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Sample records for obese donors experienced

  1. Living donor liver transplantation for obese patients: challenges and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunay, Yusuf; Guler, Necdet; Dayangac, Murat; Taskesen, Fatih; Yaprak, Onur; Emek, Ertan; Akyildiz, Murat; Altaca, Gulum; Yuzer, Yildiray; Tokat, Yaman

    2014-03-01

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is an accepted option for end-stage liver disease, particularly in countries in which there are organ shortages. However, little is known about LDLT for obese patients. We sought to determine the effects of obesity on pretransplant living donor selection for obese recipients and their outcomes. On the basis of body mass index (BMI) values, 148 patients were classified as normal weight (N), 148 were classified as overweight (OW), and 74 were classified as obese (O). O recipients had significantly greater BMI values (32.1 ± 1.6 versus 23.2 ± 1.9 kg/m(2), P < 0.001) and received larger actual grafts (918.9 ± 173 versus 839.4 ± 162 g, P = 0.002) than recipients with normal BMI values. Donors who donated to O recipients had a greater mean BMI (26.3 ± 3.8 kg/m(2)) than those who donated to N recipients (24.4 ± 3.2 kg/m(2), P = 0.001). Although O recipients were more likely to face some challenges in finding a suitable living donor, there were no differences in graft survival [hazard ratio (HR)?= 0.955, 95% confidence interval (CI)?= 0.474-1.924, P = 0.90] or recipient survival (HR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.56-1.5, P = 0.67) between the 3 groups according to an adjusted Cox proportional hazards model. There were no significant differences in posttransplant complication rates between the 3 recipient groups or in the morbidity rates for the donors who donated to O recipients versus the donors who donated to OW and N recipients (P = 0.26). Therefore, we recommend that obese patients undergo pretransplant evaluations. If they are adequately evaluated and selected, they should be considered for LDLT. PMID:24243642

  2. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric band in an obese unrelated living donor prior to kidney transplantation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coombes Jeff S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Obese living donors who undergo donor nephrectomy have higher rates of intra-operative and post-operative complications. Many centres exclude obese donors from living donor transplant programs. Diet, exercise and medication are often ineffective weight loss interventions for donors, hence bariatric surgery should be considered. Case presentation We report the case of a 53-year-old Caucasian woman who underwent laparoscopically adjustable gastric banding. The procedure enabled her to lose sufficient weight to gain eligibility for kidney donation. After losing weight, she had an uncomplicated laparoscopic donor nephrectomy surgery, and the recipient underwent successful kidney transplantation. Conclusion Laparoscopically adjustable gastric banding should be considered for obese potential living kidney donors whenever transplantation units restrict access to donor nephrectomy based on the increased surgical risk for donors.

  3. Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy in patients surgically treated for morbid obesity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anibal W., Branco; Alcides J., Branco Filho; William, Kondo.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past, morbid obesity was considered a relative contraindication to renal donation; however, more recent publications have shown that laparoscopic renal surgery is safe and effective for obese donor nephrectomy. We report the performance of a bariatric surgery before the kidney donation in 2 p [...] atients in order to improve their medical condition and to reduce their surgical risk to the transplantation procedure. After bariatric surgery, both donors lost more than 30% of their initial corporal weight and their donation procedure was successfully performed, with uneventful postoperative courses.

  4. Obesity and risk of infection : results from the danish blood donor study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Kathrine Agergård; Pedersen, Ole Birger

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that obesity complicates the course of several diseases. However, it is unknown whether obesity affects the risk of infection among healthy individuals. METHODS: We included 37,808 healthy participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study, who completed a questionnaire on health-related items. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ? 30?kg/m. Infections among participants were identified by relevant ICD-10 codes in the Danish National Patient Register and Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) codes in the Danish Prescription Register. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis with age as the underlying timescale was used as the statistical model. RESULTS: During 113,717 person-years of observation, 1,233 participants were treated for infection at a hospital. Similarly, during 58,411 person-years of observation, 15,856 participants filled at least one prescription of antimicrobials. Obesity was associated with risk of hospital-based treatment for infection (women: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1, 1.9; men: HR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.9). For specific infections, obesity was associated with increased risk of abscesses (both sexes), infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (men), and respiratory tract infections and cystitis (women). Similarly, obesity was associated with filled prescriptions of antimicrobials overall (women: HR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.14, 1.30; men: HR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.33) and particularly with phenoxymethylpenicillin, macrolides, dicloxacillin and flucloxacillin, and broad-spectrum penicillins. CONCLUSIONS: In a large cohort of healthy individuals, obesity was associated with risk of infection. This result warrants further studies of metabolism and the immune response.

  5. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories ...

  6. Co-receptor usage and prediction of v3 genotyping algorithms in hiv-1 subtype b' from paid blood donors experienced anti-retroviral therapy in chinese central province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xiaoling

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study explored co-receptor usage and prediction of V3 genotyping algorithms in HIV-1 subtype B' from paid blood donors experienced anti-retroviral therapy in Chinese central province in order to design effectively therapeutic regimen. Methods HIV-1 strains were isolated in treatment HIV-1 infections and treatment-naïve HIV-1 infections, then co-receptor usage of HIV-1 strains was identified based on Ghost cell lines using flow cytometry. HIV-1 V3 region was amplified and submitted into web-server (WebPSSM and geno2pheno to predict HIV-1 co-receptor usage. The feasibility of prediction HIV-1 usage with Web-server assay was analyzed by comparing prediction of V3 genotyping algorithms with HIV phenotype assay based on Ghost cell line. Results 45 HIV-1 strains and 114 HIV-1 strains were isolated from HIV-1 infections exposed anti-retroviral therapy and treatment-naïve, respectively. 41% clinical viruses from ART patients and 18% from treatment-naïve patients used CXCR4 as co-receptor. The net charge in the V3 loop was significantly difference in both groups. The sensitivity and specificity for predicting co-receptor capacity is 54.6% and 90.0% on 11/25 rule, 50.0% and 90% on Web-PSSMx4r5, 68.2% and 40.0% on Geno2pheno[co-receptor]. Conclusion Dual/mixed/X4 co-receptor utilization was higher in ART patients than treatment-naïve patients. It is should paid attention to predicting HIV-1 co-receptor usage based on V3 genotyping algorithms in HIV-1 subtype B' from paid blood donors experienced anti-retroviral therapy in Chinese central province.

  7. Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, B L; Westerterp, K R; Loos, R J F; Sørensen, T I A; O'Dea, K; McLean, P; Jensen, Tina Kold; Eisenmann, J; Speakman, J R; Simpson, S J; Reed, D R; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2012-01-01

    The 9th Stock Conference acknowledged the complex background of genetic, cultural, environmental and evolutionary factors of obesity. Gene-environment interactions underlie the flexibility in body-weight and body-fat regulation, illustrated by the hunter-gatherers' feast and famine lifestyle, the...... programming for obesity via epigenetic changes in response to a 'Western diet' results in production of lipid-poor milk and metabolically efficient pups, contributing to the perpetuation of obesity throughout generations. Evolutionary insight from comparative physiology and ecology indicates that over...... mating on obesity prevalence is unambiguously positive. The complexity that appeared can only be fully appreciated by setting the data into the context of our evolutionary history....

  8. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stress, rather than snacking. Examples may be meditation, yoga, or exercise. If you are depressed or stressed ... in people with severe obesity. These risks include: Arthritis Diabetes Heart disease High blood pressure Sleep apnea ...

  9. Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2014-01-01

    A new report provides compelling evidence of the high prevalence of overweight and obesity throughout the world. The prevalence has increased since 1980, but at different rates across ages, times and locations. Studies exploring the causes of these differences could aid development of effective...

  10. Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2014-01-01

    A new report provides compelling evidence of the high prevalence of overweight and obesity throughout the world. The prevalence has increased since 1980, but at different rates across ages, times and locations. Studies exploring the causes of these differences could aid development of effective prevention strategies.

  11. Obesity.

    OpenAIRE

    Callaway, C W

    1987-01-01

    Obesity is not a single disease, but a variety of conditions resulting from different mechanisms and associated with various types and degrees of risks. To determine who should lose weight, how much weight should be lost, and how to undertake weight loss, the following types of information are needed: personal-demographic data, developmental patterns, family history, energy balance, body composition/fat distribution, psychological/behavioral measures, endocrine/metabolic measures, complicatio...

  12. Obese Mothers have Lower Odds of Experiencing Pro-breastfeeding Hospital Practices than Mothers of Normal Weight: CDC Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kair, Laura R; Colaizy, Tarah T

    2016-03-01

    Objectives This study examines the extent to which a mother's pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) category is associated with her exposure to pro-breastfeeding hospital practices. Methods Data from the 2004-2008 CDC PRAMS were analyzed for three states (Illinois, Maine, and Vermont) that had administered an optional survey question about hospital pro-breastfeeding practices. Results Of 19,145 mothers surveyed, 19 % were obese (pre-pregnancy BMI ≥ 30). Obese mothers had lower odds than mothers of normal weight of initiating breastfeeding [70 vs. 79 % (unweighted), p information about breastfeeding [OR 0.71, 95 % CI (0.57-0.89), p = 0.002], a staff member helping them breastfeed [OR 0.69, 95 % CI (0.61-0.78), p < 0.0001], breastfeeding in the first hour after delivery [OR 0.55, 95 % CI (0.49-0.62), p < 0.0001], being given a telephone number for breastfeeding help [OR 0.65, 95 % CI (0.57-0.74), p < 0.0001], rooming in [OR 0.84, 95 % CI (0.73-0.97), p = 0.02], and being instructed to breastfeed on demand [OR 0.66, 95 % CI (0.58-0.75), p < 0.0001]. Adjusting for multiple covariates, all associations except rooming in remained significant. Conclusions Obesity stigma may be a determinant of breastfeeding outcomes for obese mothers. Breastfeeding support should be improved for this at-risk population. PMID:26515471

  13. Combined oral contraception and obesity are strong predictors of low-grade inflammation in healthy individuals : results from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Cecilie J; Pedersen, Ole B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-established marker of inflammation. The level of CRP is affected by several lifestyle factors. A slightly increased CRP level, also known as low-grade inflammation (LGI), is associated with increased risk of several diseases, especially cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of increased CRP levels in healthy individuals. We therefore assessed CRP in a large cohort of blood donors. METHODS: We measured plasma CRP levels in 15,684 participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study. CRP was measured by a commercial assay. Furthermore, all participants completed a standard questionnaire on smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, diet, and various body measurements. Female participants also reported the use of contraception, childbirth, and menopausal status. The relationship between LGI (defined here as a plasma CRP level between 3 mg/L and 10 mg/L) and predictors was explored by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results were presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: We found LGI in a total of 1,561 (10.0%) participants. LGI was more frequent in women using combined oral contraception (OC) (29.9%) than in men (6.1%) and women not using OC (7.9%). Among premenopausal women, OC was the strongest predictor of LGI (odds ratio?=?8.98, p<0.001). Additionally, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were positively associated with LGI. CONCLUSION: High BMI and abdominal obesity strongly predicted LGI among healthy individuals. However, the most striking finding was the high prevalence of LGI among premenopausal women who used combined oral contraception. Although the significance of CRP as a marker of inflammation is well known, the role of CRP in pathogenesis is still uncertain. The impact of oral contraception on CRP levels should nevertheless be considered when CRP is used in risk assessment.

  14. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some of these conditions. And once we’ ... ever be a donor?” No. The recipient, by definition, had end-stage kidney disease and certainly can’ ...

  15. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... potential donor is medically and surgically an acceptable candidate. This shows our screening process, first the potential ... such as HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some ...

  16. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some of these ... donor, my life really hasn’t changed. My health is just as good now as it ever ...

  17. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Nitin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the various options for patients with end stage renal disease, kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for a suitable patient. The kidney for transplantation is retrieved from either a cadaver or a live donor. Living donor nephrectomy has been developed as a method to address the shortfall in cadaveric kidneys available for transplantation. Laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy (LLDN, by reducing postoperative pain, shortening convalescence, and improving the cosmetic outcome of the donor nephrectomy, has shown the potential to increase the number of living kidney donations further by removing some of the disincentives inherent to donation itself. The technique of LLDN has undergone evolution at different transplant centers and many modifications have been done to improve donor safety and recipient outcome. Virtually all donors eligible for an open surgical procedure may also undergo the laparoscopic operation. Various earlier contraindications to LDN, such as right donor kidney, multiple vessels, anomalous vasculature and obesity have been overcome with increasing experience. Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy can be done transperitoneally or retroperitoneally on either side. The approach is most commonly transperitoneal, which allows adequate working space and easy dissection. A review of literature and our experience with regards to standard approach and the modifications is presented including a cost saving model for the developing countries. An assessment has been made, of the impact of LDN on the outcome of donor and the recipient.

  18. The self-antigen, thyroglobulin, induces antigen-experienced CD4+ T cells from healthy donors to proliferate and promote production of the regulatory cytokine, interleukin-10, by monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus Kim Hostein; Galdiers, Marcel P; Hedegaard, Chris Juul; Leslie, R Graham Q

    2010-01-01

    . Whereas TT induced pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-2 (IL-2)/interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)/IL-4/IL-5], TG evoked persistent release of the regulatory IL-10. Some donors, however, also responded with late IFN-gamma production, suggesting that the regulation by IL-10 could be overridden. Although...

  19. Retroperitoneal less donor nephrectomy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Van Der Merwe; A., Bachmann; C. F., Heyns.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Donor nephrectomy with laparo-endoscopic single site (LESS) surgery has been reported via the transperitoneal approach. We describe a novel technique of retroperitoneal donor nephrectomy using a single surgical incision in the groin, below the abdominal skin crease or "bikini line". The LESS groin i [...] ncision offers superior cosmesis, while the retroperitoneal approach has distinct advantages, such as the ability to identify the renal vessels early. The new procedure has been performed in two obese patients (body mass index 32 and 33 kg/m2, respectively). The operative times were 4 and 5 hours, warm ischemic times 135 and 315 seconds, blood loss 100 and 250 mL, and hospitalization 3 and 2 days, respectively. Retroperitoneal LESS donor nephrectomy through a single, inconspicuous groin incision is feasible and safe. Further evaluation of the technique in a larger patient cohort is indicated.

  20. People Experiencing Chronic Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Experiencing Chronic Homelessness Share This: People Experiencing Chronic Homelessness We've made significant progress in our national ... WAIT! Thanks for signing up! Help us end homelessness in this country. Sign up to our Newsletter ...

  1. Combined Oral Contraception and Obesity Are Strong Predictors of Low-Grade Inflammation in Healthy Individuals : Results from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØrensen, Cecilie J; Pedersen, Ole B

    2014-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-established marker of inflammation. The level of CRP is affected by several lifestyle factors. A slightly increased CRP level, also known as low-grade inflammation (LGI), is associated with increased risk of several diseases, especially cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of increased CRP levels in healthy individuals. We therefore assessed CRP in a large cohort of blood donors.

  2. Donor Tag Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Drive Volunteer For Hospitals Home > Donating Blood > Blood Donor Community > Games > Donor Tag Game Printable Version Donor ... Directed First Time Donors The Fear of Needles Blood Donor Community Real Stories SleevesUp Games Facebook Fanbox Avatars ...

  3. Experienced and Novice Investors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Rikhardsson, Pall M.

    investment horizons) the groups were asked to allocate funds to two companies based on the available information. The findings suggest that environmental information has the potential to influence investment allocation decisions. The findings also suggest that the influence of environmental information on...... investment allocation decisions is mitigated by the variables considered explicitly in this study, i.e., the investment horizon (varied as short and long) and investor experience (varied as novice and experienced investor). It is concluded that because allocation decisions are multifaceted problems, mixed...

  4. The Living Organ Donor Network: a model registry for living kidney donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCune, Thomas R; Armata, Thomas; Mendez-Picon, Gerardo; Yium, Jackson; Zabari, Gazi B; Crandall, Betty; Spicer, Helen G; Blanton, Jack; Thacker, Leroy R

    2004-01-01

    The South-Eastern Organ Procurement Foundation presents the first report on a programme to track donors through questionnaires completed at the time of donation, 3 months, 6 months, and yearly thereafter. Donors at participating centres were eligible for an insurance policy with a total benefit of 250,000 US dollars, covering accidental death related to donation, surgery, medical expenses of complications, and disability income. The four participating centres have registered 104 donors. Response rate to the questionnaires was 90.91%. The majority of the donors come from the immediate family (81.62%), either by blood or marriage. The majority of donors are employed full time, with income ranges similar to the national census. Donors rely on employer-provided vacation time and sick leave to recuperate, but the average donor required 12 days of unpaid leave before returning to work. Donors also experienced costs of transportation, lodging, and childcare. Anti-depressants were prescribed to 10.58% of donors, and 4.8% of donors reported they are treated for hypertension. Complications were reported by 37.5% of the donors, but only 7.6% of the complications were serious enough to require hospitalization or surgery. Donors reported higher complication rates than reported by the centres and experience financial burdens afterwards. PMID:15217405

  5. Finding a Donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the change you want to see An unusual twist of fate Ermas story Donors and recipients meet ... donate cord blood Participate Volunteer Host a donor drive Request donor materials Attend an event Local Be ...

  6. [Interpersonal patterns in obese patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesewetter, Sybille; Köpsel, Andrea; Pfeiffer, Andreas F; Köpp, Werner; Kastner, Sabrina; Orth-Gomér, Kristina; Deter, Hans-Christian

    2014-07-01

    In the last decades the number of obese and pre-obese patients in Western industrial nations increased. Obese patients have been largely unsuccessful in losing weight over time, but the causes of their difficulties and the causes of their obesity have remained unclear. We examined whether the attachment style and its interaction with interpersonal processes would shed light on this question. We analyzed 107 obese or pre-obese patients before the start of a weight loss intervention program. We used the Adult Attachement Prototype Rating (AAPR)-interview and related questionnaires (Helping Alliance Questionnaire (HAQ), Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-D), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI)). According to the AAPR-rating 54% of the patients were secure and 46% insecure attached. The results suggest that insecure attachment style has an impact on psychic strain in obese patients unrelated to weight, gender and age. Additionally the insecure attachment style influences the therapeutic alliance experienced by patients and the therapist. PMID:24446185

  7. Obesity and disability - children and young people

    OpenAIRE

    Gatineau; Van, M; Public Health England

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the evidence linking obesity and disability in children and young people. It looks at a range of impairments or health conditions associated with disability and explores the main obesity-related chronic health conditions that can develop during childhood and adolescence. It also highlights: inequalities experienced by children and young people in relation to obesity and disability implications for policy, practice and research survey data on obesity and limiting ...

  8. Obesity and risk of infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Kathrine Agergård; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Møller, Bjarne Kuno; Juul-Sørensen, Cecilie; Kotzé, Sebastian; Dinh, Khoa Manh; Erikstrup, Lise Tornvig; Sørensen, Erik; Thørner, Lise Wegner; Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Ullum, Henrik; Erikstrup, Christian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that obesity complicates the course of several diseases. However, it is unknown whether obesity affects the risk of infection among healthy individuals. METHODS: We included 37,808 healthy participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study, who completed a questionnaire on...... health-related items. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ? 30?kg/m. Infections among participants were identified by relevant ICD-10 codes in the Danish National Patient Register and Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) codes in the Danish Prescription Register. Multivariable Cox proportional...... prescription of antimicrobials. Obesity was associated with risk of hospital-based treatment for infection (women: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1, 1.9; men: HR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.9). For specific infections, obesity was associated with increased risk of abscesses (both sexes...

  9. Obesity and risk of infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Kathrine Agergård; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Møller, Bjarne Kuno; Juul-Sørensen, Cecilie; Kotzé, Sebastian; Dinh, Khoa Manh; Erikstrup, Lise Tornvig; Sørensen, Erik; Thørner, Lise Wegner; Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sølvsten; Ullum, Henrik; Erikstrup, Christian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that obesity complicates the course of several diseases. However, it is unknown whether obesity affects the risk of infection among healthy individuals. METHODS: We included 37,808 healthy participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study, who completed a questionnaire on...... health-related items. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2). Infections among participants were identified by relevant ICD-10 codes in the Danish National Patient Register and Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) codes in the Danish Prescription Register. Multivariable Cox proportional...... prescription of antimicrobials. Obesity was associated with risk of hospital-based treatment for infection (women: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1, 1.9; men: HR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.9). For specific infections, obesity was associated with increased risk of abscesses (both sexes...

  10. Donor corneal tissue evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Saini Jagjit; Reddy Madhukar; Sharma Savitri; Wagh Sangeeta

    1996-01-01

    Proper evaluation of donor cornea is critical to the success of corneal transplantation. Attention must be paid to the cause of death and ocular condition as several general and ocular diseases constitute contraindications for donor corneal usage. Death to enucleation time should be noted. Gross examination and slit lamp biomicroscopy are mandatory for the evaluation of the donor eye while specular microscopy adds another useful dimension to information regarding donor cornea. This article pr...

  11. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity. PMID:25949965

  12. O-Glycosyl Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J. Cristóbal

    O-Glycosyl donors, despite being one of the last successful donors to appear, have developed themselves into a burgeoning class of glycosyl donors. They can be classified in two main types: O-alkyl and O-aryl (or hetaryl) glycosyl donors. They share, however, many characteristics, they can be (1) synthesized from aldoses, either by modified Fisher glycosidation (O-alkyl) or by nucleophilic aromatic substitution (O-aryl or O-hetaryl), (2) stable to diverse chemical manipulations, (3) directly used for saccharide coupling, and (4) chemoselectively activated. Among these, n-pentenyl glycosides stand apart. They were the first O-alkyl glycosyl donors to be described and have paved the way to many conceptual developments in oligosaccharide synthesis. The development of the chemoselectivity-based "armed-disarmed" approach for saccharide coupling, including its stereoelectronic or torsional variants, now extended to other kinds of glycosyl donors, was first recognized in n-pentenyl glycosides. The chemical manipulation of the anomeric substituent in the glycosyl donor to induce reactivity differences between related species (sidetracking) was also introduced in n-pentenyl glycosides. An evolution of this concept, the "latent-active" strategy for glycosyl couplings, first described in thioglycosyl donors (vide infra), has been elegantly applied to O-glycosyl donors. Thus, allyl and vinyl glycosides, 2-(benzyloxycarbonyl)benzyl (BCB) glycosides and 2'-carboxybenzyl (CB) glycosides are useful "latent-active" glycosyl pairs. Finally, unprotected 3-methoxy-2-pyridyl (MOP) glycosides have been used in glycosylation processes with moderate success.

  13. Experiencing Security in Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Niels Raabjerg; Bødker, Susanne

    Security is experienced differently in different contexts. This paper argues that in everyday situations, users base their security decisions on a mix of prior experiences. When approaching security and interaction design from an experience approach, tools that help bring out such relevant...

  14. Obesity Epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Haidar, Yarah M.; Cosman, Bard C.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has progressed in a few decades from a public health footnote in developed countries to a top-priority international issue. Because obesity implies increased morbidity and mortality from chronic, debilitating disorders, it is a major burden on individuals and health systems in both developing and developed countries. Obesity is a complex disorder unequally affecting all age groups and socioeconomic classes. Of special concern is increasing childhood obesity. This review presents the e...

  15. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  16. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  17. The influence of donor body mass index on human pancreatic islet function, structure and islet transplant outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Jonathan Neil; Johnson, Paul R. V.; Rorsman, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pancreatic islet transplantation for type-1 diabetes has resulted in considerable success over the past decade. However, the worldwide shortage of pancreatic donors remains a major challenge. In an attempt to expand the donor pool, pancreases from obese organs donors (>30 kg/m²) are now routinely offered to islet transplantation in the UK. In addition, it has been suggested that pancreases from donors with early type-2 diabetes mellitus may also be suitable. However, for both thes...

  18. Interoceptive awareness in experienced meditators

    OpenAIRE

    Khalsa, Sahib S.; RUDRAUF, DAVID; Damasio, Antonio R.; Davidson, Richard J; Lutz, Antoine; TRANEL, DANIEL

    2008-01-01

    Attention to internal body sensations is practiced inmost meditation traditions. Many traditions state that this practice results in increased awareness of internal body sensations, but scientific studies evaluating this claim are lacking. We predicted that experienced meditators would display performance superior to that of nonmeditators on heartbeat detection, a standard noninvasive measure of resting interoceptive awareness. We compared two groups of meditators (Tibetan Buddhist and Kundal...

  19. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... more than enough to make 8 you perfectly healthy. And most donors have no problem long-term. ... a week to discuss these issues, and a healthy donor who is, say, 50 versus another donor ...

  20. Psychosocial impact of pediatric living-donor kidney and liver transplantation on recipients, donors, and the family: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thys, Kristof; Schwering, Karl-Leo; Siebelink, Marion; Dobbels, Fabienne; Borry, Pascal; Schotsmans, Paul; Aujoulat, Isabelle

    2015-03-01

    Living-donor kidney and liver transplantation intend to improve pediatric recipients' psychosocial well-being, but psychosocial impact in recipients strongly depends upon the impact on the donor and the quality of family relations. We systematically reviewed quantitative and qualitative studies addressing the psychosocial impact of pediatric living-donor kidney and liver transplantation in recipients, donors, and the family. In accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, we systematically searched the databases Medline, Web of Knowledge, Cinahl, Embase, ERIC, and Google Scholar. We identified 23 studies that satisfied our inclusion criteria. Recipients had improved coping skills and satisfactory peer relationships, but also reported anxiety and depressive symptoms, worried about the future, and had a negative body image. Similarly, donors experienced increased self-esteem, empowerment, and community awareness, but also complained of postoperative pain and a lack of emotional support. With respect to family impact, transplantation generated a special bond between the donor and the recipient, characterized by gratitude and admiration, but also raised new expectations concerning the recipient's lifestyle. As psychological problems in recipients were sometimes induced by feelings of guilt and indebtedness toward the donor, we recommend more research on how gift exchange dynamics function within donor-recipient relationships, enrolling donors and recipients within the same study. PMID:25363518

  1. Experiencing Security in Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Niels Raabjerg; BØdker, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Security is experienced differently in different contexts. This paper argues that in everyday situations, users base their security decisions on a mix of prior experiences. When approaching security and interaction design from an experience approach, tools that help bring out such relevant experiences for design are needed. This paper reports on how Prompted exploration workshops and Acting out security were developed to target such experiences when iteratively designing a mobile digital signature solution in a participatory design process. We discuss how these tools helped the design process and illustrate how the tangibility of such tools matters. We further demonstrate how the approach grants access to non-trivial insights into people's security experience. We point out how the specific context is essential for exploring the space between experience and expectations, and we illustrate how people activate their collections of security experiences rather than deploying one security strategy in all situations.

  2. a Structure of Experienced Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havel, Ivan M.

    2005-10-01

    The subjective experience of time will be taken as a primary motivation for an alternative, essentially discontinuous conception of time. Two types of such experience will be discussed, one based on personal episodic memory, the other on the theoretical fine texture of experienced time below the threshold of phenomenal awareness. The former case implies a discrete structure of temporal episodes on a large scale, while the latter case suggests endowing psychological time with a granular structure on a small scale, i.e. interpreting it as a semi-ordered flow of smeared (not point-like) subliminal time grains. Only on an intermediate temporal scale would the subjectively felt continuity and fluency of time emerge. Consequently, there is no locally smooth mapping of phenomenal time onto the real number continuum. Such a model has certain advantages; for instance, it avoids counterintuitive interpretations of some neuropsychological experiments (e.g. Libet's measurement) in which the temporal order of events is crucial.

  3. Experiencing Liveness in Contemporary Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    making. Drawing together contributions from theatre, music, dance, and performance art, it takes an interdisciplinary approach in asking not what liveness is, but how it matters and to whom. The book invites readers to consider how liveness is produced through processes of audiencing - as spectators...... concepts in a range of topics such as affect, documentation, embodiment, fandom, and temporality, showing how the relationship between audience and event is rarely singular and more often malleable and multiple. With its focus on experiencing liveness, this collection will be of interest to disciplines......This volume brings together dynamic perspectives on the concept of liveness in the performing arts, engaging with the live through the particular analytical focus of audiences and experience. The status and significance of the live in performance has become contested: perceived as variously as a...

  4. Decision making around living and deceased donor kidney transplantation: a qualitative study exploring the importance of expected relationship changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Groot Ingrid B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited data exist on the impact of living kidney donation on the donor-recipient relationship. Purpose of this study was to explore motivations to donate or accept a (living donor kidney, whether expected relationship changes influence decision making and whether relationship changes are actually experienced. Methods We conducted 6 focus groups in 47 of 114 invited individuals (41%, asking retrospectively about motivations and decision making around transplantation. We used qualitative and quantitative methods to analyze the focus group transcripts. Results Most deceased donor kidney recipients had a potential living donor available which they refused or did not want. They mostly waited for a deceased donor because of concern for the donor’s health (75%. They more often expected negative relationship changes than living donor kidney recipients (75% vs. 27%, p?=?0.01 who also expected positive changes. Living donor kidney recipients mostly accepted the kidney to improve their own quality of life (47%. Donors mostly donated a kidney because transplantation would make the recipient less dependent (25%. After transplantation both positive and negative relationship changes are experienced. Conclusion Expected relationship changes and concerns about the donor’s health lead some kidney patients to wait for a deceased donor, despite having a potential living donor available. Further research is needed to assess whether this concerns a selected group.

  5. Experiencing sexuality after intestinal stoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Angela Boccara de, Paula; Renata Ferreira, Takahashi; Pedro Roberto de, Paula.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar as Representações Sociais (RS) da pessoa estomizada intestinal sobre vivência da sexualidade após confecção do estoma. MÉTODOS: Estudo exploratório, descritivo, qualitativo do ponto de vista do referencial da Representação Social. Participaram 15 estomizados, sendo 8 mulheres, [...] com idade média de 57,9 anos, entre agosto e setembro de 2005. Dados obtidos por entrevistas, transcritas, foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo, originando a unidade temática "Ressignificando a sexualidade" e subtemas. RESULTADOS: Demonstrou-se que o estoma intestinal interfere na dinâmica da vivência da sexualidade, desvelando que os significados a ela atribuídos estão ancorados nas histórias individuais de vida, na qualidade das relações pessoais/conjugais estabelecidas na prática e na percepção da sexualidade, apesar do estoma. CONCLUSÕES: Representações Sociais sobre vivência da sexualidade após estoma estão ancoradas nos significados atribuídos ao corpo, veiculadas no cotidiano e presentes no imaginário social. É influenciada por outros fatores, como alterações fisiológicas decorrentes do ato cirúrgico e da existência de parceiro. Cuidados adotados nas práticas sexuais propiciam maior segurança e conforto nos momentos de intimidade, tornando-as mais próximas daquilo que vivenciavam antes do estoma. A autoirrigação, associada ou não ao oclusor, constituiu estratégia facilitadora para melhor aceitação do estoma, sendo essencial para vida sexual mais prazerosa. A assistência à pessoa estomizada deve ser integral, não se limitando apenas à doença e ao cuidado técnico, que são importantes, mas não únicos. O trabalho interdisciplinar da equipe de saúde deve vislumbrar a pessoa em sua totalidade, buscando real encontro entre sujeitos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Identify the Social Representations (SR) of ostomized people in terms of sexuality after the stoma. METHODS: An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study using the Social Representation Theory with 15 ostomized people (8 females), mean age of 57.9 years, between August and September 200 [...] 5. Data obtained from transcribed interviews were submitted to content analysis, resulting in the thematic unit "Giving new meaning to sexuality" and subthemes. RESULTS: The study demonstrated that the intestinal stoma interferes in the sexuality experience, showing that the meanings attributed to this experience are based on individual life stories, quality of personal relationships established in practice and perception of sexuality, despite the stoma. CONCLUSIONS: The Social Representations, in terms of experiencing sexuality after the stoma, are based on meanings attributed to the body, associated with daily life and present in the social imaginary. It is influenced by other factors, such as physiological changes resulting from the surgery and the fact of having or not a partner. Care taken during sexual practices provide greater security and comfort in moments of intimacy, resembling the closest to what ostomized people experienced before the stoma. The self-irrigation technique associated or not with the use of artificial occluder, has been attested by its users as a positive element that makes a difference in sexual practice after the stoma. The support to ostomized people should be comprehensive, not limited to technical care and disease, which are important, but not sufficient. The interdisciplinary health team should consider all aspects of the person, seeking a real meeting between subjects.

  6. Super Armed Glycosyl Donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bols, Mikael; Pedersen, Christian Marcus; Nordstrøm, Lars Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    Glycosyl donors protected with bulky silyl protective groups (tert-butyldimethylsilyl, TBS), on the 2-, 3- and 4-OH groups were found to have superior reactivity compared with benzylated thioglucosides. The enhanced reactivity is explained by the stereoelectronic effects associated with the...

