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Sample records for obese donors experienced

  1. Select utilization of obese donors in living donor liver transplantation: implications for the donor pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, J; Lapointe-Rudow, D; Renz, J F; Kinkhabwala, M; Dove, L M; Gaglio, P J; Emond, J C; Brown, R S

    2005-12-01

    Living donor liver transplantation evolved in response to donor shortage. Current guidelines recommend potential living donors (LD) have a body mass index (BMI) 30 (n = 16) and BMI 30 may undergo donor hepatectomy with acceptable morbidity and excellent recipient results. Updating current guidelines to include select LD with BMI >30 has the potential to safely increase the donor pool. PMID:16303013

  2. Re-donation intentions among experienced blood donors: does gender make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Janis L; France, Christopher R; Himawan, Lina K

    2008-04-01

    Path analysis was used to examine sex differences in motivation for repeat donation among experienced blood donors. Results confirm the importance of constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior (e.g., donation attitude, subjective norm, personal moral norm, and donation self-efficacy) and of prior donation experience (e.g., vasovagal symptoms, overall satisfaction) as significant predictors of donation intention. Importantly, the findings also indicate that a consideration of sex differences in donor motivations results in a better prediction model and suggests a framework of possible avenues where interventions could be expected to improve donor return rates. PMID:18331813

  3. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric band in an obese unrelated living donor prior to kidney transplantation: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Coombes Jeff S; Wilkinson Stephen; Koshy Anoop N; Fassett Robert G

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Obese living donors who undergo donor nephrectomy have higher rates of intra-operative and post-operative complications. Many centres exclude obese donors from living donor transplant programs. Diet, exercise and medication are often ineffective weight loss interventions for donors, hence bariatric surgery should be considered. Case presentation We report the case of a 53-year-old Caucasian woman who underwent laparoscopically adjustable gastric banding. The procedure en...

  4. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric band in an obese unrelated living donor prior to kidney transplantation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coombes Jeff S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Obese living donors who undergo donor nephrectomy have higher rates of intra-operative and post-operative complications. Many centres exclude obese donors from living donor transplant programs. Diet, exercise and medication are often ineffective weight loss interventions for donors, hence bariatric surgery should be considered. Case presentation We report the case of a 53-year-old Caucasian woman who underwent laparoscopically adjustable gastric banding. The procedure enabled her to lose sufficient weight to gain eligibility for kidney donation. After losing weight, she had an uncomplicated laparoscopic donor nephrectomy surgery, and the recipient underwent successful kidney transplantation. Conclusion Laparoscopically adjustable gastric banding should be considered for obese potential living kidney donors whenever transplantation units restrict access to donor nephrectomy based on the increased surgical risk for donors.

  5. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Clinical Systems Improvement. Prevention and management of obesity for adults. Updated May 2013. Available at: https://www.icsi.org/_asset/s935hy/ObesityAdults.pdf. Accessed August 17, 2014. Jensen MD. Obesity. In: ...

  6. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories ...

  7. Experienced Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Richard A.

    This book describes a theoretical framework, "experienced cognition," for understanding cognition at the level of conscious mental states that make up a person's stream of awareness. The central idea is a cospecification hypothesis that an experienced self and experienced objects are simultaneously specified in the information available to…

  8. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some of these conditions. And once we’ ... person. We generally try and avoid the very obese donor, particularly because they’re at long-term ...

  9. Co-receptor usage and prediction of v3 genotyping algorithms in hiv-1 subtype b' from paid blood donors experienced anti-retroviral therapy in chinese central province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xiaoling

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study explored co-receptor usage and prediction of V3 genotyping algorithms in HIV-1 subtype B' from paid blood donors experienced anti-retroviral therapy in Chinese central province in order to design effectively therapeutic regimen. Methods HIV-1 strains were isolated in treatment HIV-1 infections and treatment-naïve HIV-1 infections, then co-receptor usage of HIV-1 strains was identified based on Ghost cell lines using flow cytometry. HIV-1 V3 region was amplified and submitted into web-server (WebPSSM and geno2pheno to predict HIV-1 co-receptor usage. The feasibility of prediction HIV-1 usage with Web-server assay was analyzed by comparing prediction of V3 genotyping algorithms with HIV phenotype assay based on Ghost cell line. Results 45 HIV-1 strains and 114 HIV-1 strains were isolated from HIV-1 infections exposed anti-retroviral therapy and treatment-naïve, respectively. 41% clinical viruses from ART patients and 18% from treatment-naïve patients used CXCR4 as co-receptor. The net charge in the V3 loop was significantly difference in both groups. The sensitivity and specificity for predicting co-receptor capacity is 54.6% and 90.0% on 11/25 rule, 50.0% and 90% on Web-PSSMx4r5, 68.2% and 40.0% on Geno2pheno[co-receptor]. Conclusion Dual/mixed/X4 co-receptor utilization was higher in ART patients than treatment-naïve patients. It is should paid attention to predicting HIV-1 co-receptor usage based on V3 genotyping algorithms in HIV-1 subtype B' from paid blood donors experienced anti-retroviral therapy in Chinese central province.

  10. Combined oral contraception and obesity are strong predictors of low-grade inflammation in healthy individuals : results from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Cecilie J; Pedersen, Ole B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-established marker of inflammation. The level of CRP is affected by several lifestyle factors. A slightly increased CRP level, also known as low-grade inflammation (LGI), is associated with increased risk of several diseases, especially cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of increased CRP levels in healthy individuals. We therefore assessed CRP in a large cohort of blood donors. METHODS: We measured plasma CRP levels in 15,684 participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study. CRP was measured by a commercial assay. Furthermore, all participants completed a standard questionnaire on smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, diet, and various body measurements. Female participants also reported the use of contraception, childbirth, and menopausal status. The relationship between LGI (defined here as a plasma CRP level between 3 mg/L and 10 mg/L) and predictors was explored by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results were presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: We found LGI in a total of 1,561 (10.0%) participants. LGI was more frequent in women using combined oral contraception (OC) (29.9%) than in men (6.1%) and women not using OC (7.9%). Among premenopausal women, OC was the strongest predictor of LGI (odds ratio?=?8.98, p<0.001). Additionally, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were positively associated with LGI. CONCLUSION: High BMI and abdominal obesity strongly predicted LGI among healthy individuals. However, the most striking finding was the high prevalence of LGI among premenopausal women who used combined oral contraception. Although the significance of CRP as a marker of inflammation is well known, the role of CRP in pathogenesis is still uncertain. The impact of oral contraception on CRP levels should nevertheless be considered when CRP is used in risk assessment.

  11. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exposure, because we really need to get a long length of this kidney or renal vein to ... very obese donor, particularly because they’re at long-term risks for health problems such as diabetes, ...

  12. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some of these ... donor, my life really hasn’t changed. My health is just as good now as it ever ...

  13. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Nitin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the various options for patients with end stage renal disease, kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for a suitable patient. The kidney for transplantation is retrieved from either a cadaver or a live donor. Living donor nephrectomy has been developed as a method to address the shortfall in cadaveric kidneys available for transplantation. Laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy (LLDN, by reducing postoperative pain, shortening convalescence, and improving the cosmetic outcome of the donor nephrectomy, has shown the potential to increase the number of living kidney donations further by removing some of the disincentives inherent to donation itself. The technique of LLDN has undergone evolution at different transplant centers and many modifications have been done to improve donor safety and recipient outcome. Virtually all donors eligible for an open surgical procedure may also undergo the laparoscopic operation. Various earlier contraindications to LDN, such as right donor kidney, multiple vessels, anomalous vasculature and obesity have been overcome with increasing experience. Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy can be done transperitoneally or retroperitoneally on either side. The approach is most commonly transperitoneal, which allows adequate working space and easy dissection. A review of literature and our experience with regards to standard approach and the modifications is presented including a cost saving model for the developing countries. An assessment has been made, of the impact of LDN on the outcome of donor and the recipient.

  14. Acute toxicities of unrelated bone marrow versus peripheral blood stem cell donation: results of a prospective trial from the National Marrow Donor Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsipher, Michael A; Chitphakdithai, Pintip; Logan, Brent R; Shaw, Bronwen E; Wingard, John R; Lazarus, Hillard M; Waller, Edmund K; Seftel, Matthew; Stroncek, David F; Lopez, Angela M; Maharaj, Dipnarine; Hematti, Peiman; O'Donnell, Paul V; Loren, Alison W; Leitman, Susan F; Anderlini, Paolo; Goldstein, Steven C; Levine, John E; Navarro, Willis H; Miller, John P; Confer, Dennis L

    2013-01-01

    Although peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) have replaced bone marrow (BM) as the most common unrelated donor progenitor cell product collected, a direct comparison of concurrent PBSC versus BM donation experiences has not been performed. We report a prospective study of 2726 BM and 6768 PBSC donors who underwent collection from 2004 to 2009. Pain and toxicities were assessed at baseline, during G-CSF administration, on the day of collection, within 48 hours of donation, and weekly until full recovery. Peak levels of pain and toxicities did not differ between the 2 donation processes for most donors. Among obese donors, PBSC donors were at increased risk of grade 2 to 4 pain as well as grade 2 to 4 toxicities during the pericollection period. In contrast, BM donors were more likely to experience grade 2 to 4 toxicities at 1 week and pain at 1 week and 1 month after the procedure. BM donors experienced slower recovery, with 3% still not fully recovered at 24 weeks, whereas 100% of PBSC donors had recovered. Other factors associated with toxicity included obesity, increasing age, and female sex. In summary, this study provides extensive detail regarding individualized risk patterns of PBSC versus BM donation toxicity, suggesting donor profiles that can be targeted with interventions to minimize toxicity. PMID:23109243

  15. Combined Oral Contraception and Obesity Are Strong Predictors of Low-Grade Inflammation in Healthy Individuals : Results from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Cecilie J; Pedersen, Ole B

    2014-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-established marker of inflammation. The level of CRP is affected by several lifestyle factors. A slightly increased CRP level, also known as low-grade inflammation (LGI), is associated with increased risk of several diseases, especially cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of increased CRP levels in healthy individuals. We therefore assessed CRP in a large cohort of blood donors.

  16. The sociology of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, Annika; Lissner, Lauren

    2008-01-01

    The current obesity epidemic is largely driven by environmental factors, including nutritional transition towards refined and fatty foods with the growing production of energy-dense food at relatively low cost, increased access to motor vehicles, mechanisation of work and sedentary lifestyles. These influences in modern society are modified by individual characteristics. Ultimately, energy intake in excess of caloric expenditure causes obesity, but why this occurs in some but not all individuals is not known. Obesity is more prevalent in the lower socioeconomic classes but even so, there is a varying relation of socioeconomic status with obesity between countries at different stages of development and, even in the Western world, socioeconomic gradients with respect to obesity are both heterogeneous and in transition. Potential mechanisms for an effect of obesity on subsequent social status have been proposed, the most obvious being related to the stigmatisation experienced by the obese. Obesity seems to be causally related to mood disturbances, whereas there is no conclusive evidence that the reverse is true. When considering psychological aspects of obesity, depressive symptoms are more likely to be consequences, rather than causes of obesity. PMID:18230907

  17. Evaluation of the medically complex living kidney donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Yasar; Yildiz, Alaattin

    2012-01-01

    Due to organ shortage and difficulties for availability of cadaveric donors, living donor transplantation is an important choice for having allograft. Live donor surgery is elective and easier to organize prior to starting dialysis thereby permitting preemptive transplantation as compared to cadaveric transplantation. Because of superior results with living kidney transplantation, efforts including the usage of "Medically complex living donors" are made to increase the availability of organs for donation. The term "Complex living donor" is probably preferred for all suboptimal donors where decision-making is a problem due to lack of sound medical data or consensus guidelines. Donors with advanced age, obesity, asymptomatic microhematuria, proteinuria, hypertension, renal stone disease, history of malignancy and with chronic viral infections consist of this complex living donors. This medical complex living donors requires careful evaluation for future renal risk. In this review we would like to present the major issues in the evaluation process of medically complex living kidney donor. PMID:22655169

  18. Transplantation in obese patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killackey, Mary T

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic leading to severe comorbidity that damages end-organ function. Overall transplant outcomes in this population are inferior to those in nonobese patients. Large population studies show decreased patient and graft survival in obese kidney transplant patients. Despite the poorer outcomes, kidney transplantation is considered because of the survival benefit as compared with the wait-listed dialysis patients. In liver transplantation, the benefit to transplantation as compared with remaining on the list is obvious, as there is no viable liver dialysis at this time. Obesity in potential organ donors impacts both medical and surgical issues. Obesity-related kidney disease affects both the remaining and transplanted kidney. Pancreas donor organs are associated with decreased early graft survival. Liver donor organs with significant steatosis lead to an increased risk for delayed or nonfunction of the organ. Immunosuppressive drugs with variable lipophilicity and altered volume of distribution can greatly affect the therapeutic usefulness of these drugs. Transplant candidates benefit from a multidisciplinary team approach to their care. As the epidemic progresses and less-invasive treatments for metabolic surgery evolve, we are likely to require more patients to lose weight prior to transplantation as we continue to strive for improved outcomes. PMID:22678862

  19. [Interpersonal patterns in obese patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesewetter, Sybille; Köpsel, Andrea; Pfeiffer, Andreas F; Köpp, Werner; Kastner, Sabrina; Orth-Gomér, Kristina; Deter, Hans-Christian

    2014-07-01

    In the last decades the number of obese and pre-obese patients in Western industrial nations increased. Obese patients have been largely unsuccessful in losing weight over time, but the causes of their difficulties and the causes of their obesity have remained unclear. We examined whether the attachment style and its interaction with interpersonal processes would shed light on this question. We analyzed 107 obese or pre-obese patients before the start of a weight loss intervention program. We used the Adult Attachement Prototype Rating (AAPR)-interview and related questionnaires (Helping Alliance Questionnaire (HAQ), Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-D), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI)). According to the AAPR-rating 54% of the patients were secure and 46% insecure attached. The results suggest that insecure attachment style has an impact on psychic strain in obese patients unrelated to weight, gender and age. Additionally the insecure attachment style influences the therapeutic alliance experienced by patients and the therapist. PMID:24446185

  20. Experiencing architecture, Ljubljana Island

    OpenAIRE

    Lovrenc Košenina; Or Ettlinger

    2012-01-01

    This workshop took place at the Florjan?i? studio in order to support 4th year students in designing their urban development projects in the city of Ljubljana. To serve this purpose, the workshop provided students with an opportunity to raise their awareness of a particular aspect of architecture and the city: the way it is experienced. The task was to design the undeveloped banks of the Ljubljanica River and Gruber Canal - but with an alternative perception in mind: not just as a sequence ...

  1. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity. PMID:25949965

  2. Contacting My Donor Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Donor Family Newsroom Minorities Contacting My Donor Family Writing anything can be a challenge. Staring at ... down to write a note to your donor family can feeling overwhelming. The good news is that ...

  3. The natural history of residual renal function in transplant donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Thomas F; Luyckx, Valerie A

    2012-09-01

    After uninephrectomy, GFR in the remaining kidney increases to 60%-70% of the predonation value, largely because of a substantial increase in renal blood flow. Donor kidney function is then generally maintained over many years. Hypertension and proteinuria are common among living donors but do not appear to negatively affect long-term renal function. Loss of reserve capacity regarding renal function in some subgroups after donation, particularly in obese and older donors, raises questions about limitations of the renal adaptive response and suggests caution in generalization of current outcome data to more marginal donors not well represented in older studies. PMID:22797183

  4. Obesity Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Cooper

    A one page activity that takes students to several websites related to the obesity epidemic. First they can calculate BMI, then learn about national trends in the rate of obesity and finally use a tutorial on insulin and diabetes.

  5. Hypothalamic obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock Gilbert, S; Roth, L W

    2015-03-01

    Hypothalamic obesity represents a rare diagnosis applicable to only a small subset of obese patients. It is important to identify, diagnose, and treat these patients. This article reviews the physiology of the hypothalamus, focusing on its role in regulation of hunger, feeding, and metabolism. The causes of hypothalamic obesity are discussed including genetic, anatomic, and iatrogenic etiologies. The complex hormonal environment leading to obesity is explored for each etiology and treatment strategies are discussed. Reproductive consequences are also reviewed. PMID:25370939

  6. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  7. High-risk donors: expanding donor criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, M L; Shapiro, R; Vivas, C A; Scantlebury, V P; Corry, R J; Randhawa, P; Hakala, T R; Starzl, T E

    1999-01-01

    Advances in the surgical techniques, preservation solutions, and methods for predicting eventual long-term renal function from expanded donors will be critical in allowing precise selection criteria for kidneys for transplantation, resulting in the optimum use of a scarce and precious resource. Until other options such as xenotransplantation or tissue engineering become realistic, the challenge for the millennium will be to identify which donor organs previously considered suboptimal can be safely used to expand the organ donor pool. PMID:10083620

  8. Donor Tag Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Games > Donor Tag Game Printable Version Donor Tag Game This feature requires version 6 or later of the Flash Player plug-in, which is available as a free download . Donating Blood Why Donate Blood? Eligibility Requirements ...

  9. Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overweight and Obesity Share Compartir Childhood Overweight and Obesity Obesity now affects 17% of all children and adolescents ... from just one generation ago. Basics About Childhood Obesity How is childhood obesity measured? What are the ...

  10. M1 polarization bias and subsequent nonalcoholic steatohepatitis progression is attenuated by nitric oxide donor DETA NONOate via inhibition of CYP2E1-induced oxidative stress in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Ratanesh Kumar; Das, Suvarthi; Pourhoseini, Sahar; Dattaroy, Diptadip; Igwe, Stephen; Ray, Julie Basu; Fan, Daping; Michelotti, Gregory A; Diehl, Anna Mae; Chatterjee, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Activation of M1 macrophages in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is produced by several external or endogenous factors: inflammatory stimuli, oxidative stress, and cytokines are known. However, any direct role of oxidative stress in causing M1 polarization in NASH has been unclear. We hypothesized that CYP2E1-mediated oxidative stress causes M1 polarization in experimental NASH, and that nitric oxide (NO) donor administration inhibits CYP2E1-mediated inflammation with concomitant attenuation of M1 polarization. Because CYP2E1 takes center stage in these studies, we used a toxin model of NASH that uses a ligand and a substrate of CYP2E1 for inducing NASH. Subsequently, we used a methionine and choline-deficient diet-induced rodent NASH model where the role of CYP2E1 in disease progression has been shown. Our results show that CYP2E1 causes M1 polarization bias, which includes a significant increase in interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and IL-12 in both models of NASH, whereas CYP2E1-null mice or diallyl sulfide administration prevented it. Administration of gadolinium chloride (GdCl3), a macrophage toxin, attenuated both the initial M1 response and the subsequent M2 response, showing that the observed increase in cytokine levels is primarily from macrophages. Based on the evidence of an adaptive NO increase, the NO donor administration in vivo that mechanistically inhibited CYP2E1 catalyzed the oxidative stress during the entire study in NASH-abrogated M1 polarization and NASH progression. The results obtained show the association of CYP2E1 in M1 polarization, and that inhibition of CYP2E1 catalyzed oxidative stress by an NO donor (DETA NONOate [(Z)-1-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl)amino]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate]) can be a promising therapeutic strategy in NASH. PMID:25347994

  11. Update on Treatment Strategies for Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wyatt, Holly R

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a disease that is defined as the accumulation of excessive amounts of body fat and is associated with increased risk of serious illness, disability, and death. In clinical practice, obesity is best assessed by calculating body mass index and measuring waist circumference. Treatment options are determined based on the body mass index, waist circumference, and adverse health consequences the patient is experiencing or is at an increased risk for facing in the future. Today, overweigh...

  12. Expanding criteria for living kidney donors: what are the limits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Textor, Stephen; Taler, Sandra

    2008-07-01

    The need to evaluate potential living kidney donors is more pressing than ever before. Evaluating the potential medical risks to individual donors presents both medical and ethical questions related to quantitative hazards of donor nephrectomy. These include conditions commonly associated with age, such as the decline in glomerular filtration rate, the rise in arterial pressures, and weight gain. The "normal" ranges for many of these characteristics are changing as their importance as predictors of cardiovascular risk is reevaluated and the duration of exposure for a lifetime is considered. Many older donors in good health favor donating a kidney to a spouse, despite the presence of elevated blood pressure or even impaired glucose tolerance. The Mayo Kidney/Pancreas transplant program established an "extended criteria workgroup" to address these issues on an individual basis. Our program now stratifies medical criteria based upon age, allowing more liberal criteria for older donors. As a result, we accept treated hypertension in white donors, emphasizing the importance of informed consent and the need for vigilant follow-up. Our greatest concern relates to the development of obesity, particularly in younger individuals. Many of the long-term results of kidney donation are likely to hinge upon future behavior, including smoking, weight management, and medical follow-up care. Older donors are more likely to have established behavior patterns, an element that makes them better candidates in many respects. Studies to closely track the impact of donor nephrectomy in the current era with changing population demographics and expectations are essential. PMID:18631876

  13. Obesity Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Update (AAAS; )

    2007-06-12

    Obesity has many causes, but there is growing evidence that common viruses may contribute to the condition in some people. Recently, Nikhil Dhurandhar and his colleagues at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center infected human stem cells with Ad-36, a common virus known to be associated with obesity in humans. They found that the cells they exposed to the virus accumulated a much higher amount of fat than uninfected cells.

  14. CHILDHOOD OBESITY

    OpenAIRE

    Summerbell, C D; Shield, J.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  15. Donor selection and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Gregory I; Paraskeva, Miranda; Westall, Glen P

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews recent developments in the selection, assessment, and management of the potential lung donor, which aim to increase donor organ use. The scarcity of suitable donor organs continues to limit lung transplantation, but the situation is changing. An expanded donor pool, including the now widespread use of donation after cardiac death (DCD) lungs; the use of extended donor lungs; and the ability of ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) to evaluate and improve donor lungs are key initiatives. These strategies have substantially lifted donor lung utilization rates from historically low levels of less than 15% to rates greater than 50%. Indeed, since 2004 there has been an accelerated year-on-year increase in the number of lungs transplanted globally. Intermediate-term studies are now confirming that long-term outcomes are not being significantly compromised and that more individuals with terminal, symptomatic lung disease are being transplanted. It is now quite clear that many of the historical factors used to define a lung as "extended" do not actually produce significantly inferior outcomes. There has been a dramatic increase in research and clinical interest in donor lung assessment, management, and novel therapeutic strategies. The lessons learned are now being applied widely beyond the lung as researchers aim to increase availability and optimize other solid organs for transplantation. PMID:23821510

  16. Obesity and poverty paradox in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ?ukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Wróblewska, Paula; Zwoli?ski, Jacek; Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Adamczuk, Piotr; Krasowska, Ewelina; Zagórski, Jerzy; Oniszczuk, Anna; Pi?tek, Jacek; Silny, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a civilization disease and the proportion of people suffering from it continues to grow, especially in the developed countries. Number of obese people in Europe has increased threefold over the last 20 years. The paradox of obesity and poverty relationship is observed especially in the developed and developing countries. In developing countries, along with economic development and income growth, the number of people with overweight and obesity is increasing. This paradox has a relationship with both the easy availability and low cost of highly processed foods containing 'empty calories' and no nutritional value. To date, this paradox has been described in the United States and the United Kingdom, although many European countries are also experiencing high percentages of obese people. Among the reasons for the growing obesity in the population of poor people are: higher unemployment, lower education level, and irregular meals. Another cause of obesity is low physical activity, which among the poor is associated with a lack of money for sports equipment. Due to the large rate of deaths caused by diseases directly linked to obesity, the governments of many countries implement prevention programmes of overweight and obesity. These programmes are based primarily on educating the public about a healthy lifestyle based on healthy eating, daily physical activity and avoiding alcohol and cigarettes. PMID:25292135

  17. Obesity and poverty paradox in developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta ?ukiewicz-Sobczak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a civilization disease and the proportion of people suffering from it continues to grow, especially in the developed countries. Number of obese people in Europe has increased threefold over the last 20 years. The paradox of obesity and poverty relationship is observed especially in the developed and developing countries. In developing countries, along with economic development and income growth, the number of people with overweight and obesity is increasing. This paradox has a relationship with both the easy availability and low cost of highly processed foods containing ‘empty calories’ and no nutritional value. To date, this paradox has been described in the United States and the United Kingdom, although many European countries are also experiencing high percentages of obese people. Among the reasons for the growing obesity in the population of poor people are: higher unemployment, lower education level, and irregular meals. Another cause of obesity is low physical activity, which among the poor is associated with a lack of money for sports equipment. Due to the large rate of deaths caused by diseases directly linked to obesity, the governments of many countries implement prevention programmes of overweight and obesity. These programmes are based primarily on educating the public about a healthy lifestyle based on healthy eating, daily physical activity and avoiding alcohol and cigarettes.

  18. Childhood Obesity Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov . Adolescent and School Health Share Compartir Childhood Obesity Facts Childhood obesity has more than doubled in ... environmental factors. 5,6 Health Effects of Childhood Obesity Obese Youth Over Time: Selected U.S. States Maps ...

  19. Hormones and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hormones and Obesity Share: Fact Sheet Hormones and Obesity March, 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Caroline Apovian, MD Judith Korner, MD, PhD What is obesity? Obesity is a chronic (long-term) medical problem ...

  20. Defining Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overweight and Obesity Share Compartir Defining Overweight and Obesity Overweight and obesity are both labels for ranges ... MRI). Assessing Health Risks Associated with Overweight and Obesity BMI is just one indicator of potential health ...

  1. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more than enough to make 8 you perfectly healthy. And most donors have no problem long-term. ... a week to discuss these issues, and a healthy donor who is, say, 50 versus another donor ...

  2. Lung donor selection criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Chaney, John; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Cantu, Edward; van Berkel, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The criteria that define acceptable physiologic and social parameters for lung donation have remained constant since their empiric determination in the 1980s. These criteria include a donor age between 25-40, a arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/FiO2 ratio greater than 350, no smoking history, a clear chest X-ray, clean bronchoscopy, and a minimal ischemic time. Due to the paucity of organ donors, and the increasing number of patients requiring lung transplant, finding a donor that me...

  3. a Structure of Experienced Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havel, Ivan M.

    2005-10-01

    The subjective experience of time will be taken as a primary motivation for an alternative, essentially discontinuous conception of time. Two types of such experience will be discussed, one based on personal episodic memory, the other on the theoretical fine texture of experienced time below the threshold of phenomenal awareness. The former case implies a discrete structure of temporal episodes on a large scale, while the latter case suggests endowing psychological time with a granular structure on a small scale, i.e. interpreting it as a semi-ordered flow of smeared (not point-like) subliminal time grains. Only on an intermediate temporal scale would the subjectively felt continuity and fluency of time emerge. Consequently, there is no locally smooth mapping of phenomenal time onto the real number continuum. Such a model has certain advantages; for instance, it avoids counterintuitive interpretations of some neuropsychological experiments (e.g. Libet's measurement) in which the temporal order of events is crucial.

  4. Experiencing Security in Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Niels Raabjerg; BØdker, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Security is experienced differently in different contexts. This paper argues that in everyday situations, users base their security decisions on a mix of prior experiences. When approaching security and interaction design from an experience approach, tools that help bring out such relevant experiences for design are needed. This paper reports on how Prompted exploration workshops and Acting out security were developed to target such experiences when iteratively designing a mobile digital signature solution in a participatory design process. We discuss how these tools helped the design process and illustrate how the tangibility of such tools matters. We further demonstrate how the approach grants access to non-trivial insights into people's security experience. We point out how the specific context is essential for exploring the space between experience and expectations, and we illustrate how people activate their collections of security experiences rather than deploying one security strategy in all situations.

  5. Molecular forms of butyrylcholinesterase and obesity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dellyana R., Boberg; Lupe, Furtado-Alle; Ricardo L.R., Souza; Eleidi A., Chautard-Freire-Maia.

    Full Text Available This study compared obese (N = 134) and unobese (N = 92) male blood donors, regarding the relative intensity (RI) and activity of different molecular forms (G1, G2, G4 and G1-ALB) of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, EC 3.1.1.8) found in plasma, thereby searching for an association between these variable [...] s with obesity and SNPs of exons 1 and 4 of the BCHE gene. It was shown that obese and unobese individuals do not differ in the RI of each BChE band, even when classifying the sample into three genotypes of exons 1 and 4 of the BCHE gene (-116GG/539AA, -116GG/539AT, -116GA/539AT). Although the mean BChE activity of each band was significantly higher in obese than in unobese blood donors, the proportions of BChE bands were maintained, even under the metabolic stress associated to obesity, thereby leading to infer that this proportion is somehow regulated, and may therefore be important for BChE functions.

  6. Beliefs underlying the intention to donate again among first-time blood donors who experience a mild adverse event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masser, Barbara M; White, Katherine M; Terry, Deborah J

    2013-10-01

    Using the belief basis of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the current study explored the rate of mild reactions reported by donors in relation to their first donation and the intention and beliefs of those donors with regard to returning to donate again. A high proportion of first-time donors indicated that they had experienced a reaction to blood donation. Further, donors who reacted were less likely to intend to return to donate. Regression analyses suggested that targeting different beliefs for those donors who had and had not reacted would yield most benefit in bolstering donors' intentions to remain donating. The findings provide insight into those messages that could be communicated via the mass media or in targeted communications to retain first-time donors who have experienced a mild vasovagal reaction. PMID:23820434

  7. Postmenopausal Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhaa Sharma; Rupali Bakshi; Tandon, Vishal R.; Annil Mahajan

    2008-01-01

    Presently life style modification at the transitionof menopause will go long way in preventing weight gainduring this metabolically vulnerable period which will helpin primary and secondary prevention of several chronicdiseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer,hypertension, obesity, depression and osteoporosis) andpremature death beside keeping women physically andmentally fit in her menopause.

  8. Childhood Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive.  Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  9. Experiencing sexuality after intestinal stoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Boccara de Paula

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Identify the Social Representations (SR of ostomized people in terms of sexuality after the stoma. METHODS: An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study using the Social Representation Theory with 15 ostomized people (8 females, mean age of 57.9 years, between August and September 2005. Data obtained from transcribed interviews were submitted to content analysis, resulting in the thematic unit "Giving new meaning to sexuality" and subthemes. RESULTS: The study demonstrated that the intestinal stoma interferes in the sexuality experience, showing that the meanings attributed to this experience are based on individual life stories, quality of personal relationships established in practice and perception of sexuality, despite the stoma. CONCLUSIONS: The Social Representations, in terms of experiencing sexuality after the stoma, are based on meanings attributed to the body, associated with daily life and present in the social imaginary. It is influenced by other factors, such as physiological changes resulting from the surgery and the fact of having or not a partner. Care taken during sexual practices provide greater security and comfort in moments of intimacy, resembling the closest to what ostomized people experienced before the stoma. The self-irrigation technique associated or not with the use of artificial occluder, has been attested by its users as a positive element that makes a difference in sexual practice after the stoma. The support to ostomized people should be comprehensive, not limited to technical care and disease, which are important, but not sufficient. The interdisciplinary health team should consider all aspects of the person, seeking a real meeting between subjects.OBJETIVO: Identificar as Representações Sociais (RS da pessoa estomizada intestinal sobre vivência da sexualidade após confecção do estoma. MÉTODOS: Estudo exploratório, descritivo, qualitativo do ponto de vista do referencial da Representação Social. Participaram 15 estomizados, sendo 8 mulheres, com idade média de 57,9 anos, entre agosto e setembro de 2005. Dados obtidos por entrevistas, transcritas, foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo, originando a unidade temática "Ressignificando a sexualidade" e subtemas. RESULTADOS: Demonstrou-se que o estoma intestinal interfere na dinâmica da vivência da sexualidade, desvelando que os significados a ela atribuídos estão ancorados nas histórias individuais de vida, na qualidade das relações pessoais/conjugais estabelecidas na prática e na percepção da sexualidade, apesar do estoma. CONCLUSÕES: Representações Sociais sobre vivência da sexualidade após estoma estão ancoradas nos significados atribuídos ao corpo, veiculadas no cotidiano e presentes no imaginário social. É influenciada por outros fatores, como alterações fisiológicas decorrentes do ato cirúrgico e da existência de parceiro. Cuidados adotados nas práticas sexuais propiciam maior segurança e conforto nos momentos de intimidade, tornando-as mais próximas daquilo que vivenciavam antes do estoma. A autoirrigação, associada ou não ao oclusor, constituiu estratégia facilitadora para melhor aceitação do estoma, sendo essencial para vida sexual mais prazerosa. A assistência à pessoa estomizada deve ser integral, não se limitando apenas à doença e ao cuidado técnico, que são importantes, mas não únicos. O trabalho interdisciplinar da equipe de saúde deve vislumbrar a pessoa em sua totalidade, buscando real encontro entre sujeitos.

  10. Analysis of complications in hepatic right lobe living donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzam Ayman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT has been expanding to adult recipients by using right lobe grafts. However, the incidence of complications is more frequent than that involving left lobe grafts. Hence, we aimed to analyze postoperative complications in right lobe liver donors as a step to improve the results in the donors. Methods : Three hundred and eleven right lobe liver donors were retrospectively reviewed between February 1998 and December 2003. Results : The ages of the donors ranged from 19 to 64 years (median: 46 years. Their body mass index ranged from 16.6 to 34.3 (median: 22.1. The mean duration of the operation was 6.58 (1.25 hours and blood loss was 289 (254 mL. The estimated median donor residual liver volume was 42.2% (range: 20.6-60.3% and the median hospital stay was 14.5 days (range: 6-267 days. One donor died of liver failure due to small residual liver volume (26% and steatohepatitis. One hundred and twenty three complications occurred in 104 donors (33.4%. Donors experienced one or more complications. According to the Clavien classification, grade I complications occurred in 71 of the episodes (57.7%, grade II complications in 9 (7.3%, grade IIIa complications in 39 (31.7%, grade IIIb complications in 3 (2.5%, and grade V complications in 1 (0.8%. Biliary complications were the most common and occurred in 37 donors (12%. Conclusion : Right lobe liver donation is a widely accepted procedure that results in the expansion of the indication for LDLT to adults and large children. However, remnant liver size and anatomical variations in the biliary tree represent important risk factors for postoperative complications.

  11. Obesidad / Obesity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Duelo Marcos; E., Escribano Ceruelo; F., Muñoz Velasco.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La prevalencia está aumentando de forma alarmante en todo el mundo y en todas las edades. Las complicaciones aparecen cada vez antes, son ya visibles en niños y adolescentes: problemas psicológicos, de adaptación social, ortopédicos, hiperlipidemia, hipertensión, apneas del sueño... La obesidad infa [...] ntil es el principal factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de obesidad en el adulto, que se asocia a un mayor número de factores de riesgo cardiovascular y a la disminución de la esperanza de vida. Aunque existen factores genéticos, el aumento de la obesidad está claramente unido al cambio del estilo de vida (mayor ingesta calórica y menor actividad física). El tratamiento es difícil, requiere de una estrategia multidisciplinaria actuando sobre el paciente y su entorno (familia). Por este motivo es clave la prevención primaria estimulando un estilo de vida saludable. Abstract in english Obesity prevalence is an increasing and alarming problem in the whole world and at all ages. Important consequences are coming earlier and they are visible in childhood and adolescence: Psychological problems, social acceptance, orthopaedic problems, high level of lipids, hypertension, sleep apnoeas [...] ... Children's obesity is the main risk factor for adult obesity, what is related to more cardiovascular risk factors and to a decrease in life expectancy. Although there are genetics factors, the rise of obesity is eventually in relation with life stile (more food calories intake and less practice of physical activity). Treatment is difficult. It is mandatory a multidisciplinary strategy effort toward patients and their families. Primary prevention is a key factor through encouraging a healthy life style.

  12. Obesity and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity and Cancer Risk Key Points During the past several decades, the percentage of overweight and obese adults and children has increased markedly. Obesity is associated with increased risks of cancers of ...

  13. Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Overweight and Obesity? Español The terms "overweight" and "obesity" refer to ... disease risk. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Obesity happens one pound at a time. So does ...

  14. Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome? Obesity hypoventilation (HI-po-ven-tih- ... NHLBI Research Featured in HBO Documentary Series on Obesity Hear people talk about their challenges and successes ...

  15. Obesity and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 78 ... ss6104.pdf [PDF | 3.5MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  16. Disability and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Employees and Reasonable Accommodations (RA) Disability and Obesity Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... and Disability at http://www.ncpad.org/ The Obesity Epidemic Obesity affects different people in different ways ...

  17. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6104.pdf [PDF | 3.5MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  18. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is a condition in some obese people in which poor breathing leads to ... Maintain a healthy weight and avoid obesity. Use your CPAP or BiPAP treatment as your health care provider prescribed.

  19. Donor insemination programmes with personal donors: issues of secrecy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, V A; Purdie, A

    1996-11-01

    This study involved 46 recipients and donors in personal donor programmes interviewed anonymously by postal questionnaire and interview: 38% (30/80) of possible recipients responded. The total number of people told about the donor involvement ranged between two and 78, with no significant gender difference. Relationships had changed for half of the participants in the programmes with 75% reporting that they had developed a closer relationship and 25% reporting a deterioration. Contact between couples and donors was seen as being in the original role of family friend or relative rather than as donor. An equal proportion of recipients (63%) and donors (78%) agreed to the donor being identified to any offspring although this was qualified with regard to the age of the child. Reasons for identification were given as avoidance of family secrets and the rights of the child to have information concerning their conception. Those who did not agree said that the child was better off not knowing, or who wished to preserve donor anonymity. The donor group was more likely than the recipients to say that identification to the child was in the best interests of the social parents because it allowed all those involved to feel part of a single family group. It was found that for both recipients and donors, the advantages given for having a personal donor was openness within the relationship. For the recipients, this focused on knowledge of the donor background and, for related couples, having a common genetic relationship. For donors, the advantages given were: knowing the child's environment, having access to a child and the ability to choose recipients. A disadvantage for donors and recipients was the possibility of a change in the relationship and for donors an added disadvantage was having to share in the emotional stress of the treatment and negative outcomes. More men than women placed importance on having a donor with a similar genetic background. PMID:8981156

  20. Scientists Identify Four Candidate Obesity Genes in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

    2011-09-06

    Press release on a recent study where researchers developed a strain of mice more likely to be obese and then, using this strain, identified four genes in mouse chromosome 7 that may relate to obesity. This study, Â?Four Out of Eight Genes in a Mouse Chromosome 7 Congenic Donor Region are Candidate Obesity Genes,Â? was conducted by Craig H. Warden, Kari A. Sarahan, and Janis S. Fisler of the University of California, Davis. The study is published in Physiologic Genomics.

  1. Childhood Obesity & Dental Disease: Common Causes, Common Solutions. Oral Health & Obesity Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Now, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Too many California children suffer from high rates of preventable chronic conditions associated with childhood obesity and dental disease. The state is experiencing a crisis in both areas. Fortunately, common factors that contribute to both conditions--including the rates of breastfeeding, access to healthy food and the consumption of…

  2. Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What are Some Benefits of a Living-donor Liver Transplant? In the U.S., more than 17,500 patients ... 1,700 patients die each year while waiting. Liver transplants are given to patients on the basis of ...

  3. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    Tuesday 19 March 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion sanguine of Geneva If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  4. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Wednesday 13 November 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs will be held a blood donors campaign, organized by the Etablissement de Transfusion de Haute-Savoie If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  5. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion Sanguine of Geneva will be held at CERN on Tuesday 13 March 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  6. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion d'Annemasse will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  7. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Établissement de Transfusion de Rhône-Alpes will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2000 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  8. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... need dialysis after the operation?” One of the advantages of living donation is that these kidneys essentially ... were removed from the donor. One of the advantages of living donor is that time is from ...

  9. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is their intended recipient donor is blood-type B, so they’re not compatible. But if there ... would donate to the A recipient and the B donor to the B recipient. And those are ...

  10. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a kidney is safe. It has an excellent safety record both here and nationwide. To ensure that, ... ve had a lot of talk about the safety for the living donors. The donor for that ...

  11. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. We started the laparoscopic approach to donor nephrectomies in 1999. My partner, Dr. ... really actually have better visualization with the laparoscopic approach. When we do the kidney transplant, one of ...

  12. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... open incision. There is a screening process for potential donors. It’s important to emphasize that donating a ... every step possible to make sure that the potential donor is medically and surgically an acceptable candidate. ...

  13. Donor Registries and Search Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, Carolyn Katovich; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Setterholm, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    The optimal donor of hematopoietic progenitor cells shares alleles of the major histocompatibility genes with the recipient. This chapter describes the strategies aimed at identifying such a matched donor from registries of volunteers or from umbilical cord blood banks.

