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Comorbidities of overweight/obesity experienced in adolescence: longitudinal study.  

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OBJECTIVES: Adolescent obesity is linked to metabolic and cardiovascular risk, but its associations with adolescents' experienced health and morbidity are less clear. Morbidities experienced by overweight/obese adolescents and associations between morbidities and timing of overweight/obesity were examined. METHODS: Data were from the Health of Young Victorians Study (HOYVS; 1997, 2000, 2005), a school-based longitudinal study. Outcomes were blood pressure, health status (Pediatric Quality of ...

Wake, M.; Canterford, L.; Patton, Gc; Hesketh, K.; Hardy, P.; Williams, J.; Waters, E.; Carlin, Jb

2010-01-01

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Association and Distribution of Hypertension, Obesity and ABO Blood groups in Blood Donors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AbstractBackgroundHypertension is a major health problem, especially because it has no clear symptoms. It isstrongly correlated with modifiable risk factors such as adiposities, age, stress, high salt intake.Overweight and obesity is conveniently determined from BMI and visceral adiposity isdetermined by waist circumference. ABO blood group is one such factor which needs to beinvestigated. The present study was performed to assess the association and distribution ofhypertension, obesity, ABO blood groups in different categories of blood donors and itsmultipurpose future utilities for the health planners.Materials and MethodsA retrospective study was carried out on 23, 320 blood donors during a period of one year. Allthe blood donors were measured BMI, ABO blood group, systolic and diastolic blood pressurewere determined and correlated for each other.ResultsHypertension of ABO blood group was B (8.7% followed by group O (7.6% group A (3.7%and group AB (1.9%. In obesity of ABO blood group was B (7.9% followed by group O(6.2% group A (5.8% and group AB (1.0%. Statistically significant difference was found inboth groups (p < 0.001.ConclusionThe B blood group in blood donor was more susceptible to hypertension and obesity.

Ashish Gupta

2012-12-01

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Overall obesity is leveling-off while abdominal obesity continues to rise in a Chinese population experiencing rapid economic development: analysis of serial cross-sectional health survey data 2002-2010.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background:Obesity epidemic is related to industrialization and urbanization that have lead to changes in nutrition, lifestyle and socio-economic status. However, information on the trajectory of the obesity epidemic in populations experiencing rapid economic development is limited. We therefore investigate trends in obesity from 2002 to 2010 in a southern Chinese population experiencing world's fastest economic development.Methods:Between 2002 and 2010 four standardized surveys were conducted in a population of 85 million residents in Guangdong, China. Multistage cluster sampling was adopted to recruit representative samples. Weight, height and waist circumference of the participants were measured in a standardized way. The analysis included residents aged between 18 and 69 years. The number of participants included in the present analysis for Surveys conducted in 2002, 2004, 2007 and 2010 were 13058, 7646, 6441 and 8575, respectively.Results:From year 2002 to 2010, the age-standardized Body mass index (BMI) insignificantly changed from 21.7??kg?m(-2) to 22.3??kg?m(-2), and the prevalence of overweight and overall obesity from 15.8 to 16.6% (both P>0.05). The age-standardized waist circumference increased from 73.7 to 78.4?cm, and prevalence of abdominal obesity increased from 12.9 to 23.7% (both Purban areas, BMI and overall obesity changed little during the 8-year period (BMI increased from 22.6 to 22.7??kg?m(-2) and overall obesity changed from 23.7 to 21.4%), whereas there were slight increases of the same in rural areas (BMI increased from 20.8 to 22.1?kg?m(-2)and overall obesity increased from 8.2 to 13.3%). Waist circumference and abdominal obesity increased significantly in both areas, but the increase was more pronounced in rural areas (in urban area, waist circumference increased from 75.1 to 78.5?cm and abdominal obesity from 16.8 to 26.5%; in rural area, waist circumference from 72.2 to 78.3 and abdominal obesity from 8.8 to 22.0%).Conclusions:BMI and overall obesity in this population, which has experienced the world's fastest economic development over the past three decades, has been leveling-off, while waist circumference and abdominal obesity, independent predictors of cardiovascular risk, have continued to rise. Our findings suggest that obesity epidemic transition in rapidly developing populations may be much faster than what has been observed in Western countries.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 29 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.95. PMID:24858655

Lao, X Q; Ma, W J; Sobko, T; Zhang, Y H; Xu, Y J; Xu, X J; Yu, D M; Nie, S P; Cai, Q M; Xia, L; Thomas, G N; Griffiths, S M

2014-05-26

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Methyl-donor supplementation in obese mice prevents the progression of NAFLD, activates AMPK and decreases acyl-carnitine levelsa  

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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) results from increased hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis, and is closely linked to liver one-carbon (C1) metabolism. We assessed in C57BL6/N mice whether NAFLD induced by a high-fat (HF) diet over 8 weeks can be reversed by additional 4 weeks of a dietary methyl-donor supplementation (MDS). MDS in the obese mice failed to reverse NAFLD, but prevented the progression of hepatic steatosis associated with major changes in key hepatic C1-metabolite...

Dahlhoff, Christoph; Worsch, Stefanie; Sailer, Manuela; Hummel, Bjo?rn A.; Fiamoncini, Jarlei; Uebel, Kirsten; Obeid, Rima; Scherling, Christian; Geisel, Ju?rgen; Bader, Bernhard L.; Daniel, Hannelore

2014-01-01

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Four out of eight genes in a mouse chromosome 7 congenic donor region are candidate obesity genes.  

Science.gov (United States)

We previously identified a region of mouse chromosome 7 that influences body fat mass in F2 littermates of congenic × background intercrosses. Current analyses revealed that alleles in the donor region of the subcongenic B6.C-D7Mit318 (318) promoted a twofold increase in adiposity in homozygous lines of 318 compared with background C57BL/6ByJ (B6By) mice. Parent-of-origin effects were discounted through cross-fostering studies and an F1 reciprocal cross. Mapping of the donor region revealed that it has a maximal size of 2.8 Mb (minimum 1.8 Mb) and contains a maximum of eight protein coding genes. Quantitative PCR in whole brain, liver, and gonadal white adipose tissue (GWAT) revealed differential expression between genotypes for three genes in females and two genes in males. Alpha-2,8-sialyltransferase 8B (St8sia2) showed reduced 318 mRNA levels in brain for females and males and in GWAT for females only. Both sexes of 318 mice had reduced Repulsive guidance molecule-a (Rgma) expression in GWAT. In brain, Family with sequence similarity 174 member b (Fam174b) had increased expression in 318 females, whereas Chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 2 (Chd2-2) had reduced expression in 318 males. No donor region genes were differentially expressed in liver. Sequence analysis of coding exons for all genes in the 318 donor region revealed only one single nucleotide polymorphism that produced a nonsynonymous missense mutation, Gln7Pro, in Fam174b. Our findings highlight the difficulty of using expression and sequence to identify quantitative trait genes underlying obesity even in small genomic regions. PMID:21730028

Sarahan, Kari A; Fisler, Janis S; Warden, Craig H

2011-09-22

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Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories ...

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Obesity.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity is not a single disease, but a variety of conditions resulting from different mechanisms and associated with various types and degrees of risks. To determine who should lose weight, how much weight should be lost, and how to undertake weight loss, the following types of information are needed: personal-demographic data, developmental patterns, family history, energy balance, body composition/fat distribution, psychological/behavioral measures, endocrine/metabolic measures, complicatio...

Callaway, C. W.

1987-01-01

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Co-receptor usage and prediction of v3 genotyping algorithms in hiv-1 subtype b' from paid blood donors experienced anti-retroviral therapy in chinese central province  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This study explored co-receptor usage and prediction of V3 genotyping algorithms in HIV-1 subtype B' from paid blood donors experienced anti-retroviral therapy in Chinese central province in order to design effectively therapeutic regimen. Methods HIV-1 strains were isolated in treatment HIV-1 infections and treatment-naïve HIV-1 infections, then co-receptor usage of HIV-1 strains was identified based on Ghost cell lines using flow cytometry. HIV-1 V3 region was amplified and submitted into web-server (WebPSSM and geno2pheno to predict HIV-1 co-receptor usage. The feasibility of prediction HIV-1 usage with Web-server assay was analyzed by comparing prediction of V3 genotyping algorithms with HIV phenotype assay based on Ghost cell line. Results 45 HIV-1 strains and 114 HIV-1 strains were isolated from HIV-1 infections exposed anti-retroviral therapy and treatment-naïve, respectively. 41% clinical viruses from ART patients and 18% from treatment-naïve patients used CXCR4 as co-receptor. The net charge in the V3 loop was significantly difference in both groups. The sensitivity and specificity for predicting co-receptor capacity is 54.6% and 90.0% on 11/25 rule, 50.0% and 90% on Web-PSSMx4r5, 68.2% and 40.0% on Geno2pheno[co-receptor]. Conclusion Dual/mixed/X4 co-receptor utilization was higher in ART patients than treatment-naïve patients. It is should paid attention to predicting HIV-1 co-receptor usage based on V3 genotyping algorithms in HIV-1 subtype B' from paid blood donors experienced anti-retroviral therapy in Chinese central province.

Yu Xiaoling

2010-10-01

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Comparison of Markers and Functional Attributes of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells and Dedifferentiated Adipocyte Cells from Subcutaneous Fat of an Obese Diabetic Donor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Adipose tissue is a robust source of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) that may be able to provide secreted factors that promote the ability of wounded tissue to heal. However, adipocytes also have the potential to dedifferentiate in culture to cells with stem cell-like properties that may improve their behavior and functionality for certain applications. Approach: ADSCs are adult mesenchymal stem cells that are cultured from the stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue. However, adipocytes are capable of dedifferentiating into cells with stem cell properties. In this case study, we compare ADSC and dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells from the same patient and fat depot for mesenchymal cell markers, embryonic stem cell markers, ability to differentiate to adipocytes and osteoblasts, senescence and telomerase levels, and ability of conditioned media (CM) to stimulate migration of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Innovation and Conclusions: ADSCs and DFAT cells displayed identical levels of CD90, CD44, CD105, and were CD34- and CD45-negative. They also expressed similar levels of Oct4, BMI1, KLF4, and SALL4. DFAT cells, however, showed higher efficiency in adipogenic and osteogenic capacity. Telomerase levels of DFAT cells were double those of ADSCs, and senescence declined in DFAT cells. CM from both cell types altered the migration of fibroblasts. Despite reports of ADSCs from a number of human depots, there have been no comparisons of the ability of dedifferentiated DFAT cells from the same donor and depot to differentiate or modulate migration of HDFs. Since ADSCs were from an obese diabetic donor, reprogramming of DFAT cells may help improve a patient's cells for regenerative medicine applications. PMID:24669358

Watson, James E; Patel, Niketa A; Carter, Gay; Moor, Andrea; Patel, Rekha; Ghansah, Tomar; Mathur, Abhishek; Murr, Michel M; Bickford, Paula; Gould, Lisa J; Cooper, Denise R

2014-03-01

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Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some of these ... donor, my life really hasn’t changed. My health is just as good now as it ever ...

11

Mind/Body Health: Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

... 51 percent also had a history of major depression. Additional research shows that obese women with binge-eating disorder who experienced teasing about their appearance later developed body dissatisfaction and depression. What you can do Dealing with obesity and ...

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Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Of the various options for patients with end stage renal disease, kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for a suitable patient. The kidney for transplantation is retrieved from either a cadaver or a live donor. Living donor nephrectomy has been developed as a method to address the shortfall in cadaveric kidneys available for transplantation. Laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy (LLDN, by reducing postoperative pain, shortening convalescence, and improving the cosmetic outcome of the donor nephrectomy, has shown the potential to increase the number of living kidney donations further by removing some of the disincentives inherent to donation itself. The technique of LLDN has undergone evolution at different transplant centers and many modifications have been done to improve donor safety and recipient outcome. Virtually all donors eligible for an open surgical procedure may also undergo the laparoscopic operation. Various earlier contraindications to LDN, such as right donor kidney, multiple vessels, anomalous vasculature and obesity have been overcome with increasing experience. Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy can be done transperitoneally or retroperitoneally on either side. The approach is most commonly transperitoneal, which allows adequate working space and easy dissection. A review of literature and our experience with regards to standard approach and the modifications is presented including a cost saving model for the developing countries. An assessment has been made, of the impact of LDN on the outcome of donor and the recipient.

Gupta Nitin

2005-01-01

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Acute toxicities of unrelated bone marrow versus peripheral blood stem cell donation: results of a prospective trial from the National Marrow Donor Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Although peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) have replaced bone marrow (BM) as the most common unrelated donor progenitor cell product collected, a direct comparison of concurrent PBSC versus BM donation experiences has not been performed. We report a prospective study of 2726 BM and 6768 PBSC donors who underwent collection from 2004 to 2009. Pain and toxicities were assessed at baseline, during G-CSF administration, on the day of collection, within 48 hours of donation, and weekly until full recovery. Peak levels of pain and toxicities did not differ between the 2 donation processes for most donors. Among obese donors, PBSC donors were at increased risk of grade 2 to 4 pain as well as grade 2 to 4 toxicities during the pericollection period. In contrast, BM donors were more likely to experience grade 2 to 4 toxicities at 1 week and pain at 1 week and 1 month after the procedure. BM donors experienced slower recovery, with 3% still not fully recovered at 24 weeks, whereas 100% of PBSC donors had recovered. Other factors associated with toxicity included obesity, increasing age, and female sex. In summary, this study provides extensive detail regarding individualized risk patterns of PBSC versus BM donation toxicity, suggesting donor profiles that can be targeted with interventions to minimize toxicity. PMID:23109243

Chitphakdithai, Pintip; Logan, Brent R.; Shaw, Bronwen E.; Wingard, John R.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Waller, Edmund K.; Seftel, Matthew; Stroncek, David F.; Lopez, Angela M.; Maharaj, Dipnarine; Hematti, Peiman; O'Donnell, Paul V.; Loren, Alison W.; Leitman, Susan F.; Anderlini, Paolo; Goldstein, Steven C.; Levine, John E.; Navarro, Willis H.; Miller, John P.; Confer, Dennis L.

2013-01-01

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Acute toxicities of unrelated bone marrow versus peripheral blood stem cell donation: results of a prospective trial from the National Marrow Donor Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) have replaced bone marrow (BM) as the most common unrelated donor progenitor cell product collected, a direct comparison of concurrent PBSC versus BM donation experiences has not been performed. We report a prospective study of 2726 BM and 6768 PBSC donors who underwent collection from 2004 to 2009. Pain and toxicities were assessed at baseline, during G-CSF administration, on the day of collection, within 48 hours of donation, and weekly until full recovery. Peak levels of pain and toxicities did not differ between the 2 donation processes for most donors. Among obese donors, PBSC donors were at increased risk of grade 2 to 4 pain as well as grade 2 to 4 toxicities during the pericollection period. In contrast, BM donors were more likely to experience grade 2 to 4 toxicities at 1 week and pain at 1 week and 1 month after the procedure. BM donors experienced slower recovery, with 3% still not fully recovered at 24 weeks, whereas 100% of PBSC donors had recovered. Other factors associated with toxicity included obesity, increasing age, and female sex. In summary, this study provides extensive detail regarding individualized risk patterns of PBSC versus BM donation toxicity, suggesting donor profiles that can be targeted with interventions to minimize toxicity. PMID:23109243

Pulsipher, Michael A; Chitphakdithai, Pintip; Logan, Brent R; Shaw, Bronwen E; Wingard, John R; Lazarus, Hillard M; Waller, Edmund K; Seftel, Matthew; Stroncek, David F; Lopez, Angela M; Maharaj, Dipnarine; Hematti, Peiman; O'Donnell, Paul V; Loren, Alison W; Leitman, Susan F; Anderlini, Paolo; Goldstein, Steven C; Levine, John E; Navarro, Willis H; Miller, John P; Confer, Dennis L

2013-01-01

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Understanding donors' motivations: a study of unrelated bone marrow donors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medical advances in bone marrow transplantation techniques and immunosuppressive medications have dramatically increased the number of such transplants performed each year, and consequently, the demand for bone marrow from unrelated donors. Although physiological aspects of bone marrow donation have been thoroughly investigated, very few studies have examined psychosocial factors that may impact individuals' donation decisions and outcomes. To examine one particular set of donor psychosocial issues, this study investigated motives for bone marrow donation among 343 unrelated bone marrow donors who donated through the National Marrow Donor Program. Six distinct types of donor motives were identified from open-ended questionnaire responses. Donors most frequently reported motives reflecting some awareness of both the costs (to themselves) and potential benefits (to themselves and the recipient) of donation. A desire to act in accordance with social or religious precepts, expected positive feelings about donating, empathy for the recipient, and the simple desire to help another person were also commonly cited reasons for donating. Among a series of donor background characteristics, donors' gender was the variable most strongly associated with motive type; women were most likely to cite expected positive feelings, empathy, and the desire to help someone. Central study findings indicated that donor motives predicted donors reactions to donation even after the effects of donor background characteristics (including gender) were controlled. Donors who reported exchange motives (weighing costs and benefits) and donors who reported simple (or idealized) helping motives experienced the donation as less positive in terms of higher predonation ambivalence and negative postdonation psychological reactions than did remaining donors. Donors who reported positive feeling and empathy motives had the most positive donation reactions in terms of lower ambivalence, and feeling like better persons postdonation. These finding add substantially to the body of work concerning medical volunteerism generally, and also have important practical implications for the recruitment and education of potential bone marrow donors. PMID:9203278

Switzer, G E; Dew, M A; Butterworth, V A; Simmons, R G; Schimmel, M

1997-07-01

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Donor factors.  

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1. Although kidneys from Black donors had a lower one-year survival rate, their early function (as measured by the days of first and best function) was similar to White donors but their hospitalization was longer. 2. Kidneys from donors in the 16-20 year old age group had the best survival rate and early function with falloff as donor age increased and decreased. 3. Trauma death donors yielded better survival rates but similar early graft function and hospitalization to nontrauma death donors. 4. Sharing, even at extended distances, did not adversely effect survival, early graft function, or length of hospitalization. PMID:2487610

Takiff, H

1989-01-01

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Combined Oral Contraception and Obesity Are Strong Predictors of Low-Grade Inflammation in Healthy Individuals : Results from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-established marker of inflammation. The level of CRP is affected by several lifestyle factors. A slightly increased CRP level, also known as low-grade inflammation (LGI), is associated with increased risk of several diseases, especially cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of increased CRP levels in healthy individuals. We therefore assessed CRP in a large cohort of blood donors.

SØrensen, Cecilie J; Pedersen, Ole B

2014-01-01

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Families Experiencing Homelessness  

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... diploma. 29% of adults in homeless families are working. Have much higher rates of family separation than other low-income families. 4 Mothers Experiencing Homelessness: The impact of homelessness on mothers ...

19

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some of these conditions. And once we’ve taken a good look at the potential donor and we don’t see any reasons why they can’t safely donate, then they go forward with the surgery. Let’s take a look at a video of ...

20

Blood Donor Deferrals by Expert System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Blood collection facilities have recently witnessed a substantial increase in the number of different tests used to detect infectious disease in donor populations. These facilities are also experiencing an increasingly stringent regulatory effort on the part of the Food and Drug Administration to determine the validity of the software used to handle this information. This report describes a precedence-based inference program (PRELOG) and a modular expert system used to determine a donor's sui...

Sorace, James M.; Berman, Jules J.; Brown, Lawrence A.; Moore, G. William

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Dative experiencer predicates in Hungarian  

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Dative experiencer predicates in Hungarian investigates the argument structure and the syntax of appeal to- and important-type predicates in Hungarian. Couched in terms of Reinhart’s (2000, 2002) Theta System, the thesis presents arguments for the need to resort to the lexicon in setting up systematic generalizations concerning the licensing and the basic syntactic behavior of dative experiencers. Dative experiencer predicates are distinct both conceptually and thematically from subject- an...

Ra?kosi, G.

2006-01-01

22

Obesity Epidemic  

Science.gov (United States)

A one page activity that takes students to several websites related to the obesity epidemic. First they can calculate BMI, then learn about national trends in the rate of obesity and finally use a tutorial on insulin and diabetes.

Cooper, Scott

23

Deconstructing Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

This lecture covers the basics of understanding obesity from the definition of the condition and quantifying it through BMI, as well as information about the chemical that is responsible for obesity, Leptin.

Jeffrey M. Friedman, M.D., Ph.D. (Howard Hughes Medical Institute;)

2008-04-16

24

Contacting My Donor Family  

Science.gov (United States)

... My Donor Family Newsroom Minorities Contacting My Donor Family Writing anything can be a challenge. Staring at ... down to write a note to your donor family can feeling overwhelming. The good news is that ...

25

Childhood Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

2012-01-01

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Obesity and the gut microbiota: does up-regulating colonic fermentation protect against obesity and metabolic disease?  

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Obesity is now considered a major public health concern globally as it predisposes to a number of chronic human diseases. Most developed countries have experienced a dramatic and significant rise in obesity since the 1980s, with obesity apparently accompanying, hand in hand, the adoption of “Western”-style diets and low-energy expenditure lifestyles around the world. Recent studies report an aberrant gut microbiota in obese subjects and that gut microbial metabolic activities, especially ...

Conterno, Lorenza; Fava, Francesca; Viola, Roberto; Tuohy, Kieran M.

2011-01-01

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Adverse events among 2408 unrelated donors of peripheral blood stem cells: results of a prospective trial from the National Marrow Donor Program  

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Limited data are available describing donor adverse events (AEs) associated with filgrastim mobilized peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collections in unrelated volunteers. We report results in 2408 unrelated PBSC donors prospectively evaluated by the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) between 1999 and 2004. Female donors had higher rates of AEs, requiring central line placement more often (17% vs 4%, P < .001), experiencing more apheresis-related AEs (20% vs 7%, P < .001), more bone pain (...

Pulsipher, Michael A.; Chitphakdithai, Pintip; Miller, John P.; Logan, Brent R.; King, Roberta J.; Rizzo, J. Douglas; Leitman, Susan F.; Anderlini, Paolo; Haagenson, Michael D.; Kurian, Seira; Klein, John P.; Horowitz, Mary M.; Confer, Dennis L.

2009-01-01

28

Childhood Overweight and Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

... Overweight and Obesity Share Compartir Childhood Overweight and Obesity Obesity now affects 17% of all children and adolescents ... from just one generation ago. Basics About Childhood Obesity How is childhood obesity measured? What are the ...

29

Childhood obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood obesity is an issue of serious medical and social concern. In developing countries including India, it is a phenomenon seen in higher socioeconomic strata due to the adoption of a western lifestyle. Consumption of high calorie food, lack of physical activity and increased screen time are major risk factors for childhood obesity apart from other genetic, prenatal factors and socio-cultural practices. Obese children and adolescents are at increased risk of medical and psychological complications. Insulin resistance is commonly present especially in those with central obesity and manifests as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, polycystic ovarian syndrome and metabolic syndrome. Obese children and adolescents often present to general physicians for management. The latter play a key role in prevention and treatment of obesity as it involves lifestyle modification of the entire family. This article aims at discussing the approach to diagnosis and work-up, treatment and preventive strategies for childhood obesity from a general physician's perspective. PMID:23255079

Seth, Anju; Sharma, Rajni

2013-04-01

30

Sense of coherence and social support predict living liver donors' emotional stress prior to living-donor liver transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The protection of the donors from physical or emotional harm has been a fundamental principle in living-donor liver donation from the beginning. Psychosomatic donor evaluation aims at the selection of eligible donors and the screening and exclusion of psychiatrically vulnerable donors. As clinical interviews may include subjective biases, efforts should be made to establish objective criteria for donor assessment. In recent research, protective factors have been reported to be a significant force behind healthy adjustment to life stresses and can be investigated as possible predictors of donors' eligibility. Being the central construct of Antonovsky's theory of salutogenesis, the sense of coherence is one of the most surveyed protective factors and a good predictor of individuals' stability when experiencing stress. Furthermore, family support has been shown to be a valuable protective resource in coping with stress. This study surveyed whether sense of coherence and social support predict donors' emotional strain prior to transplantation. Seventy-one donor candidates were included in the study during the donor evaluation prior to living-donor liver transplantation. Sense of coherence proved to be a significant predictor for all criterion variables, namely anxiety, depression and mental quality of life. In addition to this, donor candidates who were classified as eligible for donation in the psychosomatic interview had significantly higher values on sense of coherence total scores compared with rejected donors. In a multiple regression analysis, sense of coherence and social support together yielded a prediction of depression with an explained variance of 22% (R(2) = 0.22). Sense of coherence and social support can be implemented as self-rating instruments in the psychosomatic selection of donors and would help to further objectify donors' eligibility. PMID:18482048

Erim, Yesim; Beckmann, Mingo; Kroencke, Sylvia; Schulz, Karl-Heinz; Tagay, Sefik; Valentin-Gamazo, Camino; Malago, Massimo; Frilling, Andrea; Broelsch, Christoph E; Senf, Wolfgang

2008-01-01

31

Evaluation of high-risk living kidney donors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Careful evaluation of potential living kidney donors is crucial to assure the well being of the donors, especially because they do not gain any direct medical benefit from donation. This process also helps assess the quality and safety of the organs donated to the recipients. While all programs share these goals, donor selection criteria vary significantly among U.S. transplant centers. In part, this is due to the limited data that exists as to long-term outcomes among donors who are medically complex, or at higher risk for complications, such as those with hypertension, obesity, or lower kidney function. This article reviews available evidence regarding outcomes after living donation and current trends in U.S. practices, and seeks to provide practical guidance in evaluating high-risk potential living kidney donors. PMID:25553371

Tangdhanakanond, Kawin; Mandelbrot, Didier

2015-01-01

32

Obesity Virus  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity has many causes, but there is growing evidence that common viruses may contribute to the condition in some people. Recently, Nikhil Dhurandhar and his colleagues at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center infected human stem cells with Ad-36, a common virus known to be associated with obesity in humans. They found that the cells they exposed to the virus accumulated a much higher amount of fat than uninfected cells.

Science Update (AAAS;)

2007-06-12

33

Obesity and poverty paradox in developed countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity is a civilization disease and the proportion of people suffering from it continues to grow, especially in the developed countries. Number of obese people in Europe has increased threefold over the last 20 years. The paradox of obesity and poverty relationship is observed especially in the developed and developing countries. In developing countries, along with economic development and income growth, the number of people with overweight and obesity is increasing. This paradox has a relationship with both the easy availability and low cost of highly processed foods containing ‘empty calories’ and no nutritional value. To date, this paradox has been described in the United States and the United Kingdom, although many European countries are also experiencing high percentages of obese people. Among the reasons for the growing obesity in the population of poor people are: higher unemployment, lower education level, and irregular meals. Another cause of obesity is low physical activity, which among the poor is associated with a lack of money for sports equipment. Due to the large rate of deaths caused by diseases directly linked to obesity, the governments of many countries implement prevention programmes of overweight and obesity. These programmes are based primarily on educating the public about a healthy lifestyle based on healthy eating, daily physical activity and avoiding alcohol and cigarettes.

Wioletta ?ukiewicz-Sobczak

2014-09-01

34

Childhood Obesity Facts  

Science.gov (United States)

... gov . Adolescent and School Health Share Compartir Childhood Obesity Facts Childhood obesity has more than doubled in ... environmental factors. 5,6 Health Effects of Childhood Obesity Obese Youth Over Time: Selected U.S. States Maps ...

35

Defining Overweight and Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

... Overweight and Obesity Share Compartir Defining Overweight and Obesity Overweight and obesity are both labels for ranges ... MRI). Assessing Health Risks Associated with Overweight and Obesity BMI is just one indicator of potential health ...

36

Hormones and Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

... Hormones and Obesity Share: Fact Sheet Hormones and Obesity March, 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Caroline Apovian, MD Judith Korner, MD, PhD What is obesity? Obesity is a chronic (long-term) medical problem ...

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Invited Commentary: Childhood and Adolescent Obesity--Psychological and Behavioral Issues in Weight Loss Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity has tripled in the past three decades. This increase has been accompanied by a dramatic rise in obesity-related health complications among American youth. Thus, many obese youth are now experiencing illnesses that will threaten their life expectancy in the absence of significant weight loss.…

Sarwer, David B.; Dilks, Rebecca J.

2012-01-01

38

Experiencing Security in Interaction Design  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Security is experienced differently in different contexts. This paper argues that in everyday situations, users base their security decisions on a mix of prior experiences. When approaching security and interaction design from an experience approach, tools that help bring out such relevant experiences for design are needed. This paper reports on how Prompted exploration workshops and Acting out security were developed to target such experiences when iteratively designing a mobile digital signature solution in a participatory design process. We discuss how these tools helped the design process and illustrate how the tangibility of such tools matters. We further demonstrate how the approach grants access to non-trivial insights into people's security experience. We point out how the specific context is essential for exploring the space between experience and expectations, and we illustrate how people activate their collections of security experiences rather than deploying one security strategy in all situations.

Mathiasen, Niels Raabjerg; BØdker, Susanne

2011-01-01

39

Protocol for: Sheffield Obesity Trial (SHOT): A randomised controlled trial of exercise therapy and mental health outcomes in obese adolescents [ISRCNT83888112  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background While obesity is known to have many physiological consequences, the psychopathology of this condition has not featured prominently in the literature. Cross-sectional studies have indicated that obese children have increased odds of experiencing poor quality of life and mental health. However, very limited trial evidence has examined the efficacy of exercise therapy for enhancing mental health outcomes in obese children, and the Sheffield Obesity Trial (SHO...

Wright Neil P; Copeland Robert J; Daley Amanda J; Kh, Wales Jerry

2005-01-01

40

O-Glycosyl Donors  

Science.gov (United States)

O-Glycosyl donors, despite being one of the last successful donors to appear, have developed themselves into a burgeoning class of glycosyl donors. They can be classified in two main types: O-alkyl and O-aryl (or hetaryl) glycosyl donors. They share, however, many characteristics, they can be (1) synthesized from aldoses, either by modified Fisher glycosidation (O-alkyl) or by nucleophilic aromatic substitution (O-aryl or O-hetaryl), (2) stable to diverse chemical manipulations, (3) directly used for saccharide coupling, and (4) chemoselectively activated. Among these, n-pentenyl glycosides stand apart. They were the first O-alkyl glycosyl donors to be described and have paved the way to many conceptual developments in oligosaccharide synthesis. The development of the chemoselectivity-based "armed-disarmed" approach for saccharide coupling, including its stereoelectronic or torsional variants, now extended to other kinds of glycosyl donors, was first recognized in n-pentenyl glycosides. The chemical manipulation of the anomeric substituent in the glycosyl donor to induce reactivity differences between related species (sidetracking) was also introduced in n-pentenyl glycosides. An evolution of this concept, the "latent-active" strategy for glycosyl couplings, first described in thioglycosyl donors (vide infra), has been elegantly applied to O-glycosyl donors. Thus, allyl and vinyl glycosides, 2-(benzyloxycarbonyl)benzyl (BCB) glycosides and 2'-carboxybenzyl (CB) glycosides are useful "latent-active" glycosyl pairs. Finally, unprotected 3-methoxy-2-pyridyl (MOP) glycosides have been used in glycosylation processes with moderate success.

López, J. Cristóbal

 
 
 
 
41

Polyfluoropyridyl Glycosyl Donors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Synthesis of stereochemically defined oligosaccharides by a series of glycosylation processes involving the reaction between a glycosyl donor and acceptor is essential to synthetic carbohydrate chemistry and glycobiology. However, despite the importance of glycosylation chemistry and the development of much sophisticated methodology, there remains no general and stereoselective procedure for the synthesis of oligo- and polysaccharides. Families of novel glycosyl donors have been conveniently ...

Hargreaves, Ca; Sandford, G.; Davis, Bg

2007-01-01

42

Experiencing sexuality after intestinal stoma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Identificar as Representações Sociais (RS) da pessoa estomizada intestinal sobre vivência da sexualidade após confecção do estoma. MÉTODOS: Estudo exploratório, descritivo, qualitativo do ponto de vista do referencial da Representação Social. Participaram 15 estomizados, sendo 8 mulheres, [...] com idade média de 57,9 anos, entre agosto e setembro de 2005. Dados obtidos por entrevistas, transcritas, foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo, originando a unidade temática "Ressignificando a sexualidade" e subtemas. RESULTADOS: Demonstrou-se que o estoma intestinal interfere na dinâmica da vivência da sexualidade, desvelando que os significados a ela atribuídos estão ancorados nas histórias individuais de vida, na qualidade das relações pessoais/conjugais estabelecidas na prática e na percepção da sexualidade, apesar do estoma. CONCLUSÕES: Representações Sociais sobre vivência da sexualidade após estoma estão ancoradas nos significados atribuídos ao corpo, veiculadas no cotidiano e presentes no imaginário social. É influenciada por outros fatores, como alterações fisiológicas decorrentes do ato cirúrgico e da existência de parceiro. Cuidados adotados nas práticas sexuais propiciam maior segurança e conforto nos momentos de intimidade, tornando-as mais próximas daquilo que vivenciavam antes do estoma. A autoirrigação, associada ou não ao oclusor, constituiu estratégia facilitadora para melhor aceitação do estoma, sendo essencial para vida sexual mais prazerosa. A assistência à pessoa estomizada deve ser integral, não se limitando apenas à doença e ao cuidado técnico, que são importantes, mas não únicos. O trabalho interdisciplinar da equipe de saúde deve vislumbrar a pessoa em sua totalidade, buscando real encontro entre sujeitos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Identify the Social Representations (SR) of ostomized people in terms of sexuality after the stoma. METHODS: An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study using the Social Representation Theory with 15 ostomized people (8 females), mean age of 57.9 years, between August and September 200 [...] 5. Data obtained from transcribed interviews were submitted to content analysis, resulting in the thematic unit "Giving new meaning to sexuality" and subthemes. RESULTS: The study demonstrated that the intestinal stoma interferes in the sexuality experience, showing that the meanings attributed to this experience are based on individual life stories, quality of personal relationships established in practice and perception of sexuality, despite the stoma. CONCLUSIONS: The Social Representations, in terms of experiencing sexuality after the stoma, are based on meanings attributed to the body, associated with daily life and present in the social imaginary. It is influenced by other factors, such as physiological changes resulting from the surgery and the fact of having or not a partner. Care taken during sexual practices provide greater security and comfort in moments of intimacy, resembling the closest to what ostomized people experienced before the stoma. The self-irrigation technique associated or not with the use of artificial occluder, has been attested by its users as a positive element that makes a difference in sexual practice after the stoma. The support to ostomized people should be comprehensive, not limited to technical care and disease, which are important, but not sufficient. The interdisciplinary health team should consider all aspects of the person, seeking a real meeting between subjects.

Maria Angela Boccara de, Paula; Renata Ferreira, Takahashi; Pedro Roberto de, Paula.

2012-06-01

43

Childhood Obesity  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive.  Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

2013-08-06

44

Obesidad / Obesity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La prevalencia está aumentando de forma alarmante en todo el mundo y en todas las edades. Las complicaciones aparecen cada vez antes, son ya visibles en niños y adolescentes: problemas psicológicos, de adaptación social, ortopédicos, hiperlipidemia, hipertensión, apneas del sueño... La obesidad infa [...] ntil es el principal factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de obesidad en el adulto, que se asocia a un mayor número de factores de riesgo cardiovascular y a la disminución de la esperanza de vida. Aunque existen factores genéticos, el aumento de la obesidad está claramente unido al cambio del estilo de vida (mayor ingesta calórica y menor actividad física). El tratamiento es difícil, requiere de una estrategia multidisciplinaria actuando sobre el paciente y su entorno (familia). Por este motivo es clave la prevención primaria estimulando un estilo de vida saludable. Abstract in english Obesity prevalence is an increasing and alarming problem in the whole world and at all ages. Important consequences are coming earlier and they are visible in childhood and adolescence: Psychological problems, social acceptance, orthopaedic problems, high level of lipids, hypertension, sleep apnoeas [...] ... Children's obesity is the main risk factor for adult obesity, what is related to more cardiovascular risk factors and to a decrease in life expectancy. Although there are genetics factors, the rise of obesity is eventually in relation with life stile (more food calories intake and less practice of physical activity). Treatment is difficult. It is mandatory a multidisciplinary strategy effort toward patients and their families. Primary prevention is a key factor through encouraging a healthy life style.

M., Duelo Marcos; E., Escribano Ceruelo; F., Muñoz Velasco.

2009-10-01

45

Living donor liver transplantation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The introduction of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been one of the most remarkable steps in the field of liver transplantation (LT). First introduced for children in 1989, its adoption for adults has followed only 10?years later. As the demand for LT continues to increase, LDLT provides life-saving therapy for many patients who would otherwise die awaiting a cadaveric organ. In recent years, LDLT has been shown to be a clinically safe addition to deceased donor liver transpla...

Nadalin, S.; Bockhorn, M.; Malago?, M.; Valentin-gamazo, C.; Frilling, A.; Broelsch, C. E.

2006-01-01

46

Hypothalamic obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following extensive suprasellar operations for excision of hypothalamic tumors, some patients develop morbid obesity, the so-called hypothalamic obesity (HyOb). HyOb complicates disorders related to the hypothalamus, including those that cause structural damage to the hypothalamus, pituitary macroadenoma with suprasellar extension, glioma, meningioma, teratoma, germ cell tumors, radiotherapy, Prader-Willi syndrome, and mutations in leptin, leptin receptor, POMC, MC4R and CART genes. It is conceivable that a subgroup of patients with 'simple obesity' also have HyOb. The hypothalamus regulates body weight by precisely balancing the intake of food, energy expenditure and body fat tissue. Orexigenic and anorexigenic hypothalamic centers (hyperphagia when impaired) play a central role, connecting to adipose tissue by means of an intricate efferent and afferent signals circuit. Other mechanisms by which the brain regulates adipose tissue and beta cells of the pancreas include the sympathetic nervous system, vagally mediated hyperinsulinemia and the endocrine system, namely growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. Corticotropin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone glucocorticoids and the 11beta-HSD-1 shuttle regulate lipolysis both directly and indirectly. All the above mechanisms may be impaired in HyOb. Management of HyOb targets the major manifestations: hyperphagia, autonomic dysfunction, hyperinsulinemia and impaired energy expenditure. Individual variation is considerable. Satisfactory therapy is currently unavailable. PMID:19955767

Hochberg, Irit; Hochberg, Ze'ev

2010-01-01

47

Obesity and Hispanic Americans  

Science.gov (United States)

... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 78 ... ss6104.pdf [PDF | 3.5MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

48

Disability and Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

... CDC Employees and Reasonable Accommodations (RA) Disability and Obesity Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir Overweight and ... and Disability at http://www.ncpad.org/ The Obesity Epidemic Obesity affects different people in different ways ...

49

Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome? Obesity hypoventilation (HI-po-ven-tih- ... NHLBI Research Featured in HBO Documentary Series on Obesity Hear people talk about their challenges and successes ...

50

Overweight and Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Overweight and Obesity? Español The terms "overweight" and "obesity" refer to ... disease risk. Rate This Content: Next >> Featured Video Obesity happens one pound at a time. So does ...

51

Obesity and African Americans  

Science.gov (United States)

... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6104.pdf [PDF | 3.5MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

52

Sex Differences in Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

... Campaigns Informational Videos Fact Sheet: Sex Differences in Obesity Part 1: Definitions and Epidemiology Part 2: Effects ... Part 3: Effects of Fat Distribution Part 4: Obesity’s Impact on Co-morbidities Part 5: Neural Mechanisms ...