  7. Donor family programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolican, M B; Politoski, G

    1994-09-01

    This article explores how the critical care nurse can support donor families. Some of the many programs currently available to assist families after the death of a loved one and after the donation of organs and tissues are described. PMID:7946218

  8. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion d'Annemasse will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  9. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Wednesday 13 November 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs will be held a blood donors campaign, organized by the Etablissement de Transfusion de Haute-Savoie If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  10. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Tuesday 19 March 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion sanguine of Geneva If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  11. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion Sanguine of Geneva will be held at CERN on Tuesday 13 March 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  12. BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    A blood donors campaign, organized by the Établissement de Transfusion de Rhône-Alpes will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2000 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

  13. Donor transplant programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transplantation of organs and tissues from one human to another human has become an essential and well established form of therapy for many types of organ and tissue failure. In Malaysia, kidney, cornea and bone marrow transplantation are well established. Recently, liver, bone and heart transplanation have been performed. Unfortunately, because of the lack of cadaveric organ donation, only a limited number of solid organ transplantation have been performed. The cadaveric organ donor rate in Malaysia is low at less than one per million population. The first tissue transplanted in Malaysia was the cornea which was performed in the early 1970s. At that time and even now the majority of corneas came from Sri Lanka. The first kidney transplant was performed in 1975 from a live related donor. The majority of the 629 kidney transplants done at Hospital Kuala Lumpur to date have been from live related donors. Only 35 were from cadaver donors. Similarly, the liver transplantation programme which started in 1995 are from live related donors. A more concerted effort has been made recently to increase the awareness of the public and the health professionals on organ and tissue donation. This national effort to promote organ and tissue donation seems to have gathered momentum in 1997 with the first heart transplant successfully performed at the National Heart Institute. The rate of cadaveric donors has also increased from a previous average of I to 2 per year to 6 per year in the last one year. These developments are most encouraging and may signal the coming of age of our transplantati on programme. The Ministry of Health in conjunction with various institutions, organizations and professional groups, have taken a number of proactive measures to facilitate the development of the cadaveric organ donation programme. Efforts to increase public awareness and to overcome the negative cultural attitude towards organ donation have been intensified. Equally important are efforts to promote the concept and understanding of organ donation among health professionals. A review of the Human Tissues Act 1974 which governs organ and tissue donation in this country is being undertaken. A number of seminars have been held to garner the support of religious groups in the promotion of organ donation. A major weakness had been the lack of a national organizational framework to facilitate and coordinate the development of organ donation and transplantation in this country. Therefore a National Transplantation Coordinating Committee and a Transplant Programme Working Committee have been formed to oversee the development and implementation of national policy guidelines and programmes. With these measures it is hoped that the donor transplant programme in Malaysia will be one of the success stories of the future

  14. Update on Treatment Strategies for Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wyatt, Holly R.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a disease that is defined as the accumulation of excessive amounts of body fat and is associated with increased risk of serious illness, disability, and death. In clinical practice, obesity is best assessed by calculating body mass index and measuring waist circumference. Treatment options are determined based on the body mass index, waist circumference, and adverse health consequences the patient is experiencing or is at an increased risk for facing in the future. Today, overweigh...

  15. Analysis of complications in hepatic right lobe living donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzam Ayman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT has been expanding to adult recipients by using right lobe grafts. However, the incidence of complications is more frequent than that involving left lobe grafts. Hence, we aimed to analyze postoperative complications in right lobe liver donors as a step to improve the results in the donors. Methods : Three hundred and eleven right lobe liver donors were retrospectively reviewed between February 1998 and December 2003. Results : The ages of the donors ranged from 19 to 64 years (median: 46 years. Their body mass index ranged from 16.6 to 34.3 (median: 22.1. The mean duration of the operation was 6.58 (1.25 hours and blood loss was 289 (254 mL. The estimated median donor residual liver volume was 42.2% (range: 20.6-60.3% and the median hospital stay was 14.5 days (range: 6-267 days. One donor died of liver failure due to small residual liver volume (26% and steatohepatitis. One hundred and twenty three complications occurred in 104 donors (33.4%. Donors experienced one or more complications. According to the Clavien classification, grade I complications occurred in 71 of the episodes (57.7%, grade II complications in 9 (7.3%, grade IIIa complications in 39 (31.7%, grade IIIb complications in 3 (2.5%, and grade V complications in 1 (0.8%. Biliary complications were the most common and occurred in 37 donors (12%. Conclusion : Right lobe liver donation is a widely accepted procedure that results in the expansion of the indication for LDLT to adults and large children. However, remnant liver size and anatomical variations in the biliary tree represent important risk factors for postoperative complications.

  16. Childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Summerbell, C.D.; Shield, J.

    2001-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  17. Childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Justine; Howard, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  18. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... does the living donor surgeries, and Dr. Harland Rust, who is one of our transplant nephrologists. Also ... risk of bleeding of the donor. And, Dr. Rust, here is a question for you? “How does ...

  19. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... need dialysis after the operation?” One of the advantages of living donation is that these kidneys essentially ... were removed from the donor. One of the advantages of living donor is that time is from ...

  20. Donor Registries and Search Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, Carolyn Katovich; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Setterholm, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    The optimal donor of hematopoietic progenitor cells shares alleles of the major histocompatibility genes with the recipient. This chapter describes the strategies aimed at identifying such a matched donor from registries of volunteers or from umbilical cord blood banks.

  1. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... team is really helpful with the transplant coordinators, Amy Sokolowski and her team, to help the donor ... a great team here at Norfolk General, particularly Amy who works so hard with the living donors, ...

  2. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a kidney is safe. It has an excellent safety record both here and nationwide. To ensure that, ... ve had a lot of talk about the safety for the living donors. The donor for that ...

  3. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... shows our screening process, first the potential donor meets with a social worker and a psychologist, and ... after all that is done, the potential donor meets with myself or another nephrologist for a final ...

  4. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... would be, let’s say there’s a donor whose blood-type A is their intended recipient donor is blood-type B, so they’re not compatible. But if ... like 55 or 60 percent, depending on what type of deceased donor kidney you’re ... family members or blood relatives of donors. We saw earlier the video ...

  5. Blood Donor Management in China

    OpenAIRE

    Shi,Ling; Wang, Jingxing; Liu, Zhong; Stevens, Lori; Sadler, Andrew; Van Ness, Paul; Shan, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Despite a steady increase in total blood collections and voluntary non-remunerated blood donors, China continues to have many challenges with its blood donation system. The country's donation rate remains low at 9%o, with over 60% of donors being first-time donors. Generally there is a lack of adequate public awareness about blood donation. The conservative donor selection criteria, the relatively long donation interval, and the small donation volume have further limited blood supply. To ensu...

  6. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be, let’s say there’s a donor whose blood-type A is their intended recipient donor is blood-type B, so they’re not compatible. But if ... like 55 or 60 percent, depending on what type of deceased donor kidney you’re talking about, ...

  7. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that you can lose the patient during this surgery? If so, what is the risk?” There have been deaths from donor kidney removal. ... person would be unable to tolerate the donor operation, then they certainly would have ... that risk of bleeding of the donor. And, Dr. Rust, ...

  8. Hormones and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hormones and Obesity Share: Fact Sheet Hormones and Obesity March, 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Caroline Apovian, MD Judith Korner, MD, PhD What is obesity? Obesity is a chronic (long-term) medical problem ...

  9. Obesity and poverty paradox in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ?ukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Wróblewska, Paula; Zwoli?ski, Jacek; Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Adamczuk, Piotr; Krasowska, Ewelina; Zagórski, Jerzy; Oniszczuk, Anna; Pi?tek, Jacek; Silny, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a civilization disease and the proportion of people suffering from it continues to grow, especially in the developed countries. Number of obese people in Europe has increased threefold over the last 20 years. The paradox of obesity and poverty relationship is observed especially in the developed and developing countries. In developing countries, along with economic development and income growth, the number of people with overweight and obesity is increasing. This paradox has a relationship with both the easy availability and low cost of highly processed foods containing 'empty calories' and no nutritional value. To date, this paradox has been described in the United States and the United Kingdom, although many European countries are also experiencing high percentages of obese people. Among the reasons for the growing obesity in the population of poor people are: higher unemployment, lower education level, and irregular meals. Another cause of obesity is low physical activity, which among the poor is associated with a lack of money for sports equipment. Due to the large rate of deaths caused by diseases directly linked to obesity, the governments of many countries implement prevention programmes of overweight and obesity. These programmes are based primarily on educating the public about a healthy lifestyle based on healthy eating, daily physical activity and avoiding alcohol and cigarettes. PMID:25292135

  10. Obesity and poverty paradox in developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta ?ukiewicz-Sobczak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a civilization disease and the proportion of people suffering from it continues to grow, especially in the developed countries. Number of obese people in Europe has increased threefold over the last 20 years. The paradox of obesity and poverty relationship is observed especially in the developed and developing countries. In developing countries, along with economic development and income growth, the number of people with overweight and obesity is increasing. This paradox has a relationship with both the easy availability and low cost of highly processed foods containing ‘empty calories’ and no nutritional value. To date, this paradox has been described in the United States and the United Kingdom, although many European countries are also experiencing high percentages of obese people. Among the reasons for the growing obesity in the population of poor people are: higher unemployment, lower education level, and irregular meals. Another cause of obesity is low physical activity, which among the poor is associated with a lack of money for sports equipment. Due to the large rate of deaths caused by diseases directly linked to obesity, the governments of many countries implement prevention programmes of overweight and obesity. These programmes are based primarily on educating the public about a healthy lifestyle based on healthy eating, daily physical activity and avoiding alcohol and cigarettes.

  11. Experienced discrimination amongst European old citizens

    OpenAIRE

    van den Heuvel, Wim J.A.; van Santvoort, Marc M.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the experienced age discrimination of old European citizens and the factors related to this discrimination. Differences in experienced discrimination between old citizens of different European countries are explored. Data from the 2008 ESS survey are used. Old age is defined as being 62 years or older. The survey data come from 28 European countries and 14,364 old-age citizens. Their average age is 72 years. Factor analysis is used to construct the core variable ‘experienc...

  12. Electroencephalographic topography measures of experienced utility

    OpenAIRE

    Pedroni, A; Langer, N.; Koenig, T.; Allemand, M; Jäncke, L

    2011-01-01

    Economic theory distinguishes two concepts of utility: decision utility, objectively quantifiable by choices, and experienced utility, referring to the satisfaction by an obtainment. To date, experienced utility is typically measured with subjective ratings. This study intended to quantify experienced utility by global levels of neuronal activity. Neuronal activity was measured by means of electroencephalographic (EEG) responses to gain and omission of graded monetary rewards at the level of ...

  13. Confidentiality and American semen donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karow, A M

    1993-01-01

    Most American donor insemination programs include a policy of complete confidentiality concerning the donor of the semen. This is the result of a long legal tradition of American constitutional law. However, some slight abridgement of this body of legal decisions might be very much in the best interests of children arising from donor insemination, and even--in most cases, in fact--the donors themselves. With regard to the children, the factors involved are both those of genetic counseling, should the need arise, and psychological development. Of course, as at present, the donor must be relieved of all responsibility, both legal and financial. PMID:8348162

  14. Invited Commentary: Childhood and Adolescent Obesity--Psychological and Behavioral Issues in Weight Loss Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B.; Dilks, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity has tripled in the past three decades. This increase has been accompanied by a dramatic rise in obesity-related health complications among American youth. Thus, many obese youth are now experiencing illnesses that will threaten their life expectancy in the absence of significant weight loss.…

  15. Protocol for: Sheffield Obesity Trial (SHOT): A randomised controlled trial of exercise therapy and mental health outcomes in obese adolescents [ISRCNT83888112

    OpenAIRE

    Wright Neil P; Copeland Robert J; Daley Amanda J; Wales Jerry KH

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background While obesity is known to have many physiological consequences, the psychopathology of this condition has not featured prominently in the literature. Cross-sectional studies have indicated that obese children have increased odds of experiencing poor quality of life and mental health. However, very limited trial evidence has examined the efficacy of exercise therapy for enhancing mental health outcomes in obese children, and the Sheffield Obesity Trial (SHOT) will provide e...

  16. Transfer of Intestinal Microbiota From Lean Donors Increases Insulin Sensitivity in Individuals With Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Vrieze, A.; van Nood, E.; Holleman, F.; Heilig, G. H. J.; Zoetendal, E. G.; De Vos, W. M.

    2012-01-01

    Alterations in intestinal microbiota are associated with obesity and insulin resistance. We studied the effects of infusing intestinal microbiota from lean donors to male recipients with metabolic syndrome on the recipients' microbiota composition and glucose metabolism. Subjects were assigned randomly to groups that were given small intestinal infusions of allogenic or autologous microbiota. Six weeks after infusion of microbiota from lean donors, insulin sensitivity of recipients increased ...

  17. Methyl Donor Supplementation Blocks the Adverse Effects of Maternal High Fat Diet on Offspring Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Carlin, JesseLea; George, Robert; Reyes, Teresa M

    2013-01-01

    Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during pregnancy increases the offspring risk for obesity. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that maternal consumption of a high fat (60%) diet leads to global and gene specific decreases in DNA methylation in the brain of the offspring. The present experiments were designed to attempt to reverse this DNA hypomethylation through supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors, and to determine whether methyl donor supplementation cou...

  18. Childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren

    Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively....... The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar...

  19. Iron deficiency in blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Cortés

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Context: Blood donation results in a substantial loss of iron (200 to 250 mg at each bleeding procedure (425 to 475 ml and subsequent mobilization of iron from body stores. Recent reports have shown that body iron reserves generally are small and iron depletion is more frequent in blood donors than in non-donors. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors and to establish the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors according to sex, whether they were first-time or multi-time donors. Design: From march 20 to April 5, 2004, three hundred potential blood donors from Hemocentro del Café y Tolima Grande were studied. Diagnostic tests: Using a combination of biochemical measurements of iron status: serum ferritin (RIA, ANNAR and the hemoglobin pre and post-donation (HEMOCUE Vital technology medical . Results: The frequency of iron deficiency in potential blood donors was 5%, and blood donors accepted was 5.1%; in blood donors rejected for low hemoglobin the frequency of iron deficiency was 3.7% and accepted blood donors was 1.7% in male and 12.6% in female. The frequency of iron deficiency was higher in multi-time blood donors than in first-time blood donors, but not stadistic significative. Increase nivel accepted hemoglobina in 1 g/dl no incidence in male; in female increase of 0.5 g/dl low in 25% blood donors accepted with iron deficiency, but increased rejected innecesary in 16.6% and increased is 1 g/dl low blood donors female accepted in 58% (7/12, but increased the rejected innecesary in 35.6%. Conclusions: We conclude that blood donation not is a important factor for iron deficiency in blood donors. The high frequency of blood donors with iron deficiency found in this study suggests a need for a more accurate laboratory trial, as hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement alone is not sufficient for detecting and excluding blood donors with iron deficiency without anemia, and ajustes hacia nivel more high in standars of accepted of hemoglobin no help the situation and no assure the blood suplly; increased exclusion blood donors of 9% at 44.6%.

  20. Molecular forms of butyrylcholinesterase and obesity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dellyana R., Boberg; Lupe, Furtado-Alle; Ricardo L.R., Souza; Eleidi A., Chautard-Freire-Maia.

    Full Text Available This study compared obese (N = 134) and unobese (N = 92) male blood donors, regarding the relative intensity (RI) and activity of different molecular forms (G1, G2, G4 and G1-ALB) of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE, EC 3.1.1.8) found in plasma, thereby searching for an association between these variable [...] s with obesity and SNPs of exons 1 and 4 of the BCHE gene. It was shown that obese and unobese individuals do not differ in the RI of each BChE band, even when classifying the sample into three genotypes of exons 1 and 4 of the BCHE gene (-116GG/539AA, -116GG/539AT, -116GA/539AT). Although the mean BChE activity of each band was significantly higher in obese than in unobese blood donors, the proportions of BChE bands were maintained, even under the metabolic stress associated to obesity, thereby leading to infer that this proportion is somehow regulated, and may therefore be important for BChE functions.

  1. Treating morbid obesity in cirrhosis: A quest of holy grail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naveen; Choudhary, Narendra Singh

    2015-12-01

    The problem of obesity is increasing worldwide in epidemic proportions; the situation is similarly becoming more common in patients with cirrhosis which negatively affect the prognosis of disease and also makes liver transplantation difficult especially in the living donor liver transplantation setting where low graft to recipient weight ratio negatively affects survival. Treatment of obesity is difficult in cirrhosis due to difficulty in implementation of lifestyle measures, limited data on safety of anti-obesity drugs and high risk of surgery. Currently approved anti-obesity drugs have limited data in patients with cirrhosis. Bariatric surgery remains an option in selected compensated cirrhotic patients. Endoscopic interventions for obesity are emerging and are quite promising in patients with cirrhosis as these are minimally invasive. In present review, we briefly discuss various modalities of weight reduction in obese patients and their applicability in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:26668693

  2. Donor demographic and laboratory predictors of single donor platelet yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet transfusions are essential to prevent morbidity and mortality in patients who are severely thrombocytopenic and are at risk of spontaneous bleeding. Platelets are currently obtained either by fractionation of whole blood or by platelet apheresis. The quality of single donor platelets (SDP in terms of yield influences platelet recovery in the recipient and allows prolonging intervals between transfusions. Material and Methods: Donor demographic and laboratory data were analyzed prior to performing plateletpheresis to identify donor factors that influence platelet yield. The study was conducted on 130 healthy, first-time plateletpheresis donors over a period of 4 years. The plateletpheresis procedures were performed using Fresenius Kabi COM.TEC and Hemonetics MCS plus separator. A relationship between pre-donation donor variables and yield of platelets was studied using the Pearson correlation. Results: The mean platelet yield was 3.16?0.62x1011 per unit. A positive correlation was observed between platelet yield and pre-donation platelet count, body mass index (BMI; Kg/m2 of the donor, while a negative correlation was observed between age and the platelet yield. Conclusion: Donor pre-donation platelet count, BMI and donor age influence platelet yield. Young healthy donors with a high platelet count and better BMI can give a better platelet yield in the SDP.

  3. Childhood Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive.  Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  4. Postmenopausal Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhaa Sharma; Rupali Bakshi; Vishal. R. Tandon; Annil Mahajan

    2008-01-01

    Presently life style modification at the transitionof menopause will go long way in preventing weight gainduring this metabolically vulnerable period which will helpin primary and secondary prevention of several chronicdiseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer,hypertension, obesity, depression and osteoporosis) andpremature death beside keeping women physically andmentally fit in her menopause.

  5. Postmenopausal Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhaa Sharma

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Presently life style modification at the transitionof menopause will go long way in preventing weight gainduring this metabolically vulnerable period which will helpin primary and secondary prevention of several chronicdiseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer,hypertension, obesity, depression and osteoporosis andpremature death beside keeping women physically andmentally fit in her menopause.

  6. Health-Related Quality of Life in Kidney Donors from the Last Five Decades: Results from the RELIVE Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, C. R.; Messersmith, E. E.; Hong, B. A.; Jowsey, S. G.; Jacobs,C.; Gillespie, B. W.; Taler, S. J.; Matas, A. J.; Leichtman, A.; Merion, R. M.; Ibrahim, H. N.

    2013-01-01

    Live donation benefits recipients, but the long-term consequences for donors remain uncertain. RELIVE surveyed kidney donors (N=2,455; 61% women; mean age 58, aged 24 – 94; mean time from donation 17 years, range 5 – 48 years) using the SF-36. The 95% CIs for white and African-American donors included or exceeded SF-36 norms. Over 80% of donors reported average or above average health for their age and sex (p 1 SD below norm). Obesity, history of psychiatric difficulties, and non-white race w...

  7. Treating morbid obesity in cirrhosis: A quest of holy grail

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Naveen; Choudhary, Narendra Singh

    2015-01-01

    The problem of obesity is increasing worldwide in epidemic proportions; the situation is similarly becoming more common in patients with cirrhosis which negatively affect the prognosis of disease and also makes liver transplantation difficult especially in the living donor liver transplantation setting where low graft to recipient weight ratio negatively affects survival. Treatment of obesity is difficult in cirrhosis due to difficulty in implementation of lifestyle measures, limited data on ...

  8. Obesity, abdominal obesity and Alzheimer disease.

    OpenAIRE

    RAZAY, G; Vreugdenhil, A; Wilcock, G.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Obesity has a strong association with vascular and metabolic diseases, which have been linked with Alzheimer disease (AD). While recent studies have reported an association between mid-life obesity and dementia, the role of later-life obesity is less clear. This study investigated the relation between AD, obesity and abdominal obesity at later-life in a case-control study. METHODS: Participants were 50 consecutive patients with probable AD from memory disorders clinics in Lau...

  9. Obesity in children

    OpenAIRE

    Canoy, Dexter; Bundred, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is the result of long-term energy imbalances, where daily energy intake exceeds daily energy expenditure. Obesity in children is associated with physical as well as psychosocial problems. Long-term adverse health consequences of childhood obesity may include increased risk for cardiovascular and metabolic disease in adulthood. Most obese adolescents stay obese as adults.

  10. Obesidad / Obesity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M., Duelo Marcos; E., Escribano Ceruelo; F., Muñoz Velasco.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La prevalencia está aumentando de forma alarmante en todo el mundo y en todas las edades. Las complicaciones aparecen cada vez antes, son ya visibles en niños y adolescentes: problemas psicológicos, de adaptación social, ortopédicos, hiperlipidemia, hipertensión, apneas del sueño... La obesidad infa [...] ntil es el principal factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de obesidad en el adulto, que se asocia a un mayor número de factores de riesgo cardiovascular y a la disminución de la esperanza de vida. Aunque existen factores genéticos, el aumento de la obesidad está claramente unido al cambio del estilo de vida (mayor ingesta calórica y menor actividad física). El tratamiento es difícil, requiere de una estrategia multidisciplinaria actuando sobre el paciente y su entorno (familia). Por este motivo es clave la prevención primaria estimulando un estilo de vida saludable. Abstract in english Obesity prevalence is an increasing and alarming problem in the whole world and at all ages. Important consequences are coming earlier and they are visible in childhood and adolescence: Psychological problems, social acceptance, orthopaedic problems, high level of lipids, hypertension, sleep apnoeas [...] ... Children's obesity is the main risk factor for adult obesity, what is related to more cardiovascular risk factors and to a decrease in life expectancy. Although there are genetics factors, the rise of obesity is eventually in relation with life stile (more food calories intake and less practice of physical activity). Treatment is difficult. It is mandatory a multidisciplinary strategy effort toward patients and their families. Primary prevention is a key factor through encouraging a healthy life style.

  11. Childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren

    Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectivel...... Wittner Bynner (1881-1968) wrote, "The biggest problem in the world could have been solved when it was small"....

  12. Hypothalamic obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Irit; Hochberg, Ze'ev

    2010-01-01

    Following extensive suprasellar operations for excision of hypothalamic tumors, some patients develop morbid obesity, the so-called hypothalamic obesity (HyOb). HyOb complicates disorders related to the hypothalamus, including those that cause structural damage to the hypothalamus, pituitary macroadenoma with suprasellar extension, glioma, meningioma, teratoma, germ cell tumors, radiotherapy, Prader-Willi syndrome, and mutations in leptin, leptin receptor, POMC, MC4R and CART genes. It is conceivable that a subgroup of patients with 'simple obesity' also have HyOb. The hypothalamus regulates body weight by precisely balancing the intake of food, energy expenditure and body fat tissue. Orexigenic and anorexigenic hypothalamic centers (hyperphagia when impaired) play a central role, connecting to adipose tissue by means of an intricate efferent and afferent signals circuit. Other mechanisms by which the brain regulates adipose tissue and beta cells of the pancreas include the sympathetic nervous system, vagally mediated hyperinsulinemia and the endocrine system, namely growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. Corticotropin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone glucocorticoids and the 11beta-HSD-1 shuttle regulate lipolysis both directly and indirectly. All the above mechanisms may be impaired in HyOb. Management of HyOb targets the major manifestations: hyperphagia, autonomic dysfunction, hyperinsulinemia and impaired energy expenditure. Individual variation is considerable. Satisfactory therapy is currently unavailable. PMID:19955767

  13. Donor selection criteria and procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donor selection is one of the most important aspects of tissue banking practice. Without a good donor selection criteria, the results of any effort of trying to preserve tissues will have disastrous outcome for the recipient of these tissues. While with a very good and strict donor selection the Tissue Bank can guarantee safe and effective tissue allografts. There are significant aspects in the history and physical examination of the donor that must be emphasized. A donor exclusion criteria has also been formulated together with a list of all the needed laboratory examinations to eliminate possible diseases that may be transferred from the donor. The methods of procurement of tissue allografts from living and cadaver donors will be described. The limitations and advantages of each will be taken.There are also special restrictions that are important in the practice of removing the tissues from the donors. All the necessary equipment should be ready and the potential risk on the personnel should be known to all doing Tissue Banking

  14. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can do a paired donation; a paired donation exchange, living donor exchange, where the A donor would donate to the ... commonplace. They’re the first of the matched exchanges. Here is an interesting question, and I’ll ...

  15. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Please feel free to e-mail questions as we go on. We’ll try to get to as many of them as we can. We make group some together if they’re similar. ... Robey will now introduce the laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. We started the laparoscopic approach to donor nephrectomies in ...

  16. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Well there have been kidney transplants done as long as 72 hours after a kidney was removed from the donor. ... when it’s hooked up. Here’s another question. “How long does ... this is going to take about five hours for each of the procedures, the donor and ...

  17. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... terms of their antigens and who has a negative cross match and can be a donor for sure. If there is a large age difference, we would usually go with a younger donor simply because they’re less likely to have a any problems around the time of the surgery. But there have been instances where we it’s ...

  18. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... first the potential donor meets with a social worker and a psychologist, and there are also some ... was still -- I mean I was still in pain and recovering, but it’s funny, I ... of that, but it is extremely low. The donors that it has been a problem ...

  19. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Once a child is, you know, kind of adolescent age, it’s really the same as doing a ... Just from being in the hospital and not eating for a couple of days, maybe some ... discuss these issues, and a healthy donor who is, say, 50 versus another donor ...

  20. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Boston. Dr. Joseph Murray was awarded the Nobel Prize for that pioneering work. And we’ve had a lot of talk about the safety for the living donors. The donor for that operation turned 80 last year, which is really quite an accomplishment. On ...

  1. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if they were, let’s say, to develop a cancer in one of their kidneys, and certainly that would be ... on the -- actually this would be -- I’ll answer this one. “Do the staples remain on the donor’s arteries ...

  2. Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome? Obesity hypoventilation (HI-po-ven-tih- ... NHLBI Research Featured in HBO Documentary Series on Obesity Hear people talk about their challenges and successes ...

  3. Disability and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Employees and Reasonable Accommodations (RA) Disability and Obesity Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... and Disability at http://www.ncpad.org/ The Obesity Epidemic Obesity affects different people in different ways ...

  4. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic Whites are 60% ... findings/nhqrdr/nhqrdr12/index.html HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  5. Parents and Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/Childhood_Obesity_082415.html Parents and Childhood Obesity HealthDay News Video - August 25, 2015 To use ... please enable JavaScript. Play video: Parents and Childhood Obesity For closed captioning, click the CC button on ...

  6. Parents and Childhood Obesity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Parents and Childhood Obesity URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/Childhood_Obesity_082415.html Parents and Childhood Obesity ...

  7. Obesity Treatment Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Ianosi Edith; Alexandra Comes; Gabriela Jimborean

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a disease with severe health consequences and increased risk of mortality. The most commonly used criteria to assess the presence and the severity of obesity are body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and the presence of the health conditions caused or worsened by obesity. Worldwide obesity has more than doubled in the last 4 decades. Obesity is the second of the leading preventable causes of death worldwide (after smoking). Obesity has a plurifactorial pathoge...

  8. Soccer kick kinematic differences between experienced and non-experienced soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz López, Alejandro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to examine kinematic differences of instep soccer kick between experienced and non-experienced soccer players. Subjects: 17 men between 17 and 21 years old. Methodology: a 3D film system with 4 cameras was used. Maximum power instep kicks were executed. It was analyzed feet velocity in the impact, maximum hip extension, maximum knee flexion and kick phases duration. Results: were found significant differences in feet velocity with non-dominant leg in the impact moment (m/s (Experienced: 14.5±.52, Non-experienced: 12.5±.5; p<.001 and maximum hip extension (degrees (Experienced: 39.2 ± 1.3, Non-experienced: 34.28±3.2; p<.001. Also were significant differences in the second phase duration in both legs (p<.05. Conclusions: Maximum instep soccer kick show significant differences between groups of different level only in non-dominant leg.

  9. 21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor notification. ...donation of blood or blood components that the donor should not donate in...donation of blood or blood components that the autologous donor should not donate...

  10. Childhood Obesity & Dental Disease: Common Causes, Common Solutions. Oral Health & Obesity Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children Now, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Too many California children suffer from high rates of preventable chronic conditions associated with childhood obesity and dental disease. The state is experiencing a crisis in both areas. Fortunately, common factors that contribute to both conditions--including the rates of breastfeeding, access to healthy food and the consumption of…

  11. Living kidney donors and ESRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2015-07-01

    There are more than 325 living kidney donors who have developed end-stage renal disease and have been listed on the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN)/United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) deceased donor kidney wait list. The OPTN/UNOS database records where these kidney donors are listed and, if they donated after April 1994, where that donation occurred. These 2 locations are often not the same. In this commentary, I examine whether a national living donor registry should be created and whether transplantation centers should be notified when one of their living kidney donors develops end-stage renal disease. I consider and refute 5 potential objections to center notification. I explain that transplantation centers should look back at these cases and input data into a registry to attempt to identify patterns that could improve donor evaluation protocols. Creating a registry and mining the information it contains is, in my view, our moral and professional responsibility to future patients and the transplantation endeavor. As individuals and as a community, we need to acknowledge the many unknown risks of living kidney donation and take responsibility for identifying these risks. We then must share information about these risks, educate prospective donors about them, and attempt to minimize them. PMID:25936672

  12. Recruiting unrelated donors for the National Marrow Donor Program.

    OpenAIRE

    Yanke, D. R.

    1990-01-01

    Medical advances have made bone marrow transplantation the treatment of choice for certain hematologic diseases. For those patients eligible for a marrow transplant only about 30 percent find an HLA-compatible match within their families. Studies indicate that unrelated volunteers are willing to donate their marrow. The National Marrow Donor Program was formed in 1986 as a result of a federal contract. This group is a network of donor centers, transplant centers, and collection centers. The C...

  13. Donor milk: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliani F

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Francesca Giuliani,1 Ilaria Rovelli,1 Chiara Peila,1 Stefania Alfonsina Liguori,2 Enrico Bertino,1 Alessandra Coscia1 1SCDU Neonatologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Pediatriche e dell'Adolescenza, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy; 2SC Neonatologia, Ospedale Maria Vittoria, Torino, Italy Abstract: Mother's own milk is widely recognized as the optimal feeding for term infants, but increasing evidence exists of its benefits also for sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units. However, the nutritional needs for appropriate growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of such a particular population of infants should be attentively evaluated, considering also the indication to an appropriate fortification of human milk. The target is to achieve growth potential for preterm newborns while ensuring good metabolic outcomes and normal neurological development. When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, donor human milk (DHM represents the second best choice and, although somewhat modified by the Holder pasteurization process, it preserves many benefits when compared to formula, as documented by more and more reports, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analyses published in the past few years. Evidence exists of the protection exerted by DHM from necrotizing enterocolitis, while further studies are required to look at possible beneficial effects regarding infections, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, long-term cardiovascular risk factors, feeding tolerance, neurological outcome, and allergy. Finally, the concern that the use of DHM might decrease preterm infant breastfeeding is being raised. Conversely, publications exist showing that the use of DHM in the neonatal unit increases breastfeeding rates at discharge for infants of very low birth weight. Keywords: human milk, preterm infant feeding, milk bank, breast milk, mother's own milk, pasteurized human milk, fortification

  14. Children's Actions when Experiencing Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overlien, Carolina; Hyden, Margareta

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is, by analysing children's discourses, to investigate their actions or absence of actions during a domestic violence episode. The empirical data are recorded group therapy sessions and individual interviews with children who have grown up experiencing their fathers' violence against their mothers. The analysis shows that…

  15. Preparing Experienced Elementary Teachers as Mathematics Specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Susan D.

    2010-01-01

    High quality teaching is critical to student learning, yet takes considerable time to develop in particular content areas. Students in high-poverty, urban settings are less likely to encounter experienced and trained teachers. Administrators from a large school district and university mathematics education faculty partnered and attempted to…

  16. The New Era of Treatment for Obesity and Metabolic Disorders: Evidence and Expectations for Gut Microbiome Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, Thilini N.; Chiavaroli, Valentina; Holland, David J.; Cutfield, Wayne S.; O'Sullivan, Justin M.

    2016-01-01

    Key Points The microbiome has been implicated in the development of obesity.Conventional therapeutic methods have limited effectiveness for the treatment of obesity and prevention of related complications.Gut microbiome transplantation may represent an alternative and effective therapy for the treatment of obesity. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Despite a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and growing treatment options, a significant proportion of obese patients do not respond to treatment. Recently, microbes residing in the human gastrointestinal tract have been found to act as an “endocrine” organ, whose composition and functionality may contribute to the development of obesity. Therefore, fecal/gut microbiome transplantation (GMT), which involves the transfer of feces from a healthy donor to a recipient, is increasingly drawing attention as a potential treatment for obesity. Currently the evidence for GMT effectiveness in the treatment of obesity is preliminary. Here, we summarize benefits, procedures, and issues associated with GMT, with a special focus on obesity. PMID:26925392

  17. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tolerate that better than a kidney from an older donor. But our routine is to try to ... A few programs in the country will transplant older recipients. We did have a historian out there ...

  18. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medical care. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. Good evening, I’m Dr. John Colonna, the ... donor, my life really hasn’t changed. My health is just as good now as it ever ...