  14. Blood Donor Management in China

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Ling; Wang, Jingxing; Liu, Zhong; Stevens, Lori; Sadler, Andrew; Ness, Paul; Shan, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Despite a steady increase in total blood collections and voluntary non-remunerated blood donors, China continues to have many challenges with its blood donation system. The country's donation rate remains low at 9%o, with over 60% of donors being first-time donors. Generally there is a lack of adequate public awareness about blood donation. The conservative donor selection criteria, the relatively long donation interval, and the small donation volume have further limited blood supply. To ensu...

  15. Differences Between Experienced and Anticipatory Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa, Claudia J.; Barsanti, Anne, N.

    1986-01-01

    Examined differences between distress ratings of anticipated and experienced life events in 168 college students. Found gender differences and significant differences between perceived and experienced aversion across events predicting symptoms of stress, depression, anxiety, and somatic discomfort in occupational, social and familial situations.…

  16. Obesity and fracture risk

    OpenAIRE

    Gonnelli, Stefano; Caffarelli, Carla; Nuti, Ranuccio

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and osteoporosis are two common diseases with an increasing prevalence and a high impact on morbidity and mortality. Obese women have always been considered protected against osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. However, several recent studies have challenged the widespread belief that obesity is protective against fracture and have suggested that obesity is a risk factor for certain fractures.

  17. Managing childhood obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has steadily increased over the last decades, with approximately 35% of children aged 6-19 classified as overweight or obese. Recently, a plateau in the increasing rates of obesity has been observed. Despite this leveling off, overweight and obese children are hea...

  18. Obesity Prevalence Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Overweight and Obesity Share Compartir Obesity Prevalence Maps Obesity prevalence in 2013 varies across states and territories ... 9% in Puerto Rico. + Prevalence* of Self-Reported Obesity Among U.S. Adults by State and Territory, BRFSS, ...

  19. Eating habits and obesity among Lebanese university students

    OpenAIRE

    Abdallah Abbass; Achkar Alice; Yahia Najat; Rizk Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background In the past year Lebanon has been experiencing a nutritional transition in food choices from the typical Mediterranean diet to the fast food pattern. As a consequence, the dietary habits of young adults have been affected; thus, overweight and obesity are increasingly being observed among the young. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity on a sample of students from the Lebanese American University (in Beirut) and to examine their e...

  20. Obesity and Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gribovskaja-Rupp, Irena; Kosinski, Lauren; Ludwig, Kirk A.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for colorectal cancer based on its molecular and metabolic effects on insulin and IGF-1, leptin, adipocytokines, and sex hormones. Obese men have a higher risk of colorectal cancer compared with normal weight men, but the association between obesity and rectal cancer is weaker than with colon cancer. There is a weaker association between obesity and colon cancer in women than in men, and no appreciable association between obesity and rectal cancer in women. Although o...

  1. Behavioral treatment of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Táki Athanássios Cordas; Ruth Fabbri Ramos Ascencio

    2006-01-01

    Great population studies do not confirm the hypothesis that atypical personality of obese would exist. Obeses in the generalpopulation do not present more psychological disturbs thanthe ones that are not obeses. Obeses adolescents and adultsare discriminated in their academic and professional lifes. Thissocial, cultural, economic and affective impoverishment seemsto be directly related to the gravity of their obesity, what means,higher the ICM (Index of Corporal Mass), bigger are thepsycholog...

  2. Donor transplant programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transplantation of organs and tissues from one human to another human has become an essential and well established form of therapy for many types of organ and tissue failure. In Malaysia, kidney, cornea and bone marrow transplantation are well established. Recently, liver, bone and heart transplanation have been performed. Unfortunately, because of the lack of cadaveric organ donation, only a limited number of solid organ transplantation have been performed. The cadaveric organ donor rate in Malaysia is low at less than one per million population. The first tissue transplanted in Malaysia was the cornea which was performed in the early 1970s. At that time and even now the majority of corneas came from Sri Lanka. The first kidney transplant was performed in 1975 from a live related donor. The majority of the 629 kidney transplants done at Hospital Kuala Lumpur to date have been from live related donors. Only 35 were from cadaver donors. Similarly, the liver transplantation programme which started in 1995 are from live related donors. A more concerted effort has been made recently to increase the awareness of the public and the health professionals on organ and tissue donation. This national effort to promote organ and tissue donation seems to have gathered momentum in 1997 with the first heart transplant successfully performed at the National Heart Institute. The rate of cadaveric donors has also increased from a previous average of I to 2 per year to 6 per year inverage of I to 2 per year to 6 per year in the last one year. These developments are most encouraging and may signal the coming of age of our transplantati on programme. The Ministry of Health in conjunction with various institutions, organizations and professional groups, have taken a number of proactive measures to facilitate the development of the cadaveric organ donation programme. Efforts to increase public awareness and to overcome the negative cultural attitude towards organ donation have been intensified. Equally important are efforts to promote the concept and understanding of organ donation among health professionals. A review of the Human Tissues Act 1974 which governs organ and tissue donation in this country is being undertaken. A number of seminars have been held to garner the support of religious groups in the promotion of organ donation. A major weakness had been the lack of a national organizational framework to facilitate and coordinate the development of organ donation and transplantation in this country. Therefore a National Transplantation Coordinating Committee and a Transplant Programme Working Committee have been formed to oversee the development and implementation of national policy guidelines and programmes. With these measures it is hoped that the donor transplant programme in Malaysia will be one of the success stories of the future

  3. Iron deficiency in blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Cortés

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Context: Blood donation results in a substantial loss of iron (200 to 250 mg at each bleeding procedure (425 to 475 ml and subsequent mobilization of iron from body stores. Recent reports have shown that body iron reserves generally are small and iron depletion is more frequent in blood donors than in non-donors. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors and to establish the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors according to sex, whether they were first-time or multi-time donors. Design: From march 20 to April 5, 2004, three hundred potential blood donors from Hemocentro del Café y Tolima Grande were studied. Diagnostic tests: Using a combination of biochemical measurements of iron status: serum ferritin (RIA, ANNAR and the hemoglobin pre and post-donation (HEMOCUE Vital technology medical . Results: The frequency of iron deficiency in potential blood donors was 5%, and blood donors accepted was 5.1%; in blood donors rejected for low hemoglobin the frequency of iron deficiency was 3.7% and accepted blood donors was 1.7% in male and 12.6% in female. The frequency of iron deficiency was higher in multi-time blood donors than in first-time blood donors, but not stadistic significative. Increase nivel accepted hemoglobina in 1 g/dl no incidence in male; in female increase of 0.5 g/dl low in 25% blood donors accepted with iron deficiency, but increased rejected innecesary in 16.6% and increased is 1 g/dl low blood donors female accepted in 58% (7/12, but increased the rejected innecesary in 35.6%. Conclusions: We conclude that blood donation not is a important factor for iron deficiency in blood donors. The high frequency of blood donors with iron deficiency found in this study suggests a need for a more accurate laboratory trial, as hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement alone is not sufficient for detecting and excluding blood donors with iron deficiency without anemia, and ajustes hacia nivel more high in standars of accepted of hemoglobin no help the situation and no assure the blood suplly; increased exclusion blood donors of 9% at 44.6%.

  4. The Impact of Obesity on Functioning among Women with SLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Patricia; Yazdany, Jinoos; Julian, Laura; Trupin, Laura; Margaretten, Mary; Yelin, Edward; Criswell, Lindsey A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with high rates of disability in the general population. The nature of the relationship between obesity and disability in lupus, a condition with a high background rate of disability, is unknown. Methods Data were from two interviews, 4 years apart, of a longitudinal cohort of individuals with SLE (n=716 women). Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height and weight; obesity was classified by usual (BMI?30) and revised (BMI?26.8) definitions. Three measures of functioning were examined: SF-36 Physical Function (PF) subscale, Valued Life Activities (VLA) Disability questionnaire, and employment. Multivariate analyses controlled for demographics, SLE duration and disease activity, glucocorticoid use, depression, and comorbidities. Prospective analyses also controlled for baseline function. Results At BMI?30, 27.8% were obese; at BMI?26.8, 40.6% were obese. Regardless of obesity definition, obese women exhibited poorer baseline function, with decrements ranging from 20%-33%, depending on the functional measure and obesity definition. With BMI?26.8, adjusted SF-36 PF scores were 4.3 points lower for obese women (p<.0001), VLA difficulty was 0.09 higher (p=.01), and odds of employment were 80% of non-obese women (OR=0.8 [95% CI 0.5, 1.1]). At 4-year follow-up, women who were obese at baseline had poorer function and experienced greater functional declines. Conclusion Obesity was associated with clinically significant negative effects on function, both concurrently and prospectively. This negative impact occurred at a lower BMI than is often considered problematic clinically. Because of the high rate of SLE-related disability, addressing preventable risk factors such as obesity may improve long-term SLE outcomes. PMID:21702085

  5. Support of Unrelated Stem Cell Donor Searches by Donor Center-Initiated HLA Typing of Potentially Matching Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Alexander H.; Solloch, Ute V.; Baier, Daniel; Grathwohl, Alois; Hofmann, Jan; Pingel, Julia; Stahr, Andrea; Ehninger, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Large registries of potential unrelated stem cell donors have been established in order to enable stem cell transplantation for patients without HLA-identical related donors. Donor search is complicated by the fact that the stored HLA information of many registered donors is incomplete. We carried out a project that was aimed to improve chances of patients with ongoing donor searches to find an HLA-matched unrelated donor. For that purpose, we carried out additional donor center-initiated HLA...

  6. Experienced discrimination amongst European old citizens

    OpenAIRE

    van den Heuvel, Wim J.A.; van Santvoort, Marc M.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the experienced age discrimination of old European citizens and the factors related to this discrimination. Differences in experienced discrimination between old citizens of different European countries are explored. Data from the 2008 ESS survey are used. Old age is defined as being 62 years or older. The survey data come from 28 European countries and 14,364 old-age citizens. Their average age is 72 years. Factor analysis is used to construct the core variable ‘exper...

  7. Donor factors influencing graft outcomes in live donor kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Naim; Stephany, Brian; Fatica, Richard; Nurko, Saul; Krishnamurthi, Venkatesh; Goldfarb, David A; Braun, William E; Dennis, Vincent W; Heeger, Peter S; Poggio, Emilio D

    2007-03-15

    Living donor renal allograft survival is superior to that achieved from deceased donors, although graft outcome is suboptimal in some of these patients. In an effort to identify the subset of patients at high risk for poor outcomes we studied donor risk factors in 248 living kidney donor-recipient pairs. Unadjusted donor (125)I-iothalamate GFR (iGFR), donor age more than 45 years, donor total cholesterol level less than 200 mg/dL, and donor systolic blood pressure (SBP) less than 120 mm Hg were correlated with allograft estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and incidence of acute rejection (AR), delayed graft function and/or graft loss at 2 years posttransplantation. Donor iGFR less than 110 mL/min (slope=-7.40, Pdonors more than 45 years (slope=-8.76, Pdonor total cholesterol levels more than 200 mg/dL (slope=-10.03, Pdonor factors (age, iGFR, cholesterol, and blood pressure) was directly associated with worse posttransplant eGFR (Pdonor parameters could supplement the consideration of recipient characteristics in predicting posttransplant risk of graft injury/dysfunction. PMID:17353780

  8. Donor demographic and laboratory predictors of single donor platelet yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet transfusions are essential to prevent morbidity and mortality in patients who are severely thrombocytopenic and are at risk of spontaneous bleeding. Platelets are currently obtained either by fractionation of whole blood or by platelet apheresis. The quality of single donor platelets (SDP in terms of yield influences platelet recovery in the recipient and allows prolonging intervals between transfusions. Material and Methods: Donor demographic and laboratory data were analyzed prior to performing plateletpheresis to identify donor factors that influence platelet yield. The study was conducted on 130 healthy, first-time plateletpheresis donors over a period of 4 years. The plateletpheresis procedures were performed using Fresenius Kabi COM.TEC and Hemonetics MCS plus separator. A relationship between pre-donation donor variables and yield of platelets was studied using the Pearson correlation. Results: The mean platelet yield was 3.16?0.62x1011 per unit. A positive correlation was observed between platelet yield and pre-donation platelet count, body mass index (BMI; Kg/m2 of the donor, while a negative correlation was observed between age and the platelet yield. Conclusion: Donor pre-donation platelet count, BMI and donor age influence platelet yield. Young healthy donors with a high platelet count and better BMI can give a better platelet yield in the SDP.

  9. Fat chance! Obesity and the transition from unemployment to employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliendo, Marco; Lee, Wang-Sheng

    2013-03-01

    This paper focuses on estimating the magnitude of any potential weight discrimination by examining whether obese job applicants in Germany get treated or behave differently from non-obese applicants. Based on two waves of rich survey data from the IZA Evaluation dataset, which includes measures that control for education, demographic characteristics, labor market history, psychological factors and health, we estimate differences in job search behavior and labor market outcomes between obese/overweight and normal weight individuals. Unlike other observational studies which are generally based on obese and non-obese individuals who might already be at different points in the job ladder (e.g., household surveys), in our data, individuals are newly unemployed and all start from the same point. The only subgroup we find in our data experiencing any possible form of negative labor market outcomes is obese women. Despite making more job applications and engaging more in job training programs, we find some indications that they experienced worse (or at best similar) employment outcomes than normal weight women. Obese women who found a job also had significantly lower wages than normal weight women. PMID:22391338

  10. CDC Vital Signs: Adult Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Vital Signs Share Compartir Adult Obesity Obesity Rises Among Adults August 2010 72M+ More than ... eating and active living. Issue Details Problem Adult Obesity Obesity is a national epidemic, causing higher medical ...

  11. Iron status in blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, W C; Lim, H C

    1984-07-01

    The iron status of 592 blood donors was analysed. The reduction in iron stores was related to the frequency rather than the total number of donations. 8% had reduced iron stores but this was not related to blood donation, iron supplementation and sex of the donors. Serum ferritin rather than haemoglobin, serum iron and transferrin saturation is the most reliable indication of iron status of blood donors. Iron supplementation did not confer any benefits. PMID:6517520

  12. Obesity in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Mabe Newman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity in the United States is increasing in all age groups. During the past 30 years, the proportion of older adults who are obese has doubled. In this article the author describes the prevalence and causes of obesity among older adults as well as the consequences of obesity in older adults. Recommendations for interventions to address obesity are also provided. Differences between the two groups of older adults, those 50 to 65 years of age, and those over 65 years of age, will be addressed. The goal of the article is to raise nurses’ awareness of the challenges of obesity in older adults.

  13. Soccer kick kinematic differences between experienced and non-experienced soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz López, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to examine kinematic differences of instep soccer kick between experienced and non-experienced soccer players. Subjects: 17 men between 17 and 21 years old. Methodology: a 3D film system with 4 cameras was used. Maximum power instep kicks were executed. It was analyzed feet velocity in the impact, maximum hip extension, maximum knee flexion and kick phases duration. Results: were found significant differences in feet velocity with non-dominant leg in the impact moment (m/s (Experienced: 14.5±.52, Non-experienced: 12.5±.5; p<.001 and maximum hip extension (degrees (Experienced: 39.2 ± 1.3, Non-experienced: 34.28±3.2; p<.001. Also were significant differences in the second phase duration in both legs (p<.05. Conclusions: Maximum instep soccer kick show significant differences between groups of different level only in non-dominant leg.

  14. Can right-sided hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic donor nephrectomy be advocated above standard laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klop, Karel W J; Kok, Niels F M; Dols, Leonienke F C; Dor, Frank J M F; Tran, Khe T C; Terkivatan, Türkan; Weimar, Willem; Ijzermans, Jan N M

    2014-02-01

    Endoscopic techniques have contributed to early recovery and increased quality of life (QOL) of live kidney donors. However, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) may have its limitations, and hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic donor nephrectomy (HARP) has been introduced, mainly as a potentially safer alternative. In a randomized fashion, we explored the feasibility and potential benefits of HARP for right-sided donor nephrectomy in a referral center with longstanding expertise on the standard laparoscopic approach. Forty donors were randomly assigned to either LDN or HARP. Primary outcome was operating time, and secondary outcomes included QOL, complications, pain, morphine requirement, blood loss, warm ischemia time, and hospital stay. Follow-up time was 1 year. Skin-to-skin time did not significantly differ between both groups (162 vs. 158 min, P = 0.98). As compared to LDN, HARP resulted in a shorter warm ischemia time (2.8 vs. 3.9 min, P blood loss (187 vs. 50 ml, P benefits over standard right-sided LDN yet. Further studies should explore the value of HARP in difficult cases such as the obese donor and the value of HARP for transplantation centers starting a live kidney donation program (Dutch Trial Register number: NTR3096). Nevertheless, HARP is a valuable addition to the surgical armamentarium in live donor surgery. PMID:24268098

  15. Obesity: Pathophysiology and Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pathophysiological mechanisms such as impaired brain circuit regulation and neuroendocrine hormone dysfunction. Dieting and physical exercise offer the mainstays of obesity treatment, and anti-obesity drugs may be taken in conjunction to reduce appetite or fat absorption. Bariatric surgeries may be performed in overtly obese patients to lessen stomach volume and nutrient absorption, and induce faster satiety. This review provides a summary of literature on the pathophysiological studies of obesity and discusses relevant therapeutic strategies for managing obesity.

  16. Obesity: pathophysiology and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Liu, Ju; Yao, Jianliang; Ji, Gang; Qian, Long; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Guansheng; Tian, Jie; Nie, Yongzhan; Zhang, Yi Edi; Gold, Mark S; Liu, Yijun

    2014-11-01

    Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pathophysiological mechanisms such as impaired brain circuit regulation and neuroendocrine hormone dysfunction. Dieting and physical exercise offer the mainstays of obesity treatment, and anti-obesity drugs may be taken in conjunction to reduce appetite or fat absorption. Bariatric surgeries may be performed in overtly obese patients to lessen stomach volume and nutrient absorption, and induce faster satiety. This review provides a summary of literature on the pathophysiological studies of obesity and discusses relevant therapeutic strategies for managing obesity. PMID:25412152

  17. Morbid Obesity - Anaesthetic Management

    OpenAIRE

    Manimala Rao, Dr S.

    2003-01-01

    Obesity means excessive body fat. The term obese, derived from Latin word means fattened by eating. The amount of fat tissue may increased to such an extent that mental and physical health is affected and life expectancy is reduced.

  18. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... findings/nhqrdr/nhqrdr12/index.html HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ... nhqrdr12/index.html At a Glace – Risk Factors Obesity is a risk factor for several diseases. For ...

  19. Obesity and health (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity increases a person's risk of illness and death due to diabetes, stroke, heart disease, hypertension, high cholesterol, and kidney and gallbladder disease. Obesity may increase the risk for some types of ...

  20. Obesity and Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Apnea and Anesthesia Smoking and Anesthesia Outpatient Surgery Obesity and Anesthesia More than one-third of Americans ... Sleep Apnea, a chronic medical problem common with obesity, can present with serious breathing problems before, during, ...

  1. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  2. Diets of obese and non-obese children

    OpenAIRE

    Atsuko Satoh; Seiko Fujita; Kazuko Menzawa; Sangun Lee; Masao Miyamoto; Hidatada Sasaki

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To compare diets between obese and non-obese in children. Methods: Thirty-four obese and ten non-obese school children were recruited and their habitual factors of obesity were asked. Intakes of food in the obesity and non-obesity groups were checked using a model nutritional balance chart (MNBC). Results: Average intake ratio of food relative to ideal food intake was significantly higher in the non-obesity group than the obesity group. The relationship between obesity and exercise was s...

  3. 78 FR 66366 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Use of Donor Screening Tests To Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ...Donor Screening Tests To Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular...Donor Screening Tests to Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular...Donor Screening Tests to Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and...

  4. Obesity : Pathophysiology and Clinical

    OpenAIRE

    Gurevich-panigrahi, Tatiana; Wiechec, Emilia; Panigrahi, Soumya; Los, Marek Jan

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is an increasingly serious socioeconomic and clinical problem. Between 1/4 - 1/3 of population in the developed countries can be classified as obese. Four major etiological factors for development of obesity are genetic determinants, environmental factors, food intake and exercise. Obesity increases the risk of the development of various pathologic conditions including: insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, endocrine problems, ...

  5. Environmental Perturbations: Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie A. Shore

    2011-01-01

    Obesity currently affects about one third of the U.S. population, while another one third is overweight. The importance of obesity for certain conditions such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes is well appreciated. The effects of obesity on the respiratory system have received less attention and are the subject of this chapter. Obesity alters the static mechanic properties of the respiratory system leading to a reduction in the functional residual capacity (FRC) and the expiratory reserve v...

  6. Gastrointestinal Morbidity in Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, Andres; Camilleri, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a complex disease that results from increased energy intake and decreased energy expenditure. The gastrointestinal system plays a key role in the pathogenesis of obesity and facilitates caloric imbalance. Changes in gastrointestinal hormones and the inhibition of mechanisms that curtail caloric intake result in weight gain. It is not clear if the gastrointestinal role in obesity is a cause or an effect of this disease. Obesity is often associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM...

  7. Thinking Evolutionarily About Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Genné-Bacon, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are growing worldwide health concerns, yet their causes are not fully understood. Research into the etiology of the obesity epidemic is highly influenced by our understanding of the evolutionary roots of metabolic control. For half a century, the thrifty gene hypothesis, which argues that obesity is an evolutionary adaptation for surviving periods of famine, has dominated the thinking on this topic. Obesity researchers are often not aware that there i...

  8. Obesity in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Arteburn, David E

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past decades all over the world. The majority of obesity in adulthood has its origins in childhood which makes obesity a pediatric concern and the period when interventions should be done. Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in adult life and several adverse consequences in childhood like insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, polycystic ovarian syndrome, pulmonary and orthopedic dis...

  9. Obesity and Eye Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Ning; Wong, Tien Y

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many countries. While its impact on overall health is well documented, less is known about the ocular manifestations of obesity. Amongst different eye diseases, obesity has been linked with age-related cataract, glaucoma, age-related maculopathy, and diabetic retinopathy. Numerous population-based and prospective studies support an association between obesity and risk of age-related cataract. However, the nature and strength of the...

  10. Obesity and ARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Hibbert, Kathryn; Rice, Mary; Malhotra, Atul

    2012-01-01

    Obesity prevalence continues to increase globally, with figures exceeding 30% of some populations. Patients who are obese experience alterations in baseline pulmonary mechanics, including airflow obstruction, decreased lung volumes, and impaired gas exchange. These physiologic changes have implications in many diseases, including ARDS. The unique physiology of patients who are obese affects the presentation and pathophysiology of ARDS, and patients who are obese who have respiratory failure p...

  11. Taste and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Hladik, Claude Marcel; Cohen, Emmanuel; Pasquet, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the links between taste perception and obesity would help authorities cope with obesity, which diminishes the health of human populations. This has been highlighted by a study of the impact of programs intended to educate obese adolescents about healthy diets (Pasquet et al., 2007)1. We present and discuss the results of this study in this chapter. In order to analyze the relationships between taste perceptions and obesity, we will (I) present the main aspects of taste perceptio...

  12. Obesity and metabolic inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    Obesity epidemics affect 35.7% of adults and approximately 17% of children in the United States. Obesity has been associated with several health disorders, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, fatty liver disease, and certain forms of cancer. Medical costs associated with obesity were estimated at $147 billion in 2008. Chronic tissue inflammation, particularly in adipose tissue, has been considered as a key underlying mechanism for the development of obesity-related metabolic syn...

  13. [Hemodynamics in donor plasmapheresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bormann, B; Boldt, J; Schleinzer, W; Kling, D; Hempelmann, G

    1988-05-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that preoperative withdrawal and storage of autologous plasma as fresh frozen plasma is effective in blood conservation. For that purpose patients with elective surgery (orthopaedic surgery, open heart surgery, neurosurgery and others) have to undergo donor plasmapheresis without staying in the hospital. Depending upon the need the procedure can be performed several times preoperatively, taking about 900 ml in a normal weighting subject at once. The collection of autologous plasma should be finished at least 14 days before surgery. In order to investigate the haemodynamic effects of donor plasmapheresis 30 patients scheduled for coronary bypass surgery were devided into two groups. 15 patients underwent plasmapheresis (10 ml plasma/kgbw) by one-needle-technique using a Haemonetics seperator (PCS) after premedication but before onset of anaesthesia. Blood withdrawal was performed with 0.5 ml/kgbw x min. Another 15 patients, serving as control had no plasma withdrawal and were measured at identical times as the other group. Both groups had an identical fluid replacement with 500 ml Ringer's solution during the investigation period. Plasma withdrawn was not substituted by colloidal solution (simulating the situation when plasmapheresis is performed at the outpatient). Haemodynamic measurements (both groups) included heart rate, arterial blood pressure, right- and left-atrial pressure, systemic- and pulmonary-vascular resistance and cardiac output. There were no relevant effects of plasmapheresis on haemodynamic function during and after the investigation period in that patients: neither heart rate, blood pressure or vascular resistance changed significantly nor did pre- and afterload or cardiac index. No differences to the group without plasmapheresis could be observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3041874

  14. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from donor kidney removal. They’re very rare. Much less than one percent, so, yes, there is a ... who might be 30, there might not be much besides the matching that would make the difference for us. Very young donors such as -- we would never take anyone who is less than 18. But say a person who is ...

  15. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can do a paired donation; a paired donation exchange, living donor exchange, where the A donor would donate to the ... commonplace. They’re the first of the matched exchanges. Here is an interesting question, and I’ll ...

  16. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... years ago now at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston. Dr. Joseph Murray was awarded the Nobel Prize for that pioneering work. And we’ve had a lot of talk about the safety for the living donors. The donor for that ...

  17. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Boston. Dr. Joseph Murray was awarded the Nobel Prize for that pioneering work. And we’ve had a lot of talk about the safety for the living donors. The donor for that operation turned 80 last year, which is really quite an accomplishment. On ...

  18. Donor selection criteria and procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donor selection is one of the most important aspects of tissue banking practice. Without a good donor selection criteria, the results of any effort of trying to preserve tissues will have disastrous outcome for the recipient of these tissues. While with a very good and strict donor selection the Tissue Bank can guarantee safe and effective tissue allografts. There are significant aspects in the history and physical examination of the donor that must be emphasized. A donor exclusion criteria has also been formulated together with a list of all the needed laboratory examinations to eliminate possible diseases that may be transferred from the donor. The methods of procurement of tissue allografts from living and cadaver donors will be described. The limitations and advantages of each will be taken.There are also special restrictions that are important in the practice of removing the tissues from the donors. All the necessary equipment should be ready and the potential risk on the personnel should be known to all doing Tissue Banking

  19. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... person would be unable to tolerate the donor operation, then they certainly would have been turned down as a donor. So, again, the stapling device that we use and other centers use has really eliminated that risk of bleeding ...

  20. Obesity and kidney protection

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Aravind; Biersmith, Michael; Tolouian, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Context: Obesity, both directly and indirectly, increases the risk for a variety of disease conditions including diabetes, hypertension, liver disease, and certain cancers, which in turn, decreases the overall lifespan in both men and women. Though the cardiovascular risks of obesity are widely acknowledged, less often identified is the relationship between obesity and renal function.

  1. Childhood Obesity: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…

  2. The Complexity of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Katti

    2010-01-01

    With Americans fatter and more malnourished than ever--almost two-thirds of the population is considered overweight or obese compared with 56 percent in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and people of color and the poor are the most obese of all--federal and university researchers and outreach workers from various anti-obesity organizations aim to…

  3. Evidence supporting the need for bariatric surgery to address the obesity epidemic in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bour, Eric S

    2015-01-01

    Despite aims at prevention, obesity in the United States is now an epidemic. Along with the rise in obesity, the United States has experienced a concomitant rise in obesity-related comorbidities. Furthermore overweight and obesity present a major economic public health challenge. Physicians are likely to recommend weight loss to their overweight patients. Diet, exercise, and behavior modification are often effective during the course of treatment but are subject to recidivism and post-treatment weight gain. Obesity intervention mandates that providers consider the need for surgery in many cases. The three most commonly performed weight loss surgical procedures in the United States include gastric banding, gastric bypass, and sleeve gastrectomy. Patients undergoing surgery lose considerable amounts of excess weight and experience marked improvement in many other obesity-related comorbidities. Surgery is a proven therapy for patients who do not respond to less invasive measures and should be considered mainstream therapy in the treatment of the obesity epidemic. PMID:25757004

  4. ?Analysis of donor motivations in living donor liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HeshamAbdeldayem

    2014-07-01

    The donors’ mean age was 25.53± 6.39 years with a range of 18-45 years. Males represented 64.7 % and females were 35.3%. The most common donors (32.1%, n_62, were sons and daughters to their parents (sons: n_43, daughters: n_19 while parents to their offsprings represent 15% (mothers: n_21, fathers: n_8. Brothers and sisters represent 16.5 % (brothers: n_22, sisters: n_10. Nephews & nieces giving their uncles or aunts were 14%. The number of wives donating to their husbands was 11 (5.7%. Interestingly, there was no single husband who donated his wife. Among the remaining donors, there were 11 cousins & one uncle. Unrelated donors were 20 (10.4%. Several factors seemed to contribute to motivation for donation: the seriousness of the potential recipient condition, the relationship and personal history of the donor to the potential recipient, the religious beliefs, the trust in the health care system, and family dynamics and obligations. Conclusions. Absolute absence of coercion on the living-liver donor’s motives may not be realistic because of the serious condition of the potential recipient. It is mandatory that

  5. Support of unrelated stem cell donor searches by donor center-initiated HLA typing of potentially matching donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Alexander H; Solloch, Ute V; Baier, Daniel; Grathwohl, Alois; Hofmann, Jan; Pingel, Julia; Stahr, Andrea; Ehninger, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Large registries of potential unrelated stem cell donors have been established in order to enable stem cell transplantation for patients without HLA-identical related donors. Donor search is complicated by the fact that the stored HLA information of many registered donors is incomplete. We carried out a project that was aimed to improve chances of patients with ongoing donor searches to find an HLA-matched unrelated donor. For that purpose, we carried out additional donor center-initiated HLA-DRB1 typing of donors who were only typed for the HLA loci A and B so far and were potential matches for patients in need of a stem cell transplant. In total, 8,861 donors were contacted for donor center-initiated HLA-DRB1 typing within 1,089 donor searches. 12 of these donors have donated stem cells so far, 8 thereof for their respective target patients. We conclude that chances of patients with ongoing donor searches to find an HLA-matched unrelated donor can indeed be improved by donor-center initiated typing that is carried out in addition to the standard donor search process. Our results also raise questions regarding the appropriate use of incompletely typed donors within unrelated donor searches. PMID:21625451

  6. Experiencing Wüstenberg's Habilitationsgeschrift (2003)

    OpenAIRE

    Veldsman, Danie P.

    2011-01-01

    How to cite this book review: Veldsman, D.P., 2011, ‘Experiencing Wüstenberg’s Habilitationsgeschrift (2003)’, HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies 67(3), Art. #1128, 1 page. doi:10.4102/hts.v67i3.1128

  7. Experienced Teachers' Informal Learning from Classroom Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Annemarieke; Beijaard, Douwe; Brekelmans, Mieke; Korthagen, Fred

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how experienced teachers learn informally, and more specifically, how they learn through the activities they undertake when teaching classes. Regarding these activities we studied four aspects: behaviour, cognition, motivation and emotion. During one year, data were collected through observations of and…

  8. Children's Actions when Experiencing Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overlien, Carolina; Hyden, Margareta

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is, by analysing children's discourses, to investigate their actions or absence of actions during a domestic violence episode. The empirical data are recorded group therapy sessions and individual interviews with children who have grown up experiencing their fathers' violence against their mothers. The analysis shows that…

  9. L2 Teachers' Pedagogic Knowledge Base: A Comparison between Experienced and Less Experienced Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Ramin; Tajik, Leila

    2009-01-01

    Second language teacher education community has become increasingly interested in the pedagogical knowledge base of teachers as a window into practitioners' mental lives. The present study was conducted to document likely differences between the pedagogic thoughts of experienced and less experienced teachers. Eight teachers participated in the…

  10. Experience of severe desaturation during anesthetic induction period in an obese adult patient with Prader-Willi syndrome -A case report-

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Joon Woo; Kim, Eun-ju; Min, Byung Woo; Ban, Jong Seouk; Lee, Sang Gon; Lee, Ji-hyang

    2012-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome is characterized by infantile hypotonia, childhood-onset obesity, short stature, mental retardation, hyperphagia, hypogonadism. After infantile hypotonia phase, patient is prone to morbid obesity due to hyperphagia. Complications associated with morbid obesity are recognized as the main risk factors for death the lifespan of patients with Prader-Willi syndrome. We experienced desaturation and bronchospasm during arteriovenous fistula surgery in an obese adult with Prader...

  11. Challenges in obesity research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is the main nutritional problem and one of the most important health problems in developed societies. Central to the challenge of obesity prevention and management is a thoroughly understanding of its determinants. Multiple socio-cultural, socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors--often interrelated and many of them still unknown or poorly understood--can contribute to the establishment and perpetuation of obese phenotypes. Here, we address current research challenges regarding basic aspects of obesity and emerging science for its control, including brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and browning of white fat as possible therapeutic targets for obesity, the influence of the microbioma, and genetics, epigenetics, nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of obesity. We also highlight hot topics in relation to food and lifestyle as determinants of obesity, including the brain mechanisms underlying environmental motivation to eat, the biological control of spontaneous physical activity, the possible role of concrete foods and food components, and the importance of early life nutrition and environment. Challenges regarding the connections of obesity with other alterations and pathologies are also briefly addressed, as well as social and economical challenges in relation to healthy food production and lifestyle for the prevention of obesity, and technological challenges in obesity research and management. The objective is to give a panoramic of advances accomplished and still ahead relevant to the different stakeholders engaged in understanding and combating obesity. PMID:24010755

  12. Obesity in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarbad, Leila; Gonder-Frederick, Linda

    2010-06-01

    Obesity carries a unique disease burden on women and is influenced by a variety of biological, hormonal, environmental, and cultural factors. Reproductive transitions, such as pregnancy and menopause, increase the risk for obesity. Psychologically, obese women experience greater weight-related stigma and discrimination and are at increased risk for depression than obese men. Women are also particularly susceptible to psychological stress, sleep debt, and lack of physical activity, all of which are risk factors for the development of excess weight. Obesity risk is increased among women with psychiatric disorders and those who use certain psychotropic medications. Obesity treatment should take into consideration degree of obesity, health risks, past weight loss attempts, and individual differences in motivation and readiness for treatment. PMID:20385345

  13. Obesity and obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppsson, Sofia

    2015-03-01

    The belief that obese people ought to lose weight and keep it off is widespread, and has a profound negative impact on the lives of the obese. I argue in this paper that most obese people have no such obligation, even if obesity is bad, and caused by calorie input exceeding output. Obese people do not have an obligation to achieve long-term weight loss if this is impossible for them, is worse than the alternative, or requires such an enormous effort in relation to what stands to be gained that this option is supererogatory rather than obligatory. It is highly plausible that most obese people fall into one of these three groups. Politicians may still have obligations to fight obesity, but they ought to do so through progressive politics rather than blaming and shaming. PMID:25843121

  14. Recruiting unrelated donors for the National Marrow Donor Program.

    OpenAIRE

    Yanke, D. R.

    1990-01-01

    Medical advances have made bone marrow transplantation the treatment of choice for certain hematologic diseases. For those patients eligible for a marrow transplant only about 30 percent find an HLA-compatible match within their families. Studies indicate that unrelated volunteers are willing to donate their marrow. The National Marrow Donor Program was formed in 1986 as a result of a federal contract. This group is a network of donor centers, transplant centers, and collection centers. The C...

  15. Experiencing, Psychopathology, and the Tripartite Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Westbury

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The philosopher Eugene Gendlin argues that a distinctive mode of reasoning, called experiencing, is necessary for working through personally salient problems such as are encountered in psychotherapy. We review supporting empirical support. It is now possible to consider Gendlin’s ideas from a neurological perspective. Work directed at understanding the neurological underpinnings of consciousness and self-related processing, as well as comparative neuroanatomical work, are all consistent with and elucidated by Gendlin’s experiencing construct. We argue from this data that the human mind is composed of three interacting systems that are unique to or enhanced in humans compared to other primates. Two are dedicated to “hot and cold” cognition. The most important, least well-studied third system is dedicated to mediating between these forms of cognition. We outline how interactions between these systems define different forms of psychopathology and what they suggest about the structure of the human mind.

  16. Experiencing and coping with psychological trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Bizjak, Manca

    2012-01-01

    The emphasis of this diploma thesis is on experiencing and coping with posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological trauma can do a lot of harm to a person and can have physiological, emotional, cognitive and behavioral effects. If traumatic event is too intense, it can lead to a posttraumatic stress disorder which can have negative impact on every aspect of person's life. Therefore it is crucial that they search for help and start a new life. The aim of this diploma thesis is to present...

  17. Experiencing, Psychopathology, and the Tripartite Mind

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Westbury; Douglas Ozier

    2013-01-01

    The philosopher Eugene Gendlin argues that a distinctive mode of reasoning, called experiencing, is necessary for working through personally salient problems such as are encountered in psychotherapy. We review supporting empirical support. It is now possible to consider Gendlin’s ideas from a neurological perspective. Work directed at understanding the neurological underpinnings of consciousness and self-related processing, as well as comparative neuroanatomical work, are all consistent wi...

  18. Diffusing obesity myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Salas, X; Forhan, M; Sharma, A M

    2014-06-01

    Misinformation or myths about obesity can lead to weight bias and obesity stigma. Counteracting myths with facts and evidence has been shown to be effective educational tools to increase an individuals' knowledge about a certain condition and to reduce stigma.The purpose of this study was to identify common obesity myths within the healthcare and public domains and to develop evidence-based counterarguments to diffuse them. An online search of grey literature, media and public health information sources was conducted to identify common obesity myths. A list of 10 obesity myths was developed and reviewed by obesity experts and key opinion leaders. Counterarguments were developed using current research evidence and validated by obesity experts. A survey of obesity experts and health professionals was conducted to determine the usability and potential effectiveness of the myth-fact messages to reduce weight bias. A total of 754 individuals responded to the request to complete the survey. Of those who responded, 464 (61.5%) completed the survey. All 10 obesity myths were identified to be deeply pervasive within Canadian healthcare and public domains. Although the myth-fact messages were endorsed, respondents also indicated that they would likely not be sufficient to reduce weight bias. Diffusing deeply pervasive obesity myths will require multilevel approaches. PMID:25826775

  19. Obesity and fracture risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnelli, Stefano; Caffarelli, Carla; Nuti, Ranuccio

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and osteoporosis are two common diseases with an increasing prevalence and a high impact on morbidity and mortality. Obese women have always been considered protected against osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. However, several recent studies have challenged the widespread belief that obesity is protective against fracture and have suggested that obesity is a risk factor for certain fractures. Fat and bone are linked by many pathways, which ultimately serve the function of providing a skeleton appropriate to the mass of adipose tissue it is carrying. Leptin, adiponectin, adipocytic estrogens and insulin/amylin are involved in this connection. However, excessive body fat, and particularly abdominal fat, produces inflammatory cytokines which may stimulate bone resorption and reduce bone strength. This review aimed to examine the literature data on the relationships of BMI and fat mass with factures in adult and elderly subjects. Even though the more recent studies have shown conflicting results, there is growing evidence that obesity, and particularly severe obesity, may be related to an increased risk of fracture at different skeletal sites which is partially independent from BMD. Moreover, the relationship between obesity and fracture appears to be markedly influenced by ethnicity, gender and fat distribution. Even though the incidence and the pathogenesis of fracture in obese individuals has not yet been clearly defined, the growing evidence that obesity may be related to an increased risk of fracture has important public health implications and emphasizes the need to develop effective strategies to reduce fracture risk in obese subjects. PMID:25002873

  20. Psychosocial aspects of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Varsha

    2006-01-01

    Obese patients have many physical limitations and much psychiatric burden to overcome. Several studies have shown that the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in the obese is similar to those with normal weight. However, in obese patients seeking treatment there is an increased prevalence (40-60%) of psychiatric morbidity, most commonly depression. It is difficult to separate the effects of depression on obesity and, on the contrary, the neuroendocrine changes associated with stress and depression may cause metabolic changes that predispose and perpetuate obesity. The stigma associated with obesity causes bullying in school as well as childhood psychiatric morbidity. Prejudice is not limited to the general public but exists among health professionals too. This chapter discusses the treatment of depression in obesity and the psychiatric evaluation of the pre-bariatric surgery patient. Education of society, starting with schools and including healthcare professionals will reduce bias and stigma as well as assist this vulnerable group of patients to seek help for their obesity and the many problems that come with it. Given that by the year 2025 obesity will be the world's number one health problem with the US leading the way, it is very important that we pursue preventive measures as well as encourage research for treatments of obesity. PMID:16418544

  1. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... donor?” No. The recipient, by definition, had end-stage kidney disease and certainly can’t ever be ... And then they gave you medicine through the IV after that. Right. So the pain was fairly ...