53

Overweight and Obesity Statistics  

Science.gov (United States)

... to 29.9 Overweight 30 + Obesity 40 + Extreme obesity Children grow at different rates at different times, so ... energy balance tips toward weight gain, overweight, and obesity. Children need to balance their energy, too, but they ...

54

Childhood Obesity & Dental Disease: Common Causes, Common Solutions. Oral Health & Obesity Policy Brief  

Science.gov (United States)

Too many California children suffer from high rates of preventable chronic conditions associated with childhood obesity and dental disease. The state is experiencing a crisis in both areas. Fortunately, common factors that contribute to both conditions--including the rates of breastfeeding, access to healthy food and the consumption of…

Children Now, 2011

2011-01-01

55

Scientists Identify Four Candidate Obesity Genes in Mice  

Science.gov (United States)

Press release on a recent study where researchers developed a strain of mice more likely to be obese and then, using this strain, identified four genes in mouse chromosome 7 that may relate to obesity. This study, Â?Four Out of Eight Genes in a Mouse Chromosome 7 Congenic Donor Region are Candidate Obesity Genes,Â? was conducted by Craig H. Warden, Kari A. Sarahan, and Janis S. Fisler of the University of California, Davis. The study is published in Physiologic Genomics.

APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

2011-09-06

56

Analysis of complications in hepatic right lobe living donors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT has been expanding to adult recipients by using right lobe grafts. However, the incidence of complications is more frequent than that involving left lobe grafts. Hence, we aimed to analyze postoperative complications in right lobe liver donors as a step to improve the results in the donors. Methods : Three hundred and eleven right lobe liver donors were retrospectively reviewed between February 1998 and December 2003. Results : The ages of the donors ranged from 19 to 64 years (median: 46 years. Their body mass index ranged from 16.6 to 34.3 (median: 22.1. The mean duration of the operation was 6.58 (1.25 hours and blood loss was 289 (254 mL. The estimated median donor residual liver volume was 42.2% (range: 20.6-60.3% and the median hospital stay was 14.5 days (range: 6-267 days. One donor died of liver failure due to small residual liver volume (26% and steatohepatitis. One hundred and twenty three complications occurred in 104 donors (33.4%. Donors experienced one or more complications. According to the Clavien classification, grade I complications occurred in 71 of the episodes (57.7%, grade II complications in 9 (7.3%, grade IIIa complications in 39 (31.7%, grade IIIb complications in 3 (2.5%, and grade V complications in 1 (0.8%. Biliary complications were the most common and occurred in 37 donors (12%. Conclusion : Right lobe liver donation is a widely accepted procedure that results in the expansion of the indication for LDLT to adults and large children. However, remnant liver size and anatomical variations in the biliary tree represent important risk factors for postoperative complications.

Azzam Ayman

2010-01-01

57

Health risks of obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is becoming of interest as a non-communicable disease. There is however a dearth of information on obesity in this environment, as literature in developing countries is limited. Review of health risks of obesity is useful in order to increase the pool of available information in Nigeria and to draw attention to obesity and its attendant health risks. PMID:25161465

Ogunbode, A M; Fatiregun, A A; Ogunbode, O O

2009-12-01

58

BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN  

CERN Document Server

A blood donors campaign, organized by the Établissement de Transfusion de Rhône-Alpes will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2000 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

2000-01-01

59

BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN  

CERN Document Server

Tuesday 19 March 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion sanguine of Geneva If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

Medical Service

2002-01-01

60

BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN  

CERN Multimedia

Wednesday 13 November 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs will be held a blood donors campaign, organized by the Etablissement de Transfusion de Haute-Savoie If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN  

CERN Multimedia

A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion Sanguine of Geneva will be held at CERN on Tuesday 13 March 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

2001-01-01

62

BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN  

CERN Multimedia

A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion d'Annemasse will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

2001-01-01

63

Losing the genetic twin: donor grief after unsuccessful unrelated stem cell transplantation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem cell transplantations from related or unrelated donors are used to cure leukaemia and other blood diseases. When a patient dies after an unsuccessful transplantation, interested unrelated donors are informed about the failure by their donor centre. Studies focussing on failed related donations show that donors undergo an intense grieving process. As there are only two investigations about reactions from unrelated donors, knowledge about their reactions is less comprehensive. Methods We conducted a prospective study of reactions of unrelated donors to the information of failed transplantations, subject to various communication methods (letter, phone. Questionnaires were sent to 395 unrelated donors who received the news of their recipients' deaths between November 2005 and August 2006. In addition, twelve in-depth interviews with selected donors were carried out. Results Unrelated donors were emotionally affected by the recipients' deaths, and it is appropriate to speak about a "Donor Grief" phenomenon, as the results of 325 returned questionnaires (return rate 82.3% and in-depth interviews show. Donors demonstrated a range of feelings such as sadness, disappointment, grief, and helplessness. These feelings were often unexpectedly intense given the fact that the recipient was a stranger. Although the news caused grief, donors underlined that they nevertheless wanted to be informed. They preferred knowledge of the failure to uncertainty. The method of providing the information is only of secondary importance. Most donors favoured the way of communication they had experienced. Conclusion This result indicates that both phone and letter communication can be justified. However, phone communication seems to be superior with respect to aspects of sensitivity. In spite of transplantation failure and the associated negative feelings, most donors were happy to have donated and would be willing to do so again. Our results underline the special responsibility of donor centres for informing and supporting unrelated volunteer donors in case their recipients have died.

Rall Gabi

2009-01-01

64

Obesity in show dogs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity is an important disease with a growing incidence. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, and decreases life span, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain breeds is often suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of o...

Corbee, R. J.

2012-01-01

65

Adverse events among 2408 unrelated donors of peripheral blood stem cells: results of a prospective trial from the National Marrow Donor Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

Limited data are available describing donor adverse events (AEs) associated with filgrastim mobilized peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collections in unrelated volunteers. We report results in 2408 unrelated PBSC donors prospectively evaluated by the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) between 1999 and 2004. Female donors had higher rates of AEs, requiring central line placement more often (17% vs 4%, P95 kg vs <70 kg, OR=1.49). Six percent of donors experienced grade III-IV CALGB toxicities and 0.6% experienced toxicities that were considered serious and unexpected. Complete recovery is universal, however, and no late AEs attributable to donation have been identified. In conclusion, PBSC collection in unrelated donors is generally safe, but nearly all donors will experience bone pain, 1 in 4 will have significant headache, nausea, or citrate toxicity, and a small percentage will experience serious short-term adverse events. In addition, women and larger donors are at higher risk for donation-related AEs. PMID:19190248

Pulsipher, Michael A; Chitphakdithai, Pintip; Miller, John P; Logan, Brent R; King, Roberta J; Rizzo, J Douglas; Leitman, Susan F; Anderlini, Paolo; Haagenson, Michael D; Kurian, Seira; Klein, John P; Horowitz, Mary M; Confer, Dennis L

2009-04-01

66

Adverse events among 2408 unrelated donors of peripheral blood stem cells: results of a prospective trial from the National Marrow Donor Program  

Science.gov (United States)

Limited data are available describing donor adverse events (AEs) associated with filgrastim mobilized peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collections in unrelated volunteers. We report results in 2408 unrelated PBSC donors prospectively evaluated by the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) between 1999 and 2004. Female donors had higher rates of AEs, requiring central line placement more often (17% vs 4%, P 95 kg vs < 70 kg, OR = 1.49). Six percent of donors experienced grade III-IV CALGB toxicities and 0.6% experienced toxicities that were considered serious and unexpected. Complete recovery is universal, however, and no late AEs attributable to donation have been identified. In conclusion, PBSC collection in unrelated donors is generally safe, but nearly all donors will experience bone pain, 1 in 4 will have significant headache, nausea, or citrate toxicity, and a small percentage will experience serious short-term adverse events. In addition, women and larger donors are at higher risk for donation-related AEs. PMID:19190248

Chitphakdithai, Pintip; Miller, John P.; Logan, Brent R.; King, Roberta J.; Rizzo, J. Douglas; Leitman, Susan F.; Anderlini, Paolo; Haagenson, Michael D.; Kurian, Seira; Klein, John P.; Horowitz, Mary M.; Confer, Dennis L.

2009-01-01

67

Eating habits and obesity among Lebanese university students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background In the past year Lebanon has been experiencing a nutritional transition in food choices from the typical Mediterranean diet to the fast food pattern. As a consequence, the dietary habits of young adults have been affected; thus, overweight and obesity are increasingly being observed among the young. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity on a sample of students from the Lebanese American University (in Beirut) and t...

Abdallah Abbass; Achkar Alice; Yahia Najat; Rizk Sandra

2008-01-01

68

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... well matched from, for example, a close family member, the recipient has to take anti-rejection medications ... third of our donors are not immediate family members or blood relatives of donors. We saw earlier ...

69

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... potential donor; serious medical condition, such as HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness ... donor, my life really hasn’t changed. My health is just as good now as it ever ...

70

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. We started the laparoscopic approach to donor nephrectomies in 1999. My partner, Dr. ... really actually have better visualization with the laparoscopic approach. When we do the kidney transplant, one of ...

71

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... open incision. There is a screening process for potential donors. It’s important to emphasize that donating a ... every step possible to make sure that the potential donor is medically and surgically an acceptable candidate. ...

72

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... is their intended recipient donor is blood-type B, so they’re not compatible. But if there ... would donate to the A recipient and the B donor to the B recipient. And those are ...

73

Donor Registries and Search Strategies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The optimal donor of hematopoietic progenitor cells shares alleles of the major histocompatibility genes with the recipient. This chapter describes the strategies aimed at identifying such a matched donor from registries of volunteers or from umbilical cord blood banks.

Hurley, Carolyn Katovich; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Setterholm, Michelle

2012-01-01

74

Management of Young Blood Donors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The emphasis on high-school blood drives and acceptance of 16-year-old blood donors led to more research on physiologic and psychological ways to decrease vasovagal reaction rates in young blood donors and to increase donor retention. Research on how to accomplish this has been advantageous for the blood collection industry and blood donors. This review discussed the current situation and what can be done psychologically, physiologically, and via process improvements to decrease vasovagal rea...

Newman, Bruce H.

2014-01-01

75

Replication of obesity and associated signaling pathways through transfer of microbiota from obese-prone rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aberrations in gut microbiota are associated with metabolic disorders, including obesity. However, whether shifts in the microbiota profile during obesity are a characteristic of the phenotype or a consequence of obesogenic feeding remains elusive. Therefore, we aimed to determine differences in the gut microbiota of obese-prone (OP) and obese-resistant (OR) rats and examined the contribution of this microbiota to the behavioral and metabolic characteristics during obesity. We found that OP rats display a gut microbiota distinct from OR rats fed the same high-fat diet, with a higher Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio and significant genera differences. Transfer of OP but not OR microbiota to germ-free (GF) mice replicated the characteristics of the OP phenotype, including reduced intestinal and hypothalamic satiation signaling, hyperphagia, increased weight gain and adiposity, and enhanced lipogenesis and adipogenesis. Furthermore, increased gut permeability through conventionalization resulted in inflammation by proinflammatory nuclear factor (NF)-?B/inhibitor of NF-?B kinase subunit signaling in adipose tissue, liver, and hypothalamus. OP donor and GF recipient animals harbored specific species from Oscillibacter and Clostridium clusters XIVa and IV that were completely absent from OR animals. In conclusion, susceptibility to obesity is characterized by an unfavorable microbiome predisposing the host to peripheral and central inflammation and promoting weight gain and adiposity during obesogenic feeding. PMID:24430437

Duca, Frank A; Sakar, Yassine; Lepage, Patricia; Devime, Fabienne; Langelier, Bénédicte; Doré, Joël; Covasa, Mihai

2014-05-01

76

CDC Vital Signs: Adult Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

... About CDC.gov . Vital Signs Share Compartir Adult Obesity Obesity Rises Among Adults August 2010 72M+ More than ... eating and active living. Issue Details Problem Adult Obesity Obesity is a national epidemic, causing higher medical ...

77

Overweight and Obesity during Pregnancy  

Science.gov (United States)

... added to your dashboard . Overweight and obesity during pregnancy Being overweight or obese during pregnancy can cause ... women (25 percent) is obese. What kinds of pregnancy complications can overweight and obesity cause? If you’ ...

78

Obesity in children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

INTRODUCTION: Obesity is the result of long-term energy imbalances, where daily energy intake exceeds daily energy expenditure. Along with long-term health problems, obesity in children may also be associated with psychosocial problems, including social marginalisation, low self-esteem, and impaired quality of life. Most obese adolescents stay obese as adults. Obesity is increasing among children and adolescents, with 16.8% of boys and 15.2% of girls in the UK aged 2 to 15 years obese in 2008...

Canoy, D.; Bundred, P.

2007-01-01

79

Soccer kick kinematic differences between experienced and non-experienced soccer players  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: to examine kinematic differences of instep soccer kick between experienced and non-experienced soccer players. Subjects: 17 men between 17 and 21 years old. Methodology: a 3D film system with 4 cameras was used. Maximum power instep kicks were executed. It was analyzed feet velocity in the impact, maximum hip extension, maximum knee flexion and kick phases duration. Results: were found significant differences in feet velocity with non-dominant leg in the impact moment (m/s (Experienced: 14.5±.52, Non-experienced: 12.5±.5; p<.001 and maximum hip extension (degrees (Experienced: 39.2 ± 1.3, Non-experienced: 34.28±3.2; p<.001. Also were significant differences in the second phase duration in both legs (p<.05. Conclusions: Maximum instep soccer kick show significant differences between groups of different level only in non-dominant leg.

Muñoz López, Alejandro

2012-01-01

80

Usable donor lungs: exploring the hidden part of the iceberg.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lung transplantation (LTx) remains the only effective treatment of selected patients suffering from end-stage respiratory disease. However, its main limitation is represented by the shortage of suitable organs. In the last years, LTx is progressively changing in the clinical arena and different strategies aiming to increase the number of usable donor lungs have been reported. Many efforts have been employed to improve management of donor during donation and to treat marginal or even initially rejected grafts ex-vivo. The evolving scenario is showing excellent clinical results of the employment of those strategies. Castleberry et al. analyzed outcomes of LTx using grafts coming from brain-dead donors experiencing cardiac arrest. They examined data from the United Network for Organ Sharing database and they showed comparable results with the use of such grafts suggesting a potential way to increase the number of lung transplant procedures. The article gives a strong message to all clinicians involved in the hard field of transplantation. For those taking care of donors, they should always consider donors suffering from cardiac arrest suitable for lung donation despite pulmonary function because gas exchange can be eventually optimized with ex-vivo perfusion techniques. On the other side, surgeons should feel more comfortable using such grafts. If these lungs have a normal function while in the donor, their use for clinical transplantation provides good results and if they are dysfunctional EVLP could allow a restoration of optimal oxygenation after retrieval. PMID:24619020

Boffini, M; Solidoro, P

2014-03-11

 
 
 
 
81

Aging, experienced nurses: their value and needs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nursing workforce mirrors the trend in population; that is, it is aging. Subsequently, older nurses experiencing some aging effects themselves are caring for more elderly patients needing more assistance with illness and wellness problems. To meet the growing demand for care in this era of nursing shortage, predicted to last beyond 2020, these nurses are needed to remain in the workforce longer. Lack of nurses in the workplace compromises patient care and increases job stress. Therefore, retention incentives need to be implemented to assist aging, experienced nurses to delay retirement or prevent them from leaving the profession early, as well as encouraging younger and future nurses to work longer. This article focuses on aging nurses, describing their demographics and needs, explicating their value and listing the resources and benefits needed to prolong their vital services in the workforce. (For this article, aging, older and mature refer to experienced nurses in their 40s, 50s and 60s.). PMID:17563332

Fitzgerald, Dorcas C

2007-04-01

82

Donor transplant programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The transplantation of organs and tissues from one human to another human has become an essential and well established form of therapy for many types of organ and tissue failure. In Malaysia, kidney, cornea and bone marrow transplantation are well established. Recently, liver, bone and heart transplanation have been performed. Unfortunately, because of the lack of cadaveric organ donation, only a limited number of solid organ transplantation have been performed. The cadaveric organ donor rate in Malaysia is low at less than one per million population. The first tissue transplanted in Malaysia was the cornea which was performed in the early 1970s. At that time and even now the majority of corneas came from Sri Lanka. The first kidney transplant was performed in 1975 from a live related donor. The majority of the 629 kidney transplants done at Hospital Kuala Lumpur to date have been from live related donors. Only 35 were from cadaver donors. Similarly, the liver transplantation programme which started in 1995 are from live related donors. A more concerted effort has been made recently to increase the awareness of the public and the health professionals on organ and tissue donation. This national effort to promote organ and tissue donation seems to have gathered momentum in 1997 with the first heart transplant successfully performed at the National Heart Institute. The rate of cadaveric donors has also increased from a previous average of I to 2 per year to 6 per year inverage of I to 2 per year to 6 per year in the last one year. These developments are most encouraging and may signal the coming of age of our transplantati on programme. The Ministry of Health in conjunction with various institutions, organizations and professional groups, have taken a number of proactive measures to facilitate the development of the cadaveric organ donation programme. Efforts to increase public awareness and to overcome the negative cultural attitude towards organ donation have been intensified. Equally important are efforts to promote the concept and understanding of organ donation among health professionals. A review of the Human Tissues Act 1974 which governs organ and tissue donation in this country is being undertaken. A number of seminars have been held to garner the support of religious groups in the promotion of organ donation. A major weakness had been the lack of a national organizational framework to facilitate and coordinate the development of organ donation and transplantation in this country. Therefore a National Transplantation Coordinating Committee and a Transplant Programme Working Committee have been formed to oversee the development and implementation of national policy guidelines and programmes. With these measures it is hoped that the donor transplant programme in Malaysia will be one of the success stories of the future

83

Reducing Childhood Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

84

Obesity and Anesthesia  

Science.gov (United States)

... Anesthesia Sleep Apnea and Anesthesia Smoking and Anesthesia Obesity and Anesthesia More than one-third of Americans ... Sleep Apnea, a chronic medical problem common with obesity, can present with serious breathing problems before, during, ...

85

Obesity and Asian Americans  

Science.gov (United States)

... findings/nhqrdr/nhqrdr12/index.html HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ... nhqrdr12/index.html At a Glace – Risk Factors Obesity is a risk factor for several diseases. For ...

86

Obesity: Pathophysiology and Intervention  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pathophysiological mechanisms such as impaired brain circuit regulation and neuroendocrine hormone dysfunction. Dieting and physical exercise offer the mainstays of obesity treatment, and anti-obesity drugs may be taken in conjunction to reduce appetite or fat absorption. Bariatric surgeries may be performed in overtly obese patients to lessen stomach volume and nutrient absorption, and induce faster satiety. This review provides a summary of literature on the pathophysiological studies of obesity and discusses relevant therapeutic strategies for managing obesity. PMID:25412152

Zhang, Yi; Liu, Ju; Yao, Jianliang; Ji, Gang; Qian, Long; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Guansheng; Tian, Jie; Nie, Yongzhan; Zhang, Yi Edi.; Gold, Mark S.; Liu, Yijun

2014-01-01

87

Obesity: pathophysiology and intervention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pathophysiological mechanisms such as impaired brain circuit regulation and neuroendocrine hormone dysfunction. Dieting and physical exercise offer the mainstays of obesity treatment, and anti-obesity drugs may be taken in conjunction to reduce appetite or fat absorption. Bariatric surgeries may be performed in overtly obese patients to lessen stomach volume and nutrient absorption, and induce faster satiety. This review provides a summary of literature on the pathophysiological studies of obesity and discusses relevant therapeutic strategies for managing obesity. PMID:25412152

Zhang, Yi; Liu, Ju; Yao, Jianliang; Ji, Gang; Qian, Long; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Guansheng; Tian, Jie; Nie, Yongzhan; Zhang, Yi Edi; Gold, Mark S; Liu, Yijun

2014-11-01

88

Obesity: Pathophysiology and Intervention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pathophysiological mechanisms such as impaired brain circuit regulation and neuroendocrine hormone dysfunction. Dieting and physical exercise offer the mainstays of obesity treatment, and anti-obesity drugs may be taken in conjunction to reduce appetite or fat absorption. Bariatric surgeries may be performed in overtly obese patients to lessen stomach volume and nutrient absorption, and induce faster satiety. This review provides a summary of literature on the pathophysiological studies of obesity and discusses relevant therapeutic strategies for managing obesity.

Yi Zhang

2014-11-01

89

Morbid Obesity - Anaesthetic Management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity means excessive body fat. The term obese, derived from Latin word means fattened by eating. The amount of fat tissue may increased to such an extent that mental and physical health is affected and life expectancy is reduced.

Manimala Rao, Dr S.

2003-01-01

90

Diets of obese and non-obese children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim: To compare diets between obese and non-obese in children. Methods: Thirty-four obese and ten non-obese school children were recruited and their habitual factors of obesity were asked. Intakes of food in the obesity and non-obesity groups were checked using a model nutritional balance chart (MNBC). Results: Average intake ratio of food relative to ideal food intake was significantly higher in the non-obesity group than the obesity group. The relationship between obesity and exercise was s...

Atsuko Satoh; Seiko Fujita; Kazuko Menzawa; Sangun Lee; Masao Miyamoto; Hidatada Sasaki

2011-01-01

91

Children's Actions when Experiencing Domestic Violence  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this article is, by analysing children's discourses, to investigate their actions or absence of actions during a domestic violence episode. The empirical data are recorded group therapy sessions and individual interviews with children who have grown up experiencing their fathers' violence against their mothers. The analysis shows that…

Overlien, Carolina; Hyden, Margareta

2009-01-01

92

Coping Processes of Couples Experiencing Infertility  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored the coping processes of couples experiencing infertility. Participants included 420 couples referred for advanced reproductive treatments. Couples were divided into groups based on the frequency of their use of eight coping strategies. Findings suggest that coping processes, which are beneficial to individuals, may be…

Peterson, Brennan D.; Newton, Christopher R.; Rosen, Karen H.; Schulman, Robert S.

2006-01-01

93

Obesity and craniopharyngioma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract An epidemic of pediatric obesity has occurred across the world in recent years. There are subgroups within the population at high-risk of becoming obese and especially of having experience of precocious cardiovascular and metabolic co-morbidities of obesity. One of these subgroups comprises patients treated for childhood cancers and namely survivors of craniopharyngioma. The high incidence of obesity in this group makes these patients an important disease model to better un...

Bruzzi Patrizia; Iughetti Lorenzo

2011-01-01

94

The Complexity of Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

With Americans fatter and more malnourished than ever--almost two-thirds of the population is considered overweight or obese compared with 56 percent in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and people of color and the poor are the most obese of all--federal and university researchers and outreach workers from various anti-obesity organizations aim to…

Gray, Katti

2010-01-01

95

Obesity and respiratory diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.Keywords: obesity, lung function, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, anesthesia

Christopher Zammit

2010-10-01

96

Childhood Obesity: An Overview  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…

Reilly, John J.

2007-01-01

97

Diets of obese and non-obese children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: To compare diets between obese and non-obese in children. Methods: Thirty-four obese and ten non-obese school children were recruited and their habitual factors of obesity were asked. Intakes of food in the obesity and non-obesity groups were checked using a model nutritional balance chart (MNBC. Results: Average intake ratio of food relative to ideal food intake was significantly higher in the non-obesity group than the obesity group. The relationship between obesity and exercise was significant but not significant for intake ratio of food, times watching TV and playing games. Conclusion: Food intake is not a primary factor of obesity but exercise is a key factor for obesity in school children. Since the effect of diet intervention in obese children was slight, exercise habit would be a more important strategy to reduce obesity than diet in school children.

Atsuko Satoh

2011-08-01

98

Diets of obese and non-obese older subjects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: To compare diets between obese and non-obese in healthy older subjects. Methods: Forty-five obese and eighty-seven non-obese older subjects were recruited and their habitual factors that may contribute to obesity were assessed. Intakes of food by food-group in the obesity and non-obesity groups were checked using a visual type presentation of model nutriational balance chart (MNBC. Results: Average intake ratio of food relative to ideal food intake was significantly higher in the obesity group than the non-obesity group. The relationship of obesity and exercise or habitual activities was not significant. Conclusion: Food intake is a primary factor of obesity but regular exercise or habitual activities is not a key factor for obesity in older subjects. Since exercise habit is difficult to achieve in older subjects, particularly those who are obese, food control using the present visualtype MNBC would be one strategy forthe management of obesity.

James P. Butler

2013-03-01

99

Diets of obese and non-obese older subjects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim: To compare diets between obese and non-obese in healthy older subjects. Methods: Forty-five obese and eighty-seven non-obese older subjects were recruited and their habitual factors that may contribute to obesity were assessed. Intakes of food by food-group in the obesity and non-obesity groups were checked using a visual type presentation of model nutriational balance chart (MNBC). Results: Average intake ratio of f...

Butler, James P.; Chiaki Kitamiy; Atsuko Satoh; Hideaki Kudoh; Sangun Lee; Hidetada Sasaki; Yukoh Yaegashi

2013-01-01

100

Donor compensation: an ethical imperative!  

Science.gov (United States)

The number of living organ donors is increasing worldwide, but donor needs are widely neglected in support of anticommodification policies. This article argues that the warrant of donor autonomy during the decision process to donate is only one requirement of adequate donor care. Another is the donor's protection against the systematic and institutional exploitation of his altruistic dispositions. People with the disposition to support those, who are in desperate need, with a nonrenewable part of their own body, despite a small but unavoidable risk of death or health impairment, do not deserve to be additionally burdened with further disincentives, such as financial risks and uncompensated costs of donation. And although the borderline between a morally required disincentive removal and a more controversial net incentive to boost donation might be vague and open to discussion, to disadvantage living donors by design constitutes a serious barrier to the fairness of living organ donation-a barrier that should be removed. PMID:20172295

Reichardt, J-O

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Obesity and contraception: controversy?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rebecca D Goldberg, Stefanie C Cardamone, Amitasrigowri S MurthyDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Obesity is increasing worldwide and is affecting the reproductive health of women. Contraceptive considerations are difficult in obese women given concerns about efficacy and comorbid conditions. Once surgical treatment of obesity has occurred and weight loss initiated, fertility risks increase and unintended pregnancy can result; often at the time of greatest weight loss. Family planning counseling in the obese patient must account for both preoperative conditions as well as postoperative return to fertility.Keywords: obesity, contraception, bariatric surgery

Goldberg RD

2012-01-01

102

Obesity in obstetrics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is a rising global epidemic. Obesity during pregnancy is associated with increased maternal and fetal risks, which is inversely correlated with the severity level of obesity. Other comorbidities are common (diabetes mellitus, hypertensive disorders, etc.) and contribute to an even increased risk. Maternal obesity during pregnancy contributes also to offspring obesity and noncommunicable diseases later in life in a vicious cycle. Managing these problems, and potentially reducing their risk, can pose a challenge in obstetric care. It is important to provide preconception nutritional and exercise care, and guidance during pregnancy and post pregnancy for appropriate weight loss. PMID:25214436

Liat, Salzer; Cabero, Luis; Hod, Moshe; Yogev, Yariv

2015-01-01

103

Iron deficiency in blood donors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Context: Blood donation results in a substantial loss of iron (200 to 250 mg) at each bleeding procedure (425 to 475 ml) and subsequent mobilization of iron from body stores. Recent reports have shown that body iron reserves generally are small and iron depletion is more frequent in blood donors than in non-donors. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors and to establish the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors according to s...

Armando Cortés; Martha Lucía Jiménez; Ariadna Fajardo; Gloria Valencia; Martha Cecilia Marín; Norma Sandoval

2005-01-01

104

Challenges in obesity research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is the main nutritional problem and one of the most important health problems in developed societies. Central to the challenge of obesity prevention and management is a thoroughly understanding of its determinants. Multiple socio-cultural, socio-economic, behavioural and biological factors--often interrelated and many of them still unknown or poorly understood--can contribute to the establishment and perpetuation of obese phenotypes. Here, we address current research challenges regarding basic aspects of obesity and emerging science for its control, including brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and browning of white fat as possible therapeutic targets for obesity, the influence of the microbioma, and genetics, epigenetics, nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics of obesity. We also highlight hot topics in relation to food and lifestyle as determinants of obesity, including the brain mechanisms underlying environmental motivation to eat, the biological control of spontaneous physical activity, the possible role of concrete foods and food components, and the importance of early life nutrition and environment. Challenges regarding the connections of obesity with other alterations and pathologies are also briefly addressed, as well as social and economical challenges in relation to healthy food production and lifestyle for the prevention of obesity, and technological challenges in obesity research and management. The objective is to give a panoramic of advances accomplished and still ahead relevant to the different stakeholders engaged in understanding and combating obesity. PMID:24010755

Palou, Andreu; Bonet, M Luisa

2013-09-01

105

Experience of severe desaturation during anesthetic induction period in an obese adult patient with Prader-Willi syndrome -A case report-  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prader-Willi syndrome is characterized by infantile hypotonia, childhood-onset obesity, short stature, mental retardation, hyperphagia, hypogonadism. After infantile hypotonia phase, patient is prone to morbid obesity due to hyperphagia. Complications associated with morbid obesity are recognized as the main risk factors for death the lifespan of patients with Prader-Willi syndrome. We experienced desaturation and bronchospasm during arteriovenous fistula surgery in an obese adult with Prader...

Choi, Joon Woo; Kim, Eun-ju; Min, Byung Woo; Ban, Jong Seouk; Lee, Sang Gon; Lee, Ji-hyang

2012-01-01

106

Obesity: an emerging disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is rapidly becoming an emerging disease in developing countries due to the increasing westernization of societies and change in the lifestyle. The etiology of obesity is said to be multifactorial, with a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Literature has been extensively reviewed to provide a broad overview of obesity. Data for this review were obtained from original articles, review articles and textbooks. Internet search engines were also employed. The years searched were from 1993 to 2008. Obesity, classified in terms of the body mass index and the waist-hip ratio, has several associated co-morbidities such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, degenerative osteoarthritis and infertility. In Nigeria, there is limited information on obesity. A literature review on obesity is necessary to improve the knowledge about obesity in developing countries, its prevention and its management. PMID:22248935

Ogunbode, A M; Ladipo, Mma; Ajayi, I O; Fatiregun, A A

2011-01-01

107

Donor Smoking Negatively Affects Donor and Recipient Renal Function following Living Donor Nephrectomy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background. While tobacco use by a renal transplant recipient has been shown to negatively affect graft and patient survival, the effect of smoking on the part of the kidney donor remains unknown. Methods. 29 smoking donors (SD) and their recipients (SD-R) as well as 71 non-smoking donors (ND) and their recipients (ND-R) were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative demographics and perioperative variables including serum creatinine (Cr) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were calculated and ...

Heldt, Jonathan; Torrey, Robert; Han, Daniel; Baron, Pedro; Tenggardjaja, Christopher; Mclarty, Justin; Lindler, Tekisha; Baldwin, D. Duane

2011-01-01

108

[Obesity and heart].  

Science.gov (United States)

Cardiovascular complications of obesity are traditionally considered an important complication of obesity. Obesity itself is probably not direct cause of atherosclerosis or coronary heart disease. This may occur indirectly in metabolic complications of obesity, especially diabetes and metabolic syndrome. However, thrombogenicity potential of obesity contributes to embolism and atherosclerosis development. In cardiology is well-known a phenomenon of obesity paradox when obese patients have better prognosis than thin. This is the case of heart failure and some other cardiovascular diseases. Recently, a new concept has emerged of myokines - hormones from muscle tissue that have extensive protective effects on organism and probably on heart. Whether heart is a source of myokines is uncertain. However, undoubted importance has epicardial and pericardial fatty tissue. The epicardial fatty tissue has mainly protective effects on myocardium. This fatty tissue may produce factors of inflammation affecting the myocardium. Relationship between amount of epicardial fatty tissue and coronary heart disease is rather pathogenic. Currently, it is certain that obesity brings more metabolic and cancer complications than cardiovascular and accurate contribution to pathogenic or protective character of fatty tissue in cardiology requires further research. Nevertheless, the conclusion is that adipose tissue of organism and around the heart may be in some circumstances beneficial.Key words: adipokines - complications of obesity - epicaridal fatty tissue - myokines - obesity paradox - pericardial fatty tissue. PMID:25692834

Sva?ina, Št?pán

2014-12-01

109

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Boston. Dr. Joseph Murray was awarded the Nobel Prize for that pioneering work. And we’ve had a lot of talk about the safety for the living donors. The donor for that operation turned 80 last year, which is really quite an accomplishment. On ...

110

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... can do a paired donation; a paired donation exchange, living donor exchange, where the A donor would donate to the ... commonplace. They’re the first of the matched exchanges. Here is an interesting question, and I’ll ...

111

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... two to three days until they can eat solid foods. A few images of the procedure show ... long does a kidney survive out of the body in Well there ... there’s a donor whose blood-type A is their intended recipient donor is blood- ...

112

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... are kept in ice to slow down their metabolism, and they tolerate this fairly well. Although the ... be, let’s say there’s a donor whose blood-type A is their intended recipient donor is blood- ...

113

Donor registries and search strategies.  

Science.gov (United States)

The optimal donor of hematopoietic progenitor cells shares alleles of the major histocompatibility genes with the recipient. This chapter describes the strategies aimed at identifying such a matched donor from registries of volunteers or from umbilical cord blood banks. PMID:22665254

Hurley, Carolyn K; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Setterholm, Michelle

2012-01-01

114

75 FR 58400 - Donor Management Research: Improvements in Clinical Management of Deceased Organ Donors  

Science.gov (United States)

...furthered knowledge regarding clinical management of donors...specific organ systems and not on donor management approaches...all organ systems. The CIOP...regarding donor management. A Donor...scientific knowledge that...

2010-09-24

115

78 FR 66366 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Use of Donor Screening Tests To Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Donor Screening Tests To Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular...Donor Screening Tests to Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular...Donor Screening Tests to Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and...

2013-11-05

116

Early trauma and adult obesity: is psychological dysfunction the mediating mechanism?  

Science.gov (United States)

Several studies have shown that physical and/or sexual abuse during childhood may lead to the development of obesity later in life. Despite these consistent findings, the mechanism for the increased risk of obesity following developmental trauma is unknown. It has been suggested that psychological dysfunction, including the presence of disordered eating behavior, may account for the added risk of adult obesity. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the prevalence and severity of different types of early traumatic life events, assessed the presence of co-existing psychiatric disorders and measured adult attachment style in a sample of 200 subjects including non-obese healthy volunteers and obese participants undergoing a psychiatric assessment to determine suitability for bariatric surgery. Participants who scored higher on a scale measuring the severity of traumatic events experienced during the first 15years of their lives were more likely to be obese at the time of testing. The exclusion of the participants who experienced physical and/or sexual abuse did not change the results of statistical analysis. Severity of early trauma remained a significant predictor of adult obesity when the influence of psychiatric diagnosis and anxious attachment was taken into account. These findings suggest that: (1) not only sexual or physical abuse but also less severe forms of early-life stress are linked to the development of obesity later in life; and (2) psychological dysfunction is not the only mechanism mediating the elevated risk of obesity in persons exposed to early-life trauma. PMID:19733190

D'Argenio, Alberto; Mazzi, Cristina; Pecchioli, Luca; Di Lorenzo, Giorgio; Siracusano, Alberto; Troisi, Alfonso

2009-12-01

117

Donor heart selection: the outcome of "unacceptable" donors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The decline in the number of suitable donor hearts has led to an increasing interest in the use of previously unacceptable donors. In the United Kingdom, if one centre declines a donor heart on medical grounds it may be offered to other centres. This multi-centre study aimed to evaluate the outcome of recipients of donor hearts considered medically unsuitable for transplantation by one centre that were used in other centres. Methods Between April 1998 and March 2003, ninety-three donor hearts (group A were transplanted, after being considered medically unsuitable for transplantation by another centre. During the same period, 723 hearts (group B were transplanted in the UK using donors not previously rejected. Data on the donors and recipients was obtained from the UK transplant database. Comparative analysis on the two groups was performed using SPSS 11.5 for Windows. Results The characteristics of recipients were similar in both groups. The main reasons for refusal of hearts are listed below. In most cases there was more than one reason for refusing the donor heart. We did not find significant differences in the post-operative mortality (up to 30 days, ICU and hospital stay and cardiac cause of death between the two groups. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed no significant difference in the long-term survival, with Log Rank test = 0.30. Conclusion This study demonstrates that some hearts declined on medical grounds by one centre can safely be transplanted and should be offered out nationally. The use of these hearts was useful to expand the scarce donor pool and there does not seem to be a justification for denying recipients this extra source of organs.

Barnard Jim

2007-02-01

118

Obesity and pregnancy.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: As obesity is an increasing problem among fertile women, it is crucial that specialists involved in the treatment of these women be aware of the risks of complications and know how to deal with them. Complications associated with obesity in pregnancy are gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertensive disorders, and thromboembolic complications. Complications associated with obesity in labor are augmentation, early amniotomy, cephalopelvic disproportion, cesarean section, and perioperative morbidity. Complications associated with obesity in children are macrosomia, shoulder dystocia, small for gestational age, late fetal death, and congenital malformations, especially neural tube defects. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to review the potential complications associated with obesity and pregnancy. RESULTS: Obesity is associated with a higher risk of all reviewed complications except small for gestational age.

Andreasen, Kirsten Riis; Andersen, Malene Lundgren

2004-01-01

119

Obesity, Orthopaedics, and Outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity, one of the most common health conditions, affects an ever-increasing percentage of orthopaedic patients. Obesity is also associated with other medical conditions, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, metabolic syndrome, and obstructive sleep apnea. These comorbidities require specific preoperative and postoperative measures to improve outcomes in this patient population. Patients who are obese are at risk for increased perioperative complications; however, orthopaedic procedures may still offer notable pain relief and improved quality of life. PMID:25344593

Mihalko, William M; Bergin, Patrick F; Kelly, Frank B; Canale, S Terry

2014-11-01

120

Obesity - A Preventable Disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity is a common and preventable disease of clinical and public health importance. It is often a major risk factor for the development of several non-communicable diseases, significant disability and premature death. There is presently a global epidemic of obesity in all age groups and in both developed and developing countries. The increasing prevalence of obesity places a large burden on health care use and costs. Weight loss is associated with significant health and economic benefits. E...

Ofei, F.

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Obesity: A multifactorial disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity represents one of the most serious global health issues with approximately 310 million people presently affected. Main cause of it’s development is the increase of energy intake in regard to energy expenditure.Aim: The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the causes and treatment of obesity, as well as the anthropometrical measurements used for the assessment of obesity. The method ?f this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature, mainly in the “pub med data base” which referred to the causes and treatment of obesity, as well as the anthropometrical measurements used for the assessment of obesity. Results: The prevalence of obesity has increased markedly, throughout the world. Although the etiology of obesity has not been fully understood yet, however it seems to be a multifactorial disease for which are responsible a great deal of psychological, environmental, genetic and behavioral factors. The most common anthropometrical measurement that is used for assessment of obesity is Body Mass Index (BMI and is calculated by the following equation: ???=Weight/Height2. A value of ??? ? 30 kg/m2 equals obesity. Another simple test used to measure obesity is Waist to Hip Ratio, which measures abdominal adiposity. Values greater than 0,95 should be treated seriously as they normally indicate body fatness. The majority of studies show that life-style modification in conjunction with a well-balanced nutrition and regular physical exercise consist the cornerstone for the treatment and prevention of obesity.Conclusions: Obesity is a disease that can be preventable through modification of way of living. The development of proper strategy prevention capable to change attitudes, to promote nutrition and physical activity should be the primary goal of every community and government.