  19. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that would be removed. A patient who had chronic infections in one of their kidneys, we would ... The recipient, by definition, had end-stage kidney disease and certainly can’t ever be a donor, ...

  20. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hospitals in the America for patients with kidney disease, and only one other hospital in the State ... absolute disqualifiers for a potential donor; serious medical condition, such as HIV positive status or diabetes or ...

  1. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... choose one donor over another? There are several factors go into that. If somebody’s fortunate enough to ... concerned that down -- we don’t know what health problems that person might develop down the road, ...

  2. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... so, what is the risk?” There have been deaths from donor kidney removal. They’re very rare. ... life? Is kidney function still normal?” That’s a good question. As soon as two weeks after you ...

  3. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Once a child is, you know, kind of adolescent age, it’s really the same as doing a ... that would make the difference for us. Very young donors such as -- we would never take anyone ...

  4. Why Minority Donors Are Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Why Donate RELATED INFORMATION Minority Focused Grantee Publications Organ Donation Process Enrolling as a Donor Trying to Save ... transplantation for everyone. > More about African Americans and organ donation > More about Asians, and Native Hawaiians and other ...

  5. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... first the potential donor meets with a social worker and a psychologist, and there are also some ... iliac vein of the recipient actually has the big clamp on it, and you can see the ...

  6. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Carolina. Nationally recognized for quality and innovation, Sentara employs over 15,000 people and operates more than ... donor, Anna, a question that pertains to having children. “What was your understanding about being able to ...

  7. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... process, first the potential donor meets with a social worker and a psychologist, and there are also ... shown to have high, what we call “burst pressure,” so they secure the vessels well, and we ...

  8. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kidney is safe. It has an excellent safety record both here and nationwide. To ensure that, we ... donor, my life really hasn’t changed. My health is just as good now as it ever ...

  9. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... person who is going to donate. So after discharge, kidney donors generally take about ten days to ... can be used. In what we call a zero antigen mismatch, which is a perfect match kidney, ...

  10. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on living donor kidney transplant surgery. Please feel free to e-mail questions as we go on. ... we can pass instruments that allow us to free up the kidney. Here’s a view from inside ...

  11. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in animal models and have shown to have high, what we call “burst pressure,” so they secure ... a living kidney. Deceased donor kidneys at about five years. We talk about five year survival and ...

  12. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For the past two years, “U.S. News” and “World Report” has recognized Norfolk general as one of ... an acceptable candidate. This shows our screening process, first the potential donor meets with a social worker ...

  13. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery Sentara Norfolk General Hospital, Norfolk, Virginia March 25, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” webcast presentation presented by Sentara Healthcare. ...

  14. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with the donor that really was the main source. Otherwise these patients are screened very carefully medically ... to learn more. Just click on the “Request information” button on your webcast screen and open the ...

  15. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the laparoscopic approach to donor nephrectomies in 1999. My partner, Dr. Fabrizio, brought this technique to us ... off of work for a little while and my child is grown and I don’t have ...

  16. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... donor recipient, Anna donating to Sarah. The program, kidney transplantation at Norfolk General was started in 1972. Since that time, over 1,800 kidneys have been transplanted, and 441 of these have ...

  17. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nationwide. To ensure that, we take every step possible to make sure that the potential donor is ... fact that the space is smaller? Is it possible to transplant an adult kidney to a child?” ...

  18. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... speed things up, and because I’m so young they were pushing for it for us so. ... that would make the difference for us. Very young donors such as -- we would never take anyone ...

  19. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... good the next day, because all of a sudden, all the toxins in their bloodstream are being ... that would make the difference for us. Very young donors such as -- we would never take anyone ...

  20. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spread much at all, so it has little risk of damaging other tissues. But it does a ... donor, particularly because they’re at long-term risks for health problems such as diabetes, which in ...

  1. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... And a question for our donor, Anna. “Anna, thinking back over the course after surgery, how long ... Once a child is, you know, kind of adolescent age, it’s really the same as doing a ...

  2. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 800 kidneys have been transplanted, and 441 of these have been living donor transplants, and that will ... John Hopkins, and we have done hundreds of these since then. The procedure is beneficial to patients ...

  3. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... was no benefit to that, and at a finite risk to the patient. There are some patients ... a transplanted kidney? That’s one of the key differences between deceased donor kidneys and a living kidney. ...

  4. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on potential donors?” The answer to that is, “Yes.” We look closely not at the weight but ... third and people get transplanted that way. So, yes, there are ways to make it so a ...

  5. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... artery. The smaller artery in this donor is already done up at the top there. And we’ ... kidney into the bladder. And this kidney is already making urine really literally within a few minutes ...

  6. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of work for a little while and my child is grown and I don’t have to ... donor, Anna, a question that pertains to having children. “What was your understanding about being able to ...

  7. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... process, first the potential donor meets with a social worker and a psychologist, and there are also ... sometimes six weeks. Long-term, really the only issue is just taking care of their bodies. We ...

  8. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with the donor that really was the main source. Otherwise these patients are screened very carefully medically ... here. And there is quite a bit of information now coming out in studies that preemptive living ...

  9. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... d like to celebrate here the two real stars of our webcast today, Anna and Sarah, who ... so, what is the risk?” There have been deaths from donor kidney removal. They’re very rare. ...

  10. Donor Specific Antibodies after Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Platt, Jeffrey L.; Cascalho, Marilia

    2011-01-01

    The detection of donor specific antibodies after organ transplantation might provide an incisive way to monitor allo-specific immunity and predict graft outcome. Still, the availability of new assays for these antibodies prompts us to pose some questions about results that might be observed. These questions include whether the antibodies detected in the blood are a sensitive measure of alloimmunity, whether the detected antibodies are truly specific for the donor and whether they are noxious ...

  11. Semen donors and STD screening.

    OpenAIRE

    Craig, J. M.; Barratt, C L; Kinghorn, G. R.

    1997-01-01

    AIM: The British Andrology Society recommends screening semen donors for sexually transmitted infections to minimise the risk of pathogen transmission to the mother and fetus. The aim was to review recent findings of semen donor screening and, if appropriate, recommend changes to the screening protocol. SUBJECTS: 175 consecutive men attending for STD screening between January 1992 and December 1995 who had been preselected by the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology as suitable semen dono...

  12. Obesity in children

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is the result of long term energy imbalances, where daily energy intake exceeds daily energy expenditure. Along with long term health problems, obesity in children is associated with short term psychosocial problems, including social marginalisation, low self esteem, and impaired quality of life.Most obese adolescents stay obese as adults.

  13. Obesity and fracture risk

    OpenAIRE

    Gonnelli, Stefano; Caffarelli, Carla; Nuti, Ranuccio

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and osteoporosis are two common diseases with an increasing prevalence and a high impact on morbidity and mortality. Obese women have always been considered protected against osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. However, several recent studies have challenged the widespread belief that obesity is protective against fracture and have suggested that obesity is a risk factor for certain fractures.

  14. An Investigation of Post-Traumatic Growth Experiences Among Living Kidney Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucetin, L; Bozoklar, C A; Yanik, O; Tekin, S; Tuncer, M; Demirbas, A

    2015-06-01

    More than 1 million patients are estimated to have undergone transplantation in the past years. In recent years, living-donor kidney transplantation accounted for more than 50% of all transplantations. Kidney transplantation from living donors is regarded as a contradictory case to the "do no harm" principle as a major surgical intervention is performed on a normal and healthy person at the expense of recovery of the organ recipient. The purpose of this study was to investigate positive psychological experiences, specifically post-traumatic growth (PTG), among living kidney donors. The sample consisted of a total of 184 kidney donors. The age of donors ranged between 21-76 (mean, 50.76; SD, 10.93). In this study 67.9% of donors were female. The recipients on dialysis group had higher scores than the recipients who did not have dialysis; the mean difference was significant on the subscales of change in life philosophy, change in relationships, change in self-perception, and in the PTGI score. The donors with higher education levels received higher scores on the subscale of change in relationships in comparison with donors with low education. The donors who were married and older than 51 years had higher scores than donors who were not married or younger on the subscale of change in self-perception. This is a single-center study; this center performs more than 500 kidney transplantations per year. There is a good system and experience at each step before and after transplantation for donor and recipient and relatives. It is a really big potential trauma to donate a kidney to your relative; you can change this negative effect to a positive effect with a good system. The present study also showed that when compared with the scale's absolute midpoint, kidney donors in the study sample experienced moderate-to-high levels of PTG. PMID:26093699

  15. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... further medical tests such as EKG and basic X-rays and blood work and urine tests are done. ... such as HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some ...

  16. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some of these conditions. And once we’ ... to three days until they can eat solid foods. A few images of the procedure show this ...

  17. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... such as HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some ... if they were, let’s say, to develop a cancer in one of their kidneys, and certainly that ...

  18. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... one of the 50 best hospitals in the America for patients with kidney disease, and only one ... diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some of these conditions. And once we’ ...

  19. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... such as HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some ... if they were, let’s say, to develop a cancer in one of their kidneys, and certainly that ...

  20. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medical condition, such as HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity ... long-term risks for health problems such as diabetes, which in turn can cause kidney disease, but ...

  1. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some of these conditions. And once we’ ... problems such as diabetes, which in turn can cause kidney disease, but also because of risks perioperatively ...

  2. Obesity and Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gribovskaja-Rupp, Irena; Kosinski, Lauren; Ludwig, Kirk A

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for colorectal cancer based on its molecular and metabolic effects on insulin and IGF-1, leptin, adipocytokines, and sex hormones. Obese men have a higher risk of colorectal cancer compared with normal weight men, but the association between obesity and rectal cancer is weaker than with colon cancer. There is a weaker association between obesity and colon cancer in women than in men, and no appreciable association between obesity and rectal cancer in women. Although o...

  3. Behavioral treatment of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Táki Athanássios Cordas; Ruth Fabbri Ramos Ascencio

    2006-01-01

    Great population studies do not confirm the hypothesis that atypical personality of obese would exist. Obeses in the generalpopulation do not present more psychological disturbs thanthe ones that are not obeses. Obeses adolescents and adultsare discriminated in their academic and professional lifes. Thissocial, cultural, economic and affective impoverishment seemsto be directly related to the gravity of their obesity, what means,higher the ICM (Index of Corporal Mass), bigger are thepsycholog...

  4. Obesity and cholangiocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Parsi, Mansour A.

    2013-01-01

    It is estimated that about half of the population in developed countries are either overweight or obese. In some developing nations obesity rates have increased to surpass those seen in Western countries. This rate increase in obesity has many implications as obesity has been associated with numerous negative health effects including increased risks of hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, liver disease, apnea, and some cancer types. Obesity is now considered to be one of th...

  5. Experiencing and coping with psychological trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Bizjak, Manca

    2012-01-01

    The emphasis of this diploma thesis is on experiencing and coping with posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological trauma can do a lot of harm to a person and can have physiological, emotional, cognitive and behavioral effects. If traumatic event is too intense, it can lead to a posttraumatic stress disorder which can have negative impact on every aspect of person's life. Therefore it is crucial that they search for help and start a new life. The aim of this diploma thesis is to present...

  6. Patients experiencing local anaesthesia and hip surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson-Mauleon, Annika; Palo-Bengtsson, Liisa; Ekman, Sirkka-Liisa

    2007-01-01

    Aims and objectives. The aim of this study was to show what the experience of local anaesthesia and a surgical situation meant to patients. Background. Many patients who receive local anaesthesia will remain awake during surgery. The very fact of staying awake causes psychological and psychosocial needs. These needs must be met and it is therefore important to identify them. Design/method. Seven patients (aged 61–79) experiencing local anaesthesia and hip surge...

  7. Burnout among Low and High Experienced Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedehhava Mousavy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Burnout is a serious psychological syndrome that can affect not only an individual’s well-being, but also the functioning of whole organisations, such as schools. It is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and decreased personal accomplishment.The level of burnout among teachers in the field of education has a negative impact on student success. The present investigation examines the level of burn out among high and low experienced teachers. It focused on a group of English teachers from different nationalities: Iranian, and Malaysian at UPM to examine if there is any relation between burnout and experience level. The sample consisted of 30 English teachers. Two instruments namely, The Maslach Burnout Inventory and Demographic Questionnaire were used to collect data. Data analysis revealed that there is no significant difference in depersonalization and personal accomplishment scores between low and high experienced teachers. But the result of this study also revealed that there is a significant difference in Emotional Exhaustion scores between low and high experienced teachers. Further research is required to explore the roots and the causes of burnout.Keywords: teacher burnout, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment

  8. Eating habits and obesity among Lebanese university students

    OpenAIRE

    Abdallah Abbass; Achkar Alice; Yahia Najat; Rizk Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background In the past year Lebanon has been experiencing a nutritional transition in food choices from the typical Mediterranean diet to the fast food pattern. As a consequence, the dietary habits of young adults have been affected; thus, overweight and obesity are increasingly being observed among the young. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity on a sample of students from the Lebanese American University (in Beirut) and to examine their e...

  9. Donor heart preservation and perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Wagner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Donor heart preservation and perfusionFlorian M. WagnerDept. of Cardiovascular Surgery, University Heart Center Hamburg, Germany[Applied Cardiopulmonary Pathophysiology 15: 198-206, 2011] AbstractDue to its technically simple and easily reproducible nature cold static preservation is still the current gold standard for myocardial protection in between donor explantation and recipient implantation. It allows “safe” overall ischemic periods of up to 4 hours with a primary graft failure rate less than 2%. Additional measures such as second rinsing or leucocyte depleted in-situ reperfusion allow to extend the ischemic tolerance in ideal donor hearts to 6 hours. Recent technological progress and research improved results of continuous warm, blood based in-vitro perfusion reducing the necessity of myocardial ischemia to the surgical procedures of ex- and implantation. First clinical experiences with this challenging but also very expensive technology indicate its safety and efficacy with at least similar results as cold static preservation even with extended transport times. Due to possible donor evaluation or even resuscitation strategies during ex-vivo perfusion, it offers furthermore promising potential to compensate the ever increasing donor risk profile and could also help to increase availability of transplantable donor hearts. As of December 2011 a German multicenter prospective registry study will start with the goal to evaluate efficacy and outcome of this method in 250 heart transplants using donor organs with extended criteria or expected transport times of >3 hours. Expected duration of this project is 2 years and final analyses of collected data will help to clarify if application of this complex and expensive technology is ultimately beneficial and justified.

  10. Management of cadaveric organ donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandurovi? M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Because the supply of cadaveric organ donors is limited and their ICU management is complex, a multidisciplinary, well-coordinated, and institutionally supported approach to management is essential to ensure the maintenance of the current supply and to increase the future supply of organs and tissues that are suitable for transplantation. The potential organ donor is at high risk for instability as a direct consequence of the loss of physiologic homeostatic mechanisms that are dependent on functioning of the central nervous system. The keys to successful ICU management of the potential organ donor include a team approach that is focused on the anticipation of complications, appropriate physiologic monitoring, aggressive life support, with frequent reassessment and titration of therapy.

  11. Obesity in children

    OpenAIRE

    Canoy, D; Bundred, P

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Obesity is the result of long-term energy imbalances, where daily energy intake exceeds daily energy expenditure. Along with long-term health problems, obesity in children may also be associated with psychosocial problems, including social marginalisation, low self-esteem, and impaired quality of life. Most obese adolescents stay obese as adults. Obesity is increasing among children and adolescents, with 16.8% of boys and 15.2% of girls in the UK aged 2 to 15 years obese in 2008...

  12. Adolescent obesity and future substance use: Incorporating the psychosocial context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, H Isabella; Grella, Christine E; Chung, Paul J

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of work has shown that obese adolescents are at risk of engaging in problematic substance use, but mixed findings highlight the complexity of the relationship. Incorporating the psychosocial context into this research may inform past discrepancies. The current study assessed whether obese adolescents had a higher likelihood of experiencing a psychosocial context that predicted problematic substance use in young adulthood. Latent class analysis on 10,637 adolescents from The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) identified four psychosocial classes in adolescence: Adjusted, Deviant Peer/Victimization, Moderate Depression, and Maladjusted. Obese adolescents were more likely to belong to the Maladjusted class, characterized by higher levels of depression and deviant peer affiliation. Those in the Maladjusted class had the second highest levels of cigarette smoking and marijuana use in young adulthood. Obese adolescents' psychosocial context should be considered in future research linking obesity and substance use. PMID:26349450

  13. [The safety of blood donors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courchelle, J; Baudry, C; Bourboul, M-C; Coudurier, N

    2011-04-01

    For a long time, safety has been patient-centred and taken for granted. Indeed, it needed a dramatic accident and the study of post-donation information for the question to be looked into again. However, under various statutory, organizational aspects and the professionalization of the staffs, safety has always accompanied the donor throughout its course of donation. Self-sufficiency is, certainly, the first mission of the Établissement Français du Sang: while we have to supply patients with sufficient blood products complying with quality criteria, we must not however forget the essential respect for the safety of the donor. PMID:21440480

  14. Marrow transplants from unrelated donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J A; Mickelson, E; Petersdorf, E W; Anderson, J; Sierra, J; Martin, P J; Anasetti, C

    1995-01-01

    Unrelated-donor transplants have been a realistic option for an increasing number of patients, and the results of these transplants are favorable for patients with good prognostic features. Timing of the transplant early in the course of disease, before malignant clones become resistant to therapy and while the patient remains in good clinical condition, is a critical variable. Further improvements in the safety and efficacy of unrelated-donor transplants will require new approaches to GVHD prevention, better supportive care, acceleration of immune reconstitution and facilitation of tolerance induction without loss of the graft-versus-leukemia effect. PMID:8794274

  15. Fat chance! Obesity and the transition from unemployment to employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliendo, Marco; Lee, Wang-Sheng

    2013-03-01

    This paper focuses on estimating the magnitude of any potential weight discrimination by examining whether obese job applicants in Germany get treated or behave differently from non-obese applicants. Based on two waves of rich survey data from the IZA Evaluation dataset, which includes measures that control for education, demographic characteristics, labor market history, psychological factors and health, we estimate differences in job search behavior and labor market outcomes between obese/overweight and normal weight individuals. Unlike other observational studies which are generally based on obese and non-obese individuals who might already be at different points in the job ladder (e.g., household surveys), in our data, individuals are newly unemployed and all start from the same point. The only subgroup we find in our data experiencing any possible form of negative labor market outcomes is obese women. Despite making more job applications and engaging more in job training programs, we find some indications that they experienced worse (or at best similar) employment outcomes than normal weight women. Obese women who found a job also had significantly lower wages than normal weight women. PMID:22391338

  16. 75 FR 58400 - Donor Management Research: Improvements in Clinical Management of Deceased Organ Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ...2002, HRSA has funded the Clinical Interventions to Increase Organ...organs, maintaining donor clinical stability and optimizing methods...donation after circulatory death donors, the CIOP Program has...furthered knowledge regarding clinical management of donors,...

  17. Physics Climate as Experienced by LGBT+ Physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Elena

    2012-02-01

    In 2009, Elena Long created the LGBT+ Physicists website (http://lgbtphysicists.x10hosting.com) as a warehouse for resources useful for sexual and gender minorities working in physics. This resource has grown to include networking resources, lists of LGBT-friendly universities and localities, recommendations for enacting positive change in physics communities, and out-reach to other STEM-oriented LGBT organizations. This has been possible in large part by the dynamic community of LGBT+ physicists and allies looking to make physics more welcoming towards our community. In 2011, Elena used hir position as Member at Large on the executive committee of the Forum of Graduate Student Affairs (FGSA) to conduct a climate survey that included, among other things, the first serious look at LGBT+ demographics in physics. The survey focused particularly on issues of language heard and harassment experienced by physicists and was broken down into categories based on race, physical and mental ability, gender, and sexuality. Furthermore, it examined the outcomes of experienced harassment and the reasons for when harassment was not reported. Due to the nature of the study, overlapping demographics, especially ``multiple minorities,'' were also explored. This talk will give a brief history of the LGBT+ Physicists resource as well as an overview of the FGSA study.

  18. Experiencing Liveness in Contemporary Performance : interdisciplinary perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    This volume brings together dynamic perspectives on the concept of liveness in the performing arts, engaging with the live through the particular analytical focus of audiences and experience. The status and significance of the live in performance has become contested: perceived as variously as a marker of ontological difference, a promotional slogan, or a mystical evocation of cultural value. Moving beyond debates about the relationship between the live and the mediated, this collection considers what we can know and say about liveness in terms of processes of experiencing and processes of making. Drawing together contributions from theatre, music, dance, and performance art, it takes an interdisciplinary approach in asking not what liveness is, but how it matters and to whom. The book invites readers to consider how liveness is produced through processes of audiencing - as spectators bring qualities of (a)liveness into being through the nature of their attention - and how it becomes materialized in acts of performance, acts of making, acts of archiving, and acts of remembering. Theoretical chapters and practice-based reflections explore liveness, eventness and nowness as key concepts in a range of topics such as affect, documentation, embodiment, fandom, and temporality, showing how the relationship between audience and event is rarely singular and more often malleable and multiple. With its focus on experiencing liveness, this collection will be of interest to disciplines including performance, audience and cultural studies, visual arts, cinema, and sound technologies.

  19. Lessons from a recent adoption study to identify some of the service needs of, and issues for, donor offspring wanting to know about their donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Marilyn

    2002-02-01

    This paper draws on some of the major findings of a recent large-scale study of over 400 adult adopted people, who either searched for origins information or were sought out by birth relatives, to identify the potential profile of donor offspring seeking origins information. It is predicted that more women than men will search, that people who search will be in their twenties or older, and that the age at which searching begins may be delayed by the effects of the social stigma attached to gamete donation and by the greater likelihood of accidental disclosure in adulthood resulting from the higher incidence of secrecy about donor assisted conception. Two of the single triggers for adopted people to begin searching (as opposed to multiple triggers) - becoming a parent and the death of adoptive parents - may also be among the triggers for donor offspring to begin searching. The search may be complicated further when undertaken after accidental disclosure. Finally, it is argued that some donor offspring will experience a normative urge for identity completion and seeking relationships similar to that experienced by adopted people. This urge may stem from the fact that some donor offspring attach an identity to their donor that extends beyond needing factual details about their physical characteristics (though not necessarily a desire to establish a relationship). Some donor offspring are likely to encounter a desire for face-to-face contact, regardless of whether a face-to-face meeting was the original intention. The need for services to help donor offspring, donors, family members and others affected by the situation is identified. PMID:11897902

  20. Personality Characteristics And Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asthana Sunita

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Whether certain personality characteristics of obese women make them prone towards psychological problem? Objective: To assess certain personality characteristics of obese women. Study design: Cross-sectional community based study. Setting: Affluent localities of Varanasi city. Participants: Women above 15 years of age. Statistical Analysis: Mean, S.D and ‘t’ test. Results: On 16 PF scale obese women were found more reserved, critical, depressed, worried and troubled than the non-obese women. Obese also manifested subsequently less felling of contentment, happiness satisfaction with life experiences, low sense of achievement on PGI Well-Being. Obese women showed more distress and apprehension over their negative evaluation and distressed with day to day Conclusion: Obese women evidenced significantly more neurotic than non- obese women.

  1. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  2. Obesity and health (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity increases a person's risk of illness and death due to diabetes, stroke, heart disease, hypertension, high cholesterol, and kidney and gallbladder disease. Obesity may increase the risk for some types of ...

  3. Obesity and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Diabetes Heart Disease Hepatitis HIV/AIDS Immunizations Infant Heath & Mortality Mental Health Obesity ... and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 78 percent are overweight or obese, as compared to only 60.3 percent of the non- ...

  4. Obesity: Pathophysiology and Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pathophysiological mechanisms such as impaired brain circuit regulation and neuroendocrine hormone dysfunction. Dieting and physical exercise offer the mainstays of obesity treatment, and anti-obesity drugs may be taken in conjunction to reduce appetite or fat absorption. Bariatric surgeries may be performed in overtly obese patients to lessen stomach volume and nutrient absorption, and induce faster satiety. This review provides a summary of literature on the pathophysiological studies of obesity and discusses relevant therapeutic strategies for managing obesity.

  5. KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION FROM DONORS AFTER CARDIAC DEATH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Rozental

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available From 668 kidney transplantations performed during the period 2000–2005 68 grafts were recovered from donors after cardiac death and 176 from donors with confirmed brain death. Early results (number of primarily non-functioning grafts, rates of delayed graft function and acute rejections were similar in both groups. 5-year patient survival was 85% from donors after cardiac death and 88% from donors with confirmed brain death. 5-year graft survival was 77% and 85%, respectively. Results showed that the use of kidney grafts recovered from donors after cardiac death is valuable additional source of donor organs. 

  6. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that would make the difference for us. Very young donors such as -- we would never take anyone who is less than 18. But say a person who is in their early 20s, we may be concerned that down -- we don’t know what health problems that person might develop down the road, ...

  7. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... donors that they’re going to feel pretty bad the day after surgery, because we can’t make them feel any better, whereas the recipient, like Sarah said, is going to feel really good the next day, because all of a sudden, ...

  8. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Once a child is, you know, kind of adolescent age, it’s really the same as doing a ... very small children, they’re done routinely with adult kidneys. ... the difference for us. Very young donors such as -- we would never take anyone ...

  9. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medical care. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. Good evening, I’m Dr. John Colonna, the ... donor, my life really hasn’t changed. My health is just as good now as it ever ...

  10. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... donor recipient, Anna donating to Sarah. The program, kidney transplantation at Norfolk General was started in 1972. Since that time, over 1,800 kidneys have been transplanted, and 441 of these have been ... here. And, again, this is the renal vein or vein to the kidney. And again, ...

  11. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... were coming to dialysis. But after a kidney transplant, it’s really less than two, frequently one, which is normal. Dr. Rust, is it possible that the closer the match of the donor to the recipient that the recipient could have fewer drugs to take to keep from rejecting the kidney. ...

  12. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... donor where a kidney was transported perhaps across country or even from one country to another. Typically, we try to get a ... our position is. A few programs in the country will transplant older recipients. We did have a ...

  13. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... recipient. So for the donor, if the surgery starts at 7:30, they’re usually in the ... 30. And for the recipient the surgery generally starts about 10:00 o’clock because we have ...

  14. Turning Students into Alumni Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayman, Robbie L; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Results of a national survey indicate that private institutions orient students to be future donors, but current students are rarely involved in institutional advancement activities. Presently, only limited collaboration occurs between student affairs and development, although both offices support cooperation. (Author/LSR)

  15. Single-Donor Leukophoretic Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    Leukocyte separation-and-retrieval device utilizes granulocyte and monocyte property of leukoadhesion to glass surfaces as basis of their separation from whole blood. Device is used with single donor technique and has application in biological and chemical processing, veterinary research and clinical care.

  16. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Well there have been kidney transplants done as long as 72 hours after a kidney was removed from the donor. ... is a question for our recipient. Sarah, How long did it take for you to begin to feel like your kidney was working normally? Well, it’s funny, even right after the ...

  17. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an adult kidney to a child?” Certainly. Our team here works with children’s hospital the King’s Daughters with their ... members of the team. We have a great team here at Norfolk General, particularly Amy who works so hard with the living donors, but really ...

  18. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an adult kidney to a child?” Certainly. Our team here works with children’s hospital the King’s Daughters with their ... members of the team. We have a great team here at Norfolk General, particularly Amy who works so hard with the living donors, but really ...

  19. Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have several questions that we wanted to address. One is from Nancy. The question is, “Is there a weight restriction on potential donors?” The answer to that is, “Yes.” We look closely not at the weight but the body mass index, which is a formula derived from the weight and height of the ...

  20. Which incision is better for living-donor right hepatectomy? Midline, J-shaped, or Mercedes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirbas, T; Bulutcu, F; Dayangac, M; Yaprak, O; Guler, N; Oklu, L; Akyildiz, M; Altaca, G; Tokat, Y; Yuzer, Y

    2013-01-01

    Incision-related morbidity for donors is a major concern in living-donor right hepatectomy (LDRH). Open approaches use midline, J-shaped, and Mercedes incisions for LDRH. We retrospectively studied 95 consecutive donors who underwent LDRH between January 2009 and November 2010. They underwent midline (n = 32), J-shaped (n = 28), or Mercedes (n = 35) incisions. We studied resection times, perioperative bleeding, postoperative hospital stay, and postoperative pain assessed by the visual analog scale (VAS) and by analgesic requirements as well as laboratory data and complications. Postoperative analgesic requirements and postoperative VAS scores were significantly lower in the midline group (P < .05) upon univariate but not multivariate analyses. The postoperative complications as well as other parameters were similar between the groups. In conclusion, compared with a J-type shaped or not for Mercedes incision, a donor hepatectomy can be satisfactorily performed via a midline incision by experienced surgeons without increased risk. PMID:23375303

  1. Canine and feline obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Palmer, Clare; Corr, Sandra; Astrup, Arne; Bjørnvad, Charlotte Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen a drastic increase in the rates of overweight and obesity among people living in some developed nations. There has also been increased concern over obesity in companion animals. In the latest article in Veterinary Record's series on One Health, Peter Sandøe and colleagues...... argue that the relationship between obesity in people and in companion animals is closer and more complex than previously thought, and that obesity should be treated as a One Health problem....

  2. Canine and feline obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Palmer, Clare; Corr, Sandra; Astrup, Arne; Bjørnvad, Charlotte Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen a drastic increase in the rates of overweight and obesity among people living in some developed nations. There has also been increased concern over obesity in companion animals. In the latest article in Veterinary Record's series on One Health, Peter Sandøe and colleagues...... argue that the relationship between obesity in people and in companion animals is closer and more complex than previously thought, and that obesity should be treated as a One Health problem....

  3. OSTEOARTHRITIS AND OBESITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Strebkova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The review highlights the impact of obesity on the development, progression, and severity of osteoarthritis (OA and discusses treatments for obesity in this disease. Weight loss in obese patients with OA is shown to lead to a reduction in clinical manifestations. Despite a great deal of performed investigations of the impact of non-drug therapy for obesity (diet, physical activity, their results are contradictory and call for further investigation

  4. Environmental Perturbations: Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Shore, Stephanie A

    2011-01-01

    Obesity currently affects about one third of the U.S. population, while another one third is overweight. The importance of obesity for certain conditions such as heart disease and type 2 diabetes is well appreciated. The effects of obesity on the respiratory system have received less attention and are the subject of this chapter. Obesity alters the static mechanic properties of the respiratory system leading to a reduction in the functional residual capacity (FRC) and the expiratory reserve v...

  5. Obesity and metabolic inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    Obesity epidemics affect 35.7% of adults and approximately 17% of children in the United States. Obesity has been associated with several health disorders, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, fatty liver disease, and certain forms of cancer. Medical costs associated with obesity were estimated at $147 billion in 2008. Chronic tissue inflammation, particularly in adipose tissue, has been considered as a key underlying mechanism for the development of obesity-related metabolic syn...

  6. Taste and obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Hladik, Claude Marcel; Cohen, Emmanuel; Pasquet, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the links between taste perception and obesity would help authorities cope with obesity, which diminishes the health of human populations. This has been highlighted by a study of the impact of programs intended to educate obese adolescents about healthy diets (Pasquet et al., 2007)1. We present and discuss the results of this study in this chapter. In order to analyze the relationships between taste perceptions and obesity, we will (I) present the main aspects of taste perceptio...

  7. Digging deeper into obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Ahima, Rexford S.

    2011-01-01

    The growing problem of obesity is associated with multiple morbidities, including increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, sleep apnea, and cancer. Obesity promotes disability, decreases productivity, and shortens life span. Although much attention has been focused on diet and exercise, these strategies alone are not effective in preventing obesity and maintaining weight loss. Moreover, the development of pharmacological approaches for obesity treatment has been dogged by poor...

  8. Obesity-Related Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Re, Richard N

    2009-01-01

    Obesity-associated arterial hypertension is characterized by activation of the sympathetic nervous system, activation of the renin-angiotensin system, and sodium retention, among other abnormalities. In this review, the following 3 facets of the obesity/hypertension nexus will be discussed: the potential mechanisms by which obesity can lead to elevated arterial pressure, the interaction of obesity with the sequelae of hypertension, and the therapies that are believed to optimally treat obesit...

  9. Gastrointestinal Morbidity in Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, Andres; Camilleri, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a complex disease that results from increased energy intake and decreased energy expenditure. The gastrointestinal system plays a key role in the pathogenesis of obesity and facilitates caloric imbalance. Changes in gastrointestinal hormones and the inhibition of mechanisms that curtail caloric intake result in weight gain. It is not clear if the gastrointestinal role in obesity is a cause or an effect of this disease. Obesity is often associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM...

  10. Obesity and craniopharyngioma

    OpenAIRE

    Bruzzi Patrizia; Iughetti Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract An epidemic of pediatric obesity has occurred across the world in recent years. There are subgroups within the population at high-risk of becoming obese and especially of having experience of precocious cardiovascular and metabolic co-morbidities of obesity. One of these subgroups comprises patients treated for childhood cancers and namely survivors of craniopharyngioma. The high incidence of obesity in this group makes these patients an important disease model to better understand t...

  11. Thinking Evolutionarily About Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Genné-Bacon, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are growing worldwide health concerns, yet their causes are not fully understood. Research into the etiology of the obesity epidemic is highly influenced by our understanding of the evolutionary roots of metabolic control. For half a century, the thrifty gene hypothesis, which argues that obesity is an evolutionary adaptation for surviving periods of famine, has dominated the thinking on this topic. Obesity researchers are often not aware that there i...

