the key barriers as lack of time, money, and knowledge. Also, parents and staff sometimes shared cultural beliefs that were inconsistent with preventing obesity, such as the belief that heavier children are healthier. Minimizing those barriers will require federal resources to increase staff training and technical assistance, develop staff wellness programs, and provide healthy meals and snacks.

Hughes CC; Gooze RA; Finkelstein DM; Whitaker RC

2010-03-01

42

Barriers to obesity prevention in Head Start.  

Science.gov (United States)

Head Start provides early childhood education to nearly one million low-income children, through federal grants to more than 2,000 local programs. About one-third of children who enter Head Start are overweight or obese. But program directors face difficulty in implementing policies and practices to address obesity-and in our national survey, they identified the key barriers as lack of time, money, and knowledge. Also, parents and staff sometimes shared cultural beliefs that were inconsistent with preventing obesity, such as the belief that heavier children are healthier. Minimizing those barriers will require federal resources to increase staff training and technical assistance, develop staff wellness programs, and provide healthy meals and snacks. PMID:20194987

Hughes, Cayce C; Gooze, Rachel A; Finkelstein, Daniel M; Whitaker, Robert C

43

Obesity in American-Indian children: prevalence, consequences, and prevention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: American Indians of all ages and both sexes have a high prevalence of obesity. The health risks associated with obesity are numerous and include Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and respiratory problems. Obesity has become a major health problem in American Indians only in the past few generations and it is believed to be associated with the relative abundance of high-fat, high-calorie foods and the rapid change from active to sedentary lifestyles. METHODS: The authors reviewed selected literature on prevalence of obesity in American-Indian children, and health consequences of obesity. RESULTS: Obesity is now one of the most serious public health problems facing American-Indian children, and it has grave implications for the immediate and long-term health of American-Indian youth. Unless this pattern is reversed, American-Indian populations will be burdened by an increased incidence of chronic diseases. Intervention studies are urgently needed in American-Indian communities to develop and test effective strategies for obesity prevention and treatment. CONCLUSIONS: To be effective, educational and environmental interventions must be developed with full participation of the American-Indian communities.

Story M; Stevens J; Himes J; Stone E; Rock BH; Ethelbah B; Davis S

2003-12-01

44

Latino parents' perceptions of their ability to prevent obesity in their children.  

Science.gov (United States)

The obesity epidemic in Latino children has reached staggering proportions. This study explored Latino parents' perceptions of their ability to prevent obesity in children. Three focus groups were conducted with 26 Latino parents of preschoolers at a New York City Head Start program. Parents perceived high levels of ability to prevent obesity primarily via dietary influence. Four factors negatively impacted parents' ability: family history, intergenerational and interparental issues, adolescence, and societal pressures. Culturally effective, family-based obesity interventions among Latinos should build upon parental perceptions of ability to prevent obesity, while simultaneously helping parents address the factors they perceive challenge this ability. PMID:21135624

Glassman, Melissa E; Figueroa, Marilyn; Irigoyen, Matilde

45

Latino parents' perceptions of their ability to prevent obesity in their children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The obesity epidemic in Latino children has reached staggering proportions. This study explored Latino parents' perceptions of their ability to prevent obesity in children. Three focus groups were conducted with 26 Latino parents of preschoolers at a New York City Head Start program. Parents perceived high levels of ability to prevent obesity primarily via dietary influence. Four factors negatively impacted parents' ability: family history, intergenerational and interparental issues, adolescence, and societal pressures. Culturally effective, family-based obesity interventions among Latinos should build upon parental perceptions of ability to prevent obesity, while simultaneously helping parents address the factors they perceive challenge this ability.

Glassman ME; Figueroa M; Irigoyen M

2011-01-01

46

Pharmacologic prevention of venous thromboembolism in obese patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Venous thromboembolism, a collective term for pulmonary embolism and deep venous thrombosis accounts for a large amount of mortality and morbidity in hospitalized patients. Obesity has been considered as an important risk factor for the development of venous thromboembolism. Anticoagulation with fixed doses of low molecular weight heparin, anti-factor Xa inhibitors and unfractionated heparin is widely used in hospitals and has shown to be an effective measure in prevention of venous thromboembolism in multiple major randomized, double-blind controlled trials. Appropriate dosing of anticoagulation in obese patients is still controversial, since obese and morbidly obese population of patients is consistently underrepresented or often excluded from most clinical trials, raising a concern for adequacy of standard dosing in this high risk population. PMID:23180282

Bakirhan, K; Strakhan, M

2013-10-01

47

Indian students' perspectives on obesity and school-based obesity prevention: a qualitative examination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Childhood obesity has recently been reported as a growing problem in low- and middle-income countries. One potential prevention strategy is to apply effective obesity prevention approaches from the United States and/or other Western countries into programs that can be implemented in developing countries such as India. The purpose of this study was to explore Indian students' perceptions of social-contextual factors related to obesity and whether they perceived a role for school-based obesity prevention. This study was conducted as a first step in a model to translate interventions from one culture to another. A total of 183 fourth- and fifth-grade students of middle socioeconomic status participated in focus group discussions. Analyses were guided by the essential principles of qualitative research and informed by social cognitive and social ecological theories. Results yielded five relevant themes: (a) student health behavior knowledge, (b) parental influence on health behavior, (c) school influence on health behavior, (d) media influence on health behavior, and (e) contexts for health promotion intervention. We found that students had moderate knowledge related to health behaviors (i.e., food intake and physical activity); that parents, schools, and the media are all important contributors to healthy and unhealthy behavior; and that schools can play an important role in the prevention of obesity. Results suggest that Indian middle socioeconomic status students are already moderately aware of the health benefits to nutritious food intake and physical activity, but parents, schools, and the media can influence unhealthy behaviors.

Riggs N; Tewari A; Stigler M; Rodrigues L; Arora M; Khubchandani J; Simmons R; Pentz MA

2013-11-01

48

Childhood obesity prevention from cell to society.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nearly 40% of US children are overweight or obese. We propose that a cell-to-society integrative approach is needed that takes into account biology, early child development, home and childcare environments, and public policy. This approach requires researchers, families, and policy makers to work together to develop preventative strategies and interventions that benefit the nutrition and wellbeing of young children and their families, and ultimately the health of the nation.

Fiese BH; Bost KK; McBride BA; Donovan SM

2013-08-01

49

Childhood obesity prevention from cell to society.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nearly 40% of US children are overweight or obese. We propose that a cell-to-society integrative approach is needed that takes into account biology, early child development, home and childcare environments, and public policy. This approach requires researchers, families, and policy makers to work together to develop preventative strategies and interventions that benefit the nutrition and wellbeing of young children and their families, and ultimately the health of the nation. PMID:23608162

Fiese, Barbara H; Bost, Kelly K; McBride, Brent A; Donovan, Sharon M

2013-04-19

50

Efficacy trial of a selective prevention program targeting both eating disorders and obesity among female college students: 1- and 2-year follow-up effects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effects of a prevention program targeting both eating disorders and obesity at 1- and 2-year follow-ups. METHOD: Female college students at risk for these outcomes because of body image concerns (N = 398) were randomized to the Healthy Weight 2 group-based 4-hr prevention program, which promotes lasting healthy improvements to dietary intake and physical activity and nutrition science health behavior change principles, or an educational brochure control condition. RESULTS: Intervention participants showed significantly less body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms and lower eating disorder onset through 2-year follow-up versus controls, but the former 2 effects were small. There were no main effects for body mass index (BMI), depressive symptoms, dieting, caloric intake, physical activity, or obesity onset. Moderator analyses revealed stronger eating disorder symptom effects for youths with initially elevated symptoms and lower pressure to be thin, stronger BMI effects for youths with initially elevated symptoms and BMI scores, and weaker eating disorder symptom effects for youths with initially elevated pressure to be thin. CONCLUSIONS: The 60% reduction in eating disorder onset over the 2-year follow-up was clinically significant and a novel effect for a prevention program, but the main effects on continuous outcomes were small, suggesting that adding nutrition science principles weakened the intervention efficacy. Effects on both eating disorder symptoms and BMI were greater for those with elevated eating disorder symptoms and BMI at pretest, implying that it might be useful to target these individuals in future trials.

Stice E; Rohde P; Shaw H; Marti CN

2013-02-01

51

Promoting obesity prevention together with environmental sustainability.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is mounting evidence that current food production, transport, land use and urban design negatively impact both climate change and obesity outcomes. Recommendations to prevent climate change provide an opportunity to improve environmental outcomes and alter our food and physical activity environments in favour of a 'healthier' energy balance. Hence, setting goals to achieve a more sustainable society offers a unique opportunity to reduce levels of obesity. In the case of children, this approach is supported with evidence that even from a young age they show emerging understandings of complex environmental issues and are capable of both internalizing positive environmental values and influencing their own environmental outcomes. Given young children's high levels of environmental awareness, it is easy to see how environmental sustainability messages may help educate and motivate children to make 'healthier' choices. The purpose of this paper is to highlight a new approach to tackling childhood obesity by tapping into existing social movements, such as environmental sustainability, in order to increase children's motivation for healthy eating and physical activity behaviours and thus foster more wholesome communities. We contend that a social marketing framework may be a particularly useful tool to foster behaviour change beneficial to both personal and environmental health by increasing perceived benefits and reducing perceived costs of behaviour change. Consequently, we propose a new framework which highlights suggested pathways for helping children initiate and sustain 'healthier' behaviours in order to inform future research and potentially childhood obesity intervention strategies.

Skouteris H; Cox R; Huang T; Rutherford L; Edwards S; Cutter-Mackenzie A

2013-02-01

52

Mobile text messaging solutions for obesity prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

Cellular telephony has become a bright example of co-evolution of human society and information technology. This trend has also been reflected in health care and health promotion projects which included cell phones in data collection and communication chain. While many successful projects have been realized, the review of phone-based data collection techniques reveals that the existing technologies do not completely address health promotion research needs. The paper presents approaches which close this gap by extending existing versatile platforms. The messaging systems are designed for a health-promotion research to prevent obesity and obesity-related health disparities among low-income Latino adolescent girls. Messaging and polling mechanisms are used to communicate and automatically process response data for the target constituency. Preliminary survey data provide an insight on phone availability and technology perception for the study group.

Akopian, David; Jayaram, Varun; Aaleswara, Lakshmipathi; Esfahanian, Moosa; Mojica, Cynthia; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Kaghyan, Sahak

2011-02-01

53

Preventive and ameliorating effects of citrus d-limonene on dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

d-limonene is a major constituent in citrus essential oil, which is used in various foods as a flavoring agent. Recently, d-limonene has been reported to alleviate fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet. Here we determined the preventive and therapeutic effects of d-limonene on metabolic disorders in mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity. In the preventive treatment, d-limonene decreased the size of white and brown adipocytes, lowered serum triglyceride (TG) and fasting blood glucose levels, and prevented liver lipid accumulations in high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. In the therapeutic treatment, d-limonene reduced serum TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and fasting blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance, and increased serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in obese mice. Using a reporter assay and gene expression analysis, we found that d-limonene activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-? signaling, and inhibited liver X receptor (LXR)-? signaling. Our data suggest that the intake of d-limonene may benefit patients with dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia and is a potential dietary supplement for preventing and ameliorating metabolic disorders. PMID:23838456

Jing, Li; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Shengjie; Gu, Ming; Guan, Yu; Lu, Xiong; Huang, Cheng; Zhou, Zhiqin

2013-07-06

54

The role of schools in obesity prevention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mary Story, Karen Kaphingst, and Simone French argue that U.S. schools offer many opportunities for developing obesity-prevention strategies by providing more nutritious food, offering greater opportunities for physical activity, and providing obesity-related health services. Meals at school are available both through the U.S. Department of Agriculture's school breakfast and lunch programs and through "competitive foods" sold a la carte in cafeterias, vending machines, and snack bars. School breakfasts and school lunches must meet federal nutrition standards, but competitive foods are exempt from such requirements. And budget pressures force schools to sell the popular but nutritionally poor foods a la carte. Public discomfort with the school food environment is growing. But can schools provide more healthful food options without losing money? Limited evidence shows that they can. Although federal nutrition regulations are inadequate, they permit state and local authorities to impose additional restrictions. And many are doing so. Some states limit sales of nonnutritious foods, and many large school districts restrict competitive foods. Several interventions have changed school food environments, for example, by reducing fat content of food in vending machines and making more fruits and vegetables available. Interventions are just beginning to target the availability of competitive foods. Other pressures can also compromise schools' efforts to encourage physical activity. As states use standardized tests to hold schools and students academically accountable, physical education and recess have become a lower priority. But some states are now mandating and promoting more physical activity in schools. School health services can also help address obesity by providing screening, health information, and referrals to students, especially low-income students, who are at high risk of obesity, tend to be underinsured, and may not receive health services elsewhere.

Story M; Kaphingst KM; French S

2006-01-01

55

Patterns of Childhood Obesity Prevention Legislation in the United States  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available IntroductionBecause of the public’s growing awareness of the childhood obesity epidemic, health policies that address obesogenic environments by encouraging healthy eating and increased physical activity are gaining more attention. However, there has been little systematic examination of state policy efforts. This study identified and described state-level childhood obesity prevention legislation introduced and adopted from 2003 through 2005 and attempted to identify regional geographic patterns of introduced legislation.MethodsA scan of legislation from all 50 states identified 717 bills and 134 resolutions that met study inclusion criteria. Analyses examined patterns in the introduction and adoption of legislation by time, topic area, and geography.ResultsOverall, 17% of bills and 53% of resolutions were adopted. The amount of legislation introduced and adopted increased from 2003 through 2005. The topic areas with the most introduced legislation were school nutrition standards and vending machines (n = 238); physical education and physical activity (n = 191); and studies, councils, or task forces (n = 110). Community-related topic areas of walking and biking paths (37%), farmers’ markets (36%), and statewide initiatives (30%) had the highest proportion of bills adopted, followed by model school policies (29%) and safe routes to school (28%). Some regional geographic patterns in the introduction of legislation were observed. There was no statistical association between state-level adult obesity prevalence and introduction of legislation.ConclusionPublic health and health policy practitioners can use this information to improve advocacy efforts and strengthen the political climate for establishing childhood obesity prevention legislation within state governments. Expanded surveillance (including standardized identification and cataloging) of introduced and adopted legislation will enhance the ability to assess progress and identify effective approaches. Future policy research should examine determinants, implementation, and effectiveness of legislation to prevent childhood obesity.

Tegan K. Boehmer, PhD, MPH; Ross C. Brownson, PhD; Debra Haire-Joshu, PhD; Mariah L. Dreisinger

2007-01-01

56

Motivation and health behavior in the prevention of childhood obesity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objectives of the present thesis were to investigate self-efficacy and motivational interviewing as motivational frameworks for health behavior change in the prevention of childhood obesity, and to explore child health services as a setting for childhood obesity prevention. Specifically, the the...

Bohman, Benjamin

57

Obesity Prevention Opinions of School Stakeholders: A Qualitative Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: In general, schools are an important setting to implement current recommendations for obesity prevention in children because the vast majority of children attend school. This study investigated the opinions of different school stakeholders on the feasibility and acceptability of current obesity prevention strategies that could be…

Della Torre, Sophie Bucher; Akre, Christina; Suris, Joan-Carles

2010-01-01

58

Effectiveness of prevention programmes for obesity and chronic diseases among immigrants to developed countries - a systematic review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether interventions tailored specifically to particular immigrant groups from developing to developed countries decrease the risk of obesity and obesity-related diseases. DESIGN: Databases searched were MEDLINE (1966-September 2008), CINAHL (1982-September 2008) and PsychINFO (1960-September 2008), as well as Sociological Abstracts, PsychARTICLES, Science Direct, Web of Knowledge and Google Scholar. Studies were included if they were randomised control trials, 'quasi-randomised' trials or controlled before-and-after studies. Due to the heterogeneity of study characteristics only a narrative synthesis was undertaken, describing the target population, type and reported impact of the intervention and the effect size. RESULTS: Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Ten out of thirteen (77 %) studies focused on diabetes, seven (70 %) of which showed significant improvement in addressing diabetes-related behaviours and glycaemic control. The effect on diabetes was greater in culturally tailored and facilitated interventions that encompassed multiple strategies. Six out of the thirteen studies (46 %) incorporated anthropometric data, physical activity and healthy eating as ways to minimise weight gain and diabetes-related outcomes. Of the six interventions that included anthropometric data, only two (33 %) reported improvement in BMI Z-scores, total skinfold thickness or proportion of body fat. Only one in three (33 %) of the studies that included cardiovascular risk factors reported improvement in diastolic blood pressure after adjusting for baseline characteristics. All studies, except four, were of poor quality (small sample size, poor internal consistency of scale, not controlling for baseline characteristics). CONCLUSIONS: Due to the small number of studies included in the present review, the findings that culturally tailored and facilitated interventions produce better outcomes than generalised interventions, and that intervention content is more important than the duration or venue, require further investigation.

Renzaho AM; Mellor D; Boulton K; Swinburn B

2010-03-01

59

Nutraceutical Approach for Preventing Obesity-Related Colorectal and Liver Carcinogenesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity and its related metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, alterations in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)/IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) axis, and the state of chronic inflammation, increase the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, these findings also indicate that the metabolic disorders caused by obesity might be effective targets to prevent the development of CRC and HCC in obese individuals. Green tea catechins (GTCs) possess anticancer and chemopreventive properties against cancer in various organs, including the colorectum and liver. GTCs have also been known to exert anti-obesity, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory effects, indicating that GTCs might be useful for the prevention of obesity-associated colorectal and liver carcinogenesis. Further, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), which improve protein malnutrition and prevent progressive hepatic failure in patients with chronic liver diseases, might be also effective for the suppression of obesity-related carcinogenesis because oral supplementation with BCAA reduces the risk of HCC in obese cirrhotic patients. BCAA shows these beneficial effects because they can improve insulin resistance. Here, we review the detailed relationship between metabolic abnormalities and the development of CRC and HCC. We also review evidence, especially that based on our basic and clinical research using GTCs and BCAA, which indicates that targeting metabolic abnormalities by either pharmaceutical or nutritional intervention may be an effective strategy to prevent the development of CRC and HCC in obese individuals.

Masahito Shimizu; Masaya Kubota; Takuji Tanaka; Hisataka Moriwaki

2012-01-01

60

Generating better evidence to engage local food outlets in obesity prevention research.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Participation from the business community is critical to effectively addressing the problem of obesity. This commentary builds on the recent Institute of Medicine report - Accelerating Progress in Obesity Prevention - which calls for participation from the business community, particularly food outlets, to effectively address the problem of obesity. This commentary specifically discusses the importance of collecting information on fiscal-related outcomes (e.g., revenue) in order to better engage local food outlets in obesity prevention activities in the community. The routine collection of fiscal indicators in obesity prevention studies is critical so that the argument for more involvement from local food outlets, particularly for those interventions which are revenue positive or revenue neutral, can be more persuasively made.

Bleich SN

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
61

TRANSGENIC EXPRESSION OF MYOSTATIN PROPEPTIDE PREVENTS DIET-INDUCED OBESITY AND INSULIN RESISTANCE  

Science.gov (United States)

High-fat diet induces obesity and insulin resistance. To study effects of enhanced muscles on obesity prevention, we generated transgenic mice through muscle-specific expression of the prodomain (the 5’-region 886 nucleotides) of myostatin, a key gene that plays a negative role in controlling muscle...

62

COMPOSITION COMPRISING ORLISTAT AND A STOOL SOFTNER FOR PREVENTING OR TREATING OBESITY  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A composition preventing or treating obesity is provided to improve a side effect that fatty is flown into anus by comprising an orlistat and a stool softener and to be usefully used as a safe corpulence treating agent. A composition preventing or treating obesity comprises an orlistat and a stool softener. The stool softener is selected from docusate sodium, a mineral oil, glycerine or a mixture thereof. The composition preventing or treating obesity additionally includes a surfactant, a water-insoluble inorganic material, a sucrose fatty acid ester, a pharmaceutical additive or a mixture thereof.

WOO JONG SOO; YI HONG GI; PARK JEONG HEE; KIM YONG IL

63

Child obesity prevention in primary health care: investigating practice nurse roles, attitudes and current practices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: Overweight and obesity affects approximately 20% of Australian pre-schoolers. The general practice nurse (PN) workforce has increased in recent years; however, little is known of PN capacity and potential to provide routine advice for the prevention of child obesity. This mixed methods pilot study aims to explore the current practices, attitudes, confidence and training needs of Australian PNs surrounding child obesity prevention in the general practice setting. METHODS: PNs from three Divisions of General Practice in New South Wales were invited to complete a questionnaire investigating PN roles, attitudes and practices in preventive care with a focus on child obesity. A total of 59 questionnaires were returned (response rate 22%). Semi-structured qualitative interviews were also conducted with a subsample of PNs (n = 10). RESULTS: Questionnaire respondent demographics were similar to that of national PN data. PNs described preventive work as enjoyable despite some perceived barriers including lack of confidence. Number of years working in general practice did not appear to strongly influence nurses' perceived barriers. Seventy per cent of PNs were interested in being more involved in conducting child health checks in practice, and 85% expressed an interest in taking part in child obesity prevention training. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this pilot study suggest that PNs are interested in prevention of child obesity despite barriers to practice and low confidence levels. More research is needed to determine the effect of training on PN confidence and behaviours in providing routine healthy life-style messages for the prevention of child obesity.

Robinson A; Denney-Wilson E; Laws R; Harris M

2013-04-01

64

Faculty and staff development strategies to prevent childhood obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Childhood obesity prevention and management is currently a priority health focus in the United States. Graduates of nursing programs and practicing registered nurses must be competent to implement interventions and programs to assess, prevent, and manage childhood obesity in acute care and community settings. This article provides an overview of the scope of the problem and recommendations from relevant health organizations. Nurse and staff educators are provided with specific content and teaching strategies for the prevention and management of childhood obesity for developing the knowledge and skills of nursing students, staff nurses, and advanced practice nurses.

Rubenstein CD

2012-11-01

65

The possibility of regulating for obesity prevention--understanding regulation in the Commonwealth Government.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A complex regulatory package is likely to be necessary to effectively reduce obesity prevalence in developed countries. This study investigated the barriers and facilitators to implementing regulatory interventions to prevent obesity within the executive arm of the Australian Commonwealth Government. Policy reviews were conducted on nine government departments to understand their roles and interests in obesity. From this process we identified regulatory review carried out by the Office of Best Practice Regulation as possibly posing a barrier to law reform for obesity prevention, along with the complexity of the food policymaking structures. The policy reviews informed subsequent in-depth semi-structured interviews with senior Commonwealth government officers (n = 13) focused on refining our understanding of the barriers to enacting obesity prevention policy. In addition to the two barriers already identified, interviewees identified a lack of evidence for interventions, which would reduce obesity prevalence, and the influence of politicians on executive decisions as posing obstacles. Most interviewees believed that the barriers to regulating to prevent obesity were strong and that intervention by elected politicians would be the most likely method of implementing obesity prevention policy.

Crammond B; Van C; Allender S; Peeters A; Lawrence M; Sacks G; Mavoa H; Swinburn BA; Loff B

2013-03-01

66

Legal Strategies in Childhood Obesity Prevention: Workshop Summary.  

Science.gov (United States)

Partial Contents: Introduction; Legal approaches in other areas; Actions by federal agencies: a focus on foods and beverages; Perspectives from the food industry; Using regulations and taxes to prevent obesity; Using the law to increase physical activity;...

2011-01-01

67

Systematic review of community-based childhood obesity prevention studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study systematically reviewed community-based childhood obesity prevention programs in the United States and high-income countries. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, CINAHL, clinicaltrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library for relevant English-language studies. Studies were eligible if the intervention was primarily implemented in the community setting; had at least 1 year of follow-up after baseline; and compared results from an intervention to a comparison group. Two independent reviewers conducted title scans and abstract reviews and reviewed the full articles to assess eligibility. Each article received a double review for data abstraction. The second reviewer confirmed the first reviewer's data abstraction for completeness and accuracy. RESULTS: Nine community-based studies were included; 5 randomized controlled trials and 4 non-randomized controlled trials. One study was conducted only in the community setting, 3 were conducted in the community and school setting, and 5 were conducted in the community setting in combination with at least 1 other setting such as the home. Desirable changes in BMI or BMI z-score were found in 4 of the 9 studies. Two studies reported significant improvements in behavioral outcomes (1 in physical activity and 1 in vegetable intake). CONCLUSIONS: The strength of evidence is moderate that a combined diet and physical activity intervention conducted in the community with a school component is more effective at preventing obesity or overweight. More research and consistent methods are needed to understand the comparative effectiveness of childhood obesity prevention programs in the community setting.

Bleich SN; Segal J; Wu Y; Wilson R; Wang Y

2013-07-01

68

Okara, soybean residue, prevents obesity in a diet-induced murine obesity model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We examined the effect of okara on the prevention of obesity in mice. A modified AIN-76 diet with a high fat content (14.1% of crude fat) was used as a basal diet. Male ICR mice were fed ad libitum with the basal diet or a dried okara-supplemented basal diet (10, 20, or 40%) for 10 weeks. The okara intake dose-dependently suppressed the development of body weight and epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT), and prevented an increase of plasma lipids, including total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and non-esterified fatty acid. The okara intake also prevented steatosis in the liver. Real-time RT-PCR revealed that the okara intake induced down-regulation of the fatty acid synthetase gene and up-regulation of the cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) gene in the liver. We also found that the okara intake caused a marked reduction in the expression of leptin and TNF-alpha genes in EWAT. Our results suggest that okara is beneficial in preventing obesity.

Matsumoto K; Watanabe Y; Yokoyama S

2007-03-01

69

Okara, soybean residue, prevents obesity in a diet-induced murine obesity model.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined the effect of okara on the prevention of obesity in mice. A modified AIN-76 diet with a high fat content (14.1% of crude fat) was used as a basal diet. Male ICR mice were fed ad libitum with the basal diet or a dried okara-supplemented basal diet (10, 20, or 40%) for 10 weeks. The okara intake dose-dependently suppressed the development of body weight and epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT), and prevented an increase of plasma lipids, including total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and non-esterified fatty acid. The okara intake also prevented steatosis in the liver. Real-time RT-PCR revealed that the okara intake induced down-regulation of the fatty acid synthetase gene and up-regulation of the cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) gene in the liver. We also found that the okara intake caused a marked reduction in the expression of leptin and TNF-alpha genes in EWAT. Our results suggest that okara is beneficial in preventing obesity. PMID:17341837

Matsumoto, Kenji; Watanabe, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Shin-ichiro

2007-03-07

70

Childhood Obesity â?? Prevention Begins with Breastfeeding PSA (:60)  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This 60 second Public Service Announcement (PSA) is based on the August, 2011 CDC Vital Signs report. Childhood obesity is an epidemic in the US. Breastfeeding can help prevent obesity, but one in three moms stop without hospital support. About 95% of hospitals lack policies that fully support breastfeeding moms. Hospitals need to do more to help moms start and continue breastfeeding.  Created: 8/2/2011 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/2/2011.

2011-08-02

71

Local Government Actions to Prevent Childhood Obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

When people look back 50 years from now, childhood obesity may well stand out as the most important public health issue of our time. The prevalence of childhood obesity has tripled in just three decades, contributing to the ever more frequent appearance i...

A. C. Burns E. Sanchez L. Parker

2009-01-01

72

Provider perspectives on electronic decision supports for obesity prevention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite the availability of national evidenced-based guidelines related to pediatric obesity screening and prevention, multiple studies have shown that primary care physicians find it difficult to adhere to them or are unfamiliar with them altogether. This article presents physicians' perspectives on the use of electronic decision support tools, an alert and Smart Set, to accelerate the adoption of obesity-related recommendations into their practice. The authors interviewed providers using a test encounter walk-through technique that revealed a number of barriers to using electronic decision supports for obesity care in primary care settings. Providers' suggestions for improving their use of obesity-related decision supports are presented. Careful consideration must be given to both the development of electronic decision support tools and a multilayered educational outreach strategy if providers are going to be persuaded to use such supports to help them implement pediatric obesity prevention and management best practices.

Dryden EM; Hardin J; McDonald J; Taveras EM; Hacker K

2012-05-01

73

[The Social Experience of Being Obese. Obesity Prevention of Socially Deprived Adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Group discussions with obese teenagers and parents with obese children are the empirical basis of this research project. The results indicate that 'being fat' is primarily a social experience. Consequently, preventive measures to inhibit unhealthy lifestyle habits fail to go into sufficient depth. Overweight adolescents call for equality; they demand a more equal treatment in social interactions and relations.

Barlösius E; Fisser G; von Garmissen A

2013-08-01

74

A randomized controlled trial to prevent childhood obesity through early childhood feeding and parenting guidance: rationale and design of study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

DISCUSSION: This study will provide prospective data on the effects of an intervention to prevent childhood obesity in children at high risk for obesity due to ethnicity, income, and maternal body mass index (BMI). It will have wide-ranging applicability and the potential for rapid dissemination through the WIC program, and will demonstrate the effectiveness of a community approach though employing CHWs in preventing obesity during the first 3 years of life. This easy-to-implement obesity prevention intervention can be adapted for many locales and diverse communities and can provide evidence for policy change to influence health throughout life.Trial registration: Clinical Trials Number: NCT01905072.

Reifsnider E; McCormick DP; Cullen KW; Szalacha L; Moramarco MW; Diaz A; Reyna L

2013-09-01

75

The role of child care settings in obesity prevention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mary Story, Karen Kaphingst, and Simone French argue that researchers and policymakers focused on childhood obesity have paid insufficient attention to child care. Although child care settings can be a major force in shaping children's dietary intake, physical activity, and energy balance-and thus in combating the childhood obesity epidemic-researchers know relatively little about either the nutrition or the physical activity environment in the nation's child care facilities. What research exists suggests that the nutritional quality of meals and snacks may be poor and activity levels may be inadequate. Few uniform standards apply to nutrition or physical activity offerings in the nation's child care centers. With the exception of the federal Head Start program, child care facilities are regulated by states, and state rules vary widely. The authors argue that weak state standards governing physical activity and nutrition represent a missed opportunity to combat obesity. A relatively simple measure, such as specifying how much time children in day care should spend being physically active, could help promote healthful habits among young children. The authors note that several federal programs provide for the needs of low-income children in child care. The Child and Adult Care Food Program, administered by the Department of Agriculture, provides funds for meals and snacks for almost 3 million children in child care each day. Providers who receive funds must serve meals and snacks that meet certain minimal standards, but the authors argue for toughening those regulations so that meals and snacks meet specific nutrient-based standards. The authors cite Head Start, a federal preschool program serving some 900,000 low-income infants and children up to age five, as a model for other child care programs as it has federal performance standards for nutrition. Although many child care settings fall short in their nutritional and physical activity offerings, they offer untapped opportunities for developing and evaluating effective obesity-prevention strategies to reach both children and their parents.

Story M; Kaphingst KM; French S

2006-01-01

76

CEREALS AS BASIS OF PREVENTING NUTRITION AGAINST OBESITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Still more alarming obesity studies show in fact that it is largely due to incorrect diet and lifestyle. For suitable alternative for prevention of this disease are now considered cereal foods, mainly based on increased fiber content. The importance of dietary fiber for human organism consist primarily in its protective function before civilization diseases. It has beneficial effects on digestive physiology and it is therefore an important factor in the prevention of obesity, but also other diseases. Fiber consumption in developed countries is low and it is below the lower limit of the recommended dose. Slovaks per day take only 10-12 g of fiber, which represents only 47% of the recommended dose. Recent large-scale epidemiological studies have shown that regular consumption of wholegrain cereals can reduce the risk of heart disease and certain cancers by 30 percent. One of the factors that increase the functionality of foods is the so-called indigestible resistant starch. For its the positive impact on the physiology of digestion is referred to as prebiotics new generation of dietary fiber. The increasing availability of tasty, whole grain products rich in fiber could be health benefits. doi:10.5219/76

Lenka Ducho?ová; Ernest Šturdík

2010-01-01

77

Obesity Edging Smoking as No. 1 Preventable Killer of Americans  

Science.gov (United States)

Just as McDonald's announced it was phasing out its super-sized menu, a new study released by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) says obesity may replace smoking as the number one cause of preventable death in the United States.

Newshour Science Report (PBS;)

2008-05-02

78

The Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project : project overview and methods  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Obesity is increasing worldwide with the Pacific region having the highest prevalence among adults. The most common precursor of adult obesity is adolescent obesity making this a critical period for prevention. The Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project was a four-country project (Fiji, Tonga, New Zealand and Australia) designed to prevent adolescent obesity. This paper overviews the project and the methods common to the four countries. Each country implemented a community-based intervention programme promoting healthy eating, physical activity and healthy weight in adolescents. A community capacity-building approach was used, with common processes employed but with contextualized interventions within each country. Changes in anthropometric, behavioural and perception outcomes were evaluated at the individual level and school environments and community capacity at the settings level. The evaluation tools common to each are described. Additional analytical studies included economic, socio-cultural and policy studies. The project pioneered many areas of obesity prevention research: using multi-country collaboration to build research capacity; testing a capacity-building approach in ethnic groups with very high obesity prevalence; costing complex, long-term community intervention programmes; systematically studying the powerful socio-cultural influences on weight gain; and undertaking a participatory, national, priority-setting process for policy interventions using simulation modelling of cost-effectiveness of interventions.

Swinburn, B A; Millar, L

2011-01-01

79

Effect of adenovirus and influenza virus infection on obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the effects of adenovirus and influenza virus infections on obesity in various experimental models. We reviewed studies that were conducted within the past 10years and were related to virus infection and obesity prevalence. Here, we discuss a different causal relationship between adenovirus and influenza infections with obesity. Adenovirus infection can cause obesity, whereas obesity can be a risk factor for increasing influenza virus infection and increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of obesity due to adenovirus infections may be due to an increase in glucose uptake and reduction in lipolysis caused by an increase in corticosterone secretion. Adenovirus infections may lead to increases in appetite by decreasing norepinephrine and leptin levels and also cause immune dysfunction. The relationship between obesity and influenza virus infection could be summarized by the following features: decreases in memory T-cell functionality and interferon (IFN)-?, IFN-?, and IFN-? mRNA expression, increases in viral titer and infiltration, and impaired dendritic cell function in obese individuals. Moreover, leptin resistance may play an important role in increasing influenza virus infections in obese individuals. In conclusion, prevention of adenovirus infections could be a good approach for reducing obesity prevalence, and prevention of obesity could reduce influenza virus infections from the point of view of viral infections and obesity.

Hur SJ; Kim DH; Chun SC; Lee SK

2013-09-01

80

Effect of adenovirus and influenza virus infection on obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the effects of adenovirus and influenza virus infections on obesity in various experimental models. We reviewed studies that were conducted within the past 10years and were related to virus infection and obesity prevalence. Here, we discuss a different causal relationship between adenovirus and influenza infections with obesity. Adenovirus infection can cause obesity, whereas obesity can be a risk factor for increasing influenza virus infection and increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of obesity due to adenovirus infections may be due to an increase in glucose uptake and reduction in lipolysis caused by an increase in corticosterone secretion. Adenovirus infections may lead to increases in appetite by decreasing norepinephrine and leptin levels and also cause immune dysfunction. The relationship between obesity and influenza virus infection could be summarized by the following features: decreases in memory T-cell functionality and interferon (IFN)-?, IFN-?, and IFN-? mRNA expression, increases in viral titer and infiltration, and impaired dendritic cell function in obese individuals. Moreover, leptin resistance may play an important role in increasing influenza virus infections in obese individuals. In conclusion, prevention of adenovirus infections could be a good approach for reducing obesity prevalence, and prevention of obesity could reduce influenza virus infections from the point of view of viral infections and obesity. PMID:24007799

Hur, Sun Jin; Kim, Doo Hwan; Chun, Se Chul; Lee, Si Kyung

2013-09-02

 
 
 
 
81

Future Research Needs for Childhood Obesity Prevention Programs: Identification of Future Research Needs From Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 115  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of the Comparative Effectiveness Review (CER), Screening for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), prepared by the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association Technology Evaluation Center Evidence-based Practice Center (BCBSA TEC EPC) was to synthesize comparative studies that examined the benefits or harms of screening for MRSA carriage in the inpatient or outpatient settings. The review examined MRSA-screening strategies applied to all hospitalized or ambulatory patients (universal screening), as well as screening strategies applied to selected inpatient or outpatient populations (e.g., patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), patients admitted for a surgical procedure, or patients at high-risk of MRSA colonization or infection such as those on prolonged antibiotic therapy) and compared them to no screening or to screening of selected patient populations (targeted screening). The review evaluated MRSA-screening strategies that included screening with or without isolation and with or without attempted eradication/decolonization. The review included all ambulatory patients (outpatients) and hospitalized patients (inpatients). Because conventional strategies have failed to adequately control MRSA, more aggressive measures have been promoted in an effort to check the spread of this particularly virulent pathogen. In some European countries, an aggressive containment program called “search and destroy” identifies contacts of colonized and infected patients in an effort to intercede to prevent dissemination. While such aggressive measures have not been widely adopted in most settings, some clinicians, scientists, and increasing numbers of public advocates and legislators have raised the call for more intensive efforts at MRSA control in the United States (U.S.) Particular attention has been given to the potential value of active surveillance screening for MRSA. Routine clinical cultures may identify as few as 18 percent of patients with asymptomatic carriage of antibiotic- resistant organisms such as MRSA leaving a large reservoir of patients who are silent carriers of these organisms. These individuals may serve as a reservoir for further transmission. However, a limitation of these approaches—and specifically the use of isolation precautions— are their potential negative consequences. A series of studies have associated isolation precautions with worsened outcomes in terms of safety and patient satisfaction. Isolation precautions may be associated with worsened patient safety and satisfaction. In addition, questions have been raised about the effect of isolation precautions on specific performance measures such as the frequency with which patients on isolation precautions are visited by treating physicians and the timely recording of vital signs, but no rigorous definitive analysis has been completed to exonerate isolation precautions. Therefore, while the specific evidence in support of active surveillance for MRSA has been promising, a number of questions remain about its effectiveness and whether screening should be applied to all patient populations (universal screening) or to selected populations (targeted screening). Thus, a systematic review of the evidence is both justified and timely. The importance of gaining a better understanding of the evidence is also highlighted by the increasing demand for better control of MRSA and a higher standard for prevention of hospital-acquired (HA) infections in general.

Wu Y; Lau BD; Bleich S; Cheskin L; Boult C; Segal JB; Wang Y

82

Effect of swim training on development of obesity in the genetically obese rat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Seven-week-old female lean and obese Zucker rats were swim trained or kept sedentary for 8 wk. Another group of obese rats was exercised plus food restricted. During exercise training, obese and lean rats ate more but gained less body weight than sedentary controls. Exercise favorably altered body composition, adipose cellularity, and plasma insulin of the obese rat. Exercise plus food restriction more dramatically affected body composition and adipose cellularity but was no more effective in depressing hyperinsulinemia than exercise alone. Following 8 wk of retirement, dorsal fat cell number remained depressed to formerly exercised obese rats whereas adipose cellularity in other depots, body composition, and plasma insulin were similar to control levels. Thus, exercise delayed but did not prevent the full development of obesity in the Zucker rat. Food restriction along with exercise resulted in more permanent effects on adipose cellularity than exercise alone but stunted muscle and skeletal growth.

Walberg JL; Molé PA; Stern JS

1982-03-01

83

Effects of obesity on bone metabolism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Obesity is traditionally viewed to be beneficial to bone health because of well-established positive effect of mechanical loading conferred by body weight on bone formation, despite being a risk factor for many other chronic health disorders. Although body mass has a positive effect on bone formation, whether the mass derived from an obesity condition or excessive fat accumulation is beneficial to bone remains controversial. The underline pathophysiological relationship between obesity and bone is complex and continues to be an active research area. Recent data from epidemiological and animal studies strongly support that fat accumulation is detrimental to bone mass. To our knowledge, obesity possibly affects bone metabolism through several mechanisms. Because both adipocytes and osteoblasts are derived from a common multipotential mesenchymal stem cell, obesity may increase adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation while decrease osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation. The increased circulating and tissue proinflammatory cytokines in obesity may promote osteoclast activity and bone resorption through modifying the receptor activator of NF-?B (RANK)/RANK ligand/osteoprotegerin pathway. Furthermore, the excessive secretion of leptin and/or decreased production of adiponectin by adipocytes in obesity may either directly affect bone formation or indirectly affect bone resorption through up-regulated proinflammatory cytokine production. Finally, high-fat intake may interfere with intestinal calcium absorption and therefore decrease calcium availability for bone formation. Unraveling the relationship between fat and bone metabolism at molecular level may help us to develop therapeutic agents to prevent or treat both obesity and osteoporosis. Obesity, defined as having a body mass index ? 30 kg/m2, is a condition in which excessive body fat accumulates to a degree that adversely affects health 1. The rates of obesity rates have doubled since 1980 2 and as of 2007, 33% of men and 35% of women in the US are obese 3. Obesity is positively associated to many chronic disorders such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, and certain cancers 456. It is estimated that the direct medical cost associated with obesity in the United States is ~$100 billion per year 7. Bone mass and strength decrease during adulthood, especially in women after menopause 8. These changes can culminate in osteoporosis, a disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration resulting in increased bone fracture risk. It is estimated that there are about 10 million Americans over the age of 50 who have osteoporosis while another 34 million people are at risk of developing the disease 9. In 2001, osteoporosis alone accounted for some $17 billion in direct annual healthcare expenditure. Several lines of evidence suggest that obesity and bone metabolism are interrelated. First, both osteoblasts (bone forming cells) and adipocytes (energy storing cells) are derived from a common mesenchymal stem cell 10 and agents inhibiting adipogenesis stimulated osteoblast differentiation 111213 and vice versa, those inhibiting osteoblastogenesis increased adipogenesis 14. Second, decreased bone marrow osteoblastogenesis with aging is usually accompanied with increased marrow adipogenesis 1516. Third, chronic use of steroid hormone, such as glucocorticoid, results in obesity accompanied by rapid bone loss 1718. Fourth, both obesity and osteoporosis are associated with elevated oxidative stress and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines 1920. At present, the mechanisms for the effects of obesity on bone metabolism are not well defined and will be the focus of this review.

Cao Jay J

2011-01-01

84

A typology of beverage taxation: Multiple approaches for obesity prevention and obesity prevention-related revenue generation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is a global problem. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are a leading contributor of added sugars in individual diets and thus to obesity. Governments have considered taxing SSBs to prevent obesity and generate revenue, but no 'one-size-fits-all' taxation approach exists. We describes three key considerations for governments interested in exploring beverage taxation: (i) what type of tax to apply plus how and where the tax is collected and presented to consumers; (ii) what types of beverages to tax; and (iii) the amount of tax needed to affect consumption and/or obesity prevention-related revenue generation. We offer examples of existing beverage taxes in the United States and internationally. The information will be useful to policymakers at all levels of government, as they continue to consider beverage taxation policies. PMID:23698157

Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J; Powell, Lisa M; Eidson, Shelby S

2013-05-23

85

A typology of beverage taxation: multiple approaches for obesity prevention and obesity prevention-related revenue generation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Obesity is a global problem. Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) are a leading contributor of added sugars in individual diets and thus to obesity. Governments have considered taxing SSBs to prevent obesity and generate revenue, but no 'one-size-fits-all' taxation approach exists. We describes three key considerations for governments interested in exploring beverage taxation: (i) what type of tax to apply plus how and where the tax is collected and presented to consumers; (ii) what types of beverages to tax; and (iii) the amount of tax needed to affect consumption and/or obesity prevention-related revenue generation. We offer examples of existing beverage taxes in the United States and internationally. The information will be useful to policymakers at all levels of government, as they continue to consider beverage taxation policies.

Chriqui JF; Chaloupka FJ; Powell LM; Eidson SS

2013-08-01

86

[Criteria of therapeutic effects on obesity].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic effects of obesity disease (obesity as a disease) are determined by the weight reduction, decrease of visceral fat and improvement of comorbidities. Evaluation criterion of therapeutic effect is determined a decrease of more than 3% weight reduction, because improvement of comorbidities in obesity, especially visceral obesity, is observed in the weight loss of more than 3%. In obesity more than 30 in BMI or morbid obesity, it is necessary to weight reduction more than 5%.

Miyazaki S

2013-02-01

87

Accelerating Progress in Obesity Prevention: Solving the Weight of the Nation  

Science.gov (United States)

... Brief Released: 5/8/2012 Download: PDF Accelerating Progress in Obesity Prevention: Solving the Weight of the ... the difficulties of treating obesity and the slow progress made in reversing national obesity trends, underscore the ...