Marianna Ntokou

2010-04-01

122

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity is becoming a major medical concern in several parts of the world, with huge economic impacts on health- care systems, resulting mainly from increased cardiovascular risks. At the same time, obesity leads to a number of sleep-disordered breathing patterns like obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS), leading to increased morbidity and mortality with reduced quality of life. OHS is distinct from other sleep- related breathing disorders although overlap may ex...

Al Dabal Laila; BaHammam Ahmed

2009-01-01

123

Obesity: Pathophysiology and Intervention  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pat...

Yi Zhang; Ju Liu; Jianliang Yao; Gang Ji; Long Qian; Jing Wang; Guansheng Zhang; Jie Tian; Yongzhan Nie; Yi Edi. Zhang; Gold, Mark S.; Yijun Liu

2014-01-01

124

Obesity: A multifactorial disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity represents one of the most serious global health issues with approximately 310 million people presently affected. Main cause of it’s development is the increase of energy intake in regard to energy expenditure.Aim: The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the causes and treatment of obesity, as well as the anthropometrical measurements used for the assessment of obesity. The method ?f this study included bibliography research from both the review and the rese...

Marianna Ntokou; Maria Saridi

2010-01-01

125

Obesity: causes and consequences  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity is increasing sharply around the world, in both adults and children. In the UK, national surveys show that obesity has trebled in 20 years and now affects almost a quarter of the adult population. There is a similar incidence of overweight in young people. Obesity is associated with significant increases in morbidity (especially type 2 diabetes) and the risk of premature mortality (especially from cardiovascular disease). Reductions in body weight of even 5-10% are associated with a s...

Jebb, S.

2004-01-01

126

The Genetics of Obesity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity is a result of excess body fat accumulation. This excess is associated with adverse health effects such as CVD, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. The development of obesity has an evident environmental contribution, but as shown by heritability estimates of 40% to 70%, a genetic susceptibility component is also needed. Progress in understanding the etiology has been slow, with findings largely restricted to monogenic, severe forms of obesity. However, technological and analytical advances ...

Herrera, Blanca M.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.

2010-01-01

127

Prevalence and association between obesity and metabolic syndrome among Chinese elementary school children: a school-based survey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background China has experienced an increase in the prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity over the last decades. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome among Chinese school children and determine if there is a significant association between childhood obesity and metabolic syndrome. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1844 children (938 males and 906 females) in six elementary schoo...

Liu AiLing; Lin Rong; Liu WeiJia; Du Lin; Chen Qing

2010-01-01

128

Physics Climate as Experienced by LGBT+ Physicists  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2009, Elena Long created the LGBT+ Physicists website (http://lgbtphysicists.x10hosting.com) as a warehouse for resources useful for sexual and gender minorities working in physics. This resource has grown to include networking resources, lists of LGBT-friendly universities and localities, recommendations for enacting positive change in physics communities, and out-reach to other STEM-oriented LGBT organizations. This has been possible in large part by the dynamic community of LGBT+ physicists and allies looking to make physics more welcoming towards our community. In 2011, Elena used hir position as Member at Large on the executive committee of the Forum of Graduate Student Affairs (FGSA) to conduct a climate survey that included, among other things, the first serious look at LGBT+ demographics in physics. The survey focused particularly on issues of language heard and harassment experienced by physicists and was broken down into categories based on race, physical and mental ability, gender, and sexuality. Furthermore, it examined the outcomes of experienced harassment and the reasons for when harassment was not reported. Due to the nature of the study, overlapping demographics, especially ``multiple minorities,'' were also explored. This talk will give a brief history of the LGBT+ Physicists resource as well as an overview of the FGSA study.

Long, Elena

2012-02-01

129

Hypothalamic obesity in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypothalamic obesity is an intractable form of obesity syndrome that was initially described in patients with hypothalamic tumours and surgical damage. However, this definition is now expanded to include obesity developing after a variety of insults, including intracranial infections, infiltrations, trauma, vascular problems and hydrocephalus, in addition to acquired or congenital functional defects in central energy homeostasis in children with the so-called common obesity. The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying hypothalamic obesity are complex and multifactorial. Weight gain results from damage to the ventromedial hypothalamus, which leads, variously, to hyperphagia, a low-resting metabolic rate; autonomic imbalance; growth hormone-, gonadotropins and thyroid-stimulating hormone deficiency; hypomobility; and insomnia. Hypothalamic obesity did not receive enough attention, as evidenced by rarity of studies in this group of patients. A satellite symposium was held during the European Congress of Obesity in May 2011, in Istanbul, Turkey, to discuss recent developments and concepts regarding pathophysiology and management of hypothalamic obesity in children. An international group of leading researchers presented certain aspects of the problem. This paper summarizes the highlights of this symposium. Understanding the central role of the hypothalamus in the regulation of feeding and energy metabolism will help us gain insights into the pathogenesis and management of common obesity. PMID:22577758

Bereket, A; Kiess, W; Lustig, R H; Muller, H L; Goldstone, A P; Weiss, R; Yavuz, Y; Hochberg, Z

2012-09-01

130

Obesity in show cats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018

Corbee, R J

2014-12-01

131

Behavioral treatment of obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Great population studies do not confirm the hypothesis that atypical personality of obese would exist. Obeses in the generalpopulation do not present more psychological disturbs thanthe ones that are not obeses. Obeses adolescents and adultsare discriminated in their academic and professional lifes. Thissocial, cultural, economic and affective impoverishment seemsto be directly related to the gravity of their obesity, what means,higher the ICM (Index of Corporal Mass, bigger are thepsychological problems. This abandonment contributes to thebig risk of unchain psychiatric pictures as depression, anxyetdisturbs, drugs and alcoholic excessive consumption andalimentary disturbs. Obeses of the general population do notpresent more psychological or psychiatric symptoms than theclinical population of obeses (obeses under treatment, presentmore clinical and psychiatric problems, mainly compulsoryalimentary standards. Some studies indicate that there is alinear relation between the ICM and the highest frequency ofalimentary compulsory behavior or bulimic episode. Thepsychiatric patients negative body perception added to theirother negative perceptions about their performance in searchingsocial interaction increase the trend to the isolation. Thepsychiatric picture presence in the bariatric surgery preoperatoryin a III degree overweight pacient has not to be facedas absolute surgery counter indication since such procedurecan be the difference between giving a better life quality orwaiting for a potentially lethal complication. We cannot forgetthat the obesity itself, due to the common associatedcomorbidyties, loads a great lethality potential. The surgerycounter-indication could be relative, it depending on how muchthe psychiatric disturbs interfere on the treatment andconditioned to the rigorous psychiatric control in the anteriorand post surgical period.

Táki Athanássios Cordas

2006-03-01

132

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some of these conditions. And once we’ ... different. But I would just go home and sleep or lay on the couch because I was ...

133

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some of these conditions. ... d like to celebrate here the two real stars of our webcast today, Anna and Sarah, who ...

134

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... medical condition, such as HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity ... long-term risks for health problems such as diabetes, which in turn can cause kidney disease, but ...

135

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... sites, including seven acute care hospitals, four advanced imaging centers, seven nursing homes, and three assisted-living ... such as HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some ...

136

Recruiting unrelated donors for the National Marrow Donor Program.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Medical advances have made bone marrow transplantation the treatment of choice for certain hematologic diseases. For those patients eligible for a marrow transplant only about 30 percent find an HLA-compatible match within their families. Studies indicate that unrelated volunteers are willing to donate their marrow. The National Marrow Donor Program was formed in 1986 as a result of a federal contract. This group is a network of donor centers, transplant centers, and collection centers. The C...

Yanke, D. R.

1990-01-01

137

Forgiveness in Wives Experiencing Domestic Violence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to describe forgivenessand the factors contribute to it in wives experiencing domestic violence who choose to save their marriages in UPT-P2TP2A Kota Bandung. Descriptive method was employed in this study with 15 participants as the subjects. The data were gathered through forgiveness measurement adopted and based in the forgiveness theory proposed by McCullough. Its reliability score was 0,721. The results of the study revealed that 73, 3% of domestic violence victims who insist to save their marriages did forgive or gave for forgiveness. Among the factors determine the forgiveness, the low Rumination factor as well as high personal and moral commitment, encouraged a wife to forgive. Forgiveness showed by a wife, in some way impacted on the domestic violence doer. It lessened the intensity of the violence.

Dewi Sartika

2014-05-01

138

Donor milk: current perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Francesca Giuliani,1 Ilaria Rovelli,1 Chiara Peila,1 Stefania Alfonsina Liguori,2 Enrico Bertino,1 Alessandra Coscia1 1SCDU Neonatologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Pediatriche e dell'Adolescenza, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy; 2SC Neonatologia, Ospedale Maria Vittoria, Torino, Italy Abstract: Mother's own milk is widely recognized as the optimal feeding for term infants, but increasing evidence exists of its benefits also for sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units. However, the nutritional needs for appropriate growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of such a particular population of infants should be attentively evaluated, considering also the indication to an appropriate fortification of human milk. The target is to achieve growth potential for preterm newborns while ensuring good metabolic outcomes and normal neurological development. When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, donor human milk (DHM represents the second best choice and, although somewhat modified by the Holder pasteurization process, it preserves many benefits when compared to formula, as documented by more and more reports, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analyses published in the past few years. Evidence exists of the protection exerted by DHM from necrotizing enterocolitis, while further studies are required to look at possible beneficial effects regarding infections, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, long-term cardiovascular risk factors, feeding tolerance, neurological outcome, and allergy. Finally, the concern that the use of DHM might decrease preterm infant breastfeeding is being raised. Conversely, publications exist showing that the use of DHM in the neonatal unit increases breastfeeding rates at discharge for infants of very low birth weight. Keywords: human milk, preterm infant feeding, milk bank, breast milk, mother's own milk, pasteurized human milk, fortification

Giuliani F

2014-07-01

139

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... kidney is safe. It has an excellent safety record both here and nationwide. To ensure that, we ... donor, my life really hasn’t changed. My health is just as good now as it ever ...

140

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... urine tests are done. 1 And then after all that is done, the potential donor meets with ... and this makes Dr. Colonna’s work of hooking all this back up more tedious but still works ...

 
 
 
 
141

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... a wonderful hospital. It was designated as a magnet hospital for its outstanding nursing care. For the ... look at a video of a donor recipient pair from here at Sentara. In the ‘80s, I ...

142

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... ll answer. “Does the living donor experience weight loss?” Just from being in the hospital and not ... for a couple of days, maybe some weight loss from that. The kidney doesn’t weigh enough ...

143

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery Sentara Norfolk General Hospital, Norfolk, Virginia March 25, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” webcast presentation presented by Sentara Healthcare. ...

144

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... tolerate that better than a kidney from an older donor. But our routine is to try to ... A few programs in the country will transplant older recipients. We did have a historian out there ...

145

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... of work for a little while and my child is grown and I don’t have to ... donor, Anna, a question that pertains to having children. “What was your understanding about being able to ...

146

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... was no benefit to that, and at a finite risk to the patient. There are some patients ... a transplanted kidney? That’s one of the key differences between deceased donor kidneys and a living kidney. ...

147

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery Sentara Norfolk General Hospital, Norfolk, Virginia March 25, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” webcast presentation presented by Sentara Healthcare. Sentara Healthcare is a not-for- ...

148

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... has recognized Norfolk general as one of the 50 best hospitals in the America for patients with ... office. It was really, really quite moving. Over 50 years now of being a donor, he’s still ...

149

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... donor transplant and have to have dialysis early after surgery. It does occasionally happen, but it is less ... affect kidney function. And then about four weeks after surgery, I’ll see them back in the office. ...

150

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... of a machine, have a better quality of life. It ended up not happening until 2001. It ... Since I’ve become a kidney donor, my life really hasn’t changed. My health is just ...

151

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... see it beginning to show up behind the fat here, and now it’s more exposed, you can ... ll answer. “Does the living donor experience weight loss?” Just from being in the hospital and not ...

152

Being a Living Donor: Risks  

Science.gov (United States)

... long term complications: Long-Term Organ Specific Donor Complications Kidney Hypertension Kidney failure Proteinuria Lung Intra-operative ventricular fibrillation arrest Postoperative pulmonary artery thrombosis Bronchopleural fistula Pleural effusion Empyema ...

153

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... recipient. That’s where you see some of these eight-way transplants where this kidney goes to the ... kidney function is more than enough to make 8 you perfectly healthy. And most donors have no ...

154

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Transplant meetings they had a celebration of the event and that donor it was there to accept ... webcast screen and open the door to informed medical care. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health.

155

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... first the potential donor meets with a social worker and a psychologist, and there are also some ... make sure that there’s no reason that this person can’t get there through the surgery okay ...

156

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... process, first the potential donor meets with a social worker and a psychologist, and there are also ... of a machine, have a better quality of life. It ended up not happening until 2001. It ...

157

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the past that, for whatever reason, had eventually failed and they’re coming for a second ... for our donor, Anna. “Anna, thinking back over the course after surgery, how long did ...

158

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... from Nancy. The question is, “Is there a weight restriction on potential donors?” The answer to that is, “Yes.” We look closely not at the weight but the body mass index, which is a ...

159

Obesity and Women  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This women's health podcast focuses on obesity in women and girls. It discusses obesity-related health risks and includes tips to help achieve and maintain a healthy weight.  Created: 5/11/2009 by Office of Womenâ??s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/11/2009.

2009-05-11

160

Obesity: A Bibliographic Review  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of obesity is a relatively new interdisciplinary academic field. The community college library shelves should contain two types of resources. First, several kinds of reference materials, and second, a host of broader materials that place the discussion of obesity within a cultural framework. This overview is divided into two major…

McGowan, Beth

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Childhood Obesity PSA (:60)  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This 60 second public service announcement is based on the August 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. The rate of obesity among low-income preschoolers has declined, but one in eight is still obese. This program briefly discusses what can be done.  Created: 8/6/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/6/2013.

2013-08-06

162

GENETICS OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is a complex disease influenced by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Because of its complexity, obesity does not conform to simple Mendelian patterns of inheritance, but displays variable expression. Classical genetic studies on twins, siblings and nuclear families clearly have est...

163

Morbid Obesity - Anaesthetic Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity means excessive body fat. The term obese, derived from Latin word means fattened by eating. The amount of fat tissue may increased to such an extent that mental and physical health is affected and life expectancy is reduced.

Dr. S. Manimala Rao

2003-04-01

164

Updated selection of unrelated donor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For some time now, the transplant of haematopoietic stem cells (HSC from unrelated adult donors or from umbilical cord blood is an effective treatment that is widely used to treat malignant and non-malignant haematological disorders. From the first HSC unrelated transplants in the 1990’s to the present day, the strategy of identification and the selection of an unrelated HSC donor have undergone a profound evolution...

S. Pollichieni

2013-01-01

165

Updated selection of unrelated donor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For some time now, the transplant of haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) from unrelated adult donors or from umbilical cord blood is an effective treatment that is widely used to treat malignant and non-malignant haematological disorders. From the first HSC unrelated transplants in the 1990’s to the present day, the strategy of identification and the selection of an unrelated HSC donor have undergone a profound evolution...

Pollichieni, S.; Marciano, R.; Vagnozzi, F.; Madia, F.; Costa, C.; Sacchi, N.

2013-01-01

166

Mass Transfer from Giant Donors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The stability of mass transfer in binaries with convective giant donors remains an open question in modern astrophysics. There is a significant discrepancy between what the existing methods predict for a response to mass loss of the giant itself, as well as for the mass transfer rate during the Roche lobe overflow. Here we show that the recombination energy in the superadiabatic layer plays an important and hitherto unaccounted-for role in he donor's response to mass loss, i...

Pavlovskii, K.; Ivanova, N.

2014-01-01

167

[DNA methylation in obesity].  

Science.gov (United States)

The number of overweight and obese people is increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the developed and developing countries. Obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, and in consequence for premature death. The development of obesity results from the interplay of both genetic and environmental factors, which include sedentary life style and abnormal eating habits. In the past few years a number of events accompanying obesity, affecting expression of genes which are not directly connected with the DNA base sequence (e.g. epigenetic changes), have been described. Epigenetic processes include DNA methylation, histone modifications such as acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, as well as non-coding micro-RNA (miRNA) synthesis. In this review, the known changes in the profile of DNA methylation as a factor affecting obesity and its complications are described. PMID:25531701

Pokrywka, Ma?gorzata; Kie?-Wilk, Beata; Polus, Anna; Wybra?ska, Iwona

2014-01-01

168

Obesity and craniopharyngioma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract An epidemic of pediatric obesity has occurred across the world in recent years. There are subgroups within the population at high-risk of becoming obese and especially of having experience of precocious cardiovascular and metabolic co-morbidities of obesity. One of these subgroups comprises patients treated for childhood cancers and namely survivors of craniopharyngioma. The high incidence of obesity in this group makes these patients an important disease model to better understand the metabolic disturbances and the mechanisms of weight gain among cancer survivors. The hypothalamic-pituitary axis damage secondary to cancer therapies or to primary tumor location affect long-term outcomes. Nevertheless, the aetiology of obesity in craniopharyngioma is not yet fully understood. The present review has the aim of summarizing the published data and examining the most accepted mechanisms and main predisposing factors related to weight gain in this particular population.

Bruzzi Patrizia

2011-08-01

169

Polycystic ovaries and obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Almost 50% of the women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are obese. Obesity in PCOS affects reproduction via various mechanisms. Hyperandrogenism, increased luteinizing hormone (LH) and insulin resistance play a pivotal role. Several substances produced by the adipose tissue including leptin, adiponectin, resistin and visfatin may play a role in the pathophysiology of PCOS. Infertility in PCOS is related to anovulation. For induction of ovulation, clomiphene citrate and human gonadotrophins are first- and second-line treatments, respectively. Other treatment modalities include the use of insulin sensitizers, such as metformin as well as aromatase inhibitors and laparoscopic ovarian drilling, while in vitro fertilization is the last resort. Obesity can adversely affect infertility treatment in PCOS. Diet and lifestyle changes are recommended for the obese women before they attempt conception. The use of anti-obesity drugs and bariatric surgery in PCOS require further evaluation. PMID:25487256

Messinis, Ioannis E; Messini, Christina I; Anifandis, George; Dafopoulos, Konstantinos

2014-11-12

170

[Monogenic obesity in human].  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is a heterogeneous pathologic condition that is driven by interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors. The discovery of leptin has provided the useful clue to the molecular dissection of central pathways involved in the regulation of food intake and body weight. Monogenic obesity in human has been documented. Several obesity causing genes within the leptin-POMC-melanocortin axis have been identified: Leptin, leptin receptor, proopiomelanocortin (POMC), prohormone convertase 1 (PC1), and melanocortin receptor-4 (MC4-R) genes. The patients who have a mutation of such genes developed early onset of obesity and distinct metabolic abnormalities. Also, several gene mutations have been identified in some syndromes presenting hereditary symptomatic obesity. PMID:23631210

Onigata, Kazumichi

2013-02-01

171

The perception of pedestrians from the perspective of elderly experienced and experienced drivers.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined hazard perception (HP) abilities among elderly experienced and experienced drivers, with regard to the presence of pedestrians in residential areas. Two evaluation methods were used: (a) observation of traffic scene videos and pressing a button when a hazardous situation was identified, and (b) driving in a driving simulator. The results of the video observation method showed that elderly drivers had a longer response time for hazard detection. In addition, four of the eight pedestrian-related events were difficult for elderly drivers to perceive when compared to experienced drivers. Elderly drivers, shown to have limited useful field of view, may also be limited in their ability to detect hazards, particularly when located away from the center of the screen. Results from the simulator drive showed that elderly drivers drove about 20% slower than experienced drivers, possibly being aware of their deficiencies in detecting hazards and slower responses. Authorities should be aware of these limitations and increase elderly drivers' awareness to pedestrians by posting traffic signs or dedicated lane marks that inform them of potential upcoming hazards. PMID:22062336

Bromberg, Shani; Oron-Gilad, Tal; Ronen, Adi; Borowsky, Avinoam; Parmet, Yisrael

2012-01-01

172

30 CFR 48.6 - Experienced miner training.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Experienced miner training. 48.6 Section 48.6 Mineral...EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING AND RETRAINING OF MINERS Training and Retraining of Underground Miners § 48.6 Experienced miner...

2010-07-01

173

Obesity and the lung: 3 · Obesity, respiration and intensive care  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity is a major problem from a public health perspective and a difficult practical matter for intensivists. The obesity pandemic has required treating clinicians to develop an appreciation of the substantial pathophysiological effects of obesity on the various organ systems. The important physiological concepts are illustrated by focusing on obstructive sleep apnoea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, abdominal compartment syndrome and ventilatory management of the obese patient with acute ...

Malhotra, A.; Hillman, D.

2008-01-01

174

Obesity in Children and Adolescents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Context: Although the prevalence rates of childhood obesity have seemingly been stable over the past few years, far too many children and adolescents are still obese. Childhood obesity, and its associated metabolic complications, is rapidly emerging as one of the greatest global challenges of the 21st century. About 110 million children are now classified as overweight or obese.

Cali, Anna M. G.; Caprio, Sonia

2008-01-01

175

Obesity and Pregnancy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity; a state of being 20% over one?s normal weight due to excessive fat; that is, it is defined as the accumulation of too much fat in the body. The rate of obesity in the world has elevated. In the last two decades, it is considered that there have been increases in the rates of the obesity with changes in the socio-economic state and nutritional habits in Turkey as well as in modern western countries. The increase of the obesity is a matter of concern but the aspect which is much more matter of concern is in the increase of obesity in women at the reproductive age or gradually increasing rate of being overweight. If the pregnant woman is obese, most of the physiological changes occurring during pregnancy may be various. During their childbearing years, obese women are at an increased risk for pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes, labour induction, caesareans births, and failed vaginal birth following to caesarean. Nurses should have the knowledge to adapt the care they provide according to this knowledge and encourage the pregnant women to acquire behaviours which will improve their health. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(4.000: 345-350

Serap Ejder Apay

2009-08-01

176

Obesity and atopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide, and weight gain has been shown to influence the development and clinical expression of various conditions including asthma. The relationships between atopy and obesity remain uncertain, both in adults and in children. Although there are physiopathologic mechanisms which could explain how obesity could influence the immune system and promote the process of sensitization, evidences in favour of a possible role of obesity on the development of atopy have been inconsistent. Furthermore, the bulk of evidence suggests that atopy does not mediate the relationship between obesity and asthma, although in some populations, particularly in children and women, such association has been reported. Such lack of relationship has also been found with rhinoconjunctivitis although it has been observed for atopic dermatis. Several factors may explain these variable results, including populational or environmental characteristics, socioeconomic status, confounding factors, in addition to sample size, and methodology of the performed studies. The possibility that obesity influences atopy through its effects on sex hormones is suggested by a more frequent link between atopy and obesity in women, particularly postpuberal. Further research should be conducted on the influence of weight gain on atopy and atopic diseases. PMID:25323112

Boulet, L-P

2015-01-01

177

Race and ethnicity influences collection of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cells from unrelated donors, a center for international blood and marrow transplant research analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little information exists on the effect of race and ethnicity on collection of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) for allogeneic transplantation. We studied 10,776 donors from the National Marrow Donor Program who underwent PBSC collection from 2006 to 2012. Self-reported donor race/ethnic information included Caucasian, Hispanic, Black/African American (AA), Asian/Pacific Islander (API), and Native American (NA). All donors were mobilized with subcutaneous filgrastim at an approximate dose of 10 ?g/kg/day for 5 days. Overall, AA donors had the highest median yields of mononuclear cells per liter and CD34(+) cells per liter of blood processed (3.1 × 10(9) and 44 × 10(6), respectively), whereas Caucasians had the lowest median yields at 2.8 × 10(9) and 33.7 × 10(6), respectively. Multivariate analysis of CD34(+) per liter mobilization yields using Caucasians as the comparator and controlling for age, gender, body mass index, and year of apheresis revealed increased yields in overweight and obese AA and API donors. In Hispanic donors, only male obese donors had higher CD34(+) per liter mobilization yields compared with Caucasian donors. No differences in CD34(+) per liter yields were seen between Caucasian and NA donors. Characterization of these differences may allow optimization of mobilization regimens to allow enhancement of mobilization yields without compromising donor safety. PMID:25316111

Hsu, Jack W; Wingard, John R; Logan, Brent R; Chitphakdithai, Pintip; Akpek, Gorgun; Anderlini, Paolo; Artz, Andrew S; Bredeson, Chris; Goldstein, Steven; Hale, Gregory; Hematti, Peiman; Joshi, Sarita; Kamble, Rammurti T; Lazarus, Hillard M; O'Donnell, Paul V; Pulsipher, Michael A; Savani, Bipin N; Schears, Raquel M; Shaw, Bronwen E; Confer, Dennis L

2015-01-01

178

Drug Therapy in Obese Adolescents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The behavior and dietary treatments are not so successful for extremely obese adolescents. Therefore, using drugs to treat extremely obese children and adolescents are among the modern approaches. This research aims to study the pharmaceutical interventions performed for treatment of obese children. Materials and Methods: The strategy of research was using of key words ‘obesity’, ‘adolescence’, ‘treatment’ and ‘anti-obesity drugs’ were searched in websites of PubMe...

Zinat Salem; Mohsen Rezaeian

2013-01-01

179

Obesity in women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is a common disorder affecting approximately 1 in 3 women. Assessment should consist of measuring BMI and waist circumference, a thorough history regarding nutrition, physical activity, and prior attempts at weight loss, and identification of obesity-related comorbidities. As a chronic disease, obesity requires management using a chronic care model employing multimodal therapy. Behavioral therapy to bring about changes in nutrition and physical activity can be supplemented with long-term use of medications (lorcaserin, orlistat, phentermine/topiramate) to help patients both achieve and maintain meaningful weight loss. PMID:24527479

Ryan, Donna H; Braverman-Panza, Jill

2014-02-01

180

Donor/Acceptor fulleropyrrolidine triads  

Science.gov (United States)

New C(60)-based triads, constituted by a fulleropyrrolidine moiety and two different electroactive units [donor 1-donor 2 (10, 15a,b), or donor 1-acceptor (17, 21)], have been synthesized by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of azomethyne ylides to C(60) and further acylation reaction on the pyrrolidine nitrogen. The electrochemical study reveals some electronic interaction between the redox-active chromophores. Triads bearing tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and ferrocene (Fc) (10) or pi-extended TTFs and Fc (15a,b) show reduction potentials for the C(60) moiety which are cathodically shifted in comparison to the parent C(60). In contrast, triads endowed with Fc and anthraquinone (AQ) (17) or Fc and tetracyanoanthraquinodimethane (TCAQ) (21) present reduction potentials for the C(60) moiety similar to C(60). Fluorescence experiments and time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy reveal intramolecular electron transfer (ET) processes from the stronger electron donor (i.e., TTF or extended TTF) to the fullerene singlet excited state, rather than from the poorer ferrocene donor in 10, 15a,b. No evidence for a subsequent ET from ferrocene to TTF(*)(+) or pi-extended TTF(*)(+) was observed. PMID:10970317

Herranz; Illescas; Martin; Luo; Guldi

2000-09-01

 
 
 
 
181

Prevalence of Obesity among Undergraduate Students of Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijagun, Ijebu-Ode  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent years, developing countries like Nigeria have been experiencing a nutritional transition in food choices from the typical starchy (mainly carbohydrate diets) to the fast food pattern and as a result of this, the dietary habits of young adults like university students have been affected. Thus, overweight and obesity are increasingly being observed among the young adults. This study assesses the prevalence of obesity on a sample of students from Tai Solarin University of Education in ...

Omotayo, O. A.; Olusanya, J. O.

2011-01-01

182

Behavioral risk factors for obesity during health transition in Vanuatu, South Pacific  

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The South Pacific archipelago of Vanuatu, like many developing countries, is currently experiencing a shift in disease burdens from infectious to chronic diseases with economic development. A rapid increase in obesity prevalence represents one component of this “health transition.” We sought to identify behaviors associated with measures of obesity in Vanuatu. We surveyed 534 adults from three islands varying in level of economic development. We measured height; weight; waist and hip circ...

Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Vilar, Miguel; Wilson, Michelle; Soloway, Laura E.; Dehuff, Christa; Chan, Chim; Tarivonda, Len; Regenvanu, Ralph; Kaneko, Akira; Lum, J. Koji; Garruto, Ralph M.

2013-01-01

183

A look at High Applicatives in Romanian: dative experiencers  

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Full Text Available Romanian has both Low Applicative Phrases and High Applicative Phrases. At present, Romanian dative experiencers are High Applicatives with a dative phrase as specifier, and an (obligatory dative clitic as head. Earlier Romanian dative experiencers differed from their modern counterparts. They were not Applicatives but Locatives, so they did not need to be expressed by a dative clitic, and did not require clitic doubling. Raising constructions display a restriction dubbed here as Experiencer Island. They cannot combine a dative experiencer in the matrix clause with a dative experiencer in the embedded clause. This is because experiencer clitics must be licensed by a deictic Tense. In raising constructions, deictic Tense is in the matrix clause, so locality prevents such a Tense from licensing more than one experiencer clitic at a time.

María Luisa Rivero

2009-01-01

184

Management of cadaveric organ donors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Because the supply of cadaveric organ donors is limited and their ICU management is complex, a multidisciplinary, well-coordinated, and institutionally supported approach to management is essential to ensure the maintenance of the current supply and to increase the future supply of organs and tissues that are suitable for transplantation. The potential organ donor is at high risk for instability as a direct consequence of the loss of physiologic homeostatic mechanisms that are dependent on functioning of the central nervous system. The keys to successful ICU management of the potential organ donor include a team approach that is focused on the anticipation of complications, appropriate physiologic monitoring, aggressive life support, with frequent reassessment and titration of therapy.

Pandurovi? M.

2008-01-01

185

Emotional Toll of Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

... that a heavy child is simply less likable. Self-Esteem & School Bullying True, some overweight children are very ... 5/11/2013 Source A Parent's Guide to Childhood Obesity: A Road Map to Health (Copyright © 2006 American ...

186

Energy Balance and Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies of energy balance and obesity as they relate to cancer. Aspects include the effects of body mass index (BMI), body composition (waist circumference, etc) dietary intake, and physical activity.

187

Obesity in children  

Science.gov (United States)

... blood pressure ( hypertension ) High blood cholesterol and triglycerides ( dyslipidemia or high blood fats) Heart attacks due to ... Task Force. Screening for Obesity in Children and Adolescents: Recommendation Statement . AHRQ Publication No. 10-05144-EF- ...

188

Live Donor Partial Hepatectomy for Liver Transplantation: Is There a Learning Curve?  

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Full Text Available Background: Donor safety is the first priority in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT.Objective: To determine the characteristics and outcome of live liver donors who underwent donor hepatectomyfrom January, 1997 to May, 2007 at Massachusetts General Hospital.Methods: 30 patients underwent LDLT between January, 1997 and May, 2007 at our institution.Results: The type of graft was the right lobe (segments 5-8 in 14, left lobe (segments 2-4 in 4, and left lateralsector (segments 2 and 3 in 12 patients. The mean donor age was 36 (range: 26-57 years. The mean follow-up was 48 (range: 18-120 months. No deaths occurred. Overall, 8 (26.6% patients experienced a total of 14 post-operative complications. Donor complications based on graft type were as follows: left lateralsector (16.7%, left lobe (25%, and right lobe (35.7%. The experience was divided into two periods 1997-2001 (n=15 and 2002-2007 (n=15. Overall complications during 2 periods were 40% and 13.3%, respectively (p<0.001. The incidence of grade III complication also significantly decreased; 66.7% vs 33.3% (p<0.01.Conclusion: Partial hepatectomy in living donors has a learning curve which appears to be approximately 15 cases. This learning curve is not restricted to the surgeons performing the procedure but involves all aspects of patient care.

R. F. Saidi

2010-07-01

189

Obesity: The Science Inside  

Science.gov (United States)

This booklet, part of The Science Inside series, discusses the importance of good health habits such as eating right and exercising. The Science Inside series presents science information in an easy-to-read format. This particular resource describes how the body takes in energy and what it does with excess energy. This booklet also covers the health problems caused by obesity, as well as how to prevent and treat obesity. Additional resources include a bibliography, and a glossary.

Science NetLinks (;)

2008-04-30

190

OBESITY AND VASCULAR DYSFUNCTION  

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One of the most profound challenges facing public health and public health policy in Western society is the increased incidence and prevalence of both overweight and obesity. While this condition can have significant consequences for patient mortality and quality of life, it can be further exacerbated as overweight/obesity can be a powerful stimulus for the development of additional risk factors for a negative cardiovascular outcome, including increased insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hy...

Stapleton, Phoebe A.; James, Milinda E.; Goodwill, Adam G.; Frisbee, Jefferson C.

2008-01-01

191

Knee osteoarthritis and obesity.  

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OBJECTIVES: To assess the risk of knee osteoarthritis (OA) attributable to obesity, and the interactions between obesity and other established causes of the disorder. METHODS: We performed a population-based case-control study in three health districts of England (Southampton, Portsmouth and North Staffordshire). A total of 525 men and women aged 45 y and over, consecutively listed for surgical treatment of primary knee OA, were compared with 525 controls matched by age, sex and family practi...

Coggon, D.; Reading, I.; Croft, P.; Mclaren, M.; Barrett, D; Cooper, C.

2001-01-01

192

Obesity and periodontal disease  

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Obesity is characterized by the abnormal or excessive deposition of fat in the adipose tissue. Its consequences go far beyond adverse metabolic effects on health, causing an increase in oxidative stress, which leads not only to endothelial dysfunction but also to negative effects in relation to periodontitis, because of the increase in proinflammatory cytokines. Thus obesity appears to participate in the multifactorial phenomenon of causality of periodontitis through the increased production ...

Jagannathachary Sunitha; Kamaraj Dinesh

2010-01-01

193

Genetics of obesity  

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Considerable attention is currently being paid to the secular changes in food intake and physical activity that underlie the increase in the prevalence of obesity that is apparent in many societies. While this is laudable it would be unwise to view these environmental factors in isolation from the biological factors that normally control body weight and composition and the compelling evidence that inter-individual differences in susceptibility to obesity have strong genetic determinants. This...

O Rahilly, Stephen; Farooqi, I. Sadaf

2006-01-01

194

Obesity and Appetite Control  

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Obesity is one of the major challenges to human health worldwide; however, there are currently no effective pharmacological interventions for obesity. Recent studies have improved our understanding of energy homeostasis by identifying sophisticated neurohumoral networks which convey signals between the brain and gut in order to control food intake. The hypothalamus is a key region which possesses reciprocal connections between the higher cortical centres such as reward-related limbic pathways...

Keisuke Suzuki; Jayasena, Channa N.; Bloom, Stephen R.

2012-01-01

195

Laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience of videolaparoscopic nephrectomy in live renal donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April 2000 to August 2003, 50 left nephrectomies in live donor were performed by videolaparoscopy for transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were male (56%) and 22 female (44%). Mean age was 37.2 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.1 kg/m². RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 179.5 minutes, and warm ischemia time of the graft was 3.79 minutes. ...

Mitre, Anuar I.; De?nes, Francisco T.; Piovesan, Affonso C.; Simo?es, Fabiano A.; Castilho, Li?sias N.; Sami Arap

2004-01-01

196

EATB Donor Case Workshop 2007.  

Science.gov (United States)

The European Association of Tissue Banks (EATB) Donor Case Workshop is a forum held within the programme of the EATB annual Congress since 2003. This workshop has been used to discuss clinical donor cases with peer review of practice. It was agreed in advance that the experience of the 2007 workshop should be shared by publication as an example of participative learning which can be extended to other fields within tissue banking and which may be applicable in other disciplines. The EATB Congress in 2008 will extend the idea of participative open workshops with two additional workshops, one on Quality System cases and another on heart valve cases. PMID:19224394

Saegeman, Veroniek S M; Chandrasekar, Akila; van Wijk, Marja J; Beele, Hilde; Montenero, Monica M; Navarro, Aurora; Van Geyt, Caroline; Bokhorst, Arlinke G; Fehily, Deirdre; Warwick, Ruth M

2009-11-01

197

Obesity and urolithiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current obesity epidemic in the United States has deleterious effects on the health of the population. Temporally related to the increase in obesity is an increase in the prevalence of urolithiasis. Epidemiologic studies have shown that the incident stone risk increases with body mass index. Obesity can increase stone risk in multiple ways. Excess nutritional intake increases traffic of lithogenic substances such as calcium, oxalate, and uric acid. Metabolic syndrome, commonly associated with obesity, alters renal acid-base metabolism, resulting in a lower urine pH and increased risk of uric acid stone disease. The low urine pH is caused by deficient ammonia production, which appears to be related to insulin resistance. Even weight-loss programs to combat obesity can influence stone risk. Contemporary bariatric surgery has been shown to frequently cause hyperoxaluria with associated stone formation and even oxalate nephropathy. Commonly used low-carbohydrate diets increase the risk of both calcium and uric acid stones. Certainly, the many health risks of obesity, including urolithiasis, necessitate weight loss, but recognition of the potential complications of such therapies is required to prevent induction of new and equally severe medical problems. The optimal approach to weight control that minimizes stone risk needs to be determined. PMID:19095201

Asplin, John R

2009-01-01

198

Obesity and vascular dysfunction.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most profound challenges facing public health and public health policy in Western society is the increased incidence and prevalence of both overweight and obesity. While this condition can have significant consequences for patient mortality and quality of life, it can be further exacerbated as overweight/obesity can be a powerful stimulus for the development of additional risk factors for a negative cardiovascular outcome, including increased insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. This manuscript will present the effects of systemic obesity on broad issues of vascular function in both afflicted human populations and in the most relevant animal models. Among the topics that will be covered are alterations to vascular reactivity (both dilator and constrictor responses), adaptations in microvascular network and vessel wall structure, and alterations to the patterns of tissue/organ perfusion as a result of the progression of the obese condition. Additionally, special attention will be paid to the contribution of chronic inflammation as a contributor to alterations in vascular function, as well as the role of perivascular adipose tissue in terms of impacting vessel behavior. When taken together, it is clearly apparent that the development of the obese condition can have profound, and frequently difficult to predict, impacts on integrated vascular function. Much of this complexity appears to have its basis in the extent to which other co-morbidities associated with obesity (e.g., insulin resistance) are present and exert contributing effects. PMID:18571908

Stapleton, Phoebe A; James, Milinda E; Goodwill, Adam G; Frisbee, Jefferson C

2008-08-01

199

Early prevention of obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating energy intake and expenditure and body size mainly occurs in the first 1,000 days of life. Therefore, factors affecting the foetal exposition to maternal metabolic environment and early postnatal nutrition are crucial in modulating the definition of the metabolic programming processes in the brain. Maternal diseases, mainly malnutrition for defect or excess, obesity and diabetes, placental disorders and dysfunctions, maternal use of alcohol and drugs, smoking, affect long term metabolic programming of the foetus with lifelong consequences. Similarly, early nutrition contributes to complete the long-term metabolic regulating framework initiated in the uterus. Breastfeeding, adequate weaning, attention to portion size and diet composition are potential tools for reducing the obesity risk later in childhood. Longitudinal randomized controlled studies are needed for exploring the efficacy of obesity prevention strategies initiated after conception.Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

Claudio Maffeis

2014-06-01

200

Dietary Polyphenols and Obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prevalence of overweight and obesity and their associated metabolic disorders are considered a major threat to the public’s health. While several diet and exercise programs are available for weight loss and prevention of weight regain, progress is often slow and disappointing. Recently, natural bioactive phytochemicals present in foods have been discovered for their potential health benefit effects on the prevention of chronic disorders such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory and metabolic diseases including obesity.Polyphenols are a class of naturally-occurring phytochemicals, of which some such as catechins, anthocynines, resveratrol and curcumin have been shown to modulate physiological and molecular pathways that are involved in energy metabolism, adiposity, and obesity. The potential in vivo, beneficial effects of these polyphenols on adiposity and obesity as complementary agents in the up-regulation of energy expenditure have emerged by investigating these compounds in cell cultures, animal models of obesity and in some human clinical and epidemiological studies. In this brief review, the efficacy of the above-named polyphenols and their potential efficacy to modulate obesity and some associated disorders are discussed.