  12. Predisposition to Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nanna Julie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2012-01-01

    Obesity prevention should remain a priority, even if there is some suggestion that the epidemic may presently have reached a stable level. However, previous interventions have not been effective in preventing overweight and obesity, and at the same time studies suggest that some subgroups are more predisposed to future obesity. The purpose of this paper is to review interventions on obesity prevention published during the past year, and to examine if interventions targeting predisposed groups or...

  13. Obesity and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is more prevalent in obese compared with normal weight subjects. Our aim has been to review current knowledge of the impact of obesity on asthma severity, asthma control, and response to therapy.Several studies have shown that overweight and obesity is associated with more severe asthma and impaired quality of life compared with normal weight individuals. Furthermore, obesity is associated with poorer asthma control, as assessed by asthma control questionnaires, limitations in daily activ...

  14. Obesity in children

    OpenAIRE

    Arteburn, David E

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past decades all over the world. The majority of obesity in adulthood has its origins in childhood which makes obesity a pediatric concern and the period when interventions should be done. Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in adult life and several adverse consequences in childhood like insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, polycystic ovarian syndrome, pulmonary and orthopedic dis...

  15. Obesity : Pathophysiology and Clinical

    OpenAIRE

    Gurevich-Panigrahi, Tatiana; Wiechec, Emilia; Panigrahi, Soumya; Los, Marek Jan

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is an increasingly serious socioeconomic and clinical problem. Between 1/4 - 1/3 of population in the developed countries can be classified as obese. Four major etiological factors for development of obesity are genetic determinants, environmental factors, food intake and exercise. Obesity increases the risk of the development of various pathologic conditions including: insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, endocrine problems, ...

  16. Diets of obese and non-obese children

    OpenAIRE

    Atsuko Satoh; Seiko Fujita; Kazuko Menzawa; Sangun Lee; Masao Miyamoto; Hidatada Sasaki

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To compare diets between obese and non-obese in children. Methods: Thirty-four obese and ten non-obese school children were recruited and their habitual factors of obesity were asked. Intakes of food in the obesity and non-obesity groups were checked using a model nutritional balance chart (MNBC). Results: Average intake ratio of food relative to ideal food intake was significantly higher in the non-obesity group than the obesity group. The relationship between obesity and exercise was s...

  17. The Complexity of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Katti

    2010-01-01

    With Americans fatter and more malnourished than ever--almost two-thirds of the population is considered overweight or obese compared with 56 percent in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and people of color and the poor are the most obese of all--federal and university researchers and outreach workers from various anti-obesity organizations aim to…

  18. Asthma and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ali, Zarqa; Nilas, Lisbeth; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem, and obesity is associated with a high incidence of asthma and poor asthma control. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the current knowledge of the effect on overall asthma control of weight reduction in overweight and obese adults with asthma....

  19. Obesity and respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Zammit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.Keywords: obesity, lung function, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, anesthesia

  20. Childhood Obesity: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…

  1. Parents and Childhood Obesity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... news/Childhood_Obesity_082415.html Parents and Childhood Obesity HealthDay News Video - August 25, 2015 To use ... please enable JavaScript. Play video: Parents and Childhood Obesity For closed captioning, click the CC button on ...

  2. Asthma and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ali, Zarqa; Nilas, Lisbeth; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem, and obesity is associated with a high incidence of asthma and poor asthma control. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the current knowledge of the effect on overall asthma control of weight reduction in overweight and obese adults with asthma.

  3. Obesity and fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Orlandin Premaor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Until recently obesity was believed to be protective against fractures. However, a report from a Fracture Liaison Clinic in the UK (2010 reported a surprisingly high proportion of obese postmenopausal women attending the clinic with fractures, and in the GLOW study (2011, a similar prevalence and incidence of fractures in obese and non-obese postmenopausal women was observed. Subsequently, other studies have demonstrated the importance of obesity in the epidemiology of fractures. Obese women are at increased risk of fracture in ankle, leg, humerus, and vertebral column and at lower risk of wrist, hip and pelvis fracture when compared to non-obese women. In men, it has been reported that multiple rib fractures are associated with obesity. Furthermore, falls appear to play an important role in the pathogenesis of fractures in obese subjects. Regarding hip fracture and major fractures, the FRAX algorithm has proven to be a useful predictor in obese individuals. Obese people are less likely to receive bone protective treatment; they have a longer hospital stay and a lower quality of life both before and after fracture. Moreover, the efficacy of antiresorptive therapies is not well established in obese people. The latter is a field for future research.

  4. Obesity and kidney protection

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Aravind; Biersmith, Michael; Tolouian, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Context: Obesity, both directly and indirectly, increases the risk for a variety of disease conditions including diabetes, hypertension, liver disease, and certain cancers, which in turn, decreases the overall lifespan in both men and women. Though the cardiovascular risks of obesity are widely acknowledged, less often identified is the relationship between obesity and renal function.

  5. Parents and Childhood Obesity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... videos/news/Childhood_Obesity_082415.html Parents and Childhood Obesity HealthDay News Video - August 25, 2015 To use ... page, please enable JavaScript. Play video: Parents and Childhood Obesity For closed captioning, click the CC button on ...

  6. Experienced poker players are emotionally stable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakasuo, Michael; Palomäki, Jussi; Salmela, Mikko

    2014-10-01

    Online poker and poker subcultures have become exceedingly popular. Previous studies assessing experience and skill in poker have revealed that proficiency in emotion regulation is a consequential factor in explaining financial success in the game. We assessed (N=478) the associations between poker players' (recruited from online poker forums) level of poker experience and HEXACO-PI-R personality traits. The results indicate that a predisposition for emotional stability-that is, lower scores on emotionality-is linked to high levels of poker experience. Thus, in order to become a successful and experienced poker player, it helps to be able to "keep cool" under pressure. Further exploratory analyses suggest that players who prefer live play to online play are more likely to be extroverted and open to experiences. The results contribute to the extant literature on individual differences in personality in poker players, and in particular help to fill the interdisciplinary gap between personality and gambling research. PMID:25238100

  7. Forgiveness in Wives Experiencing Domestic Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Sartika

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to describe forgivenessand the factors contribute to it in wives experiencing domestic violence who choose to save their marriages in UPT-P2TP2A Kota Bandung. Descriptive method was employed in this study with 15 participants as the subjects. The data were gathered through forgiveness measurement adopted and based in the forgiveness theory proposed by McCullough. Its reliability score was 0,721. The results of the study revealed that 73, 3% of domestic violence victims who insist to save their marriages did forgive or gave for forgiveness. Among the factors determine the forgiveness, the low Rumination factor as well as high personal and moral commitment, encouraged a wife to forgive. Forgiveness showed by a wife, in some way impacted on the domestic violence doer. It lessened the intensity of the violence.

  8. Employee susceptibility to experiencing job insecurity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leigh-Anne Paul, Dachapalli; Sanjana Brijball, Parumasur.

    Full Text Available Employees attach value to their job features/total job and when they perceive threats to these and experience feelings of powerlessness, their level of job insecurity increases. Since job insecurity is a subjective phenomenon, the study aims to assess who is more susceptible to experiencing job inse [...] curity by assessing biographical correlates. The research adopts a formal, hypothesis-testing approach where quantitative data were collected using a cross-sectional, survey method from a sample of 1620 employees. The results, generated using the ANOVA model, indicate that biographical influences do exist in terms of job insecurity. The implication is that change managers need to take cognisance of these influences and develop suitable strategies for each group to reduce the prevalence of job insecurity. Recommendations are made in this regard.

  9. Maternal compared with paternal donor kidneys are associated with poorer graft outcomes after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai H; McDonald, Stephen P; Coates, Patrick T; Chapman, Jeremy R; Russ, Graeme R; Wong, Germaine

    2016-03-01

    Noninherited maternal human leukocyte antigens may be less detrimental on allograft outcomes after kidney transplantation compared with noninherited paternal antigens, but this association in the era of modern immunosuppression remains unknown. Here we determine the association between parental donor kidneys, acute rejection, and graft failure in primary live-donor parental kidney transplant recipients using data from the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry between 1997 and 2012. Of the 1139 recipients followed for a median of 7.2 years (8588 person-years), 652 received kidneys from maternal donors. Compared with paternal donor kidneys, maternal donor kidneys were associated with a significantly increased risk of acute rejection (adjusted odds ratio 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-2.07) and significant overall graft loss. The latter was confined to recipients who have experienced acute rejection (adjusted hazard ratio 1.60; 95%CI, 1.05-2.43) but not in those who did not experience acute rejection. Thus, our study suggests that recipients of maternal donor kidneys have a greater risk of rejection and graft loss. Hence, clinicians and patients should be cognizant of this association when determining which of the 2 parental donors is most suitable for transplantation. PMID:26880459

  10. Hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic versus standard laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: HARP-trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwayn Ian PJ

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transplantation is the only treatment offering long-term benefit to patients with chronic kidney failure. Live donor nephrectomy is performed on healthy individuals who do not receive direct therapeutic benefit of the procedure themselves. In order to guarantee the donor's safety, it is important to optimise the surgical approach. Recently we demonstrated the benefit of laparoscopic nephrectomy experienced by the donor. However, this method is characterised by higher in hospital costs, longer operating times and it requires a well-trained surgeon. The hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic technique may be an alternative to a complete laparoscopic, transperitoneal approach. The peritoneum remains intact and the risk of visceral injuries is reduced. Hand-assistance results in a faster procedure and a significantly reduced operating time. The feasibility of this method has been demonstrated recently, but as to date there are no data available advocating the use of one technique above the other. Methods/design The HARP-trial is a multi-centre randomised controlled, single-blind trial. The study compares the hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic approach with standard laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. The objective is to determine the best approach for live donor nephrectomy to optimise donor's safety and comfort while reducing donation related costs. Discussion This study will contribute to the evidence on any benefits of hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic versus standard laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. Trial Registration Dutch Trial Register NTR1433

  11. Live Donor Partial Hepatectomy for Liver Transplantation: Is There a Learning Curve?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Saidi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Donor safety is the first priority in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT.Objective: To determine the characteristics and outcome of live liver donors who underwent donor hepatectomyfrom January, 1997 to May, 2007 at Massachusetts General Hospital.Methods: 30 patients underwent LDLT between January, 1997 and May, 2007 at our institution.Results: The type of graft was the right lobe (segments 5-8 in 14, left lobe (segments 2-4 in 4, and left lateralsector (segments 2 and 3 in 12 patients. The mean donor age was 36 (range: 26-57 years. The mean follow-up was 48 (range: 18-120 months. No deaths occurred. Overall, 8 (26.6% patients experienced a total of 14 post-operative complications. Donor complications based on graft type were as follows: left lateralsector (16.7%, left lobe (25%, and right lobe (35.7%. The experience was divided into two periods 1997-2001 (n=15 and 2002-2007 (n=15. Overall complications during 2 periods were 40% and 13.3%, respectively (p<0.001. The incidence of grade III complication also significantly decreased; 66.7% vs 33.3% (p<0.01.Conclusion: Partial hepatectomy in living donors has a learning curve which appears to be approximately 15 cases. This learning curve is not restricted to the surgeons performing the procedure but involves all aspects of patient care.

  12. Influence of donor-donor transport on excitation energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy migration and transfer from acriflavine to rhodamine B and malachite green in poly (methylmethacrylate) have been investigated using the decay function analysis. It is found that the influence of energy migration in energy transfer can be described quite convincingly by making use of the theories of Loring, Andersen and Fayer (LAF) and Huber. At high acceptor concentration direct donor-acceptor transfer occurs through Forster mechanism. (author). 17 refs., 5 figs

  13. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 345 345 Loading... ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  14. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 356 356 ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a ...

  15. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... count__/__total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 345 ... 2011 Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of ...

  16. Danish sperm donors across three decades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Larsen, Peter B; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob

    2013-01-01

    To study the motivation and attitudes toward donor anonymity, economic compensation, and insemination of lesbian and single women among Danish sperm donors in 2012 compared with the two preceding decades.

  17. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 346 346 Loading... ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  18. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... count__/__total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 348 ... 2011 Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of ...

  19. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... count__/__total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 356 ... 2011 Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of ...

  20. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 348 348 Loading... ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  1. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 347 347 ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a ...

  2. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... count__/__total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 349 ... 2011 Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of ...

  3. Live donor transplantation--the incompetent donor: comparative law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfman, Samuel; Shaked, Tali

    2008-12-01

    Informed consent of the patient to medical treatment is an essential prerequisite for any invasive medical procedure. However in emergency cases, when the patient is unable to sign a consent form due to unconsciousness or to psychotic state, than the primary medical consideration shall take place. In such a case, in order to save life or even prevent a major medical hazard to the patient, doctors are allowed, in certain cases and in accordance with well accepted medical practice, to perform invasive procedures, major surgery or risky pharmacological treatment, without the explicit consent of the patient. All the above refers to the cases when avoidance of such non-consented treatment may harm severely the health and wellbeing of the patient and there is no doubt that such treatment is for the ultimate benefit of the patient. The question, however, shall arise when such a medical procedure is not necessarily for the benefit of the patient, but rather for the benefit of somebody else. Such is the case in the transplantation area and the question of living donor-donee relationship. This paper shall analyze the legal situation in cases of non competent donors whose consent cannot be considered legal consent given in full understanding and out of free will. It will also compare three legal systems, the Israeli, the American and the traditional Jewish law, with regard to the different approaches to this human problem, where the autonomy of the donor may be sacrificed for the purpose of saving life of another person. PMID:19202861

  4. Donor Research in Australia: Challenges and Promise

    OpenAIRE

    Masser, Barbara; Smith, Geoff; Williams, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    Donors are the key to the core business of Blood Collection Agencies (BCAs). However, historically, they have not been a focus of research undertaken by these organizations. This model is now changing, with significant donor research groups established in a number of countries, including Australia. Donor research in the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (Blood Service) is concentrated in the Donor and Community Research (DCR) team. Cognizant of the complex and ever-changing landscape with re...

  5. REGGI and the American Rare Donor Program

    OpenAIRE

    Flickinger, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    The American Rare Donor Program (ARDP) was formed in 1998 to provide rare blood units for patients in need. Members of the program identify rare donors and submit donor information for entrance into a database, REGGI. Information on patients in need of rare blood is also submitted and entered into REGGI. REGGI serves to match phenotypes of registered donors with patients having the respective antibodies. A search process for available units ensues, and blood is provided to the patient. This r...

  6. Tele-recruitment for Donor Retention

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Amit; Tiwari, A.

    2012-01-01

    Blood transfusion services are the integral part of health care system and these services have safe blood transfusion as the major goal. Voluntary blood donation is the key to safe blood and this safety is further enhanced when the voluntary blood donors become repeat/regular donors. Retention of donors is therefore a very crucial strategy to ensure enhanced blood safety. Tele-recruitment is an effective medium of recruiting and more importantly retaining donors via means of telephone/Short M...

  7. OPEN about obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissner, L; Troiano, R P; Midthune, D; Heitmann, B L; Kipnis, V; Subar, A F; Potischman, N

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obesity-related under-reporting of usual dietary intake is one of the most persistent sources of bias in nutrition research. The aim of this paper is to characterize obese and non-obese individuals with respect to reporting errors observed with two common dietary instruments, using...... energy and protein recovery biomarkers as reference measures. POPULATION AND METHODS: This report employs data from the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) study. Analyses are based on stratified samples of 211 (57 obese) men and 179 (50 obese) women who completed 24-h recalls (24HR), food...... frequency questionnaires (FFQ), doubly labelled water (DLW) and urinary nitrogen (UN) assessments. RESULTS: In obese and non-obese subgroups, FFQ yielded lower energy and protein intake estimates than 24HR, although biomarker-based information indicated under-reporting with both dietary instruments. Gender...

  8. Gastrointestinal morbidity in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Andres; Camilleri, Michael

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is a complex disease that results from increased energy intake and decreased energy expenditure. The gastrointestinal system plays a key role in the pathogenesis of obesity and facilitates caloric imbalance. Changes in gastrointestinal hormones and the inhibition of mechanisms that curtail caloric intake result in weight gain. It is not clear if the gastrointestinal role in obesity is a cause or an effect of this disease. Obesity is often associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Obesity is also associated with gastrointestinal disorders, which are more frequent and present earlier than T2DM and CVD. Diseases such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), cholelithiasis, or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis are directly related to body weight and abdominal adiposity. Our objective is to assess the role of each gastrointestinal organ in obesity and the gastrointestinal morbidity resulting in those organs from the effects of obesity. PMID:24602085

  9. Living Kidney Donation: The Outcomes for Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahad Jafari Ghods

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, the number of transplantation from living kidney donors has substantially increased worldwide. The rate of increase varies from one country to another. The risk of unilateral nephrectomy to the donor includes perioperative mortality and morbidity plus the long-term risk of living with a single kidney. The rate of perioperative mortality and morbidity is about 0.03% and 10%, respectively. More attentionis required to prevent serious complications of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. A grading system in recording perioperative complications is necessary for making it available to each potential donor. The number of studies on long-term outcome of living donors is very limited. The overall evidence suggests that the risk of end-stage kidney disease is not increased in donors, however, mild renal failure, hypertension and proteinuria are not uncommon in living donors. There is also concern that the incidence of cardiovasculardisease may be higher in kidney donors. Establishing living donor registry and follow-up is extremely important. Only through these registries the long-term risk of kidney donation will become more apparent. Because of severe shortage of transplantable kidneys, some transplant centers are now using donors with comorbidities and few centers are involved in transplant tourism with inadequate donor screening and follow-up. Prevention of these unacceptable practices in living kidney donors was emphasized in AmsterdamForum in 2004 and Istanbul Summit in 2008.

  10. 21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...that collects human blood or blood components, must defer donors testing reactive by a screening...40(a) may serve as a donor for blood or blood components shipped...found to be suitable as a donor of blood or blood components by...

  11. 21 CFR 610.41 - Donor deferral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... donations of human blood and blood components, except: (1) You are not required to defer a donor who tests... infection due to a communicable disease agent(s) listed in § 610.40(a) may serve as a donor for blood or blood components shipped or used under § 610.40(h)(2)(ii); (3) A deferred donor who showed evidence...

  12. 21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor notification. (a... of donation of blood or blood components that the donor should not donate in the future; (3) Where... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Donor notification. 630.6 Section 630.6 Food...

  13. Pediatric Obesity: Looking into Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Marcella Malavolti; Paolo De Cristofaro; Angelo Pietrobelli; Simone Rugolotto

    2009-01-01

    Prevalence of pediatric obesity continues to rise worldwide. Increasing the number of health care practitioners as well as pediatricians with expertise in obesity treatment is necessary. Because many obese patients suffer obesity-associated cardiovascular, metabolic and other health complications that could increase the severity of obesity, it is fundamental not only to identify the child prone to obesity as early as possible, but to recognize, treat and monitor obesity-related diseases durin...

  14. Orexin: Pathways to obesity resistance?

    OpenAIRE

    Butterick, Tammy A.; Charles J. Billington; Catherine M Kotz; Nixon, Joshua P.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has increased in prevalence worldwide, attributed in part to the influences of an obesity-promoting environment and genetic factors. While obesity and overweight increasingly seem to be the norm, there remain individuals who resist obesity. We present here an overview of data supporting the idea that hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin A (OXA; hypocretin 1) may be a key component of brain mechanisms underlying obesity resistance. Prior work with models of obesity and obesity resistance i...

  15. The safety of hand-assisted laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy: the Ohio State University experience with 1500 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajab, Amer; Pelletier, Ronald P

    2015-03-01

    Hand-assisted laparoscopic donor (HALD) nephrectomy has been performed at our institution since December 1999. Through May 2014, a total of 1500 HALD procedures have been performed. We have evaluated the outcomes of HALD. The HALD procedure consists of a hand-port incision as well as two 12-mm ports. Mean donor age was 40.8 ± 10.8 yr, BMI was 27.9 ± 5.0, there were 541 males, 1271 Caucasians, and the left kidney was removed in 1236 patients. All procedures were successfully completed. Four donors (0.27%) were converted to an open technique due to bleeding. Four donors required blood transfusions. 53 donors (3.5%) were readmitted in the first month post-donation; almost half were due to gastrointestinal complaints. Six donors required reoperation; three for SBO and three for wound dehiscence. 27 patients (1.8%) developed incisional hernias. Seven donors (0.47%) developed bowel obstruction. All donors recovered well with a mean hospital stay after donation of 2.1 ± 0.3 d. All except one kidney were successfully implanted. Twenty-one recipients (1.4%) experienced DGF. Ureter complications occurred in 17 (1.1%) recipients. Early graft loss occurred in 13 patients (0.9%). In conclusion, HALD is a safe procedure for the donor with good recipient outcomes. PMID:25529029

  16. Women experiencing the intergenerationality of conjugal violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvânia Patrícia do Nascimento Paixão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the family relationship, in childhood and adolescence, of women who experience conjugal violence.Method: qualitative study. Interviews were held with 19 women, who were experiencing conjugal violence, and who were resident in a community in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (N. 42/2011.Results: the data was organized using the Discourse of the Collective Subject, identifying the summary central ideas: they witnessed violence between their parents; they suffered repercussions from the violence between their parents: they were angry about the mother's submission to her partner; and they reproduced the conjugal violence. The discourse showed that the women witnessed, in childhood and adolescence, violence between their parents, and were injured both physically and psychologically. As a result of the mother's submission, feelings of anger arose in the children. However, in the adult phase of their own lives, they noticed that their conjugal life resembled that of their parents, reproducing the violence.Conclusion: investment is necessary in strategies designed to break inter-generational violence, and the health professionals are important in this process, as it is a phenomenon with repercussions in health. Because they work in the Family Health Strategy, which focuses on the prevention of harm and illness, health promotion and interdepartmentality, the nurses are essential in the process of preventing and confronting this phenomenon.

  17. Designing shallow donors in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    The production of n-type semiconducting diamond has been a long-standing experimental challenge. The first-principles simulation of shallow dopants in semiconductors has been a long-standing theoretical challenge. A desirable theoretical goal is to identify impurities that will act as shallow donors in diamond and assess their experimental viability. I will discuss this identification process for the LiN4 donor complex. It builds a scientific argument from several models and computational results in the absence of computational tools that are both trustworthy and computationally tractable for this task. I will compare the theoretical assessment of viability with recent experimental efforts to co-dope diamond with lithium and nitrogen. Finally, I discuss the computational tools needed to facilitate future work on this problem and some preliminary simulations of donors near diamond surfaces. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program lab managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. Laparoscopic living donor hepatectomy: a review of current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Ik; Kim, Ki-Hun; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2015-11-01

    Over the last two decades, laparoscopic surgery has been adopted in various surgical fields. Its advantages of reduced blood loss, reduced postoperative morbidity, shorter hospital stay, and excellent cosmetic outcome compared with conventional open surgery are well validated. In comparison with other abdominal organs, laparoscopic hepatectomy has developed relatively slowly due to the potential for massive bleeding, technical difficulties and a protracted learning curve. Furthermore, applications to liver graft procurement in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) have been delayed significantly due to concerns about donor safety, graft outcome and the need for expertise in both laparoscopic liver surgery and LDLT. Now, laparoscopic left lateral sectionectomy in adult-to-pediatric LDLT is considered the standard of care in some experienced centers. Currently, the shift in application has been towards left lobe and right lobe graft procurement in adult LDLT from left lateral section in pediatric LDLT. However, the number of cases is too small to validate the safety and reproducibility. The most important concern in LDLT is donor safety. Even though a few studies reported the technical feasibility and comparable outcomes to conventional open surgery, careful validating through larger sample sized studies is needed to achieve standardization and wide application. PMID:26449392

  19. Experience of severe desaturation during anesthetic induction period in an obese adult patient with Prader-Willi syndrome -A case report-

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Joon Woo; Kim, Eun-Ju; Min, Byung Woo; Ban, Jong Seouk; Lee, Sang Gon; Lee, Ji-Hyang

    2012-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome is characterized by infantile hypotonia, childhood-onset obesity, short stature, mental retardation, hyperphagia, hypogonadism. After infantile hypotonia phase, patient is prone to morbid obesity due to hyperphagia. Complications associated with morbid obesity are recognized as the main risk factors for death the lifespan of patients with Prader-Willi syndrome. We experienced desaturation and bronchospasm during arteriovenous fistula surgery in an obese adult with Prader...

  20. Reactive donor notification: First error reported

    OpenAIRE

    Urvershi Kotwal; Veena Doda; Satyam Arora; Meena Joshi

    2014-01-01

    Donor notification and post-donation counseling is an essential role of blood bank. If a donor is reactive for any marker, the blood bank counselor, informs the donor and advices him/her to report to the blood bank for further counseling and management. The counselor at our blood bank informed a young female voluntary donor to be reactive for HIV both with ELISA as well as NAT. When the donor reported to blood bank, the repeat testing was negative and no history of high risk behavior could be...

  1. Outcomes of Transplanting Deceased-Donor Kidneys between Elderly Donors and Recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Giessing, Markus; Fuller, T Florian; Friedersdorff, Frank; Deger, Serdar; Wille, Andreas; Neumayer, Hans-Hellmut; Schmidt, Danilo; Budde, Klemens; Liefeldt, Lutz

    2009-01-01

    Rate of acceptance of deceased-donor kidneys decreases with donor age despite the growing number of aged transplant candidates on the waiting list. In the Eurotransplant Senior Program, HLA-unmatched kidneys from deceased donors aged ?65 yr are transplanted regionally into recipients aged ?65 yr. Because we have become more willing to accept kidneys from donors aged ?75 yr than previous years, we performed a retrospective analysis of this subgroup. Kidneys were accepted from donors aged ?75 y...

  2. [The pharmacotherapy of obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budai, Kinga Anna; Mirzahosseini, Arash; Noszál Béla; Tóth, Gerg?

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is considered the most concerning and blatantly visible--yet most neglected--public health problem by the WHO. The steadily increasing number of overweight and obese people has reached 2.3 billion and 700 million worldwide, respectively. Obesity is a complex condition, one that presents serious health risks with respect to type 2 diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and hypertension, therefore controlling the global obesity epidemic decreases not only health problems, but also expenditure. The underlying cause of obesity is a metabolic disorder of genetic, central nervous system or endocrine etiology that manifests in increased nutritional intake and/or decreased physical activity ultimately leading to excessive lipogenesis. The natural treatment of obesity, that is often advised, is comprised of healthy lifestyle choices, namely low-calorie diet and exercise. However, the pharmaceutic treatment of obesity is just as important; having a better compliance rate, anti-obesity drugs also improve quality of life and patient-care outcome concerning accompanying diseases. In most countries only one drug is currently available against obesity: orlistat, which is a specific and irreversible lipase inhibitor. One of the reasons for the scarce number of anti-obesity drugs is the complex pathomechanism involved in obesity. Interference with the intricate biochemical processes that govern alimentation may lead to widespread adverse effects. The advances of the field however, have prompted novel drug leads. In the past few years FDA has approved new drugs for the treatment of obesity, recently liraglutide in 2014. The approval of drug combinations, such as phentermine/topiramate and bupropion/naltrexone are also noteworthy, the components of which have been previously approved, but not necessarily for obesity as main indication. Furthermore, there are many anti-obesity drug candidates currently in clinical phase trials, with promisingly modest adverse effect profiles; hence the expansion of the anti-obesity agents in the near future can be foreseen. The present work summarizes the central and peripheral regulatory pathways of energy consumption, nutrition, and appetite. The possible drug targets, the currently available and novel anti-obesity agents, and the new trends in obesity research are also discussed. PMID:26137782

  3. Perioperative lung protective ventilation in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Hashimoto, Soshi; Serpa Neto, Ary; Moine, Pierre; Vidal Melo, Marcos F; Repine, John E

    2015-01-01

    The perioperative use and relevance of protective ventilation in surgical patients is being increasingly recognized. Obesity poses particular challenges to adequate mechanical ventilation in addition to surgical constraints, primarily by restricted lung mechanics due to excessive adiposity, frequent respiratory comorbidities (i.e. sleep apnea, asthma), and concerns of postoperative respiratory depression and other pulmonary complications. The number of surgical patients with obesity is increasing, and facing these challenges is common in the operating rooms and critical care units worldwide. In this review we summarize the existing literature which supports the following recommendations for the perioperative ventilation in obese patients: (1) the use of protective ventilation with low tidal volumes (approximately 8 mL/kg, calculated based on predicted -not actual- body weight) to avoid volutrauma; (2) a focus on lung recruitment by utilizing PEEP (8-15 cmH2O) in addition to recruitment maneuvers during the intraoperative period, as well as incentivized deep breathing and noninvasive ventilation early in the postoperative period, to avoid atelectasis, hypoxemia and atelectrauma; and (3) a judicious oxygen use (ideally less than 0.8) to avoid hypoxemia but also possible reabsorption atelectasis. Obesity poses an additional challenge for achieving adequate protective ventilation during one-lung ventilation, but different lung isolation techniques have been adequately performed in obese patients by experienced providers. Postoperative efforts should be directed to avoid hypoventilation, atelectasis and hypoxemia. Further studies are needed to better define optimum protective ventilation strategies and analyze their impact on the perioperative outcomes of surgical patients with obesity. PMID:25907273

  4. Obesity and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Kirsten Riis; Andersen, Malene Lundgren; Schantz, Anne Louise

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As obesity is an increasing problem among fertile women, it is crucial that specialists involved in the treatment of these women be aware of the risks of complications and know how to deal with them. Complications associated with obesity in pregnancy are gestational diabetes mellitus...... gestational age, late fetal death, and congenital malformations, especially neural tube defects. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to review the potential complications associated with obesity and pregnancy. RESULTS: Obesity is associated with a higher risk of all reviewed complications except small for gestational age......., hypertensive disorders, and thromboembolic complications. Complications associated with obesity in labor are augmentation, early amniotomy, cephalopelvic disproportion, cesarean section, and perioperative morbidity. Complications associated with obesity in children are macrosomia, shoulder dystocia, small for...

  5. Predisposition to Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nanna Julie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2012-01-01

    Obesity prevention should remain a priority, even if there is some suggestion that the epidemic may presently have reached a stable level. However, previous interventions have not been effective in preventing overweight and obesity, and at the same time studies suggest that some subgroups are more...... predisposed to future obesity. The purpose of this paper is to review interventions on obesity prevention published during the past year, and to examine if interventions targeting predisposed groups or individuals seem more efficient in preventing obesity than studies targeting general populations. Among 15...... status. Thus, we may be more successful in preventing obesity when targeting predisposed individuals, but more studies are needed before a firm conclusion can be drawn....

  6. Obesity and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Kirsten Riis; Andersen, Malene Lundgren; Schantz, Anne Louise

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As obesity is an increasing problem among fertile women, it is crucial that specialists involved in the treatment of these women be aware of the risks of complications and know how to deal with them. Complications associated with obesity in pregnancy are gestational diabetes mellitus......, hypertensive disorders, and thromboembolic complications. Complications associated with obesity in labor are augmentation, early amniotomy, cephalopelvic disproportion, cesarean section, and perioperative morbidity. Complications associated with obesity in children are macrosomia, shoulder dystocia, small for...... gestational age, late fetal death, and congenital malformations, especially neural tube defects. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to review the potential complications associated with obesity and pregnancy. RESULTS: Obesity is associated with a higher risk of all reviewed complications except small for gestational age....

  7. Obesity and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivapalan, Pradeesh; Diamant, Zuzana; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant impact on asthma incidence and manifestations. The purpose of the review is to discuss recent observations regarding the association between obesity and asthma focusing on underlying mechanisms, clinical presentation, response to therapy and effect of...... weight reduction. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that obese patients with asthma may represent a unique phenotype, which is more difficult to control, less responsive to asthma medications and by that may have higher healthcare utilization. A number of common comorbidities...... have been linked to both obesity and asthma, and may, therefore, contribute to the obese-asthma phenotype. Furthermore, recently published studies indicate that even a modest weight reduction can improve clinical manifestations and outcome of asthma. SUMMARY: Compared with normal-weight patients, obese...

  8. Anesthetizing the obese child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Anette; Lenz, Katja; Abildstrøm, Hanne; Lauritsen, Torsten L B

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing. The focus of this review is the special anesthetic considerations regarding the perioperative management of obese children. With obesity the risk of comorbidity such as asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, and diabetes increases. The...... drugs. This has important implications on how to estimate the optimal drug dose. This article offers a review of the literature on definition, prevalence and the pathophysiology of childhood obesity and provides suggestions on preanesthetic evaluation, airway management and dosage of the anesthetic...... obese child has an increased risk of perioperative complications especially related to airway management and ventilation. There is a significantly increased risk of difficult mask ventilation and perioperative desaturation. Furthermore, obesity has an impact on the pharmacokinetics of most anesthetic...

  9. Pediatric obesity. An introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence of child and adolescent obesity in the United States increased dramatically between 1970 and 2000, and there are few indications that the rates of childhood obesity are decreasing. Obesity is associated with myriad medical, psychological, and neurocognitive abnormalities that impact children's health and quality of life. Genotypic variation is important in determining the susceptibility of individual children to undue gains in adiposity; however, the rapid increase in pediatric obesity prevalence suggests that changes to children's environments and/or to their learned behaviors may dramatically affect body weight regulation. This paper presents an overview of the epidemiology, consequences, and etiopathogenesis of pediatric obesity, serving as a general introduction to the subsequent papers in this Special Issue that address aspects of childhood obesity and cognition in detail. PMID:25836737

  10. Anesthetizing the obese child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Anette; Lenz, Katja

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing. The focus of this review is the special anesthetic considerations regarding the perioperative management of obese children. With obesity the risk of comorbidity such as asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, and diabetes increases. The obese child has an increased risk of perioperative complications especially related to airway management and ventilation. There is a significantly increased risk of difficult mask ventilation and perioperative desaturation. Furthermore, obesity has an impact on the pharmacokinetics of most anesthetic drugs. This has important implications on how to estimate the optimal drug dose. This article offers a review of the literature on definition, prevalence and the pathophysiology of childhood obesity and provides suggestions on preanesthetic evaluation, airway management and dosage of the anesthetic drugs in these patients. The authors highlight the need of supplemental studies on various areas of the subject.