88

Chronobiological Effects on Obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of obesity is the consequence of a multitude of complex interactions between both genetic and environmental factors. It has been suggested that the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity over the past 30 years has been the result of environmental changes that have enabled the full realization of genetic susceptibility present in the population. Among the many environmental alterations that have occurred in our recent history is the ever-increasing dyssynchrony between natural cycles of light/dark and altered patterns of sleep/wake and eating behavior associated with our "24-hour" lifestyle. An extensive research literature has established clear links between increased risk for obesity and both sleep deprivation and shift work, and our understanding of the consequences of such dyssynchrony at the molecular level is beginning to emerge. Studies linking alterations in cellular circadian clocks to metabolic dysfunction point to the increasing importance of chronobiology in obesity etiology. PMID:23682347

Bray, Molly S; Young, Martin E

2012-03-01

89

Chronobiological Effects on Obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The development of obesity is the consequence of a multitude of complex interactions between both genetic and environmental factors. It has been suggested that the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity over the past 30 years has been the result of environmental changes that have enabled the full realization of genetic susceptibility present in the population. Among the many environmental alterations that have occurred in our recent history is the ever-increasing dyssynchrony between natural cycles of light/dark and altered patterns of sleep/wake and eating behavior associated with our "24-hour" lifestyle. An extensive research literature has established clear links between increased risk for obesity and both sleep deprivation and shift work, and our understanding of the consequences of such dyssynchrony at the molecular level is beginning to emerge. Studies linking alterations in cellular circadian clocks to metabolic dysfunction point to the increasing importance of chronobiology in obesity etiology.

Bray MS; Young ME

2012-03-01

90

Prevention and Treatment of Obesity - An Over View  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Five major approaches namely dietary, exercise, behavior, combination and pharmacy therapies are used for treatment and control of obesity. In dietary therapy, low-calorie diet (LCD), which provides 800 to 1500 kcal of energy daily; a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD), which provides 250-800 kcal of energy daily and an energy-restricted or hypo caloric diet (HCD), which is based on a person`s estimated daily energy requirement. LCDs can reduce total body weight by an average of 8 percent and help reduce abdominal fat content over a period of approximately 6 months. VLCDs are not recommended for weight loss therapy because the deficits are too great, and nutritional inadequacies will occur unless VLCDs are supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Regular exercise/physical activity should be an integral part of weight loss therapy and weight maintenance. A daily regimen of 30-45 minutes of walking, bicycling or working around the house conveys physical activity`s positive effects on the muscolo-skeletal, cardiovascular, respiratory and endocrine systems, reduces risk of premature mortality, coronary heart disease, hypertension, colon cancer and diabetes. Exercise should be initiated slowly, and the intensity should be increased gradually; starting from small tasks of daily living such as taking the stairs or walking or swimming at a slow pace leading to the more strenuous activities like brisk walking, cycling, exercise, rope jumping and Jogging. Behavior therapy provides methods for overcoming barriers to compliance with dietary and exercise therapies. Combined intervention of an LCD, increased physical activity, and behavior therapy provides the most successful therapy for weight loss and weight maintenance. Islamic way of life (directional eating) and lifestyle (worship schedule) is the most efficient method for prevention and control of obesity and is one of the best example of combination of diet and exercise therapies. Pharmacotherapy or medication should be the last approach for obesity control.

Aien Khan Afridi; Mohammad Siddique; Mahpara Safdar; Alam Khan

2004-01-01

91

[Overweight and obesity in children and adolescents and preventative measures  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children is increasing rapidly. This is alarming because obesity is associated with severe chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obesity at young age is related to obesity at adult age. Consequently, the prevention of overweight from childhood onwards is an important issue. Apart from diabetes mellitus type 2 there is an increased risk of orthopaedic complications, respiratory problems, fertility problems, cardiovascular diseases and psychosocial consequences in the form of a negative self-image, emotional and behavioural problems and depression. Environmental and behavioural factors are regarded as the most important causes of the rapid increase in the prevalence of overweight and as the most important starting points for prevention. Most prevention programmes are still in the initial stages. Prevention programmes aimed at stimulating breast feeding and daily physical activity (playing outside) and the restriction of sweetened drinks and watching TV are very promising. With such preventive measures the involvement of both the school and the parents is important.

Renders CM; Seidell JC; van Mechelen W; Hirasing RA

2004-10-01

92

Support for obesity policy: The effect of perceptions of causes for obesity and national identity in Canada  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Interventions in Canada to address obesity have largely been limited to individual-level change through education rather than a population-level public policy approach. Little is known about obesity policy support in Canada, and substantial national variation in obesity policy support prevents direct transferability of these policies among nations. Our study recruited 521 young adults for an online survey through leaflets and flyers. We investigated how respondents’ demographics, health characteristics, political attitudes, beliefs regarding causes of obesity, and national identity affected their support for obesity policy. Results showed that there is high support for many obesity policies among Canadian young adults. Including Canadian national identity in regression models was significant in explaining obesity policy support beyond the combined effect of other predictors. Further exploration of national identity, in Canada and elsewhere, has implications for understanding obesity policy support that might assist policy makers in making more informed decisions in addressing obesity.

Ryan Lange; Guy Faulkner

2012-01-01

93

Best practices in policy approaches to obesity prevention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The rapidly rising rate of obesity has prompted a variety of policy responses at national, regional, and local levels. Yet, many have expressed concern that these policy responses have a limited evidence base, are overly paternalistic, and have the potential to increase rather than shrink obesity-related disparities. The purpose of this article is to evaluate obesity policies in terms of the adequacy of evidence for action and along two ethical dimensions: their potential effect on liberty and equity. To evaluate evidence, we engage in a systematic review of reviews and rate policies in terms of the sufficiency of evidence of effectiveness at combating obesity. We then apply a libertarian-paternalist framework to assess policies in terms of their impact on liberty and inverse-equity theory to assess impact on disparities. This article provides a framework to assist decision-makers in assessing best practices in obesity using a more multi-faceted set of dimensions.

Fox AM; Horowitz CR

2013-01-01

94

Obesity Prevention and Management: Singapore's Experience.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Singapore's obesity prevalence among adult Singapore residents aged 18-69 increased from 6.9% (2004) to 10.8% (2010). Among school-going children, the prevalence of overweight and severely overweight (body weight > 120% standard weight for height) increased from 1.4% (1976) to 12.7% (2006) for primary 1 students, and 2.2% to 15.9% for primary 6 students. Fundamentally obesity is a function of excess energy intake (food consumption) and insufficient energy expenditure (physical activity). In 2010, about 40% did not have sufficient physical activity and about 60% consumed excess energy. For students in the mainstream schools, only a fifth consumed at least two servings of fruits and vegetables every day and a tenth were physically active for at least 60 minutes on five or more days a week. From a public health perspective, the most powerful levers for influencing population health lie in interventions that make healthy living convenient and an unconscious choice by targeting the social and environmental context. Recognising this, the Health Promotion Board has in recent years made a strategic shift away from just public education campaigns aimed at individual behaviours, to focus on creating a ground-up social movement to enable and empower individuals to live out a healthy lifestyle.

Foo LL; Vijaya K; Sloan RA; Ling A

2013-09-01

95

COMPOSITION FOR PREVENTING OR RELIEVING OBESITY OR DIABETES  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention provides a composition for preventing or relieving obesity or diabetes, and medicines or health foods containing the composition. The composition comprises 75-85 parts by weight of Garcinia cambogia extract, 15-25 parts by weight of soy peptides, and 0.5-5 parts by weight of L-carnitine.

KIM MIN SUN; LEE JIN HEE

96

The Role of Parents in Preventing Childhood Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

As researchers continue to analyze the role of parenting both in the development of childhood overweight and in obesity prevention, studies of child nutrition and growth are detailing the ways in which parents affect their children's development of food- and activity-related behaviors. Ana Lindsay, Katarina Sussner, Juhee Kim, and Steven Gortmaker…

Lindsay, Ana C.; Sussner, Katarina M.; Kim, Juhee; Gortmaker, Steven

2006-01-01

97

Teachers as Partners in the Prevention of Childhood Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a community-school-higher education partnership approach to the prevention of childhood obesity. Public elementary school personnel, primarily teachers, participated in the design and delivery of a curriculum targeting primary caregivers of 8-9-year-old children. Theoretical framework and methodological approaches guided the…

Bruss, Mozhdeh B.; Dannison, Linda; Morris, Joseph R.; Quitugua, Jackie; Palacios, Rosa T.; McGowan, Judy; Michael, Timothy

2010-01-01

98

Miglitol prevents diet-induced obesity by stimulating brown adipose tissue and energy expenditure independent of preventing the digestion of carbohydrates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Miglitol is an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor that improves post-prandial hyperglycemia, and it is the only drug in its class that enters the bloodstream. Anecdotally, miglitol lowers patient body weight more effectively than other alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, but the precise mechanism has not been addressed. Therefore, we analyzed the anti-obesity effects of miglitol in mice and in the HB2 brown adipocyte cell line. Miglitol prevented diet-induced obesity by stimulating energy expenditure without affecting food intake in mice. Long-term miglitol treatment dose-dependently prevented diet-induced obesity and induced mitochondrial gene expression in brown adipose tissue. The anti-obesity effect was independent of preventing carbohydrate digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. Miglitol effectively stimulated energy expenditure in mice fed a high-fat high-monocarbohydrate diet, and intraperitoneal injection of miglitol was sufficient to stimulate energy expenditure in mice. Acarbose, which is a non-absorbable alpha glucosidase inhibitor, also prevented diet-induced obesity, but through a different mechanism: it did not stimulate energy expenditure, but caused indigestion, leading to less energy absorption. Miglitol promoted adrenergic signaling in brown adipocytes in vitro. These data indicate that circulating miglitol stimulates brown adipose tissue and increases energy expenditure, thereby preventing diet-induced obesity. Further optimizing miglitol's effect on brown adipose tissue could lead to a novel anti-obesity drug.

Sasaki T; Shimpuku M; Kitazumi T; Hiraga H; Nakagawa Y; Shibata H; Okamatsu-Ogura Y; Kikuchi O; Kim HJ; Fujita Y; Maruyama J; Susanti VY; Yokota-Hashimoto H; Kobayashi M; Saito M; Kitamura T

2013-08-01

99

A systematic review of home-based childhood obesity prevention studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Childhood obesity is a global epidemic. Despite emerging research about the role of the family and home on obesity risk behaviors, the evidence base for the effectiveness of home-based interventions on obesity prevention remains uncertain. The objective was to systematically review the effectiveness of home-based interventions on weight, intermediate (eg, diet and physical activity [PA]), and clinical outcomes. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, CINAHL, clinicaltrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library from inception through August 11, 2012. We included experimental and natural experimental studies with ?1-year follow-up reporting weight-related outcomes and targeting children at home. Two independent reviewers screened studies and extracted data. We graded the strength of the evidence supporting interventions targeting diet, PA, or both for obesity prevention. RESULTS: We identified 6 studies; 3 tested combined interventions (diet and PA), 1 used diet intervention, 1 combined intervention with primary care and consumer health informatics components, and 1 combined intervention with school and community components. Select combined interventions had beneficial effects on fruit/vegetable intake and sedentary behaviors. However, none of the 6 studies reported a significant effect on weight outcomes. Overall, the strength of evidence is low that combined home-based interventions effectively prevent obesity. The evidence is insufficient for conclusions about home-based diet interventions or interventions implemented at home in association with other settings. CONCLUSIONS: The strength of evidence is low to support the effectiveness of home-based child obesity prevention programs. Additional research is needed to test interventions in the home setting, particularly those incorporating parenting strategies and addressing environmental influences.

Showell NN; Fawole O; Segal J; Wilson RF; Cheskin LJ; Bleich SN; Wu Y; Lau B; Wang Y

2013-07-01

100

The Role of SIRT1 in Preventing Mitochondrial Dysfunction with Obesity and Aging  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mitochondrial function declines with aging and obesity, and has been implicated in the development of many age-related diseases. Caloric restriction (CR) prevents aging and has been shown to induce mitochondrial biogenesis and improve mitochondrial function. These effects may involve increased a...

Price, Nathan Loftus

 
 
 
 
101

[Preventing Obesity in Children: Which Factors Impede and Which Facilitate the Parental Access to Prevention Programmes?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Preschool children of deprived obese parents are a risk group for the development of childhood obesity. The risk sensitiveness, perceived courses of action and barriers as well as motivational aspects of these partents for the participation in a prevention programme were analysed using focused interviews and questionnaires. Based upon the results, a target group-specific parent training was designed. A pilot evaluation study showed promising results.

Warschburger P; Kröller K; Jahnke D

2013-06-01

102

Laboratory, epidemiological, and human intervention studies show that tea (Camellia sinensis) may be useful in the prevention of obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceae) and tea polyphenols have been studied for the prevention of chronic diseases, including obesity. Obesity currently affects >20% of adults in the United States and is a risk factor for chronic diseases such as type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Given this increasing public health concern, the use of dietary agents for the prevention of obesity would be of tremendous benefit. Whereas many laboratory studies have demonstrated the potential efficacy of green or black tea for the prevention of obesity, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The results of human intervention studies are mixed and the role of caffeine has not been clearly established. Finally, there is emerging evidence that high doses of tea polyphenols may have adverse side effects. Given that the results of scientific studies on dietary components, including tea polyphenols, are often translated into dietary supplements, understanding the potential toxicities of the tea polyphenols is critical to understanding their potential usefulness in preventing obesity. In this review, we will critically evaluate the evidence for the prevention of obesity by tea, discuss the relevance of proposed mechanisms in light of tea polyphenol bioavailability, and review the reports concerning the toxic effects of high doses of tea polyphenols and the implication that this has for the potential use of tea for the prevention of obesity. We hope that this review will expose areas for further study and encourage research on this important public health issue.

Grove KA; Lambert JD

2010-03-01

103

Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Research (COPTR): Interventions Addressing Multiple Influences in Childhood and Adolescent Obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper is the first of five papers in this issue that describes a new research consortium funded by the National Institutes of Health. It describes the design characteristics of the Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Research (COPTR) trials and common measurements across the trials. The COPTR consortium is conducting interventions to prevent obesity in pre-schoolers and treat overweight or obese 7-13year olds. Four randomized controlled trials will enroll a total of 1,700 children and adolescents (~ 50%female, 70% minorities), and will test innovative multi-level and multi-component interventions in multiple settings involving primary care physicians, parks and recreational centers, family advocates, and schools. For all the studies, the primary outcome measure is body mass index; secondary outcomes, moderators and mediators of intervention include diet, physical activity, home and neighborhood influences, and psychosocial factors. COPTR is being conducted collaboratively among four participating field centers, a coordinating center, and NIH project offices. Outcomes from COPTR have the potential to enhance our knowledge of interventions to prevent and treat childhood obesity.

Pratt CA; Boyington J; Esposito L; Pemberton VL; Bonds D; Kelley M; Yang S; Murray D; Stevens J

2013-08-01

104

Intake of mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin prevents diet-induced obesity through increases in adiponectin in mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, the anti-obesity effect of 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) was examined in the diet-induced obese mouse model. Mulberry DNJ was administered to the obese mice for 12 weeks. As a result, DNJ decreased both the visceral fat weight and adipocyte size. To determine the influence of DNJ on lipid metabolism, lipid parameters of the plasma and the liver and the activities of several molecules related to lipid metabolism in the liver were measured. DNJ activated the ?-oxidation system, suppressed lipid accumulation in the liver and reduced plasma triacylglycerol. Since it was thought that the factor activated in the ?-oxidation system was adiponectin, plasma adiponectin levels were measured and it was shown that plasma adiponectin was increased with DNJ. Therefore, it was suggested that DNJ promoted an increase in plasma adiponectin and activated the ?-oxidation system. Overall, it was shown that DNJ prevents diet-induced obesity through an increase in adiponectin.

Tsuduki T; Kikuchi I; Kimura T; Nakagawa K; Miyazawa T

2013-08-01

105

Prevention of obesity and diabetes in childbearing women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Obesity and diabetes have become pandemic in the United States, with more than one-third of the US population obese and 8.3% of the population affected by diabetes. Efforts to prevent type 2 diabetes focus primarily on healthy eating and physical activity. In particular, women from at-risk racial and ethnic groups and those who have experienced gestational diabetes are at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Achieving a healthy weight prior to conception, staying within weight gain guidelines during pregnancy, and losing accumulated pregnancy weight postpartum are key prevention factors. Maintaining a healthy weight in the long-term is a challenge. Behavioral psychology and coaching techniques are presented in this article that can be useful in sustaining behaviors that promote a healthy weight.

Trout KK; Ellis KK; Bratschie A

2013-05-01

106

Engaging low-income parents in childhood obesity prevention from start to finish: a case study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prevention of childhood obesity is a national priority. Parents influence young children's healthy lifestyles, so it is paradoxical that obesity interventions focus primarily on children. Evidence and theory suggest that including parents in interventions offers promise for effective childhood obesity prevention. This case study engaged parents' as co-researchers in the design, implementation and evaluation of an intervention for low-income families with a child enrolled in Head Start. Parent engagement mechanisms include: (1) targeted partnership development (2) operationalizing a Community Advisory Board (CAB) that was the key decision making body; (3) a majority of CAB members were parents who were positioned as experts, and (4) addressing structural barriers to parent participation. Lessons learned are provided for future research, and practice.

Jurkowski JM; Green Mills LL; Lawson HA; Bovenzi MC; Quartimon R; Davison KK

2013-02-01

107

Parental influence on children's early eating environments and obesity risk: implications for prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most childhood obesity prevention efforts have focused on school-age children and adolescents and have had limited success. We argue that the first years of life, including the prenatal period, the postnatal suckling period and the transition to the modified adult diet, may provide opportunities for preventive interventions. These early periods are characterized by high plasticity and rapid transitions, and parents have a high degree of control over children's environments and experiences. Observational and experimental evidence reveal persistent effects of early environments on eating behavior and obesity risk, suggesting that interventions should be tested during these early periods. The central task parents have in early development points to their potential as key targets and agents of change in early preventive interventions. In this paper, we review evidence of early environmental effects on children's eating and obesity risk, highlighting ways that parental feeding practices and parents' own behaviors impact these outcomes and calling for further experimental research to elucidate whether these factors are indeed promising targets for childhood obesity preventive interventions. PMID:20195285

Anzman, S L; Rollins, B Y; Birch, L L

2010-03-02

108

Parental influence on children's early eating environments and obesity risk: implications for prevention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Most childhood obesity prevention efforts have focused on school-age children and adolescents and have had limited success. We argue that the first years of life, including the prenatal period, the postnatal suckling period and the transition to the modified adult diet, may provide opportunities for preventive interventions. These early periods are characterized by high plasticity and rapid transitions, and parents have a high degree of control over children's environments and experiences. Observational and experimental evidence reveal persistent effects of early environments on eating behavior and obesity risk, suggesting that interventions should be tested during these early periods. The central task parents have in early development points to their potential as key targets and agents of change in early preventive interventions. In this paper, we review evidence of early environmental effects on children's eating and obesity risk, highlighting ways that parental feeding practices and parents' own behaviors impact these outcomes and calling for further experimental research to elucidate whether these factors are indeed promising targets for childhood obesity preventive interventions.

Anzman SL; Rollins BY; Birch LL

2010-07-01

109

Obesity Prevention Practices of Elementary School Nurses in Minnesota: Findings from Interviews with Licensed School Nurses  

Science.gov (United States)

|Elementary schools are an optimal setting to provide obesity prevention interventions, yet little is known about the obesity prevention practices of elementary school nurses. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into current obesity-related school nursing practice in elementary schools in Minnesota, opinions regarding school nurse-led…

Morrison-Sandberg, Leslie F.; Kubik, Martha Y.; Johnson, Karen E.

2011-01-01

110

Design and methods for evaluating an early childhood obesity prevention program in the childcare center setting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Many unhealthy dietary and physical activity habits that foster the development of obesity are established by the age of five. Presently, approximately 70 percent of children in the United States are currently enrolled in early childcare facilities, making this an ideal setting to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention efforts. We describe here the methods for conducting an obesity prevention randomized trial in the child care setting. Methods/design A randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial is currently being conducted over a three year period (2010-present). The sample consists of 28 low-income, ethnically diverse child care centers with 1105 children (sample is 60% Hispanic, 15% Haitian, 12% Black, 2% non-Hispanic White and 71% of caregivers were born outside of the US). The purpose is to test the efficacy of a parent and teacher role-modeling intervention on children’s nutrition and physical activity behaviors. . The Healthy Caregivers-Healthy Children (HC2) intervention arm schools received a combination of (1) implementing a daily curricula for teachers/parents (the nutritional gatekeepers); (2) implementing a daily curricula for children; (3) technical assistance with meal and snack menu modifications such as including more fresh and less canned produce; and (4) creation of a center policy for dietary requirements for meals and snacks, physical activity and screen time. Control arm schools received an attention control safety curriculum. Major outcome measures include pre-post changes in child body mass index percentile and z score, fruit and vegetable and other nutritious food intake, amount of physical activity, and parental nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, defined by intentions and behaviors. All measures were administered at the beginning and end of the school year for year one and year two of the study for a total of 4 longitudinal time points for assessment. Discussion Although few attempts have been made to prevent obesity during the first years of life, this period may represent the best opportunity for obesity prevention. Findings from this investigation will inform both the fields of childhood obesity prevention and early childhood research about the effects of an obesity prevention program housed in the childcare setting. Trial registration Trial registration number: NCT01722032

Natale Ruby; Scott Stephanie Hapeman; Messiah Sarah E; Schrack Maria Mesa; Uhlhorn Susan B; Delamater Alan

2013-01-01

111

Design and methods for evaluating an early childhood obesity prevention program in the childcare center setting  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Many unhealthy dietary and physical activity habits that foster the development of obesity are established by the age of five. Presently, approximately 70 percent of children in the United States are currently enrolled in early childcare facilities, making this an ideal setting to implement and evaluate childhood obesity prevention efforts. We describe here the methods for conducting an obesity prevention randomized trial in the child care setting. Methods/design A randomized, controlled obesity prevention trial is currently being conducted over a three year period (2010-present). The sample consists of 28 low-income, ethnically diverse child care centers with 1105 children (sample is 60% Hispanic, 15% Haitian, 12% Black, 2% non-Hispanic White and 71% of caregivers were born outside of the US). The purpose is to test the efficacy of a parent and teacher role-modeling intervention on children’s nutrition and physical activity behaviors. . The Healthy Caregivers-Healthy Children (HC2) intervention arm schools received a combination of (1) implementing a daily curricula for teachers/parents (the nutritional gatekeepers); (2) implementing a daily curricula for children; (3) technical assistance with meal and snack menu modifications such as including more fresh and less canned produce; and (4) creation of a center policy for dietary requirements for meals and snacks, physical activity and screen time. Control arm schools received an attention control safety curriculum. Major outcome measures include pre-post changes in child body mass index percentile and z score, fruit and vegetable and other nutritious food intake, amount of physical activity, and parental nutrition and physical activity knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, defined by intentions and behaviors. All measures were administered at the beginning and end of the school year for year one and year two of the study for a total of 4 longitudinal time points for assessment. Discussion Although few attempts have been made to prevent obesity during the first years of life, this period may represent the best opportunity for obesity prevention. Findings from this investigation will inform both the fields of childhood obesity prevention and early childhood research about the effects of an obesity prevention program housed in the childcare setting. Trial registration Trial registration number: NCT01722032

2013-01-01

112

Childhood obesity prevention: fathers' reflections with healthcare providers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: To prevent childhood obesity, parents and their children's healthcare providers need to engage in effective dialogue. We know much about mothers' experiences, but very little about fathers' experiences. METHODS: We explored African-American, Caucasian, and Latino fathers' perceptions and experiences communicating with their children's provider during clinic visits regarding weight, diet, and physical activity. Focus groups (n=3), grouped by race/ethnicity, including a total of 24 fathers, were conducted. The men were asked open-ended questions; responses were recorded and transcribed, and analyzed using ATLAS.ti. RESULTS: Findings revealed that these fathers were involved in their children's healthcare and found providers to be helpful partners in keeping their children healthy, yet they generally felt "left out" during clinic appointments. The quality of the relationship with their children's provider influenced how receptive fathers were to discussing their children's weight, diet, and physical activity behaviors. Fathers made suggestions to help improve communication between providers and fathers, such as personalizing the discussion. CONCLUSIONS: These fathers expressed strong feelings about the provider-parent relationship when discussing weight, diet, and physical activity.

Lowenstein LM; Perrin EM; Berry D; Vu MB; Pullen Davis L; Cai J; Tzeng JP; Ammerman AS

2013-04-01

113

[The plan for prevention of obesity of ASL RMB, Italy  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lazio District, by pointing out the guidelines of the "Obesity and Overweight for Lazio District Plan" (DGR no1166, 23/12/05), enacts the "National Prevention Plan 2005-2007". The Public Health Service for Food and Nutrition has been the main player of the Plan; the District and Department of Health of the District had a technical and organizational support role. Within the development of the Plan for prevention of obesity of ASL RMB, a technical multidisciplinary group was constituted and three more programs were developed, all of them were dedicated to promotion and support of breast-feeding, prevention of obesity and overweight in childhood and adulthood. The educational activity concerning promotion and support of breast-feed ing actively involved operators from consultory rooms and hospital staff from ASL. The reports about nutritional surveillance allowed a careful analysis of the service conditions and priorities. Special criticality facets have been pointed out such as the high prevalence of overweight (31%) and obesity (7%), the habit of skipping breakfast, a low fruit and vegetables consumption, a generally sedentary lifestyle and, during the intervention, the parents' low involvement. In geriatric age cases, a high malnutrition risk both for overnutrition and undernutrition was found in the elderly groups that were checked; the diets' nutritional density as well as the physical activity aspect recover an important role in the intervention planning. Moreover the discussions with catering companies were an important aspect in order to make several target groups aware. The globally considered experience highlighted positive elements of mobilization, consensus, reorientation of activities and resources, giving proof of the significance of integration concerning specifical aims of different company services. Nevertheless, the carrying on of such activities needs resource investments in the specifical area and enlargement of activities especially for the multisector-based efforts.

Cairella G; Ciaralli F; Mangia ML; Olivieri L; Auriemma P; Casagni L; Castronuovo E; ASL RMB Italy

2009-09-01

114

[The plan for prevention of obesity of ASL RMB, Italy].  

Science.gov (United States)

Lazio District, by pointing out the guidelines of the "Obesity and Overweight for Lazio District Plan" (DGR no1166, 23/12/05), enacts the "National Prevention Plan 2005-2007". The Public Health Service for Food and Nutrition has been the main player of the Plan; the District and Department of Health of the District had a technical and organizational support role. Within the development of the Plan for prevention of obesity of ASL RMB, a technical multidisciplinary group was constituted and three more programs were developed, all of them were dedicated to promotion and support of breast-feeding, prevention of obesity and overweight in childhood and adulthood. The educational activity concerning promotion and support of breast-feed ing actively involved operators from consultory rooms and hospital staff from ASL. The reports about nutritional surveillance allowed a careful analysis of the service conditions and priorities. Special criticality facets have been pointed out such as the high prevalence of overweight (31%) and obesity (7%), the habit of skipping breakfast, a low fruit and vegetables consumption, a generally sedentary lifestyle and, during the intervention, the parents' low involvement. In geriatric age cases, a high malnutrition risk both for overnutrition and undernutrition was found in the elderly groups that were checked; the diets' nutritional density as well as the physical activity aspect recover an important role in the intervention planning. Moreover the discussions with catering companies were an important aspect in order to make several target groups aware. The globally considered experience highlighted positive elements of mobilization, consensus, reorientation of activities and resources, giving proof of the significance of integration concerning specifical aims of different company services. Nevertheless, the carrying on of such activities needs resource investments in the specifical area and enlargement of activities especially for the multisector-based efforts. PMID:20058536

Cairella, G; Ciaralli, F; Mangia, M L; Olivieri, L; Auriemma, P; Casagni, L; Castronuovo, E; ASL RMB Italy

115

Obesidad: Tratamiento no farmacológico y prevención Obesity: treatment and prevention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La obesidad es un importante problema de salud en nuestros días, por el riesgo aumentado de morbilidad y mortalidad, sobre todo por las enfermedades cardiovasculares que provoca. El objetivo de este trabajo fue actualizar los conocimientos acerca del tratamiento no farmacológico y la prevención de la enfermedad. Se expuso que en el 95 % de los casos la obesidad es de origen exógeno o nutricional, y en el 5 %, de causa genética o endocrina. En relación con los factores genéticos, las investigaciones plantean las diferentes mutaciones que se acompañan de fenotipos obesos. Se señalaron los diferentes métodos empleados para el diagnóstico de la obesidad, antropométricamente. Se afirmó que en la actualidad es muy utilizado el IMC y la relación cintura/cadera. Se concluyó que el tratamiento de la obesidad supone modificaciones dietéticas, actividad física e intervención conductual y/o psicológica y que la prevención sigue siendo la acción fundamental para evitar su aparición por lo que los esfuerzos de todos los médicos se deben dirigir hacia este problema de salud.Obesity is an important health problem at present due to the increased risk of morbidity and mortality and, mainly, to the cardiovascular diseases resulting from it. The objective of this paper was to bring up to date the knowledge about the nonpharmacological treatment and the prevention of the disease. It was explained that in 95 % of the cases, obesity has an exogenous or nutritional origin, whereas in the other 5 % its cause is genetic or endocrine. In relation to the genetic factors, the investigations state the different mutations that are accompanied by obese phenotypes.The different anthropometric methods used to diagnose obesity were described. It was confirmed that nowadays the BMI and the waist/hip relationship are widely used. It was concluded that the obesity treatment pressuposes diet modifications, physical activity and behavioral and/or psychological intervention and that prevention is still the fundamental action to prevent the appearance of obesity. Therefore, all doctors should direct their efforts to this health problem.

María Matilde Socarrás Suárez; Míriam Bolet Astoviza; Manuel E. Licea Puig

2002-01-01

116

Where Is Obesity Prevention on the Map? Distribution and Predictors of Local Health Department Prevention Activities in Relation to County-Level Obesity Prevalence in the US  

Science.gov (United States)

Context The system of local health departments (LHD) in the US has potential to advance a locally-oriented public health response in obesity control and reduce geographic disparities. However, the extent to which obesity prevention programs correspond to local obesity levels is unknown. Objective This study examines the extent to which LHDs across the US have responded to local levels of obesity by examining the association between jurisdiction level obesity prevalence and the existence of obesity prevention programs. Design Data on LHD organizational characteristics from the Profile Study of Local Health Departments and county-level estimates of obesity from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were analyzed (n=2,300). Since local public health systems are nested within state infrastructure, multilevel models were used to examine the relationship between county-level obesity prevalence and LHD obesity prevention programming and to assess the impact of state-level clustering. Setting 2,300 local health department jurisdictions defined with respect to county boundaries Participants Practitioners in local health departments who responded to the 2005 Profile Study of Local Health Departments. Main Outcome Measures Likelihood of having obesity prevention activities and association with area-level obesity prevalence Results The existence of obesity prevention activities was not associated with prevalence of obesity in the jurisdiction. A substantial portion of the variance in LHD activities was explained by state-level clustering. Conclusions This paper identified a gap in the local public health response to the obesity epidemic and underscores the importance of multilevel modeling in examining predictors of LHD performance.

Stamatakis, Katherine A.; Leatherdale, Scott T.; Marx, Christine; Yan, Yan; Colditz, Graham A.; Brownson, Ross C.

2013-01-01

117

Where is obesity prevention on the map?: distribution and predictors of local health department prevention activities in relation to county-level obesity prevalence in the United States.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: The system of local health departments (LHDs) in the United States has the potential to advance a locally oriented public health response in obesity control and reduce geographic disparities. However, the extent to which obesity prevention programs correspond to local obesity levels is unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the extent to which LHDs across the United States have responded to local levels of obesity by examining the association between jurisdiction-level obesity prevalence and the existence of obesity prevention programs. DESIGN: Data on LHD organizational characteristics from the Profile Study of Local Health Departments and county-level estimates of obesity from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were analyzed (n = 2300). Since local public health systems are nested within state infrastructure, multilevel models were used to examine the relationship between county-level obesity prevalence and LHD obesity prevention programming and to assess the impact of state-level clustering. SETTING: Two thousand three hundred local health department jurisdictions defined with respect to county boundaries. PARTICIPANTS: Practitioners in local health departments who responded to the 2005 Profile Study of Local Health Departments. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Likelihood of having obesity prevention activities and association with area-level obesity prevalence. RESULTS: The existence of obesity prevention activities was not associated with the prevalence of obesity in the jurisdiction. A substantial portion of the variance in LHD activities was explained by state-level clustering. CONCLUSIONS: This article identified a gap in the local public health response to the obesity epidemic and underscores the importance of multilevel modeling in examining predictors of LHD performance.

Stamatakis KA; Leatherdale ST; Marx CM; Yan Y; Colditz GA; Brownson RC

2012-09-01

118

Childhood obesity in developing countries: epidemiology, determinants, and prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapidly changing dietary practices and a sedentary lifestyle have led to increasing prevalence of childhood obesity (5-19 yr) in developing countries recently: 41.8% in Mexico, 22.1% in Brazil, 22.0% in India, and 19.3% in Argentina. Moreover, secular trends indicate increasing prevalence rates in these countries: 4.1 to 13.9% in Brazil during 1974-1997, 12.2 to 15.6% in Thailand during 1991-1993, and 9.8 to 11.7% in India during 2006-2009. Important determinants of childhood obesity include high socioeconomic status, residence in metropolitan cities, female gender, unawareness and false beliefs about nutrition, marketing by transnational food companies, increasing academic stress, and poor facilities for physical activity. Childhood obesity has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the early-onset metabolic syndrome, subclinical inflammation, dyslipidemia, coronary artery diseases, and adulthood obesity. Therapeutic lifestyle changes and maintenance of regular physical activity through parental initiative and social support interventions are the most important strategies in managing childhood obesity. Also, high-risk screening and effective health educational programs are urgently needed in developing countries. PMID:22240243

Gupta, Nidhi; Goel, Kashish; Shah, Priyali; Misra, Anoop

2012-01-12

119

Childhood obesity in developing countries: epidemiology, determinants, and prevention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rapidly changing dietary practices and a sedentary lifestyle have led to increasing prevalence of childhood obesity (5-19 yr) in developing countries recently: 41.8% in Mexico, 22.1% in Brazil, 22.0% in India, and 19.3% in Argentina. Moreover, secular trends indicate increasing prevalence rates in these countries: 4.1 to 13.9% in Brazil during 1974-1997, 12.2 to 15.6% in Thailand during 1991-1993, and 9.8 to 11.7% in India during 2006-2009. Important determinants of childhood obesity include high socioeconomic status, residence in metropolitan cities, female gender, unawareness and false beliefs about nutrition, marketing by transnational food companies, increasing academic stress, and poor facilities for physical activity. Childhood obesity has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the early-onset metabolic syndrome, subclinical inflammation, dyslipidemia, coronary artery diseases, and adulthood obesity. Therapeutic lifestyle changes and maintenance of regular physical activity through parental initiative and social support interventions are the most important strategies in managing childhood obesity. Also, high-risk screening and effective health educational programs are urgently needed in developing countries.

Gupta N; Goel K; Shah P; Misra A

2012-02-01

120

The role of 1-h physical activity every day in preventing obesity in adolescents in Shandong, China.  

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Several studies have reported that physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyle are associated with being overweight and obese in children and adults. A new policy of 1-h physical activity (PA) every day was released by the Chinese government. The present study examined the role of 1-h PA every day in preventing obesity in adolescents in Shandong, China. A total of 29,030 students (14,578 boys and 14,452 girls) aged 10-18 years participated in this study. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), and skinfold thickness (SFT) of all subjects were measured; body mass index (BMI) of adolescents was calculated from their height and weight, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity was obtained according to the International Obesity Task Force cutoffs. All subjects were divided into two groups. Group 1 had a PA of more than 1 h/day while group 2 had less than 1 h/day. Comparisons of BMI, WC, SFT, and prevalences of overweight and obesity between the two groups were made. The overall percentages of students in group 1 were 34.29 % in boys and 30.15 % in girls. The prevalences of overweight and obesity for both boys and girls were all significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2 in all age categories. In conclusion, 1-h PA every day has a beneficial effect in preventing obesity in adolescents in Shandong, China. These observations highlight the importance of PA in the prevention of overweight and obesity in adolescents. PMID:23149631

Ying-Xiu, Zhang; Jing-Yang, Zhou; Jin-Shan, Zhao; Zun-Hua, Chu

2012-11-14

 
 
 
 
121

Policies for healthier communities: historical, legal, and practical elements of the obesity prevention movement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The U.S. population is facing an obesity crisis wrought with severe health and economic costs. Because social and environmental factors have a powerful influence over lifestyle choices, a national obesity prevention strategy must involve population-based interventions targeted at the places where people live, study, work, shop, and play. This means that policy, in addition to personal responsibility, must be part of the solution. This article first describes the emergence of and theory behind the obesity prevention movement. It then explains how government at all levels is empowered to develop obesity prevention policy. Finally, it explores eight attributes of a promising state or local obesity prevention policy and sets the obesity prevention movement in the context of a larger movement to promote healthy communities and prevent chronic disease.

Graff SK; Kappagoda M; Wooten HM; McGowan AK; Ashe M

2012-04-01

122

Efectividad de una intervención en educación alimentaria y actividad física para prevenir obesidad en escolares de la ciudad de Casablanca, Chile (2003-2004)/ Effectiveness of a dietary and physical activity intervention to prevent obesity in school age children  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Background: With the aim of contributing to he Healthy Goal 2010 of reducing significantly the prevalence of childhood obestiy we developed and implemented during 2003 and 2004, a school-based obesity prevention intervention which included nutrition education and the promotion of physical activity. Aim To report the results of the intervention. Material and methods: The sample included 1760 children (1st to 7th grade) from 3 elementary public schools in Casablanca (experi (more) mental group) and 671 from a similar school located in Quillota, a neighboring city (control). Primary outcomes were body mass index (BMI) Zscore, the mile and shuttle-run tests and obesity prevalence. We also compared changes in waist circumference and triceps skinfold between both groups. Effectiveness of the intervention was assessed by analyzing separately the group *age* time interaction for the first 3 outcomes (follow-up-baseline), using a mixed model of covariance and by comparing variations in obesity prevalence between both groups. Results: There was a significant decline in BMI Z scores in experimental schools for both genders, but greater in boys (p

Kain B, Juliana; Uauy D, Ricardo; Leyton D, Bárbara; Cerda R, Ricardo; Olivares C, Sonia; Vio D, Fernando

2008-01-01

123

The synergistic effect of weight loss and changes in dietary lipids on the serum cholesterol of obese men with hypercholesterolaemia: implications for prevention of coronary heart disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The hypolipidaemic effect of a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet, alone and in combination with weight reduction, has been evaluated in two groups of obese men with hypercholesterolaemia. In 41 men who lost 10.3 kg over 11 months and maintained their lower weight for 23.5 months serum cholesterol fell by 1.68 mmol/l and remained steady at lower weight. In 20 similar men, the controls, whose weight fell by 0.8 kg over 39.5 months, serum cholesterol fell by 0.80 mmol/l. There was a significant linear correlation between change in weight and change in serum cholesterol. The change in serum cholesterol in the weight losers was greater than could be accounted for by change in dietary lipids. Weight reduction and low-fat, low-cholesterol diets appear to have a synergistic effect in reducing serum cholesterol.

Blacket RB; Leelarthaepin B; McGilchrist CA; Palmer AJ; Woodhill JM

1979-10-01

124

An ethical framework for the prevention of overweight and obesity: a tool for thinking through a programme's ethical aspects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: It is important to be aware of the ethical pitfalls in programmes to prevent overweight and obesity, such as stigmatization, blaming the victim and reinforcement of health inequalities. In this article, we present an ethical framework for facilitating a structured analysis to the extent to which a programme prevents overweight or obesity is ethically acceptable. METHODS: First, we made an inventory of ethical issues in programmes to prevent overweight and obesity. Secondly, we studied the available ethical frameworks that address the area of public health. Finally, we designed an ethical framework for the prevention of overweight and obesity, which was tested in two international workshops. RESULTS: At the heart of the framework is a list of eight questions on the morally relevant features of a programme: its effects on physical health, psychosocial well-being, informed choice, cultural values, equality, privacy, responsibility and liberty. Answering these questions provides a map of the potential ethical pitfalls of a specific programme. This mapping should be followed by a structured discussion of the arguments and their importance, and the decision whether, and if so under what conditions, the programme should be implemented. CONCLUSION: Considering the ethical aspects of the programmes to prevent obesity or overweight is extremely important in the face of the urgent and extensive health problem of overweight and obesity. Our framework is a practical tool for systematic ethical evaluation. It is applicable to a broad range of programmes in different stages of development and implementation.

Have MT; van der Heide A; Mackenbach JP; de Beaufort ID

2013-04-01

125

Resveratrol potentiates rapamycin to prevent hyperinsulinemia and obesity in male mice on high fat diet.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

High doses of rapamycin, an antiaging agent, can prevent obesity in mice on high fat diet (HFD). Obesity is usually associated with hyperinsulinemia. Here, we showed that rapamycin given orally, at doses that did not affect weight gain in male mice on HFD, tended to decrease fasting insulin levels. Addition of resveratrol, which alone did not affect insulin levels, potentiated the effect of rapamycin, so that the combination decreased obesity and prevented hyperinsulinemia. Neither rapamycin nor resveratrol, and their combination affected fasting levels of glucose (despite lowering insulin levels), implying that the combination might prevent insulin resistance. We and others previously reported that resveratrol at high doses inhibited the mTOR (Target of Rapamycin) pathway in cell culture. Yet, as we confirmed here, this effect was observed only at super-pharmacological concentrations. At pharmacological concentrations, resveratrol did not exert 'rapamycin-like effects' on cellular senescence and did not inhibit the mTOR pathway in vitro, indicating nonoverlapping therapeutic mechanisms of actions of rapamycin and resveratrol in vivo. Although, like rapamycin, resveratrol decreased insulin-induced HIF-1-dependent transcription in cell culture, resveratrol did not inhibit mTOR at the same concentrations. Given distinct mechanisms of action of rapamycin and resveratrol at clinically relevant doses, their combination warrants further investigation as a potential antiaging, antiobesity and antidiabetic modality.

Leontieva OV; Paszkiewicz G; Demidenko ZN; Blagosklonny MV

2013-01-01

126

Efecto residual del ejercicio de fuerza muscular en la prevención secundaria de la obesidad infantil/ Residual effect of muscle strength exercise in secondary prevention of childhood obesity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Introducción: La elevada prevalencia de la obesidad en escolares chilenos (23,1%), hace necesario la aplicación de intervenciones que incorporen el ejercicio físico de fuerza muscular, pues éste muestra gran eficacia en niños obesos. Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto residual del ejercicio físico de fuerza muscular sobre la grasa corporal, el síndrome metabólico y la condición física en escolares obesos. Métodos: La muestra incluyó 111 escolares obesos, entre 8 y 13 (more) años, de 3 colegios de la ciudad de Santiago. La intervención temprana (n = 60) ejecutó en paralelo ejercicio físico de fuerza muscular, educación alimentaria y apoyo psicológico durante 3 meses. La intervención tardía (n = 51), incorporó los primeros 3 meses, sólo la intervención educativa y el apoyo psicológico, y el ejercicio se agregó entre los 3 y 6 meses. A los 9 meses post-intervención, se evaluó el efecto residual del ejercicio físico. La grasa corporal se determinó por ecuaciones antropométricas. El síndrome metabólico se diagnóstico por el criterio de Cook. La condición física se evaluó por la distancia recorrida en el test de seis minutos. Resultados: El porcentaje grasa corporal disminuyó al final de la intervención y aumentó post-intervención, con la excepción de los hombres de la intervención temprana. La distancia recorrida se incrementó al final de la intervención, pero se redujo en la post-intervención. El síndrome metabólico, disminuyó al término de la intervención incrementando post-intervención (p Abstract in english Introduction: The high prevalence of the obesity in Chilean students (23,1%), necessitates the application of interventions that incorporate muscle strength exercise, as this shows great efficacy in obese children. Objective: To evaluate the residual effect of muscle strength exercise on body fat, metabolic syndrome and physical fitness in obese schoolchildren. Methods: The sample included 111 obese schoolchildren, between 8 and 13 years, of 3 schools in the city of Santi (more) ago. Early intervention (n = 60) participated in parallel intervention that included muscle strength exercise, nutrition education and psychological support for 3 months. The late intervention (n = 51) incorporated the first 3 months, only the educational intervention and psychological support, and exercise was added between 3 and 6 months. At 9 months post intervention, we evaluated the residual effect of exercise. Body fat was determined by anthropometric equations. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed by the criteria of Cook. Physical fitness was assessed by the distance walked in six minutes test. Results: The body fat percentage decreased at the end of the intervention and post intervention increased with the exception of the men of early intervention. The distance traveled increased at the end of the intervention but declined in the post intervention. Metabolic syndrome, decreased at the end of the intervention increased post intervention (p

Vásquez, Fabián; Díaz, Erik; Lera, Lydia; Meza, Jorge; Salas, Isabel; Rojas, Pamela; Atalah, Eduardo; Burrows, Raquel

2013-04-01

127

Knowledge exchange in the Pacific: The TROPIC (Translational Research into Obesity Prevention Policies for Communities) project.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Policies targeting obesogenic environments and behaviours are critical to counter rising obesity rates and lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Policies are likely to be most effective and enduring when they are based on the best available evidence. Evidence-informed policy making is especially challenging in countries with limited resources. The Pacific TROPIC (Translational Research for Obesity Prevention in Communities) project aims to implement and evaluate a tailored knowledge-brokering approach to evidence-informed policy making to address obesity in Fiji, a Pacific nation challenged by increasingly high rates of obesity and concomitant NCDs. METHODS: The TROPIC project draws on the concept of 'knowledge exchange' between policy developers (individuals; organisations) and researchers to deliver a knowledge broking programme that maps policy environments, conducts workshops on evidence-informed policy making, supports the development of evidence-informed policy briefs, and embeds evidence-informed policy making into organisational culture. Recruitment of government and nongovernment organisational representatives will be based on potential to: develop policies relevant to obesity, reach broad audiences, and commit to resourcing staff and building a culture that supports evidence-informed policy development. Workshops will increase awareness of both obesity and policy cycles, as well as develop participants' skills in accessing, assessing and applying relevant evidence to policy briefs. The knowledge-broking team will then support participants to: 1) develop evidence-informed policy briefs that are both commensurate with national and organisational plans and also informed by evidence from the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project and elsewhere; and 2) collaborate with participating organisations to embed evidence-informed policy making structures and processes. This knowledge broking initiative will be evaluated via data from semi-structured interviews, a validated self-assessment tool, process diaries and outputs. DISCUSSION: Public health interventions have rarely targeted evidence-informed policy making structures and processes to reduce obesity and NCDs. This study will empirically advance understanding of knowledge broking processes to extend evidence-informed policy making skills and develop a suite of national obesity-related policies that can potentially improve population health outcomes.