  2. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on living donor kidney transplant surgery. Please feel free to e-mail questions as we go on. ... we can pass instruments that allow us to free up the kidney. Here’s a view from inside ...

  3. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery Sentara Norfolk General Hospital, Norfolk, Virginia March 25, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” webcast presentation presented by Sentara Healthcare. Sentara Healthcare is a not-for- ...

  4. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... would like to thank the audience for joining us tonight for our live webcast on living donor ... is one of our transplant nephrologists. Also with us today, one of a group of sisters, Anna ...

  5. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of work for a little while and my child is grown and I don’t have to ... donor, Anna, a question that pertains to having children. “What was your understanding about being able to ...

  6. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... March 25, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” webcast presentation presented by Sentara Healthcare. Sentara Healthcare is ... audience for joining us tonight for our live webcast on living donor kidney transplant surgery. Please feel ...

  7. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When patients are cleared for a nephrectomy or removal of the kidney, they are admitted the same ... risk?” There have been deaths from donor kidney removal. They’re very rare. Much less than one ...

  8. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... years. We talk about five year survival and one year survival of the kidney. At five years, something like 55 or 60 percent, depending on what type of deceased donor kidney you’re talking about, ...

  9. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Edwin Robey who is the transplant urologist who does the living donor surgeries, and Dr. Harland Rust, ... little risk of damaging other tissues. But it does a good job of securing the vessel and ...

  10. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... clamp on it, and you can see the sutures being put in between the donor vein and the recipient vein. This is fine monofilament suture like fishing line. We wear magnifying lenses while ...

  11. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with the donor that really was the main source. Otherwise these patients are screened very carefully medically ... Request information” button on your webcast screen and open the door to informed medical care. “OR-Live,” ...

  12. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... said, out of a hundred kidney transplants, it’s rare that even one of them we had to ... deaths from donor kidney removal. They’re very rare. Much less than one percent, so, yes, there ...

  13. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a machine, have a better quality of life. It ended up not happening until 2001. It ... Since I’ve become a kidney donor, my life really hasn’t changed. My health is just ...

  14. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... urine tests are done. 1 And then after all that is done, the potential donor meets with ... and this makes Dr. Colonna’s work of hooking all this back up more tedious but still works ...

  15. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... donate a kidney. We encourage those people to lose weight, and then we reevaluate them and try and ... I’ll answer. “Does the living donor experience weight loss?” Just from being in the hospital and not ...

  16. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... northeastern North Carolina. Nationally recognized for quality and innovation, Sentara employs over 15,000 people and operates ... process, first the potential donor meets with a social worker and a psychologist, and there are also ...

  17. Burnout among Low and High Experienced Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedehhava Mousavy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Burnout is a serious psychological syndrome that can affect not only an individual’s well-being, but also the functioning of whole organisations, such as schools. It is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and decreased personal accomplishment.The level of burnout among teachers in the field of education has a negative impact on student success. The present investigation examines the level of burn out among high and low experienced teachers. It focused on a group of English teachers from different nationalities: Iranian, and Malaysian at UPM to examine if there is any relation between burnout and experience level. The sample consisted of 30 English teachers. Two instruments namely, The Maslach Burnout Inventory and Demographic Questionnaire were used to collect data. Data analysis revealed that there is no significant difference in depersonalization and personal accomplishment scores between low and high experienced teachers. But the result of this study also revealed that there is a significant difference in Emotional Exhaustion scores between low and high experienced teachers. Further research is required to explore the roots and the causes of burnout.Keywords: teacher burnout, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment

  18. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medical condition, such as HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity ... long-term risks for health problems such as diabetes, which in turn can cause kidney disease, but ...

  19. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

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    Full Text Available ... diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some of these conditions. And once we’ ... problems such as diabetes, which in turn can cause kidney disease, but also because of risks perioperatively ...

  20. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

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    Full Text Available ... such as HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some ... if they were, let’s say, to develop a cancer in one of their kidneys, and certainly that ...

  1. Mass Transfer from Giant Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovskii, K.; Ivanova, N.

    2014-01-01

    The stability of mass transfer in binaries with convective giant donors remains an open question in modern astrophysics. There is a significant discrepancy between what the existing methods predict for a response to mass loss of the giant itself, as well as for the mass transfer rate during the Roche lobe overflow. Here we show that the recombination energy in the superadiabatic layer plays an important and hitherto unaccounted-for role in he donor's response to mass loss, i...

  2. Ambivalence in living liver donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Mary Ann; Kendrick, Julia; Verbesey, Jennifer E; Morin, Denise S; Dew, Mary Amanda; Trabucco, Agnes; Pomposelli, James J; Pomfret, Elizabeth A

    2011-10-01

    All right hepatic lobe (RHL) donors in our program are asked to participate in a longitudinal quality-of-life study that begins at their evaluation and continues throughout the first postdonation year. Here we report the characteristics of donor candidates who completed the donation process despite ambivalence. In all, 183 RHL candidates consented, and 133 became donors. Ambivalent donors (ADs; n = 45) identified themselves through verbal statements or written comments, or they were identified by staff during the evaluation. ADs were predominantly male (73.3%), were older than unambivalent donors (UADs; >35 years: 76% of ADs versus 53% of UADs, P = 0.008), and were well educated (college graduate: 60% of ADs versus 17% of UADs, P = 0.01). Brother-to-brother and son-to-father combinations were most common among ADs. Alcohol (22% versus 11%, P = 0.04) and hepatitis C virus (51% versus 27%, P = 0.008) were more common as disease etiologies for recipients with ADs versus recipients with UADs. More ADs than UADs considered themselves to be religious (68.9% versus 43.2%, P = 0.007). Ambivalence about RHL donation was present in 33.8% of the candidates who completed the donation process. These results suggest that ambivalence should not be the sole reason for disqualifying a potential donor who otherwise satisfies program requirements. PMID:21604356

  3. Anesthetizing the obese child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Anette; Lenz, Katja

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing. The focus of this review is the special anesthetic considerations regarding the perioperative management of obese children. With obesity the risk of comorbidity such as asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, and diabetes increases. The obese child has an increased risk of perioperative complications especially related to airway management and ventilation. There is a significantly increased risk of difficult mask ventilation and perioperative desaturation. Furthermore, obesity has an impact on the pharmacokinetics of most anesthetic drugs. This has important implications on how to estimate the optimal drug dose. This article offers a review of the literature on definition, prevalence and the pathophysiology of childhood obesity and provides suggestions on preanesthetic evaluation, airway management and dosage of the anesthetic drugs in these patients. The authors highlight the need of supplemental studies on various areas of the subject.

  4. Female obesity and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmor, Alon; Dunphy, Bruce

    2015-05-01

    Infertility affects one in seven couples, and its rate is on the increase. Ovulatory defects and unexplained causes account for >50% of infertile aetiologies. It is postulated that a significant proportion of these cases are either directly or indirectly related to obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obese men and women has topped 50% in some developed countries. Obesity is on the increase worldwide; in turn, the consequences in terms of the associated morbidity and mortality have also been increasing. Obesity is associated with various reproductive sequelae including anovulation, subfertility and infertility, increased risk of miscarriage and poor neonatal and maternal pregnancy outcomes. Thus, the combination of infertility and obesity poses some very real challenges in terms of both the short- and long-term management of these patients. The mechanism with which obesity impacts female reproductive function is summarised in this review. PMID:25619586

  5. Obesity and pregnancy.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Kirsten Riis; Andersen, Malene Lundgren

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As obesity is an increasing problem among fertile women, it is crucial that specialists involved in the treatment of these women be aware of the risks of complications and know how to deal with them. Complications associated with obesity in pregnancy are gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertensive disorders, and thromboembolic complications. Complications associated with obesity in labor are augmentation, early amniotomy, cephalopelvic disproportion, cesarean section, and perioperative morbidity. Complications associated with obesity in children are macrosomia, shoulder dystocia, small for gestational age, late fetal death, and congenital malformations, especially neural tube defects. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to review the potential complications associated with obesity and pregnancy. RESULTS: Obesity is associated with a higher risk of all reviewed complications except small for gestational age.

  6. Obesity in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chu Chin; Mahmood, Tahir

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity has reached alarming proportions globally, and continues to rise in both developed and developing countries. Maternal obesity has become one of the most commonly occurring risk factors in obstetric practice. The 2003-2005 report of the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom highlighted obesity as a significant risk for maternal death [1]. More than half of all women who died from direct or indirect causes were either overweight or obese. For the mother, obesity increases the risk of obstetric complications during the antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal period, as well as contributing to technical difficulties with fetal assessment. The offspring of obese mothers also have a higher rate of perinatal morbidity and an increased risk of long-term health problems. PMID:25702971

  7. Prevalence and association between obesity and metabolic syndrome among Chinese elementary school children: a school-based survey

    OpenAIRE

    Liu AiLing; Lin Rong; Liu WeiJia; Du Lin; Chen Qing

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background China has experienced an increase in the prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity over the last decades. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome among Chinese school children and determine if there is a significant association between childhood obesity and metabolic syndrome. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1844 children (938 males and 906 females) in six elementary schools at Guangzhou city from April...

  8. Obesity: Pathophysiology and Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Zhang; Ju Liu; Jianliang Yao; Gang Ji; Long Qian; Jing Wang; Guansheng Zhang; Jie Tian; Yongzhan Nie; Yi Edi. Zhang; Gold, Mark S.; Yijun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pat...

  9. Gut Microbiota and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Kyle J.; Lorenz, Robin G.

    2012-01-01

    The current obesity epidemic clearly has many causes, including the impact of our modern world on both our diet and our lifestyle/physical activity. Although many interventions have been recommended, the prevalence of obesity continues to rise and has forced a re-evaluation of the potential interventions that could have an impact. In recent years it has been definitively shown that microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract are altered in obese individuals. Recent data provide a potential mecha...

  10. Thyroid Function and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Longhi, Silvia; Radetti, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, childhood obesity is one of the biggest health emergencies in the developed countries. Obesity leads to multiple metabolic alterations which increase the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Thyroid function has been often described as altered in obese children, however, it is not clear whether the altered thyroid function is the cause or the consequence of fat excess. On the other hand, thyroid structure seems also to be affected. Nevertheless, both functional a...

  11. Obesity: causes and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Jebb, S

    2004-01-01

    Obesity is increasing sharply around the world, in both adults and children. In the UK, national surveys show that obesity has trebled in 20 years and now affects almost a quarter of the adult population. There is a similar incidence of overweight in young people. Obesity is associated with significant increases in morbidity (especially type 2 diabetes) and the risk of premature mortality (especially from cardiovascular disease). Reductions in body weight of even 5-10% are associated with a s...

  12. Obesity: A multifactorial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Ntokou

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity represents one of the most serious global health issues with approximately 310 million people presently affected. Main cause of it’s development is the increase of energy intake in regard to energy expenditure.Aim: The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the causes and treatment of obesity, as well as the anthropometrical measurements used for the assessment of obesity. The method ?f this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature, mainly in the “pub med data base” which referred to the causes and treatment of obesity, as well as the anthropometrical measurements used for the assessment of obesity. Results: The prevalence of obesity has increased markedly, throughout the world. Although the etiology of obesity has not been fully understood yet, however it seems to be a multifactorial disease for which are responsible a great deal of psychological, environmental, genetic and behavioral factors. The most common anthropometrical measurement that is used for assessment of obesity is Body Mass Index (BMI and is calculated by the following equation: ???=Weight/Height2. A value of ??? ? 30 kg/m2 equals obesity. Another simple test used to measure obesity is Waist to Hip Ratio, which measures abdominal adiposity. Values greater than 0,95 should be treated seriously as they normally indicate body fatness. The majority of studies show that life-style modification in conjunction with a well-balanced nutrition and regular physical exercise consist the cornerstone for the treatment and prevention of obesity.Conclusions: Obesity is a disease that can be preventable through modification of way of living. The development of proper strategy prevention capable to change attitudes, to promote nutrition and physical activity should be the primary goal of every community and government.

  13. Obesity in Gulf countries

    OpenAIRE

    Zawilla N

    2012-01-01

    Globally obesity has reached to epidemic proportions, and the people of the Gulf countries have also affected, especially high-income, oil-producing countries. The prevalence of obesity in Gulf Countries among children and adolescents ranges from 5% to 14% in males and from 3% to 18% in females. In adult females there is a significant increase of obesity with a prevalence of 2%–55% and in adult males 1%–30% in countries of gulf region.

  14. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Al Dabal Laila; BaHammam Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is becoming a major medical concern in several parts of the world, with huge economic impacts on health- care systems, resulting mainly from increased cardiovascular risks. At the same time, obesity leads to a number of sleep-disordered breathing patterns like obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS), leading to increased morbidity and mortality with reduced quality of life. OHS is distinct from other sleep- related breathing disorders although overlap may ex...

  15. Obesity - A Preventable Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ofei, F.

    2005-01-01

    Obesity is a common and preventable disease of clinical and public health importance. It is often a major risk factor for the development of several non-communicable diseases, significant disability and premature death. There is presently a global epidemic of obesity in all age groups and in both developed and developing countries. The increasing prevalence of obesity places a large burden on health care use and costs. Weight loss is associated with significant health and economic benefits. E...

  16. Programming towards childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tounian, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    There is now considerable evidence that a constitutional susceptibility to fat gain is necessary for children to become obese under the pressure of an obesogenic environment; this is the programming towards obesity. The role of genetics in this programming is dominant. Besides the rare monogenic recessive forms of obesity secondary to mutations in genes involved in the hypothalamic appetite control pathways, obesity linked to mutations in melanocortin 3 and 4 receptors are more frequent due to their dominant mode of transmission. Predisposition to common obesity is polygenic and involves a network of genes; nevertheless, more research is required to elucidate their exact role. Fetal and perhaps early postnatal programming is also possible. Under- and overnutrition, diabetes, and maternal smoking during pregnancy were shown to promote later obesity and may affect the central body weight regulatory system during fetal development. The role of early postnatal factors such as formula-feeding rather than breastfeeding, excess in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids or protein intakes, and excessive weight gain early in life is more questionable and needs further investigation. Taking into consideration that childhood obesity is a programmed disease should modify its clinical management. Childhood obesity should no longer be considered as the result of inappropriate eating habits and/or excessive inactivity in order to relieve the obese children's discrimination and their parents' guilt. Since treatment of obese children requires a substantial motivation to continuously fight against the programmed excessive drive to eat, it seems wiser to wait for children to be old enough, thus more motivated, to initiate energy restriction. Moreover, with the great majority of children being not predisposed to obesity, prevention strategies should not be addressed to the whole pediatric population but targeted to those children at risk. Improvement of knowledge on programming towards obesity is essential to develop more promising therapeutic and preventive approaches. PMID:21846979

  17. Genetic Factors of Obesity.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mazura, Ivan; Ochoa-Rebato, E.

    Budapest : Eötvös University Press, 2010 - (Bodzsár, E.; Susanne, C.), s. 119-140 ISBN 978-963-88941-0-6. - (Biennial Books of the EAA. 6) R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : aetiology of obesity * genetic factors * obesity genes * polymorphism * obesity-associated syndromes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  18. Bariatric Surgery for Severe Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources ??. Alternate Language URL Bariatric Surgery for Severe Obesity Page Content Bariatric Surgery for Adults Bariatric Surgery ... especially if they have a disease linked to obesity. Severe obesity is a chronic condition that is ...

  19. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018

  20. Behavioral treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Táki Athanássios Cordas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Great population studies do not confirm the hypothesis that atypical personality of obese would exist. Obeses in the generalpopulation do not present more psychological disturbs thanthe ones that are not obeses. Obeses adolescents and adultsare discriminated in their academic and professional lifes. Thissocial, cultural, economic and affective impoverishment seemsto be directly related to the gravity of their obesity, what means,higher the ICM (Index of Corporal Mass, bigger are thepsychological problems. This abandonment contributes to thebig risk of unchain psychiatric pictures as depression, anxyetdisturbs, drugs and alcoholic excessive consumption andalimentary disturbs. Obeses of the general population do notpresent more psychological or psychiatric symptoms than theclinical population of obeses (obeses under treatment, presentmore clinical and psychiatric problems, mainly compulsoryalimentary standards. Some studies indicate that there is alinear relation between the ICM and the highest frequency ofalimentary compulsory behavior or bulimic episode. Thepsychiatric patients negative body perception added to theirother negative perceptions about their performance in searchingsocial interaction increase the trend to the isolation. Thepsychiatric picture presence in the bariatric surgery preoperatoryin a III degree overweight pacient has not to be facedas absolute surgery counter indication since such procedurecan be the difference between giving a better life quality orwaiting for a potentially lethal complication. We cannot forgetthat the obesity itself, due to the common associatedcomorbidyties, loads a great lethality potential. The surgerycounter-indication could be relative, it depending on how muchthe psychiatric disturbs interfere on the treatment andconditioned to the rigorous psychiatric control in the anteriorand post surgical period.

  1. [Obesity and cardiac failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinier, M; Pathak, A; Roncalli, J; Massabuau, P

    2005-01-01

    Obesity alone is the cause of 11% of cases of cardiac failure in men and 14% of cases in women in the United States. The frequency of obesity continues to rise in our country, 41% of our compatriots being obese or overweight. It is expected that obesity will become an important cause of cardiac failure in the coming years. The Framingham study showed that, after correction for other risk factors, for every point increase in body mass index, the increase in risk of developing cardiac failure was 5% in men and 7% in women. There are three physiopathological mechanisms to explain the adverse effects of obesity on left ventricular function: an increase in ventricular preload secondary to increased plasma volume induced by the high fatty mass; an increase in left ventricular afterload due to the common association of hypertension generated by activation of the sympathetic nervous system by hyperinsulinism; and systolic and diastolic dysfunction due to changes in the myocardial genome and coronary artery disease induced by risk factors of atherosclerosis aggravated by obesity. The adipocyte also secretes a number of hormones which act directly or indirectly on the myocardium: angiotensin II, leptin, resistin, adrenomedulin, cytokines. These haemodynamic and hormonal changes profoundly modify the genetic expression of the myocardium in obesity, favourising hypertrophy of the myocyte and the development of interstitial fibrosis. Whether it be eccentric in the absence of hypertension or concentric when hypertension is associated with obesity, left ventricular hypertrophy, although normalising left ventricular wall stress, has adverse consequences causing abnormal relaxation and decreased left ventricular compliance. Therefore, in obese patients, two forms of cardiac failure may be observed. The more common is due to diastolic dysfunction, obesity being one of the principal causes of cardiac failure with preserved systolic function. Cardiac failure due to systolic dysfunction is less common and may be observed in cases with inappropriate left ventricular hypertrophy which does not normalise abnormal left ventricular wall stress leading to cardiomyopathy, and in cases with associated coronary artery disease. Whatever the underlying mechanism, the diagnosis of cardiac failure is made more difficult by obesity. From the prognostic point of view, in the global population of patients with cardiac failure, obesity improves survival because it counteracts the adverse effect of cachexia; however, obesity increases the risk of sudden death. In fact, obesity is associated with dynamic change in QT interval. In cases of cardiac failure secondary to obesity-related cardiomyopathy, loss of weight leads to an improved functional status and a reduction of left ventricular remodelling and an increase of the ejection fraction. PMID:15724418

  2. Living donor kidney transplants: personal reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najarian, John S

    2005-11-01

    Short- and long-term living kidney donor morbidity and mortality are discussed herein. The analysis includes over 3000 living donor kidney transplants from 1963 through 2002 at a single institution. The category of living donors includes living related donors, such as fathers, mothers, siblings, offspring, and other genetically related donors, as well as living unrelated donors, such as spouses, friends, or altruistic strangers. Graft and patient survival rates with living related and unrelated living donors are compared to rates with cadaveric donors. Donor risks are discussed, including short-term surgical risks as well as long-term risks of impaired renal function, possible hypertension, and psychological risks. Finally, early and late donor mortality statistics are presented. In addition, the benefits to potential donors are reviewed. Donors are carefully screened before donation. During this screening process, a significant number of donors have been found to have abnormal renal function--some had undisclosed hypertension and others had unknown cardiovascular disease. In addition, six malignancies were found, eventually resulting in curative resection. A secondary benefit to donors was reported in a study from Norway and Sweden, which showed that donors had improved long-term survival versus the general population. Our own long-term studies involving follow-up of 20 to 30 years after kidney donation have shown no significant difference in donor renal function, blood pressure, and incidence of proteinuria, as compared with their nondonor siblings. We also found donors to be perfectly normal in all other categories; several had even undergone normal pregnancies after donation. Most donors reported a high quality of life, with a boost in self-esteem and an increased sense of well-being: 96% felt it was a positive experience. In conclusion, living kidney donation has a very low mortality rate. Long-term follow-up shows minimal impact after donation. Donor quality of life is reported as excellent. PMID:16386479

  3. 75 FR 58400 - Donor Management Research: Improvements in Clinical Management of Deceased Organ Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ...clinical donor management would improve organ quality, organs...Transplantation, Healthcare Systems Bureau...on donor management and improvement...OTPD, organ quality, and post-transplant...regarding the importance of further...into donor management and its...

  4. Obesity in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the child’s environment can also lead to obesity. Family, friends, and school setting help shape a child’s diet and exercise choices. Food may be used as a reward or to comfort a child. ... obesity. Hormone disorders or low thyroid function, and certain ...

  5. Obesity and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-11

    This women's health podcast focuses on obesity in women and girls. It discusses obesity-related health risks and includes tips to help achieve and maintain a healthy weight.  Created: 5/11/2009 by Office of Womenâ??s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/11/2009.

  6. Gender, Obesity, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is a health condition, but its consequences extend far beyond the realm of health. To illuminate an important route by which the experience of obesity can filter into the status attainment process, this study drew on nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to test a social psychological…

  7. The Obesity Epidemic

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-07-18

    Learn about obesity and the community initiatives taking place to prevent and reduce this epidemic.  Created: 7/18/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity.   Date Released: 7/18/2011.

  8. Obesity: A Bibliographic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Beth

    2012-01-01

    The study of obesity is a relatively new interdisciplinary academic field. The community college library shelves should contain two types of resources. First, several kinds of reference materials, and second, a host of broader materials that place the discussion of obesity within a cultural framework. This overview is divided into two major…

  9. Childhood Obesity PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the August 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. The rate of obesity among low-income preschoolers has declined, but one in eight is still obese. This program briefly discusses what can be done.  Created: 8/6/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/6/2013.

  10. Family Communication about Donor Conception: A Qualitative Study with Lesbian Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Parys, Hanna; Wyverkens, Elia; Provoost, Veerle; De Sutter, Petra; Pennings, Guido; Buysse, Ann

    2014-11-13

    In this qualitative study of 10 lesbian couples who built their families through anonymous donor conception, we explore how lesbian parents experience communication about the donor conception within the family. While for these families "disclosure" of donor conception is often seen as evident, the way parents and children discuss this subject and how this is experienced by the parents themselves has not received much research attention. To meet this gap in the literature, in-depth interviews with lesbian couples were conducted. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis showed that this family communication process can be understood within the broader relational context of parent-child relationships. Even though parents handled this family communication in many different ways, these were all inspired by the same motives: acting in the child's best interest and-on a more implicit level-maintaining good relations within the family. Furthermore, parents left the initiative for talking about the DC mostly to the child. Overall, parents aimed at constructing a donor conception narrative that they considered acceptable for both the children and themselves. They used different strategies, such as gradual disclosure, limiting the meaning of the donor, and justifying the donor conception. Building an acceptable donor conception narrative was sometimes challenged by influences from the social environment. In the discussion, we relate this qualitative systemic study to the broader issues of selective disclosure and bidirectionality within families. PMID:25393909

  11. Hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic versus standard laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: HARP-trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwayn Ian PJ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transplantation is the only treatment offering long-term benefit to patients with chronic kidney failure. Live donor nephrectomy is performed on healthy individuals who do not receive direct therapeutic benefit of the procedure themselves. In order to guarantee the donor's safety, it is important to optimise the surgical approach. Recently we demonstrated the benefit of laparoscopic nephrectomy experienced by the donor. However, this method is characterised by higher in hospital costs, longer operating times and it requires a well-trained surgeon. The hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic technique may be an alternative to a complete laparoscopic, transperitoneal approach. The peritoneum remains intact and the risk of visceral injuries is reduced. Hand-assistance results in a faster procedure and a significantly reduced operating time. The feasibility of this method has been demonstrated recently, but as to date there are no data available advocating the use of one technique above the other. Methods/design The HARP-trial is a multi-centre randomised controlled, single-blind trial. The study compares the hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic approach with standard laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. The objective is to determine the best approach for live donor nephrectomy to optimise donor's safety and comfort while reducing donation related costs. Discussion This study will contribute to the evidence on any benefits of hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic versus standard laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. Trial Registration Dutch Trial Register NTR1433

  12. Live Donor Partial Hepatectomy for Liver Transplantation: Is There a Learning Curve?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Saidi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Donor safety is the first priority in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT.Objective: To determine the characteristics and outcome of live liver donors who underwent donor hepatectomyfrom January, 1997 to May, 2007 at Massachusetts General Hospital.Methods: 30 patients underwent LDLT between January, 1997 and May, 2007 at our institution.Results: The type of graft was the right lobe (segments 5-8 in 14, left lobe (segments 2-4 in 4, and left lateralsector (segments 2 and 3 in 12 patients. The mean donor age was 36 (range: 26-57 years. The mean follow-up was 48 (range: 18-120 months. No deaths occurred. Overall, 8 (26.6% patients experienced a total of 14 post-operative complications. Donor complications based on graft type were as follows: left lateralsector (16.7%, left lobe (25%, and right lobe (35.7%. The experience was divided into two periods 1997-2001 (n=15 and 2002-2007 (n=15. Overall complications during 2 periods were 40% and 13.3%, respectively (p<0.001. The incidence of grade III complication also significantly decreased; 66.7% vs 33.3% (p<0.01.Conclusion: Partial hepatectomy in living donors has a learning curve which appears to be approximately 15 cases. This learning curve is not restricted to the surgeons performing the procedure but involves all aspects of patient care.

  13. Pretransplant Infusion of Donor B Cells Enhances Donor-Specific Skin Allograft Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Julia; Mcintyre, Megan S. Ford; D Souza, Cheryl A.; Zhang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Pretransplant donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) has been shown to enhance donor-specific allograft survival in rodents, primates and humans. However, the cell subset that is critical for the DLI effect and the mechanisms involved remain elusive. In this study, we monitored donor cell subsets after DLI in a murine MHC class I Ld-mismatched skin transplantation model. We found that donor B cells, but not DCs, are the major surviving donor APCs in recipients following DLI. Infusing donor B, but no...

  14. Outcomes of Donor Evaluation in Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Trotter, James F.; Wisniewski, Karen A.; Terrault, Norah A.; Everhart, James E.; Kinkhabwala, Milan; Weinrieb, Robert M.; Fair, Jeffrey H.; Fisher, Robert A.; KOFFRON, ALAN J.; Saab, Sammy; Merion, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of donor evaluation for adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is to discover medical conditions that could increase the donor postoperative risk of complications and to determine whether the donor can yield a suitable graft for the recipient. We report the outcomes of LDLT donor candidates evaluated in a large multicenter study of LDLT. The records of all donor candidates and their respective recipients between 1998 and 2003 were reviewed as part of the Adult-to...

  15. Health impacts of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalalinia, Shirin; Qorbani, Mostafa; Peykari, Niloofar; Kelishadi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this communication is to provide some evidence linking the overweight/obesity and their impacts on different dimensions of health. We reviewed the related studies published from 1990 up till now through PubMed Central/Medline, which provide evidence linking obesity with health related issues. It is a risk factor for metabolic disorders and leads to serious health consequences for individuals and burden for the health care system as a whole. Literature search showed that it is related to at least 18 co-morbidities which are attributable to overweight and obesity. Moreover obese individuals more often suffer from significant joint pains, disorders and it also has social as well as psychological impairments. It is high time that countries facing the problems of obesity initiate some intervention measures to monitor and control this growing epidemic. PMID:25878654

  16. Polycystic ovaries and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinis, Ioannis E; Messini, Christina I; Anifandis, George; Dafopoulos, Konstantinos

    2015-05-01

    Almost 50% of the women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are obese. Obesity in PCOS affects reproduction via various mechanisms. Hyperandrogenism, increased luteinizing hormone (LH) and insulin resistance play a pivotal role. Several substances produced by the adipose tissue including leptin, adiponectin, resistin and visfatin may play a role in the pathophysiology of PCOS. Infertility in PCOS is related to anovulation. For induction of ovulation, clomiphene citrate and human gonadotrophins are first- and second-line treatments, respectively. Other treatment modalities include the use of insulin sensitizers, such as metformin as well as aromatase inhibitors and laparoscopic ovarian drilling, while in vitro fertilization is the last resort. Obesity can adversely affect infertility treatment in PCOS. Diet and lifestyle changes are recommended for the obese women before they attempt conception. The use of anti-obesity drugs and bariatric surgery in PCOS require further evaluation. PMID:25487256

  17. [Obesity and male infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herá?ek, J; Sobotka, V; Urban, M

    2012-10-01

    The authors present a review on the effects of obesity on male fertility. Current scientific findings suggest an elevated risk of infertility among couples in which the male partner is obese. In obese men can be found reduced serum levels of androgens and SHBG and increased estrogen levels without compensatory increase in FSH. Among other impacts of male obesity that may contribute to increased risk of infertility are altered retention and metabolism of environmental toxins, lifestyle, sexual dysfunction, genetic factors, excessive secretion of hormones derived from adipose tissue, oxidative stress, sperm specific proteomic changes or elevated levels of cytokines. The increasing prevalence of obesity calls for greater clinical awareness of its impact on male fertility. PMID:23116351

  18. Maternal Obesity at Conception Programs Obesity in the Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The risk of obesity in adult life is subject to programming during gestation. To examine whether in utero exposure to maternal obesity increases the risk of obesity in the offspring, we have developed an overfeeding-based model of maternal obesity in rats utilizing intragastric feeding of diets via ...

  19. Contribution of donor factors to post-reperfusion severe hyperglycemia in patients undergoing living donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun Sik; Kim, Eun Sung; Rho, Min Cheol; Park, Chul Soo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Blood glucose levels increase abruptly after graft reperfusion during living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), but studies on perioperative factors contributing to this phenomenon are rare. We developed a predictive model for post-reperfusion severe hyperglycemia (PRSH) based on donor-related factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS Preoperative and intraoperative recipient data, as well as donor data, on 279 LDLT cases were reviewed. The mean blood glucose levels at each LDLT surgical phase were calculated, and patients were divided into PRSH and non-PRSH groups using a cutoff of 230 mg/dL mean blood glucose level during the neo-hepatic phase. Perioperative variables were compared between the 2 groups, and selected variables were subjected to multivariate logistic regression to establish a predictive model for PRSH. RESULTS There were 128 patients (45.9%) who developed PRSH, which was associated with preoperative diabetes mellitus but not with model for end-stage liver disease or Child-Pugh-Turcotte score. Intraoperatively, the PRSH group required more blood transfusions and experienced more circulatory insufficiency than did the non-PRSH group. PRSH patients received grafts with higher-level fatty changes and greater graft-to-recipient ratios (GRWRs) (both pdiabetes mellitus (OR 2.92) as independent risk factors. The risk of PRSH was proportional to the rise in GRWR. CONCLUSIONS PRSH development was heavily influenced by donor-related factors. Graft size, extent of fatty change, and post-reperfusion syndrome were identified as independent donor-associated predictors of PRSH. PMID:26037827

  20. Experienced poker players are emotionally stable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakasuo, Michael; Palomäki, Jussi; Salmela, Mikko

    2014-10-01

    Online poker and poker subcultures have become exceedingly popular. Previous studies assessing experience and skill in poker have revealed that proficiency in emotion regulation is a consequential factor in explaining financial success in the game. We assessed (N=478) the associations between poker players' (recruited from online poker forums) level of poker experience and HEXACO-PI-R personality traits. The results indicate that a predisposition for emotional stability-that is, lower scores on emotionality-is linked to high levels of poker experience. Thus, in order to become a successful and experienced poker player, it helps to be able to "keep cool" under pressure. Further exploratory analyses suggest that players who prefer live play to online play are more likely to be extroverted and open to experiences. The results contribute to the extant literature on individual differences in personality in poker players, and in particular help to fill the interdisciplinary gap between personality and gambling research. PMID:25238100

  1. Employee susceptibility to experiencing job insecurity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leigh-Anne Paul, Dachapalli; Sanjana Brijball, Parumasur.

    Full Text Available Employees attach value to their job features/total job and when they perceive threats to these and experience feelings of powerlessness, their level of job insecurity increases. Since job insecurity is a subjective phenomenon, the study aims to assess who is more susceptible to experiencing job inse [...] curity by assessing biographical correlates. The research adopts a formal, hypothesis-testing approach where quantitative data were collected using a cross-sectional, survey method from a sample of 1620 employees. The results, generated using the ANOVA model, indicate that biographical influences do exist in terms of job insecurity. The implication is that change managers need to take cognisance of these influences and develop suitable strategies for each group to reduce the prevalence of job insecurity. Recommendations are made in this regard.

  2. Forgiveness in Wives Experiencing Domestic Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Sartika

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to describe forgivenessand the factors contribute to it in wives experiencing domestic violence who choose to save their marriages in UPT-P2TP2A Kota Bandung. Descriptive method was employed in this study with 15 participants as the subjects. The data were gathered through forgiveness measurement adopted and based in the forgiveness theory proposed by McCullough. Its reliability score was 0,721. The results of the study revealed that 73, 3% of domestic violence victims who insist to save their marriages did forgive or gave for forgiveness. Among the factors determine the forgiveness, the low Rumination factor as well as high personal and moral commitment, encouraged a wife to forgive. Forgiveness showed by a wife, in some way impacted on the domestic violence doer. It lessened the intensity of the violence.

  3. The safety of hand-assisted laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy: the Ohio State University experience with 1500 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajab, Amer; Pelletier, Ronald P

    2015-03-01

    Hand-assisted laparoscopic donor (HALD) nephrectomy has been performed at our institution since December 1999. Through May 2014, a total of 1500 HALD procedures have been performed. We have evaluated the outcomes of HALD. The HALD procedure consists of a hand-port incision as well as two 12-mm ports. Mean donor age was 40.8 ± 10.8 yr, BMI was 27.9 ± 5.0, there were 541 males, 1271 Caucasians, and the left kidney was removed in 1236 patients. All procedures were successfully completed. Four donors (0.27%) were converted to an open technique due to bleeding. Four donors required blood transfusions. 53 donors (3.5%) were readmitted in the first month post-donation; almost half were due to gastrointestinal complaints. Six donors required reoperation; three for SBO and three for wound dehiscence. 27 patients (1.8%) developed incisional hernias. Seven donors (0.47%) developed bowel obstruction. All donors recovered well with a mean hospital stay after donation of 2.1 ± 0.3 d. All except one kidney were successfully implanted. Twenty-one recipients (1.4%) experienced DGF. Ureter complications occurred in 17 (1.1%) recipients. Early graft loss occurred in 13 patients (0.9%). In conclusion, HALD is a safe procedure for the donor with good recipient outcomes. PMID:25529029

  4. Extended-donor criteria liver allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkofer, Barbara; Samstein, Benjamin; Guarrera, James V; Kin, Cindy; Jan, Dominique; Bellemare, Sarah; Kinkhabwala, Milan; Brown, Robert; Emond, Jean C; Renz, John F

    2006-08-01

    Extended-donor criteria liver allografts do not meet traditional criteria for transplantation. Although these organs offer immediate expansion of the donor pool, transplantation of extended-donor criteria liver allografts increases potential short- and long-term risk to the recipient. This risk may manifest as impaired allograft function or donor-transmitted disease. Guidelines defining this category of donor, level of acceptable risk, principles of consent, and post-transplantation surveillance have not been defined. This article reviews the utilization, ethical considerations, and outcomes of extended-donor criteria liver allografts. PMID:16850371

  5. Selection and management of the lung donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Gregory I; Westall, Glen P

    2011-06-01

    This article reviews recent developments in the selection, assessment, and management of the potential lung donor that aim to increase donor organ use. The scarcity of suitable donor organs results in long waiting times and significant mortality for those patients awaiting transplant. Strategies to expand the donor pool can substantially improve donor lung use rates. Although further long-term studies are required to confirm that long-term outcomes are not being compromised, the available evidence suggests that the traditional factors defining a lung as marginal or extended do not actually compromise outcomes within the framework of current donor management strategies. PMID:21511085

  6. Iron deficiency in blood donors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodolfo Delfini, Cançado; Carlos Sérgio, Chiattone; Fausto Forin, Alonso; Dante Mário, Langhi Júnior; Rita de Cássia Silva, Alves.

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A doação de sangue causa redução substancial na quantidade de ferro do organismo (cada unidade de sangue retirada [425 a 475 ml] contém 200 a 250 mg de ferro) com conseqüente mobilização do ferro de depósito. Recentes estudos têm demonstrado que as reservas de ferro do organismo são pequ [...] enas, e sua deficiência é mais freqüente nos doadores de sangue que nos indivíduos não-doadores de sangue. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a freqüência da deficiência de ferro em doadores de sangue do Hemocentro da Santa Casa de São Paulo segundo o sexo, o tipo de doador e a freqüência de doações realizadas nos últimos 12 meses. LOCAL: Hemocentro da Santa Casa de São Paulo. PARTICIPANTES: No período de 20 de setembro a 5 de outubro de 1999 foram estudados 300 doadores de sangue. TESTES DIAGNÓSTICOS: Utilizamos a determinação das dosagens do ferro sérico, da capacidade total de ligação do ferro, do índice de saturação da transferrina, da ferritina sérica e dos índices eritrocitários. RESULTADOS: A freqüência de doadores de sangue que apresentavam deficiência de ferro observada foi de 11, 0 % (33/300), sendo 5, 5% (13/237)nos doadores do sexo masculino e de 31, 7% (20/63) nos doadores do sexo feminino. Para as mulheres, 18, 5% delas já apresentavam deficiência de ferro à primeira doação de sangue, e para as doadoras freqüentes foi 41, 5%. Entre os homens, nenhum doador apresentava deficiência de ferro à primeira doação de sangue e, para os doadores freqüentes, a deficiência de ferro foi de 7, 6%. A freqüência observada foi maior para os doadores com três ou mais doações nos últimos 12 meses (P Abstract in english CONTEXT: Blood donation results in a substantial loss of iron (200 to 250 mg) at each bleeding procedure (425 to 475 ml) and subsequent mobilization of iron from body stores. Recent reports have shown that body iron reserves generally are small and iron depletion is more frequent in blood donors tha [...] n in non-donors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors and to establish the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors according to sex, whether they were first-time or multi-time donors, and the frequency of donations per year. DESIGN: From September 20 to October 5, 1999, three hundred blood donors from Santa Casa Hemocenter of São Paulo were studied. DIAGNOSTIC TESTS: Using a combination of biochemical measurements of iron status: serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation index, serum ferritin and the erythrocyte indices. RESULTS: The frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors was 11.0%, of whom 5.5% (13/237) were male and 31.7% (20/63) female donors. The frequency of iron deficiency was higher in multi-time blood donors than in first-time blood donors, for male blood donors (7.6% versus 0.0%, P

  7. Donor height in combination with islet donor score improves pancreas donor selection for pancreatic islet isolation and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L J; Cochet, O; Wang, X J; Krzystyniak, A; Misawa, R; Golab, K; Tibudan, M; Grose, R; Savari, O; Millis, J M; Witkowski, P

    2014-01-01

    To maximize the islet isolation yield for successful islet transplantation, the key task has been to identify an ideal pancreas donor. Since implementation of the islet donor score in donor selection, we have consistently obtained higher islet yields and transplantation rates. In this study, we tested whether assessing donor height as an independent variable in combination with the donor score could improve the pancreas donor selection. Donor and islet isolation information (n = 22) were collected and studied between 2011 and 2012. Pearson correlation analysis was used in statistical analysis. Donor height as an independent variable was significantly correlated to the weight of the pancreas, pre-Islet Equivalents (pre-IEQ), post-IEQ, and IDS (P  80, the clinical islet transplantation rate reached 80%. PMID:25131085

  8. Obesity in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Cali, Anna M.G.; Caprio, Sonia

    2008-01-01

    Context: Although the prevalence rates of childhood obesity have seemingly been stable over the past few years, far too many children and adolescents are still obese. Childhood obesity, and its associated metabolic complications, is rapidly emerging as one of the greatest global challenges of the 21st century. About 110 million children are now classified as overweight or obese.

  9. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the control thing goes through and through the blood vessel, and so it really eliminates the risk of bleeding from that line. That’s where in the past if there had been a problem with the donor that really was the main ...