  11. Victimization of obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sabrina

    2006-08-01

    Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and teasing as a result of being overweight or obese. The victimization may be overt or relational. Obese adolescents are at risk of victimization, because their peers view them as different and undesirable. Although peer victimization occurs commonly among adolescents, obese adolescents are more susceptible than their average-weight peers. Because school nurses are often the first line of defense for obese adolescents, they are in an excellent position to identify forms of peer victimization and be prepared to intervene with the victims. School nurses can potentially preserve the psychosocial integrity of obese adolescents by promoting healthy peer interactions and experiences. PMID:16856773

  12. Immunological Profiling of Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio, Rosa Mistica C.; Kim, Cheol-Su; Kim, Soo-Ki

    2014-01-01

    It is widely accepted that chronic inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity. Researchers have recently discovered that increased inflammatory cytokines and the infiltration and activation of macrophage cells in the adipose tissue are related to chronic obesity. This immunologic dysregulation has led to the development of the classical pro-inflammatory paradigm. However, since chronic inflammation associated with obesity is more than just the overproduction of pro-inflammatory c...

  13. Genetics of Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Struan F. A.; Jianhua Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem and an immense economic burden on the health care systems both in the United States and the rest of the world. The prevalence of obesity in children and adults in the United States has increased dramatically over the past decade. Besides environmental factors, genetic factors are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed strongly associated genomic variants associated with most common ...

  14. Obesity and Reproductive Function

    OpenAIRE

    Jungheim, Emily S; Travieso, Jennifer L.; Carson, Kenneth R.; Moley, Kelle H.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is associated with multiple adverse reproductive outcomes, but the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Public health scientists studying obesity and its effects on health outcomes have referred to obesity as a “complex system”, defined as a system of heterogeneous parts interacting in nonlinear ways to influence the behavior of the parts as a whole1,22. By this definition, human reproduction is also a complex system which may explain some of the difficulty in identifying the mech...

  15. Genetic Factors of Obesity.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mazura, Ivan; Ochoa-Rebato, E.

    Budapest : Eötvös University Press, 2010 - (Bodzsár, E.; Susanne, C.), s. 119-140 ISBN 978-963-88941-0-6. - (Biennial Books of the EAA. 6) R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : aetiology of obesity * genetic factors * obesity genes * polymorphism * obesity -associated syndromes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  16. Obesity in Gulf Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Zawilla N

    2014-01-01

    Globally obesity has reached to epidemic proportions, and the people of the Gulf countries have also affected, especially high-income, oil-producing countries. The prevalence of obesity in Gulf Countries among children and adolescents ranges from 5% to 14% in males and from 3% to 18% in females. In adult females there is a significant increase of obesity with a prevalence of 2%–55% and in adult males 1%–30% in countries of gulf region.

  17. Obesity and the pulmonologist

    OpenAIRE

    Deane, S; Thomson, A.

    2006-01-01

    Obese children have more respiratory symptoms than their normal weight peers and respiratory related pathology increases with increasing weight. Some will need specialist assessment (box 1). Obesity produces mechanical effects on respiratory system performance. Breathlessness, wheeze, and cough are not related to increased airway responsiveness and may respond more to weight loss than bronchodilator therapy. A significant number of obese children have signs and symptoms of obstructive sleep a...

  18. Thyroid Function and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Longhi, Silvia; Radetti, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, childhood obesity is one of the biggest health emergencies in the developed countries. Obesity leads to multiple metabolic alterations which increase the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Thyroid function has been often described as altered in obese children, however, it is not clear whether the altered thyroid function is the cause or the consequence of fat excess. On the other hand, thyroid structure seems also to be affected. Nevertheless, both functional a...

  19. Obesity in children & adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Raj, Manu; Kumar, R Krishna

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, obesity trends are causing serious public health concern and in many countries threatening the viability of basic health care delivery. It is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and significantly increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. The last two decades have witnessed an increase in health care costs due to obesity and related issues among children and adolescents. Childhood obesity is a global phenomenon affecting all socio-economic groups, irrespectiv...

  20. Vitamin D and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Vanlint

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a significant health problem world-wide, particularly in developed nations. Vitamin D deficiency is pandemic, and has been implicated in a wide variety of disease states. This paper seeks to examine the consistently reported relationship between obesity and low vitamin D concentrations, with reference to the possible underlying mechanisms. The possibility that vitamin D may assist in preventing or treating obesity is also examined, and recommendations for future research are made. ...

  1. Endoscopic treatment of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Swidnicka-Siergiejko, Agnieszka; Wróblewski, Eugeniusz; Dabrowski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Overweight and obesity in adults have reached epidemic proportions in the United States, with a particularly noteworthy increasing incidence among children and adolescents. The WHO recognized obesity as a serious chronic disease more than 10 years ago, and current estimates are that 2.5 million individuals globally die from obesity and its complications each year. Treatment and management strategies are complex and involve many health care specialty areas. Furthermore, because pharmacological...

  2. Obesity: A multifactorial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Ntokou

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity represents one of the most serious global health issues with approximately 310 million people presently affected. Main cause of it’s development is the increase of energy intake in regard to energy expenditure.Aim: The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the causes and treatment of obesity, as well as the anthropometrical measurements used for the assessment of obesity. The method ?f this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature, mainly in the “pub med data base” which referred to the causes and treatment of obesity, as well as the anthropometrical measurements used for the assessment of obesity. Results: The prevalence of obesity has increased markedly, throughout the world. Although the etiology of obesity has not been fully understood yet, however it seems to be a multifactorial disease for which are responsible a great deal of psychological, environmental, genetic and behavioral factors. The most common anthropometrical measurement that is used for assessment of obesity is Body Mass Index (BMI and is calculated by the following equation: ???=Weight/Height2. A value of ??? ? 30 kg/m2 equals obesity. Another simple test used to measure obesity is Waist to Hip Ratio, which measures abdominal adiposity. Values greater than 0,95 should be treated seriously as they normally indicate body fatness. The majority of studies show that life-style modification in conjunction with a well-balanced nutrition and regular physical exercise consist the cornerstone for the treatment and prevention of obesity.Conclusions: Obesity is a disease that can be preventable through modification of way of living. The development of proper strategy prevention capable to change attitudes, to promote nutrition and physical activity should be the primary goal of every community and government.

  3. Obesity: causes and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Jebb, S

    2004-01-01

    Obesity is increasing sharply around the world, in both adults and children. In the UK, national surveys show that obesity has trebled in 20 years and now affects almost a quarter of the adult population. There is a similar incidence of overweight in young people. Obesity is associated with significant increases in morbidity (especially type 2 diabetes) and the risk of premature mortality (especially from cardiovascular disease). Reductions in body weight of even 5-10% are associated with a s...

  4. Gut Microbiota and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Kyle J.; Lorenz, Robin G

    2012-01-01

    The current obesity epidemic clearly has many causes, including the impact of our modern world on both our diet and our lifestyle/physical activity. Although many interventions have been recommended, the prevalence of obesity continues to rise and has forced a re-evaluation of the potential interventions that could have an impact. In recent years it has been definitively shown that microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract are altered in obese individuals. Recent data provide a potential mecha...

  5. OPEN about obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissner, L; Troiano, R P; Midthune, D; Heitmann, B L; Kipnis, V; Subar, A F; Potischman, N

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obesity-related under-reporting of usual dietary intake is one of the most persistent sources of bias in nutrition research. The aim of this paper is to characterize obese and non-obese individuals with respect to reporting errors observed with two common dietary instruments, using energy and protein recovery biomarkers as reference measures. POPULATION AND METHODS: This report employs data from the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) study. Analyses are based on stratified ...

  6. Asthma and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant negative impact on asthma control and risk of exacerbations. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent studies evaluating the effects of weight reduction on asthma control in obese adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical studies have shown that weight reduction in obese patients is associated with improvements in symptoms, use of controller medication, and asthma-related quality of life together with a reduction in the risk for severe exacerbations. Fur...

  7. Obesity and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivapalan, Pradeesh; Diamant, Zuzana; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant impact on asthma incidence and manifestations. The purpose of the review is to discuss recent observations regarding the association between obesity and asthma focusing on underlying mechanisms, clinical presentation, response to therapy and effect of weight reduction. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that obese patients with asthma may represent a unique phenotype, which is more difficult to control, less responsive to ast...

  8. Obesity and asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Sutherland, E. Rand

    2002-01-01

    Asthma and obesity are prevalent disorders, each with a significant public health impact, and a large and growing body of literature suggests an association between the two. The systemic inflammatory milieu in obesity leads to metabolic and cardiovascular complications, but whether this environment alters asthma risk or phenotype is not yet known. Animal experiments have evaluated the effects of leptin and obesity on airway inflammation in response to both allergic and nonallergic exposures a...

  9. Obesity: Pathophysiology and Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Yi (Leaf) Zhang; Ju Liu; Jianliang Yao; Gang Ji; Long Qian; Jing Wang; Guansheng Zhang; Jie Tian; Yongzhan Nie; Yi Edi. Zhang; Gold, Mark S.; Yijun Liu

    2014-01-01

    Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pat...

  10. Results of obesity treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Scheen, André

    2002-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease so that results of obesity treatment should only be evaluated on a long-term basis. The present paper aims at analyzing the long-term (1 year or more) results of three anti-obesity approaches, i.e. lifestyle modifications, pharmacological treatments and surgical procedures. Dietary interventions include diets with moderate calorie restriction and very-low energy diets (VLED). Even if an initial greater weight loss is observed with VLED, no study has conclusively s...

  11. Obesity and Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Pranab Baruwa; Kripesh Ranjan Sarmah

    2008-01-01

    Asthma and obesity are prevalent disorders, each with a significant public health impact, and a large and growing body of literature suggests an association between the two. The systemic inflammatory milieu in obesity leads to metabolic and cardiovascular complications, but whether this environment alters asthma risk or phenotype is not yet known. Animal experiments have evaluated the effects of leptin and obesity on airway inflammation in response to both allergic and nonallergic exposures a...

  12. Aetiology of obesity.

    OpenAIRE

    Jebb, SA

    1997-01-01

    Obesity is not a single disorder but a heterogeneous group of conditions with multiple causes each of which are ultimately expressed as an obese phenotype. Fatness does run in families, but the genetic component does not follow simple Mendelian principles and the influence of the genotype on the aetiology of obesity may be attenuated or exacerbated by non-genetic factors. Body weight is ultimately determined by the interaction of genetic, environmental and psychosocial factors acting through ...

  13. Obesity in biocultural perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ulijaszek, Stanley J; Lofink, Hayley

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is new in human evolutionary history, having become possible at the population level with increased food security. Across the past 60 years, social, economic, and technological changes have altered patterns of life almost everywhere on Earth. In tandem, changes in diet and physical activity patterns have been central to the emergence of obesity among many of the world's populations, including the developing world. Increasing global rates of obesity are broadly attributed to environmen...

  14. Laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitre Anuar I.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience of videolaparoscopic nephrectomy in live renal donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April 2000 to August 2003, 50 left nephrectomies in live donor were performed by videolaparoscopy for transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were male (56% and 22 female (44%. Mean age was 37.2 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 27.1 kg/m². RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 179.5 minutes, and warm ischemia time of the graft was 3.79 minutes. The mean estimated bleeding was 141 mL. There was no need of blood transfusion or conversion to open surgery. In 42 cases (84%, the vascular portion of the graft was considered good by the recipient's surgical team and in all cases, the ureter was considered of proper size, though in one of them (2% its vascularization was considered improper. The transplanted kidneys produced urine still in the surgical room in 46 of the 50 transplantations considered. In only 2 cases opioid was required for analgesia. In average, 3.1 doses of dipyrone were used for each patient during hospital stay, and hospital discharge occurred, in average, after 3.2 days post-operatively. Two patients required re-operations and one of them evolved to death. CONCLUSIONS: The laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor for renal transplantation is an alternative to conventional open surgery. In relation to the graft, no alteration, either anatomic or functional, was detected. Though there is already a large documentation in the international literature regarding this procedure, in our setting a prospective randomized study with the usual surgical study is still necessary in order to prove the advantages and disadvantages of the method.

  15. Early trauma and adult obesity: is psychological dysfunction the mediating mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Argenio, Alberto; Mazzi, Cristina; Pecchioli, Luca; Di Lorenzo, Giorgio; Siracusano, Alberto; Troisi, Alfonso

    2009-12-01

    Several studies have shown that physical and/or sexual abuse during childhood may lead to the development of obesity later in life. Despite these consistent findings, the mechanism for the increased risk of obesity following developmental trauma is unknown. It has been suggested that psychological dysfunction, including the presence of disordered eating behavior, may account for the added risk of adult obesity. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the prevalence and severity of different types of early traumatic life events, assessed the presence of co-existing psychiatric disorders and measured adult attachment style in a sample of 200 subjects including non-obese healthy volunteers and obese participants undergoing a psychiatric assessment to determine suitability for bariatric surgery. Participants who scored higher on a scale measuring the severity of traumatic events experienced during the first 15years of their lives were more likely to be obese at the time of testing. The exclusion of the participants who experienced physical and/or sexual abuse did not change the results of statistical analysis. Severity of early trauma remained a significant predictor of adult obesity when the influence of psychiatric diagnosis and anxious attachment was taken into account. These findings suggest that: (1) not only sexual or physical abuse but also less severe forms of early-life stress are linked to the development of obesity later in life; and (2) psychological dysfunction is not the only mechanism mediating the elevated risk of obesity in persons exposed to early-life trauma. PMID:19733190

  16. Sexual function and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, S H; Wagner, G; Heitmann, B L

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on the relationship between obesity and sexual function. METHOD: A search in the medical literature from 1966 and onwards was carried out through Medline and Embase for publications on obesity, in combination with Medical Subject Heading words related to sexual...... function and dysfunction. COMMENTS: Four prospective and seven cross-sectional studies were found describing association between obesity and erectile dysfunction (ED). One cross-sectional study was found describing obesity and female sexual dysfunction (FSD). The prospective studies on ED all demonstrated...

  17. Controversies in Obesity Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Karandish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The markedly high prevalence of obesity contributes to the increased incidence of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea, and heart disease. Because of high prevalence of obesity in almost all countries, it has been the focus of many researches throughout the world during the recent decades. Along with increasing researches, new concepts and controversies have been emerged. The existing controversies on the topic are so deep that some researches argue on absolutely philosophical questions such as “Is obesity a disease?” or “Is it correct to treat obesity?” These questions are based on a few theories and real data that explain obesity as a biological adaptation and also the final results of weight loss programs. Many people attempt to lose weight by diet therapy, physical activity and lifestyle modifications. Importantly, weight loss strategies in the long term are ineffective and may have unintended consequences including decreasing energy expenditure, complicated appetite control, eating disorders, reducing self-esteem, increasing the plasma and tissue levels of persistent organic pollutants that promote metabolic complications, and consequently, higher risk of repeated cycles of weight loss and weight regain. In this review, major paradoxes and controversies on obesity including classic obesity paradox, pre-obesity; fat-but-fit theory, and healthy obesity are explained. In addition, the relevant strategies like “Health at Every Size” that emphasize on promotion of global health behaviors rather than weight loss programs are explained.

  18. Behavioral treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Táki Athanássios Cordas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Great population studies do not confirm the hypothesis that atypical personality of obese would exist. Obeses in the generalpopulation do not present more psychological disturbs thanthe ones that are not obeses. Obeses adolescents and adultsare discriminated in their academic and professional lifes. Thissocial, cultural, economic and affective impoverishment seemsto be directly related to the gravity of their obesity, what means,higher the ICM (Index of Corporal Mass, bigger are thepsychological problems. This abandonment contributes to thebig risk of unchain psychiatric pictures as depression, anxyetdisturbs, drugs and alcoholic excessive consumption andalimentary disturbs. Obeses of the general population do notpresent more psychological or psychiatric symptoms than theclinical population of obeses (obeses under treatment, presentmore clinical and psychiatric problems, mainly compulsoryalimentary standards. Some studies indicate that there is alinear relation between the ICM and the highest frequency ofalimentary compulsory behavior or bulimic episode. Thepsychiatric patients negative body perception added to theirother negative perceptions about their performance in searchingsocial interaction increase the trend to the isolation. Thepsychiatric picture presence in the bariatric surgery preoperatoryin a III degree overweight pacient has not to be facedas absolute surgery counter indication since such procedurecan be the difference between giving a better life quality orwaiting for a potentially lethal complication. We cannot forgetthat the obesity itself, due to the common associatedcomorbidyties, loads a great lethality potential. The surgerycounter-indication could be relative, it depending on how muchthe psychiatric disturbs interfere on the treatment andconditioned to the rigorous psychiatric control in the anteriorand post surgical period.

  19. Obesity and cholangiocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour A Parsi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that about half of the population in developed countries are either overweight or obese. In some developing nations obesity rates have increased to surpass those seen in Western countries. This rate increase in obesity has many implications as obesity has been associated with numerous negative health effects including increased risks of hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, liver disease, apnea, and some cancer types. Obesity is now considered to be one of the major public health concerns facing the society. Cholangiocarcinomas (bile duct cancers are malignant tumors arising from cholangiocytes inside or outside of the liver. Although cholangiocarcinomas are relatively rare, they are highly lethal. The low survival rate associated with cholangiocarcinoma is due to the advanced stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis. Prevention is therefore especially important in this cancer type. Some data suggest that the incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in the western world is on the rise. Increasing rate of obesity may be one of the factors responsible for this increase. Determining whether obesity is a risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma has significant clinical and societal implications as obesity is both prevalent and modifiable. This paper seeks to provide a summary of the current knowledge linking obesity and cholangiocarcinoma, and encourage further research on this topic.

  20. Obesity and cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsi, Mansour A

    2013-01-28

    It is estimated that about half of the population in developed countries are either overweight or obese. In some developing nations obesity rates have increased to surpass those seen in Western countries. This rate increase in obesity has many implications as obesity has been associated with numerous negative health effects including increased risks of hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, liver disease, apnea, and some cancer types. Obesity is now considered to be one of the major public health concerns facing the society. Cholangiocarcinomas (bile duct cancers) are malignant tumors arising from cholangiocytes inside or outside of the liver. Although cholangiocarcinomas are relatively rare, they are highly lethal. The low survival rate associated with cholangiocarcinoma is due to the advanced stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis. Prevention is therefore especially important in this cancer type. Some data suggest that the incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in the western world is on the rise. Increasing rate of obesity may be one of the factors responsible for this increase. Determining whether obesity is a risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma has significant clinical and societal implications as obesity is both prevalent and modifiable. This paper seeks to provide a summary of the current knowledge linking obesity and cholangiocarcinoma, and encourage further research on this topic. PMID:23382624

  1. Obesity and Colon Cancer Risk

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Obesity and Colon Cancer Risk URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/Obesity_Colon_093015.html Obesity and Colon Cancer ...

  2. Screening and assessment of the donor heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Grauhan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Why screening?Thirty years ago most donors suffered from head trauma (“Morbus Kawasaki” and a donor older than 35 years was beyond the pale, i.e. donors were young and healthy, and since these early days of transplantation donor hearts have been regarded as healthy “per definitionem” (1. However, due to the general organ shortage the criteria for the acceptance of donor hearts have been widely liberalized. According to the current quarterly data report of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT nearly two thirds of donors in Europe (64.3% were older than 35 years, more than a quarter (26.0% were even older than 50 years and less than 10% of organ donors suffered from head trauma (2. Meanwhile the average (European donor is 45 years old and is suffering from intracranial bleeding, i.e. the so-called “donor pool” represents a subpopulation with significantly elevated risk for cardiac diseases such as coronary atherosclerosis and hypertension-related myocardial hypertrophy (Fig. 1. Unfortunately, daily experience shows that donor heart screening has not been adapted to this development (3. Therefore, the question “Why screening?” is not as trivial as it may look: Donor coronary angiography is still an exception (performed in 5-10% of donors despite the fact that [1] the prevalence of significant atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD in the donor pool is about 20%, [2] the risk of CAD transmission without angiography is about 5% to 10% despite organ inspection by the harvesting surgeon and [3] the risk for early graft failure with transmitted significant CAD is three times as high (4,5.

  3. A new insight into food addiction in childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Alev; Yüksel, Ay?egül; Ye?iltepe Mutlu, Gül; Bayhan, Asuman; Özsu, Elif; Hatun, ?ükrü

    2015-01-01

    Uncontrolled eating behavior in obese subjects is very similar to behavior in food addiction, suggesting a relationship. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between childhood obesity and food addiction and to determine the frequency of food addiction among obese children and adolescents. The study included 100 overweight and obese children. Food addiction was evaluated by the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS). The cutoff value for food addiction was defined as the presence of 3 or more symptoms. Participants were between 10 and 18 years of age; 63% were girls. Of the participants, 71% had food addiction. The most addictive foods were chocolate, ice cream, carbonated beverages, French fries, white bread, rice, candy, chips and pasta, in decreasing order of frequency. Experiencing a frequent feeling of hunger was associated with a 2.2-fold increase in food addiction risk, while consumption of French fries ?1-2 times per week was associated with a 2.3-fold increase in risk (p<0.05). The high YFAS scores in obese and overweight adolescents suggest that food addiction plays an important role in childhood obesity. Evaluation of food addiction in more detail may open a new perspective on the prevention and treatment of obesity. PMID:26701938

  4. Organ donor problems and their management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Veena

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, transplantation has assumed an important role in the treatment of patients with end-stage organ failure. With the passage of Transplantation of Human Organ Act by the Indian parliament, transplantation of organs from brain dead donors has become a reality. Although there are many issues in success of cadaver programme, intensivists can play a crucial role by converting a potential donor into an actual donor. This article reviews the identification of potential organ donor and pathophysiological changes surrounding brain death, with particular emphasis on management of the organ donor in the intensive care unit. With an increased awareness of donor management issues and the application of a rational physiological approach, the number of functional organs for transplantation can be increased.

  5. Reactive donor notification: First error reported

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urvershi Kotwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Donor notification and post-donation counseling is an essential role of blood bank. If a donor is reactive for any marker, the blood bank counselor, informs the donor and advices him/her to report to the blood bank for further counseling and management. The counselor at our blood bank informed a young female voluntary donor to be reactive for HIV both with ELISA as well as NAT. When the donor reported to blood bank, the repeat testing was negative and no history of high risk behavior could be elicited. The hospital information system (HIS records were checked again immediately for clarification and showed consistency with her demographic profile. But when her manual records and donor questionnaire were retrieved, showed information displayed in the HIS system was wrongly interpreted by the counselor. In this era of information technology being highly advanced, the role of manual record keeping is still the gold standard.

  6. Multilateral aid agencies and strategic donor behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Mavrotas, George; Villanger, Espen

    2006-01-01

    The paper builds on recent empirical evidence on the importance of strategic donor behaviour in aid allocation in order to develop a theoretical model where donor pressure on a recipient for influencing the aid disbursement of a multilateral institution is endogenously determined. Our game-theoretic, multi-agent model with one aid recipient, two bilateral donors and one multilateral institution illustrates the advantage of putting pressure on the recipient as an instrument for foreign policy,...

  7. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Potential Donors Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roque Nodal Arruebarrena

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical Practice Guidelines for Potential Donors Management. It has been defined as the patient in Glasgow coma with scale higher or equal to 8 who doesn´t present contradictions for transplant (possible donor and who has been diagnosed of encephalic death. This document reviews and updates concepts, lists indications and contraindications for different organs donation, clinical assessment of the donor and its treatment. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.

  8. Donor policy rules and aid effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

    2008-01-01

    The present paper examines the macroeconomic impact of aid, by introducing endogenous aid allocations into a neoclassical growth framework. On this basis it is shown that donor policies can have important implications for the trajectory of recipients' GDP per capita. Depending on specific donor policy choices, aid disbursements may lead to faster transitional growth, stagnation or cyclical growth. Moreover, the analysis also suggests that donor policies may be part of the reason why foreign aid ...

  9. Laparoendoscopic single-site donor nephrectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Ganpule, Arvind P.; Mishra, Shashikant; Sabnis, Ravindra

    2012-01-01

    A donor would prefer a minimally invasive procedure because of lesser morbidity, this may be the reason that laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) rates have exponentially increased. The rationale dictates that a virtually scarless surgery would be most beneficial to this patient subgroup. In this article, we review the approach, instrumentation, dissection and retrieval issues and the results of laparoendoscopic single-site donor nephrectomy (LESS-DN). The existing literature on LESS-DN was r...

  10. Obesity: A Bibliographic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Beth

    2012-01-01

    The study of obesity is a relatively new interdisciplinary academic field. The community college library shelves should contain two types of resources. First, several kinds of reference materials, and second, a host of broader materials that place the discussion of obesity within a cultural framework. This overview is divided into two major…

  11. #601665 OBESITY [OMIM

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FIELD NO 601665 FIELD TI #601665 OBESITY LEANNESS, INCLUDED FIELD TX A number sign (#) is used w ... ssin et al. (1988) presented evidence that reduced energy ... expenditure is a major 'risk factor' in obesity. T ... nfants from birth to 1 year of age, measured total energy ... expenditure and metabolizable energy ... intake over a ...

  12. Effective Obesity Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lynda H.; Calvin, James E., III; Calvin, James E., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    To curb the epidemic of obesity in the United States, revised Medicare policy allows support for efficacious obesity treatments. This review summarizes the evidence from rigorous randomized trials (9 lifestyle trials, 5 drug trials, and 2 surgical trials) on the efficacy and risk-benefit profile of lifestyle, drug, and surgical interventions aimed…

  13. Obesity and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Zarqa; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data has established increasing adiposity as a risk factor for incident asthma. However, the mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and asthma are incompletely understood. In the present paper, we review current knowledge of possible mechanisms mediating the observed...... association between obesity and asthma....

  14. Comorbidities of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelbert, Kavitha Bhat

    2009-06-01

    Obesity, especially visceral adiposity, is associated with morbidity and mortality through endocrine and mechanical processes. Clinical manifestations due to effects of obesity on the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, immune, and integumentary systems have been described. Further studies are needed to understand the pathologic processes underlying these clinical manifestations to improve disease prevention. PMID:19501243

  15. Obesity and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Zarqa; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological data has established increasing adiposity as a risk factor for incident asthma. However, the mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and asthma are incompletely understood. In the present paper, we review current knowledge of possible mechanisms mediating the observed association between obesity and asthma.

  16. Obesity: A chronic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalini Zerdila

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The last decades, obesity represents one of the most serious health issues with approximately 310 million people presently affected globaly and is frequently cited as a chronic disease. The term obesity refers to the excessive accumulation of fat, mainly under the skin but also on various organs of the body. Obesity’s most common cause is the intake of more calories than those required for one’s daily needs.The aim of the study was to review etiology of obesity, as well as the accountable risk factors.The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature which referred to the etiology, the risk factors of obesity and the beneficial role of physical exercise on weight management.Results: The majority of research studies showed that a growing number of adults, children and adolescents around the world, is facing the danger of becoming obese. In literature is cited that both genetic and environmental factors are accountable for the development of obesity. It is well established that the main therapeutic approaches to loose weight are life-style modifications and the combination of a well-balanced hypocaloric diet with regular physical exercise.Conclusions: The problem of obesity and overweight has become an epidemic in most developed countries. The rapid increase in the numbers of obese people reflects environmental changes, the reduced activity and also the increased food intake.

  17. Obesity Treatment Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ianosi Edith

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a disease with severe health consequences and increased risk of mortality. The most commonly used criteria to assess the presence and the severity of obesity are body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and the presence of the health conditions caused or worsened by obesity. Worldwide obesity has more than doubled in the last 4 decades. Obesity is the second of the leading preventable causes of death worldwide (after smoking. Obesity has a plurifactorial pathogenesis. The central perturbation consists in the imbalance between calories intake and calories consumption (by inappropriate diet and sedentary lifestyle. Identification of all the ethiological factors is important for treatment and prophylaxis. Weight loss benefits are multiple and important: improvement in glicemic control and in plasma lipid levels, blood presure control, obstructiv sleep apneea reduction, improvement in management of daily activities and profesional performances, increase quality of life, reduction in mortality. Overweight or obese patient will complete a diagnostic and a treatment program. Treatment of obesity claims a targeted multidimensional therapy: weight and lifestyle management, diet, sustained physical activity in daily life, exercise, decrease life stressors, smoking cessation, drug therapy, bariatric surgery psichological, familial and social suport. Weight loss program must be carefully planned, adapted to the patient’s abilities and comorbidities and supervised by a nutritionist and a physiotherapist.

  18. The Obesity Epidemic

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-07-18

    Learn about obesity and the community initiatives taking place to prevent and reduce this epidemic.  Created: 7/18/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity.   Date Released: 7/18/2011.

  19. Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... updated: November 9, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health ...

  20. Defining Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... updated: April 27, 2012 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health ...

  1. How Bad Is Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ken

    2006-01-01

    A University of California at Los Angeles study in the Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law suggests that the proportion of obese Americans has risen 20% since 1980, but the so-called obesity epidemic is at best a metaphor and not a very effective one at that. However, recent research finds no appreciable difference in mortality rates among…

  2. Shallow donors in GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-resolution, variable temperature PL experiments were performed in the spectral region associated with recombination processes involving the ground and excited states of the neutral donor bound excitons. High-resolution infrared measurements in combination with high-sensitive SIMS unambiguously identified Si and O shallow donors and yield their ground state binding energies. These binding energies are in excellent agreement with values obtained by the analysis of the two-electron-satellite PL spectra considering the participation of ground and excited state donor bound excitons. This work clarifies conflicting aspects existing in donor identification and the binding energies of the impurities and excitons

  3. Psychiatric approach to the living kidney donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Correia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kidney transplantation is considered the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease. Living donor transplantation has increased because of the shortage, the needs of cadaver donors.Based on existing literature the authors address ethical issues and major psychiatric aspects involved in the evaluation of living donor kidney transplant, and the interference of this procedure on quality of life for donors, and their contraindications. The authors further describe the evaluation procedures used in the Hospital S. Joa?o, as well as data related to the 32 patients evaluated in the Department of Psychiatry since 2004.

  4. Alternative Donor Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelli Bejanyan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT is a potentially curative therapy for adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, but its use for consolidation therapy after first remission with induction chemotherapy used to be limited to younger patients and those with suitable donors. The median age of AML diagnosis is in the late 60s. With the introduction of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC, many older adults are now eligible to receive allo-HCT, including those who are medically less fit to receive myeloablative conditioning. Furthermore, AML patients commonly have no human leukocyte antigen (HLA-identical or medically suitable sibling donor available to proceed with allo-HCT. Technical advances in donor matching, suppression of alloreactivity, and supportive care have made it possible to use alternative donors, such as unrelated umbilical cord blood (UCB and partially HLA-matched related (haploidentical donors. Outcomes after alternative donor allo-HCT are now approaching the outcomes observed for conventional allo-HCT with matched related and unrelated donors. Thus, with both UCB and haploidentical donors available, lack of donor should rarely be a limiting factor in offering an allo-HCT to adults with AML.

  5. Obesity and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2013-01-01

    Asthma is more prevalent in obese compared with normal weight subjects. Our aim has been to review current knowledge of the impact of obesity on asthma severity, asthma control, and response to therapy.Several studies have shown that overweight and obesity is associated with more severe asthma and...... impaired quality of life compared with normal weight individuals. Furthermore, obesity is associated with poorer asthma control, as assessed by asthma control questionnaires, limitations in daily activities, breathlessness and wheezing, use of rescue medication, unscheduled doctor visits, emergency...... department visits, and hospitalizations for acute asthma. Studies of the impact of a high body mass index (BMI) on response to asthma therapy have, however, revealed conflicting results. Most studies show that overweight and obesity is associated with less favorable response to asthma therapy with regard to...

  6. Obesity in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard

    Background: The obesity epidemic has led to an increase in obese women of childbearing age. This gives cause for concern because prepregnancy obesity is associated with a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The newly established Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) has a size that permits an...... investigation of the association between maternal obesity and rare, but important outcomes, for which more insight is needed, such as fetal death, subtypes of preterm birth, and neonatal mortality. The low participation rate of 30% to the DNBC may, however, raise new questions related to the validity of the...... findings, so we also carried out a study of the consequences of this selection on the estimates of relative risk.Studies of maternal obesity: Within the DNBC we examined the association between prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and the risk of fetal death (n=54,505), subtypes of preterm birth (n=62...

  7. Asthma and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant negative impact on asthma control and risk of exacerbations. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent studies evaluating the effects of weight reduction on asthma control in obese adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical studies have shown that weight...... reduction in obese patients is associated with improvements in symptoms, use of controller medication, and asthma-related quality of life together with a reduction in the risk for severe exacerbations. Furthermore, several studies have also revealed improvements in lung function and airway responsiveness......: Weight reduction in obese adults with asthma leads to an overall improvement in asthma control, including airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Weight reduction should be a cornerstone in the management of obese patients with asthma....