Mavoa H; Waqa G; Moodie M; Kremer P; McCabe M; Snowdon W; Swinburn B

2012-01-01

128

Knowledge exchange in the Pacific: The TROPIC (Translational Research into Obesity Prevention Policies for Communities) project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Policies targeting obesogenic environments and behaviours are critical to counter rising obesity rates and lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Policies are likely to be most effective and enduring when they are based on the best available evidence. Evidence-informed policy making is especially challenging in countries with limited resources. The Pacific TROPIC (Translational Research for Obesity Prevention in Communities) project aims to implement and evaluate a tailored knowledge-brokering approach to evidence-informed policy making to address obesity in Fiji, a Pacific nation challenged by increasingly high rates of obesity and concomitant NCDs. Methods The TROPIC project draws on the concept of ‘knowledge exchange’ between policy developers (individuals; organisations) and researchers to deliver a knowledge broking programme that maps policy environments, conducts workshops on evidence-informed policy making, supports the development of evidence-informed policy briefs, and embeds evidence-informed policy making into organisational culture. Recruitment of government and nongovernment organisational representatives will be based on potential to: develop policies relevant to obesity, reach broad audiences, and commit to resourcing staff and building a culture that supports evidence-informed policy development. Workshops will increase awareness of both obesity and policy cycles, as well as develop participants’ skills in accessing, assessing and applying relevant evidence to policy briefs. The knowledge-broking team will then support participants to: 1) develop evidence-informed policy briefs that are both commensurate with national and organisational plans and also informed by evidence from the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project and elsewhere; and 2) collaborate with participating organisations to embed evidence-informed policy making structures and processes. This knowledge broking initiative will be evaluated via data from semi-structured interviews, a validated self-assessment tool, process diaries and outputs. Discussion Public health interventions have rarely targeted evidence-informed policy making structures and processes to reduce obesity and NCDs. This study will empirically advance understanding of knowledge broking processes to extend evidence-informed policy making skills and develop a suite of national obesity-related policies that can potentially improve population health outcomes.

Mavoa Helen; Waqa Gade; Moodie Marj; Kremer Peter; McCabe Marita; Snowdon Wendy; Swinburn Boyd

2012-01-01

129

Impact of a school-based pediatric obesity prevention program facilitated by health professionals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated a school-based obesity intervention for elementary school children (N?=?835) where health professionals assisted teachers with the integration of healthy messages into the school curriculum. METHODS: Schools were randomized into a professional-facilitated intervention (PFI; N?=?4) or a self-help (SH; N?=?3) condition. Changes in weight-based outcomes were assessed in students enrolled in the second grade from all 7 schools (overall: N?=?835 students; PFI: N?=?509 students, SH: N?=?326 students). Students were between ages 7 and 9 and from diverse ethnic backgrounds (Asian?=?25.3%, Black?=?23.3%, Hispanic?=?23.1%, White?=?28.3%). The sample included 321 overweight/obese (BMI???85th percentile), 477 normal-weight (BMI???5th percentile and <85th percentile), and 37 underweight (BMI?obese in the PFI condition significantly reduced their standardized BMI (zBMI) compared to children in the SH condition (Wald ?(2) ?=?28.7, p?obese students in both conditions; however, students in the PFI exhibited a smaller decrease in grades compared to the SH condition (Wald ?(2) ?=?80.3, p?obesity prevention program where health professionals assist teachers by integrating healthy messages into existing curriculum was effective in reducing zBMI compared to the SH condition.

Johnston CA; Moreno JP; El-Mubasher A; Gallagher M; Tyler C; Woehler D

2013-03-01

130

Effects of exercise training on cardiac apoptosis in obese rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of exercise training on cardiac apoptotic pathways in obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixteen lean Zucker rats (LZR) and sixteen obese Zucker rats (OZR) of 5-6 months of age as well as the other sixteen obese rats were subjected to treadmill running exercise for 1 h everyday for 3 months (OZR-EX). After exercise training or sedentary status of the rats, the excised hearts from the three groups were measured by heart weight index, H&E staining, TUNEL assays and Western blotting. Cardiac TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells, the protein levels of TNF alpha, Fas ligand, Fas receptors, Fas-associated death domain (FADD), Bad, Bax, activated caspase 8, activated caspase 9, and activated caspase 3 were higher in OZR than those in LZR. The protein levels of TNF alpha, Fas ligand, Fas receptors, FADD, activated caspase 8, and activated caspase 3 (Fas pathway) and the protein levels of Bad, Bax, Bax-to-Bcl2 ratio, activated caspase 9, and activated caspase 3 (mitochondria pathway) were lower in OZR-EX than those in OZR. CONCLUSION: Cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways become more activated in obesity. Exercise training can prevent obesity-activated cardiac Fas-dependent and mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways. Our findings demonstrate a new therapeutic effect of exercise training to prevent delirious cardiac Fas-mediated and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in obesity.

Lee SD; Shyu WC; Cheng IS; Kuo CH; Chan YS; Lin YM; Tasi CY; Tsai CH; Ho TJ; Huang CY

2013-06-01

131

Prevention of childhood obesity through motivation to physical activity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aims to review the current worrying situation in terms of physical activity in our country and the problem that leads us to be below the European average, with the attendant problems of obesity, particularly among children, which follow from this. We analyzed the intervention programs that are being used as PIOBIN plan (The Andalusian Plan for Childhood Obesity), effective from 2007-12, based on a national strategy called Naos Strategy and how different studies support that some intrinsic motivation toward physical activity helps to create lasting habits to the practice. We also carry out an analysis of the different Motivation theories and we base our study on the Self-determination Theory of Deci and Ryan (1985, 2000)

Morente Oria, Honorato; Zagalaz Sánchez, Mª Luisa; Molero López-Barajas, David; Carrillo Aguilera, Sonia

2012-01-01

132

Effects of messages from a media campaign to increase public awareness of childhood obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective: To examine how video messages from a recent media campaign affected public attitudes about obesity prevention and weight-based stigma toward obese children. Design and Methods: We conducted a survey-embedded experiment in May-June 2012 with nationally-representative sample (N=1,677). Participants were randomized to view one of three messages of children recounting struggles with obesity, or to a control group. We examined whether message exposure affected attitudes about: 1) the seriousness of childhood obesity and its consequences; 2) responsibility for addressing obesity; 3) support for prevention policies, and 4) stigma toward obese children. Results: Participants viewing the messages attributed greater responsibility for addressing childhood obesity to the food and beverage industry, schools, and the government, compared to those in the control group. Overweight and female respondents viewing the messages reported lower weight-based stigma compared with overweight and female respondents in the control group, but messages had no effect on healthy weight and male respondents. Messages did not affect attitudes about the seriousness of childhood obesity, its consequences, or support for obesity prevention policies. Conclusions: It will be critical to assess on an ongoing basis how communication campaigns addressing childhood obesity shape public attitudes about obesity prevention.

Barry CL; Gollust SE; McGinty E; Niederdeppe J

2013-07-01

133

Obesity and cholecystectomy among women: implications for prevention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Almost all studies of the association of body mass with the risk of gallbladder disease have found that risk increases with obesity. Some studies report a nonlinear relationship of body mass to gallbladder disease risk, and some report that the association of excess body mass with increased risk of gallbladder disease is confined to younger women. We examined the association of body mass with the risk of cholecystectomy based on data from 14 years of follow-up of 16,638 women. The cholecystectomy rate was much greater in the highest quintile of Quetelet's body mass index than in other quintiles. The striking association of high rates of cholecystectomy with the highest quintile of Quetelet's body mass index was observed in each age group studied. The low incidence of cholecystectomy in young, thin women made the relative risk of cholecystectomy in women in the fifth quintile of body mass highest in women under 25 years of age. The observation that cholecystectomy rates are not linearly associated with obesity suggests that women in the highest quintiles of body mass could be considered a reasonable group in which strategies for prevention of gallbladder disease might be tested.

Petitti DB; Sidney S

1988-11-01

134

From "best practice" to "next practice": the effectiveness of school-based health promotion in improving healthy eating and physical activity and preventing childhood obesity  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2005, we reported on the success of Comprehensive School Health (CSH) in improving diets, activity levels, and body weights. The successful program was recognized as a "best practice" and has inspired the development of the Alberta Project Promoting active Living and healthy Eating (APPLE) Schools. The project includes 10 schools, most of which are located in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas. The present study examines the effectiveness of a CSH program adopted from a "best practice" example in another setting by evaluating temporal changes in diets, activity levels and body weight. Methods In 2008 and 2010, we surveyed grade 5 students from approximately 150 randomly selected schools from the Canadian province of Alberta and students from 10 APPLE Schools. Students completed the Harvard Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire, questions on physical activity, and had their height and weight measured. Multilevel regression methods were used to analyze changes in diets, activity levels, and body weight between 2008 and 2010. Results In 2010 relative to 2008, students attending APPLE Schools were eating more fruits and vegetables, consuming fewer calories, were more physically active and were less likely obese. These changes contrasted changes observed among students elsewhere in the province. Conclusions These findings provide evidence on the effectiveness of CSH in improving health behaviors. They show that an example of "best practice" may lead to success in another setting. Herewith the study provides the evidence that investments for broader program implementation based on "best practice" are justified.

Fung Christina; Kuhle Stefan; Lu Connie; Purcell Megan; Schwartz Marg; Storey Kate; Veugelers Paul J

2012-01-01

135

Collaborating for impact: a multilevel early childhood obesity prevention initiative.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article presents Healthy Kids, Healthy Futures, a multilevel initiative in Boston, Massachusetts, which brings major institutions' missions and resources together to address early childhood obesity prevention. Programming is designed to facilitate healthy eating and physical activity in preschool children's home, school, and community environments by engaging parents and early childhood educators in the places where they live, learn, and play. This article describes how established interventions were implemented in a novel setting to engage the parents of children attending Head Start and staff, and presents pilot data from the first 2 years of the initiative. Healthy Kids, Healthy Futures is a feasible initiative, which has shown concrete, positive results that can be replicated.

Agrawal T; Hoffman JA; Ahl M; Bhaumik U; Healey C; Carter S; Dickerson D; Nethersole S; Griffin D; Castaneda-Sceppa C

2012-07-01

136

Context Matters in Pediatric Obesity: Commentary on Innovative Treatment and Prevention Programs for Pediatric Overweight and Obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This commentary reviews the 9 articles in the Special Issue on Innovative Treatment and Prevention Programs for Pediatric Overweight and Obesity. Taking a socio-ecological perspective, contextual factors such as characteristics of the child, family, community, and culture are offered as ways to improve treatment and prevention programs. Using a more tailored approach that takes into account individual differences in family communication patterns and problem solving is warranted. Pediatric psychologists are urged to consider the role of prevention and targeted efforts during early childhood to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity.

Fiese BH

2013-09-01

137

Behavioral counseling to prevent childhood obesity--study protocol of a pragmatic trial in maternity and child health care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Prevention is considered effective in combating the obesity epidemic. Prenatal environment may increase offspring's risk for obesity. A child starts to adopt food preferences and other behavioral habits affecting weight gain during preschool years. We report the study protocol of a pragmatic lifestyle intervention aiming at primary prevention of childhood obesity. METHODS/DESIGN: A non-randomized controlled pragmatic trial in maternity and child health care clinics. The control group was recruited among families who visited the same clinics one year earlier. Eligibility criteria was mother at risk for gestational diabetes: body mass index ? 25 kg/m2, macrosomic newborn in any previous pregnancy, immediate family history of diabetes and/or age ? 40 years. All maternity clinics in town involved in recruitment. The gestational intervention consisted of individual counseling on diet and physical activity by a public health nurse, and of two group counseling sessions. Intervention continues until offspring's age of five years. An option to participate a group counseling at child's age 1 to 2 years was offered. The intervention includes advice on healthy diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleeping pattern. The main outcome measure is offspring BMI z-score and its changes by the age of six years. DISCUSSION: Early childhood is a critical time period for prevention of obesity. Pragmatic trials targeting this period are necessary in order to find effective obesity prevention programs feasible in normal health care practice.

Mustila T; Keskinen P; Luoto R

2012-01-01

138

Hypothyroidism and obesity: Cause or Effect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective was to establish relationship between obesity and hypothyroidism and to analyze the frequency of primary hypothyroidism in obese patients and frequency of obesity in primary hypothyroidism patients. We conducted this retrospective, observational study in Department of Endocrinology and Obesity Clinic, Medwin Hospital, Hyderabad, India in March 2008. In the last 18 months (between September 2006 to February 2008), data on 625 consecutive primary hypothyroidism patients (Group I) and 450 patients from obesity clinic (Group II) were analyzed. Frequency difference between the 2 groups was assessed by Chi-square test. In Group I, 278/625 (44%) had body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2. Obesity was higher (46% versus 34%) in overt hypothyroidism than in subclinical hypothyroidism (p=0.21). More patients were overweight in overt hypothyroidism group than in subclinical hypothyroidism group (p=0.02). In obesity patients, overt hypothyroidism was present in 33% and subclinical hypothyroidism in 11% patients. Overall thyroid dysfunction was found more in obese individuals with varying degree of significance. Detailed studies are required to assess the cause and effect relation between obesity and hypothyroidism. (author)

2008-01-01

139

School-based internet obesity prevention programs for adolescents: a systematic literature review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In response to the childhood obesity epidemic, numerous studies on school-based Internet obesity prevention interventions have been conducted. The purpose of this systematic review is to describe, synthesize, and evaluate the research on school-based Internet obesity prevention programs for adolescents. Medline, CINAHL, and PsycInfo were searched from January 1995 to August 2012 to locate relevant studies. Ninety-one reports were initially identified, with 12 meeting the inclusion criteria. Studies had variable control groups, program content, and sample characteristics. Though few authors reported on implementation processes or body mass index (BMI) outcomes, the majority of studies were effective in improving health behaviors in the short term. Most studies were judged to have a high or unclear risk of bias in at least two domains, thus the quality of evidence for this body of literature is moderate. Further research is needed to examine programs of longer duration, optimal dose and timing of programs, cost-effectiveness, and mediators and moderators of intervention outcomes.

Whittemore R; Chao A; Popick R; Grey M

2013-03-01

140

Prevention: The First Line of Defense against Childhood Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood obesity has become an alarming problem in this country. Risk factors associated with childhood obesity include having obese parents, a history of low or high birth weight, Black or Hispanic ethnicity, and low socioeconomic background. Although most healthy American infants and toddlers have adequate diets, many parents and health…

Milano, Kimberly

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Effect of obesity and insulin resistance on diabetic control  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diabetes Mellitus in obese and non-obese Indian individuals.AIMS: Effect of Obesity and insulin resistance on diabetic control.SETTINGS AND DESIGN: 50 each groups Diabetic individuals obese and non-obese.METHODS AND MATERIAL: On selected 50 each group diabetic patient and normal, following blood inv...

Kale, Kumud; Rawat, D. K.

142

Obesity intervention on the healthy lifestyle in childhood: results of the PRESTO (PrEvention STudy of Obesity) Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Due to increasing problems with childhood and adolescent obesity in Austria PRESTO (PrEvention STudy of Obesity) created a school based intervention program for promoting a healthy lifestyle in Austrian youth.Methods: PRESTO was carried out by a multi-disciplinary team including a physician, a psychologist, a nutritionist and an exercise physiologist. The study was carried out in 12 first grade school classes in Austria (2002-2004), mainly in Vienna (N=260). The control group consisted of 231 subjects. Medical examinations were performed and the participantsf knowledge on good nutrition and dietary habits were collected. Twelve nutrition sessions, one hour per week in each class, were conducted. Teachers were advised to discuss health issues in their classes and specific exercise physiologists were informed about how to integrate appropriate exercises into their lessons.Results: In comparison with control group, classes who performed PRESTO showed a significant knowledge of nutrition, consuming less unhealthy foods. These effects could be observed in the short term (14 weeks) and at follow up (10 months). 24% subjects could be classified as being overweight (BMI .90.Perc.).Conclusions: School-oriented intervention programs/studies, like PRESTO, are a potential way to demonstrate positive effect on nutrition, physical activity and healthy behaviours in youth, especially if carried out on a long-term basis. Ultimately PRESTO has proven to be a suitable programme to be disseminated onto schools throughout Austria.

Sabine Dietrich; Angelo Pietrobelli; Sabine Dämon; Kurt Widhalm

2008-01-01

143

Reaching staff, parents, and community partners to prevent childhood obesity in Head Start, 2008.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Lowering the prevalence of childhood obesity requires a multilevel approach that targets the home, school, and community. Head Start, the largest federally funded early childhood education program in the United States, reaches nearly 1 million low-income children, and it provides an ideal opportunity for implementing such an approach. Our objective was to describe obesity prevention activities in Head Start that are directed at staff, parents, and community partners. METHODS: We mailed a survey in 2008 to all 1,810 Head Start programs in the United States. RESULTS: Among the 1,583 (87%) responding programs, 60% held workshops to train new staff about children's feeding and 63% held workshops to train new staff about children's gross motor activity. Parent workshops on preparing or shopping for healthy foods were offered by 84% of programs and on encouraging children's gross motor activity by 43% of programs. Ninety-seven percent of programs reported having at least 1 community partnership to encourage children's healthy eating, and 75% reported at least 1 to encourage children's gross motor activity. CONCLUSION: Head Start programs reported using a multilevel approach to childhood obesity prevention that included staff, parents, and community partners. More information is needed about the content and effectiveness of these efforts.

Gooze RA; Hughes CC; Finkelstein DM; Whitaker RC

2010-05-01

144

Childhood obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As childhood obesity is associated with premature death in adults, a research is critical. This review focuses on the recent proceedings concerning genesis, prevention, and treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Identifying genetic variants in well phenotyped small cohorts of extremely obese children (e.g., the search for copy number variants in obesity-associated large chromosomal deletions) confirmed afterwards in large population-based studies is a new promising genetic approach to understand the disposition to obesity. A further important finding is that obesity of mothers predisposes their offsprings to obesity by epigenetic, prenatal effects. Therefore, prevention programs targeting parents even before pregnancy should be developed. Prevention programs in kindergarten and schools without involving the parents failed to fight against the obesity epidemic. A new promising prevention approach is to change the environment (e.g., ban on sugar drinks in schools). Therapy of choice in already obese children is lifestyle intervention. Again, including their parents is crucial for success. However, this kind of intervention is only suitable for families motivated to change their lifestyle habits. Especially in extremely obese adolescents, additional therapeutic approaches such as drugs and bariatric surgery have to be considered. SUMMARY: Even if of knowledge of childhood obesity improves every year, many questions concerning prevention and treatment remain still open. Future longitudinal research has to focus on which children will benefit from which kind of intervention to develop specific therapies.

Reinehr T; Wabitsch M

2011-02-01

145

What Evidence and Support Do State-Level Public Health Practitioners Need to Address Obesity Prevention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Purpose . Obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Public health practitioners are distinctly positioned to promote the environmental changes essential to addressing obesity. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other entities provide evidence and technical assistance to support this work, yet little is known about how practitioners use evidence and support as they intervene to prevent obesity. The study's purpose was to describe how practitioners and CDC project officers characterized the obesity prevention task, where practitioners accessed support and evidence, and what approaches to support and evidence they found most useful. Approach or Design . Mixed-methods, cross-sectional interviews, and survey. Setting . State-level public health obesity prevention programs. Participants . Public health practitioners and CDC project officers. Method . We conducted 10 in-depth interviews with public health practitioners (n = 7) and project officers (n = 3) followed by an online survey completed by 62 practitioners (50% response rate). We applied content analysis to interview data and descriptive statistics to survey data. Results . Practitioners characterized obesity prevention as uncertain and complex, involving interdependence among actors, multiple levels of activity, an excess of information, and a paucity of evidence. Survey findings provide further detail on the types of evidence and support practitioners used and valued. Conclusion . We recommend approaches to tailoring evidence and support to the needs of practitioners working on obesity prevention and other complex health problems.

Leeman J; Teal R; Jernigan J; Reed JH; Farris R; Ammerman A

2013-04-01

146

The prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity. Summary of the advisory report by the Health Council of The Netherlands.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article presents the highlights of an advisory report on the prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity. The report, which was produced by the Health Council of The Netherlands, incorporates the most recent developments and projected scientific breakthroughs in this field. The prevalence of overweight and obesity has taken on epidemic proportions. In The Netherlands, as elsewhere, there is a steady rise in the number of individuals suffering from overweight or obesity. Since it is associated with serious health problems, obesity (and to a lesser extent overweight) leads to increased costs for the healthcare system. Food consumption surveys and studies on time trends in physical activity patterns have revealed that the increased prevalence of obesity is due to an increasing lack of exercise, combined with relative overconsumption. A healthy diet (including plenty of fruit, vegetables and cereal products) and at least one hour a day of moderate physical activity are recommended for the maintenance of energy balance and for the prevention of weight gain. While genetic factors play a part in the development of overweight and obesity, environmental factors appear to be of overriding importance. The so-called 'obesogenic environment' prompts individuals to eat more and to take less exercise. There are still no effective intervention strategies for the prevention of weight gain. However, the explosive increase in the prevalence of obesity and of its associated serious medical problems demands a common-sense approach involving preventive interventions, which are based on modern views of health promotion. These interventions require a broad coalition of actors, in which local and national authorities, industry, the healthcare system and the population at risk must each shoulder their own share of responsibility. The primary aim of obesity treatment should be a long-lasting weight loss of about 10%. Even this relatively small weight loss can produce significant health gains. Treatment methods must involve an integrated (lifestyle) approach, dependent on the amount of overweight involved and on the presence of comorbidity. Obesity should be treated chronically and prevention of weight regain must be part of any obesity treatment programme.

Kemper HC; Stasse-Wolthuis M; Bosman W

2004-01-01

147

Clonidine prevents insulin resistance and hypertension in obese dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role that the central sympathetic nervous system plays in the development of obesity hypertension and insulin was evaluated by feeding dogs a high fat diet with or without clonidine treatment. Thirteen adult mongrel dogs were chronically instrumented and randomly assigned to receive either a high fat diet and no clonidine (n=6) or a high fat diet plus clonidine (n=7), 0.3 mg BID. Blood pressure, heart rate, plasma insulin, and electrolytes were measured daily. Insulin resistance was assessed with a multiple-dose euglycemic clamp (1, 2, and 30 mU. kg-1. min-1) before and after 1, 3, and 6 weeks of the high fat diet. Clonidine prevented the hypertension, tachycardia, and insulin resistance associated with feeding dogs the high fat diet but did not affect weight gain. The present study suggests that the central sympathetic nervous system plays a critical role in the development of both insulin resistance and hypertension associated with feeding dogs a high fat diet. PMID:9931163

Rocchini, A P; Mao, H Z; Babu, K; Marker, P; Rocchini, A J

1999-01-01

148

Healthy eating and obesity prevention for preschoolers: a randomised controlled trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing effective prevention and intervention programs for the formative preschool years is seen as an essential step in combating the obesity epidemic across the lifespan. The overall goal of the current project is to measure the effectiveness of a healthy eating and childhood obesity prevention intervention, the MEND (Mind Exercise Nutrition Do It!) program that is delivered to parents of children aged 2-4 years. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial will be conducted with 200 parents and their 2-4 year old children who attend the MEND 2-4 program in metropolitan and regional Victoria. Parent-child dyads will attend ten 90-minute group workshops. These workshops focus on general nutrition, as well as physical activity and behaviours. They are typically held at community or maternal and child health centres and run by a MEND 2-4 trained program leader. Child eating habits, physical activity levels and parental behaviours and cognitions pertaining to nutrition and physical activity will be assessed at baseline, the end of the intervention, and at 6 and 12 months post the intervention. Informed consent will be obtained from all parents, who will then be randomly allocated to the intervention or wait-list control group. Discussion Our study is the first RCT of a healthy eating and childhood obesity prevention intervention targeted specifically to Australian parents and their preschool children aged 2-4 years. It responds to the call by experts in the area of childhood obesity and child health that prevention of overweight in the formative preschool years should focus on parents, given that parental beliefs, attitudes, perceptions and behaviours appear to impact significantly on the development of early overweight. This is 'solution-oriented' rather than 'problem-oriented' research, with its focus being on prevention rather than intervention. If this is a positive trial, the MEND2-4 program can be implemented as a national program. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000200088

Skouteris Helen; McCabe Marita; Swinburn Boyd; Hill Briony

2010-01-01

149

THE PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITION OR THE FUNCTIONAL FOODS FOR THE TREATMENT OR PREVENTION OF OBESITY COMPRISING THE EXTRACT FROM MYRISTICA FRAGRANS HOUTTUYN  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is provided a pharmaceutical composition and functional foods for the prevention and treatment of obesity, comprising an extract from Myristica fragrans Houttuyn as an effective component. The Myristica fragrans Houttuyn extract may be used for the pharmaceutical composition for the prevention and treatment of obesity caused by the intake of high-fat diets by suppressing an increase in body weights caused by the intake of high-fat diets, an increase in weights of periovarian fats and an accumulation of abdominal fats caused by the hypertrophy of adipocytes (fat cells). Furthermore, the extract from Myristica fragrans Houttuyn may be effectively used for the functional foods for the amelioration and prevention of obesity in humans including juveniles, adults and the old since it is used to ameliorate and prevent the obesity caused by the intake of high-fat diets.

RYU JEI-MAN; LEE SEUNG-RYUL; BAEK NAM-HYUN; LEEM MOON-JUNG; SEONG SEUNG-KYOO; LEE SANG-HO

150

School-based obesity prevention programs: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective: Attempts have been made to reduce childhood obesity through school-based programs. Systematic reviews of studies until 2006 reported a lack of consistency about effectiveness of such programs. Presented is an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Design and Methods: Replication of methodology used in previous comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of school based obesity prevention programs covering studies until 2006 to review studies thru January 2012. Results: Based on 32 studies (n=52,109), programs were mildly effective in reducing BMI relative to controls not receiving intervention. Studies of children had significant intervention effects, those of teenagers did not, though the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. Meta-regression showed a significant linear hierarchy of studies with the largest effects for comprehensive programs more than 1 year-long that aimed to provide information on nutrition and physical activity, change attitudes, monitor behavior, modify environment, involve parents, increase physical activity and improve diet, particularly among children. Conclusions: Unlike earlier studies, more recent studies showed convincing evidence that school-based prevention interventions are at least mildly effective in reducing BMI in children, possibly because these newer studies tended to be longer, more comprehensive and included parental support.

Sobol-Goldberg S; Rabinowitz J; Gross R

2013-06-01

151

Effect of obesity on cardiometabolic risk factors in Asian Indians.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity and their effects on cardiometabolic risk factors in a representative sample of urban population in Eastern India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A population-based survey was conducted among a randomly selected study population aged 20-80 years in an urban population of Berhampur city of Eastern India. Both anthropometric and biochemical information were collected, in addition to detailed information on classical cardiometabolic risk factors. Both descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed. Obesity and overweight were defined based on the revised Asian-Pacific population criteria (Body mass index [BMI] ?25 kg/m(2) and ?23 kg/m(2), respectively). RESULTS: The age-standardized rates of obesity and overweight are 36.8% (Males: 33.2%; Females: 40.8%) and 17.6%, (Males: 20.4%; Females: 15.1%) respectively, i.e., over half are either obese or overweight in this study population. Compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) standard cutoff criteria of overweight [BMI ?25 kg/m(2)] and obesity [BMI >30 kg/m(2)], the cardiometabolic risk factors studied showed a significant incremental rise even with the lower cutoffs of the revised Asia-Pacific criteria. Older age, female gender, family history of diabetes, being hypertensive, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, physical inactivity and middle to higher socioeconomic status significantly contributed to increased obesity risk among this urban population. CONCLUSION: One-third of the urban populations are obese in Eastern India - an underestimate compared to the standard BMI cutoff criteria. Nevertheless, significant associations of the classical cardiometabolic risk factors with obesity were observed using the revised Asia-Pacific criteria clearly indicating a more aggressive cardiovascular prevention strategy for Asian Indians.

Prasad DS; Kabir Z; Dash AK; Das BC

2013-06-01

152

Field Assessments for Obesity Prevention in Children and Adults: Physical Activity, Fitness, and Body Composition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nutrition and health educators work in community settings implementing lifestyle programs focused on obesity prevention and chronic disease risk reduction. These programs typically focus on improving diet and physical activity (PA) behaviors. Many nutrition educators may not be confident in their ability to select, administer, and interpret PA assessments to effectively evaluate their PA or lifestyle programs. This report will assist educators in identifying and selecting appropriate field-based assessments for measurement of PA, physical fitness, and body composition for children and adults. Specific guidelines, references, and resources are given for selecting assessment methods and test within these 3 areas.

Lindsay AR; Hongu N; Spears K; Idris R; Dyrek A; Manore MM

2013-07-01

153

A systematic review of health videogames on childhood obesity prevention and intervention  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood obesity is a global epidemic. Health video games are an emerging intervention strategy to combat childhood obesity. This systematic review examined published research on the effect of health video games on childhood obesity. Fourteen articles examining 28 health video ames published betwee...

154

A health literate approach to the prevention of childhood overweight and obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Most trials addressing the treatment or prevention of childhood obesity use written materials. Due to the ubiquitous prevalence of limited health literacy, our described methods may assist researchers in ensuring their content is both understood and actionable.

White RO; Thompson JR; Rothman RL; McDougald Scott AM; Heerman WJ; Sommer EC; Barkin SL

2013-08-01

155

NET-Works: Linking families, communities and primary care to prevent obesity in preschool-age children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Obesity prevention in children offers a unique window of opportunity to establish healthful eating and physical activity behaviors to maintain a healthful body weight and avoid the adverse proximal and distal long-term health consequences of obesity. Given that obesity is the result of a complex interaction between biological, behavioral, family-based, and community environmental factors, intervention at multiple levels and across multiple settings is critical for both short- and long-term effectiveness. The Minnesota NET-Works (Now Everybody Together for Amazing and Healthful Kids) study is one of four obesity prevention and/or treatment trials that are part of the Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment (COPTR) Consortium. The goal of the NET-Works study is to evaluate an intervention that integrates home, community, primary care and neighborhood strategies to promote healthful eating, activity patterns, and body weight among low income, racially/ethnically diverse preschool-age children. Critical to the success of this intervention is the creation of linkages among the settings to support parents in making home environment and parenting behavior changes to foster healthful child growth. Five hundred racially/ethnically diverse, two-four year old children and their parent or primary caregiver will be randomized to the multi-component intervention or to a usual care comparison group for a three-year period. This paper describes the study design, measurement and intervention protocols, and statistical analysis plan for the NET-Works trial.

Sherwood NE; French SA; Veblen-Mortenson S; Crain AL; Berge J; Kunin-Batson A; Mitchell N; Senso M

2013-10-01

156

A parent focused child obesity prevention intervention improves some mother obesity risk behaviors: the Melbourne infant program  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The diets, physical activity and sedentary behavior levels of both children and adults in Australia are suboptimal. The family environment, as the first ecological niche of children, exerts an important influence on the onset of children’s habits. Parent modeling is one part of this environment and a logical focus for child obesity prevention initiatives. The focus on parent’s own behaviors provides a potential opportunity to decrease obesity risk behaviors in parents as well. Objective To assess the effect of a parent-focused early childhood obesity prevention intervention on first-time mothers’ diets, physical activity and TV viewing time. Methods The Melbourne InFANT Program is a cluster-randomized controlled trial which involved 542 mothers over their newborn’s first 18?months of life. The intervention focused on parenting skills and strategies, including parental modeling, and aimed to promote development of healthy child and parent behaviors from birth, including healthy diet, increased physical activity and reduced TV viewing time. Data regarding mothers’ diet (food frequency questionnaire), physical activity and TV viewing times (self-reported questionnaire) were collected using validated tools at both baseline and post-intervention. Four dietary patterns were derived at baseline using principal components analyses including frequencies of 55 food groups. Analysis of covariance was used to measure the impact of the intervention. Results The scores of both the "High-energy snack and processed foods" and the "High-fat foods" dietary patterns decreased more in the intervention group: -0.22 (?0.42;-0.02) and ?0.25 (?0.50;-0.01), respectively. No other significant intervention vs. control effects were observed regarding total physical activity, TV viewing time, and the two other dietary patterns, i.e. “Fruits and vegetables” and “Cereals and sweet foods”. Conclusions These findings suggest that supporting first-time mothers to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors in their infants impacts maternal dietary intakes positively. Further research needs to assess ways in which we might further enhance those lifestyle behaviors not impacted by the InFANT intervention.

Lioret Sandrine; Campbell Karen J; Crawford David; Spence Alison C; Hesketh Kylie; McNaughton Sarah A

2012-01-01

157

Healthy Homes/Healthy Kids: A randomized trial of a pediatric primary care-based obesity prevention intervention for at-risk 5-10year olds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pediatric primary care is an important setting in which to address obesity prevention, yet relatively few interventions have been evaluated and even fewer have been shown to be effective. The development and evaluation of cost-effective approaches to obesity prevention that leverage opportunities of direct access to families in the pediatric primary care setting, overcome barriers to implementation in busy practice settings, and facilitate sustained involvement of parents is an important public health priority. The goal of the Healthy Homes/Healthy Kids (HHHK 5-10) randomized controlled trial is to evaluate the efficacy of a relatively low-cost primary care-based obesity prevention intervention aimed at 5 to 10year old children who are at risk for obesity. Four hundred twenty one parent/child dyads were recruited and randomized to either the obesity prevention arm or a Contact Control condition that focuses on safety and injury prevention. The HHHK 5-10 obesity prevention intervention combines brief counseling with a pediatric primary care provider during routine well child visits and follow-up telephone coaching that supports parents in making home environmental changes to support healthful eating, activity patterns, and body weight. The Contact Control condition combines the same provider counseling with telephone coaching focused on safety and injury prevention messages. This manuscript describes the study design and baseline characteristics of participants enrolled in the HHHK 5-10 trial. PMID:23816490

Sherwood, Nancy E; Levy, Rona L; Langer, Shelby L; Senso, Meghan M; Crain, A Lauren; Hayes, Marcia G; Anderson, Julie D; Seburg, Elisabeth M; Jeffery, Robert W

2013-06-28

158

Healthy Homes/Healthy Kids: A randomized trial of a pediatric primary care-based obesity prevention intervention for at-risk 5-10year olds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pediatric primary care is an important setting in which to address obesity prevention, yet relatively few interventions have been evaluated and even fewer have been shown to be effective. The development and evaluation of cost-effective approaches to obesity prevention that leverage opportunities of direct access to families in the pediatric primary care setting, overcome barriers to implementation in busy practice settings, and facilitate sustained involvement of parents is an important public health priority. The goal of the Healthy Homes/Healthy Kids (HHHK 5-10) randomized controlled trial is to evaluate the efficacy of a relatively low-cost primary care-based obesity prevention intervention aimed at 5 to 10year old children who are at risk for obesity. Four hundred twenty one parent/child dyads were recruited and randomized to either the obesity prevention arm or a Contact Control condition that focuses on safety and injury prevention. The HHHK 5-10 obesity prevention intervention combines brief counseling with a pediatric primary care provider during routine well child visits and follow-up telephone coaching that supports parents in making home environmental changes to support healthful eating, activity patterns, and body weight. The Contact Control condition combines the same provider counseling with telephone coaching focused on safety and injury prevention messages. This manuscript describes the study design and baseline characteristics of participants enrolled in the HHHK 5-10 trial.

Sherwood NE; Levy RL; Langer SL; Senso MM; Crain AL; Hayes MG; Anderson JD; Seburg EM; Jeffery RW

2013-09-01

159

Sustainable prevention of obesity through integrated strategies: The SPOTLIGHT project's conceptual framework and design.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Europe is high. It is a major cause of the overall rates of many of the main chronic (or non communicable) diseases in this region and is characterized by an unequal socio-economic distribution within the population. Obesity is largely determined by modifiable lifestyle behaviours such as low physical activity levels, sedentary behaviour and consumption of energy dense diets. It is increasingly being recognised that effective responses must go beyond interventions that only focus on a specific individual, social or environmental level and instead embrace system-based multi-level intervention approaches that address both the individual and environment. The EU-funded project "sustainable prevention of obesity through integrated strategies" (SPOTLIGHT) aims to increase and combine knowledge on the wide range of determinants of obesity in a systematic way, and to identify multi-level intervention approaches that are strong in terms of Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM). METHODS/DESIGN: SPOTLIGHT comprises a series of systematic reviews on: individual-level predictors of success in behaviour change obesity interventions; social and physical environmental determinants of obesity; and on the RE-AIM of multi-level interventions. An interactive web-atlas of currently running multi-level interventions will be developed, and enhancing and impeding factors for implementation will be described. At the neighbourhood level, these elements will inform the development of methods to assess obesogenicity of diverse environments, using remote imaging techniques linked to geographic information systems. The validity of these methods will be evaluated using data from surveys of health and lifestyles of adults residing in the neighbourhoods surveyed. At both the micro- and macro-levels (national and international) the different physical, economical, political and socio-cultural elements will be assessed. DISCUSSION: SPOTLIGHT offers the potential to develop approaches that combine an understanding of the obesogenicity of environments in Europe, and thus how they can be improved, with an appreciation of the individual factors that explain why people respond differently to such environments. Its findings will inform governmental authorities and professionals, academics, NGOs and private sector stakeholders engaged in the development and implementation of policies to tackle the obesity epidemic in Europe.

Lakerveld J; Brug J; Bot S; Teixeira PJ; Rutter H; Woodward E; Samdal O; Stockley L; De Bourdeaudhuij I; van Assema P; Robertson A; Lobstein T; Oppert JM; Adány R; Nijpels G

2012-01-01

160

Sustainable prevention of obesity through integrated strategies: The SPOTLIGHT project’s conceptual framework and design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Europe is high. It is a major cause of the overall rates of many of the main chronic (or non communicable) diseases in this region and is characterized by an unequal socio-economic distribution within the population. Obesity is largely determined by modifiable lifestyle behaviours such as low physical activity levels, sedentary behaviour and consumption of energy dense diets. It is increasingly being recognised that effective responses must go beyond interventions that only focus on a specific individual, social or environmental level and instead embrace system-based multi-level intervention approaches that address both the individual and environment. The EU-funded project “sustainable prevention of obesity through integrated strategies” (SPOTLIGHT) aims to increase and combine knowledge on the wide range of determinants of obesity in a systematic way, and to identify multi-level intervention approaches that are strong in terms of Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM). Methods/Design SPOTLIGHT comprises a series of systematic reviews on: individual-level predictors of success in behaviour change obesity interventions; social and physical environmental determinants of obesity; and on the RE-AIM of multi-level interventions. An interactive web-atlas of currently running multi-level interventions will be developed, and enhancing and impeding factors for implementation will be described. At the neighbourhood level, these elements will inform the development of methods to assess obesogenicity of diverse environments, using remote imaging techniques linked to geographic information systems. The validity of these methods will be evaluated using data from surveys of health and lifestyles of adults residing in the neighbourhoods surveyed. At both the micro- and macro-levels (national and international) the different physical, economical, political and socio-cultural elements will be assessed. Discussion SPOTLIGHT offers the potential to develop approaches that combine an understanding of the obesogenicity of environments in Europe, and thus how they can be improved, with an appreciation of the individual factors that explain why people respond differently to such environments. Its findings will inform governmental authorities and professionals, academics, NGOs and private sector stakeholders engaged in the development and implementation of policies to tackle the obesity epidemic in Europe.

Lakerveld Jeroen; Brug Johannes; Bot Sandra; Teixeira Pedro J; Rutter Harry; Woodward Euan; Samdal Oddrun; Stockley Lynn; De Bourdeaudhuij Ilse; van Assema Patricia; Robertson Aileen; Lobstein Tim; Oppert Jean-Michel; Ádány Róza; Nijpels Giel

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Childhood Obesity Prevention and Physical Activity in Schools  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The aim of this literature review is to summarise and synthesise the research base concerning childhood obesity and physical activity, particularly in relation to teachers and schools and within a policy context of the UK. The review investigates childhood obesity, physical activity, physical education, the role of teachers, the role of…

Davidson, Fiona

2007-01-01

162

Preventing child obesity: a long-term evaluation of the HENRY approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels, yet many health professionals lack confidence in working with parents around lifestyle change. HENRY (Health Exercise Nutrition for the Really Young) aims to tackle this through training practitioners to work more effectively with parents of preschoolers around obesity and lifestyle issues.We evaluated the long-term impact of HENRY training on health professionals' knowledge, skills and confidence in tackling obesity prevention. All practitioners trained 2007-11 (n = 1601) were invited to complete an online survey. 237 emails (14.8%) were undeliverable; 354 (26.0%) of the remainder completed the survey. A majority (67%) reported using knowledge and skills gained on a regular basis in their professional lives. Sessions on the importance of empathy and key parenting skills were considered particularly useful, with 78% and 74% respectively reporting regular use of these skills. Effects on respondents' personal lives were also reported: 61% applied the knowledge and skills at home, identifying for example, more shared family mealtimes and reduced portion sizes. The impact endures, with 71% of those undergoing training > 12 months ago, stating that they continued to use concepts in their professional lives. The findings suggest that brief training can have a sustained impact on practitioners' professional and personal lives. PMID:23914474

Brown, Rebecca E; Willis, Thomas A; Aspinall, Nichola; Candida, Hunt; George, Jackie; Rudolf, Mary C J

2013-07-01

163

Preventing child obesity: a long-term evaluation of the HENRY approach.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels, yet many health professionals lack confidence in working with parents around lifestyle change. HENRY (Health Exercise Nutrition for the Really Young) aims to tackle this through training practitioners to work more effectively with parents of preschoolers around obesity and lifestyle issues.We evaluated the long-term impact of HENRY training on health professionals' knowledge, skills and confidence in tackling obesity prevention. All practitioners trained 2007-11 (n = 1601) were invited to complete an online survey. 237 emails (14.8%) were undeliverable; 354 (26.0%) of the remainder completed the survey. A majority (67%) reported using knowledge and skills gained on a regular basis in their professional lives. Sessions on the importance of empathy and key parenting skills were considered particularly useful, with 78% and 74% respectively reporting regular use of these skills. Effects on respondents' personal lives were also reported: 61% applied the knowledge and skills at home, identifying for example, more shared family mealtimes and reduced portion sizes. The impact endures, with 71% of those undergoing training > 12 months ago, stating that they continued to use concepts in their professional lives. The findings suggest that brief training can have a sustained impact on practitioners' professional and personal lives.

Brown RE; Willis TA; Aspinall N; Candida H; George J; Rudolf MC

2013-07-01

164

A national survey of obesity prevention practices in Head Start.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To describe obesity prevention practices and environments in Head Start, the largest federally funded early childhood education program in the United States. DESIGN: Self-administered survey as part of the Study of Healthy Activity and Eating Practices and Environments in Head Start (SHAPES). SETTING: Head Start, 2008. PARTICIPANTS: Directors of all 1810 Head Start programs, excluding those in US territories. OUTCOME MEASURES: Descriptive measures of reported practices and environments related to healthy eating and gross motor activity. RESULTS: The 1583 (87%) programs responding to the survey enrolled 828 707 preschool children. Of these programs, 70% reported serving only nonfat or 1% fat milk. Ninety-four percent of programs reported that each day they served children some fruit other than 100% fruit juice; 97% reported serving some vegetable other than fried potatoes; and 91% reported both of these daily practices. Sixty-six percent of programs said they celebrated special events with healthy foods or nonfood treats, and 54% did not allow vending machines for staff. Having an on-site outdoor play area at every center was reported by 89% of programs. Seventy-four percent of programs reported that children were given structured (adult-led or -guided) gross motor activity for at least 30 minutes each day; 73% reported that children were given unstructured gross motor activity for at least 30 minutes each day, and 56% reported both of these daily practices. CONCLUSION: Most Head Start programs report doing more to support healthy eating and gross motor activity than required by federal performance standards in these areas.