  10. Mass Transfer from Giant Donors

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovskii, K

    2014-01-01

    The stability of mass transfer in binaries with convective giant donors remains an open question in modern astrophysics. There is a significant discrepancy between what the existing methods predict for a response to mass loss of the giant itself, as well as for the mass transfer rate during the Roche lobe overflow. Here we show that the recombination energy in the superadiabatic layer plays an important and hitherto unaccounted-for role in he donor's response to mass loss, in particular on its luminosity and effective temperature. Our improved optically thick nozzle method to calculate the mass transfer rate via $L_1$ allows us to evolve binary systems for a substantial Roche lobe overflow. We propose a new, strengthened criterion for the mass transfer instability, basing it on whether the donor experiences overflow through its outer Lagrangian point. We find that with the new criterion, if the donor has a well-developed outer convective envelope, the critical initial mass ratio for which a binary would evolv...

  11. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... donor where a kidney was transported perhaps across country or even from one country to another. Typically, we try to get a ... our position is. A few programs in the country will transplant older recipients. We did have a ...

  12. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vision of improving health. Good evening, I’m Dr. John Colonna, the surgical director of the kidney transplant ... approach to donor nephrectomies in 1999. My partner, Dr. Fabrizio, brought this technique to us from John Hopkins, and we have done hundreds of these ...

  13. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... over 40 certainly should probably not donate a kidney. We encourage those people to lose weight, and then we reevaluate them and try ... here, “Is there any risk that you can lose the patient during this surgery? If ... been deaths from donor kidney removal. They’re very rare. Much less than ...

  14. Obesity and atopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, L-P

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide, and weight gain has been shown to influence the development and clinical expression of various conditions including asthma. The relationships between atopy and obesity remain uncertain, both in adults and in children. Although there are physiopathologic mechanisms which could explain how obesity could influence the immune system and promote the process of sensitization, evidences in favour of a possible role of obesity on the development of atopy have been inconsistent. Furthermore, the bulk of evidence suggests that atopy does not mediate the relationship between obesity and asthma, although in some populations, particularly in children and women, such association has been reported. Such lack of relationship has also been found with rhinoconjunctivitis although it has been observed for atopic dermatitis. Several factors may explain these variable results, including populational or environmental characteristics, socioeconomic status, confounding factors, in addition to sample size, and methodology of the performed studies. The possibility that obesity influences atopy through its effects on sex hormones is suggested by a more frequent link between atopy and obesity in women, particularly postpuberal. Further research should be conducted on the influence of weight gain on atopy and atopic diseases. PMID:25323112

  15. Prevalence of Obesity among Undergraduate Students of Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijagun, Ijebu-Ode

    OpenAIRE

    O.A. Omotayo; J.O. Olusanya

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, developing countries like Nigeria have been experiencing a nutritional transition in food choices from the typical starchy (mainly carbohydrate diets) to the fast food pattern and as a result of this, the dietary habits of young adults like university students have been affected. Thus, overweight and obesity are increasingly being observed among the young adults. This study assesses the prevalence of obesity on a sample of students from Tai Solarin University of Education in ...

  16. Combating Child Obesity in America

    OpenAIRE

    Canavan, Erin

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the child obesity epidemic that is gripping our nation, and explores various causes and treatments that may help to defeat child obesity. First there is a description of the obesity epidemic, its causal factors, and its consequences. Additionally there is a summary and critique of the FDA’s obesity report and recommendations. There is a description of drug treatments that are available for obese children and why more research is necessary to ensure the s...

  17. Obesity in Libya: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Elmehdawi, Rafik R.; Albarsha, Abdulwahab M.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic resulting in major morbidity and premature death. About 64% of Libyan adults are either overweight or obese, obesity progressively increasing with age, and two times more common among Libyan women than men. Cases of obesity and overweight are increasing in Libya as well as all over the world, with genetic and environmental factors playing a contributory role. With its known significant morbidity and mortality, obesity should draw the attention of the healthcare co...

  18. Gross intermittent hematuria after laparoscopic donor nephrectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav G; Santosh K; Samiran A; Ganesh G

    2008-01-01

    Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is a routine practice but still requires an intense level of attention to prevent complications. We report a rare case of gross hematuria in postoperative period after an uneventful laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

  19. Preparing Live Donor for Kidney Donation

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Mahdavi

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: In order to select the most appropriate donor and minimize psychological and physical complications in the kidney donors, it is of high importance to prepare the donor meticulously. The essential respective items are reviewed in this study.Materials and Methods: The available published literature and papers presented in Medline from 1983 to 2003 were reviewed.Results: One the sources of sources of kidney donation is the live donor which is mostly used in Iran. Similarly, due to long ...

  20. Donor Research in Australia: Challenges and Promise

    OpenAIRE

    Masser, Barbara; Smith, Geoff; Williams, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    Donors are the key to the core business of Blood Collection Agencies (BCAs). However, historically, they have not been a focus of research undertaken by these organizations. This model is now changing, with significant donor research groups established in a number of countries, including Australia. Donor research in the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (Blood Service) is concentrated in the Donor and Community Research (DCR) team. Cognizant of the complex and ever-changing landscape with re...

  1. Risk of obesity in immigrants compared with Swedes in two deprived neighbourhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundquist Kristina

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a strong social gradient in the prevalence of obesity, there is little scientific understanding of obesity in people settled in deprived neighbourhoods. Few studies are actually based on objectively measured data using random sampling of residents in deprived neighbourhoods. In addition, most studies use a crude measure, the body mass index, to estimate obesity. This is of concern because it may cause inaccurate estimations of the true prevalence and give the wrong picture of the factors associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of, and analyse the sociodemographic factors associated with, three indices of obesity in different ethnic groups settled in two deprived neighbourhoods in Sweden. Methods Height and weight, waist circumference and body fat percentage were objectively measured in a random sample (n = 289. Sociodemographic data were obtained through a survey. Established cut-offs were used to determine obesity. Country of birth was categorized as Swedish, Other European, and Middle Eastern. Odds ratios were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. Results One third of the sample was classified as obese overall, with 39.0% of women being abdominally obese. After adjusting for age, we found higher odds of obesity in Middle Eastern women than in Swedish women regardless of outcome with odds ratios ranging between 2.74 and 5.53. Men of other European origin had higher odds of BMI obesity than Swedish men. Most associations between country of birth and obesity remained in the full model. Conclusion This study demonstrates the magnitude of the obesity problem and the need for prevention programmes targeting native and immigrant adults in deprived neighbourhoods in Sweden. The initiatives should also focus on particular groups, e.g. immigrant women and those experiencing economic difficulties. Further studies are needed on behavioural and environmental factors influencing the risk of obesity in residents settled in deprived neighbourhoods.

  2. Current obesity drug treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mancini, Marcio C.; Alfredo Halpern

    2006-01-01

    Pharmacological treatment of obesity is an area of sudden changes,development of new drugs and treatment propositions. This articlepresents information on physiological agents that are currentlybeing used as well as drugs that were widely used but are nomore available.

  3. The ethnoepidemiology of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Beatriz; Sohani, Zahra; Rana, Ayesha; Poirier, Paul; Anand, Sonia S

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity varies significantly across ethnic groups and among aboriginal people in Canada and appears to be increasing overall in children and youth, which will have significant health consequences in the future. Individual health behaviours, genetic predisposition, and community-level factors all contribute to the high burden of overweight and obesity across communities in Canada. Preliminary studies indicate that individuals who live in neighbourhoods in Canada with increased walkability, fewer fast food outlets, and higher socioeconomic status have lower rates of overweight/obesity when compared with other neighbourhoods. However, more research is required to understand the impact of community level factors on overweight/obesity trends in Canadian ethnic groups, including children and youth, and aboriginal people. PMID:25661548

  4. Obesity in gulf countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALNohair, Sultan

    2014-01-01

    Globally obesity has reached to epidemic proportions, and the people of the Gulf countries have also affected, especially high-income, oil-producing countries. The prevalence of obesity in Gulf Countries among children and adolescents ranges from 5% to 14% in males and from 3% to 18% in females. In adult females there is a significant increase of obesity with a prevalence of 2%-55% and in adult males 1%-30% in countries of gulf region. Over the last two decades there is increased consumption of fast foods and sugar-dense beverages (e.g., sodas). Simultaneously, technological advances - cars, elevators, escalators, and remotes have lead to a decrease in level of activity. Traditional dependence on locally grown natural products such as dates, vegetables, wheat and has also shifted. Changes in food consumption, socioeconomic and demographic factors, physical activity, and urbanization are being important factors that contribute to the increased prevalence of obesity in the region. PMID:24899882

  5. The kidney in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redon, Josep; Lurbe, Empar

    2015-06-01

    Body mass index has been found to be the second most important contributor to relative risk for developing end state renal disease (ESRD), after proteinuria. The impact of obesity on the kidney includes a wide spectrum, from characteristic pathologic lesions to increment in urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and proteinuria/or decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The cause of renal disease associated to obesity is not well understood, but two relevant elements emerge. The first is the presence of obesity-related glomerulopathy, and the second is the fat deposit in the kidney with impact on renal haemodynamics and intrarenal regulation. The mechanisms linking obesity and renal damage are complex and include haemodynamic changes, inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and finally renal scarring. The protection of kidney damage needs to combine weight reduction with the proper control of the cardiometabolic risk factors associated, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, diabetes and dyslipidaemia. The search for specific treatments merits future research. PMID:25893477

  6. Treatment for morbid obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Carmichael, A.

    1999-01-01

    There is no single unifying theory to explain the aetiology of obesity but several environmental factors, such as decreased physical activity and increased fat intake may contribute to its development in genetically predisposed individuals. Dietary and pharmacological treatments of morbid obesity have been proven to be unsuccessful. Modern surgical treatments have been shown to be effective in achieving significant weight loss with consequent reduction in morbidity. Despite the fact that surg...

  7. Dietary treatment of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg

    2006-01-01

    The fast global increased prevalence of obesity has been classifiedas an epidemics by the World Health Organization. The etiology ofobesity is very complex and involves genetic and environmentalfactors. One of the main factors that trigger obesity is sedentarylife, as well as the great availability of fat-rich foods that present ahigh energy density. According to the NHANES II, although thepopulation has decreased the ingestion of fat, the total consumptionof food has increased. The main fact...

  8. Obesity and liver disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Scheen, Andre?; Luyckx, Franc?oise

    2002-01-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a disease of emerging identity and importance. It is frequently associated with obesity, especially visceral fat, and is intimately related to fatty liver and markers of the insulin resistance syndrome. Both the prevalence and the severity of liver steatosis are related to body mass index, waist circumference, hyperinsulinaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia and impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes. The identification of obese patients who may progress...

  9. Soy Consumption and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Maciej Henneberg; Dante Roccisano

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is now present worldwide, including China, India and developing countries. It now seems no longer acceptable to argue that obesity can simply be explained in terms of caloric consumption only using simple concept of energy in and energy out. There may be specific causes of altered metabolism that produce nutritional imbalances. Individual variation in response to food intake may also be considered. Specific substances in the food chain can influence meta-bolism towards an increase in ...

  10. Maternal obesity and preeclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    Azar Aghamohammadi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a modern day epidemic. The incidence appears to be rapidly increasing in bothdeveloped and developing countries and has become much more obvious in the last decade.Aim& Objective: The present research was done with the aim of studying the effects of obesity definedas a first trimester maternal body mass index >30 on the preeclampsia.Methods: This study was a descriptive-comparative study two hundred fifty singleton pregnancies ofwomen with first trimester BMI >30 who de...

  11. Starches, sugars and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Aller, Erik E. J. G.; Arne Astrup; Alfredo Martinez, J.; Itziar Abete; Baak, Marleen A.

    2011-01-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects o...

  12. Obesity in Saudi Arabia.

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour M. Al-Nozha; Yaqoub Y. Al-Mazrou; Mohammed A. Al-Maatouq; Arafah, Mohammed R.; Khalil, Mohamed Z.; Nazeer B. Khan; Khalid Al-Marzouki; Moheeb A. Abdullah; Akram H. Al-Khadra; Saad S. Al-Harthi; Al-Shahid, Maie S.; Abdulellah Al-Mobeireek; Mohmmed S. Nouh

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Obesity and overweight are well known risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD), and are expected to be increasing in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) particularly among females. Therefore, we designed this study with the objective to determine the prevalence of obesity and overweight among Saudis of both gender, between the ages of 30-70 years in rural as well as in urban communities. This work is part of a major national project called Coronary Artery Disease in Saudis S...

  13. Cultivating childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Greene-martin, Decleasha

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the levels of obesity in the United States has risen greatly especially amongst children. Doctors, psychologists, and other scientists have been studying the growing problem for years. Implications for childhood obesity not only have enormous physical consequences but emotional repercussions which can affect the child’s academic and social development. A number of factors have been identified as having an effect on these children; family life reveals the grocery store habits...

  14. Obesity: The Science Inside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science NetLinks (; )

    2008-04-30

    This booklet, part of The Science Inside series, discusses the importance of good health habits such as eating right and exercising. The Science Inside series presents science information in an easy-to-read format. This particular resource describes how the body takes in energy and what it does with excess energy. This booklet also covers the health problems caused by obesity, as well as how to prevent and treat obesity. Additional resources include a bibliography, and a glossary.

  15. Eating behaviour and stress: a pathway to obesity

    OpenAIRE

    SarahJSpencer

    2014-01-01

    Stress causes or contributes to a huge variety of diseases and disorders. Recent evidence suggests obesity and other eating-related disorders may be among these. Immediately after a stressful event is experienced, there is a corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH)-mediated suppression of food intake. This diverts the body’s resources away from the less pressing need to find and consume food, prioritizing fight, flight, or withdrawal behaviours so the stressful event can be dealt with. In the ...

  16. Eating behavior and stress: a pathway to obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Sominsky, Luba; Spencer, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Stress causes or contributes to a huge variety of diseases and disorders. Recent evidence suggests obesity and other eating-related disorders may be among these. Immediately after a stressful event is experienced, there is a corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH)-mediated suppression of food intake. This diverts the body’s resources away from the less pressing need to find and consume food, prioritizing fight, flight, or withdrawal behaviors so the stressful event can be dealt with. In the h...

  17. Early prevention of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Maffeis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating energy intake and expenditure and body size mainly occurs in the first 1,000 days of life. Therefore, factors affecting the foetal exposition to maternal metabolic environment and early postnatal nutrition are crucial in modulating the definition of the metabolic programming processes in the brain. Maternal diseases, mainly malnutrition for defect or excess, obesity and diabetes, placental disorders and dysfunctions, maternal use of alcohol and drugs, smoking, affect long term metabolic programming of the foetus with lifelong consequences. Similarly, early nutrition contributes to complete the long-term metabolic regulating framework initiated in the uterus. Breastfeeding, adequate weaning, attention to portion size and diet composition are potential tools for reducing the obesity risk later in childhood. Longitudinal randomized controlled studies are needed for exploring the efficacy of obesity prevention strategies initiated after conception.Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  18. Dietary Polyphenols and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Meydani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of overweight and obesity and their associated metabolic disorders are considered a major threat to the public’s health. While several diet and exercise programs are available for weight loss and prevention of weight regain, progress is often slow and disappointing. Recently, natural bioactive phytochemicals present in foods have been discovered for their potential health benefit effects on the prevention of chronic disorders such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory and metabolic diseases including obesity.Polyphenols are a class of naturally-occurring phytochemicals, of which some such as catechins, anthocynines, resveratrol and curcumin have been shown to modulate physiological and molecular pathways that are involved in energy metabolism, adiposity, and obesity. The potential in vivo, beneficial effects of these polyphenols on adiposity and obesity as complementary agents in the up-regulation of energy expenditure have emerged by investigating these compounds in cell cultures, animal models of obesity and in some human clinical and epidemiological studies. In this brief review, the efficacy of the above-named polyphenols and their potential efficacy to modulate obesity and some associated disorders are discussed.

  19. Lipoprotein lipase and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Obesity is one of the fast-growing major diseases in developed and developing countries. As has been persuasively argued, long-term imbalance between intake and expenditure of fat is a central factor in the etiology of obesity. Obesity aggravates insulin resistance and promotes cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that elevating lipoprOtein lipase (LPL activity in skeletal muscle would cause an improvement of obesity. To test this hypothesis, we studied the effects of the LPL activator NO-1886 inobese animals. NO-1886 elevated LPL activity in skeletal muscle, and improved obesity as well as insulin resistance in obese rats. Furthermore, NO-1886 mitigated body weight gain induced by pioglitazone without suppressive effect on the adiponectin-increasing action of pioglitazone. LPL activators hold a lot of promise of curing several diseases shown above in clinical scene.

  20. Obesity in show dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2012-08-11

    Obesity is an important disease with a growing incidence. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, and decreases life span, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain breeds is often suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, we investigated 1379 dogs of 128 different breeds by determining their body condition score (BCS). Overall, 18.6% of the show dogs had a BCS >5, and 1.1% of the show dogs had a BCS>7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be correlated to the breed standards. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and judges in order to come to different interpretations of the standards to prevent overweight conditions from being the standard of beauty. PMID:22882163

  1. Psoriasis and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Gürer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has been thought that a strong association exists between metabolic syndrome, specifically obesity, and psoriasis. Obesity is a multifactorial disease affected by both genetic and environmental factors. Adipokines (e.g. leptin secreted by the adipose tissue are believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. The main role of leptin is to adjust metabolism by controlling appetite. Serum leptin levels in patients with severe and moderate psoriasis were found to be higher than in normal control groups. In many similar studies, leptin secretion has been found to stimulate keratinocyte proliferation, which is one of the characteristics of psoriasis. Although many studies showed increased prevalence of obesity in psoriasis patients, few others reported development of obesity in psoriasis patients. Additionally, obesity was found to affect treatment responses not only in classical systemic/topical treatment approaches in psoriasis, but also in newer biological treatments. Overall, increasing epidemiological evidence suggests strong association between obesity and psoriasis, increase in serum leptin levels is thought to have a major role, and weight loss may have significant impact on response to treatment.

  2. Transporting live donor kidneys for kidney paired donation: initial national results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, D L; Veale, J L; Berger, J C; Hiller, J M; Hanto, R L; Leeser, D B; Geffner, S R; Shenoy, S; Bry, W I; Katznelson, S; Melcher, M L; Rees, M A; Samara, E N S; Israni, A K; Cooper, M; Montgomery, R J; Malinzak, L; Whiting, J; Baran, D; Tchervenkov, J I; Roberts, J P; Rogers, J; Axelrod, D A; Simpkins, C E; Montgomery, R A

    2011-02-01

    Optimizing the possibilities for kidney-paired donation (KPD) requires the participation of donor-recipient pairs from wide geographic regions. Initially it was envisaged that donors would travel to the recipient center; however, to minimize barriers to participation and simplify logistics, recent trends have involved transporting the kidneys rather than the donors. The goal of this study was to review outcomes of this practice. KPD programs throughout the United States were directly queried about all transplants involving live donor kidney transport. Early graft function was assessed by urine output in the first 8 h, postoperative serum creatinine trend, and incidence of delayed graft function. Between April 27, 2007 and April 29, 2010, 56 live donor kidneys were transported among 30 transplant centers. Median CIT was 7.2 h (IQR 5.5-9.7, range 2.5-14.5). Early urine output was robust (>100 cc/h) in all but four patients. Creatinine nadir was <2.0 mg/dL in all (including the four with lower urine output) but one patient, occurring at a median of 3 days (IQR 2-5, range 1-49). No patients experienced delayed graft function as defined by the need for dialysis in the first week. Current evidence suggests that live donor kidney transport is safe and feasible. PMID:21272238

  3. Minimizing donor exposure in hemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AuBuchon, J P

    1994-04-01

    As with any medical therapy, transfusion has risks and complications that are inherent in its application. There are also many options in standard approaches and alternatives to allogeneic transfusion to be considered that allow hemotherapy to be tailored to the patient's needs, maximizing benefit while reducing risk. Transfusion of standard, allogeneic components selected at random and derived from an altruistic donation by a community volunteer donor continue to comprise the majority of transfusions. However, many steps can be taken to minimize allogeneic exposure and its consequences. Transfusing only when the benefits are clinically important and justify the risks is probably most important. Options abound for pharmacologic intervention, altering collection systems and using the donor as his or her own source of blood to further reduce allogeneic exposure. PMID:8166588

  4. Convergence of obesity and high glycemic diet on compounding diabetes and cardiovascular risks in modernizing China: An emerging public health dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Malik Vasanti S; Ding Eric L

    2008-01-01

    Abstract As China is undergoing dramatic development, it is also experiencing major societal changes, including an emerging obesity epidemic, with the prevalence of overweight and obesity doubling in the past decade. However, the implications of a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) traditional Chinese diet are adversely changing in modern times, as a high-glycemic diet is becoming a greater contributor to diabetes and cardiovascular risks in a population with rising obesity and d...

  5. Designing shallow donors in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    The production of n-type semiconducting diamond has been a long-standing experimental challenge. The first-principles simulation of shallow dopants in semiconductors has been a long-standing theoretical challenge. A desirable theoretical goal is to identify impurities that will act as shallow donors in diamond and assess their experimental viability. I will discuss this identification process for the LiN4 donor complex. It builds a scientific argument from several models and computational results in the absence of computational tools that are both trustworthy and computationally tractable for this task. I will compare the theoretical assessment of viability with recent experimental efforts to co-dope diamond with lithium and nitrogen. Finally, I discuss the computational tools needed to facilitate future work on this problem and some preliminary simulations of donors near diamond surfaces. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program lab managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. OBESITY: OVERVIEW OF AN EPIDEMIC

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Nia; Catenacci, Vicki; Wyatt, Holly R; Hill, James O.

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing recognition of the problem, the obesity epidemic continues in the U.S., and obesity rates are increasing around the world. The latest estimates are that approximately 34% of adults and 15–20% of children and adolescents in the U.S. are obese. Obesity affects every segment of the U.S. population. Obesity increases the risk of many chronic diseases in children and adults. The epidemic of obesity arose gradually over time, apparently from a small, consistent degree of positive ...

  7. Modified technique for aortic cross-clamping during liver donor procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Chirag S; Girlanda, Raffaele; Hawksworth, Jason; Fishbein, Thomas M

    2014-05-01

    Undue tension on the donor vessels during organ procurement is associated with intimal dissection, which can form the nidus for the thrombosis of the hepatic artery (HA) and graft loss. According to the US OPTN database, 143 grafts were discarded in the last 15 yr due to vascular damage during procurement. The most common technique to expose the supraceliac aorta is dissection between the left lateral segment of the liver and the esophagus-stomach. In obese donors, due to restricted space and in pediatric donors where the vessels are very delicate and this space is very small, the replaced or accessory left HA(R/A LHA) is prone to damage if approached conventionally. We describe a technique for the exposure of the supraceliac aorta in which the aorta is approached from the left side behind the gastroesophageal junction that does not require division of the gastrohepatic ligament. From May 2007 to May 2013, 104 liver procurements were performed. Eighty-nine (85.6%) were adults, and 15 (14.4%) were pediatric donors. Twenty-three (22.1%) had R/A LHA. No donor organ suffered any damage. One adult recipient with R/A LHA suffered HA thrombosis not related to it. In summary, this technical modification offers improved safety during cadaveric procurement and increases the ease. PMID:24654564

  8. Soy Consumption and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Henneberg

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is now present worldwide, including China, India and developing countries. It now seems no longer acceptable to argue that obesity can simply be explained in terms of caloric consumption only using simple concept of energy in and energy out. There may be specific causes of altered metabolism that produce nutritional imbalances. Individual variation in response to food intake may also be considered. Specific substances in the food chain can influence meta-bolism towards an increase in fat deposits. Xenoestrogens have been suggested to have such an influence. Soy contains phytoestrogens plus phytates, protease inhibitors and other anti-nutrients which block or compromise the body’s uptake of essential vitamins and minerals. This may contribute to nutritional anomalies. We analyzed data from WHO and FAO for 167 countries. These contained percentage of obese individuals (BMI > 30 kg/m2, GDP, caloric consump-tion per capita, and sugar and soy consumption per capita. Regressions and partial correlations were used. Soy con-sumption correlates significantly with levels of obesity, irrespective of GDP and caloric intake. For instance, poor Latin America with soy consumption of 28.9 kg/person/year has more obesity (18.4% than better off European Union (14.1% consuming 16.1 kg/person/year of soy. Soy consumption seems to contribute approximately 10% - 21% to the worldwide variation in obesity, depending on the method of statistical analysis. The ubiquitous presence of unfermented soy products in mass produced foods seems to be an important contributor to the obesity epidemic.

  9. Human T lymphotropic virus type-1-associated myelopathy manifesting shortly after living-donor renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamine, Yuito; Hayashi, Takeshi; Kato, Yuji; Horiuchi, Yohsuke; Tanahashi, Norio

    2015-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman experienced numbness in both lower extremities and spastic paralysis a few months after undergoing living-donor renal transplantation. The patient was negative for human T lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) antibodies prior to the procedure; however, she was diagnosed with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM) based on positive serum and cerebrospinal fluid antibody titers after the surgery. Because the donor was also positive for HTLV-1 antibodies, the infection likely originated from the transplanted kidney. Clinical and imaging improvements were noted following the administration of interferon-?. HAM has been reported to occur after living-donor renal transplantation; however, there are no previous reports of onset within such a short period. PMID:25742898

  10. Living-donor liver transplantation from second generation children for atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Susumu; Takatsuki, Mitsuhisa; Nakashima, Masahiro; Kanematsu, Takashi

    2009-11-01

    No report has been available regarding organ transplantation for atomic bomb survivors, even with renal graft. We experienced a living-donor liver transplantation for two atomic bomb survivors using grafts from second-generation children. Post transplant course was uneventful without any systemic disorders under regular immunosuppression schema during 3-year follow-up. The detailed results are herein reported for the first time in the literature. PMID:19878350

  11. Prevalence of immediate vasovagal reaction in blood donors visiting two blood banks of Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohra, D K; Juriasinghani, V; Rai, K; Azam, S I

    2010-06-01

    Vasovagal reaction (VVR) is a very common adverse event related to blood donation. No study has been conducted in Pakistan to estimate the prevalence of VVR in blood donors. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of immediate VVR in blood donors of Karachi, Pakistan. The study was conducted in two blood banks of Karachi. Data regarding the development of immediate VVR were documented. The effect of blood donation on vital parameters like pulse rate, blood pressure (BP), temperature and respiratory rate was also observed. Six hundred and seventy-four blood donors were recruited. All the donors who consented were males. Weakness and dizziness were two most common symptoms which were reported by 91 (13.5%) and 73 (10.8%) of the participants, respectively. Out of 91 donors in whom signs and symptoms of immediate VVR were observed, a significant drop in systolic BP (13.5 +/- 2.5 mmHg) and decrease in pulse rate (13.3 +/- 3.6) were concurrently noted in 55 donors (8.2% of all the participants). There was lack of association of age, body mass index (BMI), estimated blood volume, ethnicity, educational status, profession and first time donation status with the frequency of VVR. Only marital status was found to be significantly associated with higher frequency of immediate VVR, where married donors were having higher odds as compared to singles. The prevalence of VVR in the blood donors at two blood banks of Karachi is at least 8.2%. Furthermore, married men are at more risk of experiencing VVR in our population. PMID:19958470

  12. Maternal obesity and preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Aghamohammadi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a modern day epidemic. The incidence appears to be rapidly increasing in bothdeveloped and developing countries and has become much more obvious in the last decade.Aim& Objective: The present research was done with the aim of studying the effects of obesity definedas a first trimester maternal body mass index >30 on the preeclampsia.Methods: This study was a descriptive-comparative study two hundred fifty singleton pregnancies ofwomen with first trimester BMI >30 who delivered at Emam Hospital, Sari Iran during 2008–2009 werestudied A control group with two hundred fifty nine women of normal body mass index matched for ageand parity were selected and incidence of preeclampsia were compared between groups. ?2 and Oddsratioand 95% confidence were used to analyze the data. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05.Results: There was a significant relation between obesity and preeclampsia (20.8 vs. 5.8%, P<0.0001compared to non-obese women.Conclusion: Obesity in pregnant women appears to be a risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes.

  13. Obesity and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolin, Kathleen Y; Carson, Kenneth; Colditz, Graham A

    2010-01-01

    Weight, weight gain, and obesity account for approximately 20% of all cancer cases. Evidence on the relation of each to cancer is summarized, including esophageal, thyroid, colon, renal, liver, melanoma, multiple myeloma, rectum, gallbladder, leukemia, lymphoma, and prostate in men; and postmenopausal breast and endometrium in women. Different mechanisms drive etiologic pathways for these cancers. Weight loss, particularly among postmenopausal women, reduces risk for breast cancer. Among cancer patients, data are less robust, but we note a long history of poor outcomes after breast cancer among obese women. While evidence on obesity and outcomes for other cancers is mixed, growing evidence points to benefits of physical activity for breast and colon cancers. Dosing of chemotherapy and radiation therapy among obese patients is discussed and the impact on therapy-related toxicity is noted. Guidelines for counseling patients for weight loss and increased physical activity are presented and supported by strong evidence that increased physical activity leads to improved quality of life among cancer survivors. The "Five A's" model guides clinicians through a counseling session: assess, advise, agree, assist, arrange. The burden of obesity on society continues to increase and warrants closer attention by clinicians for both cancer prevention and improved outcomes after diagnosis. PMID:20507889

  14. Obesity and female malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Chiara; Salvagno, Francesca; Canuto, Emilie Marion; Gennarelli, Gianluca

    2015-05-01

    Obesity increases the risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer, and oestrogen receptor (ER)-progesterone receptor (PR)-positive postmenopausal breast cancer. A modest positive association between body mass index (BMI) and cervical cancer has also been found. By contrast, an inverse correlation between BMI and premenopausal breast cancer exists. Endogenous sex hormones, insulin resistance/hyperinsulinaemia, adipokines, cytokines and chronic inflammation, among other factors, may be involved in the promotion of cancer in obese patients. Obesity is also associated with an increased risk of cancer recurrence and mortality most likely due to suboptimal treatment and/or co-morbidities. It is recommended that chemotherapy doses be calculated on the actual body weight and that radical surgery be performed as in non-obese patients. The high risk of peri-operative complications may be reduced by optimizing preoperative clinical conditions. As part of cancer prevention, obese women should be encouraged to adopt healthy lifestyles leading to weight loss and to undergo regular cancer screening. PMID:25779915

  15. Mood, food, and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MinatiSingh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity.

  16. If I Had - Morbid Obesity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... these would include high blood pressure, sleep apnea, asthma, heartburn, type 2 diabetes, and other conditions, not ... everything related. How is morbid obesity managed? The management of morbid obesity generally includes two broad options. ...

  17. Defining overweight and obesity - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your child has. Measuring body fat and diagnosing obesity in children is different than measuring these things in adults. ... 44. US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for obesity in ... adolescents: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation ...

  18. If I Had - Morbid Obesity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... everything related. How is morbid obesity managed? The management of morbid obesity generally includes two broad options. ... my health status; I would be concerned about quality of life, and I would be concerned about ...

  19. If I Had - Morbid Obesity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... specifically issues related to informed consent about the risks, benefits and alternatives of weight loss surgery, and everything related. How is morbid obesity managed? The management of morbid obesity generally includes two broad options. ...

  20. What Causes Overweight and Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Overweight and Obesity? Lack of Energy Balance A lack of energy ... Deficiency article. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Obesity happens one pound at a time. So does ...

  1. Sugary Drinks and Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ADVICE FOR PATIENTS Sugary Drinks and Childhood Obesity T his month’s Archives focuses on new research about childhood obesity. Being overweight is now the most common medical condition of childhood. Nearly ...

  2. If I Had - Morbid Obesity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Testing for Concussion If I Had - Morbid Obesity - Dr. Michael Tarnoff, MD, FACS, Tufts University School ... Back to Home Page If I Had - Morbid Obesity - Dr. Michael Tarnoff, MD, FACS, Tufts University School ...

  3. If I Had - Morbid Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Testing for Concussion If I Had - Morbid Obesity - Dr. Michael Tarnoff, MD, FACS, Tufts University School ... Back to Home Page If I Had - Morbid Obesity - Dr. Michael Tarnoff, MD, FACS, Tufts University School ...

  4. Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources ??. Alternate Language URL Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity Page Content How can I tell if I ... National Diabetes Education Program. How are overweight and obesity treated? The best way to control your weight ...

  5. Obesity and Your Digestive Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American College of Gastroenterology www.acg.gi.org/obesity Great tools including a food tracker, portion size ... http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/heart/obesity/ lose_wt/patmats.htm Weight loss information from ...

  6. Screening and assessment of the donor heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Grauhan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Why screening?Thirty years ago most donors suffered from head trauma (“Morbus Kawasaki” and a donor older than 35 years was beyond the pale, i.e. donors were young and healthy, and since these early days of transplantation donor hearts have been regarded as healthy “per definitionem” (1. However, due to the general organ shortage the criteria for the acceptance of donor hearts have been widely liberalized. According to the current quarterly data report of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT nearly two thirds of donors in Europe (64.3% were older than 35 years, more than a quarter (26.0% were even older than 50 years and less than 10% of organ donors suffered from head trauma (2. Meanwhile the average (European donor is 45 years old and is suffering from intracranial bleeding, i.e. the so-called “donor pool” represents a subpopulation with significantly elevated risk for cardiac diseases such as coronary atherosclerosis and hypertension-related myocardial hypertrophy (Fig. 1. Unfortunately, daily experience shows that donor heart screening has not been adapted to this development (3. Therefore, the question “Why screening?” is not as trivial as it may look: Donor coronary angiography is still an exception (performed in 5-10% of donors despite the fact that [1] the prevalence of significant atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD in the donor pool is about 20%, [2] the risk of CAD transmission without angiography is about 5% to 10% despite organ inspection by the harvesting surgeon and [3] the risk for early graft failure with transmitted significant CAD is three times as high (4,5.

  7. Factors contributing to adolescent obesity.

    OpenAIRE

    Manal I. Al-Kloub; Erika S. Froelicher

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Obesity in children is a significant public health concern. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Jordanian children, and adolescents has increased in the last decade. The consequences of obesity to health in childhood and adulthood have both medical, and economic cost to individuals and society. This paper reviews the factors that contribute to adolescent obesity and emphasizes behavioral and environmental factors. An individual's behaviors such as increased consumptio...

  8. The Medical Risks of Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Pi-Sunyer, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is at epidemic proportions in the United States and in other developed and developing countries. The prevalence of obesity is increasing not only in adults, but especially among children and adolescents. In the United States in 2003 to 2004, 17.1% of children and adolescents were overweight, and 32.2% of adults were obese. Obesity is a significant risk factor for and contributor to increased morbidity and mortality, most importantly from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes, but ...

  9. Pediatric Obesity: Etiology and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Crocker, Melissa K; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews factors that contribute to excessive weight gain in children and outlines current knowledge regarding approaches for treating pediatric obesity. Virtually all of the known genetic causes of obesity primarily increase energy intake. Genes regulating the leptin signaling pathway are particularly important for human energy homeostasis. Obesity is a chronic disorder that requires long-term strategies for management. The foundation for all treatments for pediatric obesity remain...

  10. Functional Foods for Obesity Management

    OpenAIRE

    Rajitha Sunkara; Martha Verghese

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a global problem and numbers are rising at a fast pace in developing countries and it becomes a major public health concern. Economic costs associated with obesity are high and increasing as the rate of obesity. Obesity leads to its co-morbidities; namely diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, osteoarthritis, stroke and inflammatory diseases. Changes in life-style along with modifications to the diet are important in the management of ...

  11. Obesity, Inflammation and Liver Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Beicheng; Karin, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has become a universal and major public health problem with increasing prevalence in both adults and children in the 21st century, even in developing countries. Extensive epidemiological studies reveal a strong link between obesity and development and progression of various types of cancers. The connection between obesity and liver cancer is particularly strong and obesity often results in liver diseases such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the more severe non-alcohol...

  12. Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Merchant Anwar T; Akhtar-Danesh Noori; Dehghan Mahshid

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising pre...

  13. Obesity and gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Binkowska-Borgosz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is a significant public health problem in the 21st century due to its scale, common existence and its cause-effect association with multiple diseases. Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in humans is regarded as a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and skeletal diseases. However, data from recent years have revealed that obesity is also strongly associated with increased risk of the majority of cancers in humans, including those originating from the gastrointestinal tract. During the last few year this association has been thoroughly proven and supported by several epidemiological analyses. The authors present i the current state of knowledge regarding key (pathomechanisms that link metabolism of human adipose tissue to development/progression of neoplasms (especially in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as ii the results of selected clinical studies in which the influence of obesity on risk of gastrointestinal cancer development has been addressed.

  14. Sleep debt and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayon, Virginie; Leger, Damien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Vecchierini, Marie-Françoise; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2014-08-01

    Short sleep duration has been shown to be associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) in many epidemiological studies. Several pathways could link sleep deprivation to weight gain and obesity, including increased food intake, decreased energy expenditure, and changes in levels of appetite-regulating hormones, such as leptin and ghrelin. A relatively new factor that is contributing to sleep deprivation is the use of multimedia (e.g. television viewing, computer, and internet), which may aggravate sedentary behavior and increase caloric intake. In addition, shift-work, long working hours, and increased time commuting to and from work have also been hypothesized to favor weight gain and obesity-related metabolic disorders, because of their strong link to shorter sleep times. This article reviews the epidemiological, biological, and behavioral evidence linking sleep debt and obesity. PMID:25012962

  15. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Dabal Laila

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is becoming a major medical concern in several parts of the world, with huge economic impacts on health- care systems, resulting mainly from increased cardiovascular risks. At the same time, obesity leads to a number of sleep-disordered breathing patterns like obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS, leading to increased morbidity and mortality with reduced quality of life. OHS is distinct from other sleep- related breathing disorders although overlap may exist. OHS patients may have obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea with hypercapnia and sleep hypoventilation, or an isolated sleep hypoventilation. Despite its major impact on health, this disorder is under-recognized and under-diagnosed. Available management options include aggressive weight reduction, oxygen therapy and using positive airway pressure techniques. In this review, we will go over the epidemiology, pathophysiology, presentation and diagnosis and management of OHS.

  16. Humanitarian crises: what determines the level of emergency assistance? Media coverage, donor interests and the aid business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye; Carstensen, Nils; Høyen, Kristian

    2003-06-01

    This paper proposes a basic hypothesis that the volume of emergency assistance any humanitarian crisis attracts is determined by three main factors working either in conjunction or individually. First, it depends on the intensity of media coverage. Second, it depends on the degree of political interest, particularly related to security, that donor governments have in a particular region. Third, the volume of emergency aid depends on strength of humanitarian NGOs and international organisations present in a specific country experiencing a humanitarian emergency. The empirical analysis of a number of emergency situations is carried out based on material that has never been published before. The paper concludes that only occasionally do the media play a decisive role in influencing donors. Rather, the security interests of Western donors are important together with the presence and strength of humanitarian stakeholders, such as NGOs and international organisations lobbying donor governments. PMID:12825435

  17. [Obesity and cancer: «Dangerous friendship»

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Svatetz, Carlos A; Goday Arnó, Alberto

    2014-07-11

    Obesity and cancer are one of the most important health problems is Spain. Between 23 and 28% of the adult population in Spain are obese, 39% are overweight and 36% have abdominal obesity. The association between obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia and sleep obstructive apnea is well known. On the contrary, the association between obesity and cancer is less known, because the recent evidence on it. Several prospective studies have shown during the last years the strong relationship between obesity and cancer of colon, breast in post-menopausal women, endometrial, kidney and pancreas as well as esophageal adenocarcinoma. Furthermore there is recent evidence showing that liver, gallbladder, thyroid and ovarian cancer as well as leukemia, multiple myeloma and Hodgkin lymphomas are probably associated with obesity, yet more studies are needed. A better knowledge of the relation between cancer and obesity will allow improving the prevention strategies against cancer, a more efficient early detection, and a more suitable treatment of obesity and overweight. Although the mechanisms of carcinogenesis of obesity are not well established, avoiding overweight and obesity are considered one of the best approaches to reduce the risk of cancer. Therefore the general population must be aware that cancer is one of the most important hazards associated with the current obesity epidemic in our society. PMID:25023851

  18. Childhood Obesity. Special Reference Briefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winick, Myron

    This reference brief deals with the problem of childhood obesity and how it can lead to obesity in the adult. Eighty-four abstracts are presented of studies on the identification, prevention, and treatment of obesity in children, focusing on diet and psychological attitudes. Subjects of the studies were children ranging in age from infancy through…

  19. Childhood Obesity: Prediction and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael D.

    Obesity in children is a problem both insidious and acute. Childhood obesity has been indicated as a forerunner of adult obesity; it is also an immediate problem for the child. Given the lack of evidence for long term maintenance of any weight loss, this paper investigates the etiology of the disorder as a prelude to prevention. Upon review of the…

  20. The Medical Aspects of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichold, Samuel

    Obesity is one of the leading public health problems in the United States. It is associated with drug abuse and increased mortality. In seeking to differentiate between overweight and obese individuals, it may be said that obesity exists in those individuals who are 40% or more above normal weight as determined on commonly used height and weight…

  1. Childhood Obesity: The Caregiver's Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschke, Bernadette

    2003-01-01

    Describes the role caregivers play in helping young children dealing with obesity. Examines: (1) causes of childhood obesity; (2) caregiver's position; (3) learning nutrition concepts; (4) preparing and serving healthy foods; (5) encouraging physical activity; (6) working with parents; and (7) assisting an obese child. (SD)

  2. Fight Obesity in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratsis, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    U.S. health experts declared obesity an epidemic over a decade ago. Schools have tried to implement prevention programs for students, but as budgets shrink, educating students about obesity is increasingly falling to classroom instructors, including science teachers. The good news is that obesity-related classroom activities can be engaging, and…

  3. Obesity and symptomatic achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbella, Fernando Augusto Mardiros; Matone, Jacques; Lourenço, Laércio Gomes; Del Grande, Jose Carlos

    2005-05-01

    Weight loss is a frequent finding in achalasia because of the difficulty in swallowing. Although manometric findings compatible with achalasia have been found in morbidly obese patients, all of them were asymptomatic. The authors report a case of symptomatic achalasia and morbid obesity in a 38-year-old woman. A mental disorder become manifested after the patient was submitted to an esophageal myotomy and fundoplication. With weight gain, postoperative gastroesophageal reflux developed. Drawbacks of further operative procedures in such a patient are discussed. PMID:15946467

  4. Portuguese websites obesity information

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Diana; Almendra, Joana; Jesus, Marta de; Soares, Sandra; Dias, Tânia; Ferro-Lebres, Vera; Fernandes, António

    2012-01-01

    The internet is widely used by everyone as a source of health information, namely in obesity and weight lost. However, the easy production and edition of documents on the Internet enables any user to be an author and write the information according to their will, not ensuring the veracity of it. In this context the internet may be seen as a threat to one’s health. Thus, the aim of the study was to characterize and evaluate Portuguese websites obesity information and verify...