  8. Imaging evaluation of potential donors in living-donor liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, G. [Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada)], E-mail: timgy@yahoo.com; Wiebe, E. [Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada); Walji, A.H. [Division of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta (Canada); Bigam, D.L. [Department of Surgery, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada)

    2008-02-15

    Liver transplants, originally obtained from deceased donors, can now be harvested from living donors as well. This technique, called living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), provides an effective alternative means of liver transplantation and is a method of expanding the donor pool in light of the demand and supply imbalance for organ transplants. Imaging plays an important role in LDLT programmes by providing robust evaluation of potential donors to ensure that only anatomically suitable donors with no significant co-existing pathology are selected and that crucial information that allows detailed preoperative planning is available. Imaging evaluation helps to improve the outcome of LDLT for both donors and recipients, by improving the chances of graft survival and reducing the postoperative complication rate. In this review, we describe the history of LDLT and discuss in detail the application of imaging in donor assessment with emphasis on use of modern computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques.

  9. Donor Retention in Online Crowdfunding Communities: A Case Study of DonorsChoose.org

    OpenAIRE

    Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure

    2015-01-01

    Online crowdfunding platforms like DonorsChoose.org and Kickstarter allow specific projects to get funded by targeted contributions from a large number of people. Critical for the success of crowdfunding communities is recruitment and continued engagement of donors. With donor attrition rates above 70%, a significant challenge for online crowdfunding platforms as well as traditional offline non-profit organizations is the problem of donor retention. We present a large-scale study of millions ...

  10. Anxiety disorders and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykouras, L; Michopoulos, J

    2011-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental disorders in developed countries. On the other hand, obesity is recognized to be one of the greatest public health problems worldwide.The connection between body weight and mental disorders remains an open issue. Low body weight has been studied enough (anorexia nervosa is a typical example) but high body weight has not been addressed sufficiently. It is known that obesity has been related with depression. Although moderate level of evidence exists for a positive association between obesity and anxiety disorders, the exact association between these two conditions is not clear yet.The studies about this subject are quite few and they follow different methodology. Furthermore,anxiety disorders share some common elements such as anxiety, avoidance and chronicity, but they also present a great deal of differences in phenomenology, neurobiology, treatment response and prognosis. This factor makes general conclusions difficult to be drawn. Obesity has been associated with anxiety disorders as following: most of the studies show a positive relationship with panic disorder, mainly in women, with specific phobia and social phobia. Some authors have found a relationship with generalised anxiety disorder but a negative relationship has been also reported.Only few studies have found association between obesity and agoraphobia, panic attacks and posttraumatic stress disorder. There has not been reported a relationship between obesity and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The causal relationship from obesity to anxiety disorders and vice versa is still under investigation. Pharmacological factors used for obesity treatment, such as rimonabant,were associated with depression and anxiety. Questions still remain regarding the role of obesity severity and subtypes of anxiety disorders. Besides, it is well known that in the morbidly obese patients before undergoing surgical treatment, unusual prevalence of psychopathology, namely depression and anxiety disorders, is observed. Anxiety is also a common trait in personality disorders.There is no single personality type characteristic of the morbidly obese, they differ from the general population as their self-esteem and impulse control is lower. Obese patients present with passive-dependent and passive-aggressive personality traits, as well as a trend for somatization and problem denial. Their thinking is usually dichotomous and catastrophic. Obese patients also show low cooperativeness and fail to see the self as autonomous and integrated. When trying to participate in society roles they are subject to prejudice and discrimination and should be treated with concern to help alleviate their feelings of rejection and guilt. PMID:22271843

  11. Malaria and obesity: obese mice are resistant to cerebral malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Lombard Marie-Noëlle; Thouvenot Catherine; Depoix Delphine; Bourgouin Catherine; Robert Vincent; Grellier Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background The relationship between malaria and obesity are largely unknown. This is partly due to the fact that malaria occurs mainly in tropical areas where, until recently, obesity was not prevalent. It now appears, however, that obesity is emerging as a problem in developing countries. To investigate the possible role of obesity on the host-parasite response to malarial infection, this study applied a murine model, which uses the existence of genetically well characterized obese m...

  12. Obesity in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Cali, Anna M.G.; Caprio, Sonia

    2008-01-01

    Context: Although the prevalence rates of childhood obesity have seemingly been stable over the past few years, far too many children and adolescents are still obese. Childhood obesity, and its associated metabolic complications, is rapidly emerging as one of the greatest global challenges of the 21st century. About 110 million children are now classified as overweight or obese.

  13. Short- and long-term outcomes of kidney donors: a report from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Imed; Abdallah, Taieb Ben; Ounissi, Monder; Tahar, Gargah; Cherif, Mejda; Boubaker, Karima; Karoui, Cyrine; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Adberrahim, Ezzedine; El Younsi, Fethi; Kheder, Adel; Sfaxi, Mohamed; Derouiche, Amine; Chebil, Mohamed; Hachicha, Jamil; Mehiri, Mohamed Nabil; Skhiri, Habib; Elmay, Mezri; Harzallah, Kais; Elmanaa, Mezri Jamel; Hmida, Jalel

    2012-07-01

    Kidney transplantation remains the best treatment option of end-stage renal disease. Kidney donations are of particular interest with the currently increasing practice of living-donor transplantation. The purpose of this study was to analyze retrospectively the general health status as well as renal and cardiovascular consequences of living-related kidney donation. A total of 549 living-related kidney donors had donated their kidneys between 1986 and 2007. We attempted to contact all donors to determine short- and long-term outcome following kidney donation. All kidney donors who responded underwent detailed clinical and biochemical evaluation. The data were compared with age-matched health tables of the Tunisian general population. In all, 284 donors (52%) had a complete evaluation. They included 117 men and 167 women with a mean age of 42 ± 12 years. The major peri-operative complications that occurred in these donors included four cases of pneumothorax, six cases of surgical site infection, one case of phlebitis and one case of pulmonary embolism. None of the study cases died. The median length of hospital stay after donor nephrectomy was 6.5 days (range: 3-28 days). The median follow-up period was eight years. The mean creatinine clearance after donation was 90.4 ± 25 mL/min in men and 81.5 ± 27.2 mL/min in women. Proteinuria was >300 mg/24 h in 17 cases (5.9%). Fifty-eight (20.4%) donors became hypertensive and 19.6% of the men and 37.2% of the women became obese. Diabetes mellitus developed in 24 (8.4%), and was more common in patients who had significant weight gain. Our study suggests that kidney donors have minimal adverse effects on overall health status. Regular follow-up identifies at-risk populations and potentially modifiable factors. Creation of a national registry of living donors and their monitoring are an absolute necessity. PMID:22805410

  14. Obesity and economic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Roland; An, Ruopeng

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes current understanding of economic factors during the obesity epidemic and dispels some widely held, but incorrect, beliefs. Rising obesity rates coincided with increases in leisure time (rather than increased work hours), increased fruit and vegetable availability (rather than a decline in healthier foods), and increased exercise uptake. As a share of disposable income, Americans now have the cheapest food available in history, which fueled the obesity epidemic. Weight gain was surprisingly similar across sociodemographic groups or geographic areas, rather than specific to some groups (at every point in time; however, there are clear disparities). It suggests that if one wants to understand the role of the environment in the obesity epidemic, one needs to understand changes over time affecting all groups, not differences between subgroups at a given time. Although economic and technological changes in the environment drove the obesity epidemic, the evidence for effective economic policies to prevent obesity remains limited. Taxes on foods with low nutritional value could nudge behavior toward healthier diets, as could subsidies/discounts for healthier foods. However, even a large price change for healthy foods could close only part of the gap between dietary guidelines and actual food consumption. Political support has been lacking for even moderate price interventions in the United States and this may continue until the role of environmental factors is accepted more widely. As opinion leaders, clinicians play an important role in shaping the understanding of the causes of obesity. PMID:24853237

  15. Obesity in children & adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Manu; Kumar, R Krishna

    2010-11-01

    Worldwide, obesity trends are causing serious public health concern and in many countries threatening the viability of basic health care delivery. It is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and significantly increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. The last two decades have witnessed an increase in health care costs due to obesity and related issues among children and adolescents. Childhood obesity is a global phenomenon affecting all socio-economic groups, irrespective of age, sex or ethnicity. Aetiopathogenesis of childhood obesity is multi-factorial and includes genetic, neuroendocrine, metabolic, psychological, environmental and socio-cultural factors. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, psychological, orthopaedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary and renal disorders are seen in association with childhood obesity. The treatment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents requires a multidisciplinary, multi-phase approach, which includes dietary management, physical activity enhancement, restriction of sedentary behaviour, pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery. A holistic approach to tackle the childhood obesity epidemic needs a collection of activities including influencing policy makers and legislation, mobilizing communities, restructuring organizational practices, establishing coalitions and networks, empowering providers, imparting community education as well as enriching and reinforcing individual awareness and skills. The implications of this global phenomenon on future generations will be serious unless appropriate action is taken. PMID:21150012

  16. Obesity and Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Ejder Apay

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity; a state of being 20% over one?s normal weight due to excessive fat; that is, it is defined as the accumulation of too much fat in the body. The rate of obesity in the world has elevated. In the last two decades, it is considered that there have been increases in the rates of the obesity with changes in the socio-economic state and nutritional habits in Turkey as well as in modern western countries. The increase of the obesity is a matter of concern but the aspect which is much more matter of concern is in the increase of obesity in women at the reproductive age or gradually increasing rate of being overweight. If the pregnant woman is obese, most of the physiological changes occurring during pregnancy may be various. During their childbearing years, obese women are at an increased risk for pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes, labour induction, caesareans births, and failed vaginal birth following to caesarean. Nurses should have the knowledge to adapt the care they provide according to this knowledge and encourage the pregnant women to acquire behaviours which will improve their health. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(4.000: 345-350

  17. Obesity and renovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Lerman, Lilach O

    2015-08-15

    Obesity remains a prominent public health concern. Obesity not only contributes greatly to cardiovascular events but has also been identified to initiate and affect the progression of preexisting chronic kidney disease. The prevalence of renal artery stenosis is growing world-wide, especially in the elderly population and in individuals with atherosclerotic risk factors such as obesity. Prolonged renovascular disease causes inflammation and microvascular remodeling within the post-stenotic kidney, which promote tissue scarring and may account for irreversible renal damage. Obesity has been shown to aggravate kidney damage via several pathways, including exacerbation of microvascular regression and renal cell injury mediated by adipocytes and insulin resistance, thereby worsening the structural and functional outcomes of the kidney in renovascular disease. Dietary modification and inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have been shown to alleviate obesity-induced tissue injury and remodeling. Possibly, angiogenic factors may boost microvascular repair in the ischemic kidney in the obesity milieu. Novel therapeutic interventions targeting deleterious pathways that are activated by obesity and responsible for kidney damage need to be explored in future studies. PMID:26041447

  18. Predictors of hemoglobin in Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzé, Sebastian R; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S; Sørensen, Erik; Thørner, Lise W; Sørensen, Cecilie J; Rigas, Andreas S; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Ullum, Henrik; Erikstrup, Christian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that blood donors are at increased risk of iron deficiency and subsequent development of iron deficiency anemia. We aimed to investigate the effect of factors influencing hemoglobin (Hb) levels. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Initiated in 2010, the Danish Blood Donor Study...

  19. The Experience of Living Kidney Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Judith Belle; Karley, Mary Lou; Boudville, Neil; Bullas, Ruth; Garg, Amit X.; Muirhead, Norman

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the experiences, feelings, and ideas of living kidney donors. Using a phenomenological, qualitative research approach, the authors interviewed 12 purposefully selected living kidney donors (eight men and four women), who were between four and 29 years since donation. Interviews were audiotaped, and transcribed verbatim, and…

  20. Children as hematopoietic stem cell donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    In the past half-century, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has become standard treatment for a variety of diseases in children and adults, including selected hematologic malignancies, immunodeficiencies, hemoglobinopathies, bone marrow failure syndromes, and congenital metabolic disorders. There are 3 sources of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells: bone marrow, peripheral blood, and umbilical cord blood; each has its own benefits and risks. Children often serve as hematopoietic stem cell donors, most commonly for their siblings. HLA-matched biological siblings are generally preferred as donors because of reduced risks of transplant-related complications as compared with unrelated donors. This statement includes a discussion of the ethical considerations regarding minors serving as stem cell donors, using the traditional benefit/burden calculation from the perspectives of both the donor and the recipient. The statement also includes an examination of the circumstances under which a minor may ethically participate as a hematopoietic stem cell donor, how the risks can be minimized, what the informed-consent process should entail, the role for a donor advocate (or some similar mechanism), and other ethical concerns. The American Academy of Pediatrics holds that minors can ethically serve as stem cell donors when specific criteria are fulfilled. PMID:20100753

  1. Recipients' views on payment of sperm donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravelingien, An; Provoost, Veerle; Wyverkens, Elia; Buysse, Ann; De Sutter, Petra; Pennings, Guido

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore how recipients viewed payment of sperm donors. The study was conducted in Belgium, where, as in many countries, sperm donors receive recompense for their time and expenses. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with 34 heterosexual and lesbian couples who, at the time of data collection, had at least one donor-conceived child aged 7-10 years or who were undergoing donor conception treatment. Although participants commonly described the issue of financial compensation as something that did not really concern them, all supported the idea that some level of payment was acceptable or even necessary. The participants also identified several ways in which donor payment offered advantages to their own position as (future) parents. Although the idea is commonly rehearsed that sperm donation is a gift and that monetary transaction for conception is demeaning, the participants of this study did not generally share this view. To them, a small financial return served as a symbolic acknowledgement of the donor's contribution and helped secure the type of relationship they expected from their donor. There was clearly concern, however, over high payments and the risk of attracting the wrong kind of donor. PMID:26099446

  2. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... count__/__total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 348 348 Loading... Loading... ... 2011 Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former NCI ...

  3. Preparing Live Donor for Kidney Donation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Mahdavi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In order to select the most appropriate donor and minimize psychological and physical complications in the kidney donors, it is of high importance to prepare the donor meticulously. The essential respective items are reviewed in this study.Materials and Methods: The available published literature and papers presented in Medline from 1983 to 2003 were reviewed.Results: One the sources of sources of kidney donation is the live donor which is mostly used in Iran. Similarly, due to long waiting lists of kidney recipients, live donor kidney transplantation have been increasingly used in developed countries. Consequently, several aspects of this issue have been considered and specific recommendations have been discussed; anatomy of the donor's kidney, age, ABO blood group, viral infections, weight, HLA type compatibility, psychological status, and diseases such as diabetes, ADPKD, and Alport syndrome should be evaluated in donation candidates. Conclusion: Live donor kidney donation has the advantage of elective and programmed transplantation over cadaveric transplantation. However, removal of an intact organ from the body of a normal individual may lead to complications, as it may so in any other major surgical operation. Thus, it is strongly recommended to select the most appropriate donor patiently by a series of accurate evaluations.

  4. Payment for donor kidneys: pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E A; Friedman, A L

    2006-03-01

    Continuous growth of the end stage renal disease population treated by dialysis, outpaces deceased donor kidneys available, lengthens the waiting time for a deceased donor transplant. As estimated by the United States Department of Health & Human Services: '17 people die each day waiting for transplants that can't take place because of the shortage of donated organs.' Strategies to expand the donor pool--public relations campaigns and Drivers' license designation--have been mainly unsuccessful. Although illegal in most nations, and viewed as unethical by professional medical organizations, the voluntary sale of purchased donor kidneys now accounts for thousands of black market transplants. The case for legalizing kidney purchase hinges on the key premise that individuals are entitled to control of their body parts even to the point of inducing risk of life. One approach to expanding the pool of kidney donors is to legalize payment of a fair market price of about 40,000 dollars to donors. Establishing a federal agency to manage marketing and purchase of donor kidneys in collaboration with the United Network for Organ Sharing might be financially self-sustaining as reduction in costs of dialysis balances the expense of payment to donors. PMID:16482095

  5. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a) Whole blood donors shall meet the criteria for donor suitability prescribed in § 640.3. (b) Plasmapheresis donors shall meet the criteria for donor suitability prescribed in § 640.63, excluding the phrase...

  6. PATHOMORPHOLOGY OF ZERO BIOPSIES OF DONOR KIDNEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Arefjev

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There is well known fact that kidney transplants from Extended Criteria Donors may increase risk of De- layed Graft Function and Primary Non-Function of transplants. We have collected and tested 65 «zero» kidney biopsies from cadaver donors aged from 19 to 71 years old. In the pool of elderly donors who died from cerebrovascular accident the frequency of nephrosclerosis presentation was higher than in donors of yonger age who died from craniocephalic trauma. Nevertheless in the general donor pool the number of sclerosed glomeruli was no more than 12%. We did not meet at all in the whole volume of material any bi- opsy with the severe degree of arteriosclerosis. The «zero» biopsies of cadaver kidneys is quite usable and unexpensive tool to measure the degree of nephrosclerosis in order to exclude kidneys which are not fitable for transplantation. 

  7. Potential organ donor audit in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hegarty, M

    2010-11-01

    As increasing demand for organs is a challenge for transplant services worldwide it is essential to audit the process of organ donation. To address this, a national audit of potential organ donors was undertaken across hospitals with Intensive Care Units (N = 36). Questionnaires were returned on all patients (n = 2073) who died in these units from 1\\/9\\/07-31\\/8\\/08; 200 (10%) of these patients were considered for Brain Stem Testing (BST), 158 patients (79%) were diagnosed Brain Stem Dead (BSD) and 138 patients (87%) became potential donors. Consent for donation was given by 92 (69%) next of kin and 90 potential donors (65%) became organ donors. There was no evidence of a large number of potential organ donors being missed. Recommendations included completion of BSTs on all appropriate patients, development of support on BST, referral of all BSD patients to the Organ Procurement Service; enhanced co-ordination within hospitals and sustained information\\/education campaigns.

  8. Contraceptive Patterns of College Students Who Experienced Early Coitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Murray L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A study investigated the coital behavior, contraceptive use, and attitudes of 20-year-old male and female college students who experienced sexual intercourse early in adolescence (at 16 or younger) as contrasted to those who experienced coitus in late adolescence. Results indicate that older adolescents were more likely to use contraceptives and,…

  9. Answering the Call: Facilitating Responsive Services for Students Experiencing Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grothaus, Tim; Lorelle, Sonya; Anderson, Kie; Knight, Jasmine

    2011-01-01

    After a review of the literature elucidating the status quo for students experiencing homelessness, this article shares the results of a mixed methods study. With a phenomenological qualitative emphasis, the mixed methods study explored the perceptions of parents and children experiencing homelessness regarding their academic needs and the…

  10. Emotions Experienced by Students Taking Online and Classroom Quizzes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Jeffrey R.; Allan, Wesley D.; Teoro, Samantha M.

    2012-01-01

    Emotions experienced during online academic examinations may differ from emotions experienced in the traditional classroom testing situation. Students in a "Psychology of Learning" course (n = 61) completed assessments of emotions before and after a quiz in each of the following settings: online at their own choice of time and location; online in…

  11. Leadership Development for Experienced New Zealand Principals: Perceptions of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardno, Carol; Youngs, Howard

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the perceptions of approximately 300 experienced New Zealand principals who participated in a pilot leadership development initiative funded by the Ministry of Education. The Experienced Principals Development Programme (EPDP) underwent a rigorous evaluation that included formative (mid-point) and summative (end-point)…

  12. Five Years on: Leadership Challenges of an Experienced CEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarros, James C.; Sarros, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    Experienced leaders face challenges that demand different leadership approaches to those of inexperienced leaders. The purposes of this article are to: (1) explore the leadership initiatives prominent for experienced leaders compared with inexperienced leaders; (2) examine the relationship between transformational leadership and these initiatives;…

  13. Good Results in Transplantation of >80 Years Aged Donor Kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Margreiter

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We retrospectively analyzed the results of totally 6 patients who received a renal graft from >80 years aged donors in Eurotransplant senior program. Patients and methods: Between May 1999 and March 2007 a total of 70 kidney transplants from donors aged over 65 years were given to recipients over 65 at our center. Six out of them, mean age 66,0 (65-68 years, received organs from donors, mean age 81,3 years, who had no history of hypertension, diabetes, smoking or obesity, and a latest mean serum creatinine of 0,7 (0,7-0,9 mg/dL. Baseline biopsy of four grafts showed in two of them a 20% / 8% glomerulosclerosis and mild tubular atrophy but otherwise normal histology. The mean cold storage time was 11:35 (7:19 – 16:02 hours. The initial immunosuppression was CNI-free in five patients consisting of an IL-II receptor antibody + MMF + Steroids. Cyclosporine A was started at day 8,2 (7-10, when graft function had stabilized. In one patient each Belatacept or CyA were given from the beginning, according to a study protocol. Results: The ATN-rate was 2/6. Altogether 2 biopsy-proven acute rejection episodes were reversed by pulsed steroids. Apart from one Polyomavirus infection which led to graft loss at month 9, all other infectious complications, mostly urinary tract infections, were treated successfully. Other postoperative complications were caused by preexisting comorbidities and could be managed. One patient died from an intracerebral B-cell Lymphoma at month 27 with a functioning graft. The 2-years patient / graft survival was 100 / 83,3%. The actual mean serum creatinine of the survivors was 1,6 (0,7-2,4 mg/dL. Conclusion: We conclude that good results can be achieved with kidneys from donors over 80 years without cardiac risk factors and good renal function and if nephrotoxic drugs are used with caution.

  14. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with m...

  15. Combating Child Obesity in America

    OpenAIRE

    Canavan, Erin

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the child obesity epidemic that is gripping our nation, and explores various causes and treatments that may help to defeat child obesity. First there is a description of the obesity epidemic, its causal factors, and its consequences. Additionally there is a summary and critique of the FDA’s obesity report and recommendations. There is a description of drug treatments that are available for obese children and why more research is necessary to ensure the s...

  16. Obesity in Libya: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Elmehdawi, Rafik R.; Abdulwahab M. Albarsha

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic resulting in major morbidity and premature death. About 64% of Libyan adults are either overweight or obese, obesity progressively increasing with age, and two times more common among Libyan women than men. Cases of obesity and overweight are increasing in Libya as well as all over the world, with genetic and environmental factors playing a contributory role. With its known significant morbidity and mortality, obesity should draw the attention of the healthcare co...

  17. Donor, dad, or…? Young adults with lesbian parents' experiences with known donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Allen, Katherine R

    2013-06-01

    In this exploratory qualitative study of 11 young adults, ages 19-29 years, we examine how young people who were raised by lesbian parents make meaning out of and construct their relationships with known donors. In-depth interviews were conducted to examine how participants defined their family composition, how they perceived the role of their donors in their lives, and how they negotiated their relationships with their donors. Findings indicate that mothers typically chose known donors who were family friends, that the majority of participants always knew who their donors were, and that their contact with donors ranged from minimal to involved. Further, participants perceived their donors in one of three ways: as strictly donors and not members of their family; as extended family members but not as parents; and as fathers. The more limited role of donors in participants' construction of family relationships sheds light on how children raised in lesbian, gay, and bisexual families are contributing to the redefinition and reconstruction of complex kinship arrangements. Our findings hold implications for clinicians who work with lesbian-mother families, and suggest that young adulthood is an important developmental phase during which interest in and contact with the donor may shift, warranting a transfer of responsibility from mother to offspring in terms of managing the donor-child relationship. PMID:23763691

  18. Prevalence of Obesity among Undergraduate Students of Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijagun, Ijebu-Ode

    OpenAIRE

    O.A. Omotayo; J.O. Olusanya

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, developing countries like Nigeria have been experiencing a nutritional transition in food choices from the typical starchy (mainly carbohydrate diets) to the fast food pattern and as a result of this, the dietary habits of young adults like university students have been affected. Thus, overweight and obesity are increasingly being observed among the young adults. This study assesses the prevalence of obesity on a sample of students from Tai Solarin University of Education in ...

  19. Behavioral risk factors for obesity during health transition in Vanuatu, South Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Vilar, Miguel; Wilson, Michelle; Soloway, Laura E; DeHuff, Christa; Chan, Chim; Tarivonda, Len; Regenvanu, Ralph; Kaneko, Akira; Lum, J Koji; Garruto, Ralph M.

    2013-01-01

    The South Pacific archipelago of Vanuatu, like many developing countries, is currently experiencing a shift in disease burdens from infectious to chronic diseases with economic development. A rapid increase in obesity prevalence represents one component of this “health transition.” We sought to identify behaviors associated with measures of obesity in Vanuatu. We surveyed 534 adults from three islands varying in level of economic development. We measured height; weight; waist and hip circumfe...

  20. Modifiable risk factors for overweight and obesity in children and adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Codogno Jamile S; Segatto Aline FM; Bastos Karolynne D-N; Buonani Camila; Fernandes Romulo A; Duncan Elizabeth K; Duncan Scott; Gomes Igor C; Freitas Ismael F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Brazil is currently experiencing a nutrition transition: the displacement of traditional diets with foods high in saturated fat, sodium, and cholesterol and an increase in sedentary lifestyles. Despite these trends, our understanding of child obesity in Brazil is limited. Thus, the aims of this study were (1) to investigate the current prevalence of overweight and obesity in a large sample of children and adolescents living in São Paulo, Brazil, and (2) to identify the lif...

  1. Current obesity drug treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mancini, Marcio C.; Alfredo Halpern

    2006-01-01

    Pharmacological treatment of obesity is an area of sudden changes,development of new drugs and treatment propositions. This articlepresents information on physiological agents that are currentlybeing used as well as drugs that were widely used but are nomore available.

  2. Parents and Childhood Obesity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... matters to you. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Nutrition Obesity ... MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated ...

  3. Parents and Childhood Obesity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... filled out questionnaires designed to examine dietary intake, physical activity, weight control behaviors, family and home environment. The ... health news that matters to you. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Nutrition Obesity in Children Parenting About ...

  4. Parents and Childhood Obesity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... overweight or obese. But the highest levels of food restriction were seen when both parents and ... Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on ...

  5. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Diabetes Heart Disease Hepatitis HIV/AIDS Immunizations Infant Heath & Mortality Mental ... and African Americans African American women have the highest rates of being overweight or obese compared to other groups in the U.S. About four ...

  6. Obesity and the electrocardiogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, M A; Birchem, J A; Senkottaiyan, N; Alpert, M A

    2005-11-01

    Obesity is associated with a wide variety of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities. Most of these reflect alterations in cardiac morphology. Some serve as markers of risk for sudden death. Key ECG abnormalities or alterations occurring with disproportionately high frequency in obese subjects include: leftward shifts of the P wave QRS and T wave axes, various changes in P wave morphology, low QRS voltage, various markers of left ventricular hypertrophy (particularly the Cornell voltage and product), T wave flattening in the inferior and lateral leads, lengthening of the corrected QT interval and prolonged QT interval duration. Alterations in the signal-averaged ECG and in heart rate variability may be arrhythmogenic. Cardiac arrhythmias have been described in obese subjects, but are often accompanied by left ventricular hypertrophy or the sleep apnea syndrome. Many of these ECG abnormalities are reversible with substantial weight loss. Thus, obesity is associated with a wide variety of ECG abnormalities, many of which are corrected by weight loss. PMID:16246213

  7. Obesity in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can also lead to obesity. Family, friends, and school setting help shape a child’s diet and exercise ... attacks due to coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure , and stroke later in life Bone and joint ...

  8. Medical therapy for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, George A

    2010-01-01

    Obesity results from a prolonged small positive energy imbalance, and treatment needs to reverse this imbalance. Many different diets have been tried to treat obesity, and weight loss occurs with all of them. There is currently no evidence that supports the superiority of one macronutrient composition for diets over any other. The principal effect seems to be the degree of adherence to the prescribed calorie reduction. Obesity drugs have been developed that tap brain mechanisms for controlling feeding and the gastrointestinal tract and its peptides. Orlistat blocks intestinal lipase and produces modest weight loss. Sibutramine is a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor that has a warning on its label from the US Food and Drug Administration because of cardiovascular risk. Its marketing has been suspended in Europe. Several drug combinations are on the horizon for treatment of obesity. PMID:20960545

  9. Obesity and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-11

    This women's health podcast focuses on obesity in women and girls. It discusses obesity-related health risks and includes tips to help achieve and maintain a healthy weight.  Created: 5/11/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/11/2009.

  10. Childhood Obesity PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the August 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. The rate of obesity among low-income preschoolers has declined, but one in eight is still obese. This program briefly discusses what can be done.  Created: 8/6/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/6/2013.

  11. OBESITY IN CANCER SURVIVAL

    OpenAIRE

    Parekh, Niyati; Chandran, Urmila; Bandera, Elisa V.

    2012-01-01

    Although obesity is a well known risk factor for several cancers, its role on cancer survival is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the current evidence evaluating the impact of body adiposity on the prognosis of the three most common obesity-related cancers: prostate, colorectal, and breast. We included 33 studies of breast cancer, six studies of prostate cancer, and eight studies of colorectal cancer. We note that the evidence over-represents breast can...

  12. Soy Consumption and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Maciej Henneberg; Dante Roccisano

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is now present worldwide, including China, India and developing countries. It now seems no longer acceptable to argue that obesity can simply be explained in terms of caloric consumption only using simple concept of energy in and energy out. There may be specific causes of altered metabolism that produce nutritional imbalances. Individual variation in response to food intake may also be considered. Specific substances in the food chain can influence meta-bolism towards an increase in ...

  13. Maternal obesity and preeclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    Azar Aghamohammadi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a modern day epidemic. The incidence appears to be rapidly increasing in bothdeveloped and developing countries and has become much more obvious in the last decade.Aim& Objective: The present research was done with the aim of studying the effects of obesity definedas a first trimester maternal body mass index >30 on the preeclampsia.Methods: This study was a descriptive-comparative study two hundred fifty singleton pregnancies ofwomen with first trimester BMI >30 who de...

  14. Obesity in adults

    OpenAIRE

    DeLaet, David; Schauer, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    About one third of the US population and one quarter of the UK population are obese, with increased risks of hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, CVD, osteoarthritis, and some cancers. Fewer than 10% of overweight or obese adults aged 40 to 49 years revert to a normal body weight after 4 years.Nearly 5 million US adults used prescription weight-loss medication between 1996 and 1998, but one quarter of all users were not overweight.

  15. Parity and obesity.

    OpenAIRE

    Heliövaara, M; Aromaa, A

    1981-01-01

    Parity was found to be closely related to adiposity and prevalence of obesity in a population sample of 17 688 non-pregnant women aged 25-84. The women took part in multiphasic screening examinations in various parts of Finland in 1966-72. The relationship between parity and obesity was independent of other factors such as +geographical area, region, marital status, occupation, smoking habits, or incapacity for work. Pregnant women were considered to be an important target population for nutr...

  16. Pharmacotherapy for Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Joo, Jong Kil; Lee, Kyu Sup

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is an important risk factor for metabolic disease and various cancers. Treatments of obesity include lifestyle intervention, pharmacotherapy, and bariatric surgery. If weight loss with lifestyle intervention is only modest, pharmacotherapy might be needed. Pharmacotherapy agents can be grouped by treatment period as short term or long term use agent. Several sympathomimetic drugs such as benzphetamine, diethylpropion, phendimetrazine and phentermine, are approved for short term treatm...

  17. Treatment for morbid obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Carmichael, A

    1999-01-01

    There is no single unifying theory to explain the aetiology of obesity but several environmental factors, such as decreased physical activity and increased fat intake may contribute to its development in genetically predisposed individuals. Dietary and pharmacological treatments of morbid obesity have been proven to be unsuccessful. Modern surgical treatments have been shown to be effective in achieving significant weight loss with consequent reduction in morbidity. Despite the fact that surg...

  18. Environmental Contaminants and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Rönn, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide problem affecting both children and adults. Genetic, physiological, environmental, psychological, social and economic factors interact in varying degrees, influencing body weight and fat distribution and the progress of obesity. Moreover, some anthropogenic chemicals have proven to be endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with the potential to interfere with different actions of hormones in the body. EDCs may thereby disrupt homeostasis, modifying developmental, behavio...

  19. Genetics of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    O'Rahilly, Stephen; Farooqi, I. Sadaf

    2006-01-01

    Considerable attention is currently being paid to the secular changes in food intake and physical activity that underlie the increase in the prevalence of obesity that is apparent in many societies. While this is laudable it would be unwise to view these environmental factors in isolation from the biological factors that normally control body weight and composition and the compelling evidence that inter-individual differences in susceptibility to obesity have strong genetic determinants. This...

  20. Chronobiological Effects on Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Bray, Molly S; Young, Martin E.

    2012-01-01

    The development of obesity is the consequence of a multitude of complex interactions between both genetic and environmental factors. It has been suggested that the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity over the past 30 years has been the result of environmental changes that have enabled the full realization of genetic susceptibility present in the population. Among the many environmental alterations that have occurred in our recent history is the ever-increasing dyssynchrony between ...

  1. Dietary treatment of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg

    2006-01-01

    The fast global increased prevalence of obesity has been classifiedas an epidemics by the World Health Organization. The etiology ofobesity is very complex and involves genetic and environmentalfactors. One of the main factors that trigger obesity is sedentarylife, as well as the great availability of fat-rich foods that present ahigh energy density. According to the NHANES II, although thepopulation has decreased the ingestion of fat, the total consumptionof food has increased. The main fact...