Whitaker RC; Gooze RA; Hughes CC; Finkelstein DM

2009-12-01

165

After-School Based Obesity Prevention Interventions: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to review primary prevention interventions targeting childhood obesity implemented in the after school environment from 2006 and 2011. A total of 20 interventions were found from 25 studies. Children in the interventions ranged from kindergarten to middle schoolers, however a majority was in the 4th and 5th grades. Most of the interventions targeted both physical activity and dietary behaviors. Among those that focused on only one dimension, physical activity was targeted more than diet. The duration of the interventions greatly varied, but many were short-term or brief. Many interventions were also based on some behavioral theory, with social cognitive theory as the most widely used. Most of the interventions focused on short-term changes, and rarely did any perform a follow-up evaluation. A major limitation among after school interventions was an inadequate use of process evaluations. Overall, interventions resulted in modest changes in behaviors and behavioral antecedents, and results were mixed and generally unfavorable with regards to indicators of obesity. Recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness of after school based childhood obesity interventions are presented.

Paul Branscum; Manoj Sharma

2012-01-01

166

ACTIVE EXTRACTS HAVING INHIBITORY EFFECTS ON OBESITY AND DIABETES ISOLATED FROM NATURAL PLANTS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Active extracts having inhibitory effects on obesity and diabetes in a mouse are provided which are isolated from natural plants. Also, a natural product for prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes is provided which contains the extract as an active ingredient. CONSTITUTION: A composition for prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes is characterized by containing, as a main ingredient, a prophylactically effective amount of at least one extract selected from the group consisting of Camellia japonica, Pittosporum tobria, and Heloniopsis orientalis. It further contains pharmaceutically acceptable carrier or diluent.

JU JAE HUN; KWAK TAE HWAN; PARK MYEONG GYU

167

Physical activity promotion and obesity prevention in Girl Scouts: Scouting Nutrition and Activity Program+.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A previous version of Scouting Nutrition and Activity Program (SNAP) resulted in greater physical activity (PA) during troop meetings, but no impact on girls' body mass index (BMI) or overall PA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 6-month intervention that coupled the evidence-based program SNAP with a channel of communication to parents using health report cards. METHODS: Thirty-two Girl Scouts (mean age = 9.5, SD = 1.4 years) received the SNAP+ intervention. Girls were measured before and after the intervention on body composition, BMI, and 7-day step counts. Troop leaders were trained to implement an interactive obesity-prevention curriculum. Parents received health report cards designed to provide personalized information about their daughters' PA and weight status. RESULTS: The full sample of participants took more steps per day after the intervention (mean difference = 1741, P= 0.007). Results showed that lower values for body fat percentage (P= 0.620), BMI percentile (P= 0.100) and BMI z-scores (P= 0.055) at intervention end were not statistically significant. In the subsample of girls at risk for overweight and obesity, there were lower values for BMI z-score (P= 0.010), BMI percentile (P= 0.027), and body fat percentage (P= 0.053). CONCLUSIONS: From this preliminary study, the SNAP+ intervention appears to be effective for Scout-based promotion of PA, and for the prevention of overweight and obesity in at-risk Girl Scouts, but further evaluation through a fully powered randomized controlled trial is warranted.

Guagliano JM; Rosenkranz RR

2012-12-01

168

Parental influence and obesity prevention in pre-schoolers: a systematic review of interventions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is difficult to reverse in older children and adults and calls have been made to implement obesity prevention strategies during the formative pre-school years. Childhood obesity experts suggest that prevention of overweight in the pre-school years should focus on parents, because parental beliefs, attitudes, perceptions and behaviours appear to contribute to children's development of excessive weight gain. While evidence suggests that parental variables may be instrumental in the development of obesity, there has been no systematic evaluation of whether intervening to change such variables will positively influence the development of excess adiposity during the pre-school years. This paper is a conceptual and methodological review of the literature on the parental variables targeted in interventions designed to modify risk factors for obesity by promoting healthy eating and/or physical activity and/or reducing sedentary behaviours in families of children aged 2-6 years. There were significant methodological limitations of existing studies and the scientific study of this area is in its infancy. However, the results suggest that the modification of parental variables known to be associated with obesity-promoting behaviours in pre-school children may show promise as an obesity prevention strategy; further research is needed. PMID:20492538

Skouteris, H; McCabe, M; Swinburn, B; Newgreen, V; Sacher, P; Chadwick, P

2011-05-01

169

Parental influence and obesity prevention in pre-schoolers: a systematic review of interventions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Obesity is difficult to reverse in older children and adults and calls have been made to implement obesity prevention strategies during the formative pre-school years. Childhood obesity experts suggest that prevention of overweight in the pre-school years should focus on parents, because parental beliefs, attitudes, perceptions and behaviours appear to contribute to children's development of excessive weight gain. While evidence suggests that parental variables may be instrumental in the development of obesity, there has been no systematic evaluation of whether intervening to change such variables will positively influence the development of excess adiposity during the pre-school years. This paper is a conceptual and methodological review of the literature on the parental variables targeted in interventions designed to modify risk factors for obesity by promoting healthy eating and/or physical activity and/or reducing sedentary behaviours in families of children aged 2-6 years. There were significant methodological limitations of existing studies and the scientific study of this area is in its infancy. However, the results suggest that the modification of parental variables known to be associated with obesity-promoting behaviours in pre-school children may show promise as an obesity prevention strategy; further research is needed.

Skouteris H; McCabe M; Swinburn B; Newgreen V; Sacher P; Chadwick P

2011-05-01

170

Psychosocial characteristics of obese children/youngsters and their families: implications for preventive and curative interventions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A profile will be given of the psychosocial characteristics of obese children and youngsters, as well as those of their families. Then several attempts of (particularly) preventive interventions will be sketched. Differences found between clinical and non-clinical groups of obese children and youngsters do not permit generalized statements regarding specific psychosocial characteristics. Just as little as there exist a simple and unequivocal image of family functioning with these children. There are great differences between the psychological assumptions and the biological concepts about obesity. Whereas, biological concepts are relevant for the whole obese population, psychosocial characteristics seems to hold mainly for the clinical group of obese persons. The gap between clinical versus non-clinical as well as curative versus preventive approaches will be explained. There are remarkable differences between curative versus preventive intervention goals in terms of the extent to which they focus on life style habits or psychosocial (dys)functioning. Where prevention strategies focus more on enhancing physical activities, curative interventions focus more on changing eating behavior patterns and (depending on chronicity and seriousness of obesity) modifying psychosocial dysfunctioning.

Bosch J; Stradmeijer M; Seidell J

2004-12-01

171

Miranos! Look at us, we are healthy! An environmental approach to early childhood obesity prevention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Obesity prevention research is sparse in young children at risk for obesity. This study tested the effectiveness of a culturally tailored, multicomponent prevention intervention to promote healthy weight gain and gross motor development in low-income preschool age children. METHODS: Study participants were predominantly Mexican-American children (n = 423; mean age = 4.1; 62% in normal weight range) enrolled in Head Start. The study was conducted using a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest design with two treatment groups and a comparison group. A center-based intervention included an age-appropriate gross motor program with structured outdoor play, supplemental classroom activities, and staff development. A combined center- and home-based intervention added peer-led parent education to create a broad supportive environment in the center and at home. Primary outcomes were weight-based z-scores and raw scores of gross motor skills of the Learning Achievement Profile Version 3. RESULTS: Favorable changes occurred in z-scores for weight (one-tailed p < 0.04) for age and gender among children in the combined center- and home-based intervention compared to comparison children at posttest. Higher gains of gross motor skills were found in children in the combined center- and home-based (p < 0.001) and the center-based intervention (p < 0.01). Children in both intervention groups showed increases in outdoor physical activity and consumption of healthy food. Process evaluation data showed high levels of protocol implementation fidelity and program participation of children, Head Start staff, and parents. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated great promise in creating a health-conducive environment that positively impacts weight and gross motor skill development in children at risk for obesity. Program efficacy should be tested in a randomized trial.

Yin Z; Parra-Medina D; Cordova A; He M; Trummer V; Sosa E; Gallion KJ; Sintes-Yallen A; Huang Y; Wu X; Acosta D; Kibbe D; Ramirez A

2012-10-01

172

[Lifestyle changes: effects on an obese patient].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Obesity is often caused by an unhealthy lifestyle, which is a composite of various individual behaviors. Nurses may assist obese patients to lose weight and avoid chronic disease by identifying risky lifestyle behaviors and helping to develop improvement strategies. This article describes the nursing experience of the authors in caring for an obese patient who had made several unsuccessful attempts to reduce weight. An intervention approach was used to review the patient's lifestyle. Using self-regulation theory, the authors identified that the patient's fat-related daily behavior included: lack of exercise, high-fat diet, and daily snacks consumed even late at night. The authors also helped the patient discover the reasons underlying his fat- related behavior and his previous failed attempts to lose weight and to develop a feasible improved approach that considered such. After six weeks of care, the patient's body weight had reduced and body fat and body mass index had decreased with no relapse. The patient further lost significant weight and body fat during the three-month follow up period. The authors would like to share with nursing professionals this approach to weight loss, with the hope that this case study can contribute to medical efforts to help obese patients not only lose weight but also prevent chronic illnesses.

Wu YK; Lin CC

2011-08-01

173

Disease prevention--should we target obesity or sedentary lifestyle?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Obesity is a major health challenge facing the modern world. Some evidence points to obesity itself as the main driver of premature mortality. We propose that this view is oversimplified. For example, high levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with lower mortality, even in those who are overweight or obese. To address this issue, we combine epidemiological and physiological evidence in a new paradigm that integrates excess calorie intake, sedentary behavior, and a maladaptive response to stress. Human physiology is optimized to allow large distances to be covered on foot every day in order to find enough food to sustain brain metabolism. Furthermore, when the body is immobilized by an injury, it triggers efficient life-saving metabolic and inflammatory responses. Both these critical adaptations are, however, confounded by a sedentary lifestyle. The implications of these issues for clinical trial design and epidemiologic data analysis are discussed in this article.

Charansonney OL; Després JP

2010-08-01

174

Effects of Leptin, Diet and Various Exercises on the Obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research is made to define damages of the obesity, cure processes with body exercises and effects of the leptin on the obesity. In this research, scientific researches about the subject were analyzed carefully and it was handled on these literatures. As a result, it is presented that an inactive life and fatty diets cause the obesity and the leptin influences the anti-obesity. Besides, it is shown that some body exercises reduce the obesity by wasting calories.

Mehmet Goral

2008-01-01

175

Perceptions of employed parents about early childhood obesity and the need for prevention strategies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Responses to the increased prevalence of childhood obesity are merging, and employed parents will become targets for strategies designed to prevent childhood obesity. This study aimed at describing their perceptions of employed parents about childhood obesity and determining which prevention strategies they would need the most. In this cross-sectional study, 504 employed parents were recruited from 33 child care centers in Sherbrooke (Quebec, Canada) who completed a self-administered questionnaire on their perceptions about childhood obesity and the need for prevention strategies. Logistic regression was used to explore differences in needs for prevention strategies according to participant characteristics. Most participants were female, aged 32.9 ± 4.9 years, and perceived childhood obesity was an important problem. The prevention strategies that seemed most needed were the implementation of (a) physical and nutrition education programs in child care settings and (b) measures that give employed parents more time to cook for and be physically active with their children. Support for specific strategies differed across genders and education levels. Moreover, they depended on the perceived relationship between work and meal preparation. Policy makers should be aware of the needs of employed parents to develop policies that would have the greatest likelihood of success in this population.

Morin P; Roy MA

2013-01-01

176

Obesity in haemophilia patients: effect on bleeding frequency, clotting factor concentrate usage, and haemostatic and fibrinolytic parameters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The prevalence of obesity in patients with haemophilia (PWH) is increasing. We investigated the effect of obesity on bleeding frequency and clotting factor concentrate (CFC) usage in PWH and assessed whether prothrombotic changes observed in obesity differ between controls and PWH. Number of bleeds and CFC usage were compared between obese (N = 51) and non-obese (N = 46) haemophilia A patients. Markers of haemostasis and fibrinolysis were compared between PWH, and gender-, age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched non-haemophilic controls (N = 91). Median number of bleeds/patient-month was comparable between obese and non-obese patients with severe haemophilia (P = 0.791). Obese patients with severe haemophilia used 1.4 times more CFC/patient-month than non-obese patients (P = 0.036). When adjusting for weight this difference disappeared (P = 0.451). von Willebrand factor plasma concentration (VWF:Ag), factor VIII activity and endogenous thrombin potential were higher in obese than in non-obese controls. Obesity did not influence these markers in PWH. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 levels were higher in obese vs. non-obese PWH (P < 0.001), whereas levels were comparable between PWH and controls (P = 0.912). Plasmin-?2-antiplasmin complex (PAP) levels appeared to be lower in obese vs. non-obese subjects, both within controls (P = 0.011) and PWH (P = 0.008). However, in PWH, PAP levels were higher than in controls (P < 0.001). Obesity is associated with an increase in net CFC usage in PWH, but has no effect on bleeding frequency. In addition, obesity attenuates hyperfibrinolysis in PWH. Future research investigating whether obese PWH need CFC treatment dosed on weight or whether a lower dosage would suffice to prevent and treat bleedings is needed.

Tuinenburg A; Biere-Rafi S; Peters M; Verhamme P; Peerlinck K; Kruip MJ; Laros-Van Gorkom BA; Roest M; Meijers JC; Kamphuisen PW; Schutgens RE

2013-09-01

177

'Choice': what we mean by it, and what that means for preventing childhood obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: (i) To map how US adults value 'choice' in the context of obesity policy and (ii) to discuss implications for obesity prevention in children. DESIGN: Semi-structured interviews (n =105) were conducted between 2006 and 2009 about causes of and solutions to childhood obesity. Quotes captured in field notes from community meetings (n = 6) on childhood obesity prevention were also analysed. Each use of the word 'choice' and its variants was identified in these texts. Content and discourse were analysed to identify the implied values and meaning in each use. SETTING: North-eastern USA. SUBJECTS: One hundred and five adults, some involved in childhood obesity prevention initiatives. RESULTS: Three distinct frames of 'choice' emerged: (i) having choices (choice as freedom), (ii) making choices (choice as responsibility) and (iii) influencing choices (contextual constraints and impacts on choice). Many speakers used more than one frame over the course of an interview. Most people using the third frame seemed to share the values behind the first two frames, but focused on conditions required to enable people to be accountable for their choices and to make truly free choices. A small subset thought outside the frame of individual choice, valuing, as one person put it, a 'social contract'. CONCLUSIONS: Public debate in the USA about responsibility for and solutions to rising obesity rates often hinges on notions of 'choice'. These frames, and the values underlying them, are not mutually exclusive. Respecting the values behind each 'choice' frame when crafting obesity prevention policy and employing all three in public communications about such policy may facilitate greater consensus on prevention measures.

Porter CM

2013-01-01

178

Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) prevents obesity by inhibiting angiogenesis in high fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adipose tissue growth and development are thought to be associated with angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling. Because ginseng has been shown to inhibit angiogenesis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, we hypothesized that adipose tissue growth and obesity can be regulated by Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer). Wild-type C57BL/6J mice were fed for 8 weeks with a low fat diet, a high fat diet (HFD), or HFD supplemented with 0.5% or 5% Korean red ginseng extract. We measured body weight, adipose tissue mass, food intake, MMP activity, and the expression of genes involved in angiogenesis and MMPs. Administering ginseng to HFD-induced obese mice produced reductions in body weight and adipose tissue mass compared with untreated counterparts. Ginseng treatment decreased blood vessel density and MMP activity in adipose tissues. Ginseng also reduced mRNA levels of angiogenic factors (e.g., VEGF-A and FGF-2) and MMPs (e.g., MMP-2 and MMP-9), whereas it increased mRNA levels of angiogenic inhibitors (e.g., TSP-1, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2) in adipose tissues. These results demonstrate that ginseng effectively reduces adipose tissue mass and prevents obesity in diet-induced obese mice and that this process may be mediated in part through the anti-angiogenic actions of ginseng.

Lee H; Park D; Yoon M

2013-03-01

179

Obesity genes: beneficial effects in heterozygous mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The mouse mutant genes obese (ob) and diabetes (db) cause similar obesity-diabetes states in homozygotes. These obesity syndromes are characterized by a more efficient conversion of food to lipid and, once stored, a slower rate of catabolism on fasting. Heterozygous mice, either ob/+ or db/+, survived a prolonged fast significantly longer than normal homozygotes (+/+); this suggests that the heterozygotes exhibited increased metabolic efficiency, a feature normally associated with both homozygous mutants. The existence of this thriftiness trait, if manifested by heterozygous carriers in wild populations, would lend credence to the thrifty gene concept of diabetes. Beneficial effects of normally deleterious genes may have played a role in the development of diabetes-susceptible human populations, as well as having provided the survival advantage that has allowed both the development and successful establishment of species in desert and other less affluent regions.

Coleman DL

1979-02-01

180

Stakeholder perceptions of obesity-prevention strategies: a comparison of geographically diverse rural counties.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Understanding barriers and facilitators to strategies directed at obesity-prevention policy change, particularly in rural, southern US counties where obesity is more prevalent, is important so that strategies deemed most winnable can be pursued. As such, community stakeholders and policy makers were interviewed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Common Community Measures for Obesity Prevention Assessment in 2 rural, geographically diverse regions of North Carolina. Stakeholder interviews revealed many similarities despite population differences and unique geographic challenges to each region. In both Western and Eastern North Carolina, strategies involving increasing opportunities for physical activity were deemed the most winnable, whereas strategies incentivizing businesses to locate in underserved areas and limiting advertisements of unhealthy food and beverages were deemed the least winnable. Differences among Western and Eastern North Carolina regions revolved around zoning, geographic constraints, and topographically influenced local food strategies. These findings add to the literature by systemically identifying similarities and differences among geographically diverse rural communities.

West ST; Weddell MS; Whetstone LM; Jilcott Pitts SB

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
181

Stakeholder perceptions of obesity-prevention strategies: a comparison of geographically diverse rural counties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding barriers and facilitators to strategies directed at obesity-prevention policy change, particularly in rural, southern US counties where obesity is more prevalent, is important so that strategies deemed most winnable can be pursued. As such, community stakeholders and policy makers were interviewed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Common Community Measures for Obesity Prevention Assessment in 2 rural, geographically diverse regions of North Carolina. Stakeholder interviews revealed many similarities despite population differences and unique geographic challenges to each region. In both Western and Eastern North Carolina, strategies involving increasing opportunities for physical activity were deemed the most winnable, whereas strategies incentivizing businesses to locate in underserved areas and limiting advertisements of unhealthy food and beverages were deemed the least winnable. Differences among Western and Eastern North Carolina regions revolved around zoning, geographic constraints, and topographically influenced local food strategies. These findings add to the literature by systemically identifying similarities and differences among geographically diverse rural communities. PMID:24080815

West, Stephanie T; Weddell, Melissa S; Whetstone, Lauren M; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B

182

Policy, systems, and environmental approaches for obesity prevention: a framework to inform local and state action.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The public health literature has not fully explored the complexities of the policy process as they relate to public health practice and obesity prevention. We conducted a review of the literature across the policy science and public health fields, distilled key theories of policy making, and developed a framework to inform policy, systems, and environmental change efforts on obesity prevention. Beginning with a conceptual description, we focus on understanding three domains of the policy process: the problem domain, the policy domain, and the political domain. We identify key activities in the policy process including the following: (a) assessing the social and political environment; (b) engaging, educating and collaborating with key individuals and groups; (c) identifying and framing the problem; (d) utilizing available evidence; (e) identifying policy solutions; and (f) building public support and political will. The article provides policy change resources and case studies to guide and support local and state efforts around obesity prevention.

Lyn R; Aytur S; Davis TA; Eyler AA; Evenson KR; Chriqui JF; Cradock AL; Goins KV; Litt J; Brownson RC

2013-05-01

183

Sedentarism, active lifestyle and sport: Impact on health and obesity prevention.  

Science.gov (United States)

The benefits of regular physical activity have been known since ancient Greek. But in the last Century the scientific knowledge around this topic has progressed enormously, starting with the early studies of JN Morris and RS Paffenberger, who demonstrated that physical activity at work reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease and mortality. In the Harvard alumni study, the lowest risk was associated with a weekly output of 1000 to 2000 kcal performing vigorous activities. Further studies in all age groups have supported these findings and have added that even moderate levels of physical activity provide considerable benefits to health, including lower prevalence of overweight and obesity at all ages. Metabolic fat oxidation rate is highest at exercise intensities between 45 and 65% of VO2max. This means that people must be active regularly and force physiological mechanisms at certain intensities. All this body of evidence has contributed to current WHO physical activity recommendations of 150 min/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in adults and elderly, and 60 min/day of MVPA in children and adolescents, with additional strength training, apart from adopting an active lifestyle. In the last 50 years, occupational physical activity has been reduced for about 120 kcal/day, and sedentarism has emerged as an additional risk factor to physical inactivity. Even if less than 60 min of TV time in adults have been related to lower average BMI, there is still a need for research to determine the appropriate dose of exercise in combination with sedentary behaviours and other activities in the context of our modern lifestyle in order to prevent obesity at all ages. As public health measures have failed to stop the obesity epidemic in the last 3 decades, there is clearly a need to change the paradigm. The inclusion of sport scientists, physical education teachers and other professionals in the multidisciplinary team which should be responsible for drawing the road map to prevent the increase of the obesity epidemic effectively is a "must" from our point of view. PMID:24010748

González-Gross, Marcela; Meléndez, Agustín

2013-09-01

184

Dietary conjugated nonadecadienoic acid prevents adult-onset obesity in nescient basic helix-loop-helix 2 knockout mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been extensively studied during the last two decades with regard to its effects on controlling body composition. As a cognate to CLA, conjugated nonadecadienoic acid (CNA) has been previously reported to reduce body fat more effectively than CLA. However, it is not known whether CNA supplementation can influence adult-onset obesity. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary CNA on the prevention of adult-onset inactivity-induced obesity using nescient basic helix-loop-helix 2 knockout (N2KO) mice. CNA supplementation at 0.1 w/w% level starting in the preobese state significantly prevented the reduction of voluntary movement and the increase in weight gain in N2KO mice during the experimental period compared to wild-type animals. In both wild-type and N2KO mice, respiratory exchange ratio was significantly reduced by CNA treatment during light and dark cycles, and dietary CNA significantly increased energy expenditure in N2KO mice. Selected gene expression profiles in white adipose tissue, muscle or liver showed a beneficial action of CNA on lipid metabolism and energy expenditure. These findings suggest that CNA could prevent adult-onset obesity by enhancing voluntary activity and energy expenditure in N2KO mice.

Kim JH; Park Y; Kim D; Good DJ; Park Y

2013-03-01

185

Childhood Obesity in the Region of Valencia, Spain: Evolution and Prevention Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study there are two main aims. The first one is to model and predict the incidence of obesity in the 3-5 years old population in the coming years in the region of Valencia, Spain. The second aim of this research is to use the constructed model to analyze the possible strategies in order to prevent the spread of obesity. At first a logistic regression statistical analysis of sociocultural variables of children with weight problems is performed. The result of this logistic regression statistical analysis suggests that sociocultural factors in the region of Valencia where the child grows up influence the development of overweight or obesity. Thus, this result permit to consider the hypothesis that the obesity is a health concern that depends on sociocultural factors and it is transmitted by the spread of unhealthy eating habits. In this way the hypothesis permits to construct a mathematical epidemiological type model in order to forecast obesity prevalence and to understand the mechanisms of the obesity spread. Using the constructed epidemiological mathematical model it is predicted that in the coming years, an increasing trend in the overweight and obese 3-5 years old children in the region of Valencia is predicted if the actual parameters of the mathematical model stay invariant. In addition, the different numerical simulations performed with the constructed epidemiological mathematical model indicate that the most likely successful strategy to tackle the obesity is through educational campaigns about the risk of unhealthy eating habits. This study shows how an epidemiological type mathematical model is an interesting tool to study the obesity transmissions dynamics in the population. It is useful to predict the prevalence of the obesity and study strategies to tackle it.

A. Morales; L. Jodar; G. Gonzalez; F.J. Santonja; R.J. Villanueva; C. Rubio

2008-01-01

186

Progress on obesity prevention over 20 years in Australia and New Zealand.  

Science.gov (United States)

The lessons learned from over 20 years of obesity prevention efforts in Australia and New Zealand are presented. The obesity epidemic started in the 1980s but poor monitoring systems meant the rise in obesity prevalence initially went undetected. In the 1990s, experts started advocating for government action; however, it was the rapid increase in media reports on obesity in the early 2000s which created the pressure for action. Several, comprehensive reports produced some programme investment but no regulatory policies were implemented. The powerful food industry lobby ensured this lack of policies on front-of-pack food labelling, restrictions on unhealthy food marketing to children, or taxes on unhealthy foods. The New Zealand government even backpedalled by rescinding healthy school food guidelines and withdrawing funding for the comprehensive national obesity strategy. In 2007, Australian Governments started a major long term-investment in preventive health in order to improve economic productivity. Other positive initiatives, especially in Australia, were: the establishment of several advocacy organizations; successful, long-term, whole-of-community projects reducing childhood obesity; a national knowledge exchange system for practitioners; and some innovative programmes and social marketing. However, despite multiple reports and strong advocacy, key recommended regulatory policies remain unimplemented, largely due to the private sector interests dominating public policy development. PMID:24102746

Swinburn, B; Wood, A

2013-11-01

187

An Examination of Educators' Perceptions of the School's Role in the Prevention of Childhood Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood obesity is a prevalent subject of research currently, and many researchers have studied the effectiveness of school programs in battling obesity among students. This case study, utilizing ethnographic tools of observation, interviews, and investigation of artifacts, examines educators' perceptions of the role of the school in the…

Johnson, Sharon Kay Harris

2011-01-01

188

The effect of obesity on polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

While many women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are overweight, obese or centrally obese, the effect of excess weight on the outcomes of PCOS is inconsistent. The review aimed to assess the effects of overweight, obesity and central obesity on the reproductive, metabolic and psychological features of PCOS. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and PSYCINFO were searched for studies reporting outcomes according to body mass index categories or body fat distribution. Data were presented as mean difference or risk ratio (95% confidence interval). This review included 30 eligible studies. Overweight or obese women with PCOS had decreased sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), increased total testosterone, free androgen index, hirsutism, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance index and worsened lipid profile. Obesity significantly worsened all metabolic and reproductive outcomes measured except for hirsutism when compared to normal weight women with PCOS. Overweight women had no differences in total testosterone, hirsutism, total-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol compared to normal weight women and no differences in SHBG and total testosterone compared to obese women. Central obesity was associated with higher fasting insulin levels. These results suggest that prevention and treatment of obesity is important for the management of PCOS.

Lim SS; Norman RJ; Davies MJ; Moran LJ

2013-02-01

189

Self-regulation of energy intake in the prevention and treatment of obesity: is it feasible?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The prevalence of obesity in developed countries has been steadily increasing. Comprehensive lifestyle change programs for the treatment of obesity have garnered considerable empirical support, but most weight lost in lifestyle interventions is regained within several years. The outcome of obesity prevention programs has also been disappointing. One reason for this state of affairs may be that most weight control programs are based on an assumption of equipotentiality of their intervention components. That is, obesity prevention and treatment programs consist of a multitude of behavioral, cognitive, nutritional, physical activity, and interpersonal techniques, all of which are assumed to be of roughly equal importance in weight control. However, there is considerable evidence that our evolutionary heritage has made most humans highly sensitive to the availability and nature of food in the environment. It therefore may be unrealistic to expect that enhancing self-regulatory skills will be sufficient to overcome the combined influence of our appetitive predispositions and the obesigenic environment. However, there is growing evidence that weight control interventions that focus on the availability, structure, composition, and portion size of foods in the diet improve long-term weight control. Concerted efforts to change the availability and nature of foods at both the individual and population level may hold considerable promise for the treatment and prevention of obesity.

Lowe MR

2003-10-01

190

Self-regulation of energy intake in the prevention and treatment of obesity: is it feasible?  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of obesity in developed countries has been steadily increasing. Comprehensive lifestyle change programs for the treatment of obesity have garnered considerable empirical support, but most weight lost in lifestyle interventions is regained within several years. The outcome of obesity prevention programs has also been disappointing. One reason for this state of affairs may be that most weight control programs are based on an assumption of equipotentiality of their intervention components. That is, obesity prevention and treatment programs consist of a multitude of behavioral, cognitive, nutritional, physical activity, and interpersonal techniques, all of which are assumed to be of roughly equal importance in weight control. However, there is considerable evidence that our evolutionary heritage has made most humans highly sensitive to the availability and nature of food in the environment. It therefore may be unrealistic to expect that enhancing self-regulatory skills will be sufficient to overcome the combined influence of our appetitive predispositions and the obesigenic environment. However, there is growing evidence that weight control interventions that focus on the availability, structure, composition, and portion size of foods in the diet improve long-term weight control. Concerted efforts to change the availability and nature of foods at both the individual and population level may hold considerable promise for the treatment and prevention of obesity. PMID:14569037

Lowe, Michael R

2003-10-01

191

Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for morbid obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The global obesity epidemic is also affecting the Netherlands, paralleled by a proportional increase in the number of morbidly obese persons. Bariatric surgery has been included as a treatment for morbid obesity in the Dutch Guideline for Obesity (2008). Nonetheless, bariatric surgery is applied in only a limited number of morbidly obese subjects in the Netherlands. Based on the most recent literature and Dutch statistics, this review provides a summary of current knowledge on the impact of obesity on health and health care and highlights the effective role of bariatric surgery in reducing this threat to public health.

Schigt A; Gerdes VE; Cense HA; Berends FJ; van Dielen FM; Janssen I; van der Laar A; van Wagensveld BA; Romijn JA; Serlie MJ

2013-01-01

192

Recruitment into diabetes prevention programs: what is the impact of errors in self-reported measures of obesity?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Error in self-reported measures of obesity has been frequently described, but the effect of self-reported error on recruitment into diabetes prevention programs is not well established. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of using self-reported obesity data from the Finnish diabetes risk score (FINDRISC) on recruitment into the Greater Green Triangle Diabetes Prevention Project (GGT DPP). Methods The GGT DPP was a structured group-based lifestyle modification program delivered in primary health care settings in South-Eastern Australia. Between 2004–05, 850 FINDRISC forms were collected during recruitment for the GGT DPP. Eligible individuals, at moderate to high risk of developing diabetes, were invited to undertake baseline tests, including anthropometric measurements performed by specially trained nurses. In addition to errors in calculating total risk scores, accuracy of self-reported data (height, weight, waist circumference (WC) and Body Mass Index (BMI)) from FINDRISCs was compared with baseline data, with impact on participation eligibility presented. Results Overall, calculation errors impacted on eligibility in 18 cases (2.1%). Of n?=?279 GGT DPP participants with measured data, errors (total score calculation, BMI or WC) in self-report were found in n?=?90 (32.3%). These errors were equally likely to result in under- or over-reported risk. Under-reporting was more common in those reporting lower risk scores (Spearman-rho?=??0.226, p-value? Conclusions Overall FINDRISC was found to be an effective tool to screen and recruit participants at moderate to high risk of diabetes, accurately categorising levels of overweight and obesity using self-report data. The results could be generalisable to other diabetes prevention programs using screening tools which include self-reported levels of obesity.

Hernan Andrea; Philpot Benjamin; Janus Edward D; Dunbar James A

2012-01-01

193

Understanding the Social Networks That Form within the Context of an Obesity Prevention Intervention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background. Antiobesity interventions have generally failed. Research now suggests that interventions must be informed by an understanding of the social environment. Objective. To examine if new social networks form between families participating in a group-level pediatric obesity prevention trial....

Gesell, Sabina B.; Bess, Kimberly D.; Barkin, Shari L.

194

Acceptability of a School-Based Intervention for the Prevention of Adolescent Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the development and pilot testing of a computer-based, multiple-behavior obesity prevention program for adolescents. Using the Transtheoretical Model as a framework, this intervention offers individualized feedback based on readiness to engage in physical activity, to consume fruits and vegetables, and to limit television…

Mauriello, Leanne M.; Driskell, Mary Margaret H.; Sherman, Karen J.; Johnson, Sara S.; Prochaska, Janice M.; Prochaska, James O.

2006-01-01

195

Using the Community Readiness Model to Select Communities for a Community-Wide Obesity Prevention Intervention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To build on a growing interest in community-based obesity prevention programs, methods are needed for matching intervention strategies to local needs and assets. We used the Community Readiness Model (CRM), a structured interview guide and scoring system, to assess community readiness to act on chil...

Sliwa, Sarah; Goldberg, Jeanne P.; Clark, Valerie; Junot, Bridgid; Nahar, Elizabeth; Nelson, Miriam E.; Tovar, Alison

196

Effects of a lifestyle modification trial among phenotypically obese metabolically normal and phenotypically obese metabolically abnormal adolescents in comparison with phenotypically normal metabolically obese adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study aimed to assess the effects of a 2-month lifestyle modification trial on cardio-metabolic abnormalities and C-reactive protein (CRP) among obese adolescents with metabolic syndrome [phenotypically obese metabolically abnormal (POMA)] and obese adolescents without a cardio-metabolic disorder [phenotypically obese metabolically normal (POMN)], as well as in normal-weight adolescents with at least one cardio-metabolic disorder [phenotypically normal metabolically obese (PNMO)]. The study comprised 360 adolescents assigned in three groups of equal number of POMN, POMA and PNMO. They were enrolled in a trial consisting of aerobic activity classes, diet and behaviour modification, and were recalled after 6 months. Overall, 94.7% of participants completed the 2-month trial, and 87.3% of them returned after 6 months. The mean CRP was not significantly different between the POMA and PNMO groups, but was higher than in the POMN group. After the trial, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) decreased in obese participants, and the mean body fat mass decreased in all groups. At 2 months, the mean total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG) and CRP decreased in the POMA and PNMO groups. After 2 and 6 months, the decrease in mean TC, LDL-C, TG, CRP and systolic blood pressure was greater in the POMA than in the POMN group. The magnitude of decrease in CRP correlated with that of BMI, WC, fat mass, TG, TC and LDL-C. Lifestyle modification programmes for primordial/primary prevention of chronic diseases would be beneficial at the population level and should not be limited to obese children.

Kelishadi R; Hashemipour M; Sarrafzadegan N; Mohammadifard N; Alikhasy H; Beizaei M; Sajjadi F; Poursafa P; Amin Z; Ghatreh-Samani S; Khavarian N; Siadat ZD

2010-07-01

197

Effects of a lifestyle modification trial among phenotypically obese metabolically normal and phenotypically obese metabolically abnormal adolescents in comparison with phenotypically normal metabolically obese adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to assess the effects of a 2-month lifestyle modification trial on cardio-metabolic abnormalities and C-reactive protein (CRP) among obese adolescents with metabolic syndrome [phenotypically obese metabolically abnormal (POMA)] and obese adolescents without a cardio-metabolic disorder [phenotypically obese metabolically normal (POMN)], as well as in normal-weight adolescents with at least one cardio-metabolic disorder [phenotypically normal metabolically obese (PNMO)]. The study comprised 360 adolescents assigned in three groups of equal number of POMN, POMA and PNMO. They were enrolled in a trial consisting of aerobic activity classes, diet and behaviour modification, and were recalled after 6 months. Overall, 94.7% of participants completed the 2-month trial, and 87.3% of them returned after 6 months. The mean CRP was not significantly different between the POMA and PNMO groups, but was higher than in the POMN group. After the trial, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) decreased in obese participants, and the mean body fat mass decreased in all groups. At 2 months, the mean total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG) and CRP decreased in the POMA and PNMO groups. After 2 and 6 months, the decrease in mean TC, LDL-C, TG, CRP and systolic blood pressure was greater in the POMA than in the POMN group. The magnitude of decrease in CRP correlated with that of BMI, WC, fat mass, TG, TC and LDL-C. Lifestyle modification programmes for primordial/primary prevention of chronic diseases would be beneficial at the population level and should not be limited to obese children. PMID:20929499

Kelishadi, Roya; Hashemipour, Mahin; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Alikhasy, Hasan; Beizaei, Maryam; Sajjadi, Firouzeh; Poursafa, Parinaz; Amin, Zahra; Ghatreh-Samani, Shohreh; Khavarian, Noushin; Siadat, Zahra Dana

2010-07-01

198

The effects of soy isoflavones on obesity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Over the last decades, the prevalence of obesity and related diseases has increased rapidly in the Western world. Obesity is a disorder of energy balance and is associated with hyper-insulinemia, insulin resistance, and abnormalities in lipid metabolism, and it is one of the most important risk factors in the development of Type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, and certain cancers. Because of the lower frequency of these diseases in Asian countries, attention has been turned toward the Asian diet, which consists highly of soy and soy-based products. The health benefits associated with soy consumption have been linked to the content of isoflavones, the main class of the phytoestrogens. As a result of their structural similarities to endogenous estrogens, isoflavones elicit weak estrogenic effects by competing with 17beta-estradiol (E2) for binding to the intranuclear estrogen receptors (ERs) and exert estrogenic or antiestrogenic effects in various tissues. The estrogenic activities of soyisoflavones are thought to play an important role in their health-enhancing properties. Additionally, the isoflavones have been proved to exert non-ER-mediated effects through numerous other pathways. Genistein, daidzein, and glycitein are the principal isoflavones in soy. Genistein is the most thoroughly examined of these, because it is the most prevalent isoflavone in soy and the most active of these compounds, because of its higher binding affinity for the ER. Genistein and daidzein can be obtained in high levels in humans under certain nutritional conditions, and epidemiologic and laboratory data suggest that these compounds could have health benefits in human obesity. This review will focus on the latest results of research on isoflavones and their effect on obesity in cell cultures, rodents, and humans.

Ørgaard, Anne; Jensen, Lotte

2008-01-01

199

Progress on obesity prevention over 20-years in Australia and New Zealand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The lessons learned from over 20 years of obesity prevention efforts in Australia and New Zealand are presented. The obesity epidemic started in the 1980s but poor monitoring systems meant it went undetected. In the 1990s, experts started advocating for government action, however, it was the rapid increase in media reports on obesity in the early 2000s which created the pressure for action. Several, comprehensive reports produced some program investment but no regulatory policies were implemented. The powerful food industry lobby ensured this lack of policies on front-of-pack food labelling, restrictions on unhealthy food marketing to children, or taxes on unhealthy foods. The New Zealand government even backpedalled by rescinding healthy school food guidelines and withdrawing funding for the comprehensive national obesity strategy. In 2007, Australian Governments started a major long term investment in preventive health in order to improve economic productivity. Other positive initiatives, especially in Australia, were: the establishment of several advocacy organisations; successful, long-term, whole-of-community projects reducing childhood obesity; a national knowledge exchange system for practitioners, and; some innovative programs and social marketing. However, despite multiple reports and strong advocacy, key recommended regulatory policies remain unimplemented, largely due to the private sector interests dominating public policy development.

Swinburn B; Wood A

2013-09-01

200

Childhood obesity prevention and control in city recreation centres and family homes: the MOVE/me Muevo Project.  

Science.gov (United States)

WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT: Child overweight and obesity is a significant public health problem. Mixed method strategies that involve parents and community organizations are promising approaches to prevent and control childhood obesity. Few studies have targeted city recreation centres to promote healthy eating and physical activity behaviours. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: This study presents the primary results of a family- and recreation centre-based childhood obesity prevention and control intervention. The study was carried out in neighbourhoods of a socioeconomically diverse county of more than 1?000?000 inhabitants. Primary results showed no significant reductions in child's body mass index (BMI); however, secondary analyses showed that girls in the intervention condition reduced BMI significantly more than girls in the control condition. Children in the intervention condition improved on several obesity-related behaviours compared with those in the control condition. BACKGROUND: Interventions to prevent and control childhood obesity have shown mixed results in terms of short- and long-term changes. OBJECTIVES: 'MOVE/me Muevo' was a 2-year family- and recreation centre-based randomized controlled trial to promote healthy eating and physical activity among 5- to 8-year-old children. It was hypothesized that children in the intervention group would demonstrate lower post-intervention body mass index (BMI) values and improved obesity-related behaviours compared with the control group children. METHODS: Thirty recreation centres in San Diego County, California, were randomized to an intervention or control condition. Five hundred forty-one families were enrolled and children's BMI, diet, physical activity and other health indicators were tracked from baseline to 2 years post-baseline. Analyses followed an intent-to-treat approach using mixed-effects models. RESULTS: No significant intervention effects were observed for the primary outcomes of child's or parent's BMI and child's waist circumference. Moderator analyses, however, showed that girls (but not boys) in the intervention condition reduced their BMI. At the 2-year follow-up, intervention condition parents reported that their children were consuming fewer high-fat foods and sugary beverages. CONCLUSIONS: Favourable implementation fidelity and high retention rates support the feasibility of this intervention in a large metropolitan area; however, interventions of greater intensity may be needed to achieve effects on child's BMI. Also, further research is needed to develop gender-specific intervention strategies so that both genders may benefit from such efforts. PMID:23754782

Elder, J P; Crespo, N C; Corder, K; Ayala, G X; Slymen, D J; Lopez, N V; Moody, J S; McKenzie, T L

2013-06-11

 
 
 
 
201

Assessing Cost-Effectiveness in Obesity (ACE-Obesity): an overview of the ACE approach, economic methods and cost results  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the ACE-Obesity study was to determine the economic credentials of interventions which aim to prevent unhealthy weight gain in children and adolescents. We have reported elsewhere on the modelled effectiveness of 13 obesity prevention interventions in children. In this paper, we report on the cost results and associated methods together with the innovative approach to priority setting that underpins the ACE-Obesity study. Methods The Assessing Cost Effectiveness (ACE) approach combines technical rigour with 'due process' to facilitate evidence-based policy analysis. Technical rigour was achieved through use of standardised evaluation methods, a research team that assembles best available evidence and extensive uncertainty analysis. Cost estimates were based on pathway analysis, with resource usage estimated for the interventions and their 'current practice' comparator, as well as associated cost offsets. Due process was achieved through involvement of stakeholders, consensus decisions informed by briefing papers and 2nd stage filter analysis that captures broader factors that influence policy judgements in addition to cost-effectiveness results. The 2nd stage filters agreed by stakeholders were 'equity', 'strength of the evidence', 'feasibility of implementation', 'acceptability to stakeholders', 'sustainability' and 'potential for side-effects'. Results The intervention costs varied considerably, both in absolute terms (from cost saving [6 interventions] to in excess of AUD50m per annum) and when expressed as a 'cost per child' estimate (from Conclusion The use of consistent methods enables valid comparison of potential intervention costs and cost-offsets for each of the interventions. ACE-Obesity informs policy-makers about cost-effectiveness, health impact, affordability and 2nd stage filters for important options for preventing unhealthy weight gain in children. In related articles cost-effectiveness results and second stage filter considerations for each intervention assessed will be presented and analysed.

Carter Rob; Moodie Marj; Markwick Alison; Magnus Anne; Vos Theo; Swinburn Boyd; Haby Michele M

2009-01-01

202

Clinical effects of Bofutsushosan to obese patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Performed was a clinical open trial to examine the anti-obesity effect of Bofutsushosan, a Japanese OTC, oriental herbal medicine (ROHTO Pharma. Co., Ltd.) used for constipation release. Subjects were 40-65 years old, 20 females with the body mass index 25-35, who t.i.d. ingested 3 tablets of the medicine, which corresponding to 3.0 g of dried extract of the Bofutsusho material per day, for 6 months (Sep. 2006-Feb. 2007). Before, 3 and 6 months after the beginning of the study, CT imaging was done to measure the fat areas on umbilical cross section for efficacy evaluation, with Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 16. Total, subcutaneous and inter-visceral fat areas were found to be significantly reduced by medication as well as improvement in other body-measure, hematological and biochemical parameters related with obesity and metabolism. No significant adverse effects were found. The medicine can be useful for improvement of the so-called metabolic syndrome not only for obesity and constipation. (R.T.)

2007-01-01

203

Parental perceptions of a motivational interviewing-based pediatric obesity prevention intervention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Motivational interviewing (MI) shows promise for pediatric obesity prevention, but few studies address parental perceptions of MI. The aim of this study was to identify correlates of parental perceptions of helpfulness of and satisfaction with a MI-based pediatric obesity prevention intervention. We studied 253 children 2 to 6 years of age in the intervention arm of High Five for Kids, a primary care-based randomized controlled trial. In multivariable models, parents born outside the United States (odds ratio [OR] = 8.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.44, 31.8), with lower household income (OR = 3.60; 95% CI = 1.03, 12.55), and with higher BMI (OR = 2.86; 95% CI = 1.07, 7.65) were more likely to perceive MI-based visits as helpful in improving children's obesity-related behaviors after the first year of the intervention. Parents of female (vs male), black (vs white), and Latino (vs white) children had lower intervention satisfaction. Our findings underscore the importance of tailoring pediatric obesity prevention efforts to target populations. PMID:23564304

Woo Baidal, Jennifer A; Price, Sarah N; Gonzalez-Suarez, Elizabeth; Gillman, Matthew W; Mitchell, Kathleen; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Horan, Christine M; Gortmaker, Steven L; Taveras, Elsie M

2013-04-05

204

Parental perceptions of a motivational interviewing-based pediatric obesity prevention intervention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Motivational interviewing (MI) shows promise for pediatric obesity prevention, but few studies address parental perceptions of MI. The aim of this study was to identify correlates of parental perceptions of helpfulness of and satisfaction with a MI-based pediatric obesity prevention intervention. We studied 253 children 2 to 6 years of age in the intervention arm of High Five for Kids, a primary care-based randomized controlled trial. In multivariable models, parents born outside the United States (odds ratio [OR] = 8.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.44, 31.8), with lower household income (OR = 3.60; 95% CI = 1.03, 12.55), and with higher BMI (OR = 2.86; 95% CI = 1.07, 7.65) were more likely to perceive MI-based visits as helpful in improving children's obesity-related behaviors after the first year of the intervention. Parents of female (vs male), black (vs white), and Latino (vs white) children had lower intervention satisfaction. Our findings underscore the importance of tailoring pediatric obesity prevention efforts to target populations.