Mohsen Meydani

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

Heteroaromatic donors in donor-acceptor-donor based fluorophores facilitate zinc ion sensing and cell imaging.  

Science.gov (United States)

The excited state intra molecular charge transfer (ICT) property of fluorophores has been extensively used for the design of fluorescent chemosensors. Herein, we report the synthesis and properties of three donor–?-acceptor–?-donor (D–?-A–?-D) based molecular probes BP, BT and BA. Two heteroaromatic rings, pyrrole (BP), and thiophene (BT) and a non-heteroaromatic ring N-alkoxy aniline (BA) were selected as donor moieties which were linked to a bipyridine binding site through a vinylic linkage. The heteroaromatic systems BP and BT perform selective and ratiometric emission signalling for zinc ions whereas the non-heteroaromatic probe BA does not. The advantages of the D–?-A–?-D design strategy in the design of ICT based probes for the selective fluorescent ratiometric signalling of zinc ions in biological media is discussed. Further, the use of BP, BT and BA for imaging Zn(2+) ions from MCF-7 cell lines is demonstrated. PMID:22875072

Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Divya, Kizhumuri P; Jayamurthy, Purushothaman; Mathew, Jomon; Anupama, V N; Philips, Divya Susan; Anees, Palappuravan; Ajayaghosh, Ayyappanpillai

2012-11-01

202

Is obesity related to deteriorating mental health of the U.S. working-age population?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined whether the association between obesity and non-specific mental distress has become stronger among the working-age population over time and whether a change in the association was moderated by particular socioeconomic characteristics. More than two million adults aged 20-55, from 1993 to 2010 (except for 2002), were analyzed using self-reported Mentally Unhealthy Days (a measure of non-specific mental distress) and Body Mass Index (BMI) from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System annual survey. This study found that prevalence of obesity more than doubled (p Mentally Unhealthy Days increased 20 % (p obesity (BMI ? 30) experienced around 0.32 (p Mentally Unhealthy Days than their counterparts without obesity in 1993, but the difference increased to 1.09 (p obesity prevention programs and mental health enhancement policies. PMID:24966112

Jung, Haeil; Chang, Chaeyoung

2015-02-01

203

Donor-acceptor phthalocyanine nanoaggregates.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel donor-acceptor bisphthalocyanine (bis-Pc, 1) in which two different Pc units (Zn(II)-Pc and Ni(II)-Pc) are linked via vinylene spacers to the pseudopara positions of a central [2.2]paracyclophane moiety is described. The synthesis of 1 is achieved by two successive Heck reactions of pseudopara-divinyl[2.2]paracyclophane 9 with, sequentially, a zinc(II)- and a nickel(II)-iodophthalocyanine (4 and 5, respectively). The self-assembly ability of 1, which is the result of the complementary donor-acceptor character of its phthalocyanine units, has been assessed by a variety of techniques. It is revealed that 1 forms one-dimensional aggregates of nanometer-sized dimension, whereas equimolar mixtures of the donor and acceptor Pc subunits 2 and 3, although strongly interacting, do not give large arrays. The aggregates of 1 represent a novel type of supramolecular polymers based mainly upon donor-acceptor interactions. PMID:14519015

de la Escosura, Andrés; Martínez-Díaz, M Victoria; Thordarson, Pall; Rowan, Alan E; Nolte, Roeland J M; Torres, Tomás

2003-10-01

204

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... questions is, “Do other organs fill in the place where the kidney was removed from the donor?” And the answer to that is, “Yes.” On the left side, the spleen and the colon fall into that space, and the patient doesn’t really notice that. ...

205

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... hospitals in the America for patients with kidney disease, and only one other hospital in the State of Virginia received that designation in 2008. With me today is Dr. Edwin Robey who is the transplant urologist who does the living donor surgeries, and Dr. Harland Rust, who is one of ...

206

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... process, first the potential donor meets with a social worker and a psychologist, and there are also ... have to have one or both of their kidneys removed if they were, let’s say, to develop a cancer in one of their kidneys, and certainly that ...

207

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... ever be a donor?” No. The recipient, by definition, had end-stage kidney disease and certainly can’ ... kilos in size, just so that they’re big enough to accommodate the kidney. I know there’s -- ...

208

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... are. And then as you do your surgery training you get more and more experience. And really, ... a third of our donors are not immediate family members or blood relatives of ... you medicine through the IV after that. Right. So the ...

209

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... want to be on dialysis, and so I mean I have just my life back, and I think it’s definitely, definitely better ... kidneys. 10 Dr. Rust, what is the average life span of a transplanted kidney? That’s one of the key differences between deceased donor kidneys and a living kidney. ...

210

Mass Transfer from Giant Donors  

CERN Document Server

The stability of mass transfer in binaries with convective giant donors remains an open question in modern astrophysics. There is a significant discrepancy between what the existing methods predict for a response to mass loss of the giant itself, as well as for the mass transfer rate during the Roche lobe overflow. Here we show that the recombination energy in the superadiabatic layer plays an important and hitherto unaccounted-for role in he donor's response to mass loss, in particular on its luminosity and effective temperature. Our improved optically thick nozzle method to calculate the mass transfer rate via $L_1$ allows us to evolve binary systems for a substantial Roche lobe overflow. We propose a new, strengthened criterion for the mass transfer instability, basing it on whether the donor experiences overflow through its outer Lagrangian point. We find that with the new criterion, if the donor has a well-developed outer convective envelope, the critical initial mass ratio for which a binary would evolv...

Pavlovskii, K

2014-01-01

211

The effects of epidemiological characteristics of cornea donors and donor corneal evaluation parameters on quality of donor cornea  

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Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of donor epidemiologic characteristics and donor corneal examination findings on quality of donor cornea. Methods: The records of our eye bank were analyzed for one year period between March 2012-February 2013 with respect to donor demographics (gender, age, donor procurement source, donor cause of death, death-to-preservation interval, donor cornea laboratory assessment, corneal tissue utilization, and distribution. Results: During the study period, 98 corneas were retrieved from 52 donors (44.2% male, 55.8% female, with the mean age of donors 49.1±15.7 years. (Range 5 to 68 years. The most common causes of donor death were cardiovascular disease (46.2% and cerebrovascular disease (23.1%. Only 5.7% of the donors were derived from multiorgan donations at other centers and the rest were from our hospital. The mean death-to-preservation time was 1.65±1.26 hours. Overall, 96.2% of corneal tissue procured was used for corneal transplantation (95.75% in our hospital, 4.25% in other transplantation centers and 3.8 % was discarded. There were significant correlations between donor age and endothelial cell density (ECD, and donor age and hexagonality. Regression analysis showed that the most determinative factor on tissue quality was ECD. Only reason for discarding tissue was abnormal serology. Conclusion: The main parameter that affects quality of donor cornea was ECD and the most significant factor having impact on ECD was donor age. The reason for no evidence of tissue discarding because of low tissue quality was thought to be related with a comprehensive preliminary assessment and not to receive corneas from older donors.

Harun Yüksel

2014-06-01

212

Soy Consumption and Obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity is now present worldwide, including China, India and developing countries. It now seems no longer acceptable to argue that obesity can simply be explained in terms of caloric consumption only using simple concept of energy in and energy out. There may be specific causes of altered metabolism that produce nutritional imbalances. Individual variation in response to food intake may also be considered. Specific substances in the food chain can influence meta-bolism towards an increase in fat deposits. Xenoestrogens have been suggested to have such an influence. Soy contains phytoestrogens plus phytates, protease inhibitors and other anti-nutrients which block or compromise the body’s uptake of essential vitamins and minerals. This may contribute to nutritional anomalies. We analyzed data from WHO and FAO for 167 countries. These contained percentage of obese individuals (BMI > 30 kg/m2, GDP, caloric consump-tion per capita, and sugar and soy consumption per capita. Regressions and partial correlations were used. Soy con-sumption correlates significantly with levels of obesity, irrespective of GDP and caloric intake. For instance, poor Latin America with soy consumption of 28.9 kg/person/year has more obesity (18.4% than better off European Union (14.1% consuming 16.1 kg/person/year of soy. Soy consumption seems to contribute approximately 10% - 21% to the worldwide variation in obesity, depending on the method of statistical analysis. The ubiquitous presence of unfermented soy products in mass produced foods seems to be an important contributor to the obesity epidemic.

Maciej Henneberg

2012-02-01

213

Update on obesity pharmacotherapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are two groups of approved drugs that can be used to manage weight in patients with obesity: medications approved for obesity per se and medications that affect body weight for obese patients who have complications from their obesity and are receiving these medications for chronic disease management. For obesity per se, treatment is with one of the three drugs currently approved for long-term treatment of obesity or one of a few others that can be used for short-term treatment. Among these, orlistat partially blocks intestinal digestion of fat and produces weight loss of 5-8 kg but major limitations are associated gastrointestinal symptoms; lorcaserin, a serotonin-2C agonist with few side effects, produces a mean weight loss of 4-7 kg; and the combination of phentermine and topiramate (extended release) produces a mean weight loss of 8-10 kg, but should only be used after verifying a woman is not pregnant. Failure to lose more than 3% of body weight within 3 months with any of these agents should lead to reevaluation of therapy. The short-term drugs for treating obesity per se are sympathomimetics, with phentermine being most widely used. The second group of drugs is for weight-centric prescribing for patients with a chronic disease such as diabetes, depression, or psychiatric disorders. For each disorder, some drugs produce weight gain, others are weight neutral, but the best choice for these patients is the combination of drugs that treat the underlying condition and also produce weight loss. PMID:24641701

Bray, George A; Ryan, Donna H

2014-04-01

214

Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Morbid Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Several reports have shown an increased prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in obese subjects in community-based studies. To better understand the role of the GI tract in obesity, and because there are limited clinic-based studies, we documented the prevalence of upper and lower GI symptoms in morbidly obese individuals in a clinic setting. Objective: The aim of our study was to compare the prevalence of GI symptoms in morbidly obese individuals in a weight management clinic with non-obese individuals with similar comorbidities as morbidly obese individuals in an Internal Medicine clinic. Methods: Class II and III obese patients BMI >35?kg/m2 (N?=?114) and 182 non-obese patients (BMI dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, abdominal pain, and bowel habits. Responses to each symptom cluster were compared between obese group and normal weight groups using logistic regression. Results: Of the 24 items, 18 had a higher frequency in the obese group (p?dysphagia (OR 2.9, p?=?0.0006), and any gastroesophageal reflux (OR 3.8, p?obese patients were more likely to have lower GI symptoms: any abdominal pain (OR?=?1.7, p?=?0.042) and altered bowel habits (OR?=?2.8, p?obese patients when compared to non-obese subjects. PMID:25593922

Huseini, Mustafa; Wood, G. Craig; Seiler, Jamie; Argyropoulos, George; Irving, Brian A.; Gerhard, Glenn S.; Benotti, Peter; Still, Christopher; Rolston, David D. K.

2014-01-01

215

Mini-Incision Living Donors Nephrectomy Using Anterior Muscle-Splitting Approach with Hybrid Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Significant morbidity is associated with standard open flank living donor nephrectomy. Laparoscopicdonor nephrectomy is criticized for a steep learning curve and a tendency to avoid the right kidney. The anterior muscle-splitting technique uses principles or advantages of an open extraperitoneal approach with minimal morbidity and the advantageous muscle-splitting (instead of cutting procedure.Objective: To compare mini-incision laparoscopic instrument-assisted (MILIA live donor nephrectomy using a muscle-splitting technique to the standard open-flank donor nephrectomy (ODN approach for efficacy and safety.Methods: MILIA living donor nephrectomies were performed in 119 donors and compared to a cohort of open-flank nephrectomy donors (n=38 from the same center. Both donor groups were matched for body mass index as well as other personal characteristics.Results: The mean donor age was 35 (range: 18–60 years. The right kidney was procured in 28% of cases. The majority of donors were female (58% and Caucasian (60%. No differences were observed between MILIA and ODN donors for the age, gender and ethnicity. However, MILIA donors experienced a longer mean±SD operative time (234±47 vs. 197±33 min, p<0.0001 but a shorter hospital stay (4±1 vs. 6±3 days for the ODN group, p<0.0001 and less intraoperative blood loss (215±180 vs. 331±397 mL, p<0.02. No difference was found in the number of units of blood transfused (0.13±0.6 vs. 0.34±1.0 units, p=0.13. Right-sided kidneys were almost equally harvested in both groups (29% of MILIA donors vs. 26% of ODN donors. Post-operatively, MILIA donors had a significantly lower mean pain scores at one week and one month after surgery (p<0.001. They showed significant better post-operative recovery—earlier stopping of pain medications and restoration of other preoperative activities. Moreover, they were better satisfied with their scar appearance. Scores on the short form-36 quality of life questionnaire were comparable for both groups.Conclusion: MILIA is a viable option as an alternative for pure laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. MILIA appearsto be as safe as open donor nephrectomy and may provide advantages over ODN, such as smaller incision, shorter hospital stay, and less incisional pain. Patient recovery and satisfaction after MILIA are excellent.This technique avoids the possibility of adhesive intestinal obstruction and also improves handling of major complications (e.g., bleeding of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. Utilization of this hybrid techniqueis particularly feasible on smaller (BMI<24 kg/m2 and medium-sized (BMI<28 kg/m2 donors. We believe that this technique should be adopted by centers that have limited advanced laparoscopic surgical experience and also it could be used selectively for the right donor nephrectomies, even in centers performinghand assisted donor nephrectomies by including a small patch of inferior vena cava for a better quality of right donor kidney during transplantation.

N Nazakatgoo

2010-01-01

216

Biology of Obesity: Lessons from Animal Models of Obesity  

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Obesity is an epidemic problem in the world and is associated with several health problems, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, respiratory failure, muscle weakness, and cancer. The precise molecular mechanisms by which obesity induces these health problems are not yet clear. To better understand the pathomechanisms of human disease, good animal models are essential. In this paper, we will analyze animal models of obesity and their use in the research of obesity-associated human he...

Keizo Kanasaki; Daisuke Koya

2011-01-01

217

Malaria and obesity: obese mice are resistant to cerebral malaria  

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Summary Background The relationship between malaria and obesity are largely unknown. This is partly due to the fact that malaria occurs mainly in tropical areas where, until recently, obesity was not prevalent. It now appears, however, that obesity is emerging as a problem in developing countries. To investigate the possible role of obesity on the host-parasite response to malarial infection, this study applied a murine model, which uses the existence of genetically well char...

Lombard Marie-Noëlle; Thouvenot Catherine; Depoix Delphine; Bourgouin Catherine; Robert Vincent; Grellier Philippe

2008-01-01

218

Prevalence of hypertension in obese and non-obese Saudis.  

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OBJECTIVES Obesity occurs at a high prevalence in the Saudi population. Studies in literature show that hypertension occurs more frequently in obese individuals. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of hypertension in obese Saudis in comparison with results obtained in non-obese individuals. METHODS The screening involved a statistically designed household screening program. Only adults 14-70 years of age were included in...

El-hazmi, M. A.; Warsy, A. S.

2001-01-01

219

Dietary aspects of obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new FAO report on how to estimate the energy and protein requirements of individuals is imminent and has direct application to the management of obese patients. Energy needs, although variable form individual to individual, are reasonably stable unless gross overfeeding or prolonged semi-starvation occurs; unconscious appetite control is surprisingly important. No longer will energy needs be expressed per kg body weight, a reference point difficult to apply to obese subjects anyway. There are now equations for estimating basal metabolic rate (BMR) these can be appled to obese subjects to give BMR in MJ per day; for kcal from kJ divide by 4.184. The equations apply to all races although north Europeans and Americans tend to have high values and Indians low. An obese patient has a higher BMR than a normal person of the same height. Lean body mass is increased in obesity so some long term loss is inevitable with slimming and accounts for the persistent fall in BMR on weight loss. Energy and protein needs are just the beginning of dietary management. Obese patients are prone to cardiovascular and gall bladder disease. A low fat diet is important and a polyunsaturated: saturated ratio (P:S) of 0.5 to 1.0 is appropriate: higher ratios will exacerbate cholestasis in the biliary tract which can be precipitated by weight loss. New evidence suggests that cereal fibre intake is important for preventing secondary bile salt recycling from the colon with its effect on biliary cholesterol saturation. Therefore long term high cereal (not bran) fibre intakes are as important in obese patients as is a low fat diet. High carbohydrate diets produce a slightly higher metabolism rate than iso-energetic diets. Low sugar diets lead to slightly lower energy intakes. Trace element deficient diets can lead to obesity so the obese patient and his family should be advised and shown how to permanently adjust to a 'prudent' diet. The short term approach to management is usually a waste of time. PMID:6514654

James, W P

1984-01-01

220

Familial obesity as a predictor of child obesity  

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Full Text Available Introduction Studies carried out in various parts of the world indicate that family obesity significantly affects the incidence of obesity in children. This is especially a characteristic of children whose both parents are obese. Material and methods The study was conducted using a polling method. Questionnaires were filled out by parents and brothers and sisters, including their body height and weight. The collected data served as the basis for assessing the family nutritional status. Results Statistical analysis of the results showed that obese children frequently have obese parents, brothers and sisters in regard to normal-weight children. Differences are statistically significant in relation to fathers (r=0.043, i.e. statistically obese schoolchildren have more frequently obese fathers than those of normal nutritional status. Other differences could not be considered significant (p > 0.05. Discussion Obese children have more often obese parents, brothers and sisters than normal-weight children. It was found that the nutritional status of moderately and extremely obese children was quite different from that of normal-weight children and that there was a statistically significant dependence between the nutritional status of children and their fathers. Conclusion This research showed that family obesity is a potential contributing factor to obesity of schoolchildren.

Mirilov Jelena

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Mood, food, and obesity  

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Full Text Available Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity.

MinatiSingh

2014-09-01

222

Obesity and periodontal disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is characterized by the abnormal or excessive deposition of fat in the adipose tissue. Its consequences go far beyond adverse metabolic effects on health, causing an increase in oxidative stress, which leads not only to endothelial dysfunction but also to negative effects in relation to periodontitis, because of the increase in proinflammatory cytokines. Thus obesity appears to participate in the multifactorial phenomenon of causality of periodontitis through the increased production of reactive oxygen species. The possible causal relationship between obesity and periodontitis and potential underlying biological mechanisms remain to be established; however, the adipose tissue actively secretes a variety of cytokines and hormones that are involved in inflammatory processes, pointing toward similar pathways involved in the pathophysiology of obesity, periodontitis and related inflammatory diseases. So the aim of this article is to get an overview of the association between obesity and periodontitis and to review adipose-tissue - derived hormones and cytokines that are involved in inflammatory processes and their relationship to periodontitis. PMID:21691545

Jagannathachary, Sunitha; Kamaraj, Dinesh

2010-04-01

223

Obesity and periodontal disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity is characterized by the abnormal or excessive deposition of fat in the adipose tissue. Its consequences go far beyond adverse metabolic effects on health, causing an increase in oxidative stress, which leads not only to endothelial dysfunction but also to negative effects in relation to periodontitis, because of the increase in proinflammatory cytokines. Thus obesity appears to participate in the multifactorial phenomenon of causality of periodontitis through the increased production of reactive oxygen species. The possible causal relationship between obesity and periodontitis and potential underlying biological mechanisms remain to be established; however, the adipose tissue actively secretes a variety of cytokines and hormones that are involved in inflammatory processes, pointing toward similar pathways involved in the pathophysiology of obesity, periodontitis and related inflammatory diseases. So the aim of this article is to get an overview of the association between obesity and periodontitis and to review adipose-tissue - derived hormones and cytokines that are involved in inflammatory processes and their relationship to periodontitis.

Jagannathachary Sunitha

2010-01-01

224

Normothermic machine perfusion for donor liver preservation  

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Currently, liver transplantation is the only treatment for end-stage liver failure. Unfortunately, a sever shortage of donor organs causes significant mortality amongst patients awaiting transplantation. The donor organ shortage could be alleviated by using organs that are normally not accepted for transplantation, in particular organs obtained from so called non-heart beating donors (NHBD). However, currently used methods for donor organ storage prior to transplantation are unsuitable for th...

Tolboom, H.

2012-01-01

225

Thermal Evolution of AM CVn Binary Donors  

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We discuss results of our study on AM CVn binaries formed with donors that never ignited He before contact. For the first time, we treat the donor's in these systems in the context of a full stellar structure evolution theory and find that the binary's evolution can described in terms of 3 phases: contact, adiabatic donor expansion, and late-time donor cooling. Details of the first and third phase are new results from this study and we focus on generally characterizing these...

Deloye, Christopher J.; Taam, Ronald E.; Winisdoerffer, Christophe; Chabrier, Gilles

2006-01-01

226

If I Had - Morbid Obesity  

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... of Testing for Concussion If I Had - Morbid Obesity - Dr. Michael Tarnoff, MD, FACS, Tufts University School ... Back to Home Page If I Had - Morbid Obesity - Dr. Michael Tarnoff, MD, FACS, Tufts University School ...

227

Sugary Drinks and Childhood Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

ADVICE FOR PATIENTS Sugary Drinks and Childhood Obesity T his month’s Archives focuses on new research about childhood obesity. Being overweight is now the most common medical condition of childhood. Nearly ...

228

Obesity and Your Digestive Health  

Science.gov (United States)

... American College of Gastroenterology www.acg.gi.org/obesity Great tools including a food tracker, portion size ... http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/heart/obesity/ lose_wt/patmats.htm Weight loss information from ...

229

Obesity: Causes and Treatment Alternatives  

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Full Text Available Obesity is an important and chronic disease. It occurs due to more body fat accumulation than normal levels, it associates with many factor and it needs to medical treatment. Important risk factors of obesity are feeding habits, sexualty (Female, age, education, marriage, labor number and hereditary. Obesity, may be originated from hereditary factors and it progresses very fastly in developed and developing countries. More than 30 % percent of population is obese in Turkey (male %7,9 female %23,4. It is known that obesity closely related with many chronic disorders. Thus, well knowledge about effects of obesity and its alternative treatments is important for determining ideal treatment of obesity and its complications. Aim of this review to represent effects, causing obesity and its treatment options together.

Berrin Zuhal Bulucu Altunkaynak

2007-01-01

230

If I Had - Morbid Obesity  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... of Testing for Concussion If I Had - Morbid Obesity - Dr. Michael Tarnoff, MD, FACS, Tufts University School ... Back to Home Page If I Had - Morbid Obesity - Dr. Michael Tarnoff, MD, FACS, Tufts University School ...

231

What Causes Overweight and Obesity?  

Science.gov (United States)

... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Overweight and Obesity? Lack of Energy Balance A lack of energy ... Deficiency article. Rate This Content: Next >> Featured Video Obesity happens one pound at a time. So does ...

232

the Obesity-Cancer Link  

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Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity, an established risk and progression factor for many cancers, has increased dramatically in many countries over the past three decades. Worldwide, an estimated 600 million adults are currently obese. Thus, a better understanding of the mechanistic links between obesity and cancer is urgently needed to identify intervention targets and strategies to offset the procancer effects of obesity. This review synthesizes the evidence on key biological mechanisms underlying the obesity-cancer association, with particular emphasis on obesity-associated enhancements in growth factor signaling, inflammation, and perturbations in the tumor microenvironment. These interrelated pathways and processes that are aberrantly regulated in obese individuals represent mechanism-based targets for disrupting the obesity-cancer link using phytochemicals.

StephenDHursting

2013-08-01

233

Obesity in Infants to Preschoolers  

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... Worksites Program Requirements Fit-Friendly Resources Obesity in Infants and Preschoolers Infographic View the text information for the Obesity in Infants and Preschoolers Infographic . *Red Dress ™ DHHS, Go Red ™ ...

234

If I Had - Morbid Obesity  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... obesity? Morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI of 35 or above. That corresponds roughly to being 100 lbs above your ideal body weight. When you look at the comorbid health conditions ...

235

Obstructive sleep apnoea and obesity  

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The global obesity epidemic continues to gain momentum, and South Africa is one of those countries with an extremely high prevalence of obesity. The reported association between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and obesity has resulted in a parallel increase in the incidence of OSA. Obesity and OSA interact by inducing systemic inflammation, metabolic aberrations and endocrine abnormalities, all of which predispose patients to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. OSA is associat...

Tintinger, Gregory Ronald; Pretorius, L.; Labadarios, D.

2011-01-01

236

Obesity: Causes and Treatment Alternatives  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity is an important and chronic disease. It occurs due to more body fat accumulation than normal levels, it associates with many factor and it needs to medical treatment. Important risk factors of obesity are feeding habits, sexualty (Female), age, education, marriage, labor number and hereditary. Obesity, may be originated from hereditary factors and it progresses very fastly in developed and developing countries. More than 30 % percent of population is obese in Turkey (male %7,9 female ...

Berrin Zuhal Bulucu Altunkaynak; Elvan Özbek

2007-01-01

237

Toward molecular neuroeconomics of obesity  

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Because obesity is a risk factor for many serious illnesses such as diabetes, better understandings of obesity and eating disorders have been attracting attention in neurobiology, psychiatry, and neuroeconomics. This paper presents future study directions by unifying (i) economic theory of addiction and obesity (Becker and Murphy, 1988; Levy 2002; Dragone 2009), and (ii) recent empirical findings in neuroeconomics and neurobiology of obesity and addiction. It is suggested th...

Takahashi, Taiki

2011-01-01

238

The Medical Risks of Obesity  

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Obesity is at epidemic proportions in the United States and in other developed and developing countries. The prevalence of obesity is increasing not only in adults, but especially among children and adolescents. In the United States in 2003 to 2004, 17.1% of children and adolescents were overweight, and 32.2% of adults were obese. Obesity is a significant risk factor for and contributor to increased morbidity and mortality, most importantly from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes, but ...

Pi-sunyer, Xavier

2009-01-01

239

Childhood Obesity for Pediatric Gastroenterologists  

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Obesity in childhood is one of the major health issues in pediatric health care today. As expected, the prevalence of obesity-related comorbidities has risen in parallel with that of obesity. Consultation regarding these concomitant diseases and subsequent management by subspecialists, including pediatric gastroenterologists, is now common and has resulted in obesity being recognized as a chronic disease requiring coordination of care. Although medications and even surgery may provide effecti...

Huang, Jeannie S.; Barlow, Sarah E.; Quiros-tejeira, Ruben E.; Scheimann, Ann; Skelton, Joseph; Suskind, David; Tsai, Patrika; Uko, Victor; Warolin, Joshua P.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.

2013-01-01

240

Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention  

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Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the ...

Merchant Anwar T; Akhtar-Danesh Noori; Dehghan Mahshid

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Pediatric Obesity: Etiology and Treatment  

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This paper reviews factors that contribute to excessive weight gain in children and outlines current knowledge regarding approaches for treating pediatric obesity. Virtually all of the known genetic causes of obesity primarily increase energy intake. Genes regulating the leptin signaling pathway are particularly important for human energy homeostasis. Obesity is a chronic disorder that requires long-term strategies for management. The foundation for all treatments for pediatric obesity remain...

Crocker, Melissa K.; Yanovski, Jack A.

2009-01-01

242

Smoking among morbidly obese patients  

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Abstract Background Smokers usually have a lower Body Mass Index (BMI) when compared to non-smokers. Such a relationship, however, has not been fully studied in obese and morbidly obese patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between smoking and BMI among obese and morbidly obese subjects. Methods In a case-control study design, 1022 individuals of both genders, 18-65 years of age, were recruited and grouped according to their smok...

Chatkin José M; Mottin Claudio C; Chatkin Raquel

2010-01-01

243

Prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity in the Lausanne population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity can be defined using body mass index (BMI or waist (abdominal obesity. Little information exists regarding its prevalence and determinants in Switzerland. Hence, we assessed the levels of obesity as defined by BMI or waist circumference in a Swiss population-based sample. Methods Cross-sectional, population-based non-stratified random sample of 3,249 women and 2,937 men aged 35–75 years living in Lausanne, Switzerland. Overall participation rate was 41%. Results In men, the prevalences of overweight (BMI ?25 kg/m2 and obesity (BMI ?30 kg/m2 were 45.5% and 16.9%, respectively, higher than in women (28.3% and 14.3%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity (waist ?102 in men and ?88 cm in women was higher in women than in men (30.6% vs. 23.9%. Obesity and abdominal obesity increased with age and decreased with higher educational level in both genders. In women, the prevalence of obesity was lower among former and current smokers, whereas in men the prevalence of obesity was higher in former smokers but did not differ between current and never smokers. Multivariate analysis showed age to be positively related, and education and physical activity to be negatively related with obesity and abdominal obesity in both genders, whereas differential effects of smoking were found between genders. Conclusion The prevalence of abdominal obesity is higher than BMI-derived obesity in the Swiss population. Women presented with more abdominal obesity than men. The association between smoking and obesity levels appears to differ between genders.

Paccaud Fred

2008-09-01

244

Genetic obesity syndromes.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are numerous reports of multi-system genetic disorders with obesity. Many have a characteristic presentation and several, an overlapping phenotype indicating the likelihood of a shared common underlying mechanism or pathway. By understanding the genetic causes and functional perturbations of such syndromes we stand to gain tremendous insight into obesogenic pathways. In this review we focus particularly on Bardet-Biedl syndrome, whose molecular genetics and cell biology has been elucidated recently, and Prader-Willi syndrome, the commonest obesity syndrome due to loss of imprinted genes on 15q11-13. We also discuss highlights of other genetic obesity syndromes including Alstrom syndrome, Cohen syndrome, Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (pseudohypoparathyroidism), Carpenter syndrome, MOMO syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, cases with deletions of 6q16, 1p36, 2q37 and 9q34, maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14, fragile X syndrome and Börjeson-Forssman-Lehman syndrome. PMID:18230893

Goldstone, Anthony P; Beales, Philip L

2008-01-01

245

Obesity and cardiovascular disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality in rich countries and today it has the same meaning for health care as the epidemics of past centuries had for medicine in earlier times: 50% of the population in these countries die of cardiovascular disease. The amount of cardiovascular disease is also increasing in the developing countries together with economic growth. By 2015 one in three deaths will globally be due to cardiovascular diseases. Coronary heart disease is a chronic disease that starts in childhood, even if the symptoms first occur in the middle age. The risks for coronary heart disease are well-known: lipid disorders, especially high serum LDL-cholesterol concentration, high blood pressure, tobacco smoking, obesity, diabetes, male gender and physical inactivity. Obesity is both an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease but is also closely connected with several other risk factors. This review focuses on the connection between overweight or obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25387321

Jokinen, E

2015-03-01

246

Sleep debt and obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Short sleep duration has been shown to be associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) in many epidemiological studies. Several pathways could link sleep deprivation to weight gain and obesity, including increased food intake, decreased energy expenditure, and changes in levels of appetite-regulating hormones, such as leptin and ghrelin. A relatively new factor that is contributing to sleep deprivation is the use of multimedia (e.g. television viewing, computer, and internet), which may aggravate sedentary behavior and increase caloric intake. In addition, shift-work, long working hours, and increased time commuting to and from work have also been hypothesized to favor weight gain and obesity-related metabolic disorders, because of their strong link to shorter sleep times. This article reviews the epidemiological, biological, and behavioral evidence linking sleep debt and obesity. PMID:25012962

Bayon, Virginie; Leger, Damien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Vecchierini, Marie-Françoise; Chennaoui, Mounir

2014-08-01

247

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity is becoming a major medical concern in several parts of the world, with huge economic impacts on health- care systems, resulting mainly from increased cardiovascular risks. At the same time, obesity leads to a number of sleep-disordered breathing patterns like obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS, leading to increased morbidity and mortality with reduced quality of life. OHS is distinct from other sleep- related breathing disorders although overlap may exist. OHS patients may have obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea with hypercapnia and sleep hypoventilation, or an isolated sleep hypoventilation. Despite its major impact on health, this disorder is under-recognized and under-diagnosed. Available management options include aggressive weight reduction, oxygen therapy and using positive airway pressure techniques. In this review, we will go over the epidemiology, pathophysiology, presentation and diagnosis and management of OHS.

Al Dabal Laila

2009-01-01

248

Fight Obesity in the Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

U.S. health experts declared obesity an epidemic over a decade ago. Schools have tried to implement prevention programs for students, but as budgets shrink, educating students about obesity is increasingly falling to classroom instructors, including science teachers. The good news is that obesity-related classroom activities can be engaging, and…

Bratsis, Michael E.

2012-01-01

249

DGTI Register of Rare Donors.  

Science.gov (United States)

For patients with antibodies against the most common blood groups a rapid and efficient supply of compatible erythrocyte concentrates is self-evident. But typically we have to make the greatest effort providing blood for these patients, which have made antibodies against common blood groups. There are however patients with antibodies against rare blood group antigens that need special blood. The supply of such blood can be very difficult and mostly time-consuming. For this reason we set up a database of blood donors with rare blood groups. Since 2005 the BTS SRC Berne Ltd. has run this database on behalf of the Swiss BTS SRC. After a reorganization and extension of the database, conducted during 2011/2012, the data file was renamed 'DGTI Register of Rare Donors' and is now run under the patronage of the German Society for Transfusion Medicine and Immunohematology (DGTI). PMID:25538534

Hustinx, Hein

2014-10-01

250

Emotions Experienced by Students Taking Online and Classroom Quizzes  

Science.gov (United States)

Emotions experienced during online academic examinations may differ from emotions experienced in the traditional classroom testing situation. Students in a "Psychology of Learning" course (n = 61) completed assessments of emotions before and after a quiz in each of the following settings: online at their own choice of time and location; online in…

Stowell, Jeffrey R.; Allan, Wesley D.; Teoro, Samantha M.

2012-01-01

251

30 CFR 46.6 - Newly hired experienced miner training.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Newly hired experienced miner training. 46.6 Section 46.6 ...AND TRAINING TRAINING AND RETRAINING OF MINERS ENGAGED IN SHELL DREDGING OR EMPLOYED... § 46.6 Newly hired experienced miner training. (a) Except as...

2010-07-01

252

Five Years on: Leadership Challenges of an Experienced CEO  

Science.gov (United States)

Experienced leaders face challenges that demand different leadership approaches to those of inexperienced leaders. The purposes of this article are to: (1) explore the leadership initiatives prominent for experienced leaders compared with inexperienced leaders; (2) examine the relationship between transformational leadership and these initiatives;…

Sarros, James C.; Sarros, Anne M.

2011-01-01

253

Hyperbilirubinemia in normal healthy donors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was carried out in B.A.R.C. Hospital Blood Bank over a span of five years, and includes 2734 donors. All the bags were screened for HIV, HBsAg, HCV and VDRL and the plasma in the pilot tubes of the blood bags was observed to detect any abnormality in color. In 27 cases plasma was found to be icteric and liver function tests were carried out on these samples. Two donors showed higher SGPT level, and were excluded. No significant increases in liver enzymes were recorded in the others. Causes of icteric plasma in these apparently healthy donors are discussed. Differential diagnosis includes Gilbert?s disease, hemolytic anemia, drug-induced anemia and other hepatic causes of hyperbilirubinemia, of which Gilbert?s disease is most probable cause with a prevalence of 0.91% in our population. As there are no studies to document the safety of the recipients receiving such abnormal colored plasma as well as to document the hazards in its transfusion, the question arises whether to transfuse such units or not. This study highlights this dilemma. A reassessment of existing policies and regulations is merited.

Arora Veena

2009-01-01

254

Day-of-surgery rejection of donors in living donor liver transplantation  

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AIM: To study diagnostic laparoscopy as a tool for excluding donors on the day of surgery in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). METHODS: This study analyzed prospectively collected data from all potential donors for LDLT. All of the donors were subjected to a three-step donor evaluation protocol at our institution. Step one consisted of a clinical and social evaluation, including a liver profile, hepatitis markers, a renal profile, a complete blood count, and an abdominal ultrasound w...

Hamad Al Bahili; Hatem Khalaf; Mohammed Al Sofayan; Mohammed Al Sebayel; Faisal Aba Alkhail; Waleed Al Hamoudi; Hazem Mohamed; Ayman Azzam; Mohamed Rabei Abdelfattah; Bassem Hegab

2012-01-01

255

An experience of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in obese, morbidly obese, and super morbid obese patients  

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Objectives: To report experience with laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in obese, morbidly obese, and super morbid obese patients, and to evaluate comparative efficacy of LSG among these patient groups. Methods: A total of 147 patients underwent LSG between March 2008 and December 2011 at the Department of Surgery, King Saud Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ...

Al Falah, Haitham M.; Alsalamah, Saleh M.; Muhammad Abdullah; Alqahtani, Hamad H.; Abbas, Ghanem S.; Alsalamah, Yasir A.