  2. Cultivating childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Greene-Martin, DeCleasha

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the levels of obesity in the United States has risen greatly especially amongst children. Doctors, psychologists, and other scientists have been studying the growing problem for years. Implications for childhood obesity not only have enormous physical consequences but emotional repercussions which can affect the child’s academic and social development. A number of factors have been identified as having an effect on these children; family life reveals the grocery store habits o...

  3. 20 CFR 401.200 - Blood donor locator service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood donor locator service. 401.200...and Information § 401.200 Blood donor locator service. (a) General...residence or post office box) of blood donors whose blood donations...

  4. 21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for donor suitability prescribed in §...

  5. Our experience with deceased organ donor maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Meena

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Deceased organ donors in an intensive care unit (ICU are the richest source of organs for transplantation. Careful donor maintenance plays a vital role in the successful functioning of the organ in the recipient. Aims : Early identification of brain stem death (BSD in the ICU, problems and management in donor maintenance till retrieval are the main objectives. Materials and Methods : BSD was identified in a level I trauma center over a period of eight years (1996-2004 using UK code. After screening for fitness, they were maintained to achieve normothermia, systolic BP > 90 mm Hg, CVP 8-10 cm water, urine output > 80 ml/hour and normal acid base balance. Results: 168 cases of BSD were maintained, 30 with identity unknown. Common transient complications noted were hypotension (68%, hypokalemia (62%, hypothermia (12%, diabetes insipidus (70%. Brain stem death was identified early and resuscitated to maintain normal tissue perfusion. 17 (12.3% consent for organ donation was obtained. Organs (24 kidneys and one liver were retrieved from 12 donors. Four donors sustained cardiac arrest before retrieval. Conclusion: Early recognition of brain stem death and prompty correction of hemodyanamic instability is the key to deceased donor maintenance. Optimal care of potential donor translates to care of multiple recipients.

  6. Maternal Methyl Donors Supplementation during Lactation Prevents the Hyperhomocysteinemia Induced by a High-Fat-Sucrose Intake by Dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Cordero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Maternal perinatal nutrition may program offspring metabolic features. Epigenetic regulation is one of the candidate mechanisms that may be affected by maternal dietary methyl donors intake as potential controllers of plasma homocysteine levels. Thirty-two Wistar pregnant rats were randomly assigned into four dietary groups during lactation: control, control supplemented with methyl donors, high-fat-sucrose and high-fat-sucrose supplemented with methyl donors. Physiological outcomes in the offspring were measured, including hepatic mRNA expression and global DNA methylation after weaning. The newborns whose mothers were fed the obesogenic diet were heavier longer and with a higher adiposity and intrahepatic fat content. Interestingly, increased levels of plasma homocysteine induced by the maternal high-fat-sucrose dietary intake were prevented in both sexes by maternal methyl donors supplementation. Total hepatic DNA methylation decreased in females due to maternal methyl donors administration, while Dnmt3a hepatic mRNA levels decreased accompanying the high-fat-sucrose consumption. Furthermore, a negative association between Dnmt3a liver mRNA levels and plasma homocysteine concentrations was found. Maternal high-fat-sucrose diet during lactation could program offspring obesity features, while methyl donors supplementation prevented the onset of high hyperhomocysteinemia. Maternal dietary intake also affected hepatic DNA methylation metabolism, which could be linked with the regulation of the methionine-homocysteine cycle.

  7. [Contraception and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobert, M; Pigeyre, M; Gronier, H; Catteau-Jonard, S; Robin, G

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing massively over several decades in industrialized countries. Obese women are sexually active but they use fewer contraceptive methods and are at high risk of unintended pregnancy. In addition, obesity is an important risk factor for venous thromboembolism events and arterial thrombosis (myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke). All of these data are to be considered in choosing a contraceptive method for obese women. Except depot medroxyprogesterone acetate injection, the progestin-only contraceptives (progestin only pills and etonogestrel subdermal implant) and the intra-uterine devices are the preferred contraceptive methods in obese women. The combined estrogen-progestin contraceptives (pill, patch and vaginal ring) may be proposed in very strict conditions (no other associated vascular risk factor). Obesity does not increase the risk of failure of most contraceptive methods. Bariatric surgery is a complex situation. It requires to program a possible pregnancy and contraception is needed for several months. Some bariatric surgical techniques such as by-pass can induce gastrointestinal malabsorption. In this situation, all oral contraceptives are not recommended because of a higher risk of failure. PMID:26527416

  8. Dietary Polyphenols and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Meydani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of overweight and obesity and their associated metabolic disorders are considered a major threat to the public’s health. While several diet and exercise programs are available for weight loss and prevention of weight regain, progress is often slow and disappointing. Recently, natural bioactive phytochemicals present in foods have been discovered for their potential health benefit effects on the prevention of chronic disorders such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory and metabolic diseases including obesity.Polyphenols are a class of naturally-occurring phytochemicals, of which some such as catechins, anthocynines, resveratrol and curcumin have been shown to modulate physiological and molecular pathways that are involved in energy metabolism, adiposity, and obesity. The potential in vivo, beneficial effects of these polyphenols on adiposity and obesity as complementary agents in the up-regulation of energy expenditure have emerged by investigating these compounds in cell cultures, animal models of obesity and in some human clinical and epidemiological studies. In this brief review, the efficacy of the above-named polyphenols and their potential efficacy to modulate obesity and some associated disorders are discussed.

  9. Psoriasis and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Gürer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, it has been thought that a strong association exists between metabolic syndrome, specifically obesity, and psoriasis. Obesity is a multifactorial disease affected by both genetic and environmental factors. Adipokines (e.g. leptin secreted by the adipose tissue are believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. The main role of leptin is to adjust metabolism by controlling appetite. Serum leptin levels in patients with severe and moderate psoriasis were found to be higher than in normal control groups. In many similar studies, leptin secretion has been found to stimulate keratinocyte proliferation, which is one of the characteristics of psoriasis. Although many studies showed increased prevalence of obesity in psoriasis patients, few others reported development of obesity in psoriasis patients. Additionally, obesity was found to affect treatment responses not only in classical systemic/topical treatment approaches in psoriasis, but also in newer biological treatments. Overall, increasing epidemiological evidence suggests strong association between obesity and psoriasis, increase in serum leptin levels is thought to have a major role, and weight loss may have significant impact on response to treatment.

  10. Dissociating the Neural Correlates of Experiencing and Imagining Affective Touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Molly V; Anderson, Laura C; Bolling, Danielle Z; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Kaiser, Martha D

    2015-09-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study examined experiencing and imagining gentle arm and palm touch to determine whether these processes activate overlapping or distinct brain regions. Although past research shows brain responses to experiencing and viewing touch, this study investigates neural processing of touch absent of visual stimulation. C-tactile (CT) nerves, present in hairy skin, respond specifically to caress-like touch. CT-targeted touch activates "social brain" regions including insula, right posterior superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, temporal poles, and orbitofrontal cortex ( McGlone et al. 2012). We addressed whether activations reflect sensory input-driven mechanisms, cognitive-based mechanisms, or both. We identified a functional dissociation between insula regions. Posterior insula responded during experienced touch. Anterior insula responded during both experienced and imagined touch. To isolate stimulus-independent mechanisms recruited during physical experience of CT-targeted touch, we identified regions active to experiencing and imagining such touch. These included amygdala and temporal pole. We posit that the dissociation of insula function suggests posterior and anterior insula involvement in distinct yet interacting processes: coding physical stimulation and affective interpretation of touch. Regions active during experiencing and imagining CT-targeted touch are associated with social processes indicating that imagining touch conjures affective aspects of experiencing such touch. PMID:24700583

  11. Risk of obesity in immigrants compared with Swedes in two deprived neighbourhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundquist Kristina

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a strong social gradient in the prevalence of obesity, there is little scientific understanding of obesity in people settled in deprived neighbourhoods. Few studies are actually based on objectively measured data using random sampling of residents in deprived neighbourhoods. In addition, most studies use a crude measure, the body mass index, to estimate obesity. This is of concern because it may cause inaccurate estimations of the true prevalence and give the wrong picture of the factors associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of, and analyse the sociodemographic factors associated with, three indices of obesity in different ethnic groups settled in two deprived neighbourhoods in Sweden. Methods Height and weight, waist circumference and body fat percentage were objectively measured in a random sample (n = 289. Sociodemographic data were obtained through a survey. Established cut-offs were used to determine obesity. Country of birth was categorized as Swedish, Other European, and Middle Eastern. Odds ratios were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. Results One third of the sample was classified as obese overall, with 39.0% of women being abdominally obese. After adjusting for age, we found higher odds of obesity in Middle Eastern women than in Swedish women regardless of outcome with odds ratios ranging between 2.74 and 5.53. Men of other European origin had higher odds of BMI obesity than Swedish men. Most associations between country of birth and obesity remained in the full model. Conclusion This study demonstrates the magnitude of the obesity problem and the need for prevention programmes targeting native and immigrant adults in deprived neighbourhoods in Sweden. The initiatives should also focus on particular groups, e.g. immigrant women and those experiencing economic difficulties. Further studies are needed on behavioural and environmental factors influencing the risk of obesity in residents settled in deprived neighbourhoods.

  12. RETROPERITONEOSCOPIC DONOR NEPHRECTOMY: EXPERIENCE WITH TEN OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Perlin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We modified the method of retroperitoneoscopic live donor nephrectomy and evaluated results of first 10 pro- cedures. We performed four left- and six right-sided donor nephrectomy. There were no conversions to open or hand-assisted surgery. All organs have been successfully transplanted. Retroperitoneoscopic live donor nephrec- tomy is safe and feasible. The method has three main advantages over conventional laparoscopic nephrectomy: the absence of contact with bowel, spleen, liver and other intra-abdominal structures, more comfortable access to the renal artery, absence of intraperitoneal pressure elevation. 

  13. Donor policy rules and aid effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

    2008-01-01

    The present paper examines the macroeconomic impact of aid, by introducing endogenous aid allocations into a neoclassical growth framework. On this basis it is shown that donor policies can have important implications for the trajectory of recipients' GDP per capita. Depending on specific donor...... policy choices, aid disbursements may lead to faster transitional growth, stagnation or cyclical growth. Moreover, the analysis also suggests that donor policies may be part of the reason why foreign aid is not found to be uniformly effective in raising long-run productivity across recipients...

  14. Eating behaviour and stress: a pathway to obesity

    OpenAIRE

    SarahJSpencer

    2014-01-01

    Stress causes or contributes to a huge variety of diseases and disorders. Recent evidence suggests obesity and other eating-related disorders may be among these. Immediately after a stressful event is experienced, there is a corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH)-mediated suppression of food intake. This diverts the body’s resources away from the less pressing need to find and consume food, prioritizing fight, flight, or withdrawal behaviours so the stressful event can be dealt with. In the ho...

  15. Eating behavior and stress: a pathway to obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Sominsky, Luba; Spencer, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Stress causes or contributes to a huge variety of diseases and disorders. Recent evidence suggests obesity and other eating-related disorders may be among these. Immediately after a stressful event is experienced, there is a corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH)-mediated suppression of food intake. This diverts the body’s resources away from the less pressing need to find and consume food, prioritizing fight, flight, or withdrawal behaviors so the stressful event can be dealt with. In the hou...

  16. Gestational nutrition and the development of obesity during adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendra Raghow

    2012-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate a strong link between intrauterine under-nutrition and propensity of such offspring for developing obesity and metabolic syndrome in later life. Garg et al investigated the mechanistic basis of this phenomenon and its potential reversibility in rats. The authors found that rats experiencing gestational under-nutrition but fed normally after birth (IUGR) gained body mass with excessive subcutaneous and visceral fat. The IUGR rats were also metabolically ...

  17. Responses to recipient and donor B cells by genetically donor T cells from human haploidentical chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following administration of haploidentical stem cells to infants with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), mature T cells of donor karyotype appear later in the recipient without causing graft-versus-host disease. To investigate the effect of the host environment on the responsiveness of these genetically donor T cells, blood B and T lymphocytes from 6 SCID recipients, their parental donors and unrelated controls were purified by double SRBC rosetting. T cells were stimulated by irradiated B cells at a 1:1 ratio in 6 day cultures. Engrafted T cells of donor karyotype gave much smaller responses to irradiated genetically recipient B cells than did fresh donor T cells. Moreover, engrafted T cells of donor karyotype from two of the three SCIDs who are longest post-transplantation responded more vigorously (14,685 and 31,623 cpm) than fresh donor T cells (5141 and 22,709 cpm) to donor B cells. These data indicate that T lymphocytes which have matured from donor stem cells in the recipient microenvironment behave differently from those that have matured in the donor

  18. Hemodynamic Changes in Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rafiei

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Everyday, millions of people around the world go through phlebotomy, either to donate blood or for therapeutic intention. The most important worrisome adverse effects are hemodynamic alterations. In this study, hemodynamic changes following blood donation were assessed. Methods & Materials: Three hundred laborers who donated blood voluntarily were enrolled in this study. Blood pressure (BP and pulse rate were measured before the procedure, ten minutes afterwards, and one week following phlebotomy. Hemoglobin (Hgb and hematocrit (Hct were also determined prior to and one week after phlebotomy. Finally, results before and after donation were compared with each other. Results: 242 volunteers had normal BP and 58 were hypertensive. The mean systolic blood pressures (SBP before phlebotomy, ten minutes after the procedure, and one week later were 120, 117, and 122 mmHg, respectively. During the same periods of time, the mean of diastolic blood pressures (DBP were 77 , 78 and 78 mmHg , in order , while pulse rates on average were 80 , 82 and 76 beats/minute . None of the aforementioned changes were clinically significant. After one week, Hgb decreased by about 0.3 g/dl (P<0.001 and Hct declined on average of 1.7 (P<0.001. Forty six individuals had high DBP and one week after donation, their DBP was reduced by 7 mmHg. Age, body mass index and smoking did not have any significant effect on hemodynamic status. Conclusion: Hemodynamic changes in healthy blood donors were not clinically significant. It seems that DBP drops desirably in hypertensive individuals. This needs to be evaluated more carefully in future studies.

  19. Attitudes towards disclosure and relationship to donor offspring among a national cohort of identity-release oocyte and sperm donors

    OpenAIRE

    Lampic, C; Skoog Svanberg, A; Sydsjö, Gunilla

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What are oocyte donors and sperm donors attitudes towards disclosure and relationship to donor offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER: Oocyte and sperm donors in an identity-release donor programme support disclosure to donor offspring and have overall positive or neutral attitudes towards future contact with offspring. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: There is a global trend towards open-identity gamete donation with an increasing number of countries introducing legislation allowing only identifiab...

  20. OBESITY: OVERVIEW OF AN EPIDEMIC

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Nia; Catenacci, Vicki; Wyatt, Holly R.; Hill, James O.

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing recognition of the problem, the obesity epidemic continues in the U.S., and obesity rates are increasing around the world. The latest estimates are that approximately 34% of adults and 15–20% of children and adolescents in the U.S. are obese. Obesity affects every segment of the U.S. population. Obesity increases the risk of many chronic diseases in children and adults. The epidemic of obesity arose gradually over time, apparently from a small, consistent degree of positive en...

  1. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show less ... Terms Privacy Policy & Safety Send feedback Try something new! Loading... Working... Sign in to add this to ...

  2. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe ... later? Sign in to add this video to a playlist. Sign in Share More Report Need to ...

  3. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on Jul 19, 2011 Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this ... Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and peripheral blood stem cell ...

  4. RESULTS OF THE SPECIAL BLOOD DONOR DAY

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood was collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff want to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.

  5. RESULTS OF THE SPECIAL BLOOD DONOR DAY

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood were collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff wish to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.

  6. Alginate dressing as a donor site haemostat.

    OpenAIRE

    Groves, A. R.; Lawrence, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    An alginate fibre dressing has been used to reduce blood loss from skin graft donor sites. Significant haemostasis has been achieved in the immediate post surgery phase and no adverse reactions observed.

  7. Simulator performance differences between experienced and novice bus drivers.

    OpenAIRE

    Dorn, Lisa; Stannard, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    In order to combat the problem of novice bus driver risk, a bus simulator was developed to improve decision-making at hazards that are most often associated with bus crashes. If the simulator is capable of discriminating between novice and experienced bus drivers then it can be argued that it is a valid tool for bus driver training to improve road safety. The purpose of this study then is to investigate whether there are significant differences between experienced and novice bus d...

  8. Iron status of regular voluntary blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahida Vilsu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our blood bank is a regional blood transfusion centre, which accepts blood only from voluntary donors. Aim: The aim is to study iron status of regular voluntary donors who donated their blood at least twice in a year. Materials and Methods: Prior to blood donation, blood samples of 220 male and 30 female voluntary donors were collected. Control included 100 each male and female healthy individuals in the 18- to 60-year age group, who never donated blood and did not have any chronic infection. In the study and control groups, about 10% subjects consumed non-vegetarian diet. After investigation, 85 males and 56 females having haemoglobin (Hb levels above 12.5 g/dl were selected as controls. Donors were divided into ?10, 11-20, 21-50 and> 50 blood donation categories. Majority of the donors in> 50 donation category donated blood four times in a year, whereas the remaining donors donated two to three times per year. Haematological parameters were measured on fully automatic haematology analyzer, serum iron and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC by biochemical methods, ferritin using ELISA kits and transferrin using immunoturbidometry kits. Iron/TIBC ratio x 100 gave percentage of transferrin saturation value. Statistical Analysis: Statistical evaluation was done by mean, standard deviation, pair t -test, ?2 and anova ( F -test. Results: Preliminary analysis revealed that there was no significant difference in the iron profile of vegetarian and non-vegetarian subjects or controls and the donors donating < 20 times. Significant increase or decrease was observed in mean values of various haematological and iron parameters in donors who donated blood for> 20 times ( P < 0.001, compared to controls. Anaemia, iron deficiency and depletion of iron stores were more prevalent in female donors ( P < 0.05 compared to males and especially in those male donors who donated their blood for more than 20 times. Conclusion: Regular voluntary blood donors should receive iron supplementation to prevent iron deficiency and depletion in iron stores.

  9. Organ Transplants from Living Donors – Halachic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mordechai Halperin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript is a survey of the halachic attitudes toward organ transplant procedures from a living donor which can be defined as life-saving procedures for the recipient or at least life-prolonging procedures. Three fundamental problems concerning the halachic aspects of such transplantation are discussed in detail: the danger to the donor, donation under coercion, and the sale of organs and tissues. The terms “halacha” and “Jewish law” are defined in the introduction.

  10. Predictors of hemoglobin in Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzé, Sebastian R; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S; Sørensen, Erik; Thørner, Lise W; Sørensen, Cecilie J; Rigas, Andreas S; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Ullum, Henrik; Erikstrup, Christian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that blood donors are at increased risk of iron deficiency and subsequent development of iron deficiency anemia. We aimed to investigate the effect of factors influencing hemoglobin (Hb) levels. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Initiated in 2010, the Danish Blood Donor Study is a population-based study and biobank. We performed multivariable linear regression analysis to assess the effects of donation activity, physiologic and lifestyle factors, and diet on Hb levels among ...

  11. Systemic Heparinisation in Laparoscopic Live Donor Nephrectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Charlotte Crotty; Yasmin Tabbakh; Hosgood, Sarah A; Michael L. Nicholson

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Systemic heparinisation is advocated during laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy (LDN) as a preventative measure against renal vascular thrombosis during the warm ischaemic interval. This study compares the outcome with and without the administration of systemic heparinisation. Methods. A retrospective analysis was performed on 186 consecutive LDN patients between April 2008 and November 2012. Systemic heparin (2000–3000?IU) was administered intravenously to donors (hep n = 109)....

  12. Rare blood donors with irregular antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krga-Milanović Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Blood groups are inherited biological characteristics that do not change throughout life in healthy people. Blood groups represent antigens found on the surface of red blood cells. Kell blood group system consists of 31 antigens. Kell antigen (K is present in 0.2% of the population (the rare blood group. Cellano antigen is present in more than 99% (the high-frequency antigen. These antigens have a distinct ability to cause an immune response in the people after blood transfusion or pregnancy who, otherwise, did not have them before. Case Report. This paper presents a blood donor with a rare blood group, who was found to have an irregular antibody against red blood cells by indirect antiglobulin test. Further testing determined the specificity of antibody to be anti-Cellano. The detected antibody was found in high titers (1024 with erythrocyte phenotype Kell-Cellano+. The blood donor was found to have a rare blood group KellKell. This donor was excluded from further blood donation. It is difficult to find compatible blood for a person who has developed an antibody to the high-frequency antigen. The donor’s family members were tested and Cellano antigen was detected in her husband and child. A potential blood donor was not found among the family members. There was only one blood donor in the Register of blood donors who was compatible in the ABO and Kell blood group system. Conclusion. For the successful management of blood transfusion it is necessary to establish a unified national register of donors of rare blood groups and cooperate with the International Blood Group Reference Laboratory in Bristol with the database that registers donors of rare blood groups from around the world.

  13. Utilization of Expanded Criteria Donors in Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Saidi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in surgical techniques, immunosuppression, and post-transplantation patientcare have led to the optimization of liver transplantation outcomes. However, the waiting listfor liver transplantation is increasing at a greater pace. The large gap between the growing poolof patients waiting for liver transplantation and the scarcity of donor organs has fueled effortsto maximize existing donors and identify new sources.This article will be focused on the current state of liver transplantation using grafts from extendedcriteria donors (elderly donors, steatotic donors, donors with malignancies, donors withviral hepatitis and from donation after cardiac death (DCD, as well as the use of partial grafts(split grafts and living-donor liver transplantation and other suboptimal donors (donors withhypernatremia, infections, hypotension and inotropic support. Overall, broadened criteria foracceptable donor livers appear to lessen graft survival rates somewhat compared with rates forstandard criteria organs.

  14. Change in Obesity Prevalence across the United States Is Influenced by Recreational and Healthcare Contexts, Food Environments, and Hispanic Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Candice A.; Slack, Tim; Martin, Corby K.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Heymsfield, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine change in county-level adult obesity prevalence between 2004 and 2009 and identify associated community characteristics. Methods Change in county-level adult (?20 years) obesity prevalence was calculated for a 5-year period (2004–2009). Community measures of economic, healthcare, recreational, food environment, population structure, and education contexts were also calculated. Regression analysis was used to assess community characteristics associated (p<0.01) with change in adult obesity prevalence. Results Mean±SD change in obesity prevalence was 5.1±2.4%. Obesity prevalence decreased in 1.4% (n = 44) and increased in 98% (n = 3,060) of counties from 2004–2009. Results showed that both baseline levels and increases in physically inactive adults were associated with greater increases in obesity prevalence, while baseline levels of and increases in physician density and grocery store/supercenter density were related to smaller increases in obesity rates. Baseline levels of the Hispanic population share were negatively linked to changing obesity levels, while places with greater Hispanic population growth saw greater increases in obesity. Conclusions Most counties in the U.S. experienced increases in adult obesity prevalence from 2004 to 2009. Findings suggest that community-based interventions targeting adult obesity need to incorporate a range of community factors, such as levels of physical inactivity, access to physicians, availability of food outlets, and ethnic/racial population composition. PMID:26849803

  15. Gamete donors' satisfaction : gender differences and similarities among oocyte and sperm donors in a national sample

    OpenAIRE

    Skoog Svanberg, Agneta; Lampic, Claudia; Gejerwall, Ann-Louise; Gudmundsson, Johannes; Karlstrom, Per-Olof; Solensten, Nils-Gunnar; Sydsjö, Gunilla

    2013-01-01

    ObjectiveTo explore oocyte and sperm donors' emotional stress, experiences of care and satisfaction after donation. DesignProspective multicenter study. SettingsAll fertility clinics performing gamete donation in Sweden during the period 2005 to 2008. PopulationOf 220 eligible oocyte donors who were approached, 181 agreed to complete the first questionnaire and 165 completed the second questionnaire 2 months after oocyte donation. Of 156 eligible sperm donors 119 accepted to complete the firs...

  16. Biology of Obesity: Lessons from Animal Models of Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Keizo Kanasaki; Daisuke Koya

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is an epidemic problem in the world and is associated with several health problems, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, respiratory failure, muscle weakness, and cancer. The precise molecular mechanisms by which obesity induces these health problems are not yet clear. To better understand the pathomechanisms of human disease, good animal models are essential. In this paper, we will analyze animal models of obesity and their use in the research of obesity-associated human healt...

  17. Maternal obesity and preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Aghamohammadi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a modern day epidemic. The incidence appears to be rapidly increasing in bothdeveloped and developing countries and has become much more obvious in the last decade.Aim& Objective: The present research was done with the aim of studying the effects of obesity definedas a first trimester maternal body mass index >30 on the preeclampsia.Methods: This study was a descriptive-comparative study two hundred fifty singleton pregnancies ofwomen with first trimester BMI >30 who delivered at Emam Hospital, Sari Iran during 2008–2009 werestudied A control group with two hundred fifty nine women of normal body mass index matched for ageand parity were selected and incidence of preeclampsia were compared between groups. χ2 and Oddsratioand 95% confidence were used to analyze the data. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05.Results: There was a significant relation between obesity and preeclampsia (20.8 vs. 5.8%, P<0.0001compared to non-obese women.Conclusion: Obesity in pregnant women appears to be a risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes.

  18. Obesity and female malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Chiara; Salvagno, Francesca; Canuto, Emilie Marion; Gennarelli, Gianluca

    2015-05-01

    Obesity increases the risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer, and oestrogen receptor (ER)-progesterone receptor (PR)-positive postmenopausal breast cancer. A modest positive association between body mass index (BMI) and cervical cancer has also been found. By contrast, an inverse correlation between BMI and premenopausal breast cancer exists. Endogenous sex hormones, insulin resistance/hyperinsulinaemia, adipokines, cytokines and chronic inflammation, among other factors, may be involved in the promotion of cancer in obese patients. Obesity is also associated with an increased risk of cancer recurrence and mortality most likely due to suboptimal treatment and/or co-morbidities. It is recommended that chemotherapy doses be calculated on the actual body weight and that radical surgery be performed as in non-obese patients. The high risk of peri-operative complications may be reduced by optimizing preoperative clinical conditions. As part of cancer prevention, obese women should be encouraged to adopt healthy lifestyles leading to weight loss and to undergo regular cancer screening. PMID:25779915

  19. Obesity and periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagannathachary Sunitha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is characterized by the abnormal or excessive deposition of fat in the adipose tissue. Its consequences go far beyond adverse metabolic effects on health, causing an increase in oxidative stress, which leads not only to endothelial dysfunction but also to negative effects in relation to periodontitis, because of the increase in proinflammatory cytokines. Thus obesity appears to participate in the multifactorial phenomenon of causality of periodontitis through the increased production of reactive oxygen species. The possible causal relationship between obesity and periodontitis and potential underlying biological mechanisms remain to be established; however, the adipose tissue actively secretes a variety of cytokines and hormones that are involved in inflammatory processes, pointing toward similar pathways involved in the pathophysiology of obesity, periodontitis and related inflammatory diseases. So the aim of this article is to get an overview of the association between obesity and periodontitis and to review adipose-tissue - derived hormones and cytokines that are involved in inflammatory processes and their relationship to periodontitis.

  20. Mood, food, and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MinatiSingh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity.

  1. Sperm donors describe the experience of contact with their donor-conceived offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, R.; Nelson, M.K.; Kramer, W.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the attitudes and experiences of 57 sperm donors who responded to a survey posted online in the United States and indicated that they had had contact with their donor-conceived offspring or the parents of their donor-conceived offspring. On average, 18 years had elapsed since the respondents donated sperm. In the interim between donating and having contact with offspring, most had become curious about their offspring. Most made contact through a bank or online registry. Most respondents had communicated with at least one offspring at least once and most had exchanged photos with offspring. Approximately two-thirds had met in person once; the same proportion had communicated over email or text. Other forms of communication were less common. Almost half of the respondents now considered their donor-conceived offspring to be like a family member. At the same time, donors are respectful of the integrity of the family in which their offspring were raised. Donors with contact are open to having their partners and children know their donor-conceived offspring. Although contact is generally positive, donors report that establishing boundaries and defining the relationship can be very difficult. Some donors also urge those who are thinking of donating to consider the consequences and some suggest avoiding anonymity. There were no significant differences in attitudes and experiences between those who donated anonymously and those who had been identity-release for their offspring when they turned 18. PMID:26175887

  2. How Organ Donors are Different from Non-donors: Responsibility, Barriers, and Religious Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Range, Lillian M; Brazda, Geoffrey F

    2015-12-01

    To see if religious involvement, previously linked to various health behaviors, was linked to organ donation, 143 ethnically diverse undergraduates stated whether they were registered donors (53% were), and completed measures of organ donation attitudes and religious involvement. Compared with non-donors, donors reported fewer barriers, more family responsibility, and more willingness to receive donor organs, but were not different in religious involvement. Even in 2014, when being a "good Samaritan" by agreeing to organ donation is as easy as checking one box on a driver's license application, religious involvement does not seem to be a factor in checking this box. PMID:25524413

  3. Harmful Effect of Anti-Class II Antibodies in Kidney Transplant Patients who Experienced an Acute Rejection Episode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Berthou

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of anti-lymphocytes antibodies is associated with the occurrence of acute rejection after kidney transplantation but few is known on their role after the rejection episode. We conducted a retrospective study in kidney transplant recipients who experienced a biopsy proven acute rejection episode to analyse the influence of anti-lymphocytes antibodies on clinical outcome. Anti-lymphocytes antibodies were detected before and after transplantation and characterized for isotype, class I and class II targets and donor specificity. 76 kidney recipients were included and analysed for steroid resistance of acute rejection, serum creatinine and 1-year actual graft survival. The presence of anti-lymphocytes antibodies was noticed in 80% of patients. Anti-lymphocytes antibodies were associated with more frequent steroid resistant rejection episodes, higher creatinine at discharge and throughout the first year post transplantation and with a worse graft survival, at the condition they were of the IgG isotype, donor-specific, and they recognized class II targets. We conclude that donor-specific anti-class II IgG antibodies are deleterious in the subgroup of kidney transplant recipients who develope an acute rejection.

  4. Defining overweight and obesity - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your child has. Measuring body fat and diagnosing obesity in children is different than measuring these things in adults. ... 44. US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for obesity in ... adolescents: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation ...

  5. CDC Vital Signs: Adult Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the leading causes of death in the U.S. Obesity can cause sleep apnea and breathing problems and make activity more difficult. Obesity can also cause problems during pregnancy or make it more difficult ...

  6. Obesity and Your Digestive Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American College of Gastroenterology www.acg.gi.org/obesity Great tools including a food tracker, portion size ... http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/heart/obesity/ lose_wt/patmats.htm Weight loss information from ...

  7. Endocrine disruptors and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heindel, Jerrold J; Newbold, Retha; Schug, Thaddeus T

    2015-11-01

    The increasing incidence of obesity is a serious global public health challenge. Although the obesity epidemic is largely fueled by poor nutrition and lack of exercise, certain chemicals have been shown to potentially have a role in its aetiology. A substantial body of evidence suggests that a subclass of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which interfere with endocrine signalling, can disrupt hormonally regulated metabolic processes, especially if exposure occurs during early development. These chemicals, so-called 'obesogens' might predispose some individuals to gain weight despite their efforts to limit caloric intake and increase levels of physical activity. This Review discusses the role of EDCs in the obesity epidemic, the latest research on the obesogen concept, epidemiological and experimental findings on obesogens, and their modes of action. The research reviewed here provides knowledge that health scientists can use to inform their research and decision-making processes. PMID:26391979

  8. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Dabal Laila

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is becoming a major medical concern in several parts of the world, with huge economic impacts on health- care systems, resulting mainly from increased cardiovascular risks. At the same time, obesity leads to a number of sleep-disordered breathing patterns like obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS, leading to increased morbidity and mortality with reduced quality of life. OHS is distinct from other sleep- related breathing disorders although overlap may exist. OHS patients may have obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea with hypercapnia and sleep hypoventilation, or an isolated sleep hypoventilation. Despite its major impact on health, this disorder is under-recognized and under-diagnosed. Available management options include aggressive weight reduction, oxygen therapy and using positive airway pressure techniques. In this review, we will go over the epidemiology, pathophysiology, presentation and diagnosis and management of OHS.

  9. Obesity and gastrointestinal neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Binkowska-Borgosz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is a significant public health problem in the 21st century due to its scale, common existence and its cause-effect association with multiple diseases. Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in humans is regarded as a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and skeletal diseases. However, data from recent years have revealed that obesity is also strongly associated with increased risk of the majority of cancers in humans, including those originating from the gastrointestinal tract. During the last few year this association has been thoroughly proven and supported by several epidemiological analyses. The authors present i the current state of knowledge regarding key (pathomechanisms that link metabolism of human adipose tissue to development/progression of neoplasms (especially in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as ii the results of selected clinical studies in which the influence of obesity on risk of gastrointestinal cancer development has been addressed.