Woo Baidal JA; Price SN; Gonzalez-Suarez E; Gillman MW; Mitchell K; Rifas-Shiman SL; Horan CM; Gortmaker SL; Taveras EM

2013-06-01

205

Are conjugated linolenic acid isomers an alternative to conjugated linoleic acid isomers in obesity prevention?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite its benefits, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may cause side effects after long-term administration. Because of this and utsthe controversial efficacy of CLA in humans, alternative biomolecules that may be used as functional ingredients have been studied in recent years. Thus, conjugated linolenic acid (CLNA) has been reported to be a potential anti-obesity molecule which may have additional positive effects related to obesity. According to the results reported in obesity, CLNA needs to be given at higher doses than CLA to be effective. However, because of the few studies conducted so far, it is still difficult to reach clear conclusions about the potential use of these CLNAs in obesity and its related changes (insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, or inflammation).

Miranda J; Arias N; Fernández-Quintela A; Del Puy Portillo M

2013-09-01

206

COMPOSITION FOR PREVENTION OF OBESITY CONTAINING A HOT PEPPER EXTRACT AND HEALTH SUPPORTING FOODS CONTAINING THE SAME  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An anti-obesity composition containing fresh red pepper(Capsicum annuum L.) extract as an active ingredient is provided to take the composition conveniently by removal of its pungent taste and effective in prevention and improvement of obesity. An anti-obesity composition contains 20 to 100% by weight of fresh red pepper extract, 20 to 80% by weight of a corn silk extract, 0.5 to 10% by weight of Pueraria root extract and 0.5 to 10% by weight of garlic extract. The fresh red pepper extract is obtained by the steps of: washing, dehydrating and squeezing fresh red pepper and precipitating for a specified time filtering the precipitate with a filter with a size of 20 to 100mum to remove floating materials in a first step, an ultrafilter with a size of 0.01 to 0.1mum to remove fine floating materials and macromolecules in a second step and then an active carbon filter to remove off-taste and off-flavor in a final step. A health supplementary food contains 0.1 to 20% by weight of the anti-obesity composition and is selected from the group consisting of raw water, milk, tea, jelly, juice, extract, drink and favorite foods.

BYUN MOO WON

207

The combination of resveratrol and conjugated linoleic acid is not useful in preventing obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Scientific research is constantly looking for new molecules to be used as functional ingredients to combat obesity. The aim of the present study was to analyse whether resveratrol and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) together could reduce body fat more efficiently than their separate administration. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: controls rats (C), rats treated with resveratrol (RSV), rats treated with CLA (CLA) and rats treated with a combination of resveratrol and CLA (RSV+CLA). All rats were fed on an obesogenic diet. In RSV and RSV+CLA groups, the rats received 30 mg resveratrol/kg body weight/day. In CLA and RSV+CLA groups, an equimolecular mixture of trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9,trans-11 was added to the diet to reach 0.5% of the active isomer trans-10,cis-12. After 6 weeks of treatment, white adipose tissue from different anatomical locations was dissected and weighed. Serum triacylglycerols, total and HDL cholesterols, glucose, insulin, fructosamine and TNF-? were measured. A glucose tolerance test was also performed. Separately, resveratrol and CLA significantly reduced body fat but did not do so when combined: 20% in the RSV group and 18% in CLA group but 7% in the RSV+CLA group. Resveratrol reduced serum triacylglycerols. No differences were found among groups in serum cholesterol. Resveratrol, as well as the combination RSV+CLA, improved glycaemic control. These results demonstrate that the combination RSV+CLA reduces the effectiveness of each compound on body fat-lowering action, but it maintains the positive effect of resveratrol on glycaemic control. Consequently, this combination has no usefulness in obesity prevention.

Arias N; Macarulla MT; Aguirre L; Martínez-Castaño MG; Gómez-Zorita S; Miranda J; Martínez JA; Portillo MP

2011-09-01

208

The combination of resveratrol and conjugated linoleic acid is not useful in preventing obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientific research is constantly looking for new molecules to be used as functional ingredients to combat obesity. The aim of the present study was to analyse whether resveratrol and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) together could reduce body fat more efficiently than their separate administration. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: controls rats (C), rats treated with resveratrol (RSV), rats treated with CLA (CLA) and rats treated with a combination of resveratrol and CLA (RSV+CLA). All rats were fed on an obesogenic diet. In RSV and RSV+CLA groups, the rats received 30 mg resveratrol/kg body weight/day. In CLA and RSV+CLA groups, an equimolecular mixture of trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9,trans-11 was added to the diet to reach 0.5% of the active isomer trans-10,cis-12. After 6 weeks of treatment, white adipose tissue from different anatomical locations was dissected and weighed. Serum triacylglycerols, total and HDL cholesterols, glucose, insulin, fructosamine and TNF-? were measured. A glucose tolerance test was also performed. Separately, resveratrol and CLA significantly reduced body fat but did not do so when combined: 20% in the RSV group and 18% in CLA group but 7% in the RSV+CLA group. Resveratrol reduced serum triacylglycerols. No differences were found among groups in serum cholesterol. Resveratrol, as well as the combination RSV+CLA, improved glycaemic control. These results demonstrate that the combination RSV+CLA reduces the effectiveness of each compound on body fat-lowering action, but it maintains the positive effect of resveratrol on glycaemic control. Consequently, this combination has no usefulness in obesity prevention. PMID:21455758

Arias, Noemi; Macarulla, Maria Teresa; Aguirre, Leixuri; Martínez-Castaño, María Guadalupe; Gómez-Zorita, Saioa; Miranda, Jonatan; Martínez, José Alfredo; Portillo, María Puy

2011-04-01

209

Resveratrol attenuates oxidative stress and prevents steatosis and hypertension in obese rats programmed by early weaning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We hypothesized that resveratrol, a natural phytoalexin found in grapes, can prevent oxidative stress, obesity and its related disturbances in obese rats programmed by early weaning. Lactating Wistar rats were separated into two groups: early weaning (EW) - dams who were wrapped with a bandage to interrupt the lactation in the last 3 days of lactation; control - dams whose pups had free access to milk during all lactation. At the 150th day, EW offspring were randomly subdivided into EW+resveratrol (EW+Res) - resveratrol (30 mg/kg/day); EW+vehicle (EW) - rats that received 0.5% (w/v) aqueous methylcellulose. The control group received vehicle. Rats were treated by gavage daily for 30 days. EW offspring developed hyperphagia, higher body weight, visceral obesity, higher systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (+15% and +20%, respectively; P<.05) and higher serum triglycerides (TG) and low-density lipoprotein but lower high-density lipoprotein (+55%, +33% and -13%, respectively; P<.05). Resveratrol normalized food intake, SBP and DBP and prevented obesity and dyslipidemia in EW+Res. EW rats had higher plasma and liver thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and lower plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) and liver glutathione peroxidase activities (+51%, +18%, -58%, -31%, respectively; P<.05), and resveratrol normalized both plasma and liver TBARS and increased the activity of SOD and catalase in plasma. EW rats presented liver steatosis and higher liver TG, and resveratrol prevented these hepatic alterations. In conclusion, this study demonstrated a potential therapeutic use of resveratrol in preventing obesity and oxidative stress and reducing the risk of hypertension, dyslipidemia and steatosis in adult rats programmed by early weaning.

Franco JG; Lisboa PC; Lima NS; Amaral TA; Peixoto-Silva N; Resende AC; Oliveira E; Passos MC; Moura EG

2013-06-01

210

Environmental mechanisms involved in weight gain and opportunities to prevent obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available New societies, specially those that are transitioning towesternized lifestyles, are experiencing substantial increases inprevalence of obesity that is showing epidemic characteristicsin several communities. Besides it is well accepted that geneticfactors have an important role in weight control, the observedexplosion of obesity seen in the last century can not be explainedexclusively by alterations in genes that occurred in this shortperiod of time but it is much more suitable to be the result ofenvironmental changes related to the contemporaryindustrialization and technological advances. The primaryenvironmental determinants of obesity are those related to theincrease in caloric intake and low levels of activity thatgenetically susceptible subjects to the weight gain are exposedby the modern style of living. Stimulated by the cheaper andgreater availability of food, the increase in automation andmechanization facilitating the physical inactivity and thecontinuous psychological stress the modern man is actually moreexposed to behavior changes favoring the weight gain. Sinceobesity is widely recognized to be an important cardiovascularand diabetes risk factor, prevention of obesity must be recognizedby policy-makers as an important public health actions to protecthealth. To combat the epidemic of obesity we must cure the“toxic environmental” changing our behavior and promoting newfood technologies.

Antonio Carlos Lerario; Simão Augusto Lottenberg

2006-01-01

211

Childhood overweight and obesity prevention interventions among Hispanic children in the United States: systematic review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of childhood obesity interventions among Hispanic children in the United States. An electronic search was conducted to identify articles published in the PubMED, CINAHL and EBSCO databases. Keyword that used included "Latino", "Hispanic", "childhood", "obesity", "interventions". The inclusion criteria were: published in English from January 2001 to January 2012, studies equal or longer than 6 months of follow-up, Hispanic children and obesity prevention studies (RCT or Quasi-experimental studies). We found 10 studies for inclusion in this review, seven RCT and three Quasi-experimental studies, published from 2005 to January 2012. Overall, improvements in BMI and z-BMI across studies were inconsistent. Only two studies had a follow-up of 3 years, and the most recent study showed an increase in the proportion of children classified as obese. The overall quality rate of evidence with respect to reducing BMI or the prevalence of childhood obesity was low.

Pérez-Morales ME; Bacardí-Gascón M; Jiménez-Cruz A

2012-09-01

212

Dietary Supplementation With Agaricus Blazei Murill Extract Prevents Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dietary supplement may potentially help to fight obesity and other metabolic disorders such as insulin-resistance and low-grade inflammation. The present study aimed to test whether supplementation with Agaricus blazei murill (ABM) extract could have an effect on diet-induced obesity in rats. Wistar rats were fed with control diet (CD) or high-fat diet (HF) and either with or without supplemented ABM for 20 weeks. HF diet-induced body weight gain and increased fat mass compared to CD. In addition HF-fed rats developed hyperleptinemia and insulinemia as well as insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. In HF-fed rats, visceral adipose tissue also expressed biomarkers of inflammation. ABM supplementation in HF rats had a protective effect against body weight gain and all study related disorders. This was not due to decreased food intake which remained significantly higher in HF rats whether supplemented with ABM or not compared to control. There was also no change in gut microbiota composition in HF supplemented with ABM. Interestingly, ABM supplementation induced an increase in both energy expenditure and locomotor activity which could partially explain its protective effect against diet-induced obesity. In addition a decrease in pancreatic lipase activity is also observed in jejunum of ABM-treated rats suggesting a decrease in lipid absorption. Taken together these data highlight a role for ABM to prevent body weight gain and related disorders in peripheral targets independently of effect in food intake in central nervous system.

Vincent M; Philippe E; Everard A; Kassis N; Rouch C; Denom J; Takeda Y; Uchiyama S; Delzenne NM; Cani PD; Migrenne S; Magnan C

2012-06-01

213

A holistic food labelling strategy for preventing obesity and dental caries  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Obesity and dental caries in childhood are among the major public health concerns described as a global pandemic because of their global distribution and severe consequences. A consensus has developed as to a recently emerging and alarming common risk factor that leads to the double burden of dental caries and obesity; energy-dense foods (sugar-coated cereals, high-sugar yogurt, soft drinks) are becoming very popular among children because of their dense marketing, cheaper price, increased supply and variety. Implementation of health-promoting and -supporting marketing strategies for healthy food can be one initial cornerstone for successful application of the common risk factor approach in prevention of obesity and dental caries, as also suggested by World Health Organization. Labelling healthy food with a 'health-friendly' logo, illustrating that the teeth and the heart are both parts of the whole body (standing side by side supporting each other as close friends), both happy and protected because of consumption of healthy food for the whole body, can promote the foods that are friendly to health of the whole body, implementing the common risk factor approach under a single theme. Labelling healthy food as 'health-friendly' based on an international consensus will provide a clear and uniform picture of what is healthy to eat and result in an international integrated programme for prevention of obesity and caries.

Cinar, A B; Murtomaa, H

2009-01-01

214

The effects of obesity on venous thromboembolism: A review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity has emerged as a global health issue that is associated with wide spectrum of disorders, including coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, stroke, and venous thromboembolism (VTE). VTE is one of the most common vascular disorders in the United States and Europe and is associated with significant mortality. Although the association between obesity and VTE appears to be moderate, obesity can interact with other environmental or genetic factors and pose a significantly greater risk of VTE among individuals who are obese and who are exposed simultaneously to several other risk factors for VTE. Therefore, identification of potential interactions between obesity and certain VTE risk factors might offer some critical points for VTE interventions and thus minimize VTE morbidity and mortality among patients who are obese. However, current obesity measurements have limitations and can introduce contradictory results in the outcome of obesity. To overcome these limitations, this review proposes several future directions and suggests some avenues for prevention of VTE associated with obesity as well.

Genyan Yang; Christine De Staercke; W. Craig Hooper

2012-01-01

215

Green tea catechins prevent obesity through modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Epidemiological evidence and experimental studies suggest that drinking green tea is associated with a lower risk of obesity and related diseases. However, the mechanisms of these effects are not clear. In the present study, we investigated the anti-obesity mechanisms of green tea catechins (GTCs) through modulation of peroxisome proliferator activated-receptor (PPAR) pathways in high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats. GTC supplementation significantly attenuated the increased body and liver weights and the elevated serum and liver triglyceride levels. Meanwhile, GTCs increased the PPAR? levels in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SWAT) and decreased the PPAR? levels in visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT). In addition, GTC treatment up-regulated the levels of PPAR? in SWAT, VWAT, and brown adipose tissue and increased the expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation in brown adipose tissue. Our results suggest that GTCs exert their anti-obesity mechanism in part by modulating PPAR signaling pathways. PMID:23864528

Yan, Jingqi; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Baolu

2013-07-12

216

Green tea catechins prevent obesity through modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Epidemiological evidence and experimental studies suggest that drinking green tea is associated with a lower risk of obesity and related diseases. However, the mechanisms of these effects are not clear. In the present study, we investigated the anti-obesity mechanisms of green tea catechins (GTCs) through modulation of peroxisome proliferator activated-receptor (PPAR) pathways in high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats. GTC supplementation significantly attenuated the increased body and liver weights and the elevated serum and liver triglyceride levels. Meanwhile, GTCs increased the PPAR? levels in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SWAT) and decreased the PPAR? levels in visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT). In addition, GTC treatment up-regulated the levels of PPAR? in SWAT, VWAT, and brown adipose tissue and increased the expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation in brown adipose tissue. Our results suggest that GTCs exert their anti-obesity mechanism in part by modulating PPAR signaling pathways.

Yan J; Zhao Y; Zhao B

2013-09-01

217

SPRING: an RCT study of probiotics in the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus in overweight and obese women  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is increasing in the child-bearing population as are the rates of gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes is associated with higher rates of Cesarean Section for the mother and increased risks of macrosomia, higher body fat mass, respiratory distress and hypoglycemia for the infant. Prevention of gestational diabetes through life style intervention has proven to be difficult. A Finnish study showed that ingestion of specific probiotics altered the composition of the gut microbiome and thereby metabolism from early gestation and decreased rates of gestational diabetes in normal weight women. In SPRING (the Study of Probiotics IN the prevention of Gestational diabetes), the effectiveness of probiotics ingestion for the prevention of gestational diabetes will be assessed in overweight and obese women. Methods/design SPRING is a multi-center, prospective, double-blind randomized controlled trial run at two tertiary maternity hospitals in Brisbane, Australia. Five hundred and forty (540) women with a BMI > 25.0 kg/m2 will be recruited over 2 years and receive either probiotics or placebo capsules from 16 weeks gestation until delivery. The probiotics capsules contain > 1x109 cfu each of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 per capsule. The primary outcome is diagnosis of gestational diabetes at 28 weeks gestation. Secondary outcomes include rates of other pregnancy complications, gestational weight gain, mode of delivery, change in gut microbiome, preterm birth, macrosomia, and infant body composition. The trial has 80% power at a 5% 2-sided significance level to detect a >50% change in the rates of gestational diabetes in this high-risk group of pregnant women. Discussion SPRING will show if probiotics can be used as an easily implementable method of preventing gestational diabetes in the high-risk group of overweight and obese pregnant women.

Nitert Marloes Dekker; Barrett Helen L; Foxcroft Katie; Tremellen Anne; Wilkinson Shelley; Lingwood Barbara; Tobin Jacinta M; McSweeney Chris; O’Rourke Peter; McIntyre H David; Callaway Leonie K

2013-01-01

218

SPRING: an RCT study of probiotics in the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus in overweight and obese women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Obesity is increasing in the child-bearing population as are the rates of gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes is associated with higher rates of Cesarean Section for the mother and increased risks of macrosomia, higher body fat mass, respiratory distress and hypoglycemia for the infant. Prevention of gestational diabetes through life style intervention has proven to be difficult. A Finnish study showed that ingestion of specific probiotics altered the composition of the gut microbiome and thereby metabolism from early gestation and decreased rates of gestational diabetes in normal weight women. In SPRING (the Study of Probiotics IN the prevention of Gestational diabetes), the effectiveness of probiotics ingestion for the prevention of gestational diabetes will be assessed in overweight and obese women. METHODS/DESIGN: SPRING is a multi-center, prospective, double-blind randomized controlled trial run at two tertiary maternity hospitals in Brisbane, Australia. Five hundred and forty (540) women with a BMI > 25.0 kg/m(2) will be recruited over 2 years and receive either probiotics or placebo capsules from 16 weeks gestation until delivery. The probiotics capsules contain > 1x10(9) cfu each of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 per capsule. The primary outcome is diagnosis of gestational diabetes at 28 weeks gestation. Secondary outcomes include rates of other pregnancy complications, gestational weight gain, mode of delivery, change in gut microbiome, preterm birth, macrosomia, and infant body composition. The trial has 80% power at a 5% 2-sided significance level to detect a >50% change in the rates of gestational diabetes in this high-risk group of pregnant women. DISCUSSION: SPRING will show if probiotics can be used as an easily implementable method of preventing gestational diabetes in the high-risk group of overweight and obese pregnant women.

Nitert MD; Barrett HL; Foxcroft K; Tremellen A; Wilkinson S; Lingwood B; Tobin JM; McSweeney C; O'Rourke P; McIntyre HD; Callaway LK

2013-01-01

219

Laboratory, Epidemiological, and Human Intervention Studies Show That Tea (Camellia sinensis) May Be Useful in the Prevention of Obesity12  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceae) and tea polyphenols have been studied for the prevention of chronic diseases, including obesity. Obesity currently affects >20% of adults in the United States and is a risk factor for chronic diseases such as type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Giv...

Grove, Kimberly A.; Lambert, Joshua D.

220

Obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Obesity has become common in critically ill patients as it is in the population at large. Despite large fuel stores, obese patients can become rapidly malnourished and are subject to the same inflammatory and catabolic responses as their nonobese counterparts. The concepts of early enteral nutrition are therefore equally applicable to the obese patient as to the nonobese patient. Monitoring of nutrition support likewise is the same. The main differences in obese versus nonobese patients is that nutrition assessment is somewhat more uncertain, and that hypocaloric high-protein feeding is more often recommended in the obese. The rationale for hypocaloric feeding in obese patients is multipart: (1) energy balance is not necessary to achieve nitrogen balance, (2) energy expenditure is difficult to predict in obese patients and is likely to lead to overfeeding, (3) overfeeding is especially detrimental to the obese patient, and (4) positive outcomes have been observed with hypocaloric high-protein feeding. That nitrogen balance can be achieved without energy balance has been demonstrated in several studies. However, the likelihood of overestimating resting metabolic rate in the obese may be overstated, and the evidence that hypocaloric feeding improves outcome is limited. It is therefore still an open question as to whether hypocaloric high-protein feeding should be standard practice in obese critically ill patients.

Frankenfield DC

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Using the Community Readiness Model to select communities for a community-wide obesity prevention intervention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To build on a growing interest in community-based obesity prevention programs, methods are needed for matching intervention strategies to local needs and assets. We used the Community Readiness Model (CRM), a structured interview guide and scoring system, to assess community readiness to act on childhood obesity prevention, furthering a replication study of a successful intervention. Using the CRM protocol, we conducted interviews with 4 stakeholders in each of 10 communities of similar size, socioeconomic status, and perceived readiness to implement a community-wide obesity prevention intervention. Communities were in California, Florida, Illinois, Massachusetts, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee. The 4 stakeholders were the mayor or city manager, the school superintendent, the school food service director, and a community coalition representative. Interviews were recorded and professionally transcribed. Pairs of trained reviewers scored the transcriptions according to CRM protocol. The CRM assesses 9 stages of readiness for 6 dimensions: existing community efforts to prevent childhood obesity, community knowledge about the efforts, leadership, community climate, knowledge about the issue, and resources. We calculated an overall readiness score for each community from the dimension scores. Overall readiness scores ranged from 2.97 to 5.36 on the 9-point scale. The mean readiness score, 4.28 (SD, 0.68), corresponds with a "preplanning" level of readiness. Of the 6 dimensions, community climate varied the least (mean score, 3.11; SD, 0.64); leadership varied the most (mean score, 4.79; SD, 1.13). The CRM quantified a subjective concept, allowing for comparison among 10 communities. Dimension scores and qualitative data from interviews helped in the selection of 6 communities for a replication study.

Sliwa S; Goldberg JP; Clark V; Collins J; Edwards R; Hyatt RR; Junot B; Nahar E; Nelson ME; Tovar A; Economos CD

2011-11-01

222

A systematic policy approach to changing the food system and physical activity environments to prevent obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As obesity prevention becomes an increasing health priority in many countries, including Australia and New Zealand, the challenge that governments are now facing is how to adopt a systematic policy approach to increase healthy eating and regular physical activity. This article sets out a structure for systematically identifying areas for obesity prevention policy action across the food system and full range of physical activity environments. Areas amenable to policy intervention can be systematically identified by considering policy opportunities for each level of governance (local, state, national, international and organisational) in each sector of the food system (primary production, food processing, distribution, marketing, retail, catering and food service) and each sector that influences physical activity environments (infrastructure and planning, education, employment, transport, sport and recreation). Analysis grids are used to illustrate, in a structured fashion, the broad array of areas amenable to legal and regulatory intervention across all levels of governance and all relevant sectors. In the Australian context, potential regulatory policy intervention areas are widespread throughout the food system, e.g., land-use zoning (primary production within local government), food safety (food processing within state government), food labelling (retail within national government). Policy areas for influencing physical activity are predominantly local and state government responsibilities including, for example, walking and cycling environments (infrastructure and planning sector) and physical activity education in schools (education sector). The analysis structure presented in this article provides a tool to systematically identify policy gaps, barriers and opportunities for obesity prevention, as part of the process of developing and implementing a comprehensive obesity prevention strategy. It also serves to highlight the need for a coordinated approach to policy development and implementation across all levels of government in order to ensure complementary policy action.

Sacks G; Swinburn BA; Lawrence MA

2008-01-01

223

The effects of obesity and morbid obesity on outcomes in TKA.  

Science.gov (United States)

The negative effects of obesity following total joint arthroplasty, such as increased morbidity and mortality, have been well documented in literature. However, little is known about whether specific body mass indices can be used as cutoffs to determine which patients are most at risk for having a poor postoperative outcome. We evaluated the effects of differing levels of obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI) on implant survivorship, Knee Society scores, complications, and radiographic outcomes. A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify all studies reporting outcomes of total knee arthroplasty in obese (30 ? BMI < 40 kg/m2) and morbidly obese patients (40 ? BMI < 50 kg/m2). Twenty-four studies were identified in our literature search. At a mean 5-year follow-up, morbidly obese patients (88%) had significantly lower implant survivorship than obese patients (95%) and nonobese patients (97%). Significantly, lower postoperative mean Knee Society objective and function scores (71 and 60 points) were observed for morbidly obese patients than for nonobese patients (75 and 90 points), but obese patients did not have significantly lower Knee Society objective and function scores than nonobese patients (78 and 84 points). Complication rates for nonobese, obese, and morbidly obese patients were 9, 15, and 22%, respectively, all of which were significantly different. However, no significant difference was observed in the incidence of radiolucent lines that were 12, 19, and 14%, respectively. Thus, we conclude that a BMI greater than 40 kg/m2 may be used as a cutoff to help guide patient education and treatment options for primary total knee arthroplasty. PMID:23479424

McElroy, Mark J; Pivec, Robert; Issa, Kimona; Harwin, Steven F; Mont, Michael A

2013-03-11

224

The effects of obesity and morbid obesity on outcomes in TKA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The negative effects of obesity following total joint arthroplasty, such as increased morbidity and mortality, have been well documented in literature. However, little is known about whether specific body mass indices can be used as cutoffs to determine which patients are most at risk for having a poor postoperative outcome. We evaluated the effects of differing levels of obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI) on implant survivorship, Knee Society scores, complications, and radiographic outcomes. A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify all studies reporting outcomes of total knee arthroplasty in obese (30 ? BMI < 40 kg/m2) and morbidly obese patients (40 ? BMI < 50 kg/m2). Twenty-four studies were identified in our literature search. At a mean 5-year follow-up, morbidly obese patients (88%) had significantly lower implant survivorship than obese patients (95%) and nonobese patients (97%). Significantly, lower postoperative mean Knee Society objective and function scores (71 and 60 points) were observed for morbidly obese patients than for nonobese patients (75 and 90 points), but obese patients did not have significantly lower Knee Society objective and function scores than nonobese patients (78 and 84 points). Complication rates for nonobese, obese, and morbidly obese patients were 9, 15, and 22%, respectively, all of which were significantly different. However, no significant difference was observed in the incidence of radiolucent lines that were 12, 19, and 14%, respectively. Thus, we conclude that a BMI greater than 40 kg/m2 may be used as a cutoff to help guide patient education and treatment options for primary total knee arthroplasty.

McElroy MJ; Pivec R; Issa K; Harwin SF; Mont MA

2013-04-01

225

A health literate approach to the prevention of childhood overweight and obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To describe a systematic assessment of patient educational materials for the Growing Right Onto Wellness (GROW) trial, a childhood obesity prevention study targeting a low health literate population. METHODS: Process included: (1) expert review of educational content, (2) assessment of the quality of materials including use of the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) tool, and (3) material review and revision with target population. RESULTS: 12 core modules were developed and assessed in an iterative process. Average readability was at the 6th grade reading level (SMOG Index 5.63±0.76, and Fry graph 6.0±0.85). SAM evaluation resulted in adjustments to literacy demand, layout & typography, and learning stimulation & motivation. Cognitive interviews with target population revealed additional changes incorporated to enhance participant's perception of acceptability and feasibility for behavior change. CONCLUSION: The GROW modules are a collection of evidence-based materials appropriate for parents with low health literacy and their preschool aged children, that target the prevention of childhood overweight/obesity. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Most trials addressing the treatment or prevention of childhood obesity use written materials. Due to the ubiquitous prevalence of limited health literacy, our described methods may assist researchers in ensuring their content is both understood and actionable.

White RO; Thompson JR; Rothman RL; McDougald Scott AM; Heerman WJ; Sommer EC; Barkin SL

2013-08-01

226

Physical Activity and Balanced Diet: Basic Parameters to Prevent Obesity and Serum Cholesterol Elevation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A comparative study of age matched 50 obese and 50 lean adults was undertaken. The blood samples were collected after overnight fast. The diet sampling was done on the spot without prior information over a period of three months. The results showed that mean serum cholesterol level of obese persons was higher than leans. The frequency of its occurrence was high in case of sedentary people. More than 70% adults were not involved in enough physical activity where as 10% were benefited from moderate activity. The physical activity is more pronounced in young persons, decreases with age and is less common among the obeses. The average diet of obeses contained higher percentage of nutrients and calories. Except for fat contents of leans, the other nutrients were present in adequate amounts over RDA in both groups. The data revealed that both the parameters under study, significantly control the serum cholesterol elevation and obesity. The other factors and sources which may cause rise in serum cholesterol level and obesity have been indicated. The adverse effects of physical inactivity and imbalanced nutrition are briefly discussed in perspective of human health.

Abdul Rehman Khan; Liaquat Hussain Khan

2004-01-01

227

The effective factors in obesity of Neishabur children  

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Full Text Available Background: Increase in the prevalence of childhood and adolescence obesity in recent years caused many investigations to be held on effective factors on childhood obesity. Environmental factors have a strong impact and are investigated in many studies worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the effective factors in Neishabur primary school children.Materials and Method: Using two stage cluster sampling from 60 Neishbur primary schools, all students who had body mass index(BMI) ?95 percentile, were identified as obese (n=114) and 102 students of the same age and gender were indicated as non-obese pupils. Data were collected by questionnaires. Results: Our analyzed data showed that the mean birth weight in obese cases was significantly more than the others. The ratio of first and second born children in obese group was higher than of the non-obese. The ratio of pupils starting complementary feeding earlier than 6 month of age was significantly higher in obese (80.7%) than non-obese children (46.1%). Conclusion: High birth weight, birth order and early treatment with complementary foods were associated with obesity among Neishabur primary school children. This should be noted in interventional planning

Fereshteh Baygi; Mina Tabatabaee; Ahmad R. Dorosty; Mohammad R. Eshraghian

2012-01-01

228

An approach to improve parent participation in a childhood obesity prevention program.  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Engaging parents in interventions can be difficult because of various barriers. An engaging children's program that runs parallel to a parent program may facilitate parent participation. In this study, we assessed parents' perception of the children's component of Parents and Tots Together (PTT), a family-based obesity prevention program. Methods: Fifteen of the 16 ethnically diverse parents who participated in an uncontrolled trial of PTT completed a survey assessing their satisfaction with the PTT children's component. More detailed information was obtained from one-on-one qualitative interviews with seven parents. Results: Attendance at program sessions was relatively high; 69% of parents attended six or more of the nine sessions. Survey data revealed that 87% of parents were "very satisfied" with the children's group. Approximately 73% of parents reported that the program was "very useful" in helping their child learn the importance of healthy eating and physical activity. In qualitative interviews, many parents identified the children's program as a motivator for attendance at the program sessions. Conclusions: The interactive children's program was well received by parents and may serve as a catalyst for parent participation. Larger, randomized trials are needed to determine the effectiveness of children's programming for enhancing parent participation. PMID:24018007

O'Brien, Ashley; McDonald, Julia; Haines, Jess

2013-01-01

229

[Prevention and treatment of obesity since childhood: strategy to decrease the non transmissible chronic diseases in adult  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The prevalence of obesity among children and teenagers is increasing by 1.5% per year, probably due to a higher consumption of highly caloric foods and to physical inactivity. Hypercholesterolemia, increased insulin levels and high blood pressure of childhood obesity, precede atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, diabetes and hypertension in adulthood. The prevention of childhood obesity is an efficient strategy to decrease the prevalence of non transmissible chronic diseases in the adult. The recommendations of experts committees for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of childhood obesity are reviewed. They aim at a change in dietary habits and increasing physical activity. A well balanced healthy diet and a decrease in physical inactivity time will result in a successful treatment approach for obesity.

Burrows R

2000-01-01

230

Estrogen can prevent or reverse obesity and diabetes in mice expressing human islet amyloid polypeptide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Type 2 diabetes is characterized by loss of beta-cell mass and concomitant deposition of amyloid derived from islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). Previously we have shown that expression of human IAPP (huIAPP) in islets of transgenic mice results in either a rapid onset of hyperglycemia in mice homozygous for the huIAPP transgene on a lean background (FVB/N) or a gradual hyperglycemia in mice hemizygous for the huIAPP transgene on an obese background (A(vy)/A). In both strains, only the males routinely develop diabetes. To investigate this sexual dimorphism, we treated young prediabetic A(vy)/A mice transgenic for huIAPP (huIAPP-A(vy)) with 17beta-estradiol (E2). The treatment completely blocked the progression to hyperglycemia but also prevented the associated weight gain in these mice. Immunohistochemistry of pancreatic sections demonstrated normal islet morphology with no apparent deposition of islet amyloid. E2 treatment of 1-year-old huIAPP-A(vy) diabetic males rapidly reverses obesity and hyperglycemia. To determine the effects of E2 in a nonobese model, we also treated prediabetic, ad libitum-fed and pair-fed Lean-huIAPP transgenic males. E2 completely blocked the progression to hyperglycemia with no significant effect on body weight. Pancreatic insulin content and plasma insulin concentration of Lean-huIAPP transgenic mice increased in a dose-dependent manner. We demonstrated the presence of estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha mRNA in mouse and human islets. By also confirming the presence of ER-alpha protein in islets, we discovered a novel 58-kDa ER-alpha isoform in mice and a 52-kDa isoform in humans, in the absence of the classic 67-kDa protein found in most tissues of both species. The demonstrated presence of ER-alpha in mouse and human islets is consistent with a direct effect on islet function. We conclude that exogenous E2 administered to male mice may block human IAPP-mediated beta-cell loss both by direct action on beta-cells and by decreasing insulin demand through inhibition of weight gain or increasing insulin action. PMID:12086946

Geisler, John G; Zawalich, Walter; Zawalich, Kathleen; Lakey, Jonathan R T; Stukenbrok, Hans; Milici, Anthony J; Soeller, Walter C

2002-07-01

231

OBESITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To assess frequency of obesity among college adolescent male and female students on BMI-Prime bases through anthropometric. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: At higher secondary colleges located in urban areas of Bahawalpur City. Period: From February 2009 to March 2009 Materials & Methods: Assessment of obesity among 400 college male & female students equally divided, ages from 16 to 23 years was carried out on BMI-Prime bases. Weight categories so achieved were stratified and labeled. Results: There were 3(0.75%) severely under weight, 44(11%) under weight, 273(68.25%) normal, 68(17%) over weight, 9(2.25%) obese and 3(0.75%) were clinically obese. There was no morbidly obese. No statistical gender difference for severely under weight and clinically obese was noted. However females were more under weight (p<0.05) while males were more over weight (P<0.05) and obese (P<0.05) when compared with each other. Conclusion: The adolescent female college students were under weight when compared to their male colleagues. The frequency of obesity was higher among male students

ABDUL SALAM MALIK

2009-01-01

232

On the Prevention of Obesity and a Philosophy for Healthy Living  

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Full Text Available Overweight and obesity have now reached historical, maximal peak values, with nearly one-third of world population suffering from these conditions. We are now witnessing the impact of this epidemic upon the global health status, with non-communicable diseases on the rise. We have also witnessed the shortcomings and failures of past actions taken when obesity is already present. In this essay the author reviews efforts made in the past regarding identification and treatment of obesity, and propose that actions should be taken before the onset of this disease, by motivating people to make intelligent, healthy choices when it comes to food and physical activity. A philosophy for healthy living should become central to the intervention actions, for them to be successful and sustained. Prevention of obesity should involve all those concerned irregardless of their position in society and curricular training, in order to create a multi-lateral, multi-national effort that will protect our families and our children from the consequences of this epidemic.

Richard Visser

2012-01-01

233

The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT) an early intervention to prevent childhood obesity: Cluster-randomised controlled trial  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple factors combine to support a compelling case for interventions that target the development of obesity-promoting behaviours (poor diet, low physical activity and high sedentary behaviour) from their inception. These factors include the rapidly increasing prevalence of fatness throughout childhood, the instigation of obesity-promoting behaviours in infancy, and the tracking of these behaviours from childhood through to adolescence and adulthood. The Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (INFANT) aims to determine the effectiveness of an early childhood obesity prevention intervention delivered to first-time parents. The intervention, conducted with parents over the infant's first 18 months of life, will use existing social networks (first-time parent's groups) and an anticipatory guidance framework focusing on parenting skills which support the development of positive diet and physical activity behaviours, and reduced sedentary behaviours in infancy. Methods/Design This cluster-randomised controlled trial, with first-time parent groups as the unit of randomisation, will be conducted with a sample of 600 first-time parents and their newborn children who attend the first-time parents' group at Maternal and Child Health Centres. Using a two-stage sampling process, local government areas in Victoria, Australia will be randomly selected at the first stage. At the second stage, a proportional sample of first-time parent groups within selected local government areas will be randomly selected and invited to participate. Informed consent will be obtained and groups will then be randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. Discussion The early years hold promise as a time in which obesity prevention may be most effective. To our knowledge this will be the first randomised trial internationally to demonstrate whether an early health promotion program delivered to first-time parents in their existing social groups promotes healthy eating, physical activity and reduced sedentary behaviours. If proven to be effective, INFANT may protect children from the development of obesity and its associated social and economic costs. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN81847050

Campbell Karen; Hesketh Kylie; Crawford David; Salmon Jo; Ball Kylie; McCallum Zoë

2008-01-01

234

Prevenção primária de doenças cardiovasculares na obesidade infantojuvenil: efeito anti-inflamatório do exercício físico Early prevention of cardiovascular diseases in juvenile obesity: the anti-inflammatory effect of physical exercise  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A pandemia da obesidade juvenil e do sedentarismo está relacionada com o maior risco de doenças cardiovasculares no futuro. Ambas com fisiopatologia inflamatória, essas condições têm atraído significativa atenção científica. O início dos eventos que agridem o endotélio vascular pode ocorrer na infância, porém, sinais clínicos da aterosclerose geralmente só aparecem na fase adulta. O tecido adiposo é hoje reconhecido por seu papel ativo, induzindo a produção de citocinas pró e anti-inflamatórias, como o fator de necrose tumoral-alfa, as interleucinas 1, 6 e 10, a proteína C-reativa e outras. Há várias evidências de que os níveis sanguíneos dessas citocinas se encontram mais altos em indivíduos com excesso de peso, inclusive crianças e adolescentes. A prevenção precoce, desde a infância, apresenta-se como a melhor maneira de evitar os danos da obesidade na fase adulta, enquanto o potencial da prática regular de exercícios físicos tem se mostrado surpreendente. Sua ação anti-inflamatória se manifesta através de menores concentrações séricas de interleucina 6, de proteína C-reativa e leptina, além de aumentos na adiponectina. Observa-se escassez de estudos randomizados e controlados avaliando as relações entre obesidade, inflamação e exercícios para a população jovem. Com resultados às vezes controversos, a maioria das conclusões é procedentede estudos com adultos. O objetivo desta revisão é avaliar o papel anti-inflamatório, e assim cardioprotetor, da atividade física regular na obesidade infantojuvenil.Nowadays, juvenile obesity and physical inactivity are pandemic conditions which relate to a greater future risk of cardiovascular diseases. From an inflammatory point of view, they have attracted massive scientific attention. The beginning of the events related to atherosclerosis may occur in childhood, generating endothelial and metabolic dysfunction; however, the symptoms usually only appear later on, in adulthood. The fat tissue is recognized as being metabolically active, stimulating the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as the tumoral necrosis factor, interleukines 1, 6 and 10, C-reactive protein, among others. There is plenty of evidence that the serum levels of these citokines are higher in overweight individuals, including children and adolescents. Early prevention as young as possible is the best way to avoid future consequences of obesity. In this context, the potential benefits of regular physical exercise have been surprising. Researchers have shown evidence of anti-inflammatory responses, including lower levels of interleukine 6, C-reactive protein, leptin, besides higher levels of adiponectins after engagement in regular physical activity. However, we still have few controlled randomized studies addressing the relations between obesity, inflammation and exercise for the pediatric population. There are controversial findings in this field, and many of them come from adult studies. Thus, the purpose of the present review is to evaluate the metabolic role of physical exercise in juvenile obesity, aiming at heart protection.

Márcia Braz Rossetti; Raquel Rodrigues Britto; Rocksane de Carvalho Norton

2009-01-01

235

Prevenção primária de doenças cardiovasculares na obesidade infantojuvenil: efeito anti-inflamatório do exercício físico/ Early prevention of cardiovascular diseases in juvenile obesity: the anti-inflammatory effect of physical exercise  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A pandemia da obesidade juvenil e do sedentarismo está relacionada com o maior risco de doenças cardiovasculares no futuro. Ambas com fisiopatologia inflamatória, essas condições têm atraído significativa atenção científica. O início dos eventos que agridem o endotélio vascular pode ocorrer na infância, porém, sinais clínicos da aterosclerose geralmente só aparecem na fase adulta. O tecido adiposo é hoje reconhecido por seu papel ativo, induzindo a produ? (more) ?ão de citocinas pró e anti-inflamatórias, como o fator de necrose tumoral-alfa, as interleucinas 1, 6 e 10, a proteína C-reativa e outras. Há várias evidências de que os níveis sanguíneos dessas citocinas se encontram mais altos em indivíduos com excesso de peso, inclusive crianças e adolescentes. A prevenção precoce, desde a infância, apresenta-se como a melhor maneira de evitar os danos da obesidade na fase adulta, enquanto o potencial da prática regular de exercícios físicos tem se mostrado surpreendente. Sua ação anti-inflamatória se manifesta através de menores concentrações séricas de interleucina 6, de proteína C-reativa e leptina, além de aumentos na adiponectina. Observa-se escassez de estudos randomizados e controlados avaliando as relações entre obesidade, inflamação e exercícios para a população jovem. Com resultados às vezes controversos, a maioria das conclusões é procedentede estudos com adultos. O objetivo desta revisão é avaliar o papel anti-inflamatório, e assim cardioprotetor, da atividade física regular na obesidade infantojuvenil. Abstract in english Nowadays, juvenile obesity and physical inactivity are pandemic conditions which relate to a greater future risk of cardiovascular diseases. From an inflammatory point of view, they have attracted massive scientific attention. The beginning of the events related to atherosclerosis may occur in childhood, generating endothelial and metabolic dysfunction; however, the symptoms usually only appear later on, in adulthood. The fat tissue is recognized as being metabolically ac (more) tive, stimulating the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as the tumoral necrosis factor, interleukines 1, 6 and 10, C-reactive protein, among others. There is plenty of evidence that the serum levels of these citokines are higher in overweight individuals, including children and adolescents. Early prevention as young as possible is the best way to avoid future consequences of obesity. In this context, the potential benefits of regular physical exercise have been surprising. Researchers have shown evidence of anti-inflammatory responses, including lower levels of interleukine 6, C-reactive protein, leptin, besides higher levels of adiponectins after engagement in regular physical activity. However, we still have few controlled randomized studies addressing the relations between obesity, inflammation and exercise for the pediatric population. There are controversial findings in this field, and many of them come from adult studies. Thus, the purpose of the present review is to evaluate the metabolic role of physical exercise in juvenile obesity, aiming at heart protection.

Rossetti, Márcia Braz; Britto, Raquel Rodrigues; Norton, Rocksane de Carvalho

2009-12-01

236

CHILE: an evidence-based preschool intervention for obesity prevention in Head Start.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major concern among American Indians and Hispanics. The Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) is an evidence-based intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in 16 Head Start (HS) Centers in rural communities. The design and implementation of CHILE are described. METHODS: CHILE uses a socioecological approach to improve dietary intake and increase physical activity. The intervention includes: a classroom curriculum; teacher and food service training; family engagement; grocery store participation; and health care provider support. RESULTS: Lessons learned from CHILE include the need to consider availability of recommended foods; the necessity of multiple training sessions for teachers and food service; the need to tailor the family events to local needs; consideration of the profit needs of grocery stores; and sensitivity to the time constraints of health care providers. CONCLUSIONS: HS can play an important role in preventing obesity in children. CHILE is an example of a feasible intervention that addresses nutrition and physical activity for preschool children that can be incorporated into HS curricula and aligns with HS national performance standards.

Davis SM; Sanders SG; FitzGerald CA; Keane PC; Canaca GF; Volker-Rector R

2013-03-01

237

Taxation as prevention and as a treatment for obesity: the case of sugar-sweetened beverages.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The contemporary American food environment makes energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages the "default" option for most consumers. Economic interventions like taxes can shift the relative prices of unhealthy foods to nudge consumers towards healthier options. Beverages with added sugar are a good starting point for food taxation; they constitute over 10 percent of caloric intake nationwide and provide little or no nutritional value. Current levels of taxation on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are too low to affect consumer behavior, but the implementation of a penny-per-ounce excise tax could lead to substantial public health benefits. Current estimates predict that a tax that raised the cost of SSBs by 20 percent could lead to an average reduction of 3.8 pounds per year for adults, causing the prevalence of obesity to decline from 33 to 30 percent. SSB taxes would also generate considerable revenue for public health and obesity prevention programs. Although the beverage industry is fighting such taxes with massive lobbying and public relations campaigns, support for the policies is increasing, especially when revenue is earmarked for obesity prevention.

Novak NL; Brownell KD

2011-01-01

238

Taxation as prevention and as a treatment for obesity: the case of sugar-sweetened beverages.  