  5. Living Kidney Donation: The Outcomes for Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Ahad Jafari Ghods

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, the number of transplantation from living kidney donors has substantially increased worldwide. The rate of increase varies from one country to another. The risk of unilateral nephrectomy to the donor includes perioperative mortality and morbidity plus the long-term risk of living with a single kidney. The rate of perioperative mortality and morbidity is about 0.03% and 10%, respectively. More attention is required to prevent serious complications of laparoscopic donor ...

  6. Low hemoglobin deferral in blood donors

    OpenAIRE

    Mast, Alan E.

    2013-01-01

    Low hemoglobin deferral occurs in about 10% of attempted whole blood donations and commonly is a consequence of iron deficiency anemia. Pre-menopausal women often have iron deficiency anemia caused by menstruation and pregnancy and have low hemoglobin deferral on their first donation attempt. Frequent donors also develop iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia because blood donation removes a large amount of iron from the donor and the 56-day minimum inter-donation interval for donors in t...

  7. Weighing the stigma of weight: An fMRI study of neural reactivity to the pain of obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, R T; Macaluso, E; Viola, V; Sani, G; Aglioti, S M

    2014-05-01

    Explicit negative attitudes and blameful beliefs (e.g. poor diet, laziness) towards obese individuals are well documented and are pervasive even among health professionals. Here we sought to determine whether obesity stigma is reflected in a fundamental feature of intersubjectivity namely the automatic neural resonance with others' affective experiences. During fMRI, normal-weight female participants observed short clips depicting normal-weight (NW) and obese (Ob) models experiencing pain. Importantly, participants believed that half of the Ob were overweight due to a hormonal disorder (HormOb) and ignored the cause of obesity of the remaining models (Unknown obese models; UnkOb). Analyses of hemodynamic responses showed reduced activity to the pain of Ob compared to that of NW in areas associated with pain processing and early visual processing. The comparison between the two Ob conditions revealed a further decrease of activity to HormOb's pain compared to UnkOb's (and NW) pain in the right inferior frontal gyrus, an area associated with emotional resonance. Our study demonstrates that stigma for obese individuals can be observed at implicit levels, and that it is modulated by knowledge concerning the etiology of obesity, with the seemingly surprising result that obesity due to disease may result in greater stigmatization. Moreover, the perceived similarity with the models and the ambivalent emotion of pity may index biased brain responses to obese individuals' pain. The study highlights a possibly important neural link between resonance with the pain of others and obesity stigma. PMID:24287441

  8. Clinician challenges in providing health care for a morbidly obese family member: a bariatric case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitz, Janice M

    2015-01-01

    Morbid obesity is a chronic disease affecting millions of Americans. The disorder is likely to increase in prevalence because currently one third of the American population is obese. Many factors are associated with morbid obesity, including psychological (eg, depression), physiological (eg, hypothyroidism) mechanisms, sleep disorders (eg, sleep apnea), drug therapy (antidepressants, antidiabetic agents, steroids), and genetics. Increasing numbers of morbidly obese patients are requiring critical care, presenting major challenges to professional staff across the disciplines. This manuscript presents a case study describing the experiences of a morbidly obese woman in the final years of her life from the perspective of her health professional relative. The patient typifies many of the major risk factors for morbid obesity; her story reveals many of the issues faced as she revolved in and out of the critical care and acute care system. Her substantive health problems affected multiple body systems and included hypothyroidism, congestive heart failure, hyperlipidemia, and subclinical Cushing's Syndrome, likely related to previous medical therapy (cortisone) for rheumatic fever in childhood. The case description addresses many integumentary system issues the patient experienced; skin injuries and infections that can pose serious life-threatening situations for the morbidly obese patient must be prevented or treated efficiently. Health professionals can learn a great deal and improve the care they provide by listening to morbidly obese patients. PMID:25581606

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in adipose tissue and abdominal obesity in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Obesity prevalence has more than doubled globally within the last 30 years. Obesity affects quality of life as well as impacts the risks and prognosis for a number of serious diseases. Established causes include a high calorie diet combined with a sedentary lifestyle and possibly the widespread cessation of smoking, but these do not fully explain the epidemic. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals and evidence from animal experiments suggests an association with obesity development. Our knowledge of the effects of these compounds on weight gain in humans is limited. Our objective was to investigate the association between exposure to PCBs experienced by a general Danish population and development of obesity. We randomly selected 204 persons (113 obese and 91 overweight), aged ? 50 years, from a prospective Danish cohort of 57,053 persons and examined ten PCBs as potential determinants of abdominal obesity. Adipose tissue was collected upon enrolment and PCBs were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Median levels of the included PCBs were lower in women, except for PCB118 and all PCBs were positively associated with increased abdominal circumference, although this association was not significant. These data indicate a positive link between PCBs and obesity. More work is needed to fully elucidate the complex role of compounds such as PCBs in the present obesity epidemic.

  10. Prediction of kidney transplant outcome by donor quality scoring systems: expanded criteria donor and deceased donor score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnau, A; Rodrigo, E; Miñambres, E; Ruiz, J C; Ballesteros, M A; Piñera, C; Fernandez-Fresnedo, G; Palomar, R; Arias, M

    2012-11-01

    Due to disparity between organ supply and demand, use of kidneys from suboptimal donors has become increasingly common. Several donor quality systems have been developed to identify kidneys with an increased risk for graft dysfunction and loss. The purpose of our study was to compare the utility of deceased donor score (DDS) and expanded criteria donor (ECD) status to predict kidney transplant outcomes in a single center. We analysed 280 deceased donor renal transplantation procedures, collecting data from the prospectively maintained institutional database. Kidney transplant outcome variable included delayed graft function, 1-year glomerular filtration rate (GFR1y), and death-censored graft loss (DCGL). Kidneys were obtained from marginal donors in 45.7% of transplant recipients by DDS and in 24.9% by ECD. DDS-defined marginal donors suffered delayed graft function (DGF) more frequently than nonmarginal donors (40.8% vs 25.0%; P = .006), whereas ECD did not develop DGF at a greater rate. GFR1Y was significantly worse among patients receiving kidneys from marginal donors: DDS 40.3 ± 12.9 vs 57.7 ± 19.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (P donor category defined by DDS (grade D) showed an independently worse death-censored graft survival hazard rate [HR] 2.661, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.076-6.582; P = .034). DDS and ECD scoring systems are based on donor information available at the time of transplantation that predict 1-year graft function. Moreover in our center, DDS was better to predict DGF and death-censored graft survival than ECD. PMID:23146452

  11. Hybrid super electron donors – preparation and reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Garnier

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Neutral organic electron donors, featuring pyridinylidene–imidazolylidene, pyridinylidene–benzimidazolylidene and imidazolylidene–benzimidazolylidene linkages are reported. The pyridinylidene–benzimidazolylidene and imidazolylidene–benzimidazolylidene hybrid systems were designed to be the first super electron donors to convert iodoarenes to aryl radicals at room temperature, and indeed both show evidence for significant aryl radical formation at room temperature. The stronger pyridinylidene–imidazolylidene donor converts iodoarenes to aryl anions efficiently under appropriate conditions (3 equiv of donor. The presence of excess sodium hydride base has a very important and selective effect on some of these electron-transfer reactions, and a rationale for this is proposed.

  12. Hybrid super electron donors – preparation and reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Jean; Thomson, Douglas W; Zhou, Shengze; Jolly, Phillip I; Berlouis, Leonard E A

    2012-01-01

    Summary Neutral organic electron donors, featuring pyridinylidene–imidazolylidene, pyridinylidene–benzimidazolylidene and imidazolylidene–benzimidazolylidene linkages are reported. The pyridinylidene–benzimidazolylidene and imidazolylidene–benzimidazolylidene hybrid systems were designed to be the first super electron donors to convert iodoarenes to aryl radicals at room temperature, and indeed both show evidence for significant aryl radical formation at room temperature. The stronger pyridinylidene–imidazolylidene donor converts iodoarenes to aryl anions efficiently under appropriate conditions (3 equiv of donor). The presence of excess sodium hydride base has a very important and selective effect on some of these electron-transfer reactions, and a rationale for this is proposed. PMID:23019427

  13. Imaging evaluation of potential donors in living-donor liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liver transplants, originally obtained from deceased donors, can now be harvested from living donors as well. This technique, called living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), provides an effective alternative means of liver transplantation and is a method of expanding the donor pool in light of the demand and supply imbalance for organ transplants. Imaging plays an important role in LDLT programmes by providing robust evaluation of potential donors to ensure that only anatomically suitable donors with no significant co-existing pathology are selected and that crucial information that allows detailed preoperative planning is available. Imaging evaluation helps to improve the outcome of LDLT for both donors and recipients, by improving the chances of graft survival and reducing the postoperative complication rate. In this review, we describe the history of LDLT and discuss in detail the application of imaging in donor assessment with emphasis on use of modern computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques

  14. Experienced and Inexperienced Teachers' Attitudes toward Supervision and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Peter J.; Kray, Robert

    This document reports on a study to determine differential attitudes of experienced and inexperienced teachers toward supervision and evaluation. The basic hypothesis was that experienced teachers would have significantly different attitudes toward the concepts of supervision and evaluation than would inexperienced interns. A sample of 100…

  15. Donor Retention in Online Crowdfunding Communities: A Case Study of DonorsChoose.org

    OpenAIRE

    Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure

    2015-01-01

    Online crowdfunding platforms like DonorsChoose.org and Kickstarter allow specific projects to get funded by targeted contributions from a large number of people. Critical for the success of crowdfunding communities is recruitment and continued engagement of donors. With donor attrition rates above 70%, a significant challenge for online crowdfunding platforms as well as traditional offline non-profit organizations is the problem of donor retention. We present a large-scal...

  16. Childhood Obesity: Epidemiological and Clinical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    ELAMIN, Abdelaziz

    2010-01-01

    Primary childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in industrialized countries particularly in North America. Twenty five percent of children and adolescents in the United States are overweight and 14% are obese. However, the prevalence of obesity is alarmingly rising in other less developed parts of the world, like Asia, the Middle East and some parts of Africa. Overweight and obesity in childhood extend to adulthood and the majority of obese children grew as obese adults. Obesity has sig...

  17. [Urinary incontinence and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, G; Fritel, X; Capmas, P; Pourcelot, A-G; Fernandez, H

    2012-06-01

    Obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) more than or equal to 30kg/m(2), promotes pelvic floor disorders such as urinary incontinence (UI) and genital prolapse. Datas from cohort studies found an association between high BMI and the onset of UI. This association seems to be predominant with for mixed UI and stress UI. For the urge UI and overactive bladder syndrome, the analysis of the literature found a weaker association. The weight is therefore the only modifiable risk factor. Thus, the weight loss by a hypocaloric diet associated with pelvic floor muscle training should be the front line treatment in the obese patient suffering from UI. Bariatric surgery can be discussed in the most obese patient, even if the risk/benefit balance should be weighed because of significant morbidity of this surgery. The results of sub urethral sling (by retropubic tension-free vaginal tape or transobturator sling) in obese patients appear to be equivalent to those obtained in patients of normal weight. Datas on per- and postoperative complications for suburethral slings are reassuring. PMID:22516035

  18. Current obesity drug treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio C. Mancini

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological treatment of obesity is an area of sudden changes,development of new drugs and treatment propositions. This articlepresents information on physiological agents that are currentlybeing used as well as drugs that were widely used but are nomore available.

  19. Games and childhood obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videogames can be used to help children change their obesity-related diet and physical activity behaviors. A review of the relevant literature in this special issue of the Games for Health Journal indicated that video games did influence children's adiposity, but only among children who were alread...

  20. Epigenetic signatures of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozanne, Susan E

    2015-03-01

    A study in drosophila shows that the progeny of male flies briefly fed a diet with abnormally high or low sugar levels are more susceptible to obesity. The data suggest that epigenetic susceptibility factors are at play not only in flies but in humans and mice as well. PMID:25738675

  1. Commensality and Obesity Epidemics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Three examples of the appropriateness of including the investigation of commensality to curb obesity epidemics, and a methodological note on the application of the concept of Foodscape as a fruitful holistic analytical perspective on the interplay between food, people, meals, and the physical conditions under which we eat.

  2. Multi-Caused Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Anne C.

    2006-01-01

    Headlines recently were full of studies about the obesity problem of America's children and young people, as if kids became overweight without anyone noticing. An accumulation of both school and family habits, however, have been contributing to the fact that at least 13% of children ages 7 to 11 are overweight, double those of the 1970s (and…

  3. Victimization of Obese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and…

  4. Dietary treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The fast global increased prevalence of obesity has been classifiedas an epidemics by the World Health Organization. The etiology ofobesity is very complex and involves genetic and environmentalfactors. One of the main factors that trigger obesity is sedentarylife, as well as the great availability of fat-rich foods that present ahigh energy density. According to the NHANES II, although thepopulation has decreased the ingestion of fat, the total consumptionof food has increased. The main factors that influence in choice offood are flavor, followed by cost, convenience and, finally, itsnutritional value. The dietary treatment of obesity should haverealistic goals concerning weight loss rate and amount. It issuggested to prescribe a balanced low-calorie diet, emphasizingmostly the quality of foods by using the food pyramid. Therefore,patients may learn the appropriate criteria to select food and makehealthy choices. The dietary treatment of obesity also includesthe use of behavioral techniques directed at dietary education,thus resulting in choice of healthy foods with adequate energyvalue.

  5. Maternal Methyl Donors Supplementation during Lactation Prevents the Hyperhomocysteinemia Induced by a High-Fat-Sucrose Intake by Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Cordero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Maternal perinatal nutrition may program offspring metabolic features. Epigenetic regulation is one of the candidate mechanisms that may be affected by maternal dietary methyl donors intake as potential controllers of plasma homocysteine levels. Thirty-two Wistar pregnant rats were randomly assigned into four dietary groups during lactation: control, control supplemented with methyl donors, high-fat-sucrose and high-fat-sucrose supplemented with methyl donors. Physiological outcomes in the offspring were measured, including hepatic mRNA expression and global DNA methylation after weaning. The newborns whose mothers were fed the obesogenic diet were heavier longer and with a higher adiposity and intrahepatic fat content. Interestingly, increased levels of plasma homocysteine induced by the maternal high-fat-sucrose dietary intake were prevented in both sexes by maternal methyl donors supplementation. Total hepatic DNA methylation decreased in females due to maternal methyl donors administration, while Dnmt3a hepatic mRNA levels decreased accompanying the high-fat-sucrose consumption. Furthermore, a negative association between Dnmt3a liver mRNA levels and plasma homocysteine concentrations was found. Maternal high-fat-sucrose diet during lactation could program offspring obesity features, while methyl donors supplementation prevented the onset of high hyperhomocysteinemia. Maternal dietary intake also affected hepatic DNA methylation metabolism, which could be linked with the regulation of the methionine-homocysteine cycle.

  6. Good Results in Transplantation of >80 Years Aged Donor Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Margreiter

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We retrospectively analyzed the results of totally 6 patients who received a renal graft from >80 years aged donors in Eurotransplant senior program. Patients and methods: Between May 1999 and March 2007 a total of 70 kidney transplants from donors aged over 65 years were given to recipients over 65 at our center. Six out of them, mean age 66,0 (65-68 years, received organs from donors, mean age 81,3 years, who had no history of hypertension, diabetes, smoking or obesity, and a latest mean serum creatinine of 0,7 (0,7-0,9 mg/dL. Baseline biopsy of four grafts showed in two of them a 20% / 8% glomerulosclerosis and mild tubular atrophy but otherwise normal histology. The mean cold storage time was 11:35 (7:19 – 16:02 hours. The initial immunosuppression was CNI-free in five patients consisting of an IL-II receptor antibody + MMF + Steroids. Cyclosporine A was started at day 8,2 (7-10, when graft function had stabilized. In one patient each Belatacept or CyA were given from the beginning, according to a study protocol. Results: The ATN-rate was 2/6. Altogether 2 biopsy-proven acute rejection episodes were reversed by pulsed steroids. Apart from one Polyomavirus infection which led to graft loss at month 9, all other infectious complications, mostly urinary tract infections, were treated successfully. Other postoperative complications were caused by preexisting comorbidities and could be managed. One patient died from an intracerebral B-cell Lymphoma at month 27 with a functioning graft. The 2-years patient / graft survival was 100 / 83,3%. The actual mean serum creatinine of the survivors was 1,6 (0,7-2,4 mg/dL. Conclusion: We conclude that good results can be achieved with kidneys from donors over 80 years without cardiac risk factors and good renal function and if nephrotoxic drugs are used with caution.

  7. Urbanization Drift and Obesity Epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of the Situation in Nigeria.

    OpenAIRE

    Akpan, E. E.; Ekpenyong, C. E.

    2013-01-01

    The growing trend of obesity worldwide and in sub-Saharan Africa can be linked to theurbanization drift experienced in recent years both in developed and developing countrieslike Nigeria, at four pivotal points namely: physical activity level, socio-economic status(SES), nutritional and psychosocial factors. Literature search was done usingMedline/PubMed and Google Scholar for published studies on the urbanization rate, andthe prevalence of overweight and obesity in Nigeria. The socio-demogra...

  8. Preparing Live Donor for Kidney Donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mahdavi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In order to select the most appropriate donor and minimize psychological and physical complications in the kidney donors, it is of high importance to prepare the donor meticulously. The essential respective items are reviewed in this study.Materials and Methods: The available published literature and papers presented in Medline from 1983 to 2003 were reviewed.Results: One the sources of sources of kidney donation is the live donor which is mostly used in Iran. Similarly, due to long waiting lists of kidney recipients, live donor kidney transplantation have been increasingly used in developed countries. Consequently, several aspects of this issue have been considered and specific recommendations have been discussed; anatomy of the donor's kidney, age, ABO blood group, viral infections, weight, HLA type compatibility, psychological status, and diseases such as diabetes, ADPKD, and Alport syndrome should be evaluated in donation candidates. Conclusion: Live donor kidney donation has the advantage of elective and programmed transplantation over cadaveric transplantation. However, removal of an intact organ from the body of a normal individual may lead to complications, as it may so in any other major surgical operation. Thus, it is strongly recommended to select the most appropriate donor patiently by a series of accurate evaluations.

  9. Fecal microbiota transplantation and donor standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Casey; Broussard, Elizabeth; Surawicz, Christina

    2013-09-01

    Clostridium difficile diarrhea is a common and severe infectious disease. Antibiotics, which are standard initial treatment, are less effective for treating refractory or recurrent infection. Fecal microbiota transplantation, where healthy donor stool is transplanted into a patient, is an alternative to antibiotic therapy that requires standardization for donors and patients. PMID:24012274

  10. Reassessing medical risk in living kidney donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Robert S; Kumar, Vineeta; Matas, Arthur J

    2015-05-01

    The short- and long-term effects of unilateral nephrectomy on living donors have been important considerations for 60 years. Short-term risk is well established (0.03% mortality and homeostasis), renal failure, and possibly, mortality. We discuss how these results should be interpreted and their influence on the practice of living donor kidney transplantation. PMID:25255922

  11. 21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...40(a) may serve as a donor for blood or blood components shipped or used under...b), and (e) subsequently may donate Source Plasma for use in the preparation...found to be suitable as a donor of blood or blood components by a...

  12. Potential organ donor audit in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hegarty, M

    2010-11-01

    As increasing demand for organs is a challenge for transplant services worldwide it is essential to audit the process of organ donation. To address this, a national audit of potential organ donors was undertaken across hospitals with Intensive Care Units (N = 36). Questionnaires were returned on all patients (n = 2073) who died in these units from 1\\/9\\/07-31\\/8\\/08; 200 (10%) of these patients were considered for Brain Stem Testing (BST), 158 patients (79%) were diagnosed Brain Stem Dead (BSD) and 138 patients (87%) became potential donors. Consent for donation was given by 92 (69%) next of kin and 90 potential donors (65%) became organ donors. There was no evidence of a large number of potential organ donors being missed. Recommendations included completion of BSTs on all appropriate patients, development of support on BST, referral of all BSD patients to the Organ Procurement Service; enhanced co-ordination within hospitals and sustained information\\/education campaigns.

  13. General Overview on Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil ?nal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, it has not been put much emphasis on obesity in children and the view of “obese child is healthy” is widely accepted by families. However, understanding that a close relation exists between obesity prevalence and childhood obesity, which increased in recent years both across the world and in our country, and many diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases changed the opinion of both of health care professionals and the society about childhood obesity in Turkey, like it changed the opinion in all around the world. Although there are no studies in our country, which have been conducted to investigate obesity prevalence and affecting factors in children nationwide, it is reported in studies carried out in various cities that rate of overweight children in preschool children is between 4-13%, whereas rate of obese children is between 9-27%. In the literature, a positive correlation was found between the frequency of taking the children to fast-food restaurants, compelling children to eat foods on their dishes, one or two of the parents being obese and obesity of children in Turkey. In this review will focus on the risk factors of childhood obesity in Turkey. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2013; 11: 27-30

  14. Pediatric Obesity: Looking into Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Malavolti

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of pediatric obesity continues to rise worldwide. Increasing the number of health care practitioners as well as pediatricians with expertise in obesity treatment is necessary. Because many obese patients suffer obesity-associated cardiovascular, metabolic and other health complications that could increase the severity of obesity, it is fundamental not only to identify the child prone to obesity as early as possible, but to recognize, treat and monitor obesity-related diseases during adolescence. This short review outlines the treatment of pediatric obesity that may have applications in the primary care setting. It examines current information on eating behavior, sedentary behavior, and details studies of multidisciplinary, behavior-based, obesity treatment programs. We also report the less common and more aggressive forms of treatment, such as medication and bariatric surgery. We emphasize that health care providers have the potential to improve outcomes by performing early identification, helping families create the best possible home environment, and by providing structured guidance to obese children and their families.

  15. Surgical Procedures of Morbid Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinat Salem

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgical intervention has been recently advocated in the treatment of morbid obesity. The objective of this study was to review surgery as an alternative in the treatment of morbidly obese adolescents. Materials and Methods: This research was conducted by searching English websites such as PubMed, Up to Date, and Google Scholar, as well as some Persian websites including SID, Iranmedex, and Magiran. Articles published from 2000 to 2010 on interventional and clinical trials were reviewed for treatment of morbid obesity in adolescents. Keywords used in internet searches include obesity; adolescence; and surgery.Results: The results obtained from the studies indicated that 4% of American adolescents suffer from morbid obesity. So far, pharmacological treatment and other approaches toward this type of obesity have been inefficient. Hence, surgery was employed as one of the new approaches to the treatment of this disorder. According to the National Health Institute criteria, in the treatment of adolescent candidates for surgery, anthropometric measurements are performed together with the measurement of other co-morbidities of obesity. Adolescents whose percentiles are ?99 are considered as morbidly obese patients. Conclusion: The results of the studies suggested that for the extremely obese adolescents, who do not respond to other types of medical interventions within 6 months, surgery can be performed. Adolescents with BMI of ?40 kg/m2 and skeletal maturity, or those with co morbidities of obesity, or 13-year-old girls and boys ?15 years of age can be candidates for surgery. However, the side effects of obesity should not be neglected. Therefore, before the adolescent obesity become morbid obesity, preventive measures should be taken through changes in lifestyle.

  16. Rare blood donors with irregular antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krga-Milanovi? Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Blood groups are inherited biological characteristics that do not change throughout life in healthy people. Blood groups represent antigens found on the surface of red blood cells. Kell blood group system consists of 31 antigens. Kell antigen (K is present in 0.2% of the population (the rare blood group. Cellano antigen is present in more than 99% (the high-frequency antigen. These antigens have a distinct ability to cause an immune response in the people after blood transfusion or pregnancy who, otherwise, did not have them before. Case Report. This paper presents a blood donor with a rare blood group, who was found to have an irregular antibody against red blood cells by indirect antiglobulin test. Further testing determined the specificity of antibody to be anti-Cellano. The detected antibody was found in high titers (1024 with erythrocyte phenotype Kell-Cellano+. The blood donor was found to have a rare blood group KellKell. This donor was excluded from further blood donation. It is difficult to find compatible blood for a person who has developed an antibody to the high-frequency antigen. The donor’s family members were tested and Cellano antigen was detected in her husband and child. A potential blood donor was not found among the family members. There was only one blood donor in the Register of blood donors who was compatible in the ABO and Kell blood group system. Conclusion. For the successful management of blood transfusion it is necessary to establish a unified national register of donors of rare blood groups and cooperate with the International Blood Group Reference Laboratory in Bristol with the database that registers donors of rare blood groups from around the world.

  17. Coexistence of Obesity and Anemia in Older Mexican Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Michaels-Obregon, Alejandra; Wong, Rebeca

    2011-12-01

    INTRODUCTION: Developing countries in Latin America (LA) are experiencing rapid aging as a result of advances in medical interventions. This rapid aging has not occurred with comparable improvements in standards of living. Chronic conditions are becoming highly prevalent while exposure to infectious communicable diseases is very common. This unique situation where communicable and non-communicable diseases coexist in the presence of low socioeconomic status place countries in LA in a unique epidemiological situation. Mexico presents a very good example where the impact of this situation on health warrants further analysis. METHODS: We use data from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANut 2006), a cross-sectional study representative of all urban and rural areas of Mexico. A total of 5,605 adults older than 60 years of age with valid values for Body Mass Index and Hemoglobin were analyzed. We first included a descriptive analysis of the coexistence of anemia and obesity by age, gender and characteristics of the living environment. We reported the weighted percentages for each covariate by each of four nutritional condition categories (obese and anemic, only-obese, only-anemic, not obese and not anemic). We used multinomial logit regressions to determine the association of socioeconomic characteristics, health status and the living environment with the presence of the three nutritional condition categories. RESULTS: In the ENSANut cohort 10.3% of older adults are anemic, 25.0% are obese and 2.6% are both anemic and obese. Approximately 62% has neither anemia nor obesity. Within the 38% that fall in the three nutritional condition categories, the co-existence of obesity & anemia appears to be associated with metropolitan area residence, living alone, being male, having relatively high wealth, and reporting two or more chronic health conditions. Analyzing the effect of the covariates to distinguish between outcome categories, living environment, age, gender, wealth, and smoking show a significant effect when comparing across the three nutritional categories. CONCLUSIONS: Older Mexican adults with both obesity & anemia have a different profile compared to that of adults with only one of the conditions. Future studies need to do a careful clinical evaluation of this group and design clinical interventions to avoid complications. Additionally, social support initiatives that target specific groups of older adults according to their health and social needs must be established. PMID:22423171

  18. Blood pressure and arterial stiffness in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidt, Kristian Nebelin

    2015-03-01

    Obesity, elevated blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. A strong relationship exists between obesity and elevated BP in both children and adults. Obesity and elevated BP in childhood track into adult life increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Ambulatory BP is the most precise measure to evaluate the BP burden, whereas carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) is regarded as the gold standard for evaluating arterial (i.e. aortic) stiffness. These measures might contribute to a better understanding of obesity's adverse impact on the cardiovascular system, and ultimately a better prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. The overall aim of the present PhD thesis is to investigate arterial stiffness and 24-hour BP in obese children and adolescents, and evaluate whether these measures are influenced by weight reduction. The present PhD thesis is based on four scientific papers.  In a cross-sectional design, 104 severe obese children and adolescents with an age of 10-18 years were recruited when newly referred to the Children's Obesity Clinic, Holbæk University Hospital, and compared to 50 normal weighted age and gender matched control individuals. Ambulatory BP was measured, and cfPWV was investigated in two ways in respect to the distance measure of aorta; the previously recommended length - the so called subtracted distance, and the currently recommended length - the direct distance. In a longitudinal design, the obese patients were re-investigated after one-year of lifestyle intervention at the Children's Obesity Clinic in purpose of reducing the degree of obesity. In the cross-sectional design, the obese group had higher measures of obesity, while matched for age, gender and height, when compared to the control group. In the longitudinal design, 74% of the 72 followed up obese patients experienced a significant weight reduction. CfPWV was dependent on the method used to measure the length of the aorta. The subtracted distance was not consistent in its relation to height in the obese and the control group. Opposite, the direct distance was consistent in its relation to height in the two groups. Therefore, cfPWV using the direct distance (cfPWV-direct) was regarded as the appropriate measure of arterial stiffness. CfPWV-direct was reduced in the obese group after adjustment for known confounders. In the longitudinal design, weight reduction across one year did not have an impact on cfPWV-direct in the obese patients. In fact, cfPWV-direct was higher at follow-up, which was explained by the increased age and partly by changes in BP and heart rate. The obese group had a relatively higher night- than day-time BP when compared to the control group. The obesity-related elevated night-time BP was independent of arterial stiffness and insulin resistance. Although night-time systolic BP was related to arterial stiffness and tended to be related to insulin resistance, insulin resistance and arterial stiffness were not related. In the longitudinal design, changes in anthropometric obesity measures across one year were associated with changes in 24-hour, day- and night-time BP, and consistent when evaluated in standardised values that accounted for growth. No association was found between changes in anthropometric obesity measures and changes in clinic BP. In conclusion, the results suggest that obesity in children is not "yet" associated with structural changes in aorta when evaluated with the appropriate new method of cfPWV. In this respect, weight reduction did not have an impact on arterial stiffness. The ambulatory BP, namely the night-time BP, was elevated in the obese patients, whereas changes in anthropometric obesity measures were related to changes in ambulatory BP but not to changes in clinic BP. In perspective, it is reassuring that weight changes are accompanied with a change in 24-hour BP as ambulatory BP is the most precise measure to evaluate the BP burden, and it emphasises the use of 24-hour ambulatory BP measurements in childr

  19. Gut microbiota and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpellini, Emidio; Campanale, Mariachiara; Leone, Diana; Purchiaroni, Flaminia; Vitale, Giovanna; Lauritano, Ernesto Cristiano; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2010-10-01

    Intestinal epithelium, mucosal immune system, and bacterial flora represent a morpho-functional system on dynamic balance responsible for the intestinal metabolic and trophic functions, and the regulation of mucosal and systemic host's immunity. Obesity is a pathological condition affecting a growing number of people especially in the Western countries resulting from the failure of the organism's energetic balance based on the perfect equality of income, waste, and storage. Recent evidences explain the mechanisms for the microbial regulation of the host's metabolism both in health and disease. In particular, animal studies have explained how quali-/quantitative changes in microflora composition are able to affect the absorption of the nutrients and the energy distribution. Antibiotics, prebiotics, probiotics, and symbiotics are the instruments utilized in the current clinical practice to modulate the intestinal bacterial flora in man both in health and pathologic conditions with promising preliminary results on prevention and therapy of obesity and related metabolic diseases. PMID:20865475

  20. [Psychological consequences of obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Roland

    2013-02-01

    Overweight and obesity is associated with a broad variety of stigmatization and discrimination in every day live. Obese people have more difficulties in finding a job, have a lower income, and are less often seen in leadership positions. In society, responsibility for the weight situation in seen as lying by the individuals affected altogether, leading to chronic stress, problems with self esteem and perception of loss of control. As a consequence, there is an increased risk for developing serious psychological problems such as affective and anxiety disorders. As a reaction, coping strategies to deal with the psychological pressure such as dysfunctional eating behavior, binge eating and physical inactivity are used. Females, people belonging to another ethnic or social minority, adolescents and people with eating disorders are considered at increased risk of psychological distress. Psychological vulnerabilities and the consequences of stigmatization need to be considered. Moreover, perceived behavioral control and self esteem are key aspects of to be addressed on the treatment. PMID:23385186

  1. Obesity, adipokines and neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Valles, Argel; Inoue, Wataru; Rummel, Christoph; Luheshi, Giamal N

    2015-09-01

    Global levels of obesity are reaching epidemic proportions, leading to a dramatic increase in incidence of secondary diseases and the significant economic burden associated with their treatment. These comorbidities include diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some psychopathologies, which have been linked to a low-grade inflammatory state. Obese individuals exhibit an increase in circulating inflammatory mediators implicated as the underlying cause of these comorbidities. A number of these molecules are also manufactured and released by white adipose tissue (WAT), in direct proportion to tissue mass and are collectively known as adipokines. In the current review we focused on the role of two of the better-studied members of this family namely, leptin and adiponectin, with particular emphasis on their role in neuro-immune interactions, neuroinflammation and subsequent brain diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Neuroimmunology and Synaptic Function'. PMID:25582291

  2. Pushing the frontiers of living donor right hepatectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seong Hoon; Lee, Seung Duk; Kim, Young Kyu; Park, Sang-jae

    2014-01-01

    Living donor right hepatectomy (LDRH) is currently the most common donor surgery in adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation although the morbidity and mortality reported in living donors still contradicts the Hippocratic tenet of “do no harm”. Achieving low complication rates in LDRH remains a matter of major concern. Living donor surgery is performed worldwide as an established solution to the donor shortage. The aim of this study was to assess the current status of LDRH and co...

  3. Introducing Classroom Behavior Management Skills to Experienced Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Scott; Gallimore, Ronald

    1972-01-01

    Authors hypothesized that many teachers have classroom behavior management skills in their repertoires but lack techniques for using them as systematically as possible; conventional postgraduate courses are a vehicle for introducing experienced teachers to these skills. (Editor)

  4. Dyslipidemia and Pediatric Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Stephen; Kavey, Rae Ellen W.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States despite a steady reduction in mortality over the last 4 decades. Much of this success is attributed to public health efforts to reduce cardiovascular risk factors, such as national dietary changes and reductions of smoking, as well as more aggressive treatment of clinical disease, including recognition and treatment of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. The rising rates of obesity and diabetes, especially among adol...

  5. Obesity: dietary treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Steer, T; Jebb, S

    2004-01-01

    Dietary treatment of obesity should aim to reduce the risk of chronic disease. This involves reductions in energy intake to facilitate weight loss together with other changes in the composition of the diet to further decrease health risks. Assessing habitual food intake can provide useful qualitative information on a woman's eating habits. In general terms, advice should be given on reducing dietary fat, increasing unrefined carbohydrates, fruits and vegetables and avoiding too many high-fat/...

  6. Obesity, Inflammation and Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hansongyi; Lee, In Seok; Choue, Ryowon

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a state in which there is an over-accumulation of subcutaneous and/or abdominal adipose tissue. This adipose tissue is no longer considered inert and mainly devoted to storing energy; it is emerging as an active tissue in the regulation of physiological and pathological processes, including immunity and inflammation. Adipose tissue produces and releases a variety of adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin), as well as pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necr...

  7. Dietary Polyphenols and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Meydani; Hasan, Syeda T.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity and their associated metabolic disorders are considered a major threat to the public’s health. While several diet and exercise programs are available for weight loss and prevention of weight regain, progress is often slow and disappointing. Recently, natural bioactive phytochemicals present in foods have been discovered for their potential health benefit effects on the prevention of chronic disorders such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, inflammato...

  8. Metabolic Imprinting of Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, El; Grove, Kl

    2009-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that early metabolic programming contributes to escalating obesity rates in children and adults. Metabolic imprinting is involved in the establishment of set points for physiologic and metabolic responses in adulthood. Evidence from epidemiological studies and animal models indicate that maternal health and nutritional status during gestation and lactation have long-term effects on central and peripheral systems that regulate energy balance in the developing offs...

  9. Factors contributing to adolescent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kloub, Manal I; Froelicher, Erika S

    2009-06-01

    Obesity in children is a significant public health concern. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Jordanian children, and adolescents has increased in the last decade. The consequences of obesity to health in childhood and adulthood have both medical, and economic cost to individuals and society. This paper reviews the factors that contribute to adolescent obesity and emphasizes behavioral and environmental factors. An individual's behaviors such as increased consumption of high caloric foods, increased sedentary activity while decreasing physical activity has been identified as key issues in the development of obesity. Additionally, the current environment in homes, schools, and neighborhoods tend to discourage a healthy lifestyle. A comprehensive approach that involves the whole community is the best strategy for preventing adolescent obesity. Nurses are in a unique position to provide leadership in developing programs for healthier lifestyle choices for adolescents' and adoption of these goals into their daily lives. PMID:19526153

  10. Anticipated and experienced emotions in environmental risk perception

    OpenAIRE

    Gisela Bohm; Hans-Rudiger Pfister

    2008-01-01

    Affective forecasting with respect to two environmental risks (ozone depletion, air pollution) was investigated by studying tourists who travelled to either Australia or Bangkok and were thus confronted with one of these risks. We measured anticipated outcome and anticipated emotions before the journey, actually experienced outcome and actually experienced emotions during the journey, and anticipated outcome and emotions concerning a future encounter with the same risk after the journey. Resu...

  11. Obesity and type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Subhashini Yaturu

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are public health problems, with health consequences and economic costs that have raised concern worldwide. The increase in the prevalence of diabetes parallels that of obesity. Some experts call this dual epidemic ‘diabesity’ Elevated body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were significantly associated T2DM. One consequence of obesity is an increased risk of developing T2DM. There is evidence that the prenatal, early child...

  12. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Jennifer A.; Burke, Anne E.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating alter...

  13. Obesity Prevalence in Gaziantep, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ozcirpici Birgul; Coskun Ferhat; Sahinoz Saime; Ozgur Servet; Bozkurt Ali

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with reduced quality of life, development of serious chronic conditions such as heart disease and diabetes, increased medical care costs, and premature death. Environmental effects, especially feeding habits may cause hyperinsulinemia and obesity. A Healthy People 2010 objective is to reduce the proportion of adults who are obese to 15%. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1647 persons in a sample representing Gazian...

  14. Adolescent Obesity and Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Koehly, Laura M.; Loscalzo, Aunchalee

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight among children worldwide is growing at an alarming rate. Social relationships may contribute to the development of obesity through the interaction of biological, behavioral, and environmental factors. Although there is evidence that early environment influences the expression of obesity, very little research elucidates the social context of obesity among children or adolescents. Social network approaches can contribute to research on the role of social environment...

  15. Smoking among morbidly obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatkin José M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smokers usually have a lower Body Mass Index (BMI when compared to non-smokers. Such a relationship, however, has not been fully studied in obese and morbidly obese patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between smoking and BMI among obese and morbidly obese subjects. Methods In a case-control study design, 1022 individuals of both genders, 18-65 years of age, were recruited and grouped according to their smoking status (smokers, ex-smokers, and non-smokers and nutritional state according to BMI (normal weight, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese. Results No significant differences were detected in the four BMI groups with respect to smoking status. However, there was a trend towards a higher frequency of smokers among the overweight, obese, and morbidly obese subjects compared to normal weight individuals (p = 0.078. In a logistic regression, after adjusting for potential confounders, morbidly obese subjects had an adjusted OR of 2.25 (95% CI, 1.52-3.34; p Discussion In this sample, while the frequency of smokers diminished in normal weight subjects as the BMI increased, such a trend was reversed in overweight, obese, and morbidly obese patients. In the latter group, the prevalence of smokers was significantly higher compared to the other groups. A patient with morbid obesity had a 2-fold increased risk of becoming a smoker. We speculate that these finding could be a consequence of various overlapping risk behaviors because these patients also are generally less physically active and prefer a less healthy diet, in addition to having a greater alcohol intake in relation to their counterparts. The external validity of these findings must be confirmed.