2013-01-01

256

Clinician challenges in providing health care for a morbidly obese family member: a bariatric case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Morbid obesity is a chronic disease affecting millions of Americans. The disorder is likely to increase in prevalence because currently one third of the American population is obese. Many factors are associated with morbid obesity, including psychological (eg, depression), physiological (eg, hypothyroidism) mechanisms, sleep disorders (eg, sleep apnea), drug therapy (antidepressants, antidiabetic agents, steroids), and genetics. Increasing numbers of morbidly obese patients are requiring critical care, presenting major challenges to professional staff across the disciplines. This manuscript presents a case study describing the experiences of a morbidly obese woman in the final years of her life from the perspective of her health professional relative. The patient typifies many of the major risk factors for morbid obesity; her story reveals many of the issues faced as she revolved in and out of the critical care and acute care system. Her substantive health problems affected multiple body systems and included hypothyroidism, congestive heart failure, hyperlipidemia, and subclinical Cushing's Syndrome, likely related to previous medical therapy (cortisone) for rheumatic fever in childhood. The case description addresses many integumentary system issues the patient experienced; skin injuries and infections that can pose serious life-threatening situations for the morbidly obese patient must be prevented or treated efficiently. Health professionals can learn a great deal and improve the care they provide by listening to morbidly obese patients. PMID:25581606

Beitz, Janice M

2015-01-01

257

Tele-recruitment for Donor Retention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood transfusion services are the integral part of health care system and these services have safe blood transfusion as the major goal. Voluntary blood donation is the key to safe blood and this safety is further enhanced when the voluntary blood donors become repeat/regular donors. Retention of donors is therefore a very crucial strategy to ensure enhanced blood safety. Tele-recruitment is an effective medium of recruiting and more importantly retaining donors via means of telephone/Short Message Service. This study was carried out at a standalone blood bank during the period from January to December 2011 with objectives of donor retention, relationship management with the support of personnel with good communication skills, Donor data base, Integrated software and communication facility. For Initial 4 months there was no tele-recruiter, then for 2 months two tele-recruiter and for next 6 months three tele-recruiter were dedicated. Only impact of tele-recruitment on in-house donation was taken into consideration. 2,091 donors were recruited through tele-recruitment in this eight-month period. This was 63 % of in-house donations and 13 % of total donations. In other words out of every five in-house donations, three donations were from people contacted through tele-recruitment. Repeat voluntary blood donation is the safest donation. Tele-recruitment does this by converting 'first-time' donors into repeat/regular donors. Simple intervention like reminder calls on telephone can be highly effective tool to retain donors. Tele-recruitment helped the blood center establish relationships with individual donors, and, maybe, even the society at large. Tele-recruitment is a very low-cost model which can be easily replicated in all kind of blood banks, be it standalone, or a hospital based. Even the blood centers which are largely dependent on replacement donors can possibly have good results and convert replacement donors into repeat/regular voluntary blood donors. PMID:24554816

Agrawal, Amit; Tiwari, A

2014-03-01

258

Commensality and Obesity Epidemics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Three examples of the appropriateness of including the investigation of commensality to curb obesity epidemics, and a methodological note on the application of the concept of Foodscape as a fruitful holistic analytical perspective on the interplay between food, people, meals, and the physical conditions under which we eat.

Andersen, Boris

2014-01-01

259

[Urinary incontinence and obesity].  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) more than or equal to 30kg/m(2), promotes pelvic floor disorders such as urinary incontinence (UI) and genital prolapse. Datas from cohort studies found an association between high BMI and the onset of UI. This association seems to be predominant with for mixed UI and stress UI. For the urge UI and overactive bladder syndrome, the analysis of the literature found a weaker association. The weight is therefore the only modifiable risk factor. Thus, the weight loss by a hypocaloric diet associated with pelvic floor muscle training should be the front line treatment in the obese patient suffering from UI. Bariatric surgery can be discussed in the most obese patient, even if the risk/benefit balance should be weighed because of significant morbidity of this surgery. The results of sub urethral sling (by retropubic tension-free vaginal tape or transobturator sling) in obese patients appear to be equivalent to those obtained in patients of normal weight. Datas on per- and postoperative complications for suburethral slings are reassuring. PMID:22516035

Legendre, G; Fritel, X; Capmas, P; Pourcelot, A-G; Fernandez, H

2012-06-01

260

Games and childhood obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Videogames can be used to help children change their obesity-related diet and physical activity behaviors. A review of the relevant literature in this special issue of the Games for Health Journal indicated that video games did influence children's adiposity, but only among children who were alread...

 
 
 
 
261

Pharmacotherapy for obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is an important risk factor for metabolic disease and various cancers. Treatments of obesity include lifestyle intervention, pharmacotherapy, and bariatric surgery. If weight loss with lifestyle intervention is only modest, pharmacotherapy might be needed. Pharmacotherapy agents can be grouped by treatment period as short term or long term use agent. Several sympathomimetic drugs such as benzphetamine, diethylpropion, phendimetrazine and phentermine, are approved for short term treatment due to their safety issues. For long term treatment, orlistat, lorcaserin, and combination of phentermine/topiramate are approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Orlistat partially blocks intestinal digestion of fat, therefore producing weight loss. Lorcaserin is a serotonin 2C receptor agonist. The combination of phentermine/topiramate produces a mean weight loss of 8-10 kg. Side effects of each drug are quite different. For obesity patient, side effects are important factor when choosing drugs. The goal of this article is to review currently available anti-obesity drugs. PMID:25580419

Joo, Jong Kil; Lee, Kyu Sup

2014-12-01

262

Treating the obese diabetic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Type 2 diabetes and obesity are intimately linked; reduction of bodyweight improves glycemic control, mortality and morbidity. Treating obesity in the diabetic is hampered as some diabetic treatments lead to weight gain. Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective antiobesity treatment and causes long-term remission of diabetes in many patients. However, surgery has a high cost and is associated with a significant risk of complications, and in practical terms only limited numbers can undergo this therapy. The choice of pharmacological agents suitable for treatment of diabetes and obesity is currently limited. The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists improve glycemia and induce a modest weight loss, but there are doubts over their long-term safety. New drugs such as lorcaserin and phentermine/topiramate are being approved for obesity and have modest, salutary effects on glycemia, but again long-term safety is unclear. This article will also examine some future avenues for development, including gut hormone analogues that promise to combine powerful weight reduction with beneficial effects on glucose metabolism. PMID:23473594

Kenkre, Julia; Tan, Tricia; Bloom, Stephen

2013-03-01

263

Victimization of Obese Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and…

Robinson, Sabrina

2006-01-01

264

Obesity and Intellectual Disability  

Science.gov (United States)

While much of the industrialized world struggles for clues to the growing rise in obesity in their respective countries, researchers and service providers involved in understanding the health characteristics and health behaviors of persons with intellectual disability (ID) struggle with their own issues regarding the increased prevalence of…

Rimmer, James H.; Yamaki, Kiyoshi

2006-01-01

265

Neurologic complications in adult living donor liver transplant patients: an underestimated factor?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Liver transplantation is the only curative treatment in patients with end-stage liver disease. Neurological complications (NC) are increasingly reported to occur in patients after cadaveric liver transplantation. This retrospective cohort study aims to evaluate the incidence and causes of NC in living donor liver transplant (LDLT) patients in our transplant center. Between August 1998 and December 2005, 121 adult LDLT patients were recruited into our study. 17% of patients experienced NC, and...

Saner, Fuat Hakan; Gensicke, Julia; Olde Damink, Steven W. M.; Pavlakovic?, Goran; Treckmann, Juergen; Dammann, Marc; Kaiser, Gernot M.; Sotiropoulos, Georgios C.; Radtke, Arnold; Koeppen, Susanne; Beckebaum, Susanne; Cicinnati, Vito; Nadalin, Silvio; Malago?, Massimo; Paul, Andreas

2010-01-01

266

Experiencing Weight Bias in an Unjust World: Impact on Exercise and Internalization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: This research explores the effects of belief in a just world on exercise and psychological well-being among individuals who have experienced weight bias. Methods: In Study 1, 804 participants in an online study reported belief in a just world; exercise intentions, motivation, self-efficacy, and behavior; experiences with weight bias; and height/weight and self-perceived weight status. In Study 2, 237 participants with overweight and obesity were randomly assigned to read 1 of 2 passages (online) describing weight bias and discrimination as rare versus pervasive, and rated their perceptions of pervasiveness. Participants then read 1 of 3 randomly assigned vignettes that confirmed, challenged, or did not attempt to influence belief in a just world, and completed measures of exercise intentions and motivation, body dissatisfaction, weight bias internalization, and experiences with weight bias. Results: Study 1 revealed that weaker belief in a just world was associated with lower ratings on all exercise variables among participants who reported experiencing weight bias. In Study 2, regression analyses revealed an interaction between ratings of perceived pervasiveness of weight discrimination and the Challenge condition for all outcome measures. The Challenge condition led to lower ratings of exercise intentions and motivation, and higher reports of body dissatisfaction and weight bias internalization, when weight bias was perceived to be more pervasive. Conclusion: Threats to belief in a just world may lead to negative outcomes for health behaviors and psychological well-being among individuals who have experienced weight bias and perceive it to be pervasive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25401685

Pearl, Rebecca L; Dovidio, John F

2014-11-17

267

From obesity genetics to the future of personalized obesity therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is a disorder characterized by an excess accumulation of body fat resulting from a mismatch between energy intake and expenditure. Incidence of obesity has increased dramatically in the past few years, almost certainly fuelled by a shift in dietary habits owing to the widespread availability of low-cost, hypercaloric foods. However, clear differences exist in obesity susceptibility among individuals exposed to the same obesogenic environment, implicating genetic risk factors. Numerous genes have been shown to be involved in the development of monofactorial forms of obesity. In genome-wide association studies, a large number of common variants have been associated with adiposity levels, each accounting for only a small proportion of the predicted heritability. Although the small effect sizes of obesity variants identified in genome-wide association studies currently preclude their utility in clinical settings, screening for a number of monogenic obesity variants is now possible. Such regular screening will provide more informed prognoses and help in the identification of at-risk individuals who could benefit from early intervention, in evaluation of the outcomes of current obesity treatments, and in personalization of the clinical management of obesity. This Review summarizes current advances in obesity genetics and discusses the future of research in this field and the potential relevance to personalized obesity therapy. PMID:23529041

El-Sayed Moustafa, Julia S; Froguel, Philippe

2013-07-01

268

Screening and assessment of the donor heart  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Why screening?Thirty years ago most donors suffered from head trauma (“Morbus Kawasaki” and a donor older than 35 years was beyond the pale, i.e. donors were young and healthy, and since these early days of transplantation donor hearts have been regarded as healthy “per definitionem” (1. However, due to the general organ shortage the criteria for the acceptance of donor hearts have been widely liberalized. According to the current quarterly data report of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT nearly two thirds of donors in Europe (64.3% were older than 35 years, more than a quarter (26.0% were even older than 50 years and less than 10% of organ donors suffered from head trauma (2. Meanwhile the average (European donor is 45 years old and is suffering from intracranial bleeding, i.e. the so-called “donor pool” represents a subpopulation with significantly elevated risk for cardiac diseases such as coronary atherosclerosis and hypertension-related myocardial hypertrophy (Fig. 1. Unfortunately, daily experience shows that donor heart screening has not been adapted to this development (3. Therefore, the question “Why screening?” is not as trivial as it may look: Donor coronary angiography is still an exception (performed in 5-10% of donors despite the fact that [1] the prevalence of significant atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD in the donor pool is about 20%, [2] the risk of CAD transmission without angiography is about 5% to 10% despite organ inspection by the harvesting surgeon and [3] the risk for early graft failure with transmitted significant CAD is three times as high (4,5.

O. Grauhan

2011-12-01

269

Laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience of videolaparoscopic nephrectomy in live renal donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April 2000 to August 2003, 50 left nephrectomies in live donor were performed by videolaparoscopy for transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were male (56% and 22 female (44%. Mean age was 37.2 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 27.1 kg/m². RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 179.5 minutes, and warm ischemia time of the graft was 3.79 minutes. The mean estimated bleeding was 141 mL. There was no need of blood transfusion or conversion to open surgery. In 42 cases (84%, the vascular portion of the graft was considered good by the recipient's surgical team and in all cases, the ureter was considered of proper size, though in one of them (2% its vascularization was considered improper. The transplanted kidneys produced urine still in the surgical room in 46 of the 50 transplantations considered. In only 2 cases opioid was required for analgesia. In average, 3.1 doses of dipyrone were used for each patient during hospital stay, and hospital discharge occurred, in average, after 3.2 days post-operatively. Two patients required re-operations and one of them evolved to death. CONCLUSIONS: The laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor for renal transplantation is an alternative to conventional open surgery. In relation to the graft, no alteration, either anatomic or functional, was detected. Though there is already a large documentation in the international literature regarding this procedure, in our setting a prospective randomized study with the usual surgical study is still necessary in order to prove the advantages and disadvantages of the method.

Mitre Anuar I.

2004-01-01

270

Laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience of videolaparoscopic nephrectomy in live renal donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April 2000 to August 2003, 50 left nephrectomies in live donor were performed by videolaparoscopy for transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were male (56%) an [...] d 22 female (44%). Mean age was 37.2 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.1 kg/m². RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 179.5 minutes, and warm ischemia time of the graft was 3.79 minutes. The mean estimated bleeding was 141 mL. There was no need of blood transfusion or conversion to open surgery. In 42 cases (84%), the vascular portion of the graft was considered good by the recipient's surgical team and in all cases, the ureter was considered of proper size, though in one of them (2%) its vascularization was considered improper. The transplanted kidneys produced urine still in the surgical room in 46 of the 50 transplantations considered. In only 2 cases opioid was required for analgesia. In average, 3.1 doses of dipyrone were used for each patient during hospital stay, and hospital discharge occurred, in average, after 3.2 days post-operatively. Two patients required re-operations and one of them evolved to death. CONCLUSIONS: The laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor for renal transplantation is an alternative to conventional open surgery. In relation to the graft, no alteration, either anatomic or functional, was detected. Though there is already a large documentation in the international literature regarding this procedure, in our setting a prospective randomized study with the usual surgical study is still necessary in order to prove the advantages and disadvantages of the method.

Anuar I., Mitre; Francisco T., Dénes; Affonso C., Piovesan; Fabiano A., Simões; Lísias N., Castilho; Sami, Arap.

2004-02-01

271

Soluble transferrin receptor levels in obese and non obese adolescents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background Iron deficiency in children and adolescents maybe due to an inadequate supply of iron as well as increased iron requirements for growth and developmental processes. The increasing prevalence of obesity puts children at risk of iron deficiency. Studies on the effects of obesity on iron deficiency have focused on low grade systemic inflammation as well as examining soluble transferrin receptor levels (sTfR as an indicator of iron deficiency. Objective To compare sTfR levels in obese and non-obese adolescents, assess for correlations between BMI, sTfRr and obesity, and determine the risk of iron deficiency in obese adolescents. Method This cross sectional study was conducted on 20 obese and 20 non-obese adolescents aged 15-17 in East Aceh District, from September to December 2011. Subject were chosen through cluster sampling. The obese subjects had BMI >95th percentile and the non-obese subjects had BMI ?85th percentile based on the 2000 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS. Exclusion criteria were blood disorders, chronic diseases, and a history of bleeding. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test and T-test with a significance level of P 2.5 ?g/mL was more common in obese than in non-obese adolescents [(55% vs. 15%, respectively, (P = 0.019]. Analysis of the relationship between obesity according to BMI and sTfR revealed an OR of 6.93; 95% CI 1.53 to 31.38. The relationship between the BMI and sTfRr levels indicated a positive, moderate strength of association (r = 0.392. Conclusion The mean sTfRr levels in obese adolescents is significantly higher than in non-obese individuals. Obese adolescents have a 6.93 times higher risk of iron deficiency than non-obese adolescents. Body mass index has a positive and moderate association with sTfR.

Zul Febrianti

2014-03-01

272

30 CFR 48.6 - Experienced miner training.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Transferred to the mine; (3) Experienced underground miners transferred from surface to underground; or (4) Returning to the mine after an absence of...plans in effect at the mine; and the location of abandoned areas; and...

2010-07-01

273

Experienced and anticipated discrimination against people with schizophrenia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim of this research was to describe the nature, direction and severity of anticipated and experienced discrimination reported by people with schizophrenia. We applied interview to 50 patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia in two psychiatric hospitals in Belgrade. Discrimination was measured with discrimination and stigma scale (DISC which produce 3 subscores, positive experienced discrimination, negative experienced discrimination and anticipated discrimination. The same scale was used in cross-cultural research in 27 european countries. Results have shown that participants from Serbia do not recognize discrimination in all areas of life equally. The discrimination recognized is more frequentlly negative then positive and is associated with existentially important realms of life. Due to anticipated discrimination participants in our study prevent themselves from looking for a close relationship. Anticipated discrimination could not be predicted on the grounds of experienced, positive or negative discrimination.

Mila?i?-Vidojevi? Ivona

2011-01-01

274

Pediatricians' weight assessment and obesity management practices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinician adherence to obesity screening guidelines from United States health agencies remains suboptimal. This study explored how personal and career demographics influence pediatricians' weight assessment and management practices. Methods A web-based survey was distributed to U.S. pediatricians. Respondents were asked to identify the weight status of photographed children and about their weight assessment and management practices. Associations between career and personal demographic variables and pediatricians' weight perceptions, weight assessment and management practices were evaluated using univariate and multivariate modeling. Results 3,633 pediatric medical providers correctly identified the weight status of children at a median rate of 58%. The majority of pediatric clinicians were white, female, and of normal weight status with more than 10 years clinical experience. Experienced pediatric medical providers were less likely than younger colleagues to correctly identify the weight status of pictured children and were also less likely to know and use BMI criteria for assessing weight status. General pediatricians were more likely than subspecialty practitioners to provide diverse interventions for weight management. Non-white and Hispanic general practitioners were more likely than counterparts to consider cultural approaches to weight management. Conclusion Pediatricians' perceptions of children's weight and their weight assessment and management practices are influenced by career and personal characteristics. Objective criteria and clinical guidelines should be uniformly applied by pediatricians to screen for and manage pediatric obesity.

Galvan Kate

2009-03-01

275

Surgical Procedures of Morbid Obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Surgical intervention has been recently advocated in the treatment of morbid obesity. The objective of this study was to review surgery as an alternative in the treatment of morbidly obese adolescents. Materials and Methods: This research was conducted by searching English websites such as PubMed, Up to Date, and Google Scholar, as well as some Persian websites including SID, Iranmedex, and Magiran. Articles published from 2000 to 2010 on interventional and clinical trials were reviewed for treatment of morbid obesity in adolescents. Keywords used in internet searches include obesity; adolescence; and surgery.Results: The results obtained from the studies indicated that 4% of American adolescents suffer from morbid obesity. So far, pharmacological treatment and other approaches toward this type of obesity have been inefficient. Hence, surgery was employed as one of the new approaches to the treatment of this disorder. According to the National Health Institute criteria, in the treatment of adolescent candidates for surgery, anthropometric measurements are performed together with the measurement of other co-morbidities of obesity. Adolescents whose percentiles are ?99 are considered as morbidly obese patients. Conclusion: The results of the studies suggested that for the extremely obese adolescents, who do not respond to other types of medical interventions within 6 months, surgery can be performed. Adolescents with BMI of ?40 kg/m2 and skeletal maturity, or those with co morbidities of obesity, or 13-year-old girls and boys ?15 years of age can be candidates for surgery. However, the side effects of obesity should not be neglected. Therefore, before the adolescent obesity become morbid obesity, preventive measures should be taken through changes in lifestyle.

Zinat Salem

2013-02-01

276

Reactive donor notification: First error reported.  

Science.gov (United States)

Donor notification and post-donation counseling is an essential role of blood bank. If a donor is reactive for any marker, the blood bank counselor, informs the donor and advices him/her to report to the blood bank for further counseling and management. The counselor at our blood bank informed a young female voluntary donor to be reactive for HIV both with ELISA as well as NAT. When the donor reported to blood bank, the repeat testing was negative and no history of high risk behavior could be elicited. The hospital information system (HIS) records were checked again immediately for clarification and showed consistency with her demographic profile. But when her manual records and donor questionnaire were retrieved, showed information displayed in the HIS system was wrongly interpreted by the counselor. In this era of information technology being highly advanced, the role of manual record keeping is still the gold standard. PMID:25161357

Kotwal, Urvershi; Doda, Veena; Arora, Satyam; Joshi, Meena

2014-07-01

277

Prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity in the Lausanne population  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Obesity can be defined using body mass index (BMI) or waist (abdominal obesity). Little information exists regarding its prevalence and determinants in Switzerland. Hence, we assessed the levels of obesity as defined by BMI or waist circumference in a Swiss population-based sample. Methods Cross-sectional, population-based non-stratified random sample of 3,249 women and 2,937 men aged 35–75 years living in Lausanne, Switzerland. Overall par...

Paccaud Fred; Mooser Vincent; Bochud Murielle; Marques-Vidal Pedro; Waeber Gérard; Vollenweider Peter

2008-01-01

278

Obesity in autoimmune diseases: not a passive bystander.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last decades, autoimmune diseases have experienced a dramatic increase in Western countries. The involvement of environmental factors is strongly suspected to explain this rise. Particularly, over the same period, obesity has followed the same outbreak. Since the exciting discovery of the secretory properties of adipose tissue, the relationship between obesity and autoimmunity and the understanding of the underlying mechanisms have become of major interest. Indeed, the fat tissue has been found to produce a wide variety of "adipokines", involved in the regulation of numerous physiological functions, including the immune response. By conducting a systematic literature review, we extracted 329 articles regarding clinical, experimental and pathophysiological data on the relationship between obesity, adipokines - namely leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin - and various immune-mediated conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), multiple sclerosis (MS), type-1 diabetes (T1D), psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and thyroid autoimmunity (TAI), especially Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). The strongest levels of evidence support an increased risk of RA (OR=1.2-3.4), MS (OR=2), psoriasis and PsA (OR=1.48-6.46) in obese subjects. A higher risk of IBD, T1D and TAI is also suggested. Moreover, obesity worsens the course of RA, SLE, IBD, psoriasis and PsA, and impairs the treatment response of RA, IBD, psoriasis and PsA. Extensive clinical data and experimental models demonstrate the involvement of adipokines in the pathogenesis of these autoimmune diseases. Obesity appears to be a major environmental factor contributing to the onset and progression of autoimmune diseases. PMID:25092612

Versini, Mathilde; Jeandel, Pierre-Yves; Rosenthal, Eric; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

2014-09-01

279

Dietary Polyphenols and Obesity  

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The prevalence of overweight and obesity and their associated metabolic disorders are considered a major threat to the public’s health. While several diet and exercise programs are available for weight loss and prevention of weight regain, progress is often slow and disappointing. Recently, natural bioactive phytochemicals present in foods have been discovered for their potential health benefit effects on the prevention of chronic disorders such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, inflammato...

Mohsen Meydani; Hasan, Syeda T.

2010-01-01

280

Effects of mutations in the human uncoupling protein 3 gene on the respiratory quotient and fat oxidation in severe obesity and type 2 diabetes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) is a mitochondrial transmembrane carrier that uncouples oxidative ATP phosphorylation. With the capacity to participate in thermogenesis and energy balance, UCP3 is an important obesity candidate gene. A missense polymorphism in exon 3 (V102I) was identified in an obese and diabetic proband. A mutation introducing a stop codon in exon 4 (R143X) and a terminal polymorphism in the splice donor junction of exon 6 were also identified in a compound heterozygote t...

Argyropoulos, G.; Brown, A. M.; Willi, S. M.; Zhu, J.; He, Y.; Reitman, M.; Gevao, S. M.; Spruill, I.; Garvey, W. T.

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Concentration dependence of Forster resonant energy transfer between donor and acceptor nanocrystal quantum dot layers: Effect of donor-donor interactions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The influences of donor and acceptor concentrations on Forster resonant energy transfer (FRET) in a separated donor-acceptor quantum dot bilayer structure have been investigated. Donor intra-ensemble energy transfer is shown to have an impact on the donor-acceptor FRET efficiency in the bilayer structure. At high donor concentrations the FRET distance dependence and the acceptor concentration dependence in the separated donor-acceptor layer structure agree well with theories developed for FRE...

Gounko, Iouri; Bradley, Louise; Gerard, Valerie; Lunz, Manuela

2011-01-01

282

Obesity and appetite control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is one of the major challenges to human health worldwide; however, there are currently no effective pharmacological interventions for obesity. Recent studies have improved our understanding of energy homeostasis by identifying sophisticated neurohumoral networks which convey signals between the brain and gut in order to control food intake. The hypothalamus is a key region which possesses reciprocal connections between the higher cortical centres such as reward-related limbic pathways, and the brainstem. Furthermore, the hypothalamus integrates a number of peripheral signals which modulate food intake and energy expenditure. Gut hormones, such as peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1, oxyntomodulin, and ghrelin, are modulated by acute food ingestion. In contrast, adiposity signals such as leptin and insulin are implicated in both short- and long-term energy homeostasis. In this paper, we focus on the role of gut hormones and their related neuronal networks (the gut-brain axis) in appetite control, and their potentials as novel therapies for obesity. PMID:22899902

Suzuki, Keisuke; Jayasena, Channa N; Bloom, Stephen R

2012-01-01

283

Imaging evaluation of potential donors in living-donor liver transplantation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liver transplants, originally obtained from deceased donors, can now be harvested from living donors as well. This technique, called living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), provides an effective alternative means of liver transplantation and is a method of expanding the donor pool in light of the demand and supply imbalance for organ transplants. Imaging plays an important role in LDLT programmes by providing robust evaluation of potential donors to ensure that only anatomically suitable donors with no significant co-existing pathology are selected and that crucial information that allows detailed preoperative planning is available. Imaging evaluation helps to improve the outcome of LDLT for both donors and recipients, by improving the chances of graft survival and reducing the postoperative complication rate. In this review, we describe the history of LDLT and discuss in detail the application of imaging in donor assessment with emphasis on use of modern computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques.

Low, G. [Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada)], E-mail: timgy@yahoo.com; Wiebe, E. [Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada); Walji, A.H. [Division of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta (Canada); Bigam, D.L. [Department of Surgery, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada)

2008-02-15

284

Obesity management: Update on orlistat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Over the past 20 years obesity has become a worldwide concern of frightening proportion. The World Health Organization estimates that there are over 400 million obese and over 1.6 billion overweight adults, a figure which is projected to almost double by 2015. This is not a disease restricted to adults – at least 20 million children under the age of 5 years were overweight in 2005 (WHO 2006). Overweight and obesity lead to serious health consequences including coronary artery disease, strok...

Drew, Belinda S.; Dixon, Andrew F.; Dixon, John B.

2007-01-01

285

Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy  

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Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating alter...

Robinson, Jennifer A.; Burke, Anne E.

2013-01-01

286

Implications of Obesity on Anaesthetics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As the proportion of obese patients within the general population rapidly increases, more obese patients are requiring anaesthesia. Obesity is associated with anatomical and physiological differences and co?morbidities that impinge on the administration of anaesthesia. A surgical case, which could have been performed under a GA or a spinal anaesthetic is used as a basis of discussion. Various factors affecting airway choice, breathing problems, circulation and other issues are discussed.

Hannah MacKenzie

2012-02-01

287

Management of obesity in cats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Kirsten M Hoelmkjaer, Charlotte R Bjornvad Department of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark Abstract: Obesity is a common nutritional disorder in cats, especially when they are neutered and middle-aged. Obesity predisposes cats to several metabolic and clinical disorders, including insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, lameness, and skin disease. Prevention and treatment of obesity is therefore of...

Km, Hoelmkjaer; Cr, Bjornvad

2014-01-01

288

Subclinical hypothyroidism in obese children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: Thyroid functions in obese children and adolescentswere evaluated in order to determine subclinicaland clinical hypothyroidism.Materials and methods: In this study, 85 obese (Bodymass index >97th percentile) children, aged 2-14 years, aswell as 47 healthy controls were enrolled. Levels of serumfree triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4) and thyroidstimulatinghormone (TSH) of the two groups were compared.Obese children with TSH level above 5.4 IU/mlwere also analyzed for thyro...

Aleksandra Januszek-Trzci?kowska; Ewa Ma?ecka-Tendera

2013-01-01

289

Addressing malnutrition while avoiding obesity: minding the balance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Latin America has experienced rapid demographic, epidemiological and nutrition changes that have successfully contributed to decreasing undernutrition, but concomitantly have resulted in an increase of obesity and associated conditions; in this paper we propose that policies to address undernutrition have not adapted at a sufficiently rapid pace to address the emerging challenges. Taking Chile as an example we show that health promotion policies, implemented only when the obesity epidemic was well advanced, have succeeded in establishing effective regulatory frameworks and in implementing national large-scale programs for treatment; however, they have been insufficient in preventing obesity. The main lessons learned are: (1) Failure to monitor existing malnutrition programs for changing needs and true effectiveness can have unintended consequences. (2) Institutions and professionals working in nutrition and health need to assess changing scenarios and redefine their priorities for action accordingly. (3) There is a need to provide updated information to decision makers, program planners and to the population at large on how to promote and achieve healthy food consumption and active living considering local context. Timely policies and interventions to address these issues may contribute to the prevention of the obesity epidemic in transitional countries, particularly among low socioeconomic groups. PMID:23361159

Garmendia, M L; Corvalan, C; Uauy, R

2013-05-01

290

CDC Vital Signs: Progress on Childhood Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

... gov . Vital Signs Share Compartir Progress on Childhood Obesity Many States Show Declines August 2013 1 in ... 8 preschoolers is obese in the US. 19 Obesity among low-income preschoolers declined, from 2008 through ...

291

Mom's Obesity May Affect Newborn Survival  

Science.gov (United States)

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mom's Obesity May Affect Newborn Survival Infant deaths are more ... 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Health Problems in Pregnancy Obesity WEDNESDAY, Dec. 3, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Obesity during ...

292

Obesity in the cardiovascular continuum.  

Science.gov (United States)

A higher prevalence of coronary heart disease, cardiac and overall mortality is associated with obesity. The development of obesity appears in different adaptations in the morphology of cardiac structure and function. Obesity causes eccentric hypertrophy and changes in diastolic function of left ventricle. A systolic on diastolic heart dysfunction results from the breakdown of compensatory pace to raised wall stress and dilatation of chambers. Obesity does not possess primary cause and effect relationship with cardiovascular disease, such as LDL cholesterol. It is regarded as a means of facilitating factors such as hypertension, diabetes or cigarette smoking. Adipose tissue in this manner works as the hormone generating tissue, secreting various peptides and secondary messengers and inflammatory cytokines. Pharmacotherapy can be a useful component in the global fight against obesity. Besides repeating re-evaluations of weight loosing drug treatment with respect to efficiency or safety for continuous use, one must not underappreciate the pretreatment risk-assessments and expected benefits of treatment, along with impact on the patient's quality of life and motivation. Pharmacotherapy of obesity is reserved for obese people with body mass index (BMI) ? 30 kg/m2 but also in individuals with BMI 27 .0 and 29 .9 kg/m2 and obesity related comorbidities as obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, dyslipidemias, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Although connections between obesity and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are acknowledged for over dozen of years, there is still a lack of scientific research into the field and it is a challenge for future studies. PMID:22950957

Persic, Viktor

2013-05-01

293

Obesity, genetics and the skin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing problem of obesity in childhood is recognized as both a short-term and long-term serious public-health concern. Excess body weight may contribute to psychological morbidity; cancers; metabolic, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal disorders; and dermatological conditions. There is increasing recognition of the role of genetic factors in the aetiology of obesity. Although in the vast majority of cases these influences are polygenic, some obese children suffer from monogenic disorders, which may present with obesity alone. However, more often than not, they generally display other syndromic features. Some of these syndromes have a clear cutaneous phenotype, and these conditions will be the focus of this review. PMID:23252752

Millington, G W M

2013-01-01

294

Constitutive basal and stimulated human small bowel contractility is enhanced in obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Small bowel contractility may be more prominent in obese subjects, such that there is enhanced nutrient absorption and hunger stimulation. However, there is little evidence to support this. This study examined in vitro small bowel contractility in obese patients versus non-obese patients. Samples of histologically normal small bowel were obtained at laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass from obese patients. Control specimens were taken from non-obese patients undergoing small bowel resection for benign disease or formation of an ileal pouch-anal anastamosis. Samples were transported in a pre-oxygenated Krebs solution. Microdissected circular smooth muscle strips were suspended under 1 g of tension in organ baths containing Krebs solution oxygenated with 95% O2/5% CO2 at 37°C. Contractile activity was recorded using isometric transducers at baseline and in response to receptor-mediated contractility using prostaglandin F2a, a nitric oxide donor and substance P under both equivocal and non-adreneregic, non-cholinergic conditions (guanethidine and atropine. Following equilibration, the initial response to the cholinergic agonist carbachol (0.1 mmol/L was significantly increased in the obese group (n = 63 versus the lean group (n = 61 with a mean maximum response: weight ratio of 4.58 ± 0.89 vs 3.53 ± 0.74; (p = 0.032. Following washout and re-calibration, cumulative application of substance P and prostaglandin F2a produced concentration-dependent contractions of human small bowel smooth muscle strips. Contractile responses of obese small bowel under equivocal conditions were significantly increased compared with non-obese small bowel (p Stimulated human small bowel contractility is increased in obese patients suggesting faster enteric emptying and more rapid intestinal transit. This may translate into enhanced appetite and reduced satiety.

Baird Alan W

2009-04-01

295

Childhood Obesity and Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The global epidemic of childhood and adolescent obesity and its immediate as well as long-term consequences for obese individuals and society as a whole cannot be overemphasized. Obesity in childhood and adolescence is associated with an increased risk of adult obesity and clinically significant consequences affecting the cardiovascular and metabolic systems. Importantly, obesity is additionally complicated by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), occurring in up to 60% of obese children. OSA, which...

Indra Narang; Mathew, Joseph L.

2012-01-01

296

The Experience of Living Kidney Donors  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the experiences, feelings, and ideas of living kidney donors. Using a phenomenological, qualitative research approach, the authors interviewed 12 purposefully selected living kidney donors (eight men and four women), who were between four and 29 years since donation. Interviews were audiotaped, and transcribed verbatim, and…

Brown, Judith Belle; Karley, Mary Lou; Boudville, Neil; Bullas, Ruth; Garg, Amit X.; Muirhead, Norman

2008-01-01

297

Payment for donor kidneys: pros and cons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Continuous growth of the end stage renal disease population treated by dialysis, outpaces deceased donor kidneys available, lengthens the waiting time for a deceased donor transplant. As estimated by the United States Department of Health & Human Services: '17 people die each day waiting for transplants that can't take place because of the shortage of donated organs.' Strategies to expand the donor pool--public relations campaigns and Drivers' license designation--have been mainly unsuccessful. Although illegal in most nations, and viewed as unethical by professional medical organizations, the voluntary sale of purchased donor kidneys now accounts for thousands of black market transplants. The case for legalizing kidney purchase hinges on the key premise that individuals are entitled to control of their body parts even to the point of inducing risk of life. One approach to expanding the pool of kidney donors is to legalize payment of a fair market price of about 40,000 dollars to donors. Establishing a federal agency to manage marketing and purchase of donor kidneys in collaboration with the United Network for Organ Sharing might be financially self-sustaining as reduction in costs of dialysis balances the expense of payment to donors. PMID:16482095

Friedman, E A; Friedman, A L

2006-03-01

298

Low hemoglobin deferral in blood donors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low hemoglobin deferral occurs in about 10% of attempted whole blood donations and commonly is a consequence of iron deficiency anemia. Pre-menopausal women often have iron deficiency anemia caused by menstruation and pregnancy and have low hemoglobin deferral on their first donation attempt. Frequent donors also develop iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia because blood donation removes a large amount of iron from the donor and the 56-day minimum inter-donation interval for donors in the United States is not sufficient for recovery of hemoglobin and iron stores. Other causes for low hemoglobin deferral range from a medically insignificant deferral of a woman with hemoglobin between 12.0 and 12.4 g/dL, which is within the normal reference range but below the 12.5 g/dL needed to donate blood, to anemia caused by an unrecognized malignancy in a "healthy" individual attempting to donate blood. The diverse causes of anemia in blood donors make it difficult to provide accurate information to donors about the cause of their low hemoglobin deferral and complicate implementation of programs to prevent them by blood collecting agencies. This article reviews how hemoglobin is measured and the demographics and causes of low hemoglobin deferral in blood donors. It provides recommendations for how blood collection agencies can provide donors with accurate information about the cause of their deferral and discusses programs that can be implemented to decrease these deferrals in regular donors. PMID:24332843

Mast, Alan E

2014-01-01

299

Electron transport through single donors in silicon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This thesis will focus on the basic element of two (beyond-transistor-logic) computation schemes, namely a single dopant atom in a three terminal geometry. Although the schemes to implement single donors are already well-developed, until recently, not much experimental work existed. Here, we will describe one of the first experimental studies on such structures where, by means of carefully analyzing electronic transport in scaled FinFET devices, we are able to obtain single donor structures effectively and study the physics that governs them. Chapter 2 will provide a general theoretical background on how transport through single donors takes place. In Chapter 3, we will describe the devices we use to electrically access single dopants and focus on the sub-threshold transport, the regime where single donor transport characteristics are typically observed. Chapter 4 explains what the characteristic fingerprint of a single donor is and how it relates to the energy scales of the donor atom. In Chapter 5 we discuss the orbitals of the singly-charged donor atom and show how they are effected by the high electric field induced by the gate electrode. Chapter 6 discusses the orbitals of the doubly charged donor and the charging energy between the singly- and -doubly charged states. Finally, Chapter 7 describes the influence of Kondo effects on the electronic transport, an effect generated by entanglement between the localized electron spin on the atom and the delocalized electrons in the source/drain leads.

Lansbergen, G.P.

2010-03-09

300

Psychosocial aspects of childhood obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rates of childhood obesity are increasing at alarming rates worldwide. This is especially alarming as obesity is associated with many physical and psychological consequences. A great number of studies indicate that obese children have an impaired psychological well-being (e.g., depression, self-esteem, and quality of life) compared to their non-overweight peers. There has been an overwhelming amount of research conducted in this area over the past few decades, and as such, this paper provides a summarized overview of the vast trove of available information on the psychosocial aspects of childhood obesity. In this paper we provide a summarized overview of: 1) psychosocial aspects that contribute to the onset of childhood obesity; 2) psychosocial consequences of childhood obesity; and 3) familial-based lifestyle behavior modification interventions for treating childhood obesity and its treatment success. Although it seems obvious that obese children and adolescents would likely be at higher risk for psychological problems, the mediating factors in the relationship between psychological problems and obesity are still not well established. Obesity is a complex disorder with an equally complex etiology, and is thus associated with complex behaviors and outcomes that make it difficult to study in children. It has been indicated that family-based lifestyle interventions can improve psychological well-being in obese children; however, not all children profit from these interventions. Interventions aimed at improving treatment results need further investigation. For example, interventions targeted specifically at groups that tend to be less successful in weight-loss programs and interventions providing long-term support to these individuals are recommended. PMID:22075804

De Niet, J E; Naiman, D I

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Marketing actions can modulate neural representations of experienced pleasantness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the importance and pervasiveness of marketing, almost nothing is known about the neural mechanisms through which it affects decisions made by individuals. We propose that marketing actions, such as changes in the price of a product, can affect neural representations of experienced pleasantness. We tested this hypothesis by scanning human subjects using functional MRI while they tasted wines that, contrary to reality, they believed to be different and sold at different prices. Our results show that increasing the price of a wine increases subjective reports of flavor pleasantness as well as blood-oxygen-level-dependent activity in medial orbitofrontal cortex, an area that is widely thought to encode for experienced pleasantness during experiential tasks. The paper provides evidence for the ability of marketing actions to modulate neural correlates of experienced pleasantness and for the mechanisms through which the effect operates. PMID:18195362

Plassmann, Hilke; O'Doherty, John; Shiv, Baba; Rangel, Antonio

2008-01-22

302

Use of analogies by novice and experienced design engineers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper describes a study to understand the use of analogies by design engineers with different levels of experience. Protocol analyses of twelve design engineers have been analysed to understand the functions and reasoning of the analogies. The protocols are real world data from the aerospace industry. The findings indicate a significant difference in both the functions and reasoning by novices and experienced designers. Novices were found to predominantly transfer information without explicit reference to design issues, whereas experienced designers tended to either solve or identify problems. Experienced designers were found to reason about the function of a component and to some degree the predicted behaviour of the component, whereas the novices seem to lack such reasoning processes.