Science.gov (United States)

The contemporary American food environment makes energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages the "default" option for most consumers. Economic interventions like taxes can shift the relative prices of unhealthy foods to nudge consumers towards healthier options. Beverages with added sugar are a good starting point for food taxation; they constitute over 10 percent of caloric intake nationwide and provide little or no nutritional value. Current levels of taxation on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are too low to affect consumer behavior, but the implementation of a penny-per-ounce excise tax could lead to substantial public health benefits. Current estimates predict that a tax that raised the cost of SSBs by 20 percent could lead to an average reduction of 3.8 pounds per year for adults, causing the prevalence of obesity to decline from 33 to 30 percent. SSB taxes would also generate considerable revenue for public health and obesity prevention programs. Although the beverage industry is fighting such taxes with massive lobbying and public relations campaigns, support for the policies is increasing, especially when revenue is earmarked for obesity prevention. PMID:21492083

Novak, Nicole L; Brownell, Kelly D

2011-01-01

239

Development of a childhood obesity prevention programme with a focus on UK South Asian communities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: We report the development of a childhood obesity prevention intervention for UK South Asian primary school-aged children, guided by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for complex intervention development and evaluation. METHODS: We combined information gained from a literature review, stakeholder focus groups, an expert group, review of local resources and mapping to the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO framework) in an intervention development process. The study took place in 2007 in Birmingham, UK. RESULTS: Contextual information from the stakeholder focus groups was essential for informing intervention development. The expert group defined guiding principles for the intervention. Informing intervention design by assessing existing local resources addressed intervention sustainability. Use of the ANGELO framework ensured a comprehensive environmental approach to intervention development. The intervention consisted of two broad processes; increasing children's physical activity levels through school, and increasing skills of families through activity-based learning. The developed intervention is being evaluated in a major study. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention development process has resulted in a tailored intervention programme to prevent childhood obesity in UK South Asian communities, but also intervention processes that could be applied to other communities and tailored to local context.

Pallan M; Parry J; Cheng KK; Adab P

2013-09-01

240

Effects of obesity on functional capacity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective: To assess the relationships between BMI and walking speed, balance control, sit-to-stand performance (a measure of mass specific lower limb power) and endurance. Design and Methods: 36 women with a BMI?30 kg/m(2) and 10 women with normal body weight (BMI between 18 kg/m(2) and 25 kg/m(2) ) were enrolled in this observational study. The obese group comprised 12 persons with a BMI?30 and <35 (obese), 14 subjects with a BMI?35 and <40 (severe obesity) and 10 people with a BMI?40 kg/m2 (morbid obesity). All subjects underwent a clinical examination, a gait test, an endurance test (6 minutes walking test), a mass specific lower limb power test (5 times sit-to-stand) and a balance test. Results: Obese women exhibited slower fast gait speeds (p<0.05) with correspondingly shorter stride lengths, poorer sit-to-stand performance (p<0.05) and endurance (p<0.05). However, once the state of severe obesity is reached, additional weight gain (morbid obesity) does not seem to decrease these functional capacities any further. Conclusion: This study underlines the importance of assessing obese patients' related physical problems in an early stage of obesity in order to focus exercise regimens and promote appropriate health behaviors.

Pataky Z; Armand S; Müller-Pinget S; Golay A; Allet L

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
241

Growing healthy kids: a community garden-based obesity prevention program.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity has increased dramatically in the past 3 decades, particularly among children aged 2-5 years. In this group, Latino children are among those with the highest prevalence of obesity. PURPOSE: This paper describes a pilot study to evaluate a community intervention, known as the Growing Healthy Kids Program (GHK), to prevent childhood obesity among low-income families in a Southern state. METHODS: The intervention included a weekly gardening session, a 7-week cooking and nutrition workshop, and social events for parents and children. Matched pre- and post-program height and weight data were collected for 95 children aged 2-15 years. Children's BMI was determined. Also, families reported on the availability and consumption of fruits and vegetables at the beginning and the end of the family's participation in the GHK program. Data were collected in 2008-2010 and analyzed in 2011. RESULTS: About 60% of participants who enrolled in the program were Latino families (n=60 families/120 children). By the end of their participation in the program, 17% (n=6, p<0.004) of obese or overweight children had improved their BMI classification and 100% of the children with a BMI classification of normal had maintained that BMI classification. According to parental reports, there was an increase of 146% (p<0.001) in the availability of fruits and vegetables and an increase in the consumption of fruits (28%; p<0.001) and vegetables (33%; p<0.001) among children of families participating in the GHK program. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this pilot study are consistent with previous studies reporting an increase in availability and consumption of fruits and vegetables among families participating in community gardens. Although there are limitations because this is a pilot study, this strategy seems to be promising for addressing childhood obesity, particularly among low-income Latino immigrant families.

Castro DC; Samuels M; Harman AE

2013-03-01

242

Effects of cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose on glucose tolerance and obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Cholestyramine is a cationic polymer prescribed to lower cholesterol in humans. We investigated the effects of cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose (cHEC) on weight loss and metabolic disorders associated with obesity using both hamster and diet-induced obese mouse models. Golden Syrian hamsters and ob...

243

Comparison of child obesity prevention and control content in mainstream and Spanish-language US parenting magazines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mass media coverage of child obesity is rising, paralleling the child obesity epidemic's growth, and there is evidence that parents seek parenting advice from media sources. Yet little to no research has examined the coverage of child obesity in parenting magazines or Spanish-language media. The purpose of this study was to use qualitative and quantitative content analysis methods to identify, quantify, and compare strategies for child obesity prevention and control presented in mainstream and Spanish-language US parenting magazines. Child obesity-related editorial content in 68 mainstream and 20 Spanish-language magazine issues published over 32 months was gathered. Magazine content was coded with a manual developed by refining themes from the sample and from an evidence-based child obesity prevention action plan. Seventy-three articles related to child obesity prevention and control were identified. Most focused on parental behavior change rather than environmental change, and only 3 in 10 articles referred to the social context in which parental behavior change takes place. Child obesity-focused articles were not given high prominence; only one in four articles in the entire sample referred to child obesity as a growing problem or epidemic. Key differences between genres reflect culturally important Latino themes, including family focus and changing health beliefs around child weight status. Given mass media's potential influence on parenting practices and public perceptions, nutrition communication professionals and registered dietitians need to work to reframe media coverage of childhood obesity as an environmental problem that requires broad-based policy solutions. Spanish-speaking media can be an ally in helping Latina women change cultural health beliefs around child weight status.

Kalin SR; Fung TT

2013-01-01

244

Anti-obesity effect of Artemisia capillaris extracts in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the anti-obesity effects of Artemisia capillaris extracts in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. After six weeks feeding with HFD, Wistar male rats (12-weeks-old) were divided into three groups: HFD-control group and HFD mixed with 0.4% and 0.8% Artemisia capillaris extracts treated groups. After seven weeks of treatments, the body weight gain of the 0.4% and 0.8% A. capillaris extracts treated groups were significantly less than that of the HFD-control group by 11.8% and 15.4%, respectively. Also, A. capillaris extracts treated groups showed significantly lower serum TG, TC and LDL-c levels in a dose-related manner, while causing the reverse effect in serum HDL-c, and exhibited a hepatoprotective effects in vivo, indicated by reduced hepatic lipid contents, and serum ALT and AST levels. These results show that A. capillaris extracts may prevent body weight increases and improve dyslipidemia in HFD-induced obese rats by enhancing their lipid metabolism. PMID:23917113

Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Yun Tai; Jang, Yu-Jung; Kim, Young-Eon; Han, Daeseok

2013-08-02

245

Anti-Obesity Effect of Artemisia capillaris Extracts in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study evaluated the anti-obesity effects of Artemisia capillaris extracts in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. After six weeks feeding with HFD, Wistar male rats (12-weeks-old) were divided into three groups: HFD-control group and HFD mixed with 0.4% and 0.8% Artemisia capillaris extracts treated groups. After seven weeks of treatments, the body weight gain of the 0.4% and 0.8% A. capillaris extracts treated groups were significantly less than that of the HFD-control group by 11.8% and 15.4%, respectively. Also, A. capillaris extracts treated groups showed significantly lower serum TG, TC and LDL-c levels in a dose-related manner, while causing the reverse effect in serum HDL-c, and exhibited a hepatoprotective effects in vivo, indicated by reduced hepatic lipid contents, and serum ALT and AST levels. These results show that A. capillaris extracts may prevent body weight increases and improve dyslipidemia in HFD-induced obese rats by enhancing their lipid metabolism.

Dong Wook Lim; Yun Tai Kim; Yu-Jung Jang; Young-Eon Kim; Daeseok Han

2013-01-01

246

Anti-obesity effect of Artemisia capillaris extracts in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study evaluated the anti-obesity effects of Artemisia capillaris extracts in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. After six weeks feeding with HFD, Wistar male rats (12-weeks-old) were divided into three groups: HFD-control group and HFD mixed with 0.4% and 0.8% Artemisia capillaris extracts treated groups. After seven weeks of treatments, the body weight gain of the 0.4% and 0.8% A. capillaris extracts treated groups were significantly less than that of the HFD-control group by 11.8% and 15.4%, respectively. Also, A. capillaris extracts treated groups showed significantly lower serum TG, TC and LDL-c levels in a dose-related manner, while causing the reverse effect in serum HDL-c, and exhibited a hepatoprotective effects in vivo, indicated by reduced hepatic lipid contents, and serum ALT and AST levels. These results show that A. capillaris extracts may prevent body weight increases and improve dyslipidemia in HFD-induced obese rats by enhancing their lipid metabolism.

Lim DW; Kim YT; Jang YJ; Kim YE; Han D

2013-01-01

247

Evaluation of an obesity prevention program in adolescents of public schools.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of an obesity prevention program on the dietary practices of public school adolescents. METHODS: An intervention was conducted with 331 students aged between 11 and 17 years, enrolled in the 5th and 6th grades of two state public schools in the city of Niterói, Southeastern Brazil, in 2005. These schools were categorized into "intervention schools" (IS) and "control schools" (CS) for comparison. Dietary practices were analyzed using self-administered questionnaires before and after the intervention period: fast food consumption; soft drink consumption; replacement of meals for snacks; consumption of fruits and vegetables; and type of food consumed during school breaks. Chi-square test and McNemar's test were applied to compare proportions, considering a value of p <0.05. RESULTS: In the baseline, 185 students participated in the IS (82.2% of those eligible) and 146 students participated in the CS (70.5% of those eligible). In the post-intervention phase, there was a loss of 10.3% of IS adolescents and 27.4% of CS ones. There were no significant changes in dietary practices in CS. In contrast, IS showed an increase in the proportion of students who reported not consuming snacks sold by street vendors (from 36.7% to 50.6%; p = 0.02) and adolescents who reported not replacing their lunch (from 44.5% to 65.2%; p<0.01) and dinner (from 38.4% to 54.3%; p<0.01) for snacks. The main favorable change was the reduction in the frequency of consumption of fast food snacks in IS, when compared to CS (from 72.7% to 54.4%; p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Favorable changes in the adolescents' dietary practices were found and they encourage the implementation of programs of this nature. However, long-lasting interventions need to be implemented and evaluated in terms of their effectiveness.

Vargas IC; Sichieri R; Sandre-Pereira G; da Veiga GV

2011-02-01

248

How do international trade obligations affect policy options for obesity prevention? Lessons from recent developments in trade and tobacco control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Regulatory measures, including taxes and subsidies on food and beverage products, food labelling requirements, regulation of food content and regulation of food marketing, have been proposed to encourage healthier eating and prevent obesity. The objective of this article is to explore the extent to which international trade agreements affect governments' choices to use such regulatory measures. METHODS: It reviews key provisions of relevant World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements and their implications. Some insights can be gained by examining 2 recent developments in the WTO regarding tobacco control: a current dispute involving Australia's plain packaging law and its effect on trademarks, and a recent decision involving the United States law banning flavoured cigarettes. RESULTS: This decision said that the ban did not restrict trade more than necessary to fulfil its legitimate health objective, but it was discriminatory because it banned imported products (clove cigarettes) while exempting domestic products (menthol cigarettes) with similar characteristics. CONCLUSION: The conclusion we can draw from this decision is that WTO member states probably enjoy a significant degree of latitude in developing food regulations as part of an obesity prevention strategy, so long as those do not disproportionately affect imported products and therefore raise questions of discrimination. The approach taken in this case encourages the adoption of public health policies that are consistent with strong scientific evidence, but may restrict governments' ability to make political compromises, which could frustrate some proposals. The ongoing development of WTO law will continue to affect policy choices in public health.

von Tigerstrom B

2013-06-01

249

Family Child Care Providers' Self-perceived Role in Obesity Prevention: Working with Children, Parents, and External Influences.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To describe the perspective and strategies of family child care providers (FCCPs) to reduce children's suboptimal weight trajectories. DESIGN: In-person, in-depth interviews with FCCPs. SETTING: Family child care homes. PARTICIPANTS: Seventeen FCCPs caring for children 6 weeks to 9 years old; 94% caring for children paying with a state subsidy. PHENOMENON OF INTEREST: Strategies of FCCP to reduce children's suboptimal weight trajectories. ANALYSIS: Constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis. RESULTS: Family child care providers described 3 core strategies: (1) improving children's behavior, (2) engaging and educating parents, and (3) leveraging influences external to their relationship with parents to effect positive change and to avoid parental conflict. These strategies were framed within their knowledge of child development, parental communication, and community services. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The findings suggest that FCCPs' role in obesity prevention may be framed within knowledge that may be commonly expected of a child care provider. Partnerships between public health policy makers and FCCP may reduce obesigenic environments by employing training and resources that link obesity prevention and child care provider expertise.

Rosenthal MS; Crowley AA; Curry L

2013-07-01

250

Healthy families study: design of a childhood obesity prevention trial for Hispanic families.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The childhood obesity epidemic disproportionately affects Hispanics. This paper reports on the design of the ongoing Healthy Families Study, a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of a community-based, behavioral family intervention to prevent excessive weight gain in Hispanic children using a community-based participatory research approach. METHODS: The study will enroll 272 Hispanic families with children ages 5-7 residing in greater Nashville, Tennessee, United States. Families are randomized to the active weight gain prevention intervention or an alternative intervention focused on oral health. Lay community health promoters implement the interventions primarily in Spanish in a community center. The active intervention was adapted from the We Can! parent program to be culturally-targeted for Hispanic families and for younger children. This 12-month intervention promotes healthy eating behaviors, increased physical activity, and decreased sedentary behavior, with an emphasis on parental modeling and experiential learning for children. Families attend eight bi-monthly group sessions during four months then receive information and/or support by phone or mail each month for eight months. The primary outcome is change in children's body mass index. Secondary outcomes are changes in children's waist circumference, dietary behaviors, preferences for fruits and vegetables, physical activity, and screen time. RESULTS: Enrollment and data collection are in progress. CONCLUSION: This study will contribute valuable evidence on efficacy of a childhood obesity prevention intervention targeting Hispanic families with implications for reducing disparities.

Zoorob R; Buchowski MS; Beech BM; Canedo JR; Chandrasekhar R; Akohoue S; Hull PC

2013-07-01

251

The Early Prevention of Obesity in CHildren (EPOCH) Collaboration - an Individual Patient Data Prospective Meta-Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Efforts to prevent the development of overweight and obesity have increasingly focused early in the life course as we recognise that both metabolic and behavioural patterns are often established within the first few years of life. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions are even more powerful when, with forethought, they are synthesised into an individual patient data (IPD) prospective meta-analysis (PMA). An IPD PMA is a unique research design where several trials are identified for inclusion in an analysis before any of the individual trial results become known and the data are provided for each randomised patient. This methodology minimises the publication and selection bias often associated with a retrospective meta-analysis by allowing hypotheses, analysis methods and selection criteria to be specified a priori. Methods/Design The Early Prevention of Obesity in CHildren (EPOCH) Collaboration was formed in 2009. The main objective of the EPOCH Collaboration is to determine if early intervention for childhood obesity impacts on body mass index (BMI) z scores at age 18-24 months. Additional research questions will focus on whether early intervention has an impact on children's dietary quality, TV viewing time, duration of breastfeeding and parenting styles. This protocol includes the hypotheses, inclusion criteria and outcome measures to be used in the IPD PMA. The sample size of the combined dataset at final outcome assessment (approximately 1800 infants) will allow greater precision when exploring differences in the effect of early intervention with respect to pre-specified participant- and intervention-level characteristics. Discussion Finalisation of the data collection procedures and analysis plans will be complete by the end of 2010. Data collection and analysis will occur during 2011-2012 and results should be available by 2013. Trial registration number ACTRN12610000789066

Askie Lisa M; Baur Louise A; Campbell Karen; Daniels Lynne A; Hesketh Kylie; Magarey Anthea; Mihrshahi Seema; Rissel Chris; Simes John; Taylor Barry; Taylor Rachael; Voysey Merryn; Wen Li

2010-01-01

252

Dietary supplementation with Agaricus blazei murill extract prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Dietary supplement may potentially help to fight obesity and other metabolic disorders such as insulin-resistance and low-grade inflammation. The present study aimed to test whether supplementation with Agaricus blazei murill (ABM) extract could have an effect on diet-induced obesity in rats. DESIGN AND METHODS: Wistar rats were fed with control diet (CD) or high-fat diet (HF) and either with or without supplemented ABM for 20 weeks. RESULTS: HF diet-induced body weight gain and increased fat mass compared to CD. In addition HF-fed rats developed hyperleptinemia and insulinemia as well as insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. In HF-fed rats, visceral adipose tissue also expressed biomarkers of inflammation. ABM supplementation in HF rats had a protective effect against body weight gain and all study related disorders. This was not due to decreased food intake which remained significantly higher in HF rats whether supplemented with ABM or not compared to control. There was also no change in gut microbiota composition in HF supplemented with ABM. Interestingly, ABM supplementation induced an increase in both energy expenditure and locomotor activity which could partially explain its protective effect against diet-induced obesity. In addition a decrease in pancreatic lipase activity is also observed in jejunum of ABM-treated rats suggesting a decrease in lipid absorption. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together these data highlight a role for ABM to prevent body weight gain and related disorders in peripheral targets independently of effect in food intake in central nervous system.

Vincent M; Philippe E; Everard A; Kassis N; Rouch C; Denom J; Takeda Y; Uchiyama S; Delzenne NM; Cani PD; Migrenne S; Magnan C

2013-03-01

253

Understanding the Social Networks That Form within the Context of an Obesity Prevention Intervention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background. Antiobesity interventions have generally failed. Research now suggests that interventions must be informed by an understanding of the social environment. Objective. To examine if new social networks form between families participating in a group-level pediatric obesity prevention trial. Methods. Latino parent-preschool child dyads (N = 79) completed the 3-month trial. The intervention met weekly in consistent groups to practice healthy lifestyles. The control met monthly in inconsistent groups to learn about school readiness. UCINET and SIENA were used to examine network dynamics. Results. Children's mean age was 4.2 years (SD = 0.9), and 44% were overweight/obese (BMI ? 85th percentile). Parents were predominantly mothers (97%), with a mean age of 31.4 years (SD = 5.4), and 81% were overweight/obese (BMI ? 25). Over the study, a new social network evolved among participating families. Parents selectively formed friendship ties based on child BMI z-score, (t = 2.08; P < .05). This reveals the tendency for mothers to form new friendships with mothers whose children have similar body types. Discussion. Participating in a group-level intervention resulted in new social network formation. New ties were greatest with mothers who had children of similar body types. This finding might contribute to the known inability of parents to recognize child overweight.

Gesell SB; Bess KD; Barkin SL

2012-01-01

254

Understanding the Social Networks That Form within the Context of an Obesity Prevention Intervention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Antiobesity interventions have generally failed. Research now suggests that interventions must be informed by an understanding of the social environment. Objective. To examine if new social networks form between families participating in a group-level pediatric obesity prevention trial. Methods. Latino parent-preschool child dyads (N = 79) completed the 3-month trial. The intervention met weekly in consistent groups to practice healthy lifestyles. The control met monthly in inconsistent groups to learn about school readiness. UCINET and SIENA were used to examine network dynamics. Results. Children's mean age was 4.2 years (SD = 0.9), and 44% were overweight/obese (BMI ? 85th percentile). Parents were predominantly mothers (97%), with a mean age of 31.4 years (SD = 5.4), and 81% were overweight/obese (BMI ? 25). Over the study, a new social network evolved among participating families. Parents selectively formed friendship ties based on child BMI z-score, (t = 2.08; P < .05). This reveals the tendency for mothers to form new friendships with mothers whose children have similar body types. Discussion. Participating in a group-level intervention resulted in new social network formation. New ties were greatest with mothers who had children of similar body types. This finding might contribute to the known inability of parents to recognize child overweight. PMID:22655175

Gesell, Sabina B; Bess, Kimberly D; Barkin, Shari L

2012-05-13

255

Economic effects of interventions to reduce obesity in Israel  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a major risk factor for many diseases. The paper calculates the economic impact and the cost per Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY) resulting from the adoption of eight interventions comprising the clinical and part of the community components of the National Prevention and Health Promotion Program (NPHPP) of the Israeli Ministry of Health (MOH) which represents the obesity control implementation arm of the MOH Healthy Israel 2020 Initiative. Methods Health care costs per person were calculated by body mass index (BMI) by applying Israeli cost data to aggregated results from international studies. These were applied to BMI changes from eight intervention programmes in order to calculate reductions in direct treatment costs. Indirect cost savings were also estimated as were additional costs due to increased longevity of program participants. Data on costs and QALYs gained from Israeli and International dietary interventions were combined to provide cost-utility estimates of an intervention program to reduce obesity in Israel over a range of recidivism rates. Results On average, persons who were overweight (25 ? BMI For overweight (25 ? BMI A program directed at the entire Israeli population aged 20 and over, using a variety of eight different interventions would cost 2.07 billion NIS overall. In the baseline scenario (with an assumed recidivism rate of 50% per annum), approximately 620,000,000 NIS would be recouped in the form of decreased treatment costs and indirect costs, increased productivity and decreased absenteeism. After discounting the 89,000,000 NIS additional health costs attributable to these extra life years, it is estimated that the total net costs to society would be 1.55 billion NIS. This total net cost was relatively stable to increases in the program's recidivism rates, but highly sensitive to reductions in recidivism rates. Under baseline assumptions, implementation of the cluster of interventions would save 32,671 discounted QALYs at a cost of only 47,559 NIS per QALY, less than half of the Israeli per capita GNP (104,000 NIS). Thus implementation of these components of the NPHPP should be considered very cost-effective. Conclusion Despite the large costs of such a large national program to control obesity, cost-utility analysis strongly supports its introduction.

Ginsberg Gary M; Rosenberg Elliot

2012-01-01

256

Structured triacylglycerol containing behenic and oleic acids suppresses triacylglycerol absorption and prevents obesity in rats  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary 1(3)-behenoyl-2,3(1)-dioleoyl-rac-glycerol (BOO) has been reported to inhibit pancreatic lipase activity in vitro and suppress postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia in humans. In the present study, the anti-obesity activities of BOO and its inhibitory effects on lymphatic triacylglycerol (TAG) absorption were investigated in rats. Methods In Experiment 1, rats were fed either BOO or soybean oil (SO) diet for 6 weeks. In the BOO diet, 20% of SO was replaced with an experimental oil rich in BOO. In Experiments 2 and 3, rats cannulated in the thoracic duct were administered an emulsions containing trioleoylglycerol (OOO) or an oil mixture (OOO:BOO, 9:1). Tri[1-14C]oleoylglycerol (14C-OOO) was added to the emulsions administered in Experiment 3. Results No observable differences were detected in food intake or body weight gain between the BOO and SO groups in Experiment 1. Plasma and liver TAG concentrations and visceral fat weights were significantly lower in the BOO group than in the SO group. The apparent absorption rate of fat was significantly lower in the BOO group than in the SO group. In Experiment 2, the lymphatic recovery of oleic and behenic acids was significantly lower at 5 and 6 h after BOO administration than after OOO administration. In Experiment 3, the lymphatic recovery of 14C-OOO was significantly lower at 5 and 6 h after BOO administration than after OOO administration. Conclusions These results suggest that BOO prevents deposition of visceral fat and hepatic TAG by lowering and delaying intestinal absorption of TAG.

Kojima Makiko; Tachibana Nobuhiko; Yamahira Takashi; Seino Satoshi; Izumisawa Ayako; Sagi Nobuo; Arishima Toshiharu; Kohno Mitsutaka; Takamatsu Kiyoharu; Hirotsuka Motohiko; Ikeda Ikuo

2010-01-01

257

An economic perspective on childhood obesity: recent findings on cost of illness and cost effectiveness of interventions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This review aims to put an economic perspective on childhood and adolescent obesity by providing an overview on the latest literature on obesity-related costs and the cost effectiveness of interventions to prevent or manage the problem. METHODS: The review is based on a comprehensive PubMed/Medline search performed in October 2011. RESULTS: Findings on the economic burden of childhood obesity are inconclusive. Considering the different cost components and age groups, most but not all studies found excess health care costs for obese compared with normal-weight peers. The main limitations relate to short study periods and the strong focus on health care costs, neglecting other components of the economic burden of childhood obesity. The results of the economic evaluations of childhood and adolescent obesity programs support the expectation that preventive and management interventions with acceptable cost effectiveness do exist. Some interventions may even be cost saving. However, owing to the differences in various methodologic aspects, it is difficult to compare preventive and treatment approaches in their cost effectiveness or to determine the most cost-effective timing of preventive interventions during infancy and adolescence. CONCLUSION: To design effective public policies against the obesity epidemic, a better understanding and a more precise assessment of the health care costs and the broader economic burden are necessary but, critically, depend on the collection of additional longitudinal data. The economic evaluation of childhood obesity interventions poses various methodologic challenges, which should be addressed in future research to fully use the potential of economic evaluation as an aid to decision making.

John J; Wolfenstetter SB; Wenig CM

2012-09-01

258

Chardonnay grape seed procyanidin extract supplementation prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in hamsters by improving adipokine imbalance and oxidative stress markers.  

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Studies reported the effects of polyphenols but not for grape polyphenols towards obesity. We analysed the effects of a polyphenolic grape seed extract (GSE) on obesity and oxidative stress in hamsters receiving a high-fat diet (HFD). Three groups of hamsters received a standard diet (STD), or a HFD plus a daily gavage with water (Control, HFD) or a solution of GSE (HFD + GSE) for 12 wk. Plasma glucose, triglycerides (TG), insulin, leptin and adiponectin were measured. Oxidative stress was assessed by cardiac production of superoxide anion and NAD(P)H oxidase expression. After 12 wk, HFD increased abdominal fat as compared with standards. GSE avoided this feature. HFD led to higher plasma glucose, TG, insulin and greater insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values. GSE prevented in part these effects, reducing insulinemia and leptinemia by 16.5 and 45%, respectively, whereas adiponectin level increased by 61% compared with obese controls. GSE lowered glycemia and HOMA-IR and strongly prevented cardiac production of superoxide by 74% and NAD(P)H oxidase expression by 30%. This is the first time that chronic consumption of grape phenolics is shown to reduce obesity development and related metabolic pathways including adipokine secretion and oxidative stress. PMID:19035554

Décordé, Kelly; Teissèdre, Pierre-Louis; Sutra, Thibault; Ventura, Emilie; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max

2009-05-01

259

Chardonnay grape seed procyanidin extract supplementation prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in hamsters by improving adipokine imbalance and oxidative stress markers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Studies reported the effects of polyphenols but not for grape polyphenols towards obesity. We analysed the effects of a polyphenolic grape seed extract (GSE) on obesity and oxidative stress in hamsters receiving a high-fat diet (HFD). Three groups of hamsters received a standard diet (STD), or a HFD plus a daily gavage with water (Control, HFD) or a solution of GSE (HFD + GSE) for 12 wk. Plasma glucose, triglycerides (TG), insulin, leptin and adiponectin were measured. Oxidative stress was assessed by cardiac production of superoxide anion and NAD(P)H oxidase expression. After 12 wk, HFD increased abdominal fat as compared with standards. GSE avoided this feature. HFD led to higher plasma glucose, TG, insulin and greater insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values. GSE prevented in part these effects, reducing insulinemia and leptinemia by 16.5 and 45%, respectively, whereas adiponectin level increased by 61% compared with obese controls. GSE lowered glycemia and HOMA-IR and strongly prevented cardiac production of superoxide by 74% and NAD(P)H oxidase expression by 30%. This is the first time that chronic consumption of grape phenolics is shown to reduce obesity development and related metabolic pathways including adipokine secretion and oxidative stress.

Décordé K; Teissèdre PL; Sutra T; Ventura E; Cristol JP; Rouanet JM

2009-05-01

260

Effect of dietary resveratrol on the metabolic profile of nutrients in obese OLETF rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) is a naturally occurring phytoalexin produced by plants in response to various stresses. Several studies have shown that resveratrol is present in significant amounts in a variety of human diets, including wines, grapes, berries, and peanuts, and it possesses several beneficial health properties, such as atheroprotective, anti-obesity, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of resveratrol on the pathogenesis of obesity and the metabolic profile of nutrients in non-high fat-fed obese OLETF rats. RESULTS: Although lipid parameters in the serum and liver were not changed, the accumulation of abdominal white adipose tissues was markedly prevented in resveratrol diet-fed OLETF rats after 4 weeks of feeding. The results of the respiratory gas analysis indicated that dietary resveratrol induced the partial enhancement of fat metabolism and sparing actions for carbohydrate and protein at 1 week and 3 weeks of feeding in OLETF rats. Additionally, the adipose mRNA level of carnitine palmitoyltransferase in the resveratrol diet-fed OLETF rats was higher than the control rats after 4 weeks of feeding. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated that dietary resveratrol can prevent obesity through a change in the metabolic profile of nutrients in obese OLETF rats.

Nagao K; Jinnouchi T; Kai S; Yanagita T

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

[Evaluation of an education intervention for childhood obesity prevention in basic schools in Chile].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to evaluate a comprehensive intervention in nutrition education and physical activity to prevent childhood obesity in primary school children of low socioeconomic status in Macul county in Chile, with a two year follow-up (2008 and 2009) of the children. The intervention consisted in teacher nutrition training in healthy eating and the implementation of educational material based on Chilean dietary guidelines. In addition, there was an increase in physical education classes to 3-4 hours per week and physical education teachers were recruited for that purpose. Weight, height and six minutes walk test (6MWT) were measured and body mass index (BMI), BMI Z score, prevalence of normal, overweight and obese children were calculated with WHO 2007reference. Changes between baseline and BMI Z in each period and 6MWT/height, and changes in nutrition knowledge through questionnaires were measured. There was no significant difference in BMI Z score between the initial and final periods and in the evolution of the nutritional status of children. Nutrition knowledge improved significantly between the two measurements. There was a significant increase in 6MWT/height (10 meters between baseline and follow-up, p < 0.001). We conclude that although there was an improvement in nutrition knowledge and physical fitness of children, there was a stabilization of BMI Z score in the period of the study. New educational interventions are required according to the reality of each community to obtain a positive impact to prevent childhood obesity in primary schools.

Lobos Fernández LL; Leyton Dinamarca B; Kain Bercovich J; Vio del Río F

2013-07-01

262

Contextual factors influencing readiness for dissemination of obesity prevention programs and policies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Within the realm of obesity prevention research, there have been many promising interventions to improve physical activity and nutrition among diverse target populations. However, very little information is known about the dissemination and replication of these interventions. In 2007 and 2008 as part of a larger obesity prevention initiative, Missouri Foundation for Health funded 19 community-based programs throughout the state that showed promise of being model practices and committed to promoting their dissemination. Semi-structured key informant interviews were conducted with 64 individuals across the grant sites to help stage their readiness for dissemination. Through these interviews, the project team was able to identify the variables that impact a program's readiness for widespread distribution. Some factors contributing to readiness include: strong intervention planning and an existing sustainability plan; physical space available for the intervention; staff and monetary resources; administrative buy-in; community buy-in and engagement; a strong partner base and an agency with a healthy and active mission. These findings add to the literature by systematically identifying a set of key contextual variables. The qualitative data collected support a proposed framework and helps to establish a process for maintaining successful interventions based on several important factors that impact dissemination.

Dreisinger ML; Boland EM; Filler CD; Baker EA; Hessel AS; Brownson RC

2012-04-01

263

Joint effect of obesity and teenage pregnancy on the risk of preeclampsia: a population-based study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To determine the joint effect of young maternal age and obesity status on the risk of preeclampsia and eclampsia among a large cohort of singleton pregnancies. METHODS: Data were obtained from birth cohort files recorded in the state of Florida during the years 2004-2007. The study sample consisted of mothers aged 13-24 (n = 290,807), divided into four obesity categories on the basis of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI): nonobese (BMI < 30), Class I obese (30.0 < or = BMI > or = 34.9), Class II obese (35.0 < or = BMI > or = 39.9), and extreme obesity (BMI > or = 40). Nonobese mothers (BMI < 30) between the ages of 20 and 24 years were the reference group. Logistic regression models were generated to adjust for the association between preeclampsia, obesity, and maternal age with sociodemographic variables and pregnancy complications as covariates. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of preeclampsia in the study population was 5.0%. The risk of preeclampsia and eclampsia increased significantly with increasing BMI and decreasing age. Extremely obese teenagers were almost four times as likely to develop preeclampsia and eclampsia compared with nonobese women aged 20-24 years (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 3.79 [3.15-4.55]). Whereas obesity elevated the risk for preeclampsia and eclampsia among all women in the study, teenagers were most at risk because of the combined effects of young age and obesity. CONCLUSION: Effective obesity prevention strategies should continue to be advocated for all teenagers, in addition to innovative approaches to teenage pregnancy prevention.

Aliyu MH; Luke S; Kristensen S; Alio AP; Salihu HM

2010-01-01

264

Evaluation of a multiple ecological level child obesity prevention program: Switch® what you Do, View, and Chew  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Schools are the most frequent target for intervention programs aimed at preventing child obesity; however, the overall effectiveness of these programs has been limited. It has therefore been recommended that interventions target multiple ecological levels (community, family, school and individual) to have greater success in changing risk behaviors for obesity. This study examined the immediate and short-term, sustained effects of the Switch program, which targeted three behaviors (decreasing children's screen time, increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, and increasing physical activity) at three ecological levels (the family, school, and community). Methods Participants were 1,323 children and their parents from 10 schools in two states. Schools were matched and randomly assigned to treatment and control. Measures of the key behaviors and body mass index were collected at baseline, immediately post-intervention, and 6 months post-intervention. Results The effect sizes of the differences between treatment and control groups ranged between small (Cohen's d = 0.15 for body mass index at 6 months post-intervention) to large (1.38; parent report of screen time at 6 months post-intervention), controlling for baseline levels. There was a significant difference in parent-reported screen time at post-intervention in the experimental group, and this effect was maintained at 6 months post-intervention (a difference of about 2 hours/week). The experimental group also showed a significant increase in parent-reported fruit and vegetable consumption while child-reported fruit and vegetable consumption was marginally significant. At the 6-month follow-up, parent-reported screen time was significantly lower, and parent and child-reported fruit and vegetable consumption was significantly increased. There were no significant effects on pedometer measures of physical activity or body mass index in the experimental group. The intervention effects were moderated by child sex (for fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and weight status), family involvement (for fruit and vegetable consumption), and child body mass index (for screen time). The perception of change among the experimental group was generally positive with 23% to 62% indicating positive changes in behaviors. Conclusion The results indicate that the Switch program yielded small-to-modest treatment effects for promoting children's fruit and vegetable consumption and minimizing screen time. The Switch program offers promise for use in youth obesity prevention.

Gentile Douglas A; Welk Greg; Eisenmann Joey C; Reimer Rachel A; Walsh David A; Russell Daniel W; Callahan Randi; Walsh Monica; Strickland Sarah; Fritz Katie

2009-01-01

265

Obesity and bone.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent studies indicate that fractures in obese postmenopausal women and older men contribute significantly to the overall fracture burden. The effect of obesity is to some extent site-dependent, the risk being increased for some fractures and decreased for others, possibly related to different patterns of falling and the presence or absence of soft tissue padding. Risk factors for fracture in obese individuals appear to be similar to those in the nonobese population, although falls may be particularly important in the obese. There is some evidence that the morbidity associated with fractures in obese individuals is greater than in the nonobese; however, a recent study indicates that the mortality associated with fracture is lower in obese and overweight people than in those of normal weight. The evidence base for strategies to prevent fractures in obese individuals is weak and is an important area for future research.

Compston J

2013-03-01

266

The Nutrition and Physical Activity Program to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases: Monitoring Progress in Funded States  

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Full Text Available To help address the challenges posed by the obesity epidemic in the United States, the U.S. Congress authorized the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to establish the Nutrition and Physical Activity Program to Prevent Obesity and Other Chronic Diseases. In this article, we summarize the progress of the first 20 states funded by this program. The data presented are based on the information provided by the states in their semiannual progress monitoring reports on program activities from January through June 2004. The states have made progress in developing capacity and infrastructure for their programs, including leveraging financial resources and developing strong partnerships. In addition, they are planning and initiating environmental changes through legislation, and, although less frequently, through policies and other changes such as expanding physical activity opportunities. Collectively, the states are making progress in planning and implementing activities to prevent and control obesity and other chronic diseases.

Sue Lin Yee, MA, MPH; Pam Williams-Piehota, PhD,; Asta Sorensen, MA; Amy Roussel, PhD; James Hersey, PhD; Robin Hamre, MPH, RD

2005-01-01

267

Diabetes and obesity-related genes and the risk of neural tube defects in the national birth defects prevention study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Few studies have evaluated genetic susceptibility related to diabetes and obesity as a risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs). The authors investigated 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms among 9 genes (ADRB3, ENPP1, FTO, LEP, PPARG, PPARGC1A, SLC2A2, TCF7L2, and UCP2) associated with type 2 diabetes or obesity. Samples were obtained from 737 NTD case-parent triads included in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study during 1999-2007. Log-linear models were used to evaluate maternal and offspring genetic effects. After application of the false discovery rate, there were 5 significant maternal genetic effects. The less common alleles at the 4 FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms showed a reduction of NTD risk (for rs1421085, relative risk (RR) = 0.73 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62, 0.87); for rs8050136, RR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.93); for rs9939609, RR = 0.79 (95% CI: 0.67, 0.94); and for rs17187449, RR = 0.80 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.95)). Additionally, maternal LEP rs2071045 (RR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.60) and offspring UCP2 rs660339 (RR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.64) were associated with NTD risk. Furthermore, the maternal genotype for TCF7L2 rs3814573 suggested an increased NTD risk among obese women. These findings indicate that maternal genetic variants associated with glucose homeostasis may modify the risk of having an NTD-affected pregnancy. PMID:23132673

Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Chapa, Claudia; Lu, Wei; Agopian, A J; Mitchell, Laura E; Shaw, Gary M; Waller, D Kim; Olshan, Andrew F; Finnell, Richard H; Zhu, Huiping

2012-11-06

268

[Gastric bypass surgery effective for morbid obesity].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the results of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in morbid obesity. DESIGN: Descriptive. METHODS: All patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery in St. Antonius Hospital in Nieuwegein, the Netherlands, between 2002 and 2008 were analysed. Indications were a body mass index (BMI) >or= 40 kg/m2 or a BMI >or= 35 kg/m2 with severe co-morbidity. Principal outcomes were excess weight loss after at least 1 year of follow-up, surgery-related morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: 290 patients with a median age of 42.5 years (range: 21-66) underwent gastric bypass surgery (open: n = 233, laparoscopic: n = 57). The median preoperative overweight above standard weight was 78.7 kg (range: 30.1-190.3) and the median BMI was 49.5 kg/m2 (range: 33.2-84.9). This concerned a secondary intervention after a previous unsuccessful bariatric procedure in 99/290 patients (34.1%). There were 189 patients with a follow-up of more than 1 year. The procedure was successful (>or= 50% excess weight loss) in 135/189 patients (71.4%). The median excess weight loss was 58.6% (range: 7.7-102.4). The BMI decreased by a median of 16.2 kg/m(2) (range: 0.9-42.9). Patients undergoing primary surgery lost a higher percentage of excess weight than patients undergoing secondary surgery (median percentage excess weight loss 61.4% versus 53.5% , and a median decrease in BMI of 17.8 versus 11.9 kg/m2). The most frequently occurring early complications (within 30 days of surgery) were anastomotic leak (n = 15) and wound infection (n = 11). Late complications included anastomotic stricture (n = 18) and cicatricial hernia (n = 15). Mortality was 0.7% (n = 2). CONCLUSION: Gastric bypass surgery was an effective treatment strategy for morbid obesity and had acceptable surgery-related morbidity and mortality.

van Doesburg IA; te Riele WW; Boerma D; Eland IA; Wiezer MJ; van Ramshorst B

2010-01-01

269

Interventions to reduce or prevent obesity in pregnant women: a systematic review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Around 50% of women of childbearing age are either overweight [body mass index (BMI) 25-29.9 kg/m(2)] or obese (BMI ? 30 kg/m(2)). The antenatal period provides an opportunity to manage weight in pregnancy. This has the potential to reduce maternal and fetal complications associated with excess weight gain and obesity. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of dietary and lifestyle interventions in reducing or preventing obesity in pregnancy and to assess the beneficial and adverse effects of the interventions on obstetric, fetal and neonatal outcomes. DATA SOURCES: Major electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS and Science Citation Index were searched (1950 until March 2011) to identify relevant citations. Language restrictions were not applied. REVIEW METHODS: Systematic reviews of the effectiveness and harm of the interventions were carried out using a methodology in line with current recommendations. Studies that evaluated any dietary, physical activity or mixed approach intervention with the potential to influence weight change in pregnancy were included. The quality of the studies was assessed using accepted contemporary standards. Results were summarised as pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dichotomous data. Continuous data were summarised as mean difference (MD) with standard deviation. The quality of the overall evidence synthesised for each outcome was summarised using GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) methodology and reported graphically as a two-dimensional chart. RESULTS: A total of 88 studies (40 randomised and 48 non-randomised and observational studies, involving 182,139 women) evaluated the effect of weight management interventions in pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes. Twenty-six studies involving 468,858 women reported the adverse effect of the interventions. Meta-analysis of 30 RCTs (4503 women) showed a reduction in weight gain in the intervention group of 0.97 kg compared with the control group (95% CI -1.60 kg to -0.34 kg; p = 0.003). Weight management interventions overall in pregnancy resulted in a significant reduction in the incidence of pre-eclampsia (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.92; p = 0.008) and shoulder dystocia (RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.70; p = 0.02). Dietary interventions in pregnancy resulted in a significant decrease in the risk of pre-eclampsia (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.85; p = 0.0009), gestational hypertension (RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.88; p = 0.03) and preterm birth (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.96; p = 0.03) and showed a trend in reducing the incidence of gestational diabetes (RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.03). There were no differences in the incidence of small-for-gestational-age infants between the groups (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.29). There were no significant maternal or fetal adverse effects observed for the interventions in the included trials. The overall strength of evidence for weight gain in pregnancy and birthweight was moderate for all interventions considered together. There was high-quality evidence for small-for-gestational-age infants as an outcome. The quality of evidence for all interventions on pregnancy outcomes was very low to moderate. The quality of evidence for all adverse outcomes was very low. LIMITATIONS: The included studies varied in the reporting of population, intensity, type and frequency of intervention and patient complience, limiting the interpretation of the findings. There was significant heterogeneity for the beneficial effect of diet on gestational weight gain. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions in pregnancy to manage weight result in a significant reduction in weight gain in pregnancy (evidence quality was moderate). Dietary interventions are the most effective type of intervention in pregnancy in reducing gestational weight gain and the risks of pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension and shoulder dystocia. There is no evidence of harm as a result of the dietary and physical activity-based interventions in pregnancy. Individual patient data met

Thangaratinam S; Rogozi?ska E; Jolly K; Glinkowski S; Duda W; Borowiack E; Roseboom T; Tomlinson J; Walczak J; Kunz R; Mol BW; Coomarasamy A; Khan KS

2012-07-01

270

Prevention of diet-induced obesity by dietary black tea polyphenols extract in vitro and in vivo.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The effects of certain tea components on the prevention of obesity in humans have recently been reported, although it is still unclear whether black tea consumption is beneficial. We obtained black tea extract (BTPE) consisting of polyphenols specific to black tea, and from it, prepared a polymerized polyphenol fraction (BTP). The effectiveness of oral administration of the BTPE was examined in in vitro and in vivo experiments. METHODS: Effects of BTPE or BTP on pancreatic lipase activity were investigated in vitro. Male Wistar rats were administered an oral lipid emulsion containing BTPE at a concentration of 500 or 1000 mg/kg body weight and sequential plasma lipid levels were measured. Female C57BL/6N mice were fed a standard or high-fat diet supplemented with 1% or 5% (w/w) BTPE for 8 wk and changes in body weight were examined. RESULTS: BTP and BTPE inhibited pancreatic lipase activity with an IC(50) of 15.5 and 36.4 ?g/mL in vitro, respectively. BTPE suppressed increases in rat plasma triglyceride levels in a dose-dependent manner after oral administration of a lipid emulsion. Furthermore, administration of the 5% BTPE suppressed increases in body weight (P < 0.05), parametrial adipose tissue mass, and liver lipid content (reduced to 56.9% and 81.7% of control mice, respectively, P < 0.05) in mice fed a high-fat diet. CONCLUSION: The BTPE may prevent diet-induced obesity by inhibiting intestinal lipid absorption. It was suggested that the major active component in the BTPE was BTP.