  16. CDC Vital Signs: Progress on Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov . Vital Signs Share Compartir Progress on Childhood Obesity Many States Show Declines August 2013 1 in ... 8 preschoolers is obese in the US. 19 Obesity among low-income preschoolers declined, from 2008 through ...

  17. Donor research in australia: challenges and promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masser, Barbara; Smith, Geoff; Williams, Lisa A

    2014-07-01

    Donors are the key to the core business of Blood Collection Agencies (BCAs). However, historically, they have not been a focus of research undertaken by these organizations. This model is now changing, with significant donor research groups established in a number of countries, including Australia. Donor research in the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (Blood Service) is concentrated in the Donor and Community Research (DCR) team. Cognizant of the complex and ever-changing landscape with regard to optimal donor management, the DCR team collaborates with academics located at universities around Australia to coordinate a broad program of research that addresses both short- and-long term challenges to the blood supply. This type of collaboration is not, however, without challenges. Two major collaborative programs of the Blood Service's research, focusing on i) the recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors and ii) the role of the emotion pride in donor motivation and return, are showcased to elucidate how the challenges of conducting collaborative BCA research can be met. In so doing, these and the other research programs described herein demonstrate how the Blood Service supports and contributes to research that not only revises operational procedures but also contributes to advances in basic science. PMID:25254025

  18. Our experience with deceased organ donor maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Meena

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Deceased organ donors in an intensive care unit (ICU are the richest source of organs for transplantation. Careful donor maintenance plays a vital role in the successful functioning of the organ in the recipient. Aims : Early identification of brain stem death (BSD in the ICU, problems and management in donor maintenance till retrieval are the main objectives. Materials and Methods : BSD was identified in a level I trauma center over a period of eight years (1996-2004 using UK code. After screening for fitness, they were maintained to achieve normothermia, systolic BP > 90 mm Hg, CVP 8-10 cm water, urine output > 80 ml/hour and normal acid base balance. Results: 168 cases of BSD were maintained, 30 with identity unknown. Common transient complications noted were hypotension (68%, hypokalemia (62%, hypothermia (12%, diabetes insipidus (70%. Brain stem death was identified early and resuscitated to maintain normal tissue perfusion. 17 (12.3% consent for organ donation was obtained. Organs (24 kidneys and one liver were retrieved from 12 donors. Four donors sustained cardiac arrest before retrieval. Conclusion: Early recognition of brain stem death and prompty correction of hemodyanamic instability is the key to deceased donor maintenance. Optimal care of potential donor translates to care of multiple recipients.

  19. Transfer of gut microbiota from lean and obese mice to antibiotic-treated mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellekilde, Merete; Selfjord, Ellika

    2014-01-01

    Transferring gut microbiota from one individual to another may enable researchers to "humanize'' the gut of animal models and transfer phenotypes between species. To date, most studies of gut microbiota transfer are performed in germ-free mice. In the studies presented, it was tested whether an antibiotic treatment approach could be used instead. C57BL/6 mice were treated with ampicillin prior to inoculation at weaning or eight weeks of age with gut microbiota from lean or obese donors. The gut microbiota and clinical parameters of the recipients was characterized one and six weeks after inoculation. The results demonstrate, that the donor gut microbiota was introduced, established, and changed the gut microbiota of the recipients. Six weeks after inoculation, the differences persisted, however alteration of the gut microbiota occurred with time within the groups. The clinical parameters of the donor phenotype were partly transmissible from obese to lean mice, in particularly beta cell hyperactivity in the obese recipients. Thus, a successful inoculation of gut microbiota was not age dependent in order for the microbes to colonize, and transferring different microbial compositions to conventional antibiotic-treated mice was possible at least for a time period during which the microbiota may permanently modulate important host functions.

  20. Remuneration of hematopoietic stem cell donors: principles and perspective of the World Marrow Donor Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Michael; van Walraven, Suzanna M; Chapman, Jeremy; Lindberg, Brian; Schmidt, Alexander H; Shaw, Bronwen E; Switzer, Galen E; Yang, Edward; Egeland, Torstein

    2011-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a curative procedure for life-threatening hematologic diseases. Donation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from an unrelated donor, frequently residing in another country, may be the only option for 70% of those in need of unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To maximize the opportunity to find the best available donor, individual donor registries collaborate internationally. To provide homogeneity of practice among registries, the World Marrow Donor Association (WMDA) sets standards against which registries are accredited and provides guidance and regulations about unrelated donor safety and care. A basic tenet of the donor registries is that unrelated HSC donation is an altruistic act; nonpayment of donors is entrenched in the WMDA standards and in international practice. In the United States, the prohibition against remuneration of donors has recently been challenged. Here, we describe the reasons that the WMDA continues to believe that HSC donors should not be paid because of ethical concerns raised by remuneration, potential to damage the public will to act altruistically, the potential for coercion and exploitation of donors, increased risk to patients, harm to local transplantation programs and international stem cell exchange, and the possibility of benefiting some patients while disadvantaging others. PMID:20921337

  1. Obesity accelerates secondary sexual maturity in girls

    OpenAIRE

    Meiriani Sari; Endy Paryanto Prawirohartono; Madarina Julia2)

    2012-01-01

    Background Worldwide incidence of obesity in children is increasing. Obesity may have many health effects including advancement of sexual maturity. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the timing of secondary sexual maturation in obese vs. non-obese girls. Methods Subjects were 105 obese and 105 non-obese girls, aged 7 to 8 years who had not entered puberty. Breast and pubic hair growth, secondary sexual characteristics, were assessed at baseline and every 4 months for two ye...

  2. Childhood Obesity and Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    OpenAIRE

    Indra Narang; Joseph L. Mathew

    2012-01-01

    The global epidemic of childhood and adolescent obesity and its immediate as well as long-term consequences for obese individuals and society as a whole cannot be overemphasized. Obesity in childhood and adolescence is associated with an increased risk of adult obesity and clinically significant consequences affecting the cardiovascular and metabolic systems. Importantly, obesity is additionally complicated by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), occurring in up to 60% of obese children. OSA, which...

  3. RETROPERITONEOSCOPIC DONOR NEPHRECTOMY: EXPERIENCE WITH TEN OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Perlin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We modified the method of retroperitoneoscopic live donor nephrectomy and evaluated results of first 10 pro- cedures. We performed four left- and six right-sided donor nephrectomy. There were no conversions to open or hand-assisted surgery. All organs have been successfully transplanted. Retroperitoneoscopic live donor nephrec- tomy is safe and feasible. The method has three main advantages over conventional laparoscopic nephrectomy: the absence of contact with bowel, spleen, liver and other intra-abdominal structures, more comfortable access to the renal artery, absence of intraperitoneal pressure elevation. 

  4. Donor policy rules and aid effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

    2008-01-01

    The present paper examines the macroeconomic impact of aid, by introducing endogenous aid allocations into a neoclassical growth framework. On this basis it is shown that donor policies can have important implications for the trajectory of recipients' GDP per capita. Depending on specific donor policy choices, aid disbursements may lead to faster transitional growth, stagnation or cyclical growth. Moreover, the analysis also suggests that donor policies may be part of the reason why foreign aid is not found to be uniformly effective in raising long-run productivity across recipients

  5. Current research on organ donor management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally, Mitchell; Malinoski, Darren

    2013-12-01

    A shortage of organs is available for transplantation, with 116,000 patients on the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network/United Network for Organ Sharing wait list. Because the demand for organs outweighs the supply, considerable care must be taken to maximize the number of organs transplanted per donor and optimize the quality of recovered organs. Studies designed to determine optimal donor management therapies are limited, and this research has many challenges. Although evidenced-based guidelines for managing potential organ donors do not exist, research in this area is increasing. This article reviews the existing literature and highlights recent trials that can guide management. PMID:24287350

  6. Iron Status in Norwegian Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Røsvik, Anne Synnøve

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims: Blood banks in Norway struggle to close the gap between need and supply of blood. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the iron status in blood donors. The aims of this thesis were first to compare the iron status in new blood donors in 1993-97 and in 2005-06, to describe possible changes in iron status. To describe the effect of four consecutive blood donations without iron supplementation for newly recruited donors was the second aim. Th...

  7. Utilization of Expanded Criteria Donors in Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Saidi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in surgical techniques, immunosuppression, and post-transplantation patientcare have led to the optimization of liver transplantation outcomes. However, the waiting listfor liver transplantation is increasing at a greater pace. The large gap between the growing poolof patients waiting for liver transplantation and the scarcity of donor organs has fueled effortsto maximize existing donors and identify new sources.This article will be focused on the current state of liver transplantation using grafts from extendedcriteria donors (elderly donors, steatotic donors, donors with malignancies, donors withviral hepatitis and from donation after cardiac death (DCD, as well as the use of partial grafts(split grafts and living-donor liver transplantation and other suboptimal donors (donors withhypernatremia, infections, hypotension and inotropic support. Overall, broadened criteria foracceptable donor livers appear to lessen graft survival rates somewhat compared with rates forstandard criteria organs.

  8. Utilization of expanded criteria donors in liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Reza F

    2013-01-01

    Improvements in surgical techniques, immunosuppression, and post-transplantation patient care have led to the optimization of liver transplantation outcomes. However, the waiting list for liver transplantation is increasing at a greater pace. The large gap between the growing pool of patients waiting for liver transplantation and the scarcity of donor organs has fueled efforts to maximize existing donors and identify new sources. This article will be focused on the current state of liver transplantation using grafts from extended criteria donors (elderly donors, steatotic donors, donors with malignancies, donors with viral hepatitis) and from donation after cardiac death (DCD), as well as the use of partial grafts (split grafts and living-donor liver transplantation) and other suboptimal donors (donors with hypernatremia, infections, hypotension and inotropic support). Overall, broadened criteria for acceptable donor livers appear to lessen graft survival rates somewhat compared with rates for standard criteria organs. PMID:25013654

  9. Coronary Vasomotor Control in Obesity and Morbid Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Quercioli, Alessandra; Pataky, Zoltan; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Carballo, Sebastian; Thomas, Aure?lien; Staub, Christian; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Vincenti, Gabriella; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Ratib, Osman; Golay, Alain; Mach, Franc?ois; Harsch-bobbioni, Elisabetta; Schindler, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to investigate abnormalities in coronary circulatory function in 2 different disease entities of obese (OB) and morbidly obese (MOB) individuals and to evaluate whether these would differ in severity with different profiles of endocannabinoids, leptin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels.

  10. "It Wasn't 'Let's Get Pregnant and Go Do It':" Decision Making in Lesbian Couples Planning Motherhood via Donor Insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, Jennifer M.; Ames, Barbara D.

    2004-01-01

    The process that lesbian couples experienced in using donor insemination (DI) to become parents was examined in this study through interviews of 10 lesbians. Using a decision-making framework embedded in feminist theory, results identified the major decisions involved that conceptualized the transition to parenthood and describe how these…

  11. Donor-Derived Myeloid Sarcoma in Two Kidney Transplant Recipients from a Single Donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanisamy, Amudha; Persad, Paul; Koty, Patrick P.; Douglas, Laurie L.; Stratta, Robert J.; Rogers, Jeffrey; Reeves-Daniel, Amber M.; Orlando, Giuseppe; Farney, Alan C.; Beaty, Michael W.; Pettenati, Mark J.; Iskandar, Samy S.; Grier, David D.; Kaczmorski, Scott A.; Doares, William H.; Gautreaux, Michael D.; Freedman, Barry I.; Powell, Bayard L.

    2015-01-01

    We report the rare occurrence of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma in two kidney transplant patients who received organs from a single deceased donor. There was no evidence of preexisting hematologic malignancy in the donor at the time of organ recovery. Both recipients developed leukemic involvement that appeared to be limited to the transplanted organ. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and molecular genotyping analyses confirmed that the malignant cells were of donor origin in each patient. Allograft nephrectomy and immediate withdrawal of immunosuppression were performed in both cases; systemic chemotherapy was subsequently administered to one patient. Both recipients were in remission at least one year following the diagnosis of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma. These cases suggest that restoration of the immune system after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy and allograft nephrectomy may be sufficient to control HLA-mismatched donor-derived myeloid sarcoma without systemic involvement. PMID:25977825

  12. Bone marrow transplantation from a cadaveric donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelushnik, J; Aker, M; Pugatsch, T; Samuel, S; Slavin, S

    1998-04-01

    A 2.5-year-old girl with neurogenic Gaucher's disease was transplanted with donor bone marrow from her HLA-compatible 12-year-old brother whose marrow was harvested 30 min post-mortem, after he suffered a severe head and neck injury. The marrow was stored in liquid nitrogen for 30 days prior to infusion. The post-transplantation period was uneventful with good engraftment and no signs of graft-versus-host disease. Currently, 6 months post-allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (alloBMT), analysis of both bone marrow and blood samples by PCR documented only cells of donor origin. This case demonstrates the feasibility of cadaveric marrow as a source of donor cells. To our knowledge, this patient is the only survivor of alloBMT from a cadaveric donor. PMID:9603417

  13. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Queue __count__/__total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe ... later? Sign in to add this video to a playlist. Sign in Share More Report Need to ...

  14. RESULTS OF THE SPECIAL BLOOD DONOR DAY

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood were collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff wish to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.

  15. RESULTS OF THE SPECIAL BLOOD DONOR DAY

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood was collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff want to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.

  16. Alginate dressing as a donor site haemostat.

    OpenAIRE

    Groves, A. R.; Lawrence, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    An alginate fibre dressing has been used to reduce blood loss from skin graft donor sites. Significant haemostasis has been achieved in the immediate post surgery phase and no adverse reactions observed.

  17. Iron status of regular voluntary blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahida Vilsu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our blood bank is a regional blood transfusion centre, which accepts blood only from voluntary donors. Aim: The aim is to study iron status of regular voluntary donors who donated their blood at least twice in a year. Materials and Methods: Prior to blood donation, blood samples of 220 male and 30 female voluntary donors were collected. Control included 100 each male and female healthy individuals in the 18- to 60-year age group, who never donated blood and did not have any chronic infection. In the study and control groups, about 10% subjects consumed non-vegetarian diet. After investigation, 85 males and 56 females having haemoglobin (Hb levels above 12.5 g/dl were selected as controls. Donors were divided into ?10, 11-20, 21-50 and> 50 blood donation categories. Majority of the donors in> 50 donation category donated blood four times in a year, whereas the remaining donors donated two to three times per year. Haematological parameters were measured on fully automatic haematology analyzer, serum iron and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC by biochemical methods, ferritin using ELISA kits and transferrin using immunoturbidometry kits. Iron/TIBC ratio x 100 gave percentage of transferrin saturation value. Statistical Analysis: Statistical evaluation was done by mean, standard deviation, pair t -test, ?2 and anova ( F -test. Results: Preliminary analysis revealed that there was no significant difference in the iron profile of vegetarian and non-vegetarian subjects or controls and the donors donating < 20 times. Significant increase or decrease was observed in mean values of various haematological and iron parameters in donors who donated blood for> 20 times ( P < 0.001, compared to controls. Anaemia, iron deficiency and depletion of iron stores were more prevalent in female donors ( P < 0.05 compared to males and especially in those male donors who donated their blood for more than 20 times. Conclusion: Regular voluntary blood donors should receive iron supplementation to prevent iron deficiency and depletion in iron stores.

  18. Preoperative CT evaluation of potential donors in living donor liver transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Vohra, Sandeep; Goyal, Neerav; Gupta, Subash

    2014-01-01

    Living donor liver transplantation is an effective, life sustaining surgical treatment in patients with end-stage liver disease and a successful liver transplant requires a close working relationship between the radiologist and the transplant surgeon. There is extreme variability in hepatic vascular anatomy; therefore, preoperative imaging of potential liver donors is crucial not only in donor selection but also helps the surgeons in planning their surgical approach. In this article, we elabo...

  19. Gamete donors' satisfaction; gender differences and similarities among oocyte and sperm donors in a national sample

    OpenAIRE

    Skoog Svanberg, Agneta; Lampic, Claudia; Gejerwall, Ann-Louise; Gudmundsson, Johannes; Karlstrom, Per-Olof; Solensten, Nils-Gunnar; Sydsjö, Gunilla

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore oocyte and sperm donors' emotional stress, experiences of care and satisfaction after donation. Design Prospective multicenter study. Settings All fertility clinics performing gamete donation in Sweden during the period 2005 to 2008. Population Of 220 eligible oocyte donors who were approached, 181 agreed to complete the first questionnaire and 165 completed the second questionnaire 2 months after oocyte donation. Of 156 eligible sperm donors 119 accepted to complete the...

  20. Malaria seroprevalence in blood bank donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carmen Elena, Contreras; Marcos de, Donato; María Ana, Rivas; Hectorina, Rodulfo; Robert, Mora; María Eulalia, Batista; Norka, Marcano.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic are [...] as of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species) and malaria antigen (Plasmodium falciparum only) in samples from Venezuelan blood donors (n = 762). All samples were further studied by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The antibody results showed that P. falciparum-infected patients had a lower sample/cut-off ratio than Plasmodium vivax-infected patients. Conversely, a higher ratio for antigen was observed among all P. falciparum-infected individuals. Sensitivity and specificity were higher for malarial antigens (100 and 99.8%) than for antibodies (82.2 and 97.4%). Antibody-positive donors were observed in Caracas, Ciudad Bolívar, Puerto Ayacucho and Cumaná, with prevalences of 1.02, 1.60, 3.23 and 3.63%, respectively. No PCR-positive samples were observed among the donors. However, our results show significant levels of seropositivity in blood donors, suggesting that more effective measures are required to ensure that transfusion transmission does not occur.

  1. Malaria seroprevalence in blood bank donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Elena Contreras

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species and malaria antigen (Plasmodium falciparum only in samples from Venezuelan blood donors (n = 762. All samples were further studied by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The antibody results showed that P. falciparum-infected patients had a lower sample/cut-off ratio than Plasmodium vivax-infected patients. Conversely, a higher ratio for antigen was observed among all P. falciparum-infected individuals. Sensitivity and specificity were higher for malarial antigens (100 and 99.8% than for antibodies (82.2 and 97.4%. Antibody-positive donors were observed in Caracas, Ciudad Bolívar, Puerto Ayacucho and Cumaná, with prevalences of 1.02, 1.60, 3.23 and 3.63%, respectively. No PCR-positive samples were observed among the donors. However, our results show significant levels of seropositivity in blood donors, suggesting that more effective measures are required to ensure that transfusion transmission does not occur.

  2. Parental coping with sudden infant death after donor insemination: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Rupert; Schilling, Guntram; Liedtke, Reinhard

    2005-04-01

    We report the case of an artificial donor insemination couple experiencing sudden infant death of their 8-month-old child. Six months after the incident, the couple were investigated by means of an extensive interview, a repertory grid investigation and the Family Assessment Measure, as well as at 6 years after the incident by an extensive interview. The results show the importance of the diagnosis of male infertility and the preceding fertility treatment for coping with the death of their child. Six months after the incident, acute feelings associated with bereavement are mixed with feelings of anger and shame, apparently due to the experience of infertility. However, secrecy and shame associated with male infertility and donor insemination make it impossible for the couple to communicate their feelings to each other or to friends and relatives; furthermore, they decline psychological counselling. Repertory grid investigation and the Family Assessment Measure point to significant problems within the partnership. Six years after the incident, the couple's relationship is destabilized and both partners plan to divorce. We suggest a possible link between donor insemination secrecy and difficulties with coping. We discuss implications for couple counselling and emphasize the necessity for an improved legal framework for donor insemination in Germany. PMID:15665018

  3. Therapeutic donor insemination with frozen semen.

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, S. G.; Mortimer, D.; Taylor, P. J.; Leader, A.; Pattinson, H. A.

    1990-01-01

    Although it is now accepted that cryopreserved semen must, on ethical and medicolegal grounds, be used for donor insemination many clinicians still believe that it has an unacceptably reduced fecundability rate as compared with fresh semen. We studied the outcome of 81 recipients who started therapeutic donor insemination (TDI) treatment during 1986 in a program that used exclusively cryopreserved semen; 55 had never undergone TDI and were receiving the first series (six cycles), 6 were recei...

  4. The Donor Stars of Cataclysmic Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Knigge, Christian

    2006-01-01

    We construct a complete, semi-empirical donor sequence for CVs with orbital periods less than 6 hrs. All key physical and photometric parameters of CV secondaries (along with their spectral types) are given as a function of P_orb along this sequence. The main observational basis for our donor sequence is an empirical mass-radius relation for CV secondaries. We present an optimal estimate for this relation that ensures consistency with the observed locations of the period gap...

  5. Donor Transmission of Melanoma Following Renal Transplant

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn T. Chen; Anthony Olszanski; Jeffrey M. Farma

    2012-01-01

    Donor transmission of melanoma is one of the more common and lethal of recipient malignancies, often presenting with systemic disease. Although some patients may receive durable remission of melanoma following explantation of the allograft and withdrawal of immunosuppression, donor transmission of melanoma is fatal in most patients. Here we present a case of a 44-year-old male who developed metastatic melanoma following renal transplant.

  6. Endothelial keratoplasty with infant donor tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi A; Yokogawa H; Yamazaki N; Masaki T; Sugiyama K

    2014-01-01

    Akira Kobayashi, Hideaki Yokogawa, Natsuko Yamazaki, Toshinori Masaki, Kazuhisa Sugiyama Department of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, Japan Abstract: Here we report a case of endothelial keratoplasty with infant donor tissue obtained after brain death. A 52-year-old man with endothelial dysfunction of unknown cause in the right eye underwent non-Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (nDSAEK) with tissue from an infant donor (...

  7. Hemodynamic Changes in Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rafiei

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Everyday, millions of people around the world go through phlebotomy, either to donate blood or for therapeutic intention. The most important worrisome adverse effects are hemodynamic alterations. In this study, hemodynamic changes following blood donation were assessed. Methods & Materials: Three hundred laborers who donated blood voluntarily were enrolled in this study. Blood pressure (BP and pulse rate were measured before the procedure, ten minutes afterwards, and one week following phlebotomy. Hemoglobin (Hgb and hematocrit (Hct were also determined prior to and one week after phlebotomy. Finally, results before and after donation were compared with each other. Results: 242 volunteers had normal BP and 58 were hypertensive. The mean systolic blood pressures (SBP before phlebotomy, ten minutes after the procedure, and one week later were 120, 117, and 122 mmHg, respectively. During the same periods of time, the mean of diastolic blood pressures (DBP were 77 , 78 and 78 mmHg , in order , while pulse rates on average were 80 , 82 and 76 beats/minute . None of the aforementioned changes were clinically significant. After one week, Hgb decreased by about 0.3 g/dl (P<0.001 and Hct declined on average of 1.7 (P<0.001. Forty six individuals had high DBP and one week after donation, their DBP was reduced by 7 mmHg. Age, body mass index and smoking did not have any significant effect on hemodynamic status. Conclusion: Hemodynamic changes in healthy blood donors were not clinically significant. It seems that DBP drops desirably in hypertensive individuals. This needs to be evaluated more carefully in future studies.

  8. biochemical and hormonal studies in obese cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out on a total number of 116 obese and 23 non-obese control females. Obesity was assessed mainly by body mass index (BMI). Other skinfold thickness e.g. triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, as parameters of obesity assessment were determined in some obese patients. The degree of obesity was assessed by BMI and categorized as follows: i- Mild obesity, BMI=25-30 Kg/m2. ii-Moderate obesity, BMI=31-35 kg/m2. iii-severe obesity, BMI= above 35 kg/m2. Type of fat distribution was assessed by waist/hip circumference ratio (w/H) as :- i-gynoid (lower body segment obesity). (? 0.81) i i- android (upper body segment obesity). (?0.82)

  9. Electroconvulsive Therapy for Obesity Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Eldor; Vladimir Kotlovker; Svetlana Kotlovker

    2014-01-01

    ECT is most often used as a treatment for severe major (often in bipolar disorder), and catatonia. Its use for obesity treatment was never suggested before. However, incidental information from several studies revealed that “Five of 10 patients were obese pre-ECT, all of whom had a significant weight loss after ECT.”

  10. If I Had - Morbid Obesity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to informed consent about the risks, benefits and alternatives of weight loss surgery, and everything related. How is morbid obesity managed? The management of morbid obesity generally includes two broad options. Clearly medical therapy is an option for just about every patient, ...

  11. Craniofacial morphology in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrn, Karin; Al-Kahlili, Bashar; Huggare, Jan; Forsberg, Carl-Magnus; Marcus, Claude; Dahllöf, Göran

    2002-08-01

    Overweight and obesity are growing problems in the world today. A recent survey shows that about 30% of the adolescent and adult Swedish population is overweight or obese. The etiology is a combination of many factors, the most important of which are physical inactivity and high caloric diet. Obese children have a normal to accelerated growth rate despite low growth hormone (GH) levels. The aim of our study was to investigate whether craniofacial morphology differs between obese adolescents and normal weight adolescents. Lateral cephalograms from 39 adolescents with obesity, aged 14-16 years, were analysed and compared with lateral cephalograms from an equal number of sex- and aged-matched controls. Compared to the controls, the subjects in the obesity group showed increased mandibular length, prognathic jaws and a reduced upper anterior face height. Despite low GH levels, obese children have normal levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1). Since we found an advanced craniofacial growth in obese adolescents with low GH and high IGF-1 serum levels, craniofacial growth may be more dependent on free circulating LGF-1 than on the locally produced portion. PMID:12222641

  12. Vital Signs â?? Childhood Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    This podcast is based on the August 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. The rate of obesity among low-income preschoolers has declined, but one in eight is still obese. This program briefly discusses what can be done.  Created: 8/6/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/6/2013.

  13. Childhood Obesity and Academic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    James B. Hunt Jr. Institute for Educational Leadership and Policy, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity is on the rise across the country and in North Carolina, with four times as many children exhibiting signs of obesity now as they did 20 years ago. The costs in terms of medical expenses are staggering, with one estimate putting the cost to North Carolina at $16 million a year. Some North Carolina legislators have expressed…

  14. Living donor transplant: wider selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splendiani, G; Cipriani, S; Valeri, M; Torlone, N; Vega, A; Tullio, T; Condò, S; Dominijanni, S; Casciani, C U

    2004-04-01

    The availability of cadaveric donor organs is insufficient for actual needs. The organ demand increases by 20% per year. Living donor transplant (LDT) may be a valid therapeutical alternative provided one uses proper criteria. LDT provides many advantages, like improved patient and organ survival, short waiting time, and the possibility to carefully plan the procedure. Potential risks include perioperative mortality and renal dysfunction in the kidney donor. At present, kidney LDTs in Italy represent 8% of the total, with an organ survival rate of 97% after 1 year (vs 93% for cadaveric transplants) and donors mortality rate of almost null. Most LDTs are performed from kinsmen. Presently, law no. 458, 26 June 1967, is in force in Italy for kidney LDT and law no. 453, 16 December 1999, for liver LDT. The foundations of LDT are, of course, the recipient's condition, the donor's motivation, and the altruism of the donation. It is desirable that in the future an increasing number of LDT be performed, supported by a careful, widespread health education regarding organ donation from living subjects and by the possibility to obtain insurance for the donor, which has been considered but never provided by actual laws. PMID:15110560

  15. Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merchant Anwar T

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Consequently, both over-consumption of calories and reduced physical activity are involved in childhood obesity. Almost all researchers agree that prevention could be the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic of obesity. Prevention may include primary prevention of overweight or obesity, secondary prevention or prevention of weight regains following weight loss, and avoidance of more weight increase in obese persons unable to lose weight. Until now, most approaches have focused on changing the behaviour of individuals in diet and exercise. It seems, however, that these strategies have had little impact on the growing increase of the obesity epidemic. While about 50% of the adults are overweight and obese in many countries, it is difficult to reduce excessive weight once it becomes established. Children should therefore be considered the priority population for intervention strategies. Prevention may be achieved through a variety of interventions targeting built environment, physical activity, and diet. Some of these potential strategies for intervention in children can be implemented by targeting preschool institutions, schools or after-school care services as natural setting for influencing the diet and physical activity. All in all, there is an urgent need to initiate prevention and treatment of obesity in children.

  16. Obesity and type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhashini Yaturu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM are public health problems, with health consequences and economic costs that have raised concern worldwide. The increase in the prevalence of diabetes parallels that of obesity. Some experts call this dual epidemic ‘diabesity’ Elevated body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC were significantly associated T2DM. One consequence of obesity is an increased risk of developing T2DM. There is evidence that the prenatal, early childhood, and adolescent periods are critical in the development of obesity. Most obese individuals have elevated plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFA, which are known to cause peripheral (muscle insulin resistance. Weight loss either with lifestyle modification, pharmacotherapy or bariatric surgery improves glycemic control and metabolic parameters that are related to cardiovascular disease. Pharmacotherapy for glycemic control with metformin or GLP-1 agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors help in weight reduction.

  17. Prevalence of Obesity in Adolescents with History of Pregnancy and Associated Factors in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Seong-Ik Baek; Wi-Young So

    2011-01-01

    Background: The pregnancy was a risk factor for excessive weight gain for women. However, there is no information about the prevalence of obesity and its relationship with a history of pregnancy in girls. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate differences in the prevalence of obesity in adolescent females with a history of pregnancy and fac­tors associated with it, in Korea.Methods: In 2009, 69 of 34,247 female students revealed that they had experienced pregnancy in respons...

  18. Anesthetic management of living donor liver transplantation for complement factor H deficiency hemolytic uremic syndrome: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Suk-Hee; Kim, Gaab-Soo

    2014-01-01

    We experienced a living donor liver transplantation for a 26-month-old girl with complement factor H deficiency. Complement factor H is a plasma protein that regulates the activity of the complement pathway. Complement overactivity induced by complement factor H deficiency is associated with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Liver transplantation can be the proper treatment for this condition. During the liver transplantation of these patients, prevention of the complement overactivation is...

  19. Protocol for: Sheffield Obesity Trial (SHOT: A randomised controlled trial of exercise therapy and mental health outcomes in obese adolescents [ISRCNT83888112

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright Neil P

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While obesity is known to have many physiological consequences, the psychopathology of this condition has not featured prominently in the literature. Cross-sectional studies have indicated that obese children have increased odds of experiencing poor quality of life and mental health. However, very limited trial evidence has examined the efficacy of exercise therapy for enhancing mental health outcomes in obese children, and the Sheffield Obesity Trial (SHOT will provide evidence of the efficacy of supervised exercise therapy in obese young people aged 11–16 years versus usual care and an attention-control intervention. Method/design SHOT is a randomised controlled trial where obese young people are randomised to receive; (1 exercise therapy, (2 attention-control intervention (involving body-conditioning exercises and games that do not involve aerobic activity, or (3 usual care. The exercise therapy and attention-control sessions will take place three times per week for eight weeks and a six-week home programme will follow this. Ninety adolescents aged between 11–16 years referred from a children's hospital for evaluation of obesity or via community advertisements will need to complete the study. Participants will be recruited according to the following criteria: (1 clinically obese and aged 11–16 years (Body Mass Index Centile > 98th UK standard (2 no medical condition that would restrict ability to be active three times per week for eight weeks and (3 not diagnosed with insulin dependent diabetes or receiving oral steroids. Assessments of outcomes will take place at baseline, as well as four (intervention midpoint and eight weeks (end of intervention from baseline. Participants will be reassessed on outcome measures five and seven months from baseline. The primary endpoint is physical self-perceptions. Secondary outcomes include physical activity, self-perceptions, depression, affect, aerobic fitness and BMI.

  20. Craniofacial development in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghianrizi, Akbar; Forsberg, Carl-Magnus; Marcus, Claude; Dahllöf, Göran

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate craniofacial morphology in obese adolescents and to compare the morphological data with those of normal adolescents. The study was based on measurements of lateral cephalometric roentgenograms of adolescents who had been diagnosed as obese. Linear and angular measurements were obtained from cephalometric tracings of 27 females (mean age 15.6 +/- 0.83 years) and 23 males (mean age 13.9 +/- 0.98 years). The data were compared with corresponding measurements of gender and age matched controls. The results showed that both males and females in the obesity group exhibited significantly larger mandibular and maxillary dimensions than the controls. On average, mandibular length (Cd-Pgn) was 10 mm greater in males and 8 mm greater in females. Maxillary length (Pm-A) was 3.5 mm greater in males and 3 mm greater in females. When considering vertical dimensions, lower anterior (Ans-Gn) and posterior (S-Go) face height were 4 and 5 mm greater in the obese males, respectively, while in the obese females both these distances were 4 mm greater compared with the controls. Both maxillary (SNA) and mandibular (SNB, SNPg) prognathism were more pronounced in the obesity group than in the control group. This also influenced the average soft tissue profile, which was less convex in the obesity groups. The mandibular plane angle (ML/SN) was smaller in the obesity group than in the control group. Craniofacial morphology differs between obese and normal adolescents. In general, obesity was associated with bimaxillary prognathism and relatively greater facial measurements. PMID:16009667

  1. Traditional and cyberbullying victimization as correlates of psychosocial distress and barriers to a healthy lifestyle among severely obese adolescents – a matched case–control study on prevalence and results from a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Obese youth are at increased risk for peer victimization, which may heighten their risk of psychosocial problems and physical activity avoidance, and lower the effectiveness of professional and lifestyle weight-loss initiatives. Little is known about obese adolescents’ risk for victimization from cyber-bullying and how this relates to psychosocial functioning and healthy lifestyle barriers. The purpose of the study was to assess traditional and cyber-victimization among adolescents with severe obesity and its relation to psychosocial distress and barriers to healthy lifestyles. Methods A sample of 102 obese adolescents (mean age?=?15.32 ±1.71) in residential treatment was matched with 102 normal-weight youngsters from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study (mean age?=?15.30 ±1.73). Results Adolescents with obesity were significantly more often cyber-victimized than normal-weight peers. Obese youth victimized by traditional bullying experienced lower quality of life, lower motivation for physical activity and higher avoidance and emotional coping towards healthy lifestyles than those non-victimized. Obese cyber-victims experienced significantly higher suicidal ideation. Conclusions Traditional and cyber-victimization may hinder treatment effectiveness and healthy lifestyle change in adolescents with obesity. Health professionals should pro-actively address peer victimization and psychosocial functioning during multidisciplinary obesity treatment. Schools could contribute to a better physical and psychosocial health of obese youth by implementing multi-behavioral health-promotion programs. PMID:24593118

  2. Prevalence of seroreactivity among blood donors in rural population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonwane B

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The seroreactivity pattern amongst blood donors in rural population was studied at S.R.T. Rural Medical College and Hospital, Ambajogai (M. S.. The study period was from January 1996 to December 2001. A total number of 12,240 blood donors were screened. The voluntary donation was 36.98% and replacement donors were 63.02%. No professional donor is bled in our blood bank. The HIV seroreactivity among voluntary donors was 1.56% and 2.11% in replacement donors. The HBsAg seroreactivity was 2.78% in voluntary donors and 4.84% in replacement donors. VDRL seroreactivity is 1.12% in replacement donors. No malarial parasite and HCV seroreactive donor was found in our study period. We have found the magnitude of hepatitis to be far more than that of HIV. Hence testing for HCV routinely is mandatory, besides HBsAg.

  3. Starches, Sugars and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik E. J. G. Aller

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages.

  4. Physical activity energy expenditure is associated with 2-h insulin independently of obesity among Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Petersen, Inger Katrine; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Indigenous populations throughout the Arctic are experiencing a rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes. The role of physical activity in relation to glucose metabolism in Arctic populations is not well studied. We examined the association between objectively measured physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and glucose metabolism in a population-based study of adult Inuit in Greenland.

  5. Characteristics of endometrial carcinoma in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukomanovi? Predrag

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In most developed countries, endometrial cancer appears as most frequent invasive neoplasm of genital tract. Obesity is one of most important risk factors. Aim of study was to establish characteristics endometrial cancer in obese women. Material and methods. The study included 50 surgically treated women with endometrial cancer. According body mass index they were divided into two groups - group A (30 obese women, group B (20 non-obese women. Results and Discussion. Non-obese women with endometrial cancer are statistically significantly older than obese. Menopausal status, parity are not statistically significant. The obese group most frequently includes endometrioid type of tumor, while non-obese group most frequently includes non-endometrioid types of endometrial cancer. Over 50% thick myometrial invasion is statistically more frequent in non-obese group than in obese group. In obese group, less than 50% thick myometrial invasion, is statistically significant in comparison to non-obese group. High-differentiated endometrial cancer(G1 is statistically significantly more present in obese women than non-obese. Low-diferentiated endometrial cancer is statistically more frequent in non-obese women than in obese. Most frequent in both groups is NG2. According to FIGO stage I, disease is statistically significantly more frequent in obese group than in non-obese. In non-obese group, total number of deseased in higher stages (II and III is statistically significantly higher than in stage I. Conclusion. Endometrial cancer present in obese women is mostly endometroid type I, with slow myometrial invasion, with hystological grade I, nuclear grade II in FIGO stage I of disease. In non-obese women, non-endometrioid cancer - type II is more frequent, with faster myometrial invasion, hystological grade II and III, nuclear grade II, in FIGO stage II of disease.

  6. Adenovirus-36 Is Associated with Obesity in Children and Adults in Sweden as Determined by Rapid ELISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almgren, Malin; Atkinson, Richard; He, Jia; Hilding, Agneta; Hagman, Emilia; Wolk, Alicja; Thorell, Anders; Marcus, Claude; Näslund, Erik; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Schalling, Martin; Lavebratt, Catharina

    2012-01-01

    Background Experimental and natural human adenovirus-36 (Adv36) infection of multiple animal species results in obesity through increasing adipogenesis and lipid accumulation in adipocytes. Presence of Adv36 antibodies detected by serum neutralization assay has previously been associated with obesity in children and adults living in the USA, South Korea and Italy, whereas no association with adult obesity was detected in Belgium/the Netherlands nor among USA military personnel. Adv36 infection has also been shown to reduce blood lipid levels, increase glucose uptake by adipose tissue and skeletal muscle biopsies, and to associate with improved glycemic control in non-diabetic individuals. Principal Findings Using a novel ELISA, 1946 clinically well-characterized individuals including 424 children and 1522 non-diabetic adults, and 89 anonymous blood donors, residing in central Sweden representing the population in Stockholm area, were studied for the presence of antibodies against Adv36 in serum. The prevalence of Adv36 positivity in lean individuals increased from ?7% in 1992–1998 to 15–20% in 2002–2009, which paralleled the increase in obesity prevalence. We found that Adv36-positive serology was associated with pediatric obesity and with severe obesity in females compared to lean and overweight/mildly obese individuals, with a 1.5 to 2-fold Adv36 positivity increase in cases. Moreover, Adv36 positivity was less common among females and males on antilipid pharmacological treatment or with high blood triglyceride level. Insulin sensitivity, measured as lower HOMA-IR, showed a higher point estimate in Adv36-positive obese females and males, although it was not statistically significant (p?=?0.08). Conclusion Using a novel ELISA we show that Adv36 infection is associated with pediatric obesity, severe obesity in adult females and lower risk of high blood lipid levels in non-diabetic Swedish individuals. PMID:22848557

  7. Evaluation of the return rate of volunteer blood donors

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana de Fátima Lourençon; Rodrigo Guimarães dos Santos Almeida; Oranice Ferreira; Edson Zangiacomi Martinez

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To convert first-time blood donors into regular volunteer donors is a challenge to transfusion services. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to estimate the return rate of first time donors of the Ribeirão Preto Blood Center and of other blood centers in its coverage region. METHODS: The histories of 115,553 volunteer donors between 1996 and 2005 were analyzed. Statistical analysis was based on a parametric long-term survival model that allows an estimation of the proportion of donors wh...

  8. The donor stars of cataclysmic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knigge, Christian

    2006-12-01

    We carefully consider observational and theoretical constraints on the global properties of secondary stars in cataclysmic variable stars (CVs). We then use these constraints to construct and test a complete, semi-empirical donor sequence for CVs with orbital periods Porb Beuermann and co-workers and show explicitly that CV donors have later SpTs than main-sequence (MS) stars at all orbital periods. This extends the conclusion of the earlier study to the short-period regime (Porb < 3 h). We then compare our donor sequence to the CV data, and find that it does an excellent job of matching the observed SpTs. Thus the empirical mass-radius relation yields just the right amount of radius expansion to account for the later-than-MS spectral types of CV donors. There is remarkably little intrinsic scatter in both the mass-radius and SpT-Porb relations, which confirms that most CVs follow a unique evolution track. The donor sequence exhibits a fairly sharp drop in temperature, luminosity and optical/infrared flux well before the minimum period. This may help to explain why the detection of brown dwarf secondaries in CVs has proven to be extremely difficult. We finally apply the donor sequence to the problem of distance estimation. Based on a sample of 22 CVs with trigonometric parallaxes and reliable 2MASS data, we show that the donor sequence correctly traces the upper envelope of the observed MJHK-Porb distribution. Thus robust lower limits on distances can be obtained from single-epoch infrared observations. However, for our sample, these limits are typically about a factor of 2 below the true distances.