Ahmed, Saeema; Christensen, Bo T.

2008-01-01

303

Moral distress experienced by nurses: A quantitative literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nurses are frequently confronted with ethical dilemmas in their nursing practice. As a consequence, nurses report experiencing moral distress. The aim of this review was to synthesize the available quantitative evidence in the literature on moral distress experienced by nurses. We appraised 19 articles published between January 1984 and December 2011. This review revealed that many nurses experience moral distress associated with difficult care situations and feel burnout, which can have an impact on their professional position. Further research is required to examine worksite strategies to support nurses in these situations and to develop coping strategies for dealing with moral distress. PMID:24091351

Oh, Younjae; Gastmans, Chris

2015-02-01

304

Transfer of gut microbiota from lean and obese mice to antibiotic-treated mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transferring gut microbiota from one individual to another may enable researchers to "humanize" the gut of animal models and transfer phenotypes between species. To date, most studies of gut microbiota transfer are performed in germ-free mice. In the studies presented, it was tested whether an antibiotic treatment approach could be used instead. C57BL/6 mice were treated with ampicillin prior to inoculation at weaning or eight weeks of age with gut microbiota from lean or obese donors. The gut microbiota and clinical parameters of the recipients was characterized one and six weeks after inoculation. The results demonstrate, that the donor gut microbiota was introduced, established, and changed the gut microbiota of the recipients. Six weeks after inoculation, the differences persisted, however alteration of the gut microbiota occurred with time within the groups. The clinical parameters of the donor phenotype were partly transmissible from obese to lean mice, in particularly ? cell hyperactivity in the obese recipients. Thus, a successful inoculation of gut microbiota was not age dependent in order for the microbes to colonize, and transferring different microbial compositions to conventional antibiotic-treated mice was possible at least for a time period during which the microbiota may permanently modulate important host functions. PMID:25082483

Ellekilde, Merete; Selfjord, Ellika; Larsen, Christian S; Jakesevic, Maja; Rune, Ida; Tranberg, Britt; Vogensen, Finn K; Nielsen, Dennis S; Bahl, Martin I; Licht, Tine R; Hansen, Axel K; Hansen, Camilla H F

2014-01-01

305

Transfer of gut microbiota from lean and obese mice to antibiotic-treated mice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Transferring gut microbiota from one individual to another may enable researchers to "humanize'' the gut of animal models and transfer phenotypes between species. To date, most studies of gut microbiota transfer are performed in germ-free mice. In the studies presented, it was tested whether an antibiotic treatment approach could be used instead. C57BL/6 mice were treated with ampicillin prior to inoculation at weaning or eight weeks of age with gut microbiota from lean or obese donors. The gut microbiota and clinical parameters of the recipients was characterized one and six weeks after inoculation. The results demonstrate, that the donor gut microbiota was introduced, established, and changed the gut microbiota of the recipients. Six weeks after inoculation, the differences persisted, however alteration of the gut microbiota occurred with time within the groups. The clinical parameters of the donor phenotype were partly transmissible from obese to lean mice, in particularly beta cell hyperactivity in the obese recipients. Thus, a successful inoculation of gut microbiota was not age dependent in order for the microbes to colonize, and transferring different microbial compositions to conventional antibiotic-treated mice was possible at least for a time period during which the microbiota may permanently modulate important host functions.

Ellekilde, Merete; Selfjord, Ellika

2014-01-01

306

Rare blood donors with irregular antibodies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Blood groups are inherited biological characteristics that do not change throughout life in healthy people. Blood groups represent antigens found on the surface of red blood cells. Kell blood group system consists of 31 antigens. Kell antigen (K is present in 0.2% of the population (the rare blood group. Cellano antigen is present in more than 99% (the high-frequency antigen. These antigens have a distinct ability to cause an immune response in the people after blood transfusion or pregnancy who, otherwise, did not have them before. Case Report. This paper presents a blood donor with a rare blood group, who was found to have an irregular antibody against red blood cells by indirect antiglobulin test. Further testing determined the specificity of antibody to be anti-Cellano. The detected antibody was found in high titers (1024 with erythrocyte phenotype Kell-Cellano+. The blood donor was found to have a rare blood group KellKell. This donor was excluded from further blood donation. It is difficult to find compatible blood for a person who has developed an antibody to the high-frequency antigen. The donor’s family members were tested and Cellano antigen was detected in her husband and child. A potential blood donor was not found among the family members. There was only one blood donor in the Register of blood donors who was compatible in the ABO and Kell blood group system. Conclusion. For the successful management of blood transfusion it is necessary to establish a unified national register of donors of rare blood groups and cooperate with the International Blood Group Reference Laboratory in Bristol with the database that registers donors of rare blood groups from around the world.

Krga-Milanovi? Mirjana

2013-01-01

307

Donor, dad, or…? Young adults with lesbian parents' experiences with known donors.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this exploratory qualitative study of 11 young adults, ages 19-29 years, we examine how young people who were raised by lesbian parents make meaning out of and construct their relationships with known donors. In-depth interviews were conducted to examine how participants defined their family composition, how they perceived the role of their donors in their lives, and how they negotiated their relationships with their donors. Findings indicate that mothers typically chose known donors who were family friends, that the majority of participants always knew who their donors were, and that their contact with donors ranged from minimal to involved. Further, participants perceived their donors in one of three ways: as strictly donors and not members of their family; as extended family members but not as parents; and as fathers. The more limited role of donors in participants' construction of family relationships sheds light on how children raised in lesbian, gay, and bisexual families are contributing to the redefinition and reconstruction of complex kinship arrangements. Our findings hold implications for clinicians who work with lesbian-mother families, and suggest that young adulthood is an important developmental phase during which interest in and contact with the donor may shift, warranting a transfer of responsibility from mother to offspring in terms of managing the donor-child relationship. PMID:23763691

Goldberg, Abbie E; Allen, Katherine R

2013-06-01

308

College Women's Attitudes Toward Obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between college women's attitudes toward obesity and their own body weight. Subjects were placed in three categories: (1) acceptable level of body fat, (2) overweight, and (3) obese. Correlational techniques were used to determine the relationship between the subjects percent of body fat and…

Chambless, Jim R.; Anderson, Eugene R.

309

Childhood Obesity and Academic Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood obesity is on the rise across the country and in North Carolina, with four times as many children exhibiting signs of obesity now as they did 20 years ago. The costs in terms of medical expenses are staggering, with one estimate putting the cost to North Carolina at $16 million a year. Some North Carolina legislators have expressed…

James B. Hunt Jr. Institute for Educational Leadership and Policy, 2008

2008-01-01

310

Vital Signs â?? Childhood Obesity  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast is based on the August 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. The rate of obesity among low-income preschoolers has declined, but one in eight is still obese. This program briefly discusses what can be done.  Created: 8/6/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/6/2013.

2013-08-06

311

Xenogamy and Current Obesity Pandemics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article unites the results from an integrative reconsideration of actual data about obesity from the viewpoint of recent developments in general pathology, epidemiology, immunology, genetics, and evolution. The focus is on the origin of genetic diversity in obesity manifestations on different levels of the disease. In contrast to the current paradigm of nutritive origin of obesity, the revealed set of evidences shows that the origin of obesity is based on either hereditary or post-infectious incongruence between the regulators of fat metabolism and their receptors. The incongruence may be created either by the destruction of receptors during infection or by genome mutations, which by natural selection, lead both to life-saving incongruence between the infectious agent and its receptor, and simultaneously, in evolution to a life-threatening obesogenic incongruence in the regulator-receptor interaction. The pandemic spread of obesity is induced by xenogamous intercourse between constitutionally incongruent ethnoses, which regulator-receptor evolution has processed at different epidemic conditions. The achieved results have allowed a replenish model for the molecular pathogenesis of obesity to explain the genetics of both obesity and its pandemic spread. The formerly maladroit issues of obesity origin, genetic, pathogenesis, and pandemic spread are transformed in an entire replenished system.

Sergey N. Rumyantsev

2011-06-01

312

Cilia, tubby mice, and obesity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Primary cilia have been previously linked to the central regulation of satiety. The tubby mouse is characterized by maturity-onset obesity and blindness. A recent paper demonstrates molecular defects in trafficking of ciliary GPCRs in the central neurons of tubby mice, underscoring the role of ciliary signaling in the pathogenesis of this monogenic obesity syndrome.

Mukhopadhyay, Saikat; Jackson, Peter K.

2013-01-01

313

Obesity and type 2 diabetes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM are public health problems, with health consequences and economic costs that have raised concern worldwide. The increase in the prevalence of diabetes parallels that of obesity. Some experts call this dual epidemic ‘diabesity’ Elevated body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC were significantly associated T2DM. One consequence of obesity is an increased risk of developing T2DM. There is evidence that the prenatal, early childhood, and adolescent periods are critical in the development of obesity. Most obese individuals have elevated plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFA, which are known to cause peripheral (muscle insulin resistance. Weight loss either with lifestyle modification, pharmacotherapy or bariatric surgery improves glycemic control and metabolic parameters that are related to cardiovascular disease. Pharmacotherapy for glycemic control with metformin or GLP-1 agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors help in weight reduction.

Subhashini Yaturu

2011-11-01

314

Phthalate exposure and childhood obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers and vehicles for cosmetic ingredients. Phthalate metabolites have documented biochemical activity including activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and antiandrogenic effects, which may contribute to the development of obesity. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that phthalates have significant effects on the development of obesity, especially after prenatal exposure at low doses. Although few studies have examined the effects of phthalate on obesity development in humans, some work has shown that phthalates affect humans and animals similarly. In this paper, we review the possible mechanisms of phthalate-induced obesity, and discuss evidence supporting the role of phthalates in the development of obesity in humans. PMID:25077088

Kim, Shin Hye

2014-01-01

315

Experiences of obesity among Saudi Arabian women contemplating bariatric surgery: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored experiences of obesity, its perceived causes and motives for surgery, as described by seven Saudi women contemplating bariatric surgery. The women experienced cultural restrictions on their physical and social activities. Obesity embodied these restrictions, attracting stigma and moral failure. Traditional clothing, foods, hospitality norms and limited outdoor female activities were regarded as barriers to weight loss. Bariatric surgery was chosen to protect health and to access normative female roles. Some were encouraged by relatives who had undergone surgery. Opting for surgery reflected both participants' sense of powerlessness to self-manage weight and the social acceptability, within their family context, of this biomedical approach. PMID:23479306

Alqout, Ohud; Reynolds, Frances

2014-05-01

316

Protocol for: Sheffield Obesity Trial (SHOT: A randomised controlled trial of exercise therapy and mental health outcomes in obese adolescents [ISRCNT83888112  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background While obesity is known to have many physiological consequences, the psychopathology of this condition has not featured prominently in the literature. Cross-sectional studies have indicated that obese children have increased odds of experiencing poor quality of life and mental health. However, very limited trial evidence has examined the efficacy of exercise therapy for enhancing mental health outcomes in obese children, and the Sheffield Obesity Trial (SHOT will provide evidence of the efficacy of supervised exercise therapy in obese young people aged 11–16 years versus usual care and an attention-control intervention. Method/design SHOT is a randomised controlled trial where obese young people are randomised to receive; (1 exercise therapy, (2 attention-control intervention (involving body-conditioning exercises and games that do not involve aerobic activity, or (3 usual care. The exercise therapy and attention-control sessions will take place three times per week for eight weeks and a six-week home programme will follow this. Ninety adolescents aged between 11–16 years referred from a children's hospital for evaluation of obesity or via community advertisements will need to complete the study. Participants will be recruited according to the following criteria: (1 clinically obese and aged 11–16 years (Body Mass Index Centile > 98th UK standard (2 no medical condition that would restrict ability to be active three times per week for eight weeks and (3 not diagnosed with insulin dependent diabetes or receiving oral steroids. Assessments of outcomes will take place at baseline, as well as four (intervention midpoint and eight weeks (end of intervention from baseline. Participants will be reassessed on outcome measures five and seven months from baseline. The primary endpoint is physical self-perceptions. Secondary outcomes include physical activity, self-perceptions, depression, affect, aerobic fitness and BMI.

Wright Neil P

2005-10-01

317

Service-Learning: Mentoring Leadership Skills in the Experienced Teacher  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth in the field of early childhood education has placed emphasis on improving quality through leadership and teacher education. With the advancement of the early childhood field, teacher education programs are called upon to develop leaders, challenge experienced teachers and meet professional standards through advanced degree programs.…

Couse, Leslie J.; Russo, H. Lindsey

2006-01-01

318

The extent and nature of opportunity identification by experienced entrepreneurs.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Guided by insights from cognitive theories, this article explores the links between entrepreneurs' prior business ownership experience and their opportunity identification behavior. Hypotheses were tested using data from 630 entrepreneurs. Experienced entrepreneurs identified more opportunities and exploited more innovative opportunities with greater wealth creation potential. Entrepreneurs that had owned more than 4.5 businesses, however, identified fewer opportunities. The nature of prior b...

Ucbasaran, D.; Westhead, P.; Wright, M.

2009-01-01

319

Working with Families Experiencing Homelessness: Understanding Trauma and Its Impact  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of traumatic stress in the lives of families who are homeless is extraordinarily high. Often these families are headed by single mothers who have experienced ongoing trauma in the form of childhood abuse and neglect, domestic violence, and community violence, as well as the trauma associated with poverty and the loss of home,…

Guarino, Kathleen; Bassuk, Ellen

2010-01-01

320

Effective Pedagogical Practices for Online Teaching: Perception of Experienced Instructors  

Science.gov (United States)

Institutions have focused on providing faculty with technological training to enhance their online teaching, but many online instructors would like to learn more effective pedagogical practices. This phenomenological study determines what experienced, award-winning South Dakota e-learning instructors perceive to be effective pedagogical practices.…

Bailey, Craig J.; Card, Karen A.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

30 CFR 48.26 - Experienced miner training.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Experienced miner training. 48.26 Section 48.26 Mineral...EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING AND RETRAINING OF MINERS Training and Retraining of Miners Working at Surface Mines and Surface Areas...

2010-07-01

322

Motivation, Professional Development, and the Experienced Music Teacher  

Science.gov (United States)

Drawing from inquiry on human motivation can serve to inform seasoned educators in questing for a more individualized form of professional development. Experienced music teachers who have moved beyond the formative stages benefit from crafting self-defined experiences that satisfy needs-based states. Research in self-determination theory reveals…

Angeline, Vincent R.

2014-01-01

323

The Social Networks of Homeless Youth Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence.  

Science.gov (United States)

While there is a growing body of research on intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by the housed youth population, a limited amount is known about IPV experienced by homeless youth. To our knowledge, no previous studies have examined how homeless youths' experience of IPV is related to their social network, even though the social networks of homeless youth have been shown to be significant indicators of health and mental health. The purpose of this study is to understand the relationship between IPV, gender, and social networks among a sample of 386 homeless youth in Los Angeles, California. Results revealed that one fifth of the sample experienced IPV in the past year. Stratified regression models revealed that IPV was not significantly related to any measure of male social networks; however, females who experienced IPV had more male friends (? = 2.03, SE = 0.89, p homeless youth who witnessed family violence during childhood had more male friends (? = 2.75, SE = 1.08, p homeless youth. These results provide insight into future program development. PMID:24421071

Petering, Robin; Rice, Eric; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey

2014-01-12

324

Endoprosthesis and Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Introduction: Obesity represents a significant risk factor in the pathophysiology of degenerative changes in coxarthrosis. Objective: The study aims to investigate obesity as a risk factor in the examined sample comprising 136 patients who underwent hip endoprothesis implantation. Material and methods: The series comprised 136 patients with a hip endoprosthesis implanted, where the patients’ BMI, amount of blood used, duration of surgery, number of assistants, and type of anaesthesia were observed. Wounds and late post-operative complications, infections, haemorrhage, vein thrombosis, endoprosthesis dislocations, length of inpatient stay, start of physical therapy and full weight-bearing were also observed. The observation period lasted six months on average. Discussion: In simple terms, the three greatest factors when implanting a hip endoprosthesis are as follows: properties of the endoprosthesis, the orthopaedic surgeon’s skill and experience, and individual characteristics of the patient, i.e. age, sex, health condition, body weight, BMI, adequate physical therapy. Conclusion: We believe that the implantation of a hip endoprosthesis should be postponed for patients with a BMI exceeding 29.99. Such patients should receive endocrine treatment, they should undergo a weight loss programme in order to reduce their body weight and in order to reduce their BMI to under 29.99.

Grubor, Predrag; Manojlovic, Slavko; Manojlovic, Nemanja; Grubor, Milan

2013-01-01

325

Our experience with deceased organ donor maintenance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Deceased organ donors in an intensive care unit (ICU are the richest source of organs for transplantation. Careful donor maintenance plays a vital role in the successful functioning of the organ in the recipient. Aims : Early identification of brain stem death (BSD in the ICU, problems and management in donor maintenance till retrieval are the main objectives. Materials and Methods : BSD was identified in a level I trauma center over a period of eight years (1996-2004 using UK code. After screening for fitness, they were maintained to achieve normothermia, systolic BP > 90 mm Hg, CVP 8-10 cm water, urine output > 80 ml/hour and normal acid base balance. Results: 168 cases of BSD were maintained, 30 with identity unknown. Common transient complications noted were hypotension (68%, hypokalemia (62%, hypothermia (12%, diabetes insipidus (70%. Brain stem death was identified early and resuscitated to maintain normal tissue perfusion. 17 (12.3% consent for organ donation was obtained. Organs (24 kidneys and one liver were retrieved from 12 donors. Four donors sustained cardiac arrest before retrieval. Conclusion: Early recognition of brain stem death and prompty correction of hemodyanamic instability is the key to deceased donor maintenance. Optimal care of potential donor translates to care of multiple recipients.

Kumar Meena

2007-01-01

326

Donor research in australia: challenges and promise.  

Science.gov (United States)

Donors are the key to the core business of Blood Collection Agencies (BCAs). However, historically, they have not been a focus of research undertaken by these organizations. This model is now changing, with significant donor research groups established in a number of countries, including Australia. Donor research in the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (Blood Service) is concentrated in the Donor and Community Research (DCR) team. Cognizant of the complex and ever-changing landscape with regard to optimal donor management, the DCR team collaborates with academics located at universities around Australia to coordinate a broad program of research that addresses both short- and-long term challenges to the blood supply. This type of collaboration is not, however, without challenges. Two major collaborative programs of the Blood Service's research, focusing on i) the recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors and ii) the role of the emotion pride in donor motivation and return, are showcased to elucidate how the challenges of conducting collaborative BCA research can be met. In so doing, these and the other research programs described herein demonstrate how the Blood Service supports and contributes to research that not only revises operational procedures but also contributes to advances in basic science. PMID:25254025

Masser, Barbara; Smith, Geoff; Williams, Lisa A

2014-07-01

327

Experiencing the changing climate on the shores of Lake Superior  

Science.gov (United States)

The Great Lakes of the United States - the largest freshwater system in the world - have been termed "the canary in the coal mine" of environmental change. To assess if and how residents of Alger County, Michigan are experiencing changes in climate on the shores of Lake Superior, during the summer of 2010 we conducted a representative household mail survey in collaboration with a national lakeshore and watershed partnership. A total of 765 adult residents (18 years or older) responded to the survey; a 57% survey completion rate. We content analyzed respondents' open-ended characterizations of how they have personally experienced global warming, and compared the results with land surface and storm data for the same geographic region to see whether public perceptions of local changes match trends in National Climatic Data Center data. Just over a quarter of residents (27%) indicated that they had personally experienced global warming. Those who had were most likely to say that they had experienced global warming locally (as opposed to in other locations of the country or globally), and most frequently cited changes in seasons, weather, lake levels, and animals or plant species. However, some local public perceptions appeared to conflict with weather records. For example, residents were more likely to say that they had been experiencing less snow in the winters, while NCDC data suggests the reverse is true. As climate changes differentially in regions across the United States, the public will in turn experience its physical impacts in distinct ways that are unique to each landscape. This may be counter-intuitive to a public that increasingly experiences the world, and issues such as climate change, through sources of information such as national news media that operate at much larger geographic scales. Understanding where these forms of cognitive dissonance may arise may assist researchers, educators, and communicators in furthering discourses with the public about the local impacts of climate change.

Akerlof, K.; Maibach, E.

2011-12-01

328

Responses to recipient and donor B cells by genetically donor T cells from human haploidentical chimeras  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following administration of haploidentical stem cells to infants with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), mature T cells of donor karyotype appear later in the recipient without causing graft-versus-host disease. To investigate the effect of the host environment on the responsiveness of these genetically donor T cells, blood B and T lymphocytes from 6 SCID recipients, their parental donors and unrelated controls were purified by double SRBC rosetting. T cells were stimulated by irradiated B cells at a 1:1 ratio in 6 day cultures. Engrafted T cells of donor karyotype gave much smaller responses to irradiated genetically recipient B cells than did fresh donor T cells. Moreover, engrafted T cells of donor karyotype from two of the three SCIDs who are longest post-transplantation responded more vigorously (14,685 and 31,623 cpm) than fresh donor T cells (5141 and 22,709 cpm) to donor B cells. These data indicate that T lymphocytes which have matured from donor stem cells in the recipient microenvironment behave differently from those that have matured in the donor

329

Maternal Obesity: Consequences and Prevention Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to life expectancy and increased health problems. In keeping with the general international trend of rising prevalence of obesity, maternal obesity prevalence is rising. According to WHO, the prevalence of obesity in pregnancy ranges from 1.8 to 25.3%. Maternal obesity has been identified to be a risk factor for maternal and perinatal mortality. The aim of this article was reviewed in research about maternal obesity in Pubmed, which published between 2009 and 2010. 7 reviews and 13 studies was examined and they presented under this headings: impacts of maternal obesity in pregnancy, obstetric outcomes of maternal obesity, postpartum outcomes of maternal obesity, impact of maternal obesity on breastfeeding, impact of maternal obesity on procedure of anomaly scan and risk determination, maternal obesity and fetal complications, impact of maternal obesity on Apgar scores, obesity and infertility, pregnancy following bariatric surgery, long term effects of obesity, management of maternal obesity. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 353-364

Emre Yanikkerem

2012-06-01

330

Current research on organ donor management.  

Science.gov (United States)

A shortage of organs is available for transplantation, with 116,000 patients on the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network/United Network for Organ Sharing wait list. Because the demand for organs outweighs the supply, considerable care must be taken to maximize the number of organs transplanted per donor and optimize the quality of recovered organs. Studies designed to determine optimal donor management therapies are limited, and this research has many challenges. Although evidenced-based guidelines for managing potential organ donors do not exist, research in this area is increasing. This article reviews the existing literature and highlights recent trials that can guide management. PMID:24287350

Sally, Mitchell; Malinoski, Darren

2013-12-01

331

[Living donor nephrectomy: the minimally invasive evolution].  

Science.gov (United States)

Living donor kidney transplant has considerably expanded over the last ten years, in order to increase the pool of renal donors. Selection and extensive work-up of the kidney provider is of paramount importance. The technique of harvesting has evolved simultaneously with minimally-invasive surgery. In our experience, the most appropriate technique is performed through hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic access, since it ensures the high security of open harvesting, and provides the donor with the minimal invasiveness of endoscopic surgery. PMID:18183813

Fleury, Nicolas; Schwartz, Julien; Hadaya, Karine; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Iselin, Christophe

2007-12-01

332

Interventional radiology in living donor liver transplant.  

Science.gov (United States)

The shortage of deceased donor liver grafts led to the use of living donor liver transplant (LDLT). Patients who undergo LDLT have a higher risk of complications than those who undergo deceased donor liver transplantation (LT). Interventional radiology has acquired a key role in every LT program by treating the majority of vascular and non-vascular post-transplant complications, improving graft and patient survival and avoiding, in the majority of cases, surgical revision and/or re-transplant. The aim of this paper is to review indications, diagnostic modalities, technical considerations, achievements and potential complications of interventional radiology procedures after LDLT. PMID:24876742

Cheng, Yu-Fan; Ou, Hsin-You; Yu, Chun-Yen; Tsang, Leo Leung-Chit; Huang, Tung-Liang; Chen, Tai-Yi; Hsu, Hsien-Wen; Concerjero, Allan M; Wang, Chih-Chi; Wang, Shih-Ho; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Yong, Chee-Chien; Lin, Yu-Hung; Lin, Chih-Che; Chiu, King-Wah; Jawan, Bruno; Eng, Hock-Liew; Chen, Chao-Long

2014-05-28

333

Level Spectrum of Single Gated As Donors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the electrical transport through single As donors incorporated in the channel of a FinFET, i.e. a donor in a three-terminal geometry. By means of spectroscopic measurements in conjuction with a NEMO-3D model, we can identify the excited states and associate them with either the donors Coulomb potential, a triangular well at the interface or a hybridized combination of the two. The correspondence between the transport measurements, the theoretical model and the local environment provi...

Lansbergen, G. P.; Rahman, R.; Caro, J.; Collaert, N.; Biesemans, S.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.; Rogge, S.; Klimeck, Gerhard

2008-01-01

334

Interventional radiology in living donor liver transplant  

Science.gov (United States)

The shortage of deceased donor liver grafts led to the use of living donor liver transplant (LDLT). Patients who undergo LDLT have a higher risk of complications than those who undergo deceased donor liver transplantation (LT). Interventional radiology has acquired a key role in every LT program by treating the majority of vascular and non-vascular post-transplant complications, improving graft and patient survival and avoiding, in the majority of cases, surgical revision and/or re-transplant. The aim of this paper is to review indications, diagnostic modalities, technical considerations, achievements and potential complications of interventional radiology procedures after LDLT. PMID:24876742

Cheng, Yu-Fan; Ou, Hsin-You; Yu, Chun-Yen; Tsang, Leo Leung-Chit; Huang, Tung-Liang; Chen, Tai-Yi; Hsu, Hsien-Wen; Concerjero, Allan M; Wang, Chih-Chi; Wang, Shih-Ho; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Yong, Chee-Chien; Lin, Yu-Hung; Lin, Chih-Che; Chiu, King-Wah; Jawan, Bruno; Eng, Hock-Liew; Chen, Chao-Long

2014-01-01

335

Donor policy rules and aid effectiveness  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present paper examines the macroeconomic impact of aid, by introducing endogenous aid allocations into a neoclassical growth framework. On this basis it is shown that donor policies can have important implications for the trajectory of recipients' GDP per capita. Depending on specific donor policy choices, aid disbursements may lead to faster transitional growth, stagnation or cyclical growth. Moreover, the analysis also suggests that donor policies may be part of the reason why foreign aid is not found to be uniformly effective in raising long-run productivity across recipients

Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

2008-01-01

336

Moderate and extreme maternal obesity.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity among an Irish obstetric population over a 10-year period, and to evaluate the obstetric features of such pregnancies. Of 31,869 women delivered during the years 2000-2009, there were 306 women in the study group, including 173 in the moderate or Class 2 obese category (BMI 35-39.9) and 133 in the extreme or Class 3 obese category (BMI > or = 40).The prevalence of obese women with BMI > or = 35 was 9.6 per 1000 (0.96%), with an upward trend observed from 2.1 per 1000 in the year 2000, to 11.8 per 1000 in the year 2009 (P = 0.001). There was an increase in emergency caesarean section (EMCS) risk for primigravida versus multigravid women, within both obese categories (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in EMCS rates observed between Class 2 and Class 3 obese women, when matched for parity. The prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity reported in this population is high, and appears to be increasing. The increased rates of abdominal delivery, and the levels of associated morbidity observed, have serious implications for such women embarking on pregnancy.

Abdelmaboud, M O

2012-05-01

337

Anti-obesity drug development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity accelerates morbidity and mortality and has been described by the World Health Organization (WHO) as an epidemic in many industrialised nations [101,102]. Diet, exercise and lifestyle recommendations have proven to be mostly ineffective in adequately preventing or treating the progression of this public health disease. Existing drug treatment is limited by the scarce number of safe and well-tolerated drugs with proven long-term efficacy in maintaining weight loss. Numerous anti-obesity drugs in development have promise. Yet, despite that obesity is the single most common nutritional problem in many developed nations and despite the devastating health consequences of this unchecked epidemic, investigational anti-obesity drugs face unique and significant challenges due to past and current experiences with anti-obesity drugs. It is anticipated that new anti-obesity drugs for this serious, multifaceted metabolic disease will become as safe and effective and as medically accepted as the treatment of other metabolic disorders such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia or Type 2 diabetes mellitus. This may be particularly important, given that these metabolic disorders may be largely due to or exacerbated by obesity itself. PMID:12225242

Bays, Harold; Dujovne, Carlos

2002-09-01

338

Subclinical hypothyroidism in obese children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Thyroid functions in obese children and adolescentswere evaluated in order to determine subclinicaland clinical hypothyroidism.Materials and methods: In this study, 85 obese (Bodymass index >97th percentile children, aged 2-14 years, aswell as 47 healthy controls were enrolled. Levels of serumfree triiodothyronine (fT3, free thyroxine (fT4 and thyroidstimulatinghormone (TSH of the two groups were compared.Obese children with TSH level above 5.4 IU/mlwere also analyzed for thyroid autoantibodies and thyroidultrasounds were performed.Results: Obese children showed higher serum concentrationsof TSH and fT3 than the controls but no significantdifference in serum fT4 levels was found between the twogroups (P=0.001. One child had high auto antibodiesand 32 had high TSH levels. Of 28 children with TSH >5,4IU/ml, 25 children had normal thyroid ultrasound findingsand three had nodules or thyroiditis but no enlargementof the thyroid gland.Conclusion: TSH and fT3 levels were found to be higherin obese children compared with non-obese children withno difference of fT4 levels between two groups.Key words: Body mass index, obesity, thyroid functions

Emel Torun

2013-01-01

339

The Prognostic Relevance of the Donor IL-6 Serum Level with Respect to the Postoperative Course of Cadaveric Kidney Grafts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a retrospective study the postoperative courses of 100 consecutive kidney graft recipients (women 36, men 64 aged between 17 and 69 years were analyzed according to the beginning of graft function, frequency of rejections, occurrence of serious infections, duration of postoperative stay on the ward as well as serum creatinine level at discharge and were related to the serum IL-6 level of organ donors. Neither the creating of two large groups (donor IL-6: 31.6 ±19.6 versus 797 ±1709 pg/ml nor of five smaller groups (donor IL-6: 0-50, 50.1-100, 100.1-200, 200.1-500, >500 pg/ml reveals statistic significant differences of the postoperative courses. An additional analysis of data of so-called kidney pairs, that means the transplantation of both kidneys of one donor into two recipients in the same centre, showed without any doubt that the majority of kidney pairs (17 out of 23 experienced different postoperative courses with respect to the above mentioned parameters and did not depend on the height of donor IL-6 serum level differing between 8 pg/ml and 1071.2 pg/ml. Thus, the donor IL-6 level did not have any prognostic relevance with respect to the postoperative kidney graft fate.

C. Wesslau

2006-09-01

340

Utilization of Expanded Criteria Donors in Liver Transplantation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Improvements in surgical techniques, immunosuppression, and post-transplantation patientcare have led to the optimization of liver transplantation outcomes. However, the waiting listfor liver transplantation is increasing at a greater pace. The large gap between the growing poolof patients waiting for liver transplantation and the scarcity of donor organs has fueled effortsto maximize existing donors and identify new sources.This article will be focused on the current state of liver transplantation using grafts from extendedcriteria donors (elderly donors, steatotic donors, donors with malignancies, donors withviral hepatitis and from donation after cardiac death (DCD, as well as the use of partial grafts(split grafts and living-donor liver transplantation and other suboptimal donors (donors withhypernatremia, infections, hypotension and inotropic support. Overall, broadened criteria foracceptable donor livers appear to lessen graft survival rates somewhat compared with rates forstandard criteria organs.

R. F. Saidi

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
341

Novel insights of dietary polyphenols and obesity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prevalence of obesity has steadily increased over the past three decades both in the United States and worldwide. Recent studies have shown the role of dietary polyphenols in the prevention of obesity and obesity-related chronic diseases. Here we evaluated the impact of commonly consumed polyphenols, including green tea catechins and epigallocatechin gallates, resveratrol, and curcumin, on obesity and obesity-related-inflammation. Cellular studies demonstrated that these dietary polyphenols r...

Wang, Shu; Moustaid-moussa, Naima; Chen, Lixia; Mo, Huanbiao; Shastri, Anuradha; Su, Rui; Bapat, Priyanka; Kwun, Insook; Shen, Chwan-li

2014-01-01

342

The public health impact of obesity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The prevalence of obesity (severe overweight) has been increasing in western societies during the last decades. Epidemiological studies to the public health impact of obesity are therefore warranted. This thesis aimed at describing the long-term and recent time trends of obesity in the Netherlands, and to explore the relations between obesity, mortality, morbidity, and disability.The prevalence of obesity, body mass index (BMI)?30.0 kg/m 2, increased steadily in Dutch adults betw...

Visscher, T. L. S.

2001-01-01

343

Hypertension in obese children and adolescents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity, especially upper body fat distribution, has become an increasingly important medical problem in children and adolescents. Outcomes related to childhood obesity include, as in adult population, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, left ventricular hypertrophy, obstructive sleep apnea, orthopedic and socio-psychological problems. Obese children are at approximately 3-fold higher risk for hypertension from non-obese ones. Obesity-hypertension appears to be characterized...

Peco-Anti? Amira

2009-01-01

344

Interventions for preventing obesity in children.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background Obesity prevention is an international public health priority. The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing in child populations throughout the world, impacting on short and long-term health. Obesity prevention strategies for children can change behaviour but efficacy in terms of preventing obesity remains poorly understood. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent obesity in childhood through diet, physical activity and/or li...

Summerbell, C. D.; Waters, E.; Edmunds, L. D.; Kelly, S. A. M.; Brown, T. A.; Campbell, K. J.

2011-01-01

345

Characteristics of endometrial carcinoma in obese women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction. In most developed countries, endometrial cancer appears as most frequent invasive neoplasm of genital tract. Obesity is one of most important risk factors. Aim of study was to establish characteristics endometrial cancer in obese women. Material and methods. The study included 50 surgically treated women with endometrial cancer. According body mass index they were divided into two groups - group A (30 obese women), group B (20 non-obese women). Results and Discussion. Non-obese ...

Vukomanovi? Predrag; Kutleši? Ranko; Stefanovi? Milan; Milosavljevi? Mileva; Popovi? Jasmina; Petri? Aleksandra

2010-01-01

346

Donor Immune Cells Attack Metastatic Breast Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

In patients with metastatic breast cancer, immune cells from a genetically matched donor can attack and shrink tumors, researchers from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) announced today at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology in Chicago.

347

Bone marrow transplantation from a cadaveric donor.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 2.5-year-old girl with neurogenic Gaucher's disease was transplanted with donor bone marrow from her HLA-compatible 12-year-old brother whose marrow was harvested 30 min post-mortem, after he suffered a severe head and neck injury. The marrow was stored in liquid nitrogen for 30 days prior to infusion. The post-transplantation period was uneventful with good engraftment and no signs of graft-versus-host disease. Currently, 6 months post-allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (alloBMT), analysis of both bone marrow and blood samples by PCR documented only cells of donor origin. This case demonstrates the feasibility of cadaveric marrow as a source of donor cells. To our knowledge, this patient is the only survivor of alloBMT from a cadaveric donor. PMID:9603417

Kapelushnik, J; Aker, M; Pugatsch, T; Samuel, S; Slavin, S

1998-04-01

348

Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor  

Science.gov (United States)

... Queue __count__/__total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe ... later? Sign in to add this video to a playlist. Sign in Share More Report Need to ...

349

RESULTS OF THE SPECIAL BLOOD DONOR DAY  

CERN Multimedia

Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood were collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff wish to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.

SC Unit

2008-01-01

350

RESULTS OF THE SPECIAL BLOOD DONOR DAY  

CERN Multimedia

Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood was collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff want to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.

SC Unit

2008-01-01

351

Iron status of regular voluntary blood donors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Our blood bank is a regional blood transfusion centre, which accepts blood only from voluntary donors. Aim: The aim is to study iron status of regular voluntary donors who donated their blood at least twice in a year. Materials and Methods: Prior to blood donation, blood samples of 220 male and 30 female voluntary donors were collected. Control included 100 each male and female healthy individuals in the 18- to 60-year age group, who never donated blood and did not have any chronic infection. In the study and control groups, about 10% subjects consumed non-vegetarian diet. After investigation, 85 males and 56 females having haemoglobin (Hb levels above 12.5 g/dl were selected as controls. Donors were divided into ?10, 11-20, 21-50 and> 50 blood donation categories. Majority of the donors in> 50 donation category donated blood four times in a year, whereas the remaining donors donated two to three times per year. Haematological parameters were measured on fully automatic haematology analyzer, serum iron and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC by biochemical methods, ferritin using ELISA kits and transferrin using immunoturbidometry kits. Iron/TIBC ratio x 100 gave percentage of transferrin saturation value. Statistical Analysis: Statistical evaluation was done by mean, standard deviation, pair t -test, ?2 and anova ( F -test. Results: Preliminary analysis revealed that there was no significant difference in the iron profile of vegetarian and non-vegetarian subjects or controls and the donors donating < 20 times. Significant increase or decrease was observed in mean values of various haematological and iron parameters in donors who donated blood for> 20 times ( P < 0.001, compared to controls. Anaemia, iron deficiency and depletion of iron stores were more prevalent in female donors ( P < 0.05 compared to males and especially in those male donors who donated their blood for more than 20 times. Conclusion: Regular voluntary blood donors should receive iron supplementation to prevent iron deficiency and depletion in iron stores.

Mahida Vilsu

2008-01-01

352

The inheritance of obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Syndromic adiposity appears to have a predisposition to run in families suggesting a hereditary element in its transmission. Purely genetic defects and DNA sequence variants have been directly associated with the development of adiposity; however, these account for a very small proportion of cases. A stronger association has been made between the intrauterine and early childhood nutritional environment of the foetus and young child and the predisposition of childhood and subsequent adulthood obesity. The nutritional environments include both a situation of nutritional deprivation or excess working through the interplay of epigenetic changes, and pancreatic and hypothalamic development. This is further compounded by the nutritional and lifestyle attitudes of the particular at-risk family. Adiposity prevention measures must include reenforced intervention strategies stating with lifestyle education schemes during pregnancy followed through until infancy and early childhood especially in those families/individuals identified as being at a risk of developing significant adiposity. PMID:25457854

Savona-Ventura, Charles; Savona-Ventura, Stephanie

2014-10-25

353

Democrats and Donors: Studying Democratization in Africa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since the late 1980s, political scientists, donors, and development workers in East and Southern Africa have devoted much time and resources to the question of ‘democratization’. Yet, it is not clear how this concept of ‘democratization’ has helped us to understand African politics or if donor support for ‘democratization’ has been successful. There are both methodological and conceptual problems with the way democratization is used to explain processes as varied as...

Dorman, Sara Rich

2004-01-01

354

Organ Transplants from Living Donors – Halachic Aspects*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This manuscript is a survey of the halachic attitudes toward organ transplant procedures from a living donor which can be defined as life-saving procedures for the recipient or at least life-prolonging procedures. Three fundamental problems concerning the halachic aspects of such transplantation are discussed in detail: the danger to the donor, donation under coercion, and the sale of organs and tissues. The terms “halacha” and “Jewish law” are defined in the introduction.