Uchiyama S; Taniguchi Y; Saka A; Yoshida A; Yajima H

2011-03-01

271

Empirical changes in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Chinese students from 1985 to 2010 and corresponding preventive strategies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent of the obesity epidemic in school-aged Chinese children in 2010 and track the increasing trend in different socioeconomic regions over the preceding 25 years. Strategies for preventing childhood obesity are suggested. METHODS: We used a dataset provided by the Chinese National Survey on Students' Constitution and Health from 1985-2010. Subjects were 7-18-year-old students randomly selected from urban and rural areas in 30 provinces. Eight subgroups were created according to region and socioeconomic status. RESULTS: Increased rates of the epidemic (overweight and obesity combined) were greatest in large coastal cities-32.6% and 19.1% among males and females, respectively. These rates has neared that of developed countries. Similar increases were found in all other regions, including the once poverty-stricken rural west. The epidemic in most of the rural areas began after 2000, but has spread swiftly over the last decade. In 2010, it was estimated that 9.9% of Chinese school-aged children and adolescents were overweight and that an additional 5.1% were obese, representing an estimated 30.43 million individuals. CONCLUSION: The prognosis for China's childhood-obesity epidemic is dire. To prevent childhood obesity, we suggest several strategies, including reasonable dietary intake, increase physical activity, a change in sedentary lifestyles and corresponding behavioral modifications.

Ji CY; Chen TJ

2013-01-01

272

Economic and other barriers to adopting recommendations to prevent childhood obesity: results of a focus group study with parents  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents are integral to the implementation of obesity prevention and management recommendations for children. Exploration of barriers to and facilitators of parental decisions to adopt obesity prevention recommendations will inform future efforts to reduce childhood obesity. Methods We conducted 4 focus groups (2 English, 2 Spanish) among a total of 19 parents of overweight (BMI ? 85th percentile) children aged 5-17 years. The main discussion focused on 7 common obesity prevention recommendations: reducing television (TV) watching, removing TV from child's bedroom, increasing physically active games, participating in community or school-based athletics, walking to school, walking more in general, and eating less fast food. Parents were asked to discuss what factors would make each recommendation more difficult (barriers) or easier (facilitators) to follow. Participants were also asked about the relative importance of economic (time and dollar costs/savings) barriers and facilitators if these were not brought into the discussion unprompted. Results Parents identified many barriers but few facilitators to adopting obesity prevention recommendations for their children. Members of all groups identified economic barriers (time and dollar costs) among a variety of pertinent barriers, although the discussion of dollar costs often required prompting. Parents cited other barriers including child preference, difficulty with changing habits, lack of information, lack of transportation, difficulty with monitoring child behavior, need for assistance from family members, parity with other family members, and neighborhood walking safety. Facilitators identified included access to physical activity programs, availability of alternatives to fast food and TV which are acceptable to the child, enlisting outside support, dietary information, involving the child, setting limits, making behavior changes gradually, and parental change in shopping behaviors and own eating behaviors. Conclusions Parents identify numerous barriers to adopting obesity prevention recommendations, most notably child and family preferences and resistance to change, but also economic barriers. Intervention programs should consider the context of family priorities and how to overcome barriers and make use of relevant facilitators during program development.

Sonneville Kendrin R; La Pelle Nancy; Taveras Elsie M; Gillman Matthew W; Prosser Lisa A

2009-01-01

273

Preventing childhood obesity during infancy in UK primary care: a mixed-methods study of HCPs' knowledge, beliefs and practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a strong rationale for intervening in early childhood to prevent obesity. Over a quarter of infants gain weight more rapidly than desirable during the first six months of life putting them at greater risk of obesity in childhood. However, little is known about UK healthcare professionals' (HCPs) approach to primary prevention. This study explored obesity-related knowledge of UK HCPs and the beliefs and current practice of general practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses in relation to identifying infants at risk of developing childhood obesity. Method Survey of UK HCPs (GPs, practice nurses, health visitors, nursery, community and children's nurses). HCPs (n = 116) rated their confidence in providing infant feeding advice and completed the Obesity Risk Knowledge Scale (ORK-10). Semi-structured interviews with a sub-set of 12 GPs and 6 practice nurses were audio recorded, taped and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was applied using an interpretative, inductive approach. Results GPs were less confident about giving advice about infant feeding than health visitors (p = 0.001) and nursery nurses (p = 0.009) but more knowledgeable about the health risks of obesity (p Six main themes emerged from the interviews: 1) Attribution of childhood obesity to family environment, 2) Infant feeding advice as the health visitor's role, 3) Professional reliance on anecdotal or experiential knowledge about infant feeding, 4) Difficulties with recognition of, or lack of concern for, infants "at risk" of becoming obese, 5) Prioritising relationship with parent over best practice in infant feeding and 6) Lack of shared understanding for dealing with early years' obesity. Conclusions Intervention is needed to improve health visitors and nursery nurses' knowledge of obesity risk and GPs and practice nurses' capacity to identify and manage infants' at risk of developing childhood obesity. GPs value strategies that maintain relationships with vulnerable families and interventions to improve their advice-giving around infant feeding need to take account of this. Further research is needed to determine optimal ways of intervening with infants at risk of obesity in primary care.

Redsell Sarah A; Atkinson Philippa J; Nathan Dilip; Siriwardena Aloysius N; Swift Judy A; Glazebrook Cris

2011-01-01

274

Prevention and management of excessive gestational weight gain: a survey of overweight and obese pregnant women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Excessive gestational weight gain is associated with adverse infant, childhood and maternal outcomes and research to develop interventions to address this issue is ongoing. The views of women on gestational weight gain and the resources they would consider helpful in addressing this are however largely unknown. This survey aimed to determine the views of newly pregnant women, living in areas of social disadvantage, on 1) their current body weight and potential gestational weight gain and 2) the resources or interventions they would consider helpful in preventing excessive gestational weight gain. METHODS: A convenience sample of overweight and obese pregnant women living in Fife, UK, were invited to complete a short anonymised questionnaire at their 12 week booking visit. RESULTS: 428 women, BMI>25 kg/m(2), completed the questionnaire. Fifty-four per cent of respondents were obese (231) and 62% were living in areas of mild to moderate deprivation. Over three-quarters of participants felt dissatisfied with their current weight (81%). The majority of women (60%) expressed some concern about potential weight gain. Thirty-nine percent were unconcerned about weight gain during their pregnancy, including 34 women (19%) who reported having retained weight gained in earlier pregnancies. Amongst those concerned about weight gain advice on physical activity (41%) and access to sports/leisure facilities were favoured resources (36%). Fewer women (12%) felt that group sessions on healthy eating or attending a clinic for individualised advice (14%) would be helpful. "Getting time off work" was the most frequently cited barrier (48%) to uptake of resources other than leaflets. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest a lack of awareness amongst overweight and obese women regarding excessive gestational weight gain. Monitoring of gestational weight gain, and approaches for its management, should be formally integrated into routine antenatal care. Barriers to the uptake of resources to address weight gain are numerous and must be considered in the design of future interventions and services.

Leslie WS; Gibson A; Hankey CR

2013-01-01

275

Effects of acute exercise over heart proteome from monogenic obese (ob/ob) mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Exercise is recognized to prevent and attenuate several metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Obesity is commonly related to cardiovascular diseases, frequently resulting in heart failure and death. To elucidate the effects of acute exercise in heart tissue from obese animals, 12-week-old C57BL6/J obese (ob/ob) and non-obese (ob/OB) mice were submitted to a single bout of swimming and had their hearts analyzed by proteomic techniques. Mice were divided into three groups: control (ob/ob, n?=?3; ob/OB, n?=?3); a moderate intensity consisting of 20 min of swimming around 90% of Maximal Lactate Steady State (ob/ob, n?=?3; ob/OB, n?=?3), and a high intensity exercise performed as an incremental overload test (ob/ob, n?=?3; ob/OB, n?=?3). Obesity modulations were analyzed by comparing ob/ob and ob/OB control groups. Differential 2-DE analysis revealed that single session of exercise was able to up-regulate: myoglobin (ob/ob), aspartate aminotransferase (ob/OB) and zinc finger protein (ob/OB) and down-regulate: nucleoside diphosphate kinase B (ob/OB), mitochondrial aconitase (ob/ob and ob/OB) and fatty acid binding protein (ob/ob). Zinc finger protein and ?-actin were up-regulated by the effect of obesity on heart proteome. These data demonstrate the immediate response of metabolic and stress-related proteins after exercise so as contractile protein by obesity modulation on heart proteome.

Petriz BA; Cunha VN; Villeth GR; Mehta Â; Rocha LA; Silva ON; Almeida JA; Morais PK; Simões HG; Franco OL

2013-04-01

276

Building a strategy for obesity prevention one piece at a time: the case of sugar-sweetened beverage taxation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is a major public health issue in Canada that is reaching historically high levels in spite of efforts, targeted primarily at individual behaviour, to promote changes in diet and physical activity. Urgency for change at the population level compels moving "upstream" toward multilevel, societal approaches for obesity prevention. Public health researchers, advocates and policy makers are increasingly recognizing the current food environment, including availability, pricing, and marketing of foods and beverages, promotes overconsumption of unhealthy food and beverage choices and have identified the food environment as a point for intervention for obesity prevention. In April 2011, a consensus conference with invited experts from research, policy and practice fields was held. The conference aimed to build consensus around policy levers to address environmental determinants of obesity, including next logical steps toward further policy action. Using economic policies, such as taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), was discussed as one opportunity to promote healthy eating. This article reports on the consensus discussion that led to recommendations to tax sugar-sweetened beverages as one step in a multipronged comprehensive approach to obesity prevention. This recommendation is based on a synthesis of available evidence, including evidence regarding political feasibility, and potential impacts of a tax. In addition, we present additional primary research using current SSB consumption data to model the economic and behavioural impact of such a tax in Canada. PMID:24070799

Buhler, Susan; Raine, Kim D; Arango, Manuel; Pellerin, Suzie; Neary, Neil E

2013-04-23

277

Building a strategy for obesity prevention one piece at a time: the case of sugar-sweetened beverage taxation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Obesity is a major public health issue in Canada that is reaching historically high levels in spite of efforts, targeted primarily at individual behaviour, to promote changes in diet and physical activity. Urgency for change at the population level compels moving "upstream" toward multilevel, societal approaches for obesity prevention. Public health researchers, advocates and policy makers are increasingly recognizing the current food environment, including availability, pricing, and marketing of foods and beverages, promotes overconsumption of unhealthy food and beverage choices and have identified the food environment as a point for intervention for obesity prevention. In April 2011, a consensus conference with invited experts from research, policy and practice fields was held. The conference aimed to build consensus around policy levers to address environmental determinants of obesity, including next logical steps toward further policy action. Using economic policies, such as taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), was discussed as one opportunity to promote healthy eating. This article reports on the consensus discussion that led to recommendations to tax sugar-sweetened beverages as one step in a multipronged comprehensive approach to obesity prevention. This recommendation is based on a synthesis of available evidence, including evidence regarding political feasibility, and potential impacts of a tax. In addition, we present additional primary research using current SSB consumption data to model the economic and behavioural impact of such a tax in Canada.

Buhler S; Raine KD; Arango M; Pellerin S; Neary NE

2013-04-01

278

Equity-specific effects of 26 Dutch obesity-related lifestyle interventions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: Reducing health inequalities is a policy priority in many developed countries. Little is known about effective strategies to reduce inequalities in obesity and its underlying behaviors. The goal of the study was to investigate differential effectiveness of interventions aimed at obesity prevention, the promotion of physical activity or a healthy diet by SES. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Subgroup analyses in 2010 and 2011 of 26 Dutch studies funded by The Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development after 1990 (n=17) or identified by expert contact (n=9). Methodologic quality and differential effects were synthesized in harvest plots, subdivided by setting, age group, intensity, and time to follow-up. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Seven lifestyle interventions were rated more effective and four less effective in groups with high SES; for 15 studies no differential effects could be demonstrated. One study in the healthcare setting showed comparable effects in both socioeconomic groups. The only mass media campaign provided modest evidence for higher effectiveness among those with high SES. Individually tailored and workplace interventions were either more effective in higher-SES groups (n=4) or no differential effects were demonstrated (n=9). School-based studies (n=7) showed mixed results. Two of six community studies provided evidence for better effectiveness in lower-SES groups; none were more effective in higher-SES groups. One high-intensity community-based study provided best evidence for higher effectiveness in low-SES groups. CONCLUSIONS: Although for the majority of interventions aimed at obesity prevention, the promotion of physical activity, or a healthy diet, no differential effectiveness could be demonstrated, interventions may widen as well as reduce socioeconomic inequalities in these outcomes. Equity-specific subgroup analyses contribute to needed knowledge about what may work to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in obesity and underlying health behaviors.

Magnée T; Burdorf A; Brug J; Kremers SP; Oenema A; van Assema P; Ezendam NP; van Genugten L; Hendriksen IJ; Hopman-Rock M; Jansen W; de Jong J; Kocken PL; Kroeze W; Kwak L; Lechner L; de Nooijer J; van Poppel MN; Robroek SJ; Schreurs H; van Sluijs EM; Steenhuis IJ; van Stralen MM; Tak NI; te Velde SJ; Vermeer WM; Wammes B; van Wier MF; van Lenthe FJ

2013-06-01

279

Implementation of a School-based Internet Obesity Prevention Program for Adolescents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reach, adoption, and implementation of HEALTH[e]TEEN, a school-based Internet obesity prevention program, and examine differences in student participation and satisfaction by school, gender, age, and race/ethnicity. DESIGN: Concurrent mixed method evaluation. SETTING: Three public high schools in Connecticut. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred eighty-four adolescents, 8 teachers. INTERVENTION(S): HEALTH[e]TEEN vs HEALTH[e]TEEN plus coping skills training. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Demographic and state-available data, measurements of student satisfaction and participation, interviews with school administrators and teachers. ANALYSIS: Mixed and logistic models, content analysis. RESULTS: The sample (n = 384) was diverse (35% white), with a mean age of 15.3 years and mean body mass index of 24.7 kg/m(2). Student participation (83% of lessons completed) and satisfaction (mean 3.6 out of 5) was high. Schools implementing the program in class had higher satisfaction and participation compared with schools that implemented the program as homework (P ? .001 and < .001, respectively). Girls had higher satisfaction and participation compared with boys (P = .02 and .03, respectively). Younger students had higher participation compared with older students, but no difference in satisfaction was noted (P = .03). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Two school-based Internet programs to decrease obesity reached diverse adolescents, and were adopted and implemented with high student satisfaction and participation. Implementation of the intervention was influenced by setting (classroom vs homework), teacher characteristics, student age, and gender.

Whittemore R; Chao A; Jang M; Jeon S; Liptak T; Popick R; Grey M

2013-07-01

280

The effect of prenatal and postnatal care on childhood obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood obesity continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. If this problem is unresolved, some children will be at risk for disorders such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and cancer and will become a high economic and social burden for society. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Child and Young Adult sample (N = 6,643), this study examined the relationship between the effect of pre- and postnatal characteristics and obesity. The findings of this study show that the probability of childhood obesity can be lessened if pregnant women do not smoke and do not gain significant pregnancy-related weight. Moreover, breast feeding and health insurance were also found to be correlated to avoiding childhood obesity. PMID:24032305

Seipel, Michael M O; Shafer, Kevin

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
281

The effect of prenatal and postnatal care on childhood obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Childhood obesity continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. If this problem is unresolved, some children will be at risk for disorders such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and cancer and will become a high economic and social burden for society. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, Child and Young Adult sample (N = 6,643), this study examined the relationship between the effect of pre- and postnatal characteristics and obesity. The findings of this study show that the probability of childhood obesity can be lessened if pregnant women do not smoke and do not gain significant pregnancy-related weight. Moreover, breast feeding and health insurance were also found to be correlated to avoiding childhood obesity.

Seipel MM; Shafer K

2013-07-01

282

Let's go to the park today: the role of parks in obesity prevention and improving the public's health.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Let's go to the park today! This familiar phrase is heard routinely throughout the year in many U.S. households. Access to parks, trails, open spaces, and recreational facilities not only provides increased opportunities for children and adults to play and be physically active, but these venues also influence other behaviors. As the health and wellbeing of our children are impacted by the daily environment in which they live, learn, and play, the use of parks and other recreation spaces as a healthful venue is important to consider in a comprehensive view of childhood and family obesity prevention. This article briefly summarizes some of the obesity-related benefits of parks across the local, state, and national park systems and highlights specific initiatives as examples of the commitment by park agencies to benefit the public's health and play a role in obesity and chronic disease prevention.

Blanck HM; Allen D; Bashir Z; Gordon N; Goodman A; Merriam D; Rutt C

2012-10-01

283

[Metabolic effects of obesity in men  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Obesity is a product of welfare. About 1/3 of our population has got excessive weight, 6 to 8% is truly obese and in 0.1% we may speak of pathologic obesity. Obesity is not only an esthetic problem, but is goes together with higher morbidity and mortality. In men with a body mass index (BMI = W (kg)/L2 (m)) of more than 35, the glucose metabolism was disturbed in 70%, the lipid spectrum had a clearly atherogenic profile, the average (free) testosterone level was significantly diminished and there was also a certain degree of hypogonadism. A short term treatment (4 to 6 weeks) based on a hypocaloric diet (400) and rich in proteins normalized the glucose metabolism in a very great number of patients, while the insulinemia fell with 40% and the lipidogram always became normal, but for the HDL-C, which showed a slight drop, while the testosterone levels became normal with a strong rise of the sex hormone binding globulin. And yet, at that very moment the patients were still definitely obese: this suggests that the metabolic disturbances are not the consequence of obesity in itself, but may be related to the dietary habits of the patients. Concerning the mechanism of hypogonadism, the cause of its disturbance seems to be situated in the hypothalamo-hypophyseal area and be characterized by a lower amplitude of LH-pulses, which are correlated with the testosterone levels. This hypothalamic disorder is however not limited to the LH-secretion, but the amplitude of growth hormone- and of ACTH-pulses is also reduced. Our study suggests that not obesity itself, but dietary factors might be responsible for the detected abnormalities. This might have important implications. Indeed, it is well known that in population groups, whose diet contains fewer calories and less fat--such as the Chinese and the Japanese--sex hormone binding globulin exists in far higher concentrations whereas free testosterone is found in a lower concentration. In these populations the prevalence of clinically obvious prostate cancer--which is androgen-sensitive--is much lower than in Western countries: it seems obvious to look for a correlation between both observations. Another remarkable phenomenon is the difference in testosterone metabolism between the Eastern and Western people; this leads us to the remarkable findings that in Asian people the same amount of androgens nearly always produces azoospermia and infertility, whereas this appears in only 2/3 of the cases among Western people.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Vermeulen A

1993-01-01

284

Preventing obesity and eating disorders in adolescents: what can health care providers do?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article describes five research-based recommendations for health care providers to help prevent both obesity and eating disorders among adolescents that they see within clinical, school, or other settings. The recommendations are based primarily upon findings from Project EAT, a large, population-based study of eating and weight-related issues in adolescents. Recommendations include the following: 1) discourage unhealthy dieting; instead encourage and support the use of eating and physical activity behaviors that can be maintained on an ongoing basis; 2) promote a positive body image; 3) encourage more frequent, and more enjoyable, family meals; 4) Encourage families to talk less about weight and do more at home to facilitate healthy eating and physical activity; and 5) assume that overweight teens have experienced weight mistreatment and address this issue with teens and their families. These recommendations stress the importance of helping adolescents and their families focus less on weight and more on sustained behavioral change.

Neumark-Sztainer D

2009-03-01

285

Leveraging Food Technology for Obesity Prevention and Reduction Efforts: Workshop Summary  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

On November 2 and 3, 2010, the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM’s) Food Forum convened a public workshop in Washington, DC, to examine the complexity of human eating behavior and explore ways in which the food industry can continue to leverage modern food processing technologies to influence energy intake as one population-based change of the many multifaceted societal changes that will help to reduce and prevent obesity. Through invited presentations and discussions, behavioral scientists, food scientists, and other experts from multiple sectors discussed evidence-based associations between various eating behaviors and weight gain and considered the opportunities and challenges of altering the food supply—both at home and outside the home (e.g., in restaurants)—to alleviate overeating and help consumers with long-term weight maintenance.

286

Multisite formative assessment for the Pathways study to prevent obesity in American Indian schoolchildren.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe the formative assessment process, using an approach based on social learning theory, for the development of a school-based obesity-prevention intervention into which cultural perspectives are integrated. The feasibility phase of the Pathways study was conducted in multiple settings in 6 American Indian nations. The Pathways formative assessment collected both qualitative and quantitative data. The qualitative data identified key social and environmental issues and enabled local people to express their own needs and views. The quantitative, structured data permitted comparison across sites. Both types of data were integrated by using a conceptual and procedural model. The formative assessment results were used to identify and rank the behavioral risk factors that were to become the focus of the Pathways intervention and to provide guidance on developing common intervention strategies that would be culturally appropriate and acceptable to all sites.

Gittelsohn J; Evans M; Story M; Davis SM; Metcalfe L; Helitzer DL; Clay TE

1999-04-01

287

Pathways: a culturally appropriate obesity-prevention program for American Indian schoolchildren.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pathways, a culturally appropriate obesity prevention study for third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade American Indian schoolchildren includes an intervention that promotes increased physical activity and healthful eating behaviors. The Pathways intervention, developed through a collaboration of universities and American Indian nations, schools, and families, focuses on individual, behavioral, and environmental factors and merges constructs from social learning theory with American Indian customs and practices. We describe the Pathways program developed during 3 y of feasibility testing in American Indian schools, with special emphasis on the activities developed for the third grade; review the theoretical and cultural underpinnings of the program; outline the construction process of the intervention; detail the curriculum and physical education components of the intervention; and summarize the formative assessment and the school food service and family components of the intervention.

Davis SM; Going SB; Helitzer DL; Teufel NI; Snyder P; Gittelsohn J; Metcalfe L; Arviso V; Evans M; Smyth M; Brice R; Altaha J

1999-04-01

288

Effects of obesity and chronic low back pain on gait  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is often associated with low back pain (LBP). Despite empirical evidence that LBP induces gait abnormalities, there is a lack of quantitative analysis of the combined effect of obesity and LBP on gait. The aim of our study was to quantify the gait pattern of obese subjects with and without LBP and normal-mass controls by using Gait Analysis (GA), in order to investigate the cumulative effects of obesity and LBP on gait. Methods Eight obese females with chronic LBP (OLG; age: 40.5 ± 10.1 years; BMI: 42.39 ± 5.47 Kg/m2), 10 obese females (OG; age: 33.6 ± 5.2 years; BMI: 39.26 ± 2.39 Kg/m2) and 10 healthy female subjects (CG; age: 33.4 ± 9.6 years; BMI: 22.8 ± 3.2 Kg/m2), were enrolled in this study and assessed with video recording and GA. Results and Discussion OLG showed longer stance duration and shorter step length when compared to OG and CG. They also had a low pelvis and hip ROM on the frontal plane, a low knee flexion in the swing phase and knee range of motion, a low dorsiflexion in stance and swing as compared to OG. No statistically significant differences were found in ankle power generation at push-off between OLG and OG, which appeared lower if compared to CG. At hip level, both OLG and OG exhibited high power generation levels during stance, with OLG showing the highest values. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that the association of obesity and LBP affects more the gait pattern than obesity alone. OLG were in fact characterised by an altered knee and ankle strategy during gait as compared to OG and CG. These elements may help optimizing rehabilitation planning and treatment in these patients.

Cimolin Veronica; Vismara Luca; Galli Manuela; Zaina Fabio; Negrini Stefano; Capodaglio Paolo

2011-01-01

289

Process evaluation of a community-based adolescent obesity prevention project in Tonga.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The rising burden of obesity in Tonga is alarming. The promotion of healthy behaviours and environments requires immediate urgent action and a multi-sectoral approach. A three-year community based study titled the Ma'alahi Youth Project (MYP) conducted in Tonga from 2005-2008 aimed to increase the capacity of the whole community (schools, churches, parents and adolescents) to promote healthy eating and regular physical activity and to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity amongst youth and their families. This paper reflects on the process evaluation for MYP, against a set of Best Practice Principles for community-based obesity prevention. METHODS: MYP was managed by the Fiji School of Medicine. A team of five staff in Tonga were committed to planning, implementation and evaluation of a strategic plan, the key planks of which were developed during a two day community workshop. Intervention activities were delivered in villages, churches and schools, on the main island of Tongatapu. Process evaluation data covering the resource utilisation associated with all intervention activities were collected, and analysed by dose, frequency and reach for specific strategies. The action plan included three standard objectives around capacity building, social marketing and evaluation; four nutrition; two physical activity objectives; and one around championing key people as role models. RESULTS: While the interventions included a wide mix of activities straddling across all of these objectives and in both school and village settings, there was a major focus on the social marketing and physical activity objectives. The intervention reach, frequency and dose varied widely across all activities, and showed no consistent patterns. CONCLUSIONS: The adolescent obesity interventions implemented as part of the MYP program comprised a wide range of activities conducted in multiple settings, touched a broad spectrum of the population (wider than the target group), but the dose and frequency of activities were generally insufficient and not sustained. Also the project confirmed that, while the MYP resulted in increased community awareness of healthy behaviours, Tonga is still in its infancy in terms of conducting public health research and lacks research infrastructure and capacity.

Fotu KF; Moodie MM; Mavoa HM; Pomana S; Schultz JT; Swinburn BA

2011-01-01

290

Community-based interventions for obesity prevention: lessons learned by Australian policy-makers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in community-based interventions (CBIs) for health promotion is increasing, with a lot of recent activity in the field. This paper aims, from a state government perspective, to examine the experience of funding and managing six obesity prevention CBIs, to identify lessons learned and to consider the implications for future investment. Specifically, we focus on the planning, government support, evaluation, research and workforce development required. Methods The lessons presented in this paper come from analysis of key project documents, the experience of the authors in managing the projects and from feedback obtained from key program stakeholders. Results CBIs require careful management, including sufficient planning time and clear governance structures. Selection of interventions should be based on evidence and tailored to local needs to ensure adequate penetration in the community. Workforce and community capacity must be assessed and addressed when selecting communities. Supporting the health promotion workforce to become adequately skilled and experienced in evaluation and research is also necessary before implementation. Comprehensive evaluation of future projects is challenging on both technical and affordability grounds. Greater emphasis may be needed on process evaluation complemented by organisation-level measures of impact and monitoring of nutrition and physical activity behaviours. Conclusions CBIs offer potential as one of a mix of approaches to obesity prevention. If successful approaches are to be expanded, care must be taken to incorporate lessons from existing and past projects. To do this, government must show strong leadership and work in partnership with the research community and local practitioners.

Haby Michelle M; Doherty Rebecca; Welch Nicky; Mason Vicky

2012-01-01

291

Expert and Stakeholder Consensus on Priorities for Obesity Prevention Research in Early Care and Education Settings.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Early childhood is a formative period for many weight-related behaviors (diet and activity), but little obesity prevention research targeting this age group has been conducted. Early care and education settings are a useful avenue for interventions targeting young children, but the limited research provides insufficient evidence upon which to base policy decisions, practice guidelines, or mobilized efforts to improve healthy eating and physical activity, and ultimately healthy weight development in these settings. METHODS: In September of 2011, prominent researchers, young investigators, and leaders in early care and education came together to examine past research and to explore challenges and priorities for future research on healthy weight development in children aged 2-5 years. During this meeting, experts presented and attendees discussed key issues around measurement of diet and physical activity, policy and environment measurement, intervention approaches, policy research, and capacity development. Following the meeting, attendees were invited to participate in an online voting exercise to select top research priorities. RESULTS: A total of 64 research issues were identified, and voting narrowed this list to 24 issues. Highest-rated issues included: Assessment of the quality of children's meals and snacks, use of financial incentives, interventions that include healthcare providers, the role of screen time, and need for multilevel interventions. CONCLUSIONS: The presentations within this meeting highlighted the importance of research to address the unique challenges for those working in early care and education settings. Expert and stakeholder consensus of priorities identified significant and innovative areas where future obesity prevention research efforts should be focused.

Ward DS; Vaughn A; Story M

2013-04-01

292

Psychometric characteristics of process evaluation measures for a school-based childhood obesity prevention study: Louisiana Health  

Science.gov (United States)

Process evaluations of large-scale school based programs are necessary to aid in the interpretation of the outcome data. The Louisiana Health (LA Health) study is a multi-component childhood obesity prevention study for middle school children. The Physical Education (PEQ), Intervention (IQ), and F...

293

Online Course Increases Nutrition Professionals' Knowledge, Skills, and Self-Efficacy in Using an Ecological Approach to Prevent Childhood Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To assess the impact of an online continuing education course on the knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy of nutrition professionals to use an ecological approach to prevent childhood obesity. Design: Quasi-experimental design using intervention and delayed intervention comparison groups with pre/post-course assessments. Setting: Online…

Stark, Christina M.; Graham-Kiefer, Meredith L.; Devine, Carol M.; Dollahite, Jamie S.; Olson, Christine M.

2011-01-01

294

Using social network analysis to identify key child care center staff for obesity prevention interventions: a pilot study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction. Interest has grown in how systems thinking could be used in obesity prevention. Relationships between key actors, represented by social networks, are an important focus for considering intervention in systems. Method. Two long day care centers were selected in which previous obesity prevention programs had been implemented. Measures showed ways in which physical activity and dietary policy are conversations and actions transacted through social networks (interrelationships) within centers, via an eight item closed-ended social network questionnaire. Questionnaire data were collected from (17/20; response rate 85%) long day care center staff. Social network density and centrality statistics were calculated, using UCINET social network software, to examine the role of networks in obesity prevention. Results. "Degree" (influence) and "betweeness" (gatekeeper) centrality measures of staff inter-relationships about physical activity, dietary, and policy information identified key players in each center. Network density was similar and high on some relationship networks in both centers but markedly different in others, suggesting that the network tool identified unique center social dynamics. These differences could potentially be the focus of future team capacity building. Conclusion. Social network analysis is a feasible and useful method to identify existing obesity prevention networks and key personnel in long day care centers. PMID:23986867

Marks, Jennifer; Barnett, Lisa M; Foulkes, Chad; Hawe, Penelope; Allender, Steven

2013-08-05

295

Using social network analysis to identify key child care center staff for obesity prevention interventions: a pilot study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Interest has grown in how systems thinking could be used in obesity prevention. Relationships between key actors, represented by social networks, are an important focus for considering intervention in systems. METHOD: Two long day care centers were selected in which previous obesity prevention programs had been implemented. Measures showed ways in which physical activity and dietary policy are conversations and actions transacted through social networks (interrelationships) within centers, via an eight item closed-ended social network questionnaire. Questionnaire data were collected from (17/20; response rate 85%) long day care center staff. Social network density and centrality statistics were calculated, using UCINET social network software, to examine the role of networks in obesity prevention. RESULTS: "Degree" (influence) and "betweeness" (gatekeeper) centrality measures of staff inter-relationships about physical activity, dietary, and policy information identified key players in each center. Network density was similar and high on some relationship networks in both centers but markedly different in others, suggesting that the network tool identified unique center social dynamics. These differences could potentially be the focus of future team capacity building. CONCLUSION: Social network analysis is a feasible and useful method to identify existing obesity prevention networks and key personnel in long day care centers.

Marks J; Barnett LM; Foulkes C; Hawe P; Allender S

2013-01-01

296

Obesidade infantil: como podemos ser eficazes? Childhood obesity: towards effectiveness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar a abordagem terapêutica da obesidade infantil, bem como aspectos de seu diagnóstico e prevenção. FONTES DOS DADOS: Foi realizada busca de artigos científicos através das bases de dados MEDLINE, Ovid, Highwire e Scielo. As palavras-chave utilizadas foram: "childhood obesity" e também combinações junto a "treatment", "prevention" e "consequence". Dentre os artigos provenientes da busca incluíam-se artigos de revisão, estudos observacionais, ensaios clínicos e posições de consenso. Percebida a relevância, também se buscou diretamente referências indicadas. O período de coleta de dados foi de 1998 a 2003. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Foram encontrados vários trabalhos de prevalência no Brasil. No entanto, poucos trazem resultados de programas educativos aplicáveis em nosso meio. CONCLUSÕES: Deve-se prevenir a obesidade infantil com medidas adequadas de prescrição de dieta na infância desde o nascimento, além de se estudar mais sobre programas de educação que possam ser aplicados no nível primário de saúde e nas escolas.OBJECTIVE: To review therapeutic approaches to childhood obesity and also its diagnosis and prevention. SOURCES OF DATA: Searches were performed of scientific papers held on the MEDLINE, Ovid, Highwire and Scielo databases. Keywords utilized were: "childhood obesity" and a variety of combinations of this term with "treatment", "prevention" and "consequence". The search returned papers including review articles, observational studies, clinical trials and consensus statements. Bibliographical references in these articles were also investigated if it was perceived that they were relevant. Data was collected from 1998 to 2003. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: While a number of different Brazilian prevalence studies were found, few gave details of the results of educational programs in our country. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood obesity must be prevented through prescriptive diets from birth throughout childhood. Educational programs that might be applicable to primary health care or schools should receive further study.

Elza D. de Mello; Vivian C. Luft; Flavia Meyer

2004-01-01

297

Obesidade infantil: como podemos ser eficazes?/ Childhood obesity: towards effectiveness  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Revisar a abordagem terapêutica da obesidade infantil, bem como aspectos de seu diagnóstico e prevenção. FONTES DOS DADOS: Foi realizada busca de artigos científicos através das bases de dados MEDLINE, Ovid, Highwire e Scielo. As palavras-chave utilizadas foram: "childhood obesity" e também combinações junto a "treatment", "prevention" e "consequence". Dentre os artigos provenientes da busca incluíam-se artigos de revisão, estudos observacionais, ensa (more) ios clínicos e posições de consenso. Percebida a relevância, também se buscou diretamente referências indicadas. O período de coleta de dados foi de 1998 a 2003. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Foram encontrados vários trabalhos de prevalência no Brasil. No entanto, poucos trazem resultados de programas educativos aplicáveis em nosso meio. CONCLUSÕES: Deve-se prevenir a obesidade infantil com medidas adequadas de prescrição de dieta na infância desde o nascimento, além de se estudar mais sobre programas de educação que possam ser aplicados no nível primário de saúde e nas escolas. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To review therapeutic approaches to childhood obesity and also its diagnosis and prevention. SOURCES OF DATA: Searches were performed of scientific papers held on the MEDLINE, Ovid, Highwire and Scielo databases. Keywords utilized were: "childhood obesity" and a variety of combinations of this term with "treatment", "prevention" and "consequence". The search returned papers including review articles, observational studies, clinical trials and consensus statemen (more) ts. Bibliographical references in these articles were also investigated if it was perceived that they were relevant. Data was collected from 1998 to 2003. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: While a number of different Brazilian prevalence studies were found, few gave details of the results of educational programs in our country. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood obesity must be prevented through prescriptive diets from birth throughout childhood. Educational programs that might be applicable to primary health care or schools should receive further study.

Mello, Elza D. de; Luft, Vivian C.; Meyer, Flavia

2004-06-01

298

Risk factors for obesity in Chinese adults. Highlights and achievements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Obesity is now one of the public health concerns in China. Many factors are contributing to obesity. However, the underlying mechanism is not clear. As it is hard to cure it once obesity occurs, the most effective and encouraging strategies is prevention. Risk factors should be identified in order to develop prevention strategies

2002-01-01

299

Effects of physical exercise on butyrylcholinesterase in obese adolescents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a 12 week program of physical exercise (PE) on butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in obese adolescents. This study compared obese adolescents (N = 54) before and after PE, regarding the relative intensity (RI) and activity of different molecular forms (G1, G2, G4 and G1-ALB) of BChE found in plasma. Waist circumference (WC) and lipid profile were also assessed before and after PE. It was shown that before PE, mean plasm (more) a BChE activity was significantly higher in obese than in non-obese adolescents and that it was significantly reduced after PE, becoming similar to that found in non-obese adolescents. Lipid profile and WC also changed in response to PE. These results are consistent with studies that found a correlation between BChE and lipid metabolism and suggest that PE may have led to a physiological regularization of plasma BChE activity. Although mean BChE activity of each isoform was significantly reduced by PE, their RI did not change. This is in accordance with a previous suggestion that this proportion is maintained under factors such as obesity, and may therefore be important for BChE functions.

Silva, Isabela M.W.; Leite, Neiva; Boberg, Dellyana; Chaves, Thais J.; Eisfeld, Gerusa M.; Eisfeld, Gisele M.; Bono, Gleyse F.; Souza, Ricardo L.R.; Furtado-Alle, Lupe

2012-01-01

300

Economic instruments for obesity prevention: results of a scoping review and modified delphi survey  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Comprehensive, multi-level approaches are required to address obesity. One important target for intervention is the economic domain. The purpose of this study was to synthesize existing evidence regarding the impact of economic policies targeting obesity and its causal behaviours (diet, physical activity), and to make specific recommendations for the Canadian context. Methods Arksey and O'Malley's (2005) methodological framework for conducting scoping reviews was adopted for this study and this consisted of two phases: 1) a structured literature search and review, and 2) consultation with experts in the research field through a Delphi survey and an in-person expert panel meeting in April 2010. Results Two key findings from the scoping review included 1) consistent evidence that weight outcomes are responsive to food and beverage prices. The debate on the use of food taxes and subsidies to address obesity should now shift to how best to address practical issues in designing such policies; and 2) very few studies have examined the impact of economic instruments to promote physical activity and clear policy recommendations cannot be made at this time. Delphi survey findings emphasised the relatively modest impact any specific economic instrument would have on obesity independently. Based on empirical evidence and expert opinion, three recommendations were supported. First, to create and implement an effective health filter to review new and current agricultural polices to reduce the possibility that such policies have a deleterious impact on population rates of obesity. Second, to implement a caloric sweetened beverage tax. Third, to examine how to implement fruit and vegetable subsidies targeted at children and low income households. Conclusions In terms of economic interventions, shifting from empirical evidence to policy recommendation remains challenging. Overall, the evidence is not sufficiently strong to provide clear policy direction. Additionally, the nature of the experiments needed to provide definitive evidence supporting certain policy directions is likely to be complex and potentially unfeasible. However, these are not reasons to take no action. It is likely that policies need to be implemented in the face of an incomplete evidence base.

Faulkner Guy EJ; Grootendorst Paul; Nguyen Van; Andreyeva Tatiana; Arbour-Nicitopoulos Kelly; Auld M Christopher; Cash Sean B; Cawley John; Donnelly Peter; Drewnowski Adam; Dubé Laurette; Ferrence Roberta; Janssen Ian; LaFrance Jeffrey; Lakdawalla Darius; Mendelsen Rena; Powell Lisa M; Traill W Bruce; Windmeijer Frank

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Indicated prevention of adult obesity: how much weight change is necessary for normalization of weight status in children?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the notion of indicated prevention-helping overweight or obese youth attain non-overweight status to prevent adult obesity-by examining weight-for-height changes needed to normalize weight status in youth who are growing. DESIGN: We determined the amount of weight-for-height change necessary for overweight or obese youth to achieve non-overweight status using linear mixed modeling of longitudinal growth patterns and using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention weight thresholds corresponding to the age- and sex-adjusted body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) below the 85th percentile. Mean weight changes among children who achieved nonoverweight status at 1 and 2 years after treatment were calculated. SETTING: Weight control programs at 3 research institutions. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 669 overweight or obese children aged 8 to 13 years. INTERVENTION: Family-based behavioral weight control treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Weight. RESULTS: Relatively small weight changes (range, -7.55 to +3.90 kg) were necessary for children to achieve nonoverweight status after 1 year; this was most pronounced among younger children (range, -2.90 to +3.36 kg for children aged 8-10 years) and children closer to the 85th BMI percentile (range, +2.44 to +3.90 kg for children at the 90th BMI percentile). Observed weight changes of children who achieved nonoverweight status following treatment were similar to estimates based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention normative data. CONCLUSIONS: Attaining nonoverweight status in childhood is possible with modest weight loss or, in some circumstances, by slowing weight gain, and may help prevent adult obesity. Future research should investigate how much intervention is needed to shift the growth trajectory to nonoverweight status and how much weight-for-height change is needed to improve other health outcomes in adulthood.

Goldschmidt AB; Wilfley DE; Paluch RA; Roemmich JN; Epstein LH

2013-01-01

302

Asthma and obesity: the dose effect.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Asthma is one of the most common chronic illnesses in the world, affecting an estimated 300 million people. Globally, the prevalence of asthma has continued to spread as economic improvements in developing countries create a population trend toward urbanization and adoption of a western lifestyle. Research supports an association between obesity and asthma. Only by making weight management a priority in the treatment of asthma can the rising prevalence of both diseases be hindered and global health improved.

Manion AB

2013-03-01

303

Effect of Green Tea Extract/Poly-?-Glutamic Acid Complex in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with the rapid spread of obesity. Obesity induces insulin resistance, resulting in ?-cell dysfunction and thus T2DM. Green tea extract (GTE) has been known to prevent obesity and T2DM, but this effect is still being debated. Our previous results suggested that circulating green tea gallated catechins (GCs) hinders postprandial blood glucose lowering, regardless of reducing glucose and cholesterol absorption when GCs are present in the intestinal lumen. This study aimed to compare the effect of GTE with that of GTE coadministered with poly-?-glutamic acid (?-PGA), which is likely to inhibit the intestinal absorption of GCs. METHODS: The db/db mice and age-matched nondiabetic mice were provided with normal chow diet containing GTE (1%), ?-PGA (0.1%), or GTE+?-PGA (1%:0.1%) for 4 weeks. RESULTS: In nondiabetic mice, none of the drugs showed any effects after 4 weeks. In db/db mice, however, weight gain and body fat gain were significantly reduced in the GTE+?-PGA group compared to nondrug-treated db/db control mice without the corresponding changes in food intake and appetite. Glucose intolerance was also ameliorated in the GTE+?-PGA group. Histopathological analyses showed that GTE+?-PGA-treated db/db mice had a significantly reduced incidence of fatty liver and decreased pancreatic islet size. Neither GTE nor ?-PGA treatment showed any significant results. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that GTE+?-PGA treatment than GTE or ?-PGA alone may be a useful tool for preventing both obesity and obesity-induced T2DM.

Bae KC; Park JH; Na AY; Kim SJ; Ahn S; Kim SP; Oh BC; Cho HC; Kim YW; Song DK

2013-06-01

304

Effect of Green Tea Extract/Poly-?-Glutamic Acid Complex in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Mice  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with the rapid spread of obesity. Obesity induces insulin resistance, resulting in ?-cell dysfunction and thus T2DM. Green tea extract (GTE) has been known to prevent obesity and T2DM, but this effect is still being debated. Our previous results suggested that circulating green tea gallated catechins (GCs) hinders postprandial blood glucose lowering, regardless of reducing glucose and cholesterol absorption when GCs are present in the intestinal lumen. This study aimed to compare the effect of GTE with that of GTE coadministered with poly-?-glutamic acid (?-PGA), which is likely to inhibit the intestinal absorption of GCs. Methods The db/db mice and age-matched nondiabetic mice were provided with normal chow diet containing GTE (1%), ?-PGA (0.1%), or GTE+?-PGA (1%:0.1%) for 4 weeks. Results In nondiabetic mice, none of the drugs showed any effects after 4 weeks. In db/db mice, however, weight gain and body fat gain were significantly reduced in the GTE+?-PGA group compared to nondrug-treated db/db control mice without the corresponding changes in food intake and appetite. Glucose intolerance was also ameliorated in the GTE+?-PGA group. Histopathological analyses showed that GTE+?-PGA-treated db/db mice had a significantly reduced incidence of fatty liver and decreased pancreatic islet size. Neither GTE nor ?-PGA treatment showed any significant results. Conclusion These results suggest that GTE+?-PGA treatment than GTE or ?-PGA alone may be a useful tool for preventing both obesity and obesity-induced T2DM.