  9. Mechanisms of adverse cardiometabolic consequences of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Melean, Carlos M; Somers, Virend K; Rodriguez-Escudero, Juan Pablo; Singh, Prachi; Sochor, Ondrej; Llano, Ernesto Manuel; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    Obesity is an epidemic that threatens the health of millions of people worldwide and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. There are multiple and complex mechanisms to explain how obesity can cause cardiovascular disease. In recent years, studies have shown some limitations in the way we currently define obesity and assess adiposity. This review focuses on the mechanisms involved in the cardiometabolic consequences of obesity and on the relationship between obesity and cardiovascular comorbidities, and provides a brief review of the latest studies focused on normal weight obesity and the obesity paradox. PMID:24048571

  10. El estudio del donador vivo para trasplante renal / Evaluation of the living kidney donor

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Arroyo; Fernando, Gabilondo; Bernardo, Gabilondo.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente, por la falta de órganos para trasplante renal provenientes de cadáveres, y debido al largo tiempo de espera por un riñón, existe una tendencia a realizar trasplantes renales utilizando riñones procedentes de donadores vivos. La mayoría de los donadores son familiares del receptor. La do [...] nación de órganos debe considerarse como un regalo con un valor extraordinario y debe facilitarse a los candidatos a donación. En todo el mundo se ha observado un aumento en el número de personas en la lista de espera para un trasplante renal. El trasplante renal de donador vivo se considera actualmente como el mejor método de tratamiento en pacientes con insuficiencia renal terminal, debido a que ofrece la mayor supervivencia a corto y largo plazos. En vista de que existen diferencias significativas en los criterios de selección y evaluación de donadores renales, en especial en un grupo selecto de pacientes añosos o con enfermedades asociadas, es indispensable establecer criterios mínimos de selección. Todos los donadores deberán contar con una historia clínica completa y exámenes de laboratorio y gabinete que permitan su evaluación integral. Estos estudios se describen con detalle en este artículo. También se discuten los criterios para donadores renales con ciertas comorbilidades (obesos, hipertensos, hiperglucémicos, con litiasis y neoplasias) que previamente se descartaban como candidatos para donación. Abstract in english Currently, due to the deficit of cadaveric tissues available for transplantation and due to the long waiting list for a kidney transplant, there is a clear tendency towards living donor kidney transplantations. Most donors are genetically related. Living donation should be considered a gift of extra [...] ordinary value, and should be made easy whenever a suitable donor is available. Worldwide, the number of patients on the waiting lists for a kidney transplantation has increased, in the last decades. Renal transplantation with living donor kidneys, is currently considered the best treatment for patients with end stage renal failure, due to the improved short and long term survival benefits over dialysis treatment. Since considerable difference exist between countries in the evaluation and selection criteria for kidney donors, especially in selected patients such as older donors and those with associated comorbid conditions, it is necessary to discuss and establish minimal selection criteria for this cases. A common trend includes a complete clinical record, laboratory and radiologic evaluation which are described in detail in this paper. We also discuss the increasing acceptance of older kidney donors as well as the acceptance of individuals with comorbidities (such as obesity, hipertensión, hyperglucemia, lithiasis and cancer) that were previously considered as not eligible for kidney donation.

  11. Obesity: overview of an epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Nia S; Catenacci, Victoria A; Wyatt, Holly R; Hill, James O

    2011-12-01

    The obesity epidemic in the United States has proven difficult to reverse. We have not been successful in helping people sustain the eating and physical activity patterns that are needed to maintain a healthy body weight. There is growing recognition that we will not be able to sustain healthy lifestyles until we are able to address the environment and culture that currently support unhealthy lifestyles. Addressing obesity requires an understanding of energy balance. From an energy balance approach it should be easier to prevent obesity than to reverse it. Further, from an energy balance point of view, it may not be possible to solve the problem by focusing on food alone. Currently, energy requirements of much of the population may be below the level of energy intake than can reasonably be maintained over time. Many initiatives are underway to revise how we build our communities, the ways we produce and market our foods, and the ways we inadvertently promote sedentary behavior. Efforts are underway to prevent obesity in schools, worksites, and communities. It is probably too early to evaluate these efforts, but there have been no large-scale successes in preventing obesity to date. There is reason to be optimistic about dealing with obesity. We have successfully addressed many previous threats to public health. It was probably inconceivable in the 1950s to think that major public health initiatives could have such a dramatic effect on reducing the prevalence of smoking in the United States. Yet, this serious problem was addressed via a combination of strategies involving public health, economics, political advocacy, behavioral change, and environmental change. Similarly, Americans have been persuaded to use seat belts and recycle, addressing two other challenges to public health. But, there is also reason to be pessimistic. Certainly, we can learn from our previous efforts for social change, but we must realize that our challenge with obesity may be greater. In the other examples cited, we had clear goals in mind. Our goals were to stop smoking, increase the use of seatbelts, and increase recycling. The difficulty of achieving these goals should not be minimized, but they were clear and simple goals. In the case of obesity, there is no clear agreement about goals. Moreover, experts do not agree on which strategies should be implemented on a widespread basis to achieve the behavioral changes in the population needed to reverse the high prevalence rates of obesity. We need a successful model that will help us understand what to do to address obesity. A good example is the recent HEALTHY study. This comprehensive intervention was implemented in several schools and aimed to reduce obesity by concentrating on behavior and environment. This intervention delivered most of the strategies we believe to be effective in schools. Although the program produced a reduction in obesity, this reduction was not greater than the reduction seen in the control schools that did not receive the intervention. This does not mean we should not be intervening in schools, but rather that it may require concerted efforts across behavioral settings to reduce obesity. Although we need successful models, there is a great deal of urgency in responding to the obesity epidemic. An excellent example is the effort to get menu labeling in restaurants, which is moving rapidly toward being national policy. The evaluation of this strategy is still ongoing, and it is not clear what impact it will have on obesity rates. We should be encouraging efforts like this, but we must evaluate them rigorously. Once we become serious about addressing obesity, it will likely take decades to reverse obesity rates to levels seen 30 years ago. Meanwhile, the prevalence of overweight and obesity remains high and quite likely will continue to increase. PMID:22098799

  12. Liver regeneration after living donor transplantation: adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthoff, Kim M; Emond, Jean C; Shearon, Tempie H; Everson, Greg; Baker, Talia B; Fisher, Robert A; Freise, Chris E; Gillespie, Brenda W; Everhart, James E

    2015-01-01

    Adult-to-adult living donors and recipients were studied to characterize patterns of liver growth and identify associated factors in a multicenter study. Three hundred and fifty donors and 353 recipients in the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study (A2ALL) receiving transplants between March 2003 and February 2010 were included. Potential predictors of 3-month liver volume included total and standard liver volumes (TLV and SLV), Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score (in recipients), the remnant and graft size, remnant-to-donor and graft-to-recipient weight ratios (RDWR and GRWR), remnant/TLV, and graft/SLV. Among donors, 3-month absolute growth was 676?±?251 g (mean?±?SD), and percentage reconstitution was 80%?±?13%. Among recipients, GRWR was 1.3%?±?0.4% (8??0.90 for each). Both donors and recipients had rapid yet incomplete restoration of tissue mass in the first 3 months, and this confirmed previous reports. Recipients achieved a greater percentage of expected total volume. Patient size and recipient graft volume significantly influenced 3-month volumes. Importantly, donor liver volume is a critical predictor of the rate of regeneration, and donor remnant fraction affects postresection function. Liver Transpl 21:79-88, 2015. © 2014 AASLD. PMID:25065488

  13. Molecular assembly of amino acid interlinked, topologically symmetric, ?-complementary donor–acceptor–donor triads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Avinash

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Amino acid interlinked pyrene and naphthalenediimide (NDI based novel donor–acceptor–donor (D-A-D triads are designed to exploit their topological symmetry and complementary ?-character for facile charge-transfer complexation. Consequently, free-floating high-aspect-ratio supercoiled nanofibres and hierarchical helical bundles of triads are realized by modulating the chemical functionality of interlinking amino acids.

  14. Effective Pedagogical Practices for Online Teaching: Perception of Experienced Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Craig J.; Card, Karen A.

    2009-01-01

    Institutions have focused on providing faculty with technological training to enhance their online teaching, but many online instructors would like to learn more effective pedagogical practices. This phenomenological study determines what experienced, award-winning South Dakota e-learning instructors perceive to be effective pedagogical practices.…

  15. Developing Mathematics Teachers: The Transition from Preservice to Experienced Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, JoAnn; Meier, Sherry L.; Lubinski, Cheryl A.

    2006-01-01

    This longitudinal study documents the development of mathematics teachers as they make the transition from preservice to experienced teachers. Collaborative learning environments were created for these teachers in their field-based classrooms during their last year in the teacher-education program. The authors anticipated that these learning…

  16. Working with Families Experiencing Homelessness: Understanding Trauma and Its Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Kathleen; Bassuk, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of traumatic stress in the lives of families who are homeless is extraordinarily high. Often these families are headed by single mothers who have experienced ongoing trauma in the form of childhood abuse and neglect, domestic violence, and community violence, as well as the trauma associated with poverty and the loss of home,…

  17. Team Cognition in Experienced Command-and-Control Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Nancy J.; Gorman, Jamie C.; Duran, Jasmine L.; Taylor, Amanda R.

    2007-01-01

    Team cognition in experienced command-and-control teams is examined in an UAV (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle) simulation. Five 3-person teams with experience working together in a command-and-control setting were compared to 10 inexperienced teams. Each team participated in five 40-min missions of a simulation in which interdependent team members…

  18. Experiencing Beach in Australia: Study Abroad Students' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yoshifumi; Payne, Phillip G.

    2011-01-01

    The current "Australian-"ness"" of outdoor environmental education is an evolving "set" of socio-cultural constructions. These constructions can be interpreted within the circumstances of an empirical study of tertiary study abroad students' participation in an undergraduate semester long unit "Experiencing the Australian Landscape" (EAL) as an…

  19. How School Counselors Can Assist Student Near-Death Experiencers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Kathleen E.; Holden, Janice Miner; Bedwell, James

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a thorough, literature-based review of the impact of near-death experiences on children and adolescents in the areas of social and academic functioning in school. Gleaned from the published literature about how various non-school health professionals can most effectively assist near-death experiencers, practical suggestions…

  20. Do ants need to be old and experienced to teach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Elizabeth L; Robinson, Elva J H; Marshall, James A R; Sendova-Franks, Ana B; Franks, Nigel R

    2012-04-15

    Learning is widespread in invertebrates. However, whether social insects improve their recruitment skills with experience is only beginning to be investigated. Tandem running is a one-to-one form of recruitment used by certain species of ant. It is a remarkable communication system that meets widely accepted criteria for teaching in non-human animals. Here, we determined experimentally to what extent participation in, and efficient execution of, tandem running depends on either the age or the experience of worker ants. To investigate these issues, we constructed colonies of the ant Temnothorax albipennis with different compositions of inexperienced and experienced workers from different age cohorts and then examined which ants participated in tandem runs when they emigrated. Our results show that the ability to participate actively in recruitment by tandem running is present in all worker age groups but the propensity to participate varies with experience rather than age per se. Experienced individuals were more likely to engage in tandem runs, either as leaders or as followers, than young inexperienced individuals, and older experienced ants were more likely to lead tandems than older inexperienced ants. Young inexperienced ants led faster, more rapidly dispersing and less accurately orientated tandem runs than the older experienced ants. Our study suggests that experience (rather than age per se) coupled to stimulus threshold responses might interact to promote a division of labour so that a suitable number of workers actively participate in tandem runs. PMID:22442366

  1. Counseling Adult Women Who Experienced Incest in Childhood or Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, Christine A.; Watts, Deborah L.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the definition and incidence of incest, counseling needs of incest victims, and strategies for working with women who experienced incest in childhood or adolescence. Identifies techniques and resources for individual and group counseling. Suggests counselors expand their knowledge about incest in order to offer appropriate services.…

  2. Obesity and its surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Edward H

    2002-08-01

    Obesity is increasing in epidemic proportions world-wide. Even mild degrees of obesity have adverse health effects and are associated with diminished longevity. For this reason aggressive dietary intervention is recommended. Patients with body mass indices exceeding 40 have medically significant obesity in which the risk of serious health consequences is substantial, with concomitant significant reductions in life expectancy. For these patients, sustained weight loss rarely occurs with dietary intervention. For the appropriately selected patients, surgery is beneficial. Various operations have been proposed for the treatment of obesity, many of which proved to have serious complications precluding their efficacy. A National Institutes of Health Consensus Panel reviewed the indications and types of operations, concluding that the banded gastroplasty and gastric bypass were acceptable operations for treating seriously obese patients. Surgical treatment is associated with sustained weight loss for seriously obese patients who uniformly fail nonsurgical treatment. Following weight loss there is a high cure rate for diabetes and sleep apnea, with significant improvement in other complications of obesity such as hypertension and osteoarthritis. PMID:12169352

  3. [Obesity and the immune system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, M; Mazure, R A; Culebras, J M

    2004-01-01

    With an increased prevalence of obesity in developed countries, associated chronic diseases rise in a parallel way. Morbidity secondary to overweight and obesity include type 2 diabetes, dislipemia, hypertension, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, cholelithiasis, osteoarthritis, heart insufficiency, sleep apnoea, menstrual changes, sterility and psychological alterations. There is also a greater susceptibility to suffer some types of cancer, infections, greater risk of bacteremia and a prolonged time of wound healing after surgical operations. All these factors indicate that obesity exerts negative effects upon the immune system. Immune changes found in obesity and their possible interrelations are described in this article. Changes produced during obesity affect both humoral and cellular immunity. It is known that adipose tissue, together with its role as energy reserve in form of triglycerides, has important endocrine functions, producing several hormones and other signal molecules. Immune response can be deeply affected by obesity, playing leptin an important role. Properties of leptin, alterations of leptin levels in different situations and its changes with different medical and surgical therapies for obesity are described in this article. PMID:15672646

  4. Toward molecular neuroeconomics of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Taiki

    2010-10-01

    Because obesity is a risk factor for many serious illnesses such as diabetes, better understandings of obesity and eating disorders have been attracting attention in neurobiology, psychiatry, and neuroeconomics. This paper presents future study directions by unifying (i) economic theory of addiction and obesity [4-6], and (ii) recent empirical findings in neuroeconomics and neurobiology of obesity and addiction. It is suggested that neurobiological substrates such as adiponectin, dopamine (D2 receptors), endocannabinoids, ghrelin, leptin, nesfatin-1, norepinephrine, orexin, oxytocin, serotonin, vasopressin, CCK, GLP-1, MCH, PYY, and stress hormones (e.g., CRF) in the brain (e.g., OFC, VTA, NAcc, and the hypothalamus) may determine parameters in the economic theory of obesity. Also, the importance of introducing time-inconsistent and gain/loss-asymmetrical temporal discounting (intertemporal choice) models based on Tsallis' statistics and incorporating time-perception parameters into the neuroeconomic theory is emphasized. Future directions in the application of the theory to studies in neuroeconomics and neuropsychiatry of obesity at the molecular level, which may help medical/psychopharmacological treatments of obesity (e.g., with sibutramine), are discussed. PMID:20462703

  5. Subclinical hypothyroidism in obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Torun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Thyroid functions in obese children and adolescentswere evaluated in order to determine subclinicaland clinical hypothyroidism.Materials and methods: In this study, 85 obese (Bodymass index >97th percentile children, aged 2-14 years, aswell as 47 healthy controls were enrolled. Levels of serumfree triiodothyronine (fT3, free thyroxine (fT4 and thyroidstimulatinghormone (TSH of the two groups were compared.Obese children with TSH level above 5.4 IU/mlwere also analyzed for thyroid autoantibodies and thyroidultrasounds were performed.Results: Obese children showed higher serum concentrationsof TSH and fT3 than the controls but no significantdifference in serum fT4 levels was found between the twogroups (P=0.001. One child had high auto antibodiesand 32 had high TSH levels. Of 28 children with TSH >5,4IU/ml, 25 children had normal thyroid ultrasound findingsand three had nodules or thyroiditis but no enlargementof the thyroid gland.Conclusion: TSH and fT3 levels were found to be higherin obese children compared with non-obese children withno difference of fT4 levels between two groups.Key words: Body mass index, obesity, thyroid functions

  6. Moderate and extreme maternal obesity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abdelmaboud, M O

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity among an Irish obstetric population over a 10-year period, and to evaluate the obstetric features of such pregnancies. Of 31,869 women delivered during the years 2000-2009, there were 306 women in the study group, including 173 in the moderate or Class 2 obese category (BMI 35-39.9) and 133 in the extreme or Class 3 obese category (BMI > or = 40).The prevalence of obese women with BMI > or = 35 was 9.6 per 1000 (0.96%), with an upward trend observed from 2.1 per 1000 in the year 2000, to 11.8 per 1000 in the year 2009 (P = 0.001). There was an increase in emergency caesarean section (EMCS) risk for primigravida versus multigravid women, within both obese categories (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in EMCS rates observed between Class 2 and Class 3 obese women, when matched for parity. The prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity reported in this population is high, and appears to be increasing. The increased rates of abdominal delivery, and the levels of associated morbidity observed, have serious implications for such women embarking on pregnancy.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in adipose tissue as determinants of abdominal obesity in the Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Obesity prevalence has more than doubled globally within the last 30 years and obesity affects quality of life as well as impacts the risks and prognosis for a number of serious diseases. Established causes include a high calorie diet combined with a sedentary lifestyle, but these do not fully explain the epidemic. Evidence from animal experiments suggests that exposure to endocrine disruptors such as PCBs is associated with the development of obesity but our knowledge of the effects of these compounds on weight gain in humans is limited. Our objective was to investigate the association between exposure to PCBs experienced by a general Danish population and abdominal obesity. Adipose tissue was collected upon enrolment of 245 randomly selected persons from a prospective cohort of 57,053 persons enrolled between 1993 and 1997. Abdominal obesity was quantified using self-reported waist circumference 5 years after enrolment. We examined ten polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) as potential determinants. All PCBs included were positively associated with increased abdominal circumference, although this association was not significant. These data do not support the hypotheses of a link between PCBs and waist circumference as suggested by laboratory evidence. More work is needed to fully elucidate the role of compounds such as PCBs in the present obesity epidemic.

  8. Stigmatization of obese individuals by human resource professionals: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giel Katrin E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight-related stigmatization is a public health problem. It impairs the psychological well-being of obese individuals and hinders them from adopting weight-loss behaviors. We conducted an experimental study to investigate weight stigmatization in work settings using a sample of experienced human resource (HR professionals from a real-life employment setting. Methods In a cross-sectional, computer-based experimental study, a volunteer sample of 127 HR professionals (age: 41.1?±?10.9 yrs., 56% female, who regularly make career decisions about other people, evaluated individuals shown in standardized photographs regarding work-related prestige and achievements. The photographed individuals differed with respect to gender, ethnicity, and Body Mass Index (BMI. Results Participants underestimated the occupational prestige of obese individuals and overestimated it for normal-weight individuals. Obese people were more often disqualified from being hired and less often nominated for a supervisory position, while non-ethnic normal-weight individuals were favored. Stigmatization was most pronounced in obese females. Conclusions The data suggest that HR professionals are prone to pronounced weight stigmatization, especially in women. This highlights the need for interventions targeting this stigmatization as well as stigma-management strategies for obese individuals. Weight stigmatization and its consequences needs to be a topic that is more strongly addressed in clinical obesity care.

  9. The Donor Stars of Cataclysmic Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Knigge, C

    2006-01-01

    We construct a complete, semi-empirical donor sequence for CVs with orbital periods less than 6 hrs. All key physical and photometric parameters of CV secondaries (along with their spectral types) are given as a function of P_orb along this sequence. The main observational basis for our donor sequence is an empirical mass-radius relation for CV secondaries. We present an optimal estimate for this relation that ensures consistency with the observed locations of the period gap and the period minimum. We also present new determinations of these periods, finding P_{gap, upper edge} = 3.18 +/- 0.04 hr, P_{gap, lower edge} = 2.15 +/- 0.03 hr and P_{min} = 76.2 +/- 1.0 min. We then test the donor sequence by comparing observed and predicted spectral types (SpTs) as a function of orbital period. To this end, we update the SpT compilation of Beuermann et al. and show explicitly that CV donors have later SpTs than main sequence (MS) stars at all orbital periods. The semi-empirical donor sequence matches the observed Sp...

  10. Are live kidney donors at risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To share experience of live donor nephrectomy (including intraoperative variables, morbidity and ethical aspects) and to give an overview of surgical technique being practiced. Results: Majority of the donors (58.5%) were 31-50 years old and 70.6% were first-degree relatives. Left sided kidney was taken in 96.5% cases. Mean operative time was 145 minutes. Mean renal warm ischemia time from cross clamping of renal vessels to cold perfusion on the bench was 1.5 minutes per operation. Operative complications encountered were injury to lumbar veins in 5.1 % cases, slipping of satinsky clamp on vena cava stump in 1.7 % and accidental pleural damage in 5.1 % cases. Postoperative morbid complications found were urinary retention in 6.4 % cases, epididymo-orchitis in 1.7 %, prolonged lymph drain in 3.4 %, stitch infection in 1.7 % and prolonged wound discomfort in 5.1 % patients. Conclusions: Open live donor nepherectomy appears to be safe procedure for harvesting kidney. Related or emotionally related donors must be the choice in all cases. Non-related donors may be entertained in selected cases despite the probability of organ vending in our society. (author)

  11. Gender obesity inequities are huge but differ greatly according to environment and socio-economics in a north African setting: a national cross-sectional study in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    El Ati, J.; Traissac, P.; Delpeuch, F.; Aounallah-skhiri, H.; Beji, C.; Eymard-duvernay, S.; Bougatef, S.; Kolsteren, P.; Maire, B.; Ben Romdhane, H.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Southern Mediterranean countries have experienced a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity whose consequences for gender related health inequities have been little studied. We assessed gender obesity inequalities and their environmental and socio-economic modifiers among Tunisian adults. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey in 2005; national, 3 level random cluster sample of 35-70 years Tunisians (women: n = 2964, men: n = 2379). Overall adiposity was assessed by BMI = weight(...

  12. Factors associated with obesity in children

    OpenAIRE

    Ashwin Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health crisis nationally and internationally. The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased over few years. It is caused by imbalance between calorie intake and calories utilized. One or more factors (genetic, behavioral, and environmental) cause obesity in children. Physical, psychological, and social health problems are caused due to childhood obesity. Hence, effective intervention strategies are being used to prevent and control obesity in children. ...

  13. Psychiatric disorders of patients seeking obesity treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Hung-Yen; Huang Chih-Kun; Tai Chi-Ming; Lin Hung-Yu; Kao Yu-Hsi; Tsai Ching-Chung; Hsuan Chin-Feng; Lee Su-Long; Chi Shu-Ching; Yen Yung-Chieh

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Obese and overweight people have a higher risk of both chronic physical illness and mental illness. Obesity is reported to be positively associated with psychiatric disorders, especially in people who seek obesity treatment. At the same time, obesity treatment may be influenced by psychological factors or personality characteristics. This study aimed to understand the prevalence of mental disorders among ethnic Chinese who sought obesity treatment. Methods Subjects were re...

  14. Obesity and Dyslipidemia in South Asians

    OpenAIRE

    Anoop Misra; Usha Shrivastava

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and dyslipidemia are emerging as major public health challenges in South Asian countries. The prevalence of obesity is more in urban areas than rural, and women are more affected than men. Further, obesity in childhood and adolescents is rising rapidly. Obesity in South Asians has characteristic features: high prevalence of abdominal obesity, with more intra-abdominal and truncal subcutaneous adiposity than white Caucasians. In addition, there is greater accumulation of fat at “ecto...

  15. Novel insights of dietary polyphenols and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shu; Moustaid-moussa, Naima; Chen, Lixia; Mo, Huanbiao; Shastri, Anuradha; Su, Rui; Bapat, Priyanka; Kwun, Insook; Shen, Chwan-li

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of obesity has steadily increased over the past three decades both in the United States and worldwide. Recent studies have shown the role of dietary polyphenols in the prevention of obesity and obesity-related chronic diseases. Here we evaluated the impact of commonly consumed polyphenols, including green tea catechins and epigallocatechin gallates, resveratrol, and curcumin, on obesity and obesity-related-inflammation. Cellular studies demonstrated that these dietary polyphenols r...

  16. Pharmacotherapies for Overeating and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Yarnell, S; Oscar-Berman, M; Avena, NM; Blum, K.; Gold, MS

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has become pandemic, and the annual cost in related illnesses and loss of productivity is already over $100 billion and rising. Research has shown that obesity can and does cause changes in behavior and in the brain itself that are very similar to changes caused by drugs of abuse. While food addiction is not the causal agent of all obesity, it is clear that many people no longer eat to survive, but instead survive to eat. This review considers the importance of the brain’s reward sy...

  17. Soluble transferrin receptor levels in obese and non obese adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Zul Febrianti; Fadil Oenzil; Firman Arbi, Gustina Lubis

    2014-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency in children and adolescents maybe due to an inadequate supply of iron as well as increased iron requirements for growth and developmental processes. The increasing prevalence of obesity puts children at risk of iron deficiency. Studies on the effects of obesity on iron deficiency have focused on low grade systemic inflammation as well as examining soluble transferrin receptor levels (sTfR) as an indicator of iron deficiency. Objective To compare sTfR levels in o...

  18. Obesity and variants of the GHRL (ghrelin) and BCHE (butyrylcholinesterase) genes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vitor G.L., Dantas; Lupe, Furtado-Alle; Ricardo L.R., Souza; Eleidi A., Chautard-Freire-Maia.

    Full Text Available Ghrelin coded by the GHRL gene is related to weight-gain, its deactivation possibly depending on its hydrolyzation by butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) encoded by the BCHE gene, an enzyme already associated with the body mass index (BMI). The aim was to search for relationships between SNPs of the GHRL a [...] nd BCHE genes with BChE activity, BMI and obesity in 144 obese and 153 nonobese Euro-Brazilian male blood donors. In the obese individuals, a significant association with higher BChE activity, in the 72LM+72MM; -116GG genotype class (GHRL and BCHE genes, respectively) was noted. No significant differences were found otherwise, through comparisons between obese and control individuals, of genotype and allele frequencies in SNPs of the GHRL gene (Arg51Gln and Leu72Met), or mean BMI between 72LL and 72LM+72MM genotypes. Although there appears to be no direct relationship between the examined GHRL SNPs and BMI, the association of the 72M SNP with higher BChE activity in obese subjects probably points to a regulatory mechanism, thereby implying the influence of the GHRL gene on BChE expression, and a consequential metabolic role in the complex process of fat utilization.

  19. Stereoselective glycosylations using oxathiane spiroketal glycosyl donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fascione, Martin A; Webb, Nicola J; Kilner, Colin A; Warriner, Stuart L; Turnbull, W Bruce

    2012-02-01

    Novel oxathiane spiroketal donors have been synthesised and activated via an umpolung S-arylation strategy using 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene and 1,3-dimethoxybenzene. The comparative reactivity of the resulting 2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl (TMP)- and 2,4-dimethoxyphenyl (DMP)-oxathiane spiroketal sulfonium ions is discussed, and their ?-stereoselectivity in glycosylation reactions is compared to the analogous TMP- and DMP-sulfonium ions derived from an oxathiane glycosyl donor bearing a methyl ketal group. The results show that the stereoselectivity of the oxathiane glycosyl donors is dependent on the structure of the ketal group and reactivity can be tuned by varying the substituent on the sulfonium ion. PMID:22200482

  20. Negatively charged donors in flat quantum dots

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis F., García; Jairo H., Marín; Ilia D., Mikhailov.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The ground state energies of off-axis negatively charged donors in axially symmetrical quantum dots, with different shapes but in all cases with a small height-to-base radius aspect ratio are calculated in adiabatic approximation by using the Hylleraas-type trial function. The dependencies of the ne [...] utral and negative donor binding energies and their ratios on the base radius in the pyramid, lens and disk are calculated and compared with previously obtained results for the spherical quantum dot. We also present the contour plots of the binding energies of the neutral and negative donors with different positions along a vertical cross section in the middle of the quantum dots.

  1. Does obesity’s beliefs matters? Analysis of general practitioners’ speech

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Filipa Valente; Ribeiro, José Luis Pais; Maia, Ângela

    2011-01-01

    Background: The health physicians’ beliefs about obesity have been considered one of the reasons compromising the success of obese people’s treatment. Quantitative research has been criticized for not being able to clarify how health physicians’ practices in the management of obesity are affected by the way they perceived obesity and obese people. Method: Semi-structured interviews about beliefs, attitudes and practices about obesity have been done to Portuguese general practitioner...

  2. If I Had - Morbid Obesity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... overweight conditions is actually less, from a risk perspective including mortality, than the risk of untreated obesity ... Inc. All rights reserved. Insidermedicine does not provide medical advice, make diagnosis or recommend treatment.

  3. [The social stigma of obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Domingo Bartolomé, M; López Guzmán, José

    2014-01-01

    People who are overweight are at increased risk of certain chronic diseases and premature death. However, the physiological consequences are not limited to health symptoms and signs but transcend the social field. In fact, the stigma and discrimination faced by obese people has been proven in multiple areas (work, family, education, etc...). This can contribute to reduce the quality of patients life. From a gender perspective, in the literature there seems to be evidence that the undesirable social effects of obesity affect women more than men. To minimize the obesity impact people adopt proactive methods to lose weight. However the solution to this problem is not on medication but changes in lifestyle and in the proposal of inclusive aesthetic models. Also it is necessary to clear that the complex etiology of obesity can help to reduce the weight stigma and the negative consequences of this condition. PMID:25329415

  4. If I Had - Morbid Obesity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Obesity - Dr. Michael Tarnoff, MD, FACS, Tufts University School of Medicine In the Spotlight - Dr. Julian Wu, MD, FACS, Tufts University School of Medicine, Discusses the Treatment of Brain Tumors ...

  5. Adolescent obesity and social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehly, Laura M; Loscalzo, Aunchalee

    2009-07-01

    The prevalence of overweight among children worldwide is growing at an alarming rate. Social relationships may contribute to the development of obesity through the interaction of biological, behavioral, and environmental factors. Although there is evidence that early environment influences the expression of obesity, very little research elucidates the social context of obesity among children or adolescents. Social network approaches can contribute to research on the role of social environments in overweight and obesity and strengthen interventions to prevent disease and promote health. By capitalizing on the structure of the network system, a targeted intervention that uses social relationships in families, schools, neighborhoods, and communities may be successful in encouraging healthful behaviors among children and their families. PMID:19527601

  6. Bariatric Surgery for Severe Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a good youth candidate for surgery? Experts in childhood obesity and bariatric surgery suggest that families consider surgery ... from the abdominal wall’s connective tissue and may cause a blockage in the bowel. An internal hernia ...

  7. Living Donor Liver Transplantation for Biliary Atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Fan Cheng

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Biliary atresia is the most common cause of chroniccholestasis in infants and children. The incidence is estimatedat 3.7:10,000 among Taiwanese infants. Kasai hepatoportoenterostomyhelps children survive beyond infancy. Liver transplantationis indicated when the Kasai procedure fails to workor when patients develop progressive deterioration of liverfunction despite an initially successful Kasai operation. Livingdonor liver transplantation was developed to alleviate organshortage from deceased donors. It has decreased the waitingtime for transplantation and, therefore, improves patient survival.One hundred living donor liver transplantations havebeen performed for biliary atresia at Chang Gung MemorialHospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center with both 98% 1-year and5-year actual recipient survival.

  8. THE TREATMENT OF MORBID OBESITY

    OpenAIRE

    S. Lunca; M Vix

    2005-01-01

    Morbid obesity is defined when Body Mass Index (BMI) exceeds 40 kg/m2. Main indications for surgery are: BMI > 40 or BMI > 35 with significant co-morbidities. Three types of operations are currently done for morbid obesity: restrictive, malabsorptive and mix procedures (restrictive/malabsorptive). Restrictive procedures (gastric banding and vertical banded gastroplasty) determine an excess weight loss of 40 – 50%, mix procedures (Roux-en-Y gastric by-pass) of 60 – 70% and malabsorptive pr...

  9. Transoral surgery for morbid obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Noria, Sabrena F.; Mikami, Dean J.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a serious health problem in the United States. Although laparoscopic surgical procedures are effective in achieving weight loss and improving obesity-related co-morbidities, they are not without their limitations and consequently there is a growing demand for less invasive approaches. Transoral techniques, as both primary and revisional procedures, are promising in this regard as they may provide a safer and more cost-effective means of achieving meaningful weight loss. The aim of ...

  10. Platelet dysfunction in central obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Trovati, Mariella; Russo, Isabella; Anfossi, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    Central obesity is a relevant risk factor for major cardiovascular events due to the atherosclerotic involvement of coronary, cerebral and lower limb arterial vessels. A major role in the increased cardiovascular risk is played by platelets, which show an increased activation and a reduced sensitivity to the physiological and pharmacological antiaggregating agents. This review focuses on platelet dysfunction in central obesity. The mechanisms involved are related to: i) the reduced sensitivit...

  11. Intramuscular lipid oxidation and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Houmard, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    There is an accumulating amount of evidence indicating that lipid oxidation is depressed in the skeletal muscle of obese individuals. Decrements in fatty acid oxidation (FAO) have been reported with obesity in models ranging from whole body measurements to isolated skeletal muscle preparations as well as in myotubes raised in culture. This reduction appears to be associated with a depression in the activities of enzymes involved in various steps of lipid oxidation, which subsequently partitio...

  12. Obesity and Asthma: Physiological Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sundeep Salvi; Bill Brashier

    2013-01-01

    Obesity induces some pertinent physiological changes which are conducive to either development of asthma or cause of poorly controlled asthma state. Obesity related mechanical stress forces induced by abdominal and thoracic fat generate stiffening of the lungs and diaphragmatic movements to result in reduction of resting lung volumes such as functional residual capacity (FRC). Reduced FRC is primarily an outcome of decreased expiratory reserve volume, which pushes the tidal breathing more tow...

  13. Phthalate exposure and childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Shin Hye; Park, Mi Jung

    2014-01-01

    Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers and vehicles for cosmetic ingredients. Phthalate metabolites have documented biochemical activity including activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and antiandrogenic effects, which may contribute to the development of obesity. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that phthalates have significant effects on the development of obesity, especially after prenatal exposure at low doses. Although few studies have examined the effects of ph...

  14. Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Adipocytes

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. Dodson; Mir, P. S.; Hausman, G. J.; Guan, L. L.; Min Du; Jiang, Z.; Fernyhough, M. E.; Bergen, W G

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndromes are examples whereby excess energy consumption and energy flux disruptions are causative agents of increased fatness. Because other, as yet elucidated, cellular factors may be involved and because potential treatments of these metabolic problems involve systemic agents that are not adipose depot-specific in their actions, should we be thinking of adipose depot-specific (cellular) treatments for these problems? For sure, whether treating obesity or metabolic syn...

  15. Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bridger, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Many of these children have risk factors for later disease, including cardiovascular disease. For optimal cardiovascular health, health care professionals must be able to identify children and youth at risk and provide appropriate support as needed. The present article reviews the current medical literature on obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the paediatric population, the long-term cardiovascular consequences of childhood ...

  16. Myocardial substrate metabolism in obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Rider, OJ; P. Cox; Tyler, D; Clarke, K; Neubauer, S.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is linked to a wide variety of cardiac changes, from subclinical diastolic dysfunction to end-stage systolic heart failure. Obesity causes changes in cardiac metabolism, which make ATP production and utilization less efficient, producing functional consequences that are linked to the increased rate of heart failure in this population. As a result of the increases in circulating fatty acids and insulin resistance that accompanies excess fat storage, several of the proteins and genes th...

  17. Obesity and Acute Lung Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Mccallister, Jennifer W.; Adkins, Eric J.; O’brien, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are common indications for intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mechanical ventilation. ALI/ARDS also consumes significant health care resources and is a common cause of death in ICU patients. Obesity produces changes in respiratory system physiology that could affect outcomes for ALI/ARDS patients and their response to treatment. Additionally, the biochemical alterations seen in obese patients, such as increased in...

  18. Food reward, hyperphagia, and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf; Lenard, Natalie R.; Shin, Andrew C

    2011-01-01

    Given the unabated obesity problem, there is increasing appreciation of expressions like “my eyes are bigger than my stomach,” and recent studies in rodents and humans suggest that dysregulated brain reward pathways may be contributing not only to drug addiction but also to increased intake of palatable foods and ultimately obesity. After describing recent progress in revealing the neural pathways and mechanisms underlying food reward and the attribution of incentive salience by internal ...

  19. Stigmatization of obese individuals by human resource professionals: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Giel Katrin E; Zipfel Stephan; Alizadeh Manuela; Schäffeler Norbert; Zahn Carmen; Wessel Daniel; Hesse Friedrich W; Thiel Syra; Thiel Ansgar

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Weight-related stigmatization is a public health problem. It impairs the psychological well-being of obese individuals and hinders them from adopting weight-loss behaviors. We conducted an experimental study to investigate weight stigmatization in work settings using a sample of experienced human resource (HR) professionals from a real-life employment setting. Methods In a cross-sectional, computer-based experimental study, a volunteer sample of 127 HR professionals (age: ...

  20. Obesity and eating habits among college students in Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Shwaiyat Naseem M; Fahmy Alaa-Eldin A; Al-Rethaiaa Abdallah S

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background During the last few decades, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) experienced rapid socio-cultural changes caused by the accelerating economy in the Arabian Gulf region. That was associated with major changes in the food choices and eating habits which, progressively, became more and more "Westernized". Such "a nutritional transition" has been claimed for the rising rates of overweight and obesity which were recently observed among Saudi population. Therefore, the objectives ...

  1. Obesity, diabetes and longevity in the Gulf: is there a Gulf Metabolic Syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Guy, Geoffrey W.; Nunn, Alistair V.W.; Thomas, Louise E; Bell, Jimmy D.

    2009-01-01

    The Gulf is experiencing a pandemic of lifestyle-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), with rates exceeding 50 and 30%, respectively. It is likely that T2DM represents the tip of a very large metabolic syndrome iceberg, which precedes T2DM by many years and is associated with abnormal/ectopic fat distribution, pathological systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. However, the definitions are still evolving with the role of different fat depots being critical. Hormetic stimul...

  2. Ambulatory hernia surgery under local anesthesia is feasible and safe in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, A; León, J

    2010-02-01

    Ambulatory hernia surgery under local anesthesia is becoming more widely used worldwide. Although many reports include obese patients, there are no studies that report specifically on the feasibility and safety of ambulatory hernia surgery in this category of patients. This paper documents our experience in this respect. The present investigation is an observational study performed at the CRS Hernia Center, Santiago, Chile, on 510 obese and 1,521 non-obese patients with all kinds of hernias susceptible to ambulatory hernia repair under local anesthesia. Both tissue and mesh repairs were performed. Obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) greater than 30. Patients with a BMI greater than 45 were excluded from this study. Operative time and pain experienced during the intervention were recorded. During the controls performed by a staff member at the 7th postoperative day, a questionnaire was answered by each patient regarding satisfaction, complaints, and postoperative pain. A second questionnaire was completed on the 30th postoperative day. Satisfaction and pain were both measured by means of a 10-point visual analog scale (VAS). The mean age was similar in both groups (51 years for non-obese and 52 years for obese patients). Obesity was present in 38.3% of women and in 17.5% of men (P funicular swelling, and pain was similar in both groups. We conclude that ambulatory abdominal wall hernia repair under local anesthesia is feasible in obese patients. Because of the increased length of surgery in these patients, monitored sedation and prophylactic antibiotic cover should be used. The slight decrease in patient satisfaction is balanced by the lower risks and higher costs associated with full general anesthetic. PMID:19862490

  3. Modifiable risk factors for overweight and obesity in children and adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codogno Jamile S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazil is currently experiencing a nutrition transition: the displacement of traditional diets with foods high in saturated fat, sodium, and cholesterol and an increase in sedentary lifestyles. Despite these trends, our understanding of child obesity in Brazil is limited. Thus, the aims of this study were (1 to investigate the current prevalence of overweight and obesity in a large sample of children and adolescents living in São Paulo, Brazil, and (2 to identify the lifestyle behaviors associated with an increased risk of obesity in young Brazilians. Methods A total of 3,397 children and adolescents (1,596 male aged 7-18 years were randomly selected from 22 schools in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were classified as normal weight, overweight, or obese based on international age- and sex-specific body mass index thresholds. Selected sociodemographic, physical activity, and nutrition behaviors were assessed via questionnaire. Results Overall, 19.4% of boys and 16.1% of girls were overweight while 8.9% and 4.3% were obese. Two-way analysis of variance revealed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was significantly higher in boys and in younger children when compared to girls and older children, respectively (P Conclusions Our results show that obesity in São Paulo children and adolescents has reached a level equivalent to that seen in many developed countries. We have also identified three key modifiable factors related to obesity that may be appropriate targets for future intervention in Brazilian youth: transport mode to school, computer usage, and breakfast consumption.