Halperin, Mordechai

2011-01-01

355

Therapeutic donor insemination with frozen semen.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although it is now accepted that cryopreserved semen must, on ethical and medicolegal grounds, be used for donor insemination many clinicians still believe that it has an unacceptably reduced fecundability rate as compared with fresh semen. We studied the outcome of 81 recipients who started therapeutic donor insemination (TDI) treatment during 1986 in a program that used exclusively cryopreserved semen; 55 had never undergone TDI and were receiving the first series (six cycles), 6 were recei...

Scott, S. G.; Mortimer, D.; Taylor, P. J.; Leader, A.; Pattinson, H. A.

1990-01-01

356

Increasing demands on today's blood donors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recently in Northern Ireland there has been a rapid increase in demand for a variety of blood components. To meet this need a large proportion of routine blood donations must be processed at the Transfusion Centre. In addition, several blood components are collected direct from donors by apheresis techniques. Apheresis is currently restricted to the collection of components from highly selected donors, but in future this method is likely to be employed for collection of some routine component...

Mcclelland, W. M.

1985-01-01

357

Acute Appendicitis following Laparoscopic Live Donor Nephrectomy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Acute abdominal pain following laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy (LLDN) might be a diagnostic dilemma, and prompt diagnosis and management is of paramount importance. Herein, we describe a case of acute appendicitis in a 62-year-old kidney donor who presented with acute abdominal pain 16 days following LLDN with features inconsistent with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis. An ultrasound scan suggested strangulated Spigelian hernia unrelated to the operative wound. Exploration of the wound a...

Kumar, A.; Elenin, H.; Clayton, C.; Basarab-horwath, C.; Man Shrestha, B.

2010-01-01

358

Improving donor support for urban poverty reduction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The growing urbanization of poverty poses a significant challenge to governments and donors alike, particularly in Asia, which houses 60 per cent of the world's slum dwellers. Donors have been slow to respond to the urban challenge, however, both in their funding patterns and their priorities. There remains, therefore, significant scope for tangible benefits for the urban poor through greater formal and informal recognition, and in the process, through improved access to services and infrastr...

Banks, Nicola

2011-01-01

359

Living Donor Kidney Transplantation: Chance for the Recipient – Financial Risk for the Donor?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The persisting lack of cadaveric organs for transplantation has led to a rising number of transplantations after living donation. In addition to the medical risk the financial risk for the donor is essential especially in case of complications which potentially can lead to disability and loss of work. We report the experiences of those who have donated a kidney in our transplant centre. Methods: Using a questionnaire we asked 80 donors who donated a kidney at least 6 months prior to our evaluation. 58 (72% answered the 33 questions (21 (36% male, 37 (64% female donors; mean age: 54 ± 10 (33 - 75 years. The mean time since donation was 28 ± 18 months. 40 (69% donated for a relative, 18 (31% donated for husband or wife. Results: 91 % (53 of the donors reported to have no financial expenses due to donation. 5 (9 % of the donors had expenses, but only few of them clarified the exact amount and circumstances. 1 donor had to lend money to cover the lack of money when he was not able to do his job. Another claimed the disparity between normal salary and payment from the insurance company while he was ill as a financial expense. The days for evaluation prior to donation were organised very variously: Some of the donors were on holiday while evaluated, some officially were ill, others had to take some days off without payment. None of the donors lost his job due to donation. Conclusion: The financial risk of living donation is – theoretically – well covered by different insurances. However some of the donors had to cover some expenses by themselves. Fortunately so far in our centre a major complication did not occur and any of the donors went home in good health after donation. If any costs are covered if a healthy donor looses his ability to work due to donation remains unclear until the first donor will experience it.

N. Senninger

2003-06-01

360

EXPERIENCING HIETALINNA COMMUNITY : stories of participation of the Service Users  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Roski, Anneli. Experiencing Hietalinna Community. Stories of participation of the service users. 55 p., 2 appendices. Language: English. Spring 2014. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Degree Programme in Social Services, Bachelor of Social Services. The aim of the research is to identify what kind of narratives are the service user constructing about their participation in a therapeutic community. The target group is service users in the therapeutic community Hietalinna. The aims of...

Roski, Anneli

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Germany - Morocco : an ethnography about migration, networks, and experienced discrimination  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work portrays the Moroccan diaspora community in Frankfurt, Germany and investigates the reactions to challenges in the diaspora, the structures of social network relations and the handling of experienced discriminations in everyday life. Methodologically it is based on stationary ethnographic fieldwork in Frankfurt and the Northern Moroccan Rif lasting fourteen months in total. Theoretically the study refers to assumptions on the interrelatedness of emigration and immigration, the detai...

Ostermann, Christine

2010-01-01

362

Experienced Qualities of Vegetated Space in a Scandinavian Context  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Studies have shown that vegetation near to or integrated in buildings can increase the quality of life by e.g. visual appeal, stress reduction, climatic comfort, and protection from pollution and noise. Vegetation can furthermore provide solutions to make our buildings and cities more environmentally sustainable for example as a passive technology of energy reduction, or as a way to avoid overheat of cities. This paper studies the experienced qualities of a vegetated space – a one-family Stockholmian house completely covered by trellis. The house is 180 sq., two-story, built in 2008, and drawn by Swedish architects Tham & Videgård. There is a close contact between interior space and façade plants as a large part of the façade behind the trellis is glass. The paper addresses potentially fruitful approaches to studying experienced qualities of vegetated space, such as visual ethnography, and interviews with residents about their experiences of comfort and discomfort of dwelling. The larger perspective of this study is to investigate the performance of vegetated space in a temperate Scandinavian climate within an agenda of environmental architecture and to identify the perspectives in new low energy buildings or renovations that combine insulation and vegetation, thus offering new experienced qualities in urban environments and within houses.

Olesen, Hans Bruun

2014-01-01

363

If I Had - Morbid Obesity  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Obesity - Dr. Michael Tarnoff, MD, FACS, Tufts University School of Medicine In the Spotlight - Dr. Julian Wu, MD, FACS, Tufts University School of Medicine, Discusses the Treatment of Brain Tumors ...

364

Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy. PMID:24007251

Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

2013-09-01

365

Obesity and colorectal cancer risk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Obesity is a chronic and multifactor disease characterized by presence of excess body fat harmful for health. Several studies have been conducted to assess the possible risk character of different factors for colorectal cancer including the following modifying factors: a diet rich in saturated fats, a diet low in vegetables, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption and obesity. A case-control study was conducted to include 276 adult patients (93 cases and 184 controls) consecutively seen from May, 2008 to May, 2009 in the Institute of Gastroenterology determining a possible association between obesity as risk factor and colorectal cancer. Variables measures included: sex, age, skin color, body mass index, hip-waist circumference and endoscopic location of cancer. We conclude that the colorectal cancer with predominance in female sex and in white people in both groups. Obesity according to a great relation hip-waist had an strong relation with colorectal cancer, which had predominance towards distal colon in both sexes

366

Treating Obesity As a Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

... Caretakers Obesity in Infants and Preschoolers Infographic The EmpowerMEnt Challenge Resources How to Make a Healthy Home ... Blood Pressure Readings 2 Heart Attack Symptoms in Women 3 Target Heart Rates 4 What are the ...

367

If I Had - Morbid Obesity  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... In 60 In Depth In the Spotlight If I Had... Universities and Hospitals By Disease or Symptom ... Discusses Current Methods of Testing for Concussion If I Had - Morbid Obesity - Dr. Michael Tarnoff, MD, FACS, ...

368

If I Had - Morbid Obesity  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... conditions is actually less, from a risk perspective including mortality, than the risk of untreated obesity left ... not provide medical advice, make diagnosis or recommend treatment.

369

Pharmacogenetics of obesity drug therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

As the prevalence and severity of obesity and its complications have risen significantly in worldwide populations, behavioral interventions alone have been inconsistent in promoting sufficient, sustained weight loss. Consequently, there has been intense interest in the development of anti-obesity medications as treatment strategies. When coupled with structured lifestyle modifications, pharmacotherapy can enhance weight loss. While less efficacious than bariatric surgery, drug therapy may be an alternative to surgery for some obese patients, and is an emerging strategy for weight maintenance. The goal of pharmacogenetics is to help identify patients who will benefit most from drug therapies while minimizing the risk of adverse effects. In this review, we summarize the pharmacogenetic literature on obesity drugs of the past (sibutramine, rimonabant), present (orlistat, lorcaserin, phentermine, topiramate), and future (buprioprion/naltrexone). PMID:25109792

Guzman, A K; Ding, M; Xie, Y; Martin, K A

2014-01-01

370

Obesity in the ageing man.  

Science.gov (United States)

As the population is ageing globally, both ageing and obesity are recognized as major public health challenges. The aim of this narrative review is to present and discuss the current evidence on the changes in body composition, energy balance and endocrine environment that occur in the ageing man. Obesity in the ageing man is related to changes in both body weight and composition due to alterations in energy intake and total energy expenditure. In addition, somatopenia (decreased GH secretion), late-onset hypogonadism (LOH), changes in thyroid and adrenal function, as well as changes in appetite-related peptides (leptin, ghrelin) and, most importantly, insulin action are related to obesity, abnormal energy balance, redistribution of the adipose tissue and sarcopenia (decreased muscle mass). A better understanding of the complex relationship of ageing-related endocrine changes and obesity could lead to more effective interventions for elderly men. PMID:23831443

Michalakis, K; Goulis, D G; Vazaiou, A; Mintziori, G; Polymeris, A; Abrahamian-Michalakis, A

2013-10-01

371

Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

... Source: Adapted from Clinical Guidelines on the Identifi cation, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in ... and vegetables. ? ? Replace refined grains with whole grains, like oatmeal, whole wheat bread, and brown rice. ? ? Get ...

372

If I Had - Morbid Obesity  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... overweight conditions is actually less, from a risk perspective including mortality, than the risk of untreated obesity ... Inc. All rights reserved. Insidermedicine does not provide medical advice, make diagnosis or recommend treatment.

373

Phthalate exposure and childhood obesity  

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Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers and vehicles for cosmetic ingredients. Phthalate metabolites have documented biochemical activity including activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and antiandrogenic effects, which may contribute to the development of obesity. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that phthalates have significant effects on the development of obesity, especially after prenatal exposure at low doses. Although few studies have examined the effects of ph...

Kim, Shin Hye; Park, Mi Jung

2014-01-01

374

Food reward, hyperphagia, and obesity  

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Given the unabated obesity problem, there is increasing appreciation of expressions like “my eyes are bigger than my stomach,” and recent studies in rodents and humans suggest that dysregulated brain reward pathways may be contributing not only to drug addiction but also to increased intake of palatable foods and ultimately obesity. After describing recent progress in revealing the neural pathways and mechanisms underlying food reward and the attribution of incentive salience by internal ...

Berthoud, Hans-rudolf; Lenard, Natalie R.; Shin, Andrew C.

2011-01-01

375

Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease  

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Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Many of these children have risk factors for later disease, including cardiovascular disease. For optimal cardiovascular health, health care professionals must be able to identify children and youth at risk and provide appropriate support as needed. The present article reviews the current medical literature on obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the paediatric population, the long-term cardiovascular consequences of childhood ...

Bridger, Tracey

2009-01-01

376

Surgical Procedures of Morbid Obesity  

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Background: Surgical intervention has been recently advocated in the treatment of morbid obesity. The objective of this study was to review surgery as an alternative in the treatment of morbidly obese adolescents. Materials and Methods: This research was conducted by searching English websites such as PubMed, Up to Date, and Google Scholar, as well as some Persian websites including SID, Iranmedex, and Magiran. Articles published from 2000 to 2010 on interventional and clinical trials were re...

Zinat Salem; Mahmood Sheikh-Fathollahi

2013-01-01

377

Pancreatic dysfunction in severe obesity  

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AIMS—To investigate pancreatic function in children attending an obesity clinic.?METHODS—Thirty six children (of which 34 were white) with severe obesity of prepubertal onset (body mass index more than +2 SDS) were reviewed clinically and dysmorphologically, with assessment of pancreatic function.?RESULTS—Eight had dysmorphic features and 13 had learning difficulties. Four of 17 prepubertal children had hyperinsulinaemia and seven had hyperproinsulinaemia. All 1...

Drake, A.; Greenhalgh, L.; Newbury-ecob, R.; Crowne, E.; Shield, J.

2001-01-01

378

Cilia, tubby mice, and obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary cilia have been previously linked to the central regulation of satiety. The tubby mouse is characterized by maturity-onset obesity and blindness. A recent paper demonstrates molecular defects in trafficking of ciliary GPCRs in the central neurons of tubby mice, underscoring the role of ciliary signaling in the pathogenesis of this monogenic obesity syndrome. Please see related Research article by Li et al., http://www.ciliajournal.com/content/1/1/21. PMID:23351214

Mukhopadhyay, Saikat; Jackson, Peter K

2013-01-01

379

Obesity and variants of the GHRL (ghrelin) and BCHE (butyrylcholinesterase) genes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Ghrelin coded by the GHRL gene is related to weight-gain, its deactivation possibly depending on its hydrolyzation by butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) encoded by the BCHE gene, an enzyme already associated with the body mass index (BMI). The aim was to search for relationships between SNPs of the GHRL a [...] nd BCHE genes with BChE activity, BMI and obesity in 144 obese and 153 nonobese Euro-Brazilian male blood donors. In the obese individuals, a significant association with higher BChE activity, in the 72LM+72MM; -116GG genotype class (GHRL and BCHE genes, respectively) was noted. No significant differences were found otherwise, through comparisons between obese and control individuals, of genotype and allele frequencies in SNPs of the GHRL gene (Arg51Gln and Leu72Met), or mean BMI between 72LL and 72LM+72MM genotypes. Although there appears to be no direct relationship between the examined GHRL SNPs and BMI, the association of the 72M SNP with higher BChE activity in obese subjects probably points to a regulatory mechanism, thereby implying the influence of the GHRL gene on BChE expression, and a consequential metabolic role in the complex process of fat utilization.

Vitor G.L., Dantas; Lupe, Furtado-Alle; Ricardo L.R., Souza; Eleidi A., Chautard-Freire-Maia.

380

Economic consequences of the obese.  

Science.gov (United States)

The private and social costs of obesity have many causes, and their consequences can be grimly predicted with only rough accuracy. Among the most devastating is the increased incidence of diabetes, of which 60% can be directly attributed to weight gain. There are now about one billion people worldwide who are overweight or obese, compared with 850 million who are chronically underweight. It is estimated that the number of people worldwide with diabetes will increase from 175 million in 2000 to 353 million in 2030, with India and China together accounting for 24% of the total in 2050. Obesity and its economic costs are borne on three levels. At an individual level, obesity imposes costs by limiting personal opportunity in many ways, only some of which can be quantified. In the workplace (assuming the obese are employed, which they may not be, due in part to their condition), costs are borne by employers due to lost productivity, absences, underperformance, and higher insurance premia, which in the aggregate are quite large. Finally, obesity affects expenditures by local, state, and national governments, where programs compensate for or cover some of the private and workforce costs of illness and unemployment. PMID:17601989

Runge, C Ford

2007-11-01

 
 
 
 
381

Osteoarthritis and obesity: experimental models.  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease. Different risk factors have been identified such as aging and obesity and different models have been used to study the impact of obesity and overweight in this pathology. The field the more studied is in vitro cartilage submitted to mechanical stresses. Four different stresses can be applied on this tissue: shear stress, loading, tensile stress (stretching) and hydrostatic pressure. The signal transduction to the chondrocyte and to the nucleus of the cell is a large field of investigation named mechano-transduction. The response of cartilage depends on quality of subchondral bone as well. So, more and more teams are studying the impact of mechanical stresses on bone, mainly by stretching osteoblasts or by submitting them to a fluid shear stress. Recently, a new model of bone compression has been set up, with osteoblasts in their own extracellular matrix. Finally the third field studied is the role of adipokines, mediators playing a key role in obesity, on the aetiology of OA. Adipokines like leptin, resistin, adiponectin and visfatin, seems to play a pro-inflammatory role in arthritis. Studying the role of obesity in OA could be more complex than expected. The link between OA and obesity may not simply be due to high mechanical stresses applied on the tissues, but soluble mediators may play an important role in the onset of OA in obese patients. PMID:19022697

Gabay, Odile; Hall, David J; Berenbaum, Francis; Henrotin, Yves; Sanchez, Christelle

2008-12-01

382

Drug Therapy in Obese Adolescents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The behavior and dietary treatments are not so successful for extremely obese adolescents. Therefore, using drugs to treat extremely obese children and adolescents are among the modern approaches. This research aims to study the pharmaceutical interventions performed for treatment of obese children. Materials and Methods: The strategy of research was using of key words ‘obesity’, ‘adolescence’, ‘treatment’ and ‘anti-obesity drugs’ were searched in websites of PubMed, Iranian Medical Digital Library, SID, Iran Medex, Magiran. This study reviewed all the available published papers in English and Farsi languages during 2000-2010. The Criteria for exclusion was The papers that had been published on interventions and treatment of eating disorders, type II diabetes or the obesity caused by the secondary syndromes. Results: Twelve papers were found as short-term clinical trials and/or long-term follow-ups. In these studies, the positive effects of ‘sibutramine’ in some studies are shown; although some other side effects are reported as well. A significant weight-loss had been reported on ‘orlistat’ medicine, but digestive complications had been observed as well. None of the studies had followed up patients for more than one year. Apparently, ‘Metformin’ requires further studies.Conclusion: The FDA has only approved ‘sibutramine’ and ‘orlistat’ drugs. But side effects of long-term these drugs have already been unknown. However, it seems that ‘orlistat’ is applied for ?12-year-old children and ‘sibutramine’ for ? 16-year-old children.

Zinat Salem

2013-03-01

383

Modifiable risk factors for overweight and obesity in children and adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazil is currently experiencing a nutrition transition: the displacement of traditional diets with foods high in saturated fat, sodium, and cholesterol and an increase in sedentary lifestyles. Despite these trends, our understanding of child obesity in Brazil is limited. Thus, the aims of this study were (1 to investigate the current prevalence of overweight and obesity in a large sample of children and adolescents living in São Paulo, Brazil, and (2 to identify the lifestyle behaviors associated with an increased risk of obesity in young Brazilians. Methods A total of 3,397 children and adolescents (1,596 male aged 7-18 years were randomly selected from 22 schools in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were classified as normal weight, overweight, or obese based on international age- and sex-specific body mass index thresholds. Selected sociodemographic, physical activity, and nutrition behaviors were assessed via questionnaire. Results Overall, 19.4% of boys and 16.1% of girls were overweight while 8.9% and 4.3% were obese. Two-way analysis of variance revealed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was significantly higher in boys and in younger children when compared to girls and older children, respectively (P Conclusions Our results show that obesity in São Paulo children and adolescents has reached a level equivalent to that seen in many developed countries. We have also identified three key modifiable factors related to obesity that may be appropriate targets for future intervention in Brazilian youth: transport mode to school, computer usage, and breakfast consumption.

Codogno Jamile S

2011-07-01

384

Obesity and eating habits among college students in Saudi Arabia: a cross sectional study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background During the last few decades, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) experienced rapid socio-cultural changes caused by the accelerating economy in the Arabian Gulf region. That was associated with major changes in the food choices and eating habits which, progressively, became more and more "Westernized". Such "a nutritional transition" has been claimed for the rising rates of overweight and obesity which were recently observed among Saudi population. Therefore...

Al-Shwaiyat Naseem M; Fahmy Alaa-Eldin A; Al-Rethaiaa Abdallah S

2010-01-01

385

Perimortem cesarean delivery in a pregnant patient with goiter, preeclampsia, and morbid obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cardiopulmonary arrest during pregnancy is a devastating event necessitating rapid intervention from experienced practitioners to reduce the incidence and severity of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Perimortem cesarean delivery is rarely performed within the recommended time frame to meet these goals. We describe a case of a successful perimortem cesarean delivery after the "4-minute rule" in a morbidly obese parturient with goiter and preeclampsia. PMID:25689359

Aronsohn, Judith; Danzer, Brett; Overdyk, Frank; Roseman, Adam

2015-02-15

386

Quality of life for donors after living donor liver transplantation: a review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) decreases the shortage of liver grafts for patients in need of a liver transplant, but it involves 2 patients: a recipient and a living donor. Despite the magnitude of the procedure for LDLT donors, only a few studies have investigated the effect of LDLT on the quality of life (QOL) of donors. We performed a systematic search of the MEDLINE database to identify peer-reviewed articles assessing QOL in adults after LDLT donation. Nineteen studies describing 768 unique donors met our inclusion criteria for this review. The median number of donors enrolled in each study was 30 (range = 10-143), and the median follow-up period was 10.4 months (range = 3-51.3 months). Before donation, donor QOL was significantly better than that in control adult populations across all measured QOL domains. Within the first 3 months after donation, the physical domains of QOL were significantly worse than the predonation levels, but they returned to baseline levels within 6 months for the majority of patients (80%-93%). Mental domains of QOL remained unchanged throughout the donation process. Common donor concerns after LDLT included bloating, loss of muscle tone, poor body image, and fatigue. In conclusion, according to our review of the existing literature, most LDLT donors return to their baseline QOL within 6 months. However, there is a lack of long-term data on donor QOL after LDLT, and few standardized assessments include measures of common patient concerns. Additional studies are necessary to develop a comprehensive risk profile for LDLT that includes a rigorous assessment of donor QOL. PMID:21117194

Parikh, Neehar D; Ladner, Daniela; Abecassis, Michael; Butt, Zeeshan

2010-12-01

387

Prevalence of seroreactivity among blood donors in rural population.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The seroreactivity pattern amongst blood donors in rural population was studied at S.R.T. Rural Medical College and Hospital, Ambajogai (M. S.. The study period was from January 1996 to December 2001. A total number of 12,240 blood donors were screened. The voluntary donation was 36.98% and replacement donors were 63.02%. No professional donor is bled in our blood bank. The HIV seroreactivity among voluntary donors was 1.56% and 2.11% in replacement donors. The HBsAg seroreactivity was 2.78% in voluntary donors and 4.84% in replacement donors. VDRL seroreactivity is 1.12% in replacement donors. No malarial parasite and HCV seroreactive donor was found in our study period. We have found the magnitude of hepatitis to be far more than that of HIV. Hence testing for HCV routinely is mandatory, besides HBsAg.

Sonwane B

2003-09-01

388

Response and toxicity of donor lymphocyte infusions following T cell depleted non-myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from 3–6/6 HLA matched donors  

Science.gov (United States)

Background We report the outcome of early donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) following T-cell depleted non-myeloablative transplantation using stem cells from human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched or mismatched donors. Patients and Methods Sixty-nine patients with high risk hematologic malignancies received DLI following fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and alemtuzumab with infusion of stem cells from a matched sibling (52) or partially matched family member donor (17). Patients received the first infusion a median of 50 days following transplant and doses ranged from 1×104 CD3+ cells/kg to 3.27 ×108 CD3+ cells/kg, depending on clinical status and physician’s discretion. A median cell dose of 1× 105 CD3+ cells/kg in the mismatched setting and 1×106 CD3+ cells/kg in the matched sibling setting appears safe with only 1/7 (14%) and 4/31 (13%) respectively experiencing severe aGVHD at these doses. Importantly, 38% of patients with persistent disease prior to DLI attained a remission following infusion. Nine of the 69 remain alive and disease free 32–71 months following the first DLI infusion. Conclusion Low doses of DLI can be safely provided soon after T-cell depleted non-myeloablative therapy and provide a chance of remission. However, long term survival still remains poor due primarily to relapse in these patients however. PMID:18850014

Rizzieri, David A; Dev, Prakash; Long, Gwynn D; Gasparetto, Cristina; Sullivan, Keith M.; Horwitz, Mitchell; Chute, John; Chao, Nelson J

2013-01-01

389

Donor type semiconductor at low temperature as maser active medium  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In some semiconductors donor impurity atoms can attract additional electrons, forming negative donor impurity ions. Thus we have 3 energy levels for electrons: zero energy levels at the bottom of the conductivity band, negative energy levels of the bounded electrons of the negative donor impurity ions, and deeper negative energy levels of the outer electrons of the neutral donor impurity atoms. So the donor impurity atoms could serve as active centres for a maser. The maximu...

Kornyushin, Yuri

2007-01-01

390

Evaluation of the return rate of volunteer blood donors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: To convert first-time blood donors into regular volunteer donors is a challenge to transfusion services. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to estimate the return rate of first time donors of the Ribeirão Preto Blood Center and of other blood centers in its coverage region. METHODS: The histories of 115,553 volunteer donors between 1996 and 2005 were analyzed. Statistical analysis was based on a parametric long-term survival model that allows an estimation of the proportion of donors wh...

Adriana de Fátima Lourençon; Rodrigo Guimarães dos Santos Almeida; Oranice Ferreira; Edson Zangiacomi Martinez

2011-01-01

391

Liver regeneration after living donor transplantation: Adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation cohort study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult-to-adult living donors and recipients were studied to characterize patterns of liver growth and identify associated factors in a multicenter study. Three hundred and fifty donors and 353 recipients in the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study (A2ALL) receiving transplants between March 2003 and February 2010 were included. Potential predictors of 3-month liver volume included total and standard liver volumes (TLV and SLV), Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score (in recipients), the remnant and graft size, remnant-to-donor and graft-to-recipient weight ratios (RDWR and GRWR), remnant/TLV, and graft/SLV. Among donors, 3-month absolute growth was 676?±?251 g (mean?±?SD), and percentage reconstitution was 80%?±?13%. Among recipients, GRWR was 1.3%?±?0.4% (8??0.90 for each). Both donors and recipients had rapid yet incomplete restoration of tissue mass in the first 3 months, and this confirmed previous reports. Recipients achieved a greater percentage of expected total volume. Patient size and recipient graft volume significantly influenced 3-month volumes. Importantly, donor liver volume is a critical predictor of the rate of regeneration, and donor remnant fraction affects postresection function. Liver Transpl 21:79-88, 2015. © 2014 AASLD. PMID:25065488

Olthoff, Kim M; Emond, Jean C; Shearon, Tempie H; Everson, Greg; Baker, Talia B; Fisher, Robert A; Freise, Chris E; Gillespie, Brenda W; Everhart, James E

2015-01-01

392

Molecular assembly of amino acid interlinked, topologically symmetric, ?-complementary donor–acceptor–donor triads  

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Amino acid interlinked pyrene and naphthalenediimide (NDI) based novel donor–acceptor–donor (D-A-D) triads are designed to exploit their topological symmetry and complementary ?-character for facile charge-transfer complexation. Consequently, free-floating high-aspect-ratio supercoiled nanofibres and hierarchical helical bundles of triads are realized by modulating the chemical functionality of interlinking amino acids.

Avinash, M. B.; Sandeepa, K. V.; Govindaraju, T.

2013-01-01

393

Colonic flora, Probiotics, Obesity and Diabetes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity results from alterations in the body's regulation of energy intake, expenditure, and storage. Animal and human data demonstrate that phylogenic changes occur in the microbiota composition in obese individuals. Furthermore, evidence from animal models suggest that the alterations of the gut microbiota with obesity results in increased energy extraction and lipid deposition, altered release of entero-hormones, increased intestinal permeability and metabolic endotoxemia. Treatment with pre- and probiotics may reverse many of metabolic effects linked with the altered microbiota in obese patients. The gut microbiota is, therefore, a potential nutritional and pharmacological target for the management of obesity and obesity-related disorders.

PaulEllisMarik

2012-07-01

394

Pediatric Obesity: It’s Time for Prevention Before Conception Can Maternal Obesity Program Pediatric Obesity?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Global increases in obesity have led public health experts to declare this disease a pandemic. Although prevalent in all ages, the dire consequences associated with maternal obesity have a pronounced impact on the long-term health of their children as a result of the intergenerational effects of developmental programming. Previously, fetal under-nutrition has been linked to the predisposition to pediatric obesity explained by the adiposity rebound and ‘catch-up’ growth that occurs when a child born to a nutrient deprived mother is exposed to the obesogenic environment of present day. Given the recent increase in maternal overweight/obesity (OW/OB our attention has shifted from nutrient restriction to overabundance and excess during pregnancy. Consideration must now be given to interventions that could mitigate pregravid body mass index (BMI, attenuate gestational weight gain (GWG and reduce postpartum weight retention (PPWR in an attempt to prevent the downstream signaling of pediatric obesity and halt the intergenerational cycle of weight related disease currently plaguing our world. Thus, this paper will briefly review current research that best highlights the proposed mechanisms responsible for the development of child OW/OB and related sequalae (e.g. type II diabetes (T2D and cardiovascular disease (CVD resulting from maternal obesity.

Zach Ferraro

2008-01-01

395

Subjective expansion of extended time-spans in experienced meditators  

Science.gov (United States)

Experienced meditators typically report that they experience time slowing down in meditation practice as well as in everyday life. Conceptually this phenomenon may be understood through functional states of mindfulness, i.e., by attention regulation, body awareness, emotion regulation, and enhanced memory. However, hardly any systematic empirical work exists regarding the experience of time in meditators. In the current cross-sectional study, we investigated whether 42 experienced mindfulness meditation practitioners (with on average 10 years of experience) showed differences in the experience of time as compared to 42 controls without any meditation experience matched for age, sex, and education. The perception of time was assessed with a battery of psychophysical tasks assessing the accuracy of prospective time judgments in duration discrimination, duration reproduction, and time estimation in the milliseconds to minutes range as well with several psychometric instruments related to subjective time such as the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, the Barratt Impulsivity Scale and the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory. In addition, subjective time judgments on the current passage of time and retrospective time ranges were assessed. While subjective judgements of time were found to be significantly different between the two groups on several scales, no differences in duration estimates in the psychophysical tasks were detected. Regarding subjective time, mindfulness meditators experienced less time pressure, more time dilation, and a general slower passage of time. Moreover, they felt that the last week and the last month passed more slowly. Overall, although no intergroup differences in psychophysical tasks were detected, the reported findings demonstrate a close association between mindfulness meditation and the subjective feeling of the passage of time captured by psychometric instruments. PMID:25642205

Wittmann, Marc; Otten, Simone; Schötz, Eva; Sarikaya, Anna; Lehnen, Hanna; Jo, Han-Gue; Kohls, Niko; Schmidt, Stefan; Meissner, Karin

2015-01-01

396

Acceleration experienced by thermal converter implanted in calves  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study was to determine acceleration levels experienced by the ERDA thermal converter unit implanted abdominally in a calf. A full-scale weighted mock-up of the thermal converter was fabricated containing a triaxial accelerometer. The mock-up was implanted in calf cadavers which were subjected to falls from an operating table. Highest acceleration recorded was 34 g. The mock-up was implanted in living animals and acceleration measurements made under various maneuvers including walking, standing from a laying position, walking up and down stairs, jumping, and falling from a standing position. Maximum acceleration recorded was 8 g and occurred in the falling maneuver

397

Spin-Lattice Relaxation Times of Single Donors and Donor Clusters in Silicon  

Science.gov (United States)

An atomistic method of calculating the spin-lattice relaxation times (T1 ) is presented for donors in silicon nanostructures comprising of millions of atoms. The method takes into account the full band structure of silicon including the spin-orbit interaction. The electron-phonon Hamiltonian, and hence, the deformation potential, is directly evaluated from the strain-dependent tight-binding Hamiltonian. The technique is applied to single donors and donor clusters in silicon, and explains the variation of T1 with the number of donors and electrons, as well as donor locations. Without any adjustable parameters, the relaxation rates in a magnetic field for both systems are found to vary as B5 , in excellent quantitative agreement with experimental measurements. The results also show that by engineering electronic wave functions in nanostructures, T1 times can be varied by orders of magnitude.

Hsueh, Yu-Ling; Büch, Holger; Tan, Yaohua; Wang, Yu; Hollenberg, Lloyd C. L.; Klimeck, Gerhard; Simmons, Michelle Y.; Rahman, Rajib

2014-12-01

398

Variety, palatability, and obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Among the key characteristics of the Western obesogenic food environment is a highly palatable and varied food supply. Laboratory investigations of eating behavior in both humans and animals established key roles for palatability and variety in stimulating appetite, delaying satiety, and promoting excessive energy intake. There is a robust effect of food palatability and variety on short-term food intake, and increased variety and palatability also cause weight gain in animal models. However, laboratory paradigms do not replicate the complexities of eating in a natural setting, and there is a shortage of evidence to estimate the magnitude of effects on weight in humans. There are substantial individual differences in susceptibility to the palatability effect and this may be a key determinant in individual vulnerability to weight gain. The understanding of pathways through which palatability and variety can affect eating is advancing, and epidemiologic and intervention studies are needed to translate laboratory findings into applications in public health or clinical domains, and to establish whether there is a role for greater regulation of the food environment in tackling increases in obesity. PMID:25398751

Johnson, Fiona; Wardle, Jane

2014-11-01

399

Eating habits and obesity among Lebanese university students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past year Lebanon has been experiencing a nutritional transition in food choices from the typical Mediterranean diet to the fast food pattern. As a consequence, the dietary habits of young adults have been affected; thus, overweight and obesity are increasingly being observed among the young. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity on a sample of students from the Lebanese American University (in Beirut and to examine their eating habits. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 220 students (43.6% male and 56.4% female, aged 20 ± 1.9 years, were chosen randomly from the Lebanese American University (LAU campus during the fall 2006 semester. Students were asked to fill out a self-reported questionnaire that included questions on their eating, drinking and smoking habits. Also, their weight, height, percentage body fat and body mass index were measured. Body mass index (BMI was used to assess students' weight status. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (version 13.0 to determine overweight and obesity among students and to categorize eating habits. Results This study showed that the majority of the students (64.7% were of normal weight (49% male students compared to 76.8% female students. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was more common among male students compared to females (37.5% and 12.5% vs. 13.6% and 3.2%, respectively. In contrast, 6.4% female students were underweight as compared to 1% males. Eating habits of the students showed that the majority (61.4% reported taking meals regularly. Female students showed healthier eating habits compared to male students in terms of daily breakfast intake and meal frequency. 53.3% of female students reported eating breakfast daily or three to four times per week compared to 52.1% of male students. There was a significant gender difference in the frequency of meal intake (P = 0.001. Intake of colored vegetables and fruits was common among students. A total of 30.5% reported daily intake of colored vegetables with no gender differences (31.5% females vs. 29.2% males. Alcohol intake and smoking were not common among students. Conclusion In spite of the overall low prevalence of overweight and obesity in the studied sample, results indicate that university students would possibly benefit from a nutrition and health promotion program to reduce the tendency of overweight and obesity, especially among male students, and to improve students' eating habits.

Abdallah Abbass

2008-10-01

400

131I - uptake by obese strain and reaseheath line R chicken thyroid and thymic epithelium cultured in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monolayer thyroid cultures of Obese strain chickens, displaying spontaneous thyroiditis, incorporate the same quantity of 131I as those of normal Reaseheath Line R birds. The incorporation was significantly higher than in the case of HeLa cells. The ages of donors and of cultures have no significant effect on the rate of iodine incorporation. Thymic epithelial cultures obtained from the same birds incorporated a similar amount of 131I as thyroid cultures. (author)

 
 
 
 
401

/sup 131/I - uptake by obese strain and reaseheath line R chicken thyroid and thymic epithelium cultured in vitro  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Monolayer thyroid cultures of Obese strain chickens, displaying spontaneous thyroiditis, incorporate the same quantity of /sup 131/I as those of normal Reaseheath Line R birds. The incorporation was significantly higher than in the case of HeLa cells. The ages of donors and of cultures have no significant effect on the rate of iodine incorporation. Thymic epithelial cultures obtained from the same birds incorporated a similar amount of /sup 131/I as thyroid cultures.

Wlodarski, K. (Akademia Medyczna, Warsaw (Poland). Zaklad Histologii i Embriologii); Sundick, R.; Rose, N.R. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (USA))

1979-01-01

402

Negatively charged donors in flat quantum dots  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The ground state energies of off-axis negatively charged donors in axially symmetrical quantum dots, with different shapes but in all cases with a small height-to-base radius aspect ratio are calculated in adiabatic approximation by using the Hylleraas-type trial function. The dependencies of the ne [...] utral and negative donor binding energies and their ratios on the base radius in the pyramid, lens and disk are calculated and compared with previously obtained results for the spherical quantum dot. We also present the contour plots of the binding energies of the neutral and negative donors with different positions along a vertical cross section in the middle of the quantum dots.

Luis F., García; Jairo H., Marín; Ilia D., Mikhailov.

2006-09-01

403

Genome-wide isolation of growth and obesity QTL using mouse speed congenic strains  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background High growth (hg modifier and background independent quantitative trait loci (QTL affecting growth, adiposity and carcass composition were previously identified on mouse chromosomes (MMU 1, 2, 5, 8, 9, 11 and 17. To confirm and further characterize each QTL, two panels of speed congenic strains were developed by introgressing CAST/EiJ (CAST QTL alleles onto either mutant C57Bl/6J-hg/hg (HG or wild type C57Bl/6J (B6 genetic backgrounds. Results The first speed congenic panel was developed by introgressing four overlapping donor regions spanning MMU2 in its entirety onto both HG and B6 backgrounds, for a total of eight strains. Phenotypic characterization of the MMU2 panel confirmed the segregation of multiple growth and obesity QTL and strongly suggested that a subset of these loci modify the effects of the hg deletion. The second panel consisted of individual donor regions on an HG background for each QTL on MMU1, 5, 8, 9, 11 and 17. Of the six developed strains, five were successfully characterized and displayed significant differences in growth and/or obesity as compared to controls. All five displayed phenotypes similar to those originally attributed to each QTL, however, novel phenotypes were unmasked in several of the strains including sex-specific effects. Conclusion The speed congenic strains developed herein constitute an invaluable genomic resource and provide the foundation to identify the specific nature of genetic variation influencing growth and obesity.

Corva Pablo M

2006-05-01

404

Airway management and morbid obesity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Morbidly obese patients present with excess fatty tissue externally on the breast, neck, thoracic wall and abdomen and internally in the mouth, pharynx and abdomen. This excess tissue tends to make access (intubation, tracheostomy) to and patency (during sedation or mask ventilation) of the upper airway and the function of the lungs (decreased residual capacity and aggravated ventilation perfusion mismatch) worse than in lean patients. Proper planning and preparation of airway management is essential, including elevation of the patient's upper body, head and neck. Preoxygenation is mandatory in morbidly obese patients and should be followed by actions to counteract atelectasis formation. The decision as to weather to use a rapid sequence induction, an awake intubation or a standard induction with hypnotics should depend on the thorough airway examination and comorbidity and should not be based solely on whether morbid obesity is present or not. It is important to ensure sufficient depth of anaesthesia before initiating manipulation of the airway because inadequate anaesthesia depth predisposes to aspiration if airway management becomes difficult. The intubating laryngeal mask airway is more efficient in the morbidly obese patients than in lean patients and serves as a rescue device for both failed ventilation and failed intubation. In the 24 h following anaesthesia, morbidly obese patients experience frequent oxygen desaturation periods that can be counteracted by continuous positive airway pressure, noninvasive ventilation and physiotherapy.