Bae, Ki-Cheor; Park, Jae-Hyung; Na, Ann-Yae; Kim, Sun-Joo; Ahn, Shinbyoung; Kim, Sang-Pyo; Oh, Byung-Chul; Cho, Ho-Chan

2013-01-01

305

Techniques, assessment, and effectiveness of bariatric surgery in combating obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dimitrios K Papamargaritis, Dimitrios J Pournaras, Carel W Le RouxImperial Weight Centre, Imperial College London, London, UKAbstract: Obesity is an epidemic disease, and its prevalence is predicted to rise in the future. Many health and social comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, arthritis, infertility, eating disorders, unemployment, and low quality of life, have been associated with obesity. Nowadays, bariatric surgery is the only effective treatment for severe obesity. An increasing body of literature demonstrates significant remission of obesity-related comorbidities and an increase in life expectancy after surgical treatment. Unfortunately, serious complications can appear after surgery, and the careful preoperative assessment of patients is necessary to estimate the indications and contraindications of bariatric surgery. Recent studies report the lower complication and mortality rates when bariatric procedures are performed in high-volume centers. The purpose of this review is to describe the techniques of the currently used surgical procedures and the clinical effectiveness of bariatric surgery. Additionally, the possible complications and mortality rates after bariatric surgery are discussed.Keywords: obesity, surgery, assessment, clinical effectiveness, complications

Dimitrios K Papamargaritis; Dimitrios J Pournaras; Carel W Le Roux

2010-01-01

306

Evaluation of a school-based teen obesity prevention minimal intervention.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: A school-based nutrition education minimal intervention (MI) was evaluated. DESIGN: The design was experimental, with random assignment at the school level. SETTING: Seven schools were randomly assigned as experimental, and 7 as delayed-treatment. PARTICIPANTS: The experimental group included 551 teens, and the delayed treatment group included 329 teens. INTERVENTION: The minimal intervention was Present and Prevent, a commercially available PowerPoint program presented in two 30-minute time slots over 1 week. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The dependent variables were nutrition knowledge, attitudes, peer and family influences, behavioral intentions, and program satisfaction. The independent variable was group assignment. ANALYSES: A matched-pairs and 2-sample t test were used respectively to assess within-group and between-group changes. RESULTS: Significant experimental posttest improvements occurred in the following: knowledge (P < .001); intention to maintain a healthy body weight because of importance to friends (P < .001); and intention to eat fewer fried foods, eat fewer sweets, look more at food labels, and limit TV watching (all P < .001). Program satisfaction measures were significantly associated with each of the healthy weight maintenance behavioral intentions. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The MI teen obesity prevention program made an impact on nutrition knowledge and positive behavioral intentions in only 2 classroom sessions and was well received by participants.

Abood DA; Black DR; Coster DC

2008-05-01

307

Culturally adapting the prevention of diabetes and obesity in South Asians (PODOSA) trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Type 2 diabetes is extremely common in South Asians, e.g. in men from Pakistani and Indian populations it is about three times as likely as in the general population in England, despite similarities in body mass index. Lifestyle interventions reduce the incidence of diabetes. Trials in Europe and North America have not, however, reported on the impact on South Asian populations separately or provided the details of their cross-cultural adaptation processes. Prevention of diabetes and obesity in South Asians (PODOSA) is a randomized, controlled trial in Scotland of an adapted, lifestyle intervention aimed at reducing weight and increasing physical activity to reduce type 2 diabetes in Indians and Pakistanis. The trial was adapted from the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. We describe, reflect on and discuss the following key issues: The core adaptations to the trial design, particularly the delivery of the intervention in homes by dietitians rather than in clinics.The use of both a multilingual panel and professional translators to help translate and/or develop materials.The processes and challenges of phonetic translation.How intervention resources were adapted, modified, newly developed and translated into Urdu and Gurmukhi (written Punjabi).The insights gained in PODOSA (including time pressures on investigators, imperfections in the adaptation process, the power of verbal rather than written information, the utilization of English and the mother-tongue languages simultaneously by participants and the costs) might help the research community, given the challenge of health promotion in multi-ethnic, urban societies.

Wallia S; Bhopal RS; Douglas A; Bhopal R; Sharma A; Hutchison A; Murray G; Gill J; Sattar N; Lawton J; Tuomilehto J; McKnight J; Forbes J; Lean M; Sheikh A

2013-04-01

308

Childhood obesity in America.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of the current advances in childhood obesity physiology, intervention, and prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: Structural and functional brain impairments are present in obese adolescents with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Aerobic training for 20 or 40?min per day produced similar affects on metabolic risk factors. Vitamin D supplementation has been shown to improve the metabolic risk factors in obese children; however, obese children require greater doses to treat vitamin D deficiency. A 10-week community-based exergaming weight management program significantly decreased the BMI in obese children. SUMMARY: There is surmounting research on MetS and its associated risk factors in obese children. Gaining a comprehensive overview of the factors associated with obesity in children is crucial in developing the most effective intervention strategies. Community-based and family-centered interventions have generated positive results in reducing children's BMI and improving MetS risk factors. In addition to obesity intervention efforts, ongoing prevention initiatives are imperative to reduce the prevalence of childhood obesity.

Van Grouw JM; Volpe SL

2013-10-01

309

Preventing increased blood pressure in the obese Zucker rat improves severity of stroke  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity is a risk factor for stroke, but the determinants of increased stroke risk in obesity are unknown. We have previously reported that obese Zucker rats (OZRs) have a worse stroke outcome and display evidence of remodeling of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), in parallel with hypertension, comp...

Osmond, Jessica M.; Mintz, James D.; Stepp, David W.

310

Shaping a Healthier Generation: Successful State Strategies to Prevent Childhood Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies show that childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. Today, more than 23 million American children--or nearly one in every three--are overweight or obese. If childhood obesity is left unaddressed, a generation of individuals could face health, social, and economic challenges that promise to stress government…

Mulheron, Joyal; Vonasek, Kara

2009-01-01

311

Mechanisms of the Anti-Obesity Effects of Oxytocin in Diet-Induced Obese Rats  

Science.gov (United States)

Apart from its role during labor and lactation, oxytocin is involved in several other functions. Interestingly, oxytocin- and oxytocin receptor-deficient mice develop late-onset obesity with normal food intake, suggesting that the hormone might exert a series of beneficial metabolic effects. This was recently confirmed by data showing that central oxytocin infusion causes weight loss in diet-induced obese mice. The aim of the present study was to unravel the mechanisms underlying such beneficial effects of oxytocin. Chronic central oxytocin infusion was carried out in high fat diet-induced obese rats. Its impact on body weight, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity was determined. We observed a dose-dependent decrease in body weight gain, increased adipose tissue lipolysis and fatty acid ?-oxidation, as well as reduced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The additional observation that plasma oxytocin levels increased upon central infusion suggested that the hormone might affect adipose tissue metabolism by direct action. This was demonstrated using in vitro, ex vivo, as well as in vivo experiments. With regard to its mechanism of action in adipose tissue, oxytocin increased the expression of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1, as well as the tissue content of the phospholipid precursor, N-oleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, the biosynthetic precursor of the oleic acid-derived PPAR-alpha activator, oleoylethanolamide. Because PPAR-alpha regulates fatty acid ?-oxidation, we hypothesized that this transcription factor might mediate the oxytocin effects. This was substantiated by the observation that, in contrast to its effects in wild-type mice, oxytocin infusion failed to induce weight loss and fat oxidation in PPAR-alpha-deficient animals. Altogether, these results suggest that oxytocin administration could represent a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of human obesity and type 2 diabetes.

Deblon, Nicolas; Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle; Bourgoin, Lucie; Caillon, Aurelie; Bussier, Anne-Lise; Petrosino, Stefania; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Legros, Jean-Jacques; Geenen, Vincent; Foti, Michelangelo; Wahli, Walter; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Francoise

2011-01-01

312

Mechanisms of the anti-obesity effects of oxytocin in diet-induced obese rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Apart from its role during labor and lactation, oxytocin is involved in several other functions. Interestingly, oxytocin- and oxytocin receptor-deficient mice develop late-onset obesity with normal food intake, suggesting that the hormone might exert a series of beneficial metabolic effects. This was recently confirmed by data showing that central oxytocin infusion causes weight loss in diet-induced obese mice. The aim of the present study was to unravel the mechanisms underlying such beneficial effects of oxytocin. Chronic central oxytocin infusion was carried out in high fat diet-induced obese rats. Its impact on body weight, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity was determined. We observed a dose-dependent decrease in body weight gain, increased adipose tissue lipolysis and fatty acid ?-oxidation, as well as reduced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The additional observation that plasma oxytocin levels increased upon central infusion suggested that the hormone might affect adipose tissue metabolism by direct action. This was demonstrated using in vitro, ex vivo, as well as in vivo experiments. With regard to its mechanism of action in adipose tissue, oxytocin increased the expression of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1, as well as the tissue content of the phospholipid precursor, N-oleoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, the biosynthetic precursor of the oleic acid-derived PPAR-alpha activator, oleoylethanolamide. Because PPAR-alpha regulates fatty acid ?-oxidation, we hypothesized that this transcription factor might mediate the oxytocin effects. This was substantiated by the observation that, in contrast to its effects in wild-type mice, oxytocin infusion failed to induce weight loss and fat oxidation in PPAR-alpha-deficient animals. Altogether, these results suggest that oxytocin administration could represent a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of human obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:21980491

Deblon, Nicolas; Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle; Bourgoin, Lucie; Caillon, Aurélie; Bussier, Anne-Lise; Petrosino, Stefania; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Legros, Jean-Jacques; Geenen, Vincent; Foti, Michelangelo; Wahli, Walter; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Françoise

2011-09-27

313

Anti-obesity Effect of HT048, a Herbal Combination, in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study evaluated the anti-obesity effects of HT048, a combination of C. pinnatifida fruit and C. unshiu peel extracts, in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. 4-Week-old male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into normal and high fat diet (HFD) groups. The HFD groups were further divided ...

Dong Wook Lim; MiKyung Song; Juyeon Park; Sang Woug Park; Nak Hoon Kim; Bhakta Prasad Gaire; Ho-Young Choi; Hocheol Kim

314

Anti-Obesity Effect of Artemisia capillaris Extracts in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study evaluated the anti-obesity effects of Artemisia capillaris extracts in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. After six weeks feeding with HFD, Wistar male rats (12-weeks-old) were divided into three groups: HFD-control group and HFD mixed with 0.4% and 0.8% Artemisia capillaris extracts...

Dong Wook Lim; Yun Tai Kim; Yu-Jung Jang; Young-Eon Kim; Daeseok Han

315

[Obesity paradox].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Obesity has reached global epidemic proportions and is associated with major cardiovascular diseases and reduced overall survival. This paper reviews the metabolic and vascular consequences of dysfunctional adipocytokines in obesity as well as the pathological effects on blood pressure, cardiovascular structure and function. Despite this adverse association, numerous studies have documented an obesity paradox in which overweight and obese population with established cardiovascular disease have a better prognosis. There are potential explanations offered by literature for these puzzling data. For obese hypertensive patients the paradox is possibly linked to the lower systemic vascular resistance and plasma renin activity. In heart failure the excess body weight may confer some protective effects on mortality, due to a more metabolic reserve, higher levels of arterial pressure compatible with higher doses of cardioprotective medications, and a specific neuroendocrine profile with lower levels of circulating natriuretic atrial peptides, attenuated sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin responses. For coronary heart disease and peripheral arterial disease the mechanisms are still uncertain. There are discussed a lesser severity of coronary lesions and left ventricular dysfunction, or a reduced prevalence of moderate-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients selected for surgery. On the other hand, the constellation of data which supports purposeful weight reduction in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, induces a controversial position regarding this new concept.

Aursulesei V; Cozma A; Datcu MD

2009-10-01

316

Phenolic compounds: evidence for inhibitory effects against obesity and their underlying molecular signaling mechanisms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phenolic compounds are widely present in the plant kingdom. Many epidemiological studies have indicated that consumption of some plant-derived foodstuffs with high phenolic content is associated with the prevention of some diseases and that these compounds may have similar properties to antioxidants, antimutagenic agents, antithrombotic agents, anti-inflammatory agents, anti-HIV-1, and anticancer agents. However, obesity is an important topic in the world of public health and preventive medicine. Relationships between body mass index, waist circumference, or waist-to-hip ratio and the risk of development of some diseases (such as heart disease, dyslipidemia, hypertension, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes, kidney failure, cancer, stroke, osteoarthritis, and sleep apnea) have been observed. Evidence that phenolic compounds have beneficial effects in fighting obesity is increasingly being reported in the scientific literature. These in vitro and in vivo effects of phenolic compounds on the induction of pre-adipocytic and adipocytic apoptosis and inhibition of adipocytic lipid accumulation are considered in detail here. This review presents evidence of their inhibitory effects on obesity and their underlying molecular signaling mechanisms.

Hsu CL; Yen GC

2008-01-01

317

Phenolic compounds: evidence for inhibitory effects against obesity and their underlying molecular signaling mechanisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phenolic compounds are widely present in the plant kingdom. Many epidemiological studies have indicated that consumption of some plant-derived foodstuffs with high phenolic content is associated with the prevention of some diseases and that these compounds may have similar properties to antioxidants, antimutagenic agents, antithrombotic agents, anti-inflammatory agents, anti-HIV-1, and anticancer agents. However, obesity is an important topic in the world of public health and preventive medicine. Relationships between body mass index, waist circumference, or waist-to-hip ratio and the risk of development of some diseases (such as heart disease, dyslipidemia, hypertension, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, diabetes, kidney failure, cancer, stroke, osteoarthritis, and sleep apnea) have been observed. Evidence that phenolic compounds have beneficial effects in fighting obesity is increasingly being reported in the scientific literature. These in vitro and in vivo effects of phenolic compounds on the induction of pre-adipocytic and adipocytic apoptosis and inhibition of adipocytic lipid accumulation are considered in detail here. This review presents evidence of their inhibitory effects on obesity and their underlying molecular signaling mechanisms. PMID:18081207

Hsu, Chin-Lin; Yen, Gow-Chin

2008-01-01

318

Acute differential effects of dietary protein quality on postprandial lipemia in obese non-diabetic subjects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Non-fasting triglyceridemia is much closer associated to cardiovascular risk compared to fasting triglyceridemia. We hypothesized that there would be acute differential effects of four common dietary proteins (cod protein, whey isolate, gluten, and casein) on postprandial lipemia in obese non-diabetic subjects. To test the hypothesis we conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study with crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins i.e. cod protein, whey protein, gluten or casein. Eleven obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, body mass index: 30.3-42.0 kg/m(2)) participated and blood samples were drawn in the 8-h postprandial period. Supplementation of a fat rich mixed meal with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia (P = .048) compared to supplementation with cod protein and gluten. This was primarily due to lower triglyceride concentration in the chylomicron rich fraction (P = .0293). Thus, we have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial metabolism of four dietary proteins supplemented to a fat rich mixed meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Supplementation with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia compared to supplementation with cod and gluten. As postprandial lipemia is closely correlated to cardiovascular disease, long-term dietary supplementation with whey protein may prove beneficial in preventing cardiovascular disease in obese non-diabetic subjects.

Holmer-Jensen J; Mortensen LS; Astrup A; de Vrese M; Holst JJ; Thomsen C; Hermansen K

2013-01-01

319

Acute differential effects of dietary protein quality on postprandial lipemia in obese non-diabetic subjects  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Non-fasting triglyceridemia is much closer associated to cardiovascular risk compared to fasting triglyceridemia. We hypothesized that there would be acute differential effects of four common dietary proteins (cod protein, whey isolate, gluten, and casein) on postprandial lipemia in obese non-diabetic subjects. To test the hypothesis we conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study with crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins i.e. cod protein, whey protein, gluten or casein. Eleven obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, body mass index: 30.3-42.0 kg/m(2)) participated and blood samples were drawn in the 8-h postprandial period. Supplementation of a fat rich mixed meal with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia (P = .048) compared to supplementation with cod protein and gluten. This was primarily due to lower triglyceride concentration in the chylomicron rich fraction (P = .0293). Thus, we have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial metabolism of four dietary proteins supplemented to a fat rich mixed meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Supplementation with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia compared to supplementation with cod and gluten. As postprandial lipemia is closely correlated to cardiovascular disease, long-term dietary supplementation with whey protein may prove beneficial in preventing cardiovascular disease in obese non-diabetic subjects.

Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Mortensen, Lene S

2013-01-01

320

Moving beyond 'rates, roads and rubbish': How do local governments make choices about healthy public policy to prevent obesity?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

While the causes of obesity are well known traditional education and treatment strategies do not appear to be making an impact. One solution as part of a broader complimentary set of strategies may be regulatory intervention at local government level to create environments for healthy nutrition and increased physical activity. Semi structured interviews were conducted with representatives of local government in Australia. Factors most likely to facilitate policy change were those supported by external funding, developed from an evidence base and sensitive to community and market forces. Barriers to change included a perceived or real lack of power to make change and the complexity of the legislative framework. The development of a systematic evidence base to provide clear feedback on the size and scope of the obesity epidemic at a local level, coupled with cost benefit analysis for any potential regulatory intervention, are crucial to developing a regulatory environment which creates the physical and social environment required to prevent obesity.

Allender S; Gleeson E; Crammond B; Sacks G; Lawrence M; Peeters A; Loff B; Swinburn B

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Moving beyond 'rates, roads and rubbish': How do local governments make choices about healthy public policy to prevent obesity?  

Science.gov (United States)

While the causes of obesity are well known traditional education and treatment strategies do not appear to be making an impact. One solution as part of a broader complimentary set of strategies may be regulatory intervention at local government level to create environments for healthy nutrition and increased physical activity. Semi structured interviews were conducted with representatives of local government in Australia. Factors most likely to facilitate policy change were those supported by external funding, developed from an evidence base and sensitive to community and market forces. Barriers to change included a perceived or real lack of power to make change and the complexity of the legislative framework. The development of a systematic evidence base to provide clear feedback on the size and scope of the obesity epidemic at a local level, coupled with cost benefit analysis for any potential regulatory intervention, are crucial to developing a regulatory environment which creates the physical and social environment required to prevent obesity. PMID:19698170

Allender, Steven; Gleeson, Erin; Crammond, Brad; Sacks, Gary; Lawrence, Mark; Peeters, Anna; Loff, Bebe; Swinburn, Boyd

2009-08-23

322

Efficacy of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) in the prevention of the atypical endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer: retrospective data from selected obese menopausal symptomatic women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of levonorgestrel intrauterine system-releasing (LNG-IUS) insertion in preventing atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AH) and endometrial cancer (EC) in symptomatic postmenopausal overweight/obese women. A total of 34 overweight/obese postmenopausal women, presenting abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) and endometrial hyperplasia (EH), and who were submitted to LNG-IUS insertion, were identified from registry data. Endometrial histology at LNG-IUS insertion showed simple EH in 20 cases (58.8%), complex EH in 14 cases (41.2%). At 36 months, 91% of patients showed no recurrence of AUB and a significant reduction in the mean endometrial thickness (from 8.2?±?2.2 to 3.2?±?1.5?mm, p < 0.05) was observed. Histologic regression of EH was observed in 27 (79.4%) and 33 (97.5%) cases at 12 and 36 months, respectively. None of the women in which EH persisted, reported cellular atypia or cancer progression at 12 and 36 months of follow-up. LNG-IUS represents an effective treatment option to manage postmenopausal obese women affected by AUB and EH. The device seems to be able to prevent the onset of AH and EC in women at high risk. Further prospective controlled studies in a well selected group of women are needed.

Morelli M; Di Cello A; Venturella R; Mocciaro R; D'Alessandro P; Zullo F

2013-02-01

323

Efficacy of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) in the prevention of the atypical endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer: retrospective data from selected obese menopausal symptomatic women.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of levonorgestrel intrauterine system-releasing (LNG-IUS) insertion in preventing atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AH) and endometrial cancer (EC) in symptomatic postmenopausal overweight/obese women. A total of 34 overweight/obese postmenopausal women, presenting abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) and endometrial hyperplasia (EH), and who were submitted to LNG-IUS insertion, were identified from registry data. Endometrial histology at LNG-IUS insertion showed simple EH in 20 cases (58.8%), complex EH in 14 cases (41.2%). At 36 months, 91% of patients showed no recurrence of AUB and a significant reduction in the mean endometrial thickness (from 8.2?±?2.2 to 3.2?±?1.5?mm, p LNG-IUS represents an effective treatment option to manage postmenopausal obese women affected by AUB and EH. The device seems to be able to prevent the onset of AH and EC in women at high risk. Further prospective controlled studies in a well selected group of women are needed. PMID:23134558

Morelli, Michele; Di Cello, Annalisa; Venturella, Roberta; Mocciaro, Rita; D'Alessandro, Pietro; Zullo, Fulvio

2012-11-07

324

Pathways: a school-based, randomized controlled trial for the prevention of obesity in American Indian schoolchildren.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a major public health problem in the United States, particularly among American Indian communities. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based, multicomponent intervention for reducing percentage body fat in American Indian schoolchildren. DESIGN: This study was a randomized, controlled, school-based trial involving 1704 children in 41 schools and was conducted over 3 consecutive years, from 3rd to 5th grades, in schools serving American Indian communities in Arizona, New Mexico, and South Dakota. The intervention had 4 components: 1) change in dietary intake, 2) increase in physical activity, 3) a classroom curriculum focused on healthy eating and lifestyle, and 4) a family-involvement program. The main outcome was percentage body fat; other outcomes included dietary intake, physical activity, and knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. RESULTS: The intervention resulted in no significant reduction in percentage body fat. However, a significant reduction in the percentage of energy from fat was observed in the intervention schools. Total energy intake (by 24-h dietary recall) was significantly reduced in the intervention schools but energy intake (by direct observation) was not. Motion sensor data showed similar activity levels in both the intervention and control schools. Several components of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were also positively and significantly changed by the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: These results document the feasibility of implementing a multicomponent program for obesity prevention in elementary schools serving American Indian communities. The program produced significant positive changes in fat intake and in food- and health-related knowledge and behaviors. More intense or longer interventions may be needed to significantly reduce adiposity in this population.

Caballero B; Clay T; Davis SM; Ethelbah B; Rock BH; Lohman T; Norman J; Story M; Stone EJ; Stephenson L; Stevens J

2003-11-01

325

Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: interventions for the prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that prevention and treatment of pediatric overweight and obesity require systems-level approaches that include the skills of registered dietitians, as well as consistent and integrated messages and environmental support across all sectors of society to achieve sustained dietary and physical-activity behavior change. This position paper provides guidance and recommendations for levels of intervention targeting overweight and obesity prevention and treatment from preschool age through adolescence. Methods included a review of the literature from 2009 to April 2012, including the Academy's 2009 evidence analysis school-based reviews. Multicomponent interventions show the greatest impact for primary prevention; thus, early childhood and school-based interventions should integrate behavioral and environmental approaches that focus on dietary intake and physical activity using a systems-level approach targeting the multilevel structure of the socioecological model as well as interactions and relationships between levels. Secondary prevention and tertiary prevention/treatment should emphasize sustained family-based, developmentally appropriate approaches that include nutrition education, dietary counseling, parenting skills, behavioral strategies, and physical-activity promotion. For obese youth with concomitant serious comorbidities, structured dietary approaches and pharmacologic agents should be considered, and weight-loss surgery can be considered for severely obese adolescents. Policy and environmental interventions are recommended as feasible and sustainable ways to support healthful lifestyles for children and families. The Academy supports commitment of resources for interventions, policies, and research that promote healthful eating and physical-activity behaviors to ensure that all youth have the opportunity to achieve and maintain a weight that is optimal for health.

Hoelscher DM; Kirk S; Ritchie L; Cunningham-Sabo L

2013-10-01

326

Parental Weight Perceptions: A Cause for Concern in the Prevention and Management of Childhood Obesity in the United Arab Emirates  

Science.gov (United States)

Parental participation is a key factor in the prevention and management of childhood obesity, thus parental recognition of weight problems is essential. We estimated parental perceptions and their determinants in the Emirati population. We invited 1541 students (grade 1–12; 50% boys) and their parents, but only 1440 (6–19 years) and their parents consented. Of these, 945 Emirati nationals provided data for analysis. Anthropometric and demographic variables were measured by standard methods. CDC BMI percentile charts for age and sex were used to classify children’s weight. Parental perception of their children’s weight status (underweight, normal, and overweight/obese) was recorded. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent predictors of parental perceptions of children’s weight status. Of all parents, 33.8% misclassified their children’s’ weight status; underestimating (27.4%) or overestimating (6.3%). Misclassification was highest among parents of overweight/obese children (63.5%) and underweight (55.1%) children. More importantly, parental perceptions of their children being overweight or obese, among truly overweight/obese children, i.e. correct identification of an overweight/obese child as such, were associated with the true child’s BMI percentile (CDC) with an OR of 1.313 (95% CI: 1.209–1.425; p<0.001) per percentile point, but not age, parental education, household income, and child’s sex. We conclude that the majority of parents of overweight/obese children either overestimated or, more commonly, underestimated children’s weight status. Predictors of accurate parental perception, in this population, include the true children’s BMI, but not age, household income, and sex. Thus, parents having an incorrect perception of their child’s weight status may ignore otherwise appropriate health messages.

Aljunaibi, Abdulla; Abdulle, Abdishakur; Nagelkerke, Nico

2013-01-01

327

Parental weight perceptions: a cause for concern in the prevention and management of childhood obesity in the United Arab Emirates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Parental participation is a key factor in the prevention and management of childhood obesity, thus parental recognition of weight problems is essential. We estimated parental perceptions and their determinants in the Emirati population. We invited 1541 students (grade 1-12; 50% boys) and their parents, but only 1440 (6-19 years) and their parents consented. Of these, 945 Emirati nationals provided data for analysis. Anthropometric and demographic variables were measured by standard methods. CDC BMI percentile charts for age and sex were used to classify children's weight. Parental perception of their children's weight status (underweight, normal, and overweight/obese) was recorded. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent predictors of parental perceptions of children's weight status. Of all parents, 33.8% misclassified their children's' weight status; underestimating (27.4%) or overestimating (6.3%). Misclassification was highest among parents of overweight/obese children (63.5%) and underweight (55.1%) children. More importantly, parental perceptions of their children being overweight or obese, among truly overweight/obese children, i.e. correct identification of an overweight/obese child as such, were associated with the true child's BMI percentile (CDC) with an OR of 1.313 (95% CI: 1.209-1.425; p<0.001) per percentile point, but not age, parental education, household income, and child's sex. We conclude that the majority of parents of overweight/obese children either overestimated or, more commonly, underestimated children's weight status. Predictors of accurate parental perception, in this population, include the true children's BMI, but not age, household income, and sex. Thus, parents having an incorrect perception of their child's weight status may ignore otherwise appropriate health messages.

Aljunaibi A; Abdulle A; Nagelkerke N

2013-01-01

328

Fucoidan Prevents High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Animals by Suppression of Fat Accumulation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examines the antiobesity effects of fucoidan in an animal model of diet-induced obesity. Mice were fed a standard diet or high-fat diet (HFD) for 5?weeks. After that, the mice were divided into four experimental groups, with 10 mice per group, including a standard diet group, HFD group, HFD containing 1% fucoidan (HFD?+?FUCO 1%) group and HFD containing 2% fucoidan (HFD?+?FUCO 2%) group. The fucoidan supplementation group had significantly decreased body-weight gain, food efficiency ratio and relative liver and epididymal fat mass compared with the HFD group. The mice supplemented with fucoidan showed significantly reduced triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels in the plasma. Liver steatosis induced by the HFD improved in the fucoidan-supplemented group. Furthermore, fucoidan affected the down-regulation expression patterns of epididymal adipose tissue genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, adipose-specific fatty acid binding protein and acetyl CoA carboxylase. Therefore, fucoidan may be considered for use in improving obesity. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Kim MJ; Jeon J; Lee JS

2013-04-01

329

Implementing a community-based obesity prevention programme: experiences of stakeholders in the north east of England.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent literature indicates the potential of community-based obesity prevention programmes in the endeavour to reduce the prevalence of obesity in developed nations. Considerable suggestion and advocacy come from theoretical standpoints and little is known on actual practical application of this type of multi-component health promotion programme. This article explores the experiences of 'implementation' by stakeholders of a large community-based obesity prevention programme, facilitated by a National Health Service Care Trust in the north-east of England, UK. Three stakeholder groups (senior health officials, public health workers and community members) who had administrated and experienced the programme since its conception in 2006 provide perspectives on the aspects of local delivery and receipt. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with stakeholders (28 participants in total). The participants felt there were three broad aspects which shaped and constrained the delivery and receipt of the programme, namely partnership working, integration of services and quality issues. Data indicated that it had taken time to establish working partnerships between the multi-agencies involved in the community-based obesity programme. Strategic management would aid the processes of communication and collaboration between agencies and also the local community involved in the administration, delivery and participation of interventions in the programme. Secondly, the way in which the programme is justified and sustained will have to be reviewed, with the intention of using a suitable evaluative framework or tool for monitoring purposes.

Middleton G; Henderson H; Evans D

2013-01-01

330

Implementing a community-based obesity prevention programme: experiences of stakeholders in the north east of England.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent literature indicates the potential of community-based obesity prevention programmes in the endeavour to reduce the prevalence of obesity in developed nations. Considerable suggestion and advocacy come from theoretical standpoints and little is known on actual practical application of this type of multi-component health promotion programme. This article explores the experiences of 'implementation' by stakeholders of a large community-based obesity prevention programme, facilitated by a National Health Service Care Trust in the north-east of England, UK. Three stakeholder groups (senior health officials, public health workers and community members) who had administrated and experienced the programme since its conception in 2006 provide perspectives on the aspects of local delivery and receipt. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with stakeholders (28 participants in total). The participants felt there were three broad aspects which shaped and constrained the delivery and receipt of the programme, namely partnership working, integration of services and quality issues. Data indicated that it had taken time to establish working partnerships between the multi-agencies involved in the community-based obesity programme. Strategic management would aid the processes of communication and collaboration between agencies and also the local community involved in the administration, delivery and participation of interventions in the programme. Secondly, the way in which the programme is justified and sustained will have to be reviewed, with the intention of using a suitable evaluative framework or tool for monitoring purposes. PMID:23297339

Middleton, G; Henderson, H; Evans, D

2013-01-01

331

Thermic effect of food in lean and obese men.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A systemic reappraisal of the thermic effect of food was done in lean and obese males randomly fed mixed meals containing 0, 8, 16, 24, and 32 kcal/kg fat-free mass. Densitometric analysis was used to measure body composition. Preprandial and postprandial energy expenditures were measured by indirec...

D'Alessio, D A; Kavle, E C; Mozzoli, M A; Smalley, K J; Polansky, M; Kendrick, Z V; Owen, L R; Bushman, M C; Boden, G

332

Developing an effective pollution prevention program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pollution prevention is rapidly becoming a key environmental program element. Congress has increased this emphasis by the passage of the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990. EPA has allocated an increasing share of its budget to pollution prevention activities. Waste minimization/pollution prevention has often been thought of as recycling aluminum cans and paper, but an effective program includes much more. An effective pollution prevention program consists of numerous elements, including a pollution prevention plan, an awareness plan, employee training, process waste assessments, and successful implementation and refinement of the program. This paper discusses what pollution prevention is, the benefits of a pollution prevention program, and the key elements of the program, elements which spell the key theme, Prevention.

Newton, J.J. [Pollution Prevention Inst., Chamblee, GA (United States)

1994-12-31

333

Culturally adapting the prevention of diabetes and obesity in South Asians (PODOSA) trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

Type 2 diabetes is extremely common in South Asians, e.g. in men from Pakistani and Indian populations it is about three times as likely as in the general population in England, despite similarities in body mass index. Lifestyle interventions reduce the incidence of diabetes. Trials in Europe and North America have not, however, reported on the impact on South Asian populations separately or provided the details of their cross-cultural adaptation processes. Prevention of diabetes and obesity in South Asians (PODOSA) is a randomized, controlled trial in Scotland of an adapted, lifestyle intervention aimed at reducing weight and increasing physical activity to reduce type 2 diabetes in Indians and Pakistanis. The trial was adapted from the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. We describe, reflect on and discuss the following key issues: The core adaptations to the trial design, particularly the delivery of the intervention in homes by dietitians rather than in clinics.The use of both a multilingual panel and professional translators to help translate and/or develop materials.The processes and challenges of phonetic translation.How intervention resources were adapted, modified, newly developed and translated into Urdu and Gurmukhi (written Punjabi).The insights gained in PODOSA (including time pressures on investigators, imperfections in the adaptation process, the power of verbal rather than written information, the utilization of English and the mother-tongue languages simultaneously by participants and the costs) might help the research community, given the challenge of health promotion in multi-ethnic, urban societies. PMID:23574693

Wallia, S; Bhopal, R S; Douglas, A; Bhopal, R; Sharma, A; Hutchison, A; Murray, G; Gill, J; Sattar, N; Lawton, J; Tuomilehto, J; McKnight, J; Forbes, J; Lean, M; Sheikh, A

2013-04-10

334

Feasibility of Bariatric Surgery as a Strategy for Secondary Prevention in Cardiovascular Disease: A Report from the Swedish Obese Subjects Trial  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aims. Evaluation of bariatric surgery as secondary prevention in obese patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD). Methods. Analysis of data from 4047 subjects in the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOSs) study. Thirty-five patients with IHD are treated with bariatric surgery (n = 21) or conventional...

Delling, Lotta; Karason, Kristjan; Olbers, Torsten; Sjöström, David; Wahlstrand, Björn; Carlsson, Björn; Carlsson, Lena

335

Food and Nutrition Board Update: What Do SNAP Allotments, Physical Fitness, and Obesity Prevention Have in Common?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Institute of Medicine's Food and Nutrition Board had a productive year, with important expert committee reports on the Supplemental Food Assistance Program, physical fitness, and accelerating obesity prevention efforts that provided grounding for dietary guidance and nutrition policies and programs. This summary describes Food and Nutrition Board activities, including current thinking on dietary reference intakes. The summary also highlights consensus reports on defining and measuring Supplemental Food Assistance Program benefit adequacy and on physical fitness and health outcomes in youth. In addition, current and new activities related to obesity prevention and care are addressed. What do these activities have in common? All adhere to the Institute of Medicine report model by filling gaps and by being analytical, evidence-based, and challenging.

Meyers LD; Murphy SP; Yaktine AL

2013-01-01

336

Diet reduction to requirements in obese/overfed ewes from early gestation prevents glucose/insulin dysregulation and returns fetal adiposity and organ development to control levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity at conception and excess gestational weight gain pose significant risks for adverse health consequences in human offspring. This study evaluated the effects of reducing dietary intake of obese/overfed ewes beginning in early gestation on fetal development. Sixty days prior to conception, ewes were assigned to a control diet [CON: 100% of National Research Council (NRC) recommendations], a diet inducing maternal obesity (MO: 150% of NRC recommendations), or a maternal obesity intervention diet (MOI: 150% of NRC recommendations to day 28 of gestation, then 100% NRC) until necropsy at midgestation (day 75) or late (day 135) gestation. Fetal size and weight, as well as fetal organ weights, were greater (P < 0.05) at midgestation in MO ewes than those of CON and MOI ewes. By late gestation, whereas fetal size and weight did not differ among dietary groups, cardiac ventricular weights and wall thicknesses as well as liver and perirenal fat weights remained elevated in fetuses from MO ewes compared with those from CON and MOI ewes. MO ewes and fetuses exhibited elevated (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, glucose, and cortisol at midgestation compared with CON and MOI ewes and fetuses. In late gestation, whereas plasma triglycerides and cholesterol, insulin, and cortisol remained elevated in MO vs. CON and MOI ewes and fetuses, glucose concentrations were elevated in both MO and MOI fetuses compared with CON fetuses, which was associated with elevated placental GLUT3 expression in both groups. These data are consistent with the concept that reducing maternal diet of obese/overfed ewes to requirements from early gestation can prevent subsequent alterations in fetal growth, adiposity, and glucose/insulin dynamics. PMID:23921140

Tuersunjiang, Nuermaimaiti; Odhiambo, John F; Long, Nathan M; Shasa, Desiree R; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ford, Stephen P

2013-08-06

337

Diet reduction to requirements in obese/overfed ewes from early gestation prevents glucose/insulin dysregulation and returns fetal adiposity and organ development to control levels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Obesity at conception and excess gestational weight gain pose significant risks for adverse health consequences in human offspring. This study evaluated the effects of reducing dietary intake of obese/overfed ewes beginning in early gestation on fetal development. Sixty days prior to conception, ewes were assigned to a control diet [CON: 100% of National Research Council (NRC) recommendations], a diet inducing maternal obesity (MO: 150% of NRC recommendations), or a maternal obesity intervention diet (MOI: 150% of NRC recommendations to day 28 of gestation, then 100% NRC) until necropsy at midgestation (day 75) or late (day 135) gestation. Fetal size and weight, as well as fetal organ weights, were greater (P < 0.05) at midgestation in MO ewes than those of CON and MOI ewes. By late gestation, whereas fetal size and weight did not differ among dietary groups, cardiac ventricular weights and wall thicknesses as well as liver and perirenal fat weights remained elevated in fetuses from MO ewes compared with those from CON and MOI ewes. MO ewes and fetuses exhibited elevated (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, glucose, and cortisol at midgestation compared with CON and MOI ewes and fetuses. In late gestation, whereas plasma triglycerides and cholesterol, insulin, and cortisol remained elevated in MO vs. CON and MOI ewes and fetuses, glucose concentrations were elevated in both MO and MOI fetuses compared with CON fetuses, which was associated with elevated placental GLUT3 expression in both groups. These data are consistent with the concept that reducing maternal diet of obese/overfed ewes to requirements from early gestation can prevent subsequent alterations in fetal growth, adiposity, and glucose/insulin dynamics.

Tuersunjiang N; Odhiambo JF; Long NM; Shasa DR; Nathanielsz PW; Ford SP

2013-10-01

338

WITHDRAWN: Strategies for the prevention and control of obesity in the school setting: systematic review and meta-analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors hereby retract the e-publication dated July 31, 2007, entitled, 'Strategies for the prevention and control of obesity in the school setting: systematic review and meta-analysis,' and are submitting a revised version with the same title. A secondary review of the manuscript took place following its initial acceptance, resulting in additional statistical analyses along with some pertinent revisions to the accompanying narrative.

Katz DL; O'Connell M; Njike VY; Yeh MC; Nawaz H

2007-07-01

339

Resveratrol inhibits the deleterious effects of diet-induced obesity on thymic function.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is associated with an increased risk of infectious diseases. It has been shown to have deleterious effects on cell-mediated immunity, including reducing thymocyte numbers and altering responses of thymocytes to pathogens. In the current study, we examined the efficacy of the antiobesity phytochemical resveratrol in preventing the deleterious effects of a high-fat diet on thymic anatomy and function. Compared to C57Bl/6 male mice fed a low-fat diet, mice on a high-fat diet had a significant increase in thymic weight and lipid content, and a disrupted anatomy, including a reduction of the medullary compartment and absence of a corticomedullary junction. There were a decrease in thymic cellularity and mature T-cell output, and a disrupted T-cell maturation, as evidenced by increased double-negative and decreased single- and double-positive thymocytes. Mice that had been fed resveratrol along with a high-fat diet had a dose-dependent reversal in all these parameters. Western blots from thymi showed that obese mice had lower levels of the key stimulators of lipid metabolism, phospho-5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and its downstream target, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1; this was restored to normal levels in resveratrol-fed mice. Resveratrol also reversed an increase in glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-1, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in triglycerol synthesis. Taken together, these results indicate that resveratrol is a potent inhibitor of the deleterious effects of diet-induced obesity on thymic anatomy and function, and this may hold promise in preventing obesity-related deficits in cell-mediated immunity. PMID:23561698

Gulvady, Apeksha A; Ciolino, Henry P; Cabrera, Robert M; Jolly, Christopher A

2013-04-03

340

Overview of noncommunicable diseases in korean children and adolescents: focus on obesity and its effect on metabolic syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Obesity during childhood is a dominant risk factor for noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), and is itself considered a disease that needs to be treated. Recently, the growth in childhood obesity in Korea has become stagnant; however, two in every ten children are still overweight. In addition, 60% or more of overweight children have at least one metabolic syndrome risk factor. Thus, childhood obesity should be controlled through lifestyle modification. This paper reviews studies of the modifiable risk factors of obesity in Korean children. According to the life-course approach, preschool-aged children (<5 years) are influenced by their parents rather than individual habits because they are under mostly parental care. Elementary school-aged children (6 to 11 years) are affected by overlapping individual and parental effects. This may mean that the establishment of individual behavior patterns begins during this period. The conditions of poor eating habits such as skipping meals, eating out, and high fat intake, along with low physical activity, facilitate increased obesity among adolescents (12 to 18 years). Notably, adolescent girls show high rates of both underweight and obesity, which may lead to the development of NCDs in their offspring. Therefore, the problem of NCDs is no longer limited to adults, but is also prevalent among children. In addition, early intervention offers cost-effective opportunities for preventing NCDs. Thus, children need primary consideration, adequate monitoring, diagnosis, and treatment to reduce the burden of NCDs later in adulthood.

Lee HA; Park H

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
341

Evaluation of the childhood obesity prevention program Kids - 'Go for your life'  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Kids - 'Go for your life' (K-GFYL) is an award-based health promotion program being implemented across Victoria, Australia. The program aims to reduce the risk of childhood obesity by improving the socio-cultural, policy and physical environments in children's care and educational settings. Membership of the K-GFYL program is open to all primary and pre-schools and early childhood services across the State. Once in the program, member schools and services are centrally supported to undertake the health promotion (intervention) activities. Once the K-GFYL program 'criteria' are reached the school/service is assessed and 'awarded'. This paper describes the design of the evaluation of the statewide K-GFYL intervention program. Methods/Design The evaluation is mixed method and cross sectional and aims to: 1) Determine if K-GFYL award status is associated with more health promoting environments in schools/services compared to those who are members only; 2) Determine if children attending K-GFYL award schools/services have higher levels of healthy eating and physical activity-related behaviors compared to those who are members only; 3) Examine the barriers to implementing and achieving the K-GFYL award; and 4) Determine the economic cost of implementing K-GFYL in primary schools Parent surveys will capture information about the home environment and child dietary and physical activity-related behaviors. Environmental questionnaires in early childhood settings and schools will capture information on the physical activity and nutrition environment and current health promotion activities. Lunchbox surveys and a set of open-ended questions for kindergarten parents will provide additional data. Resource use associated with the intervention activities will be collected from primary schools for cost analysis. Discussion The K-GFYL award program is a community-wide intervention that requires a comprehensive, multi-level evaluation. The evaluation design is constrained by the lack of a non-K-GFYL control group, short time frames and delayed funding of this large scale evaluation across all intervention settings. However, despite this, the evaluation will generate valuable evidence about the utility of a community-wide environmental approach to preventing childhood obesity which will inform future public health policies and health promotion programs internationally. Trial Registration ACTRN12609001075279

de Silva-Sanigorski Andrea; Prosser Lauren; Carpenter Lauren; Honisett Suzy; Gibbs Lisa; Moodie Marj; Sheppard Lauren; Swinburn Boyd; Waters Elizabeth

2010-01-01

342

Childhood obesity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Childhood obesity is an issue of serious medical and social concern. In developing countries including India, it is a phenomenon seen in higher socioeconomic strata due to the adoption of a western lifestyle. Consumption of high calorie food, lack of physical activity and increased screen time are major risk factors for childhood obesity apart from other genetic, prenatal factors and socio-cultural practices. Obese children and adolescents are at increased risk of medical and psychological complications. Insulin resistance is commonly present especially in those with central obesity and manifests as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, polycystic ovarian syndrome and metabolic syndrome. Obese children and adolescents often present to general physicians for management. The latter play a key role in prevention and treatment of obesity as it involves lifestyle modification of the entire family. This article aims at discussing the approach to diagnosis and work-up, treatment and preventive strategies for childhood obesity from a general physician's perspective.

Seth A; Sharma R

2013-04-01

343

The Effect of Exercise in Obese Women with Bulimia Nervosa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose:Obesity has been identified as a risk factor for the development of bulimia nervosa (BN) in those who try to lose weight. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of walking exercise in order to provide a method for overcoming bulimia nervosa in obese young women suffering from bulimia nervosa.Methods: Twenty obese women with bulimia nervosa (body mass index [BMI]>30) and a mean age of 22.00 ± 1.50 years volunteered to participate in this study. They were randomly assigned to exercise (n=10) and control (n=10) groups. Both groups underwent anthropometric measurements and blood analysis before and after the training program. Exercise program included 30-minute walking sessions at 50-75% of maximal heart rate,3 days per week and for 2 months.Results: After 2 months significant changes were observed in all anthropometric variables (P<0.001).Percent body fat, fat mass, BMI, body weight and lean mass changes in response to training were significant in the exercise group (P<0.001).Conclusion:This study demonstrated that moderate aerobic exercises such as moderate walking are suitable behavior therapies for overcoming bulimia nervosa in obese young women.

Nasim Habibzadeh; Hassn Daneshmandi

2010-01-01

344

Hypoglycemic effects of brassinosteroid in diet-induced obese mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The prevalence of obesity is increasing globally, and obesity is a major risk factor for metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Previously, we reported that oral administration of homobrassinolide (HB) to healthy rats triggered a selective anabolic response that was associated with lower blood glucose. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of HB administration on glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, body composition, and gluconeogenic gene expression profiles in liver of C57BL/6J high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Acute oral administration of 50-300 mg/kg HB to obese mice resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in fasting blood glucose within 3 h of treatment. Daily chronic administration of HB (50 mg/kg for 8 wk) ameliorated hyperglycemia and improved oral glucose tolerance associated with obesity without significantly affecting body weight or body composition. These changes were accompanied by lower expression of two key gluconeogenic enzymes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase), and increased phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in the liver and muscle tissue. In vitro, HB treatment (1-15 ?M) inhibited cyclic AMP-stimulated but not dexamethasone-stimulated upregulation of PEPCK and G-6-Pase mRNA levels in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. Among a series of brassinosteroid analogs related to HB, only homocastasterone decreased glucose production in cell culture significantly. These results indicate the antidiabetic effects of brassinosteroids and begin to elucidate their putative cellular targets both in vitro and in vivo.

Esposito D; Kizelsztein P; Komarnytsky S; Raskin I

2012-09-01

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