  4. Life spans experienced by steam-electric generating units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the life spans actually experienced by steam-electric generating units is useful for a number of purposes. Industry data on experienced life spans have been limited, but recently became available from the Utility Data Institute (UDI) and the Edison Electric Institute (EEI). The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the author's analyses of these data and his interpretation of their significance. The UDI data are from the January 1990, Publication UDI-005-90, Inventory of Retired U.S. Steam-Electric Plants. Units for which fuel type, size, installation date and retirement date are listed were extracted from this UDI publication, which amounted to about 65 percent of the units listed. The EEI data are from the 1990 Power Directory, which was produced by UDI. Only units currently in operation were extracted from this EEI publication

  5. Anticipated and experienced emotions in environmental risk perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Bohm

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Affective forecasting with respect to two environmental risks (ozone depletion, air pollution was investigated by studying tourists who travelled to either Australia or Bangkok and were thus confronted with one of these risks. We measured anticipated outcome and anticipated emotions before the journey, actually experienced outcome and actually experienced emotions during the journey, and anticipated outcome and emotions concerning a future encounter with the same risk after the journey. Results indicate that tourists underestimate (air pollution or correctly predict (ozone depletion both the seriousness of the outcome and their emotional reactions. The relationship between actual outcome and actual emotions is stronger than that between anticipated outcome and anticipated emotions. Furthermore, tourists learn from their travel experience and adjust their anticipations concerning future encounters with the environmental risk. Findings suggest that the domain of environmental risks differs from personal outcomes with respect to the process of affective forecasting.

  6. Food reward, hyperphagia, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf; Lenard, Natalie R; Shin, Andrew C

    2011-06-01

    Given the unabated obesity problem, there is increasing appreciation of expressions like "my eyes are bigger than my stomach," and recent studies in rodents and humans suggest that dysregulated brain reward pathways may be contributing not only to drug addiction but also to increased intake of palatable foods and ultimately obesity. After describing recent progress in revealing the neural pathways and mechanisms underlying food reward and the attribution of incentive salience by internal state signals, we analyze the potentially circular relationship between palatable food intake, hyperphagia, and obesity. Are there preexisting individual differences in reward functions at an early age, and could they be responsible for development of obesity later in life? Does repeated exposure to palatable foods set off a cascade of sensitization as in drug and alcohol addiction? Are reward functions altered by secondary effects of the obese state, such as increased signaling through inflammatory, oxidative, and mitochondrial stress pathways? Answering these questions will significantly impact prevention and treatment of obesity and its ensuing comorbidities as well as eating disorders and drug and alcohol addiction. PMID:21411768

  7. The whiteout of smell: experiencing and exhibiting aesthetic epiphanies

    OpenAIRE

    Stenslund, Anette

    2012-01-01

    This paper is about apprehending atmosphere through multi-sensous experiences. Auto-ethnographic field studies undertaken in an operation ward will demonstrate how I experienced the ambiance with the help of my nose, as a foundational atmosphere against which smell-epiphanies threw me back and forth through time and space. These experiential leaps had an intrinsically multi-sensory character, and I argue that smell cannot be disentangled from a broader sensuous experience. I propose a cross-r...

  8. On avoiding framing effects in experienced decision makers.

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Retamero, R.; Dhami, MK

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) demonstrate the effect of positive-negative framing on experienced criminal justice decision makers, (b) examine the debiasing effect of visually structured risk messages, and (c) investigate whether risk perceptions mediate the debiasing effect of visual aids on decision making. In two phases, 60 senior police officers estimated the accuracy of a counterterrorism technique in identifying whether a known terror suspect poses an imminent danger and decided whethe...

  9. Experiencing and Verifying what is Felt as Real in Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grodal, Torben Kragh

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the criteria by which films and scenes in films are experienced as real and argues that the feeling of realism is not congruent with what is actually real. It discusses how visual salience is one parameter, categorical match another. It argues that formal criteria are unable to distinguish between fiction and fact, so that the reality status of a given film or scene is an empirical question

  10. Experiencing art on the web with virtual companions

    OpenAIRE

    Iurgel, I.

    2003-01-01

    Experiencing artworks in the Web aggravates the problem of the absence of any historical, cultural and social context, because the Web is a veritable nowhere. This paper stresses the importance of a social and narrative access to art, and presents an interactive group of virtual characters as an alleviation of this problem. The benefits and overall concepts of this approach are examined. Particularly, the importance of guiding the virtual characters to establish close emotional relations with...

  11. A community-based exercise intervention transitions metabolically abnormal obese adults to a metabolically healthy obese phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalleck LC

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Lance C Dalleck,1,3 Gary P Van Guilder,2,3 Tara B Richardson,1 Donald L Bredle,3 Jeffrey M Janot31Recreation, Exercise, and Sport Science Department, Western State Colorado University, Gunnison, CO, USA; 2Department of Health and Nutritional Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, USA; 3Department of Kinesiology, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, Eau Claire, WI, USABackground: Lower habitual physical activity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness are common features of the metabolically abnormal obese (MAO phenotype that contribute to increased cardiovascular disease risk. The aims of the present study were to determine 1 whether community-based exercise training transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy, and 2 whether the odds of transition to metabolically healthy were larger for obese individuals who performed higher volumes of exercise and/or experienced greater increases in fitness.Methods and results: Metabolic syndrome components were measured in 332 adults (190 women, 142 men before and after a supervised 14-week community-based exercise program designed to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors. Obese (body mass index ?30 kg · m2 adults with two to four metabolic syndrome components were classified as MAO, whereas those with no or one component were classified as metabolically healthy but obese (MHO. After community exercise, 27/68 (40% MAO individuals (P<0.05 transitioned to metabolically healthy, increasing the total number of MHO persons by 73% (from 37 to 64. Compared with the lowest quartiles of relative energy expenditure and change in fitness, participants in the highest quartiles were 11.6 (95% confidence interval: 2.1–65.4; P<0.05 and 7.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.5–37.5; P<0.05 times more likely to transition from MAO to MHO, respectively.Conclusion: Community-based exercise transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy. MAO adults who engaged in higher volumes of exercise and experienced the greatest increase in fitness were significantly more likely to become metabolically healthy. Community exercise may be an effective model for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.Keywords: exercise, obesity, prevention, risk factors

  12. 131I - uptake by obese strain and reaseheath line R chicken thyroid and thymic epithelium cultured in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monolayer thyroid cultures of Obese strain chickens, displaying spontaneous thyroiditis, incorporate the same quantity of 131I as those of normal Reaseheath Line R birds. The incorporation was significantly higher than in the case of HeLa cells. The ages of donors and of cultures have no significant effect on the rate of iodine incorporation. Thymic epithelial cultures obtained from the same birds incorporated a similar amount of 131I as thyroid cultures. (author)

  13. Evaluation of homocysteine in blood bank donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Rosa

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the use of plasma homocysteine levelsin blood bank donors as a risk marker for the development ofcardiovascular diseases in healthy individuals. Methods: Thirtynineblood donors were evaluated and a correlation was establishedbetween the plasma homocysteine levels and the different ageand gender groups. Results: The values of homocysteine levelswere found to be within the normal range, as expected for a healthypopulation. Only three male donors, aged between 40 and 60years, presented hyperhomocysteinemia within the risk rangefor developing cardiovascular disease. Comparing females andmales with regard to homocysteine levels, the values presentedstatistically significant differences, however of little relevance.Variance analysis did not show significant differences betweenthe considered age groups, regardless of gender, but there was aclear increase in homocysteine concentration in males betweenthe 5th and 6th decades of life. Conclusions: It was not possible tosuggest the use of plasma homocysteine levels as an early markerfor the development of cardiovascular diseases in healthy bloodbank donors, but one can speculate about a critical homocysteinelevel to be defined as a cutoff point, above which there wouldbe an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

  14. Current mapping of obesity / Mapping de la obesidad actual

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carmen, Pérez Rodrigo.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La obesidad es un importante factor de riesgo para las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, como la diabetes, las enfermedades cardiovasculares y el cáncer. La prevalencia mundial de obesidad se ha duplicado entre 1980 y 2008. En algunas regiones, como Europa, el Mediterráneo Oriental y América, [...] más del 50% de las mujeres tienen sobrepeso. Tonga, Nauru y las Islas Cook muestran la mayor prevalencia de obesidad en todo el mundo, por encima del 60% tanto en los hombres como en las mujeres. China y Estados Unidos son los países que experimentaron el mayor aumento absoluto en el número de personas con sobrepeso y obesidad entre 1980 y 2008, seguido de Brasil y México. Las regiones con el mayor incremento en la prevalencia de obesidad femenina fueron Centro América, Oceanía y el sur de América Latina. Datos actualizados sugieren que la progresión de la epidemia se ha reducido durante los últimos diez años en varios países. En los países de renta baja la obesidad suele ser más frecuente entre los niveles socioeconómicos más favorecidos, mientras que los grupos desfavorecidos están cada vez más afectados en los países en desarrollo. Muchos estudios han demostrado un gradiente socioeconómico global de la obesidad en las sociedades industrializadas modernas. Las tasas tienden a disminuir progresivamente a medida que aumenta el nivel socio-económico. La prevalencia de obesidad en España se encuentra entre las más altas de la OCDE. Uno de cada 3 niños de 13 a 14 años tiene sobrepeso. El sobrepeso en los lactantes y niños de corta edad se observa en los países de ingresos mediosaltos. Sin embargo, el mayor crecimiento se produce en el grupo de países de ingresos medianos bajos. Hay un creciente cuerpo de evidencia de una asociación inversa entre la obesidad SES-infantil en los países desarrollados. La prevalencia del sobrepeso y la obesidad es alta en todos los grupos de edad en muchos países, pero especialmente preocupante en los niños y adolescentes en los países desarrollados y las economías en transición. Abstract in english Obesity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. The worldwide prevalence of obesity has almost doubled between 1980 and 2008. In some regions, such as Europe, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Americas, more than 50% of wom [...] en are overweight. Tonga, Nauru and the Cook Islands show the highest prevalence of obesity worldwide, above 60% in men and in women. China and the United States are the countries that experienced the largest absolute increase in the number of overweight and obese people between 1980 and 2008, followed by Brazil and Mexico. The regions with the largest increase in the prevalence of female obesity were Central Latin America, Oceania and Southern Latin America. Updated data provide evidence that the progression of the epidemic has effectively slowed for the past ten years in several countries. In low-income countries obesity is generally more prevalent among the better-off, while disadvantaged groups are increasingly affected as countries grow. Many studies have shown an overall socio-economic gradient in obesity in modern industrialized societies. Rates tend to decrease progressively with increasing socio-economic status. Children obesity rates in Spain are amongst the highest in the OECD. One in 3 children aged 13 to 14 are overweight. Overweight in infants and young children is observed in the upper middle-income countries. However, the fastest growth occurs in the group of lower middle-income countries. There is a growing body of evidence for an inverse association between SES and child obesity in developed countries. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is high in all age groups in many countries, but especially worrying in children and adolescents in developed countries and economies in transition.

  15. Obesity and gastrointestinal disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatak, Uma P; Pashankar, Dinesh S

    2015-04-01

    Obesity in children has become a global pandemic during the last decade. Recent studies have reported an association between obesity and functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. In addition, obesity is also becoming increasingly recognized at diagnosis of organic GI diseases such as celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease. An awareness of all possible complications and associations of obesity by the practicing physician is crucial to provide comprehensive care to obese children. This article reviews the present data on the association between obesity and various common GI disorders. The possible mechanisms and the clinical significance of this association are also discussed. PMID:25493349

  16. Colonic flora, Probiotics, Obesity and Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PaulEllisMarik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Obesity results from alterations in the body's regulation of energy intake, expenditure, and storage. Animal and human data demonstrate that phylogenic changes occur in the microbiota composition in obese individuals. Furthermore, evidence from animal models suggest that the alterations of the gut microbiota with obesity results in increased energy extraction and lipid deposition, altered release of entero-hormones, increased intestinal permeability and metabolic endotoxemia. Treatment with pre- and probiotics may reverse many of metabolic effects linked with the altered microbiota in obese patients. The gut microbiota is, therefore, a potential nutritional and pharmacological target for the management of obesity and obesity-related disorders.

  17. Obesity stigma as a determinant of poor birth outcomes in women with high BMI: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJoy, Sharon Bernecki; Bittner, Krystle

    2015-04-01

    Obesity stigma has been linked to poor health outcomes on an individual and population basis. However, little research has been conducted on the role of chronic or recent obesity stigma in the health disparities experienced by pregnant women with high body mass index. The purpose of this article is to discuss poor birth outcomes in this population from an integrated perinatal health framework perspective, incorporating obesity stigma as a social determinant. In studies of non-pregnant populations, obesity stigma has been associated with stress, unhealthy coping strategies, psychological disorders, and exacerbations of physical illness. This article examines the mechanisms by which obesity stigma influences health outcomes and suggests how they might apply to selected complications of pregnancy, including macrosomia, preterm birth and cesarean delivery. Given the rates of obesity and associated pregnancy complications in the United States, it is critical to examine the determinants of those problems from a life course and multiple determinants perspective. This paper offers a conceptual framework to guide exploratory research in this area, incorporating the construct of obesity stigma. PMID:25047786

  18. Intramolecular electronic interactions in conjugated ferrocene-pi-extended-tetrathiafulvalene donor-pi-donor molecular hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu; Perez; Martin; Echegoyen

    2000-12-29

    The synthesis of new hybrid ferrocene and pi-extended tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) donor(1)-pi-donor(2) molecular assemblies 16a-c has been carried out by a Wittig-Horner reaction of the respective phosphonate esters 15a-c with 2-(2-ferrocenylvinyl)-9, 10-anthraquinone (18) prepared by olefination of ferrocenecarboxaldehyde (14) and the anthraquinone phosphonium salt 17. Electrochemical studies show that the D(1)-pi-D(2) (D = donor) molecular assemblies 16a-c essentially retain the redox characteristics of both ferrocene and the pi-extended TTF components and the effects of solvent, temperature, scan rate, and working electrode are significant. Most importantly, pronounced intramolecular electronic interactions between the two donor moieties were observed by cyclic voltammetry and Osteryoung square wave voltammetry in both the ground and charged states. Semiempirical calculations support the electrochemical observations. PMID:11149856

  19. Danish sperm donors across three decades : motivations and attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, BjØrn; Larsen, Peter B

    2013-01-01

    To study the motivation and attitudes toward donor anonymity, economic compensation, and insemination of lesbian and single women among Danish sperm donors in 2012 compared with the two preceding decades.

  20. Variety, palatability, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fiona; Wardle, Jane

    2014-11-01

    Among the key characteristics of the Western obesogenic food environment is a highly palatable and varied food supply. Laboratory investigations of eating behavior in both humans and animals established key roles for palatability and variety in stimulating appetite, delaying satiety, and promoting excessive energy intake. There is a robust effect of food palatability and variety on short-term food intake, and increased variety and palatability also cause weight gain in animal models. However, laboratory paradigms do not replicate the complexities of eating in a natural setting, and there is a shortage of evidence to estimate the magnitude of effects on weight in humans. There are substantial individual differences in susceptibility to the palatability effect and this may be a key determinant in individual vulnerability to weight gain. The understanding of pathways through which palatability and variety can affect eating is advancing, and epidemiologic and intervention studies are needed to translate laboratory findings into applications in public health or clinical domains, and to establish whether there is a role for greater regulation of the food environment in tackling increases in obesity. PMID:25398751

  1. The deceased donor score system in kidney transplants from deceased donors after cardiac death.

    OpenAIRE

    Plata-Munoz, JJ; Vazquez-Montes, M; Friend, PJ; Fuggle, SV

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY: A clinical score to identify kidneys from donors after cardiac death (DCD) with a high risk of dysfunction following transplantation could be a useful tool to guide the introduction of new algorithms for the preservation of these organs and improve their outcome after transplantation. We investigated whether the deceased donor score (DDS) system could identify DCD kidneys with higher risk of early post-transplant dysfunction. The DDS was validated in a cohort of 168 kidney transplant...

  2. Eating habits and obesity among Lebanese university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Abbass

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past year Lebanon has been experiencing a nutritional transition in food choices from the typical Mediterranean diet to the fast food pattern. As a consequence, the dietary habits of young adults have been affected; thus, overweight and obesity are increasingly being observed among the young. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity on a sample of students from the Lebanese American University (in Beirut and to examine their eating habits. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 220 students (43.6% male and 56.4% female, aged 20 ± 1.9 years, were chosen randomly from the Lebanese American University (LAU campus during the fall 2006 semester. Students were asked to fill out a self-reported questionnaire that included questions on their eating, drinking and smoking habits. Also, their weight, height, percentage body fat and body mass index were measured. Body mass index (BMI was used to assess students' weight status. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (version 13.0 to determine overweight and obesity among students and to categorize eating habits. Results This study showed that the majority of the students (64.7% were of normal weight (49% male students compared to 76.8% female students. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was more common among male students compared to females (37.5% and 12.5% vs. 13.6% and 3.2%, respectively. In contrast, 6.4% female students were underweight as compared to 1% males. Eating habits of the students showed that the majority (61.4% reported taking meals regularly. Female students showed healthier eating habits compared to male students in terms of daily breakfast intake and meal frequency. 53.3% of female students reported eating breakfast daily or three to four times per week compared to 52.1% of male students. There was a significant gender difference in the frequency of meal intake (P = 0.001. Intake of colored vegetables and fruits was common among students. A total of 30.5% reported daily intake of colored vegetables with no gender differences (31.5% females vs. 29.2% males. Alcohol intake and smoking were not common among students. Conclusion In spite of the overall low prevalence of overweight and obesity in the studied sample, results indicate that university students would possibly benefit from a nutrition and health promotion program to reduce the tendency of overweight and obesity, especially among male students, and to improve students' eating habits.

  3. Evaluation of the Medically Complex Living Kidney Donor

    OpenAIRE

    Caliskan, Yasar; YILDIZ, Alaattin

    2012-01-01

    Due to organ shortage and difficulties for availability of cadaveric donors, living donor transplantation is an important choice for having allograft. Live donor surgery is elective and easier to organize prior to starting dialysis thereby permitting preemptive transplantation as compared to cadaveric transplantation. Because of superior results with living kidney transplantation, efforts including the usage of “Medically complex living donors” are made to increase the availability of org...

  4. What drives Donor Funding in Population Assistance Programs?

    OpenAIRE

    Dalen, H. P.; Reuser, M.

    2005-01-01

    The 1994 International Conference of Population and Development (ICPD) established goals for the expansion of population assistance. This global effort has so far not sufficiently been supported by donor funds. Dynamic panel estimation methods are used to see what lies behind the sharing of burdens and level of donor contributions. Panel data on expenditures for population and AIDS activities have been collected for 21 donor countries for the years 1996-2002. Donor countries are willing to co...

  5. Expanded criteria donors: attempts to increase the renal transplant donor pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, A K; Kalligonis, A N; Ratner, L E

    2000-04-01

    There is a growing disparity between the demand for and the supply of kidneys for transplantation. The demographics of the donor pool are also changing. The average potential cadaveric organ donor is now more likely to be older, at greater risk for co-morbid conditions such as hypertension or viral infections, and more likely to die from cerebrovascular disease. These factors have led to an expansion of the criteria that defines the suitable organ donor. Expanded criteria donors are defined as the following: (1) at the upper and lower extremes in age; (2) having a history of hypertension or diabetes; (3) hemodynamically unstable; (4) non-heartbeating (cardiopulmonary death rather than brain death); (5) seropositive for hepatitis B or C; (6) having systemic infections; (7) having displayed high-risk social behavior for HIV infection; (8) having a history of malignancy; (9) having abnormal organ function; or (10) with renal anatomic anomalies or injuries. Use of kidneys from these "expanded criteria donors" is a two-edged sword. While they provide more organs for transplantation, the risk of suboptimal recipient outcome is increased. A rational approach to the use of each of these types of kidneys and proper selection of recipients is essential to obtain acceptable results. The article reviews the factors that have contributed to the successful transplantation of kidneys procured from expanded criteria organ donors and how these organs can be allocated most efficaciously to the appropriate recipients. PMID:10782730

  6. 20 CFR 401.200 - Blood donor locator service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood donor locator service...401.200 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION...Information § 401.200 Blood donor locator service...blood donors whose blood donations show that...

  7. Donors and archives a guidebook for successful programs

    CERN Document Server

    Purcell, Aaron D

    2015-01-01

    Donors and Archives: A Guidebook for Successful Programs highlights the importance of development and fundraising for archives, while focusing on the donor and potential donor. Their interest, their support, their enthusiasm, and their stuff are vital to the success of archival programs.

  8. Exercise for preventing childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Sheila A

    2008-05-01

    Childhood obesity is a key public health issue in the United States and around the globe in developed and developing countries. Obese children are at increased risk of acute medical illnesses and chronic diseases-in particular, osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease, which can lead to poor quality of life; increased personal and financial burden to individuals, families, and society; and shortened lifespan. Physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyle are associated with being overweight in children and adults. Thus it is imperative to consider exercise and physical activity as a means to prevent and combat the childhood obesity epidemic. Familiarity with definitions of weight status in children and health outcomes like metabolic syndrome is crucial in understanding the literature on childhood obesity. Exercise and physical activity play a role in weight from the prenatal through adolescent time frame. A child's family and community impact access to adequate physical activity, and further study of these upstream issues is warranted. Recommended levels of physical activity for childhood obesity prevention are being developed. PMID:18395644

  9. Treatment of obesity in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Alpana P; Buniak, William I; Aronne, Louis J

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major health priority in the United States, as well as globally. It is associated with multiple comorbidities and reduced life expectancy. Effective management of obesity involves producing an intervention plan tailored to the individual patient. Potential contributory factors to weight gain, including dietary habits, physical inactivity, associated medical conditions, and medications, should be identified and addressed. Lifestyle interventions comprising diet modification, physical activity, and behavior therapy are foundational to the management of obesity. Caloric restriction is the most important component in achieving weight loss through negative energy balance, whereas sustained physical activity is important in maintaining the weight loss. Adjunctive therapies in the form of pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery are required in patients who do not achieve targeted weight loss and health goals with lifestyle interventions. Currently there are 3 drugs approved for long-term management of obesity, orlistat, phentermine/topiramate extended release, and lorcaserin, and there are 2 on the horizon, bupropion/naltrexone and liraglutide. Bariatric surgery is an effective strategy recognized to produce durable weight loss with amelioration of obesity-related comorbidities and should be considered a treatment option in eligible patients. PMID:25714749

  10. Low Back Pain and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahimi-Kaçuri, Dafina; Murtezani, Ardiana; Rrecaj, Shkurta; Martinaj, Merita; Haxhiu, Bekim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Low back pain poses a significant problem in clinics and public health. It presents one of the main problems with adults, since 70-80% of adults experience it at least once in their lifetime. Causes of the low back pain are numerous and often unknown. Objectives: The aim of the study is to find the most prevalent age group, pain localisation, and the frequency of physical therapy sessions in obese and non-obese subjects with LBP. Materials and Methods: The study has been conducted by the Physical Rehabilitation Service of the Occupational Medicine Institute, during one year period. The total number of patients studied was 101 and all were Kosovo Energy Corporation (KEC) employees. The study was retrospective. Results: Looking at the body weight index, out of 101 patients, 69.3% are classified as non-obese and 30.7% as obese. Using T-Test we have found a difference of high statistical significance between the average number of the physical therapy sessions applied in relation to the examined groups (T-Test=2.78, P=0.0065, so, P<0.01). Conclusion: Obesity and age have no direct influence in back pain, but they could prolong healing. Professional occupation and binding position are factors that affect back pain. Physical workload can cause the manifestation of sciatica; whereas psycho-social factors can prolong the overall healing process.

  11. Diet-related determinants of childhood obesity in urban settings: a comparison between Shanghai and New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, M M; Fu, H; Agaronov, A; Freudenberg, N

    2015-04-01

    Over the past three decades, both Shanghai and New York City (NYC), have experienced dramatic rises in childhood obesity rates. Given the role that obesity plays in the aetiology of chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease, the elevated rates are a major concern. Despite differences in governance systems and cultures, Shanghai and NYC have experienced rapid industrialization, a growing population and a rise in income inequality. The prevalence of childhood obesity in Shanghai and NYC is greater than their respective national rate. However, the trajectory and development of this epidemic has differed between the cities. The distribution of obesity by race and ethnicity, socio-economic status, sex, and age differs markedly between the two cities. To reduce prevalence and inequities within this complex epidemic requires an understanding of the dynamic changes in living conditions among social groups in each city and the behaviours that are influenced by such changes. By comparing changes in the influences on dietary behaviours, such as food distribution, pricing, gender values, and media and marketing, this highlights opportunities for Shanghai, NYC, and other world cities with high or rising rates of childhood obesity to inform future program and policy initiatives. It reiterates the importance of a comprehensive and multilevel approach that includes action at the individual, family, community, municipal, national, and global levels. PMID:25841629

  12. FastStats: Obesity and Overweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Obesity and Overweight Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... 20 years and over who are overweight, including obesity: 69.0% (2011-2012) Source: Health, United States, ...

  13. Studies Find More Genetic Links to Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 150900.html Studies Find More Genetic Links to Obesity More than 100 locations in DNA associated with ... evidence that genes play a significant role in obesity. The findings may help explain why some people ...

  14. They Overcame Childhood Cancer, but Now Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 152481.html They Overcame Childhood Cancer, But Now Obesity? Certain treatments linked to later weight gain, study ... may increase a childhood cancer survivor's risk of obesity later in life, a new study says. "The ...

  15. Could Obesity Help Protect Against Dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Could Obesity Help Protect Against Dementia? Large study suggests that possibility, but experts call for further research into surprising ... was only able to show an association between obesity and a reduced risk of dementia, not a ...

  16. Obesity and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska Native women are 30% more likely than non- ... findings/nhqrdr/nhqrdr12/index.html HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  17. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were almost four times more likely to ... data available at this time. HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  18. Donor kidney adapts to body dimensions of recipient: no influence of donor gender on renal function after transplantation.

    OpenAIRE

    Tent, H.; Lely, At; Toering, Tj; San Giorgi, MR; Rook, M.; Lems, Sp; Hepkema, Bg; Hofker, Hs; Ploeg, Rj; Homan Heide, Jj; Navis, Gj

    2011-01-01

    Female kidneys and kidneys from small donors have been suggested to perform worse after kidney transplantation. Here, we evaluate the impact of gender and body dimensions on posttransplantation GFR in living donor transplantation. Two hundred and ninety-three donor-recipient pairs, who were transplanted at our center were evaluated. All pairs had detailed renal function measurement ((125) I-iothalamate and (131) I-hippuran) 4 months predonation in the donor and 2.5 months posttransplantation ...

  19. Embodied experiences associated with obesity and the management of bodyweight : Gender and social differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Louise; Holm, Lotte

    2012-01-01

    In many affluent Western societies the less educated are at higher risk of developing obesity. Within a conceptual framework of sociology of embodiment, this study analyzed the embodied experiences associated with obesity and the management of body weight among women and men with different social backgrounds. Qualitative in depth interviews were conducted with 20 Danish middle-aged men and women who were categorized as clinically obese in a national dietary survey. The study found a devastating impact of obesity in the lives of highly educated women related to motherhood, career and wifehood which interrelated with persistent efforts to lose weight and repeated involvement in a great variety of weight-loss activities. In contrast, body weight among the less educated interviewees was a concern only in specific situations of everyday life, and it was a health-related concern especially for those men who had experienced weight-related disease, which interrelated with less commitment to, and variation in, weight-loss activities. These findings may help to explain why obesity is least prevalent among highly educated women in Danish society as well as other western societies. A marked difference between men and women was that only few men followed dietary regimes which involved a focus on cooking or changing eating habits on their own initiative. In addition they did not participate in commercial weight-loss programs. We discuss how the social and gendered differences found relate to wider societal contexts and how the findings may both challenge and inform public health promotion.

  20. Quality of life and psychological outcome of donors after living donor liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Guang Jin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the health related quality of life (HRQoL and psychological outcome of donors after living donor liver transplantation. METHODS: Participants were 92 consecutive liver transplant donors who underwent hepatectomy without middle hepatic vein at West China Hospital of Sichuan University between January 2007 and September 2010. HRQoL was measured using the Chinese version of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36, and psychological symptoms were measured using the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R. Data collected from donors were compared to previously published data from the general population. Clinical and demographic data were collected from medical records and questionnaires. RESULTS: The general health score of the SF-36 was significantly lower in females (59.78 ± 12.25 than in males (75.83 ± 22.09. Donors more than 40 years old scored higher in social functioning (85.71 ± 14.59 and mental health (82.61 ± 20.00 than those younger than 40 (75.00 ± 12.13, 68.89 ± 12.98; social functioning and mental health, respectively. Donors who had surgery more than two years prior to the study scored highest in physical functioning (P = 0.001 and bodily pain (P = 0.042 while those less than one year from surgery scored lowest. The health of the liver recipient significantly influenced the general health (P = 0.042, social functioning (P = 0.010, and role-emotional (P = 0.028 of donors. Donors with full-time employment scored highest in role-physical (P = 0.005, vitality (P = 0.001, social functioning (P = 0.016, mental health (P < 0.001, the physical component summary scale (P < 0.001, and the mental component summary scale (MCS (P < 0.001. Psychological measures indicated that donors were healthier than the general population in obsessive-compulsive behavior, interpersonal sensitivity, phobic anxiety, and paranoid ideation. The MCS of the SF-36 was significantly correlated with most symptom scores of the SCL-90-R. CONCLUSION: HRQoL and psychological outcome were favorable in living liver transplant donors after donation. Specifically, gender, age, time since operation, recipient health condition, and employment after donation, influenced postoperative quality of life.

  1. Portion size and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, M Barbara E; Pourshahidi, L Kirsty

    2014-11-01

    Portion size is a key environmental driver of energy intake, and larger-than-appropriate portion sizes could increase the risk of weight gain. Multiple acute, well-controlled laboratory studies, supported by data from free-living settings, demonstrated that portion size has a powerful and proportionate effect on the amount of food consumed. Of particular importance is that bouts of overeating associated with large portions are sustained and not followed by a compensatory reduction in energy intake. The positive effect of portion size on energy intake was demonstrated for different types of foods and beverages, and is particularly pronounced with energy-dense foods. The predisposition to overeat in response to large portions is pervasive and occurs regardless of demographic characteristics, such as socioeconomic status, age, body mass index, and sex. Secular trends toward greater availability of large portions, coupled with value-size pricing, effectively distorted consumption norms and perceptions of what is an appropriate amount to eat. Nevertheless, although a direct causal link between portion size and obesity remains to be established, advice to moderate portion sizes, especially of energy-dense foods, is presently the cornerstone of most weight management advice. Although many strategies have been proposed to counteract the deleterious effects of portion size, there are few data indicating which are likely to be acceptable in the medium- to long term. Further research is urgently needed to establish what types of interventions targeted at portion size are likely to be effective, in what settings, and among which target groups. PMID:25398749

  2. Childhood obesity and insulin-resistant syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yensel, Cynthia S; Preud'homme, Daniel; Curry, Donna Miles

    2004-08-01

    Childhood obesity has become a national concern, health threat, and is increasing at an alarming rate. Obesity is associated with many comorbidities that last into adulthood. Insulin-resistant syndrome (IRS) is developing in growing numbers of obese children. Pediatric nurses play a unique and important role in identifying which children are at risk for obesity and IRS. This article gives current information on what tools to use, how to identify those children, and the interventions needed. PMID:15308973

  3. Therapy of obese patient with Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jindal, Ankur; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Brietzke, Stephen; Sowers, James R

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is a significant public health concern. Obesity is associated with increased diabetes, cardiovascular and kidney disease, and associated morbidity and mortality. Despite the increasing public health problem of obesity, there is a dearth of effective treatment options. Following the FDA mandated withdrawal of sibutramine, the treatment options for obesity were limited to orlistat as the only pharmacological treatment option for long term management ...

  4. Depression and Anxiety in Obese Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Demet Gulec Oyekcin; Deniz Y?ld?z; Erkan Melih ?ahin; Sava? Gür

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Epidemiologic data suggests an association between obesity and depression. However, a limited number of studies have investigated the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms among obese patients without a psychiatric diagnosis. The objective of this study was to determine psychiatric diagnosis in patients with obesity who applied to the endocrinology department and to determine the pattern of the depression and anxiety symptom levels in obese patients without a psychiatric diagnosis.Ma...

  5. Metabolic disturbances connecting obesity and depression

    OpenAIRE

    StephanieE.Fulton

    2013-01-01

    Obesity markedly increases the odds of developing depression. Depressed mood not only impairs motivation, quality of life and overall functioning but also increases the risks of obesity complications. Abdominal obesity is a better predictor of depression and anxiety risk than overall adipose mass. A growing amount of research suggests that metabolic abnormalities stemming from central obesity that lead to metabolic disease may also be responsible for the increased incidence of depression in o...

  6. Obesity and poverty paradox in developed countries

    OpenAIRE

    Wioletta ?ukiewicz-Sobczak; Paula Wróblewska; Jacek Zwoli?ski; Jolanta Chmielewska-Badora; Piotr Adamczuk; Ewelina Krasowska; Jerzy Zagórski; Anna Oniszczuk; Jacek Pi?tek; Wojciech Silny

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a civilization disease and the proportion of people suffering from it continues to grow, especially in the developed countries. Number of obese people in Europe has increased threefold over the last 20 years. The paradox of obesity and poverty relationship is observed especially in the developed and developing countries. In developing countries, along with economic development and income growth, the number of people with overweight and obesity is increasing. This paradox has a rela...

  7. Breastfeeding and obesity: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanne M. Stolzer

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, obesity rates have reached epidemic proportions in the United States of America. Comorbidities associated with overweight and obesity include, but are not limited to, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and elevated cholesterol levels. As a direct result of obesity, data indicates that these diseases are now being detected in an unprecedented number of American children, adolescents, and adults. Although the major cause of the obesity epidemic in Ameri...

  8. Obesity, Nutrition, and Asthma in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Jason E.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity rates have increased dramatically among children in many parts of the world, especially in North America and several other English-speaking countries. The impact of obesity on pediatric health has become a major prevention initiative by the Obama administration and several public health organizations. Children with obesity are at increased risk for developing asthma, which is already one of the most common chronic diseases among children. The cause underlying obesity's impact on asthm...

  9. Increasing socioeconomic disparities in adolescent obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick, Carl B.; Snellman, Kaisa; Putnam, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood and youth obesity represent significant US public health challenges. Recent findings that the childhood obesity ‘‘epidemic’’ may have slightly abated have been met with relief from health professionals and popular media. However, we document that the overall trend in youth obesity rates masks a significant and growing class gap between youth from upper and lower socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. Until 2002, obesity rates increased at similar rates for all adolescents, ...

  10. Hypothyroidism and obesity. Cause or effect?

    OpenAIRE

    Abhyuday Verma; Muthukrishnan Jayaraman; Hari K. V. S. Kumar; Modi, Kirtikumar D

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To establish relationship between obesity and hypothyroidism and to analyze the frequency the frequency of primary hypothyroidism in obese patients and frequency of obesity in primary hypothyroidism patients. METHODS We conducted this retrospective, observational study in the Department of Endocrinology and Obesity Clinic, Medwin Hospital, Hyderabad, India in Mar 2008. In the last 18 months (between September 2006 to February 2008), data on 625 consecutive primary hypothyr...

  11. The tale of obesity: challenges and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Halim

    2003-01-01

    Obesity has struck with all its might and the results are the increased world-wide prevalence along with increased mortality rate and other obesity-related diseases. Genetic, hormonal and environmental factors interact to cause obesity. Very low calorie diet and physically active lifestyle are the primary means to treat obesity. Additional intervention is by pharmacological treatment, using two new drugs, namely cyclobutane methanamine HCl  and tetra hidrolipstatin that are potential for the...

  12. Assessment of obesity management in medical examination

    OpenAIRE

    Treyzon Leo

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is a growing international health problem that has already reached epidemic proportions, particularly within the United States where a majority of the population is overweight or obese. Effective methods of treatment are needed, and should be taught to physicians by efficient means. There exists a disconnect between the rising obesity prevalence with its high toll on medical resources, and the lack of obesity education provided to practitioners in the course of their training...

  13. Intervention for Childhood Obesity in Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jingxiong, Jiang

    2006-01-01

    Childhood obesity appears to be increasing throughout the world. China has joined the global epidemic. Childhood obesity is not only a chronic disease which is associated with lifestyle, but also a public health problem in children. Obesity intervention should become a public health priority in China. This thesis reports on intervention to treat and prevent childhood obesity. The field work was implemented in Beijing, China. This thesis is based on four papers: Paper I evaluated the feasibil...

  14. Distal Airway Impairment in Obese Normoreactive Women

    OpenAIRE

    Grégory Marin; Anne Sophie Gamez; Nicolas Molinari; Djamila Kacimi; Isabelle Vachier; Fabrice Paganin; Pascal Chanez; Arnaud Bourdin

    2013-01-01

    Background. Asthma-like symptoms are frequent in overweight and obesity, but the mechanism is unclear when airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is lacking. In this study, we focused on obese women with a clinical suspicion of asthma but negative methacholine challenge and tested distal airway hyperreactivity, explored by Forced Vital Capacity dose-response slope (FVC DRS). Objective. To question AHR at the distal airway level in obese women. Methods. A total of 293 symptomatic obese and nonobese ...

  15. Physical Activity and Obesity in Canadian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh Peter; Bryan Shirley

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Health Issue Overweight and obesity have been recognized as major public health concern in Canada and throughout the world. Lack of physical activity, through its impact on energy balance, has been identified as an important modifiable risk factor for obesity. Physical activity and obesity are also important risk factors for a variety of chronic diseases. This chapter provides an overview of the current state of physical activity and overweight/obesity among Canadian women. Key Findi...

  16. ‘Metabolically healthy obesity’: Origins and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Denis, Gerald V.; Obin, Martin S.

    2012-01-01

    When humans eat more and exercise less, they tend to become obese and unhealthy. The molecular pathways that link obesity to serious diseases like Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease have become a subject of intensive scientific investigation because the exploding prevalence of obesity worldwide represents a grave new threat to the health of hundreds of millions of people. However, obesity is not always destiny. Two important clinical populations have been valuable to understand the me...

  17. Childhood Obesity: Issues of Weight Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Washington, Reginald L.

    2011-01-01

    Although the effects of obesity on children's physical health are well documented, the social consequences of obesity are less well described and may not be addressed in intervention programs. Weight bias may take several forms. It may result in teasing and discrimination and may affect employment and educational opportunities. Health care providers may limit care of overweight or obese children. The media promote weight bias in multiple ways. Some parents are biased against their obese child...

  18. Lifestyles: propellants factors of obesity in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Filomena; Antão, Celeste; Anes, Eugénia; Fernandes, Adília; Mata, Maria Augusta; Sousa, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Although a large collection of results that can identify the causes of obesity is available, it is not an easy task to characterize its etiology. Outstanding among the factors related to overweight and obesity the changes in eating patterns and physical activity, occurred in several societies. About 95% of obesity cases in childhood and adolescence involve exogenous obesity, that is, dependent on environmental factors. Objectives: To analyze lifestyles and eating factors in school adolescents...

  19. Obesity and Genomics: A Public Health Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Office of Genetics and Disease Prevention and Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, this Web siteis a collection of information on the relationship between obesity and genetics. It offers links to a variety of sources of information, including Web resources and journal articles on the problem of obesity, the relationship between genetics and obesity, and preventing obesity.

  20. THE TREATMENT OF MORBID OBESITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lunca

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Morbid obesity is defined when Body Mass Index (BMI exceeds 40 kg/m2. Main indications for surgery are: BMI > 40 or BMI > 35 with significant co-morbidities. Three types of operations are currently done for morbid obesity: restrictive, malabsorptive and mix procedures (restrictive/malabsorptive. Restrictive procedures (gastric banding and vertical banded gastroplasty determine an excess weight loss of 40 – 50%, mix procedures (Roux-en-Y gastric by-pass of 60 – 70% and malabsorptive procedures (biliopancreatic diversion with or without of duodenal switch of 75 – 80% In terms of risk/benefit gastric banding offers the best results. All these procedure are done today by laparoscopy with comparable results as in open surgery. Malabsorptive or mix procedures which have the best results may be reserved for patients with the most severe obesity or co-morbid conditions.