Kristensen, Michael S

2010-01-01

405

[Obesity prevalence in Latin America].  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is a public health problem that affects both the developed and the developing countries. Its aetiology includes genetic factors and lifestyle (diet and physical activity). The studies of its prevalence in different strata and localisations of the Latin American countries varied between 22-26% in Brazil, 21% in Mexico, 10% in Ecuador, 3-22% in Peru, 22-35% in Paraguay and 24-27% in Argentina, although these data should not be extrapolated to the general population. The comparative national studies made it possible to establish that: 1.- The prevalence of preobesity plus obesity was above 20% in 17 of the 20 countries. 2.- There is a trend to increase in the prevalence of obesity. 3.- The relation of obesity between women/men is significantly higher in females in the majority of countries. In any case, although the validity of these rates must be examined with care, since the goals of evaluation and comparison with the corresponding patterns might differ, it can be observed that the epidemiological transition in these countries leads to a growing number of persons with obesity. PMID:12861275

Braguinsky, J

2002-01-01

406

The genetics of human obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The heritability of obesity has long been appreciated and the genetics of obesity has been the focus of intensive study for decades. Early studies elucidating genetic factors involved in rare monogenic and syndromic forms of extreme obesity focused attention on dysfunction of hypothalamic leptin-related pathways in the control of food intake as a major contributor. Subsequent genome-wide association studies of common genetic variants identified novel loci that are involved in more common forms of obesity across populations of diverse ethnicities and ages. The subsequent search for factors contributing to the heritability of obesity not explained by these 2 approaches ("missing heritability") has revealed additional rare variants, copy number variants, and epigenetic changes that contribute. Although clinical applications of these findings have been limited to date, the increasing understanding of the interplay of these genetic factors with environmental conditions, such as the increased availability of high calorie foods and decreased energy expenditure of sedentary lifestyles, promises to accelerate the translation of genetic findings into more successful preventive and therapeutic interventions. PMID:24929207

Waalen, Jill

2014-10-01

407

High-fat diet-induced obesity leads to increased NO sensitivity of rat coronary arterioles: role of soluble guanylate cyclase activation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of obesity on nitric oxide (NO)-mediated coronary microvascular responses is poorly understood. Thus NO-mediated vasomotor responses were investigated in pressurized coronary arterioles ( approximately 100 microm) isolated from lean (on normal diet) and obese (fed with 60% of saturated fat) rats. We found that dilations to acetylcholine (ACh) were not significantly different in obese and lean rats (lean, 83 +/- 4%; and obese, 85 +/- 3% at 1 microM), yet the inhibition of NO synthesis with N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester reduced ACh-induced dilations only in vessels of lean controls. The presence of the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) inhibitor oxadiazolo-quinoxaline (ODQ) elicited a similar reduction in ACh-induced dilations in the two groups of vessels (lean, 60 +/- 11%; and obese, 57 +/- 3%). Dilations to NO donors, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and diethylenetriamine (DETA)-NONOate were enhanced in coronary arterioles of obese compared with lean control rats (lean, 63 +/- 6% and 51 +/- 5%; and obese, 78 +/- 5% and 70 +/- 5%, respectively, at 1 microM), whereas dilations to 8-bromo-cGMP were not different in the two groups. In the presence of ODQ, both SNP and DETA-NONOate-induced dilations were reduced to a similar level in lean and obese rats. Moreover, SNP-stimulated cGMP immunoreactivity in coronary arterioles and also cGMP levels in carotid arteries were enhanced in obese rats, whereas the protein expression of endothelial NOS and the sGC beta1-subunit were not different in the two groups. Collectively, these findings suggest that in coronary arterioles of obese rats, the increased activity of sGC leads to an enhanced sensitivity to NO, which may contribute to the maintenance of NO-mediated dilations and coronary perfusion in obesity. PMID:18408126

Jebelovszki, Eva; Kiraly, Csaba; Erdei, Nora; Feher, Attila; Pasztor, Eniko T; Rutkai, Ibolya; Forster, Tamas; Edes, Istvan; Koller, Akos; Bagi, Zsolt

2008-06-01

408

Decision Making in Kidney Paired Donation Programs with Altruistic Donors.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, kidney paired donation (KPD) has been extended to include living non-directed or altruistic donors, in which an altruistic donor donates to the candidate of an incompatible donor-candidate pair with the understanding that the donor in that pair will further donate to the candidate of a second pair, and so on; such a process continues and thus forms an altruistic donor-initiated chain. In this paper, we propose a novel strategy to sequentially allocate the altruistic donor (or bridge donor) so as to maximize the expected utility; analogous to the way a computer plays chess, the idea is to evaluate different allocations for each altruistic donor (or bridge donor) by looking several moves ahead in a derived look-ahead search tree. Simulation studies are provided to illustrate and evaluate our proposed method. PMID:25309603

Li, Yijiang; Song, Peter X-K; Leichtman, Alan B; Rees, Michael A; Kalbfleisch, John D

2014-01-01

409

Phosphorus donors in highly strained silicon  

CERN Document Server

The hyperfine interaction of phosphorus donors in fully strained Si thin films grown on virtual Si$_{1-x}$Ge$_x$ substrates with $x\\leq 0.3$ is determined via electrically detected magnetic resonance. For highly strained epilayers, hyperfine interactions as low as 0.8 mT are observed, significantly below the limit predicted by valley repopulation. Within a Green's function approach, density functional theory (DFT) shows that the additional reduction is caused by the volume increase of the unit cell and a local relaxation of the Si ligands of the P donor.

Huebl, H; Stutzmann, M; Brandt, M S; Vogg, G; Bensch, F; Rauls, E; Gerstmann, U; Huebl, Hans; Stegner, Andre R.; Stutzmann, Martin; Brandt, Martin S.; Vogg, Guenther; Bensch, Frank; Rauls, Eva; Gerstmann, Uwe

2006-01-01

410

Risks for donors in uterus transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Uterus transplantation (UTx) is an alternative to gestational surrogacy and adoption for patients with absolute uterine infertility. Studies have been conducted in animals, and UTx is now within the reach of clinical application in humans. Procedures in humans have been published, but many medical, ethical, and social problems and risks of UTx require discussion prior to widespread clinical application, from the perspectives of donors, recipients, families, and newborns. In this article, we summarize the burdens and risks of UTx, with a focus on donors who provide the uterus. PMID:23793471

Kisu, Iori; Mihara, Makoto; Banno, Kouji; Umene, Kiyoko; Araki, Jun; Hara, Hisako; Suganuma, Nobuhiko; Aoki, Daisuke

2013-12-01

411

Living Donor Liver Transplantation for Biliary Atresia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biliary atresia is the most common cause of chroniccholestasis in infants and children. The incidence is estimatedat 3.7:10,000 among Taiwanese infants. Kasai hepatoportoenterostomyhelps children survive beyond infancy. Liver transplantationis indicated when the Kasai procedure fails to workor when patients develop progressive deterioration of liverfunction despite an initially successful Kasai operation. Livingdonor liver transplantation was developed to alleviate organshortage from deceased donors. It has decreased the waitingtime for transplantation and, therefore, improves patient survival.One hundred living donor liver transplantations havebeen performed for biliary atresia at Chang Gung MemorialHospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center with both 98% 1-year and5-year actual recipient survival.

Yu-Fan Cheng

2007-04-01

412

American Board of Obesity Medicine (ABOM)  

Science.gov (United States)

... NBME) to administer the annual credentialing exam. Obesity Medicine Physician An obesity medicine physician is a physician ... American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) Fields of Medicine Partners Public Health Partners American Academy of Family ...

413

Obesity Can Cause 'Silent' Damage to Heart  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Obesity Can Cause 'Silent' Damage to Heart Study shows ... December 5, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Heart Failure Obesity FRIDAY, Dec. 5, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Heart damage ...

414

Immune System May Play Role in Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

... enable JavaScript. Immune System May Play Role in Obesity Certain cells less common in belly fat of ... 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Immune System and Disorders Obesity MONDAY, Dec. 22, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Certain immune ...

415

Hypothyroidism and obesity. Cause or effect?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Overall thyroid dysfunction was found more in obese individuals with varying degree of significance. Detailed studies are required to assess the cause and effect relation between obesity and hypothyroidism.

Abhyuday Verma

2008-08-01

416

Obesity and American Indians/Alaska Natives  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska Native women are 30% more likely than non- ... findings/nhqrdr/nhqrdr12/index.html HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

417

Obesity May Speed Aging of the Liver  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Obesity May Speed Aging of the Liver, Study Suggests ... MedlinePlus Pages Genes and Gene Therapy Liver Diseases Obesity MONDAY, Oct. 13, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Extra pounds ...

418

Prescription Medications for the Treatment of Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

... How do these drugs work? Who may use obesity medications? Health care providers often use the body ... prescription drugs do doctors use "off-label" for obesity treatment? What is "off-label" use? Health care ...

419

Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were almost four times more likely to ... data available at this time. HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

420

Study Debunks Notion of 'Healthy Obesity'  

Science.gov (United States)

... please enable JavaScript. Study Debunks Notion of 'Healthy Obesity' Very heavy people slip into poor health over ... 2015) Monday, January 5, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Page Obesity MONDAY, Jan. 5, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The notion ...

 
 
 
 
421

FastStats: Obesity and Overweight  

Science.gov (United States)

... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Obesity and Overweight Share Compartir Data are for the ... 20 years and over who are overweight, including obesity: 69.0% (2011-2012) Source: Health, United States, ...

422

Cardiac Autonomic Functions in Obese Children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: The autonomic nervous system is assumed to have a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. In this study, we evaluated the autonomic system by measuring heart rate variability (HRV) in obese children.

Tas?c??lar, Mehmet Emre; Yokus?og?lu, Mehmet; Boyraz, Mehmet; Baysan, Oben; Ko?z, Cem; Du?ndaro?z, Rus?en

2011-01-01

423

When 'sperm' becomes 'donor': Transitions in parents' views of the sperm donor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Little is known about recipients' views of their sperm donor. This study aimed to examine the possible transitions or consistencies in donor sperm recipients' (DSRs') view on the sperm donor over time. A longitudinal qualitative study of 19 Belgian heterosexual DSRs was undertaken. Interviews took place with both partners of the couple during pregnancy, at birth and 1.5-2 years after birth, and were analysed using a grounded theory approach. Recipients who intended to disclose exhibited a transition in their awareness of the donor from being of minimal importance to one who was increasingly seen as part of their family narrative. This was partly triggered by the offspring's life, remarks about resemblance and the socio-cultural context. The perceived position of the donor changed for most recipients from a threatening rival to a 'distractor'. This change was supported by the emerging father-child bond and the confidence that stemmed from it. These observations were applicable to those recipients who intended to disclose their donor conception; for those recipients who intended not to disclose, little or no transition was observed. This study describes and analyses the transitions and consistencies in recipients' views of the donor over different stages of the family life-cycle (pregnancy, birth, toddler stage) and could help the fertility clinics tailor their counselling to the specific stages of parenthood. PMID:24851674

Indekeu, Astrid; D'Hooghe, Thomas; Daniels, Ken R; Dierickx, Kris; Rober, Peter

2014-12-01

424

Alternative donors extend transplantation for patients with lymphoma who lack an HLA matched donor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alternative donor transplantation is increasingly used for high-risk lymphoma patients. We analyzed 1593 transplant recipients (2000-2010) and compared transplant outcomes in recipients of 8/8 allele HLA-A, -B, -C and DRB1 matched unrelated donors (MUDs; n=1176), 7/8 allele HLA mismatched unrelated donors (MMUDs; n=275) and umbilical cord blood donors (1 or 2 units UCB; n=142). Adjusted 3-year non-relapse mortality of MMUD (44%) was higher as compared with MUD (35%; P=0.004), but similar to UCB recipients (37%; P=0.19), although UCB had lower rates of neutrophil and platelet recovery compared with unrelated donor groups. With a median follow-up of 55 months, 3-year adjusted cumulative incidence of relapse was lower after MMUD compared with MUD (25% vs 33%, P=0.003) but similar between UCB and MUD (30% vs 33%; P=0.48). In multivariate analysis, UCB recipients had lower risks of acute and chronic GVHD compared with adult donor groups (UCB vs MUD: hazard ratio (HR)=0.68, P=0.05; HR=0.35; P<0.001). Adjusted 3-year OS was comparable (43% MUD, 37% MMUD and 41% UCB). These data highlight the observation that patients with lymphoma have acceptable survival after alternative donor transplantation. MMUD and UCB can extend the curative potential of allotransplant to patients who lack suitable HLA matched sibling or MUD. PMID:25402415

Bachanova, V; Burns, L J; Wang, T; Carreras, J; Gale, R P; Wiernik, P H; Ballen, K K; Wirk, B; Munker, R; Rizzieri, D A; Chen, Y-B; Gibson, J; Akpek, G; Costa, L J; Kamble, R T; Aljurf, M D; Hsu, J W; Cairo, M S; Schouten, H C; Bacher, U; Savani, B N; Wingard, J R; Lazarus, H M; Laport, G G; Montoto, S; Maloney, D G; Smith, S M; Brunstein, C; Saber, W

2015-02-01

425

Clinical significance of gastrointestinal bleeding after living donor liver transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The clinical presentations of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) occurring after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) have not been fully described. We performed a retrospective analysis of 297 LDLT cases. Nineteen patients (6.4%) experienced GIB after LDLT. The etiology of GIB included bleeding at the jejunojejunostomy following hepaticojejunostomy (n = 13), peptic ulcer disease (n = 2), portal hypertensive gastropathy (n = 2), and other causes (n = 2). Hemostasis was achieved in 13 patients (68.4%) by endoscopic (n = 3), surgical (n = 1), or supportive treatments (n = 15), but not in the other six patients. Graft dysfunction (P 20 mmHg (P = 0.002), and operative blood loss >10 L (P = 0.004) were risk factors. One-year graft survival rate was significantly lower in patients with GIB than in patients without GIB (P < 0.001). The inhospital mortality rate was 52.6% for patients with GIB, 75.0% for patients with graft dysfunction, and 14.3% for patients without graft dysfunction (P = 0.028). Despite its infrequency after LDLT, GIB has strong correlation with graft dysfunction and inhospital mortality. PMID:24673842

Kimura, Koichi; Ikegami, Toru; Bekki, Yuki; Ninomiya, Mizuki; Yamashita, Yo-Ichi; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Yoshiya, Shohei; Soejima, Yuji; Harada, Noboru; Shirabe, Ken; Maehara, Yoshihiko

2014-07-01

426

Interpersonal dependency correlates and locus of control orientation among obese adults in outpatient treatment for obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interpersonal dependency and locus of control orientation were studied in obese and nonobese samples. The Interpersonal Dependency Inventory (Hirschfeld, Klerman, Gough, Barrett, & Korchin, 1977) and the I-E Scale (Rotter, 1966) were administered to 106 obese adults in outpatient treatment for obesity. The I-E Scale was also administered to 97 nonobese control subjects. As predicted, the obese subjects were significantly more internally oriented than has been previously identified in obese populations. These findings challenge currently held assumptions about locus of control in obese groups. Although the obese and nonobese subjects maintained similar overall dependency scores, the obese subjects were more likely to show low levels of autonomy in comparison with the nonobese subjects. Interpersonal dependency and locus of control dimensions associated with obese conditions may serve as useful predictor variables influencing obesity treatment approaches and outcome. PMID:7815380

Mills, J K

1994-11-01

427

Diverticular Disease and the Obese Patient  

Science.gov (United States)

Diverticular disease is common in the Western world and is a considerable source of morbidity. Many have proposed an association between diverticular disease, its complications, and obesity. We examine this question through a review of the available literature. While it is likely that an association between diverticular disease and obesity exists, there is no evidence suggesting that obese patients should be managed any differently from the non-obese. PMID:23204940

Johnson, Eric K.; Champagne, Bradley J.

2011-01-01

428

Pathophysiological mechanisms linking obesity and esophageal adenocarcinoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In recent decades there has been a dramatic rise in the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in the developed world. Over approximately the same period there has also been an increase in the prevalence of obesity. Obesity, especially visceral obesity, is an important independent risk factor for the development of gastro-esophageal reflux disease, Barrett’s esophagus and EAC. Although the simplest explanation is that this mediated by the mechanical effects of abdominal obesity promot...

Alexandre, Leo; Long, Elizabeth; Beales, Ian Lp

2014-01-01

429

Binge eating in obese children and adolescents.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: The first goal of the current study was to examine the extent to which a population of obese children and adolescents have developed binge eating problems. The second goal was to generate variables that would distinguish obese binge eaters from obese non-binge eaters. METHOD: A group of 126 children and adolescents seeking residential care because of their obesity was selected. A self-report version of the Eating Disorder Examination was administered. RESULTS: Binge eating episodes...

Decaluwe?, V.; Braet, C.; Fairburn, Cg

2003-01-01

430

Genetics of Obesity: What have we Learned?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies have led to the discovery of nine loci involved in Mendelian forms of obesity and 58 loci contributing to polygenic obesity. These loci explain a small fraction of the heritability for obesity and many genes remain to be discovered. However, efforts in obesity gene identification greatly modified our understanding of this disorder. In this review, we propose an overlook of major lessons learned from 15 years of research in the field of geneti...

Choquet, He?le?ne; Meyre, David

2011-01-01

431

Childhood obesity: are genetic differences involved?1234  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This brief review focuses on the genetic contribution to childhood obesity. Evidence for a genetic component to excess body weight during growth is presented from the perspective of genetic epidemiology studies. Parental obesity is a predictor of childhood excess weight. The familial risk ratio for childhood obesity when a parent is obese reaches >2.5. Birth weight is characterized by a genetic heritability component on the order of 30%, with significant maternal and paternal effects in addit...

Bouchard, Claude

2009-01-01

432

Obesity, Nutrition, and Asthma in Children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity rates have increased dramatically among children in many parts of the world, especially in North America and several other English-speaking countries. The impact of obesity on pediatric health has become a major prevention initiative by the Obama administration and several public health organizations. Children with obesity are at increased risk for developing asthma, which is already one of the most common chronic diseases among children. The cause underlying obesity's impact on asthm...

Lang, Jason E.

2012-01-01

433

Gene-environment interaction and obesity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The epidemic of obesity has become a major public health problem. Common-form obesity is underpinned by both environmental and genetic factors. Epidemiological studies have documented that increased intakes of energy and reduced consumption of high-fiber foods, as well as sedentary lifestyle, were among the major driving forces for the epidemic of obesity. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified several genes convincingly related to obesity risk, including the fat mass and obes...

Qi, Lu; Cho, Young Ae

2008-01-01

434

Leukotriene Production Is Increased in Abdominal Obesity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity is a major risk factor for insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes. A chronic low grade inflammatory state has been described during obesity and associated with insulin resistance pathogenesis. Results from animal studies are in favor of a role of the leukotriene (LT) pathway in obesity induced-insulin resistance. However, there is a paucity of data regarding this association in human obesity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether LT production was associated with...

Ba?ck, Magnus; Avignon, Antoine; Stanke-labesque, Franc?oise; Boegner, Catherine; Attalin, Vincent; Leprieur, Elodie; Sultan, Ariane

2014-01-01

435

Childhood Obesity: Issues of Weight Bias  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although the effects of obesity on children's physical health are well documented, the social consequences of obesity are less well described and may not be addressed in intervention programs. Weight bias may take several forms. It may result in teasing and discrimination and may affect employment and educational opportunities. Health care providers may limit care of overweight or obese children. The media promote weight bias in multiple ways. Some parents are biased against their obese child...

Washington, Reginald L.

2011-01-01

436

Pulmonary dysfunction in obese early adolescents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aim Obesity leads to various complications, including pulmonary dysfunction. Studies on pulmonary function of obese children are limited and the results are controversial. This study was aimed to determine proportion of pulmonary dysfunction on early adolescents with obesity and to evaluate correlation between obesity degree with pulmonary dysfunction degree.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Department of Child Health, Medical Sch...

Bambang Supriyatno; Irma Sapriani; Hadinegoro, Sri R. S.

2010-01-01

437

Diverticular Disease and the Obese Patient  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diverticular disease is common in the Western world and is a considerable source of morbidity. Many have proposed an association between diverticular disease, its complications, and obesity. We examine this question through a review of the available literature. While it is likely that an association between diverticular disease and obesity exists, there is no evidence suggesting that obese patients should be managed any differently from the non-obese.

Johnson, Eric K.; Champagne, Bradley J.

2011-01-01

438

Inflammatory Bowel Disease in the Obese Patient  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity is becoming increasingly more common among patients with inflammatory bowel disease. In this review, we will explore the epidemiological trends of inflammatory bowel disease, the complex interplay between the proinflammatory state of obesity and inflammatory bowel disease, outcomes of surgery for inflammatory bowel disease in obese as compared with non-obese patients, and technical concerns pertaining to restorative proctocolectomy and ileoanal pouch reservoir, stoma creation and lapa...

Boutros, Marylise; Maron, David

2011-01-01

439

Depression and Anxiety in Obese Patients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: Epidemiologic data suggests an association between obesity and depression. However, a limited number of studies have investigated the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms among obese patients without a psychiatric diagnosis. The objective of this study was to determine psychiatric diagnosis in patients with obesity who applied to the endocrinology department and to determine the pattern of the depression and anxiety symptom levels in obese patients without a psychiatric diagnosis.Ma...

Demet Gulec Oyekcin; Deniz Y?ld?z; Erkan Melih ?ahin; Sava? Gür

2011-01-01

440

An association between colonic adenoma and abdominal obesity: a cross-sectional study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal adenoma is a precursor lesion of colorectal cancer and thus, it is an important target for preventing colorectal cancer. Only a few studies suggest an association between colorectal adenoma and obesity, but results show considerable heterogeneity. In this study, we investigated the association between colorectal adenoma and waist circumference. Methods 165 adenoma cases and 365 polyp-free controls with a normal colon were compared in this cross-sectional study. Subjects underwent screening colonoscopy by experienced endoscopists. Demographic data, including smoking habit, were obtained by interview and waist circumference and anthropometric measurements were examined. Dietary intakes were evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire, and abdominal obesity was evaluated by measuring waist circumference. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS for 13.0. Results Age, waist circumference, and BMI were significantly higher in cases than controls. And smokers and men were more prevalent among cases than controls. Among the abdominal obese subjects, 45.6% had 1 or more adenoma, and 9.0% of these had advanced adenoma, whereas among subjects with a normal waist circumference, only 25.7% had 1 or more adenomas. The prevalence of adenoma was higher among abdominal obese group (P Conclusion Our data suggest that abdominal obesity is associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenoma.

Lee Sangyeoup

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
441

Obesity alters gut microbial ecology  

Science.gov (United States)

We have analyzed 5,088 bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences from the distal intestinal (cecal) microbiota of genetically obese ob/ob mice, lean ob/+ and wild-type siblings, and their ob/+ mothers, all fed the same polysaccharide-rich diet. Although the majority of mouse gut species are unique, the mouse and human microbiota(s) are similar at the division (superkingdom) level, with Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes dominating. Microbial-community composition is inherited from mothers. However, compared with lean mice and regardless of kinship, ob/ob animals have a 50% reduction in the abundance of Bacteroidetes and a proportional increase in Firmicutes. These changes, which are division-wide, indicate that, in this model, obesity affects the diversity of the gut microbiota and suggest that intentional manipulation of community structure may be useful for regulating energy balance in obese individuals. PMID:16033867

Ley, Ruth E.; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Turnbaugh, Peter; Lozupone, Catherine A.; Knight, Robin D.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

2005-01-01

442

Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is now a major international health concern. It is increasingly common in young women with reproductive, metabolic and psychological health impacts. Reproductive health impacts are often poorly appreciated and include polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), infertility and pregnancy complications. PCOS is the most common endocrine condition in women and is underpinned by hormonal disturbances including insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism. Obesity exacerbates hormonal and clinical features of PCOS and women with PCOS appear at higher risk of obesity, with multiple underlying mechanisms linking the conditions. Lifestyle intervention is first line in management of PCOS to both prevent weight gain and induce weight loss; however improved engagement and sustainability remain challenges with the need for more research. Medications like metformin, orlistat, GLP1 agonists and bariatric surgery have been used with the need for large scale randomised clinical trials to define their roles. PMID:25411807

Naderpoor, N; Shorakae, S; Joham, A; Boyle, J; De Courten, B; Teede, H J

2015-03-01

443

THE TREATMENT OF MORBID OBESITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Morbid obesity is defined when Body Mass Index (BMI exceeds 40 kg/m2. Main indications for surgery are: BMI > 40 or BMI > 35 with significant co-morbidities. Three types of operations are currently done for morbid obesity: restrictive, malabsorptive and mix procedures (restrictive/malabsorptive. Restrictive procedures (gastric banding and vertical banded gastroplasty determine an excess weight loss of 40 – 50%, mix procedures (Roux-en-Y gastric by-pass of 60 – 70% and malabsorptive procedures (biliopancreatic diversion with or without of duodenal switch of 75 – 80% In terms of risk/benefit gastric banding offers the best results. All these procedure are done today by laparoscopy with comparable results as in open surgery. Malabsorptive or mix procedures which have the best results may be reserved for patients with the most severe obesity or co-morbid conditions.

S. Lunca

2005-01-01

444

Do School Lunches Contribute to Childhood Obesity?  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper assesses whether school lunches contribute to childhood obesity. I employ two methods to isolate the causal impact of school lunches on obesity. First, using panel data, I ?nd that children who consume school lunches are more likely to be obese than those who brown bag their lunches even though they enter kindergarten with the same…

Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

2009-01-01

445

Paternalism, Obesity, and Tolerable Levels of Risk  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity describes an abnormally high fat accumulation that impairs health. It is crudely measured by a body mass index (BMI) of greater than 30 kg/sq meters. Obesity now ranks among the highest of concerns by the World Health Organization (WHO) and not only in countries of affluence; the figures of obesity worldwide have doubled since 1980 and the…

Merry, Michael S.

2012-01-01

446

Anaesthetic management of a morbidly obese patient.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Morbid Obesity (MO is associated with various pathophysiological changes which affect the outcome of anaesthesia and surgery. We report here anaesthetic management of a fit morbidly obese patient for transcervical resection of endometrium (TCRE under spinal subarachnoid block. The preoperative preparation, intraoperative and postoperative management is described and the various problems in morbidly obese patients are discussed.

Tuteja L

1996-10-01

447

Determinants of food intake in obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obese human subjects who were offered three sandwiches ate more than normal subjects. When only one sandwich was offered and additional sandwiches were available but out of sight, the obese subjects ate less than normal subjects. This resuclt is discussed in terms of the types of cues that motivate eating for obese versus normal individuals. PMID:5711760

Nisbett, R E

1968-03-15

448

Psychological Theory Seeks to Define Obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines various psychodynamic and behavioral theories in a discussion about obesity and mental health. It is revealed that modern theory finds no identifiable personality profile, behavior, or family structure influencing large weight gain thus discounting psychopathology as the cause of obesity. Individual assessments for causes of obesity are…

Burgard, Debby

1993-01-01

449

Causes and risks for obesity - children  

Science.gov (United States)

... genes. Genetics is not the only cause of obesity. To become obese, children must also eat more calories than they need ... steroids or anti-seizure medications, can increase a child’s appetite, which over time increases their risk for obesity.

450

Anaesthetic management of a morbidly obese patient.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Morbid Obesity (MO) is associated with various pathophysiological changes which affect the outcome of anaesthesia and surgery. We report here anaesthetic management of a fit morbidly obese patient for transcervical resection of endometrium (TCRE) under spinal subarachnoid block. The preoperative preparation, intraoperative and postoperative management is described and the various problems in morbidly obese patients are discussed.

Tuteja L; Vanarase M; Deval D

1996-01-01

451

Association of FTO Polymorphisms with Early Age of Obesity in Obese Italian Subjects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Obesity is recognized as a major health problem worldwide. Genetic factors play a major role in obesity, and genomewide association studies have provided evidence that several common variants within the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene are significantly associated with obesity. Very limited data is available on FTO in the Italian population. Aims of our study are to investigate: (1) the association of FTO gene SNPs rs9939609 and rs9930506 with body mass index (BMI) and obesity-...

Federica Sentinelli; Michela Incani; Federica Coccia; Danila Capoccia; Valentina Maria Cambuli; Stefano Romeo; Efisio Cossu; Maria Gisella Cavallo; Frida Leonetti; Marco Giorgio Baroni

2012-01-01

452

Comparison of serum androgens and endometrial thickness in obese and non-obese postmenopausal women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: In this study, we investigated whether serum androgen levels and endometrial thickness differed in obese and non-obese women. Material and Methods: Thirtytwo non-obese (BMI <30) and 48 obese (BMI ? 30) women were enrolled. Blood samples were analyzed for testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, DHEAS, and SHBG, and transvaginal ultrasonography was performed. Results: Obese women had significantly higher free testosterone and endometrial thickness and significantly lower ...

?lker ?nan Ar?kan; Aykut Barut; Deniz Ar?kan; Müge Harma; Mehmet ?brahim Harma; Serpil Bozkurt

2010-01-01

453

The Difference of Food Pattern and Physical Acti vity between Obese and Non Obese Teenage Group.  

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Obesity in teenage is a syndrome that happened because of fat accumulation in the body. Obesity occured because of complex interaction between parental fatness, food pattern, and physical activity. In Indonesia, prevalence of teenage obesity is gradually increasing. The aim of this research was to analyze about the difference of foodpattern and physical activity between obesity and non obesity teenage group. This study was an analytical observational research with cross sectional design. The ...

Kartika Suryaputra; Siti Rahayu Nadhiroh

2012-01-01

454

The impact of HFE mutations on haemoglobin and iron status in individuals experiencing repeated iron loss through blood donation  

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Frequent blood donors become iron deficient. HFE mutations are present in over 30% of donors. A 24-month study of 888 first time/reactivated donors and 1537 frequent donors measured haemoglobin and iron status to assess how HFE mutations impact the development of iron deficiency erythropoiesis. Donors with two HFE mutations had increased baseline haemoglobin and iron stores as did those with one mutation, albeit to a lesser extent. Over multiple donations haemoglobin and iron status of donors...

Mast, Alan E.; Lee, Tzong-hae; Schlumpf, Karen S.; Wright, David J.; Johnson, Bryce; Carrick, Danielle M.; Cable, Ritchard G.; Kiss, Joseph E.; Glynn, Simone A.; Steele, Whitney R.; Murphy, Edward L.; Sacher, Ronald; Busch, Michael P.

2011-01-01

455

[Sexual problems experienced by women in HIV-1 crisis].  

Science.gov (United States)

This descriptive study was based on the assumptions of qualitative investigation methods and on the Crisis Theory formulated by CAPLAN (1966). The objective of the study was to identify the sexual problems experienced by women undergoing an HIV-1 crisis. Data were collected through a semi-structured interview recorded by the method of FREITAS et al. (1992) and analyzed by the method of MEIHY (1996). Authors concluded that these women maintained themselves unbalanced using negative coping mechanisms. Thus, authors believe that it would be possible to help them using adequate nursing actions such as educational and guidance actions, but mainly by actions directed to the needs of patients undergoing an HIV-1 crisis. PMID:11111692

de Freitas, M R; Gir, E; Rodrigues, A R

2000-07-01

456

A guide to MATLAB for beginners and experienced users  

CERN Document Server

Now in its third edition, this outstanding textbook explains everything you need to get started using MATLAB®. It contains concise explanations of essential MATLAB commands, as well as easily understood instructions for using MATLAB's programming features, graphical capabilities, simulation models, and rich desktop interface. MATLAB 8 and its new user interface is treated extensively in the book. New features in this edition include: a complete treatment of MATLAB's publish feature; new material on MATLAB graphics, enabling the user to master quickly the various symbolic and numerical plotting routines; and a robust presentation of MuPAD® and how to use it as a stand-alone platform. The authors have also updated the text throughout, reworking examples and exploring new applications. The book is essential reading for beginners, occasional users and experienced users wishing to brush up their skills. Further resources are available from the authors' website at www-math.umd.edu/schol/a-guide-to-matlab.html.

Hunt, Brian R; Rosenberg, Jonathan M

2014-01-01

457

Subjective well-being in Finnish adolescents experiencing family violence.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article describes the relationship between adolescent subjective well-being and experiences of family violence reported by a sample of 14- to 17-year-old adolescents living in one Finnish municipality (N = 1,393). Survey results found that experiences of family violence were common. The logistic regression model showed that experiences of violence were associated with adolescents' feeling of inner disequilibrium and markedly strong relationships with friends. In additional, adolescents who experienced family violence rated their health as poorer than adolescents from nonviolent homes. They also surprisingly reported being satisfied with their life and did not necessarily identify their need for help. Although adolescents are resilient and have some resources to cope with violence, nurses and other professionals should attend more carefully to adolescents' reports of health and behavioral problems and assess for the presence of family violence and school bullying. PMID:22274937

Lepistö, Sari; Joronen, Katja; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi; Luukkaala, Tiina; Paavilainen, Eija

2012-05-01

458

Predicting Lifetime of Dynamical Networks Experiencing Persistent Random Attacks  

CERN Document Server

Empirical estimation of critical points at which complex systems abruptly flip from one state to another is among the remaining challenges in network science. However, due to the stochastic nature of critical transitions it is widely believed that critical points are difficult to estimate, and it is even more difficult, if not impossible, to predict the time such transitions occur [1-4]. We analyze a class of decaying dynamical networks experiencing persistent attacks in which the magnitude of the attack is quantified by the probability of an internal failure, and there is some chance that an internal failure will be permanent. When the fraction of active neighbors declines to a critical threshold, cascading failures trigger a network breakdown. For this class of network we find both numerically and analytically that the time to the network breakdown, equivalent to the network lifetime, is inversely dependent upon the magnitude of the attack and logarithmically dependent on the threshold. We analyze how perma...

Podobnik, B; Horvatic, D; Majdandzic, A; Bishop, S; Stanley, H E

2014-01-01

459

Audiology occupational stress experienced by audiologists practicing in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: The aim of the present study is to identify the levels of occupational stress across different types of setting, years of experience, and age. Design: A questionnaire-based observational research design using the audiology occupational stress questionnaire (AOSQ) was used. Study sample: The sample comprised of audiologists registered under the Indian Speech and Hearing Association. The questionnaire was sent via personal email to 400 audiologists, of which 100 responded. Results: Descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis were carried out. Participants in both the groups experienced stress to some extent, with more stress reported in private practitioners. Conclusion: This study helps to identify certain factors that contribute towards work-related stress. These in turn have an impact on the overall professional output of a professional. PMID:25406497

Ravi, Rohit; Gunjawate, Dhanshree; Ayas, Mohd

2014-11-19

460

Microaggressions Experienced by Persons With Mental Illnesses: An Exploratory Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: Microaggressions are subtle verbal or behavioral communications of disparaging messages to people based upon membership in a socially marginalized group. Their negative impact has been demonstrated for racial/ethnic groups, gender, sexual orientation, and physical disability, but currently no research exists on microaggressions as experienced by persons with mental illnesses. Method: Qualitative data were gathered from 4 focus groups with 2 samples: adult mental health consumers in an assertive community treatment program and college students with mental illness diagnoses. Focus group transcripts were then analyzed using an open coding approach (Strauss & Corbin, 1990) to identify hierarchical themes and categories. Results: Five major themes were identified, including invalidation, assumption of inferiority, fear of mental illness, shaming of mental illness, and second class citizen. Perpetrators of microaggressions were most commonly identified as being close friends, family members, and authority figures. Importantly, participants reported experiencing more overt discrimination experiences than subtle microaggression experiences. Reported negative outcomes related to microaggression experiences included isolation, negative emotions, and treatment nonadherence. Conclusions and Implications for Practice: Reported consequences of microaggressions have important implications for mental health treatment, especially as perpetrators were reported to include treatment providers and were usually unaware of such negative social exchanges. Loss of social support reported by participants and the frequent occurrence of microaggressions within close relationships implies these experiences could contribute to internalization of stigmatizing attitudes toward mental illness. Directions for future research include an investigation of motivation and reasoning behind perpetration of microaggressions against persons with mental illnesses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25402611

Gonzales, Lauren; Davidoff, Kristin C; Nadal, Kevin L; Yanos, Philip T

2014-11-17

 
 
 
 
461

Obesity effects on nitrazepam disposition.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nitrazepam pharmacokinetics were studied in 14 obese (mean +/- s.e. mean body weight 107 +/- 9 kg; percent ideal body weight [IBW] 166 +/- 12%) and 14 normal body weight (63 +/- 3 kg; percent IBW 98 +/- 2%) subjects. After an overnight fast, each subject ingested 10 mg nitrazepam orally. Nitrazepam concentrations were determined in plasma samples obtained over the following 72 h. Comparison of peak nitrazepam plasma concentration (94.2 +/- 10.3-obese vs 119 +/- 14.6 ng ml-1; NS) and time requ...

Abernethy, D. R.; Greenblatt, D. J.; Locniskar, A.; Ochs, H. R.; Harmatz, J. S.; Shader, R. I.

1986-01-01

462

21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.  

Science.gov (United States)

...anti-HBc or anti-HTLV, types I or II, on only one occasion...anti-HBc or anti-HTLV, types I and II, has been approved...evidence of infection due to HTLV, types I and II, may serve as a donor...a screening test for HIV or HCV required under §...

2010-04-01

463

[The blood donors' haemovigilance in France].  

Science.gov (United States)

This work aim to present the descriptive analysis of serious adverse reactions in donors (dSAR's), which were notified in 2010 and 2011 in the French national haemovigilance database "e-FIT" (Internet secured haemovigilance reporting system). Some data, which are necessary for this analysis, also come from the regional haemovigilance coordinators' reports (RHC). The other parts of haemovigilance in the context of donation, without donors adverse reactions, such as post-donation information (PDI), adverse events occurred in the blood collection steps of the transfusion chain and epidemiology are not subject to this work analysis. This work shows that the quality of the data gradually improved since the setting up of the notification system of dSAR's. These data are particularly rich in learning lessons, but are still improving. It allows us to confirm that donor's safety, blood components quality, while preserving the blood components self-sufficiency in France, remains a priority. For these reasons, it is important to continue this haemovigilance awareness and to implement necessary actions that would be required for the protection of the donor's health and comfort during donation. PMID:23587615

Ounnoughene, N; Sandid, I; Carlier, M; Joussemet, M; Ferry, N

2013-05-01

464

Electron Donor Acceptor Interactions. Final Progress Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Electron Donor Acceptor Interactions was held at Salve Regina University, Newport, Rhode Island, 8/11-16/02. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

None

2002-08-16

465

21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.  

Science.gov (United States)

...defer a donor who tests reactive for anti-HBc or anti-HTLV, types I or II, on only...additional, more specific) test for anti-HBc or anti-HTLV, types I and II, has been...for donation and tests reactive for anti-HBc or for evidence of infection due to...

2010-04-01

466

Expanding the Donor Pool - Preliminary Outcome of Kidney Recipients from Infected Donors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The number of cadaver donors is far beyond demand. The use of marginaldonors may increase the number of organs available for transplantation.Methods: We expanded our criteria for cadaver donors to include those with activeinfections. From January 2004 through August 2005, there were 25 cadaverictransplantations in our center. Infected donors accounted for 13 transplantsand the remaining 12 that were not infected were used as the control subjects.Blood and infected locus cultures were performed before transplantationand the recipients were treated accordingly.Results: There were no statistically significant differences between post-transplantationcreatinine levels of the kidneys from infected and non-infected donors at1 month (1.50

Yang-Jen Chiang

2008-06-01

467