  10. Obesity and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, E

    2015-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality in rich countries and today it has the same meaning for health care as the epidemics of past centuries had for medicine in earlier times: 50% of the population in these countries die of cardiovascular disease. The amount of cardiovascular disease is also increasing in the developing countries together with economic growth. By 2015 one in three deaths will globally be due to cardiovascular diseases. Coronary heart disease is a chronic disease that starts in childhood, even if the symptoms first occur in the middle age. The risks for coronary heart disease are well-known: lipid disorders, especially high serum LDL-cholesterol concentration, high blood pressure, tobacco smoking, obesity, diabetes, male gender and physical inactivity. Obesity is both an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease but is also closely connected with several other risk factors. This review focuses on the connection between overweight or obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25387321

  11. Sleep debt and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayon, Virginie; Leger, Damien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Vecchierini, Marie-Françoise; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2014-08-01

    Short sleep duration has been shown to be associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) in many epidemiological studies. Several pathways could link sleep deprivation to weight gain and obesity, including increased food intake, decreased energy expenditure, and changes in levels of appetite-regulating hormones, such as leptin and ghrelin. A relatively new factor that is contributing to sleep deprivation is the use of multimedia (e.g. television viewing, computer, and internet), which may aggravate sedentary behavior and increase caloric intake. In addition, shift-work, long working hours, and increased time commuting to and from work have also been hypothesized to favor weight gain and obesity-related metabolic disorders, because of their strong link to shorter sleep times. This article reviews the epidemiological, biological, and behavioral evidence linking sleep debt and obesity. PMID:25012962

  12. Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Merchant Anwar T; Akhtar-Danesh Noori; Dehghan Mahshid

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising pre...

  13. Functional Foods for Obesity Management

    OpenAIRE

    Rajitha Sunkara; Martha Verghese

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a global problem and numbers are rising at a fast pace in developing countries and it becomes a major public health concern. Economic costs associated with obesity are high and increasing as the rate of obesity. Obesity leads to its co-morbidities; namely diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, osteoarthritis, stroke and inflammatory diseases. Changes in life-style along with modifications to the diet are important in the management of ...

  14. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Eiben, Gabriele; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M.; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalampos; Henauw, Stefaan De; Kovács, Eva; Lauria, Fabio; Veidebaum, Toomas; Williams, Garrath; Bammann, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  15. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Henauw, Stefaan De; Eiben, Gabriele; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M.; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalampos; Kovács, Eva; Lauria, Fabio; Veidebaum, Toomas; Williams, Garrath; Bammann, Karin

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  16. The Medical Risks of Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Pi-sunyer, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is at epidemic proportions in the United States and in other developed and developing countries. The prevalence of obesity is increasing not only in adults, but especially among children and adolescents. In the United States in 2003 to 2004, 17.1% of children and adolescents were overweight, and 32.2% of adults were obese. Obesity is a significant risk factor for and contributor to increased morbidity and mortality, most importantly from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes, but ...

  17. Factors contributing to adolescent obesity.

    OpenAIRE

    Manal I. Al-Kloub; Froelicher, Erika S

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Obesity in children is a significant public health concern. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Jordanian children, and adolescents has increased in the last decade. The consequences of obesity to health in childhood and adulthood have both medical, and economic cost to individuals and society. This paper reviews the factors that contribute to adolescent obesity and emphasizes behavioral and environmental factors. An individual's behaviors such as increased consumptio...

  18. Obesity: modern man's fertility nemesis

    OpenAIRE

    Cabler, Stephanie; Agarwal, Ashok; Flint, Margot; Du Plessis, Stefan S.

    2010-01-01

    The obesity pandemic has grown to concerning proportions in recent years, not only in the Western World, but in developing countries as well. The corresponding decrease in male fertility and fecundity may be explained in parallel to obesity, and obesity should be considered as an etiology of male fertility. Studies show that obesity contributes to infertility by reducing semen quality, changing sperm proteomes, contributing to erectile dysfunction, and inducing other physical problems related...

  19. Childhood Obesity for Pediatric Gastroenterologists

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jeannie S; Barlow, Sarah E.; Quiros-Tejeira, Ruben E.; Scheimann, Ann; Skelton, Joseph; Suskind, David; Tsai, Patrika; Uko, Victor; Warolin, Joshua P.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity in childhood is one of the major health issues in pediatric health care today. As expected, the prevalence of obesity-related comorbidities has risen in parallel with that of obesity. Consultation regarding these concomitant diseases and subsequent management by subspecialists, including pediatric gastroenterologists, is now common and has resulted in obesity being recognized as a chronic disease requiring coordination of care. Although medications and even surgery may provide effecti...

  20. Toward molecular neuroeconomics of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Taiki

    2011-01-01

    Because obesity is a risk factor for many serious illnesses such as diabetes, better understandings of obesity and eating disorders have been attracting attention in neurobiology, psychiatry, and neuroeconomics. This paper presents future study directions by unifying (i) economic theory of addiction and obesity (Becker and Murphy, 1988; Levy 2002; Dragone 2009), and (ii) recent empirical findings in neuroeconomics and neurobiology of obesity and addiction. It is suggested that neurobiological...

  1. Pediatric Obesity: Etiology and Treatment^

    OpenAIRE

    Crocker, Melissa K; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews factors that contribute to excessive weight gain in children and outlines current knowledge regarding approaches for treating pediatric obesity. Virtually all of the known genetic causes of obesity primarily increase energy intake. Genes regulating the leptin signaling pathway are particularly important for human energy homeostasis. Obesity is a chronic disorder that requires long-term strategies for management. The foundation for all treatments for pediatric obesity remain...

  2. Xenogamy and Current Obesity Pandemics

    OpenAIRE

    Rumyantsev, Sergey N.

    2011-01-01

    This article unites the results from an integrative reconsideration of actual data about obesity from the viewpoint of recent developments in general pathology, epidemiology, immunology, genetics, and evolution. The focus is on the origin of genetic diversity in obesity manifestations on different levels of the disease. In contrast to the current paradigm of nutritive origin of obesity, the revealed set of evidences shows that the origin of obesity is based on either hereditary or post-infect...

  3. Prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity in the Lausanne population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paccaud Fred

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity can be defined using body mass index (BMI or waist (abdominal obesity. Little information exists regarding its prevalence and determinants in Switzerland. Hence, we assessed the levels of obesity as defined by BMI or waist circumference in a Swiss population-based sample. Methods Cross-sectional, population-based non-stratified random sample of 3,249 women and 2,937 men aged 35–75 years living in Lausanne, Switzerland. Overall participation rate was 41%. Results In men, the prevalences of overweight (BMI ?25 kg/m2 and obesity (BMI ?30 kg/m2 were 45.5% and 16.9%, respectively, higher than in women (28.3% and 14.3%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity (waist ?102 in men and ?88 cm in women was higher in women than in men (30.6% vs. 23.9%. Obesity and abdominal obesity increased with age and decreased with higher educational level in both genders. In women, the prevalence of obesity was lower among former and current smokers, whereas in men the prevalence of obesity was higher in former smokers but did not differ between current and never smokers. Multivariate analysis showed age to be positively related, and education and physical activity to be negatively related with obesity and abdominal obesity in both genders, whereas differential effects of smoking were found between genders. Conclusion The prevalence of abdominal obesity is higher than BMI-derived obesity in the Swiss population. Women presented with more abdominal obesity than men. The association between smoking and obesity levels appears to differ between genders.

  4. Obesity and gastric balloon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed I Yasawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The obesity epidemic, which is among the most common nutritional disorders, is rising rapidly worldwide. It leads to several health problems such as metabolic disorders, stroke, and even cancer. Efforts to control obesity with exercise and diet have a limited value in obese patients and different approaches to do this have been tried. In this paper, we share our experience with bioenteric intragastric balloon (BIB in treating obesity: Its safety, tolerability, and its efficacy in weight reduction. Materials and Methods: From January 2009 to September 2012, a total of 190 gastric balloons was inserted on patients at the endoscopy unit in King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar. This is an evaluation of the first 100 patients. All the patients had a body mass index of over 30 kg/m 2 and were within the age range of 17-55 with a mean age of 32 years. After consent, preballoon investigation tests and anesthesia evaluation, BIB was inserted under monitored anesthesia care sedation in the endoscopy suite. The balloon was filled with 500-700 mls of stained saline. All patients? were given an analgesic and antiemetic for a week and antisecretory proton pump inhibitor?s for 6 months. Diet and the importance of the exercise were part of the preballoon insertion phase and protocol. The balloon was removed after 6-12 months. Results: The weight loss response to BIB in the 100 patients are classified into four groups: In the uncooperative, noncompliant patients - the maximum weight loss was 7 kg, while in the most compliant patients the weight loss reached up to 39 kg. In addition, there was significant improvement into diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and fatty liveras. Its safety and tolerability were extremely acceptable. Conclusion: Our data indicates that in well-selected patients, BIB is an effective device, which with minimum complications helps to achieve body weight loss and resolve many obesity related morbidities in cooperative and dedicated obese patients.

  5. Early prevention of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Maffeis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating energy intake and expenditure and body size mainly occurs in the first 1,000 days of life. Therefore, factors affecting the foetal exposition to maternal metabolic environment and early postnatal nutrition are crucial in modulating the definition of the metabolic programming processes in the brain. Maternal diseases, mainly malnutrition for defect or excess, obesity and diabetes, placental disorders and dysfunctions, maternal use of alcohol and drugs, smoking, affect long term metabolic programming of the foetus with lifelong consequences. Similarly, early nutrition contributes to complete the long-term metabolic regulating framework initiated in the uterus. Breastfeeding, adequate weaning, attention to portion size and diet composition are potential tools for reducing the obesity risk later in childhood. Longitudinal randomized controlled studies are needed for exploring the efficacy of obesity prevention strategies initiated after conception.Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  6. Racial and ethnic disparities in access to and utilization of living donor liver transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobel, Yael R; Forde, Kimberly A; Wood, Linda; Cartiera, Katarzyna; Munoz-Abraham, Armando S; Yoo, Peter S; Abt, Peter L; Goldberg, David S

    2015-07-01

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is a comparable alternative to deceased donor liver transplantation and can mitigate the risk of dying while waiting for transplant. Although evidence exists of decreased utilization of living donor kidney transplants among racial minorities, little is known about access to LDLT among racial/ethnic minorities. We used Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network/United Network for Organ Sharing data from February 27, 2002 to June 4, 2014 from all adult liver transplant recipients at LDLT-capable transplant centers to evaluate differential utilization of LDLTs based on race/ethnicity. We then used data from 2 major urban transplant centers to analyze donor inquiries and donor rule-outs based on racial/ethnic determination. Nationally, of 35,401 total liver transplant recipients performed at a LDLT-performing transplant center, 2171 (6.1%) received a LDLT. In multivariate generalized estimating equation models, racial/ethnic minorities were significantly less likely to receive LDLTs when compared to white patients. For cholestatic liver disease, the odds ratios of receiving LDLT based on racial/ethnic group for African American, Hispanic, and Asian patients compared to white patients were 0.35 (95% CI, 0.20-0.60), 0.58 (95% CI, 0.34-0.99), and 0.11 (95% CI, 0.02-0.55), respectively. For noncholestatic liver disease, the odds ratios by racial/ethnic group were 0.53 (95% CI, 0.40-0.71), 0.78 (95% CI, 0.64-0.94), and 0.45 (95% CI, 0.33-0.60) respectively. Transplant center-specific data demonstrated that African American patients received fewer per-patient donation inquiries than white patients, whereas fewer African American potential donors were ruled out for obesity. In conclusion, racial/ethnic minorities receive a disproportionately low percentage of LDLTs, due in part to fewer initial inquiries by potential donors. This represents a major inequality in access to a vital health care resource and demands outreach to both patients and potential donors. PMID:25865817

  7. 21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for donor... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donor. 640.12 Section 640.12...

  8. Recruitment of Live Donors by Candidates for Kidney Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Reese, Peter P; Shea, Judy A.; Berns, Jeffrey S; Simon, Maureen K.; Joffe, Marshall M; Bloom, Roy D.; Feldman, Harold I

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about efforts that renal transplant candidates make to recruit live donors. It was hypothesized that preference for live donor kidney transplantation and greater knowledge about live donor transplantation are associated with candidates’ initiating conversations about donation with potential donors.

  9. Fight Obesity in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratsis, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    U.S. health experts declared obesity an epidemic over a decade ago. Schools have tried to implement prevention programs for students, but as budgets shrink, educating students about obesity is increasingly falling to classroom instructors, including science teachers. The good news is that obesity-related classroom activities can be engaging, and…

  10. Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 ... tube that carries food and liquids to the stomach) may also be linked to obesity. Other diseases ... Severe Obesity explains how this operation on the stomach and/or intestines helps patients with extreme obesity ...

  11. Obesity and Colon Cancer Risk

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... news/Obesity_Colon_093015.html Obesity and Colon Cancer Risk HealthDay News Video - October 1, 2015 To ... please enable JavaScript. Play video: Obesity and Colon Cancer Risk For closed captioning, click the CC button ...

  12. [Obesity and cancer: «Dangerous friendship»].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Svatetz, Carlos A; Goday Arnó, Alberto

    2015-07-01

    Obesity and cancer are one of the most important health problems is Spain. Between 23 and 28% of the adult population in Spain are obese, 39% are overweight and 36% have abdominal obesity. The association between obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia and sleep obstructive apnea is well known. On the contrary, the association between obesity and cancer is less known, because the recent evidence on it. Several prospective studies have shown during the last years the strong relationship between obesity and cancer of colon, breast in post-menopausal women, endometrial, kidney and pancreas as well as esophageal adenocarcinoma. Furthermore there is recent evidence showing that liver, gallbladder, thyroid and ovarian cancer as well as leukemia, multiple myeloma and Hodgkin lymphomas are probably associated with obesity, yet more studies are needed. A better knowledge of the relation between cancer and obesity will allow improving the prevention strategies against cancer, a more efficient early detection, and a more suitable treatment of obesity and overweight. Although the mechanisms of carcinogenesis of obesity are not well established, avoiding overweight and obesity are considered one of the best approaches to reduce the risk of cancer. Therefore the general population must be aware that cancer is one of the most important hazards associated with the current obesity epidemic in our society. PMID:25023851

  13. Obesity and Colon Cancer Risk

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... videos/news/Obesity_Colon_093015.html Obesity and Colon Cancer Risk HealthDay News Video - October 1, 2015 ... page, please enable JavaScript. Play video: Obesity and Colon Cancer Risk For closed captioning, click the CC ...

  14. The Prognostic Relevance of the Donor IL-6 Serum Level with Respect to the Postoperative Course of Cadaveric Kidney Grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wesslau

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In a retrospective study the postoperative courses of 100 consecutive kidney graft recipients (women 36, men 64 aged between 17 and 69 years were analyzed according to the beginning of graft function, frequency of rejections, occurrence of serious infections, duration of postoperative stay on the ward as well as serum creatinine level at discharge and were related to the serum IL-6 level of organ donors. Neither the creating of two large groups (donor IL-6: 31.6 ±19.6 versus 797 ±1709 pg/ml nor of five smaller groups (donor IL-6: 0-50, 50.1-100, 100.1-200, 200.1-500, >500 pg/ml reveals statistic significant differences of the postoperative courses. An additional analysis of data of so-called kidney pairs, that means the transplantation of both kidneys of one donor into two recipients in the same centre, showed without any doubt that the majority of kidney pairs (17 out of 23 experienced different postoperative courses with respect to the above mentioned parameters and did not depend on the height of donor IL-6 serum level differing between 8 pg/ml and 1071.2 pg/ml. Thus, the donor IL-6 level did not have any prognostic relevance with respect to the postoperative kidney graft fate.

  15. Hyperphagia and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T O Yalochkina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since ancient times, mankind is faced with the problem of obesity, caused by mismatch between energy intake and energy use. In recent decades, both women and men are involved in obesity epidemic, the occurrence of which can be attributed to the increased consumption of energy – and fat-rich foods. There are several reasons for the increased consumption of high-calorie foods that are discussed in this paper. The article also highlights the mechanisms underlying hyperphagic disorders and diseases, the main manifestation of which is the insatiable hunger.

  16. Hazard prediction discriminates between novice and experienced drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crundall, David

    2016-01-01

    Typical hazard perception tests often confound multiple processes in their responses. The current study tested hazard prediction in isolation to assess whether this component can discriminate between novice and experienced drivers. A variant of the hazard perception test, based on the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique, found experienced drivers to outperform novices across three experiments suggesting that the act of predicting an imminent hazard is a crucial part of the hazard-perception process. Furthermore three additional hypotheses were tested in these experiments. First, performance was compared across clips of different length. There was marginal evidence that novice drivers' performance suffered with the longest clips, but experienced drivers' performance did not, suggesting that experienced drivers find hazard prediction less effortful. Secondly, predictive accuracy was found to be dependent on the temporal proximity of visual precursors to the hazard. Thirdly the relationship between the hazard and its precursor was found to be important, with less obvious precursors improving the discrimination between novice and experience drivers. These findings demonstrate that a measure of hazard prediction, which is less confounded by the influence of risk appraisal than simple response time measures, can still discriminate between novice and experienced drivers. Application of this methodology under different conditions can produce insights into the underlying processes that may be at work, whilst also providing an alternative test of driver skill in relation to the detection of hazards. PMID:26513336

  17. Prevalence of seroreactivity among blood donors in rural population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonwane B

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The seroreactivity pattern amongst blood donors in rural population was studied at S.R.T. Rural Medical College and Hospital, Ambajogai (M. S.. The study period was from January 1996 to December 2001. A total number of 12,240 blood donors were screened. The voluntary donation was 36.98% and replacement donors were 63.02%. No professional donor is bled in our blood bank. The HIV seroreactivity among voluntary donors was 1.56% and 2.11% in replacement donors. The HBsAg seroreactivity was 2.78% in voluntary donors and 4.84% in replacement donors. VDRL seroreactivity is 1.12% in replacement donors. No malarial parasite and HCV seroreactive donor was found in our study period. We have found the magnitude of hepatitis to be far more than that of HIV. Hence testing for HCV routinely is mandatory, besides HBsAg.

  18. Curcumin molecular targets in obesity and obesity-related cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehzad, Adeeb; Khan, Salman; Sup Lee, Young

    2012-02-01

    Obesity is characterized as an increased BMI, which is associated with the increased risk of several common cancers, including colorectal, breast, endometrial, renal, esophageal, gallbladder, melanoma, multiple myeloma, leukemia, lymphoma and prostate cancer. The increased risk of obesity-related cancers could be mediated by insulin resistance, adipokines, obesity-related inflammatory cytokines, sex hormones, transcription factors and oxidative stress, which disrupt the balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis. The yellowish compound, curcumin (diferuloylmethane), is known to possess multifaceted pharmacological effects. The molecular mechanisms linking obesity to cancer risk, and how curcumin mediates anticancer and obesity activities, have not yet been publicized. Curcumin modulates multiple molecular targets and reverses insulin resistance as well as other symptoms that are associated with obesity-related cancers. In this study, we show that ample evidence exists to support recommendations that curcumin mediates multiple molecular pathways, and is considered to be of therapeutic value in the treatment and prevention of obesity-related cancers. PMID:22335582

  19. Preoperative imaging in 78 living kidney donors using CE-MRA and DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: to evaluate contrast-enhanced 3D magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in comparison with the intraoperative findings in living kidney donors. Materials and methods: a total of 156 kidneys in 78 potential kidney donors were prospectively examined using CE-MRA (0.2 mmol Gd/kg, voxel size 1.3 x 0.8 x 2.0) and DSA. Two experienced radiologists assessed the images in consensus regarding the renal vascular anatomy and variants. The results for the 67 candidates accepted for donation were compared to the intraoperative findings. In the other kidneys not accepted for donor nephrectomy, MRA and DSA were compared with each other. Results: nineteen arterial variants were identified intraoperatively, of which 11 (58%) were also detected by preoperative CE-MRA and 10 (53%) by preoperative DSA. Of the 10 venous variants found intraoperatively, CE-MRA detected 8 (80%) and DSA 3 (30%). The agreement (kappa test) between MRI and DSA for all 156 evaluated kidneys was 0.7 for arterial variants (McNemar p = 0.12) and 0.3 for venous variants (McNemar p = 0.01). The preoperative choice of kidney (right or left) made on the basis of the renal vascular anatomy seen on CE-MRA and DSA differed in 22% of the 78 potential donors (McNemar P = 0.3). (orig.)

  20. Problems in the identification of potential organ donors. Misconceptions and fallacies associated with donor cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overcast, T D; Evans, R W; Bowen, L E; Hoe, M M; Livak, C L

    A survey of organ procurement programs and district attorneys' offices was undertaken in all 50 states and the District of Columbia to determine to what extent organ donor cards were effective in obtaining organs for purposes of transplantation. Results of the survey revealed that all 50 states and the District of Columbia have adopted some form of the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act (UAGA), but in 47 states, even when a signed donor card is available, surgeons still require family approval for removal of organs despite the fact that the provisions of the UAGA do not require this. In addition, it was found that while 44 states have a provision on their permanent drivers' licenses for organ donation, no state requires drivers to indicate whether they want to donate organs. While there is little information on the number of persons who actually carry donor cards, four states indicated that between 1.7% and 8.5% of their drivers were designated as donors. In Colorado, however, it was reported that 60% of all drivers are designated as donors. Nevertheless, in all states it was determined that few actual donors were carrying donor cards at the time of their death. It must therefore be concluded that while donor cards are an excellent educational medium and certainly facilitate the activities of transplant coordination, they are not an effective means of substantially increasing the supply of organs for transplantation. PMID:6700054

  1. The Willed Body Donor Interview Project: Medical Student and Donor Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Michael; Holman, Alexis; Mueller, Dean A.; Gruppen, Larry D.; Hildebrandt, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    The Anatomical Donations Program at the University of Michigan Medical School (UMMS) has begun a multiphase project wherein interviews of donors will be recorded and later shown to medical students who participate in the anatomical dissection course. The first phase of this project included surveys of both current UMMS medical students and donors…

  2. Molecular assembly of amino acid interlinked, topologically symmetric, ?-complementary donor–acceptor–donor triads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Avinash

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Amino acid interlinked pyrene and naphthalenediimide (NDI based novel donor–acceptor–donor (D-A-D triads are designed to exploit their topological symmetry and complementary ?-character for facile charge-transfer complexation. Consequently, free-floating high-aspect-ratio supercoiled nanofibres and hierarchical helical bundles of triads are realized by modulating the chemical functionality of interlinking amino acids.

  3. Subcongenic analysis of tabw2 obesity QTL on mouse chromosome 6

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart Taryn P; Mao Xia; Aqqad Maha N; Uffort Deon; Dillon Kristy D; Saxton Arnold M; Kim Jung

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background We previously established a congenic mouse strain with TALLYHO/Jng (TH) donor segment on chromosome 6 in a C57BL/6 (B6) background that harbors an obesity quantitative trait locus, tabw2. The B6.TH-tabw2 congenic mice developed increased adiposity that became exacerbated upon feeding a high fat-high sucrose (HFS) diet. To fine map the tabw2, in this study we generated and characterized subcongenic lines with smaller TH donor segments. Results We fixed four subcongenic line...

  4. Use of analogies by novice and experienced design engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema; Christensen, Bo T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a study to understand the use of analogies by design engineers with different levels of experience. Protocol analyses of twelve design engineers have been analysed to understand the functions and reasoning of the analogies. The protocols are real world data from the aerospace industry. The findings indicate a significant difference in both the functions and reasoning by novices and experienced designers. Novices were found to predominantly transfer information without explicit reference to design issues, whereas experienced designers tended to either solve or identify problems. Experienced designers were found to reason about the function of a component and to some degree the predicted behaviour of the component, whereas the novices seem to lack such reasoning processes.

  5. Anaesthesia and peri-operative care for laparoscopic donor nephrectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Mertens zur Borg, Ingrid

    2008-01-01

    A successful renal transplant for patients with kidney failure reduces mortality rate when compared to patients who continue dialysis. Organ donation from living donors has significant better results over organ donation from deceased donors. Traditionally the surgical approach for living donor nephrectomy was performed through a subcostal lateral incision. Now, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has become the method of choice to procure kidneys from living donors, because of the reduced procedur...

  6. Sibling stem cell donor experiences at a single institution†

    OpenAIRE

    Wiener, Lori S.; Steffen-Smith, Emilie; Battles, Haven B.; Wayne, Alan; Love, Cynthia P.; Fry, Terry

    2008-01-01

    Allogeneic bone marrow (BM) and cytokine mobilized peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation can be curative for patients with malignant and nonmalignant hematologic diseases. Siblings are most often selected as a donor match; however, research on sibling donors is limited and has focused primarily on conventional BM donors. This exploratory study describes the experiences of PBSC sibling donors at a single institution. Through retrospective interviews, 14 sibling donors shared their ...

  7. Assessing elements of informed consent among living donors

    OpenAIRE

    Valapour, M; Kahn, JP; Bailey, R.; Matas, AJ

    2010-01-01

    Living organ donors – 50% of solid organ donors in the United States – represent a unique population who accept medical risk for the benefit of another. One of the main justifications for this practice has been respect for donor autonomy, as realized through informed consent. In this retrospective study of living donors, we investigate 2 key criteria of informed consent: (1) depth of understanding and (2) degree of voluntariness. In our survey of 262 living kidney donors 2 to 40 months post d...

  8. Are live kidney donors at risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To share experience of live donor nephrectomy (including intraoperative variables, morbidity and ethical aspects) and to give an overview of surgical technique being practiced. Results: Majority of the donors (58.5%) were 31-50 years old and 70.6% were first-degree relatives. Left sided kidney was taken in 96.5% cases. Mean operative time was 145 minutes. Mean renal warm ischemia time from cross clamping of renal vessels to cold perfusion on the bench was 1.5 minutes per operation. Operative complications encountered were injury to lumbar veins in 5.1 % cases, slipping of satinsky clamp on vena cava stump in 1.7 % and accidental pleural damage in 5.1 % cases. Postoperative morbid complications found were urinary retention in 6.4 % cases, epididymo-orchitis in 1.7 %, prolonged lymph drain in 3.4 %, stitch infection in 1.7 % and prolonged wound discomfort in 5.1 % patients. Conclusions: Open live donor nepherectomy appears to be safe procedure for harvesting kidney. Related or emotionally related donors must be the choice in all cases. Non-related donors may be entertained in selected cases despite the probability of organ vending in our society. (author)

  9. Psychological issues in pediatric obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurvinder Kalra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric obesity is a major health problem and has reached epidemiological proportions today. The present paper reviews major psychological issues in pediatric obesity from a developmental perspective. Research and literature has shown that a number of developmental, family, maternal and child factors are responsible in the genesis of pediatric obesity. Family food habits, early developmental lifestyle of the child, parenting, early family relationships and harmony all contribute towards the growth and development of a child. The present review focuses on the role of developmental psychological factors in the pathogenesis of pediatric obesity and highlights the developmental factors that must be kept in mind when evaluating a case of pediatric obesity.

  10. Obesity in Libya: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafik R. Elmehdawi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global epidemic resulting in major morbidity and premature death. About 64% of Libyan adults are either overweight or obese, obesity progressively increasing with age, and two times more common among Libyan women than men. Cases of obesity and overweight are increasing in Libya as well as all over the world, with genetic and environmental factors playing a contributory role. With its known significant morbidity and mortality, obesity should draw the attention of the healthcare community, researchers, and policy makers in Libya.

  11. The Future of Pediatric Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Jeff; Emerick, Jill; Saxena, Harshita

    2016-03-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports a steady increase in obesity over the last 30 years. The greatest increase was seen in 15 to 19 year olds, whose obesity prevalence almost doubled from 10.5% to 19.4%. The solution to pediatric obesity requires a multidisciplinary approach addressing cultural norms, technologic advances, and family engagement. Future treatment strategies to combat the obesity epidemic will have to extend beyond the health care provider's office. Behavior modification remains the key component to pediatric obesity prevention and treatment. PMID:26896196

  12. Obesity and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and survival: clinical trial rationale and design considerations. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2009; 101(9):630–643. [PubMed Abstract] Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Curtin LR. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999–2008. JAMA 2010; 303( ...

  13. Adiposopathy and Obesity Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indriyanti Rafi Sukmawati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity has reached global epidemic proportions in both adults and children and is associated with numerous comorbidities, including hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, dyslipidemia and major cardiovascular diseases (CVD. CONTENT: Adiposity may cause adipocyte and adipose tissue anatomic and functional abnormalities, termed adiposopathy (adipose-opathy or "sick fat," that result in endocrine and immune derangements. Adiposopathy may directly contribute to CVD through pericardiac and perivascular effects on the myocardium and blood vessels. Adiposopathy may also indirectly contribute to CVD through promoting or worsening major CVD risk factors such as T2DM, high blood pressure, and dyslipidemia. Despite this adverse association, numerous studies have documented an obesity paradox in which overweight and obese people with established CVD, including hypertension, heart failure, coronary heart disease, and peripheral arterial disease, have a better prognosis compared with nonoverweight/nonobese patients. These paradoxical findings are made less paradoxical when the pathogenic potential of excessive body fat is assessed based on adipose tissue dysfunction rather than simply on increased fat mass alone. SUMMARY: Adiposopathy is defined as pathological adipose tissue function that may be promoted and exacerbated by fat accumulation (adiposity and sedentary lifestyle in genetically susceptible patients. Adiposopathy is a root cause of some of the most common metabolic diseases observed in clinical practice, including T2DM, hypertension and dyslipidemia. KEYWORDS: adiposopathy, adiposity, obesity paradox, adipocyte dysfunction, adipose hypertrophy, adipose hyperplasia.

  14. Parents and Childhood Obesity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Parents and Childhood Obesity HealthDay News Video - August 25, 2015 To use the sharing features on this ... National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ...

  15. Multi-Caused Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Anne C.

    2006-01-01

    Headlines recently were full of studies about the obesity problem of America's children and young people, as if kids became overweight without anyone noticing. An accumulation of both school and family habits, however, have been contributing to the fact that at least 13% of children ages 7 to 11 are overweight, double those of the 1970s (and…

  16. Victimization of Obese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and…

  17. Parents and Childhood Obesity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Parents and Childhood Obesity URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/ ...

  18. Parents and Childhood Obesity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that matters to you. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Nutrition Obesity in Children Parenting About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us ... Institutes of Health Page last updated on 6 November 2015

  19. Parents and Childhood Obesity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... health news that matters to you. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Nutrition Obesity in Children Parenting About ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  20. Parents and Childhood Obesity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... effective. I’m Dr. Cindy Haines of Healthday TV with the news that your doctors are reading, health news that matters to you. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Nutrition Obesity in Children Parenting About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs ...

  1. Sleep in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Victorova Strueva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of duration and individual characteristics of sleep and chronotype on body weight, eating behavior, anxiety, depression, life quality, metabolic and hormonal parameters of obese patients. Materials and methods: 200 patients with primary obesity were studied: 83 men and 117 women at age from 18 to 61 years old, median age 41,5 years [31,0; 50,0]; body weight 107 kg [94; 128,5], waist circumference 112 cm [102; 124]; neck circumference 41 cm [38; 46], body mass index (BMI 36,9 [32,8; 42,3]. Results: We found an association between sleep duration, chronotype and the emotional eating. Significant sleep reduction (to less than 6 hours was associated with high level of anxiety, depression, emotional eating and insomnia. Younger age, early onset and shorter duration of obesity and brisk weight gain during last is connected to the evening chronotype. The emotional eating associated with hypersomnolence in the absence of statistically significant increase of anxiety and depression in individuals with evening chronotype. Sleep duration and chronotype have no significant effect on the body weight, metabolic, hormonal parameters and the dynamics of body. weight after 7±1 months of treatment of obesity.

  2. Games and childhood obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videogames can be used to help children change their obesity-related diet and physical activity behaviors. A review of the relevant literature in this special issue of the Games for Health Journal indicated that video games did influence children's adiposity, but only among children who were alread...

  3. Dietary treatment of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The fast global increased prevalence of obesity has been classifiedas an epidemics by the World Health Organization. The etiology ofobesity is very complex and involves genetic and environmentalfactors. One of the main factors that trigger obesity is sedentarylife, as well as the great availability of fat-rich foods that present ahigh energy density. According to the NHANES II, although thepopulation has decreased the ingestion of fat, the total consumptionof food has increased. The main factors that influence in choice offood are flavor, followed by cost, convenience and, finally, itsnutritional value. The dietary treatment of obesity should haverealistic goals concerning weight loss rate and amount. It issuggested to prescribe a balanced low-calorie diet, emphasizingmostly the quality of foods by using the food pyramid. Therefore,patients may learn the appropriate criteria to select food and makehealthy choices. The dietary treatment of obesity also includesthe use of behavioral techniques directed at dietary education,thus resulting in choice of healthy foods with adequate energyvalue.

  4. The impact of pretransplant donor-specific antibodies on graft outcome in renal transplantation: a six-year follow-up study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elias, David-Neto; Patricia Soares, Souza; Nicolas, Panajotopoulos; Helcio, Rodrigues; Carlucci Gualberto, Ventura; Daisa Silva Ribeiro, David; Francine Brambate Carvalhinho, Lemos; Fabiana, Agena; William Carlos, Nahas; Jorge Elias, Kalil; Maria Cristina Ribeiro, Castro.

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The significance of pretransplant, donor-specific antibodies on long-term patient outcomes is a subject of debate. This study evaluated the impact and the presence or absence of donor-specific antibodies after kidney transplantation on short- and long-term graft outcomes. METHODS: We anal [...] yzed the frequency and dynamics of pretransplant donor-specific antibodies following renal transplantation from a randomized trial that was conducted from 2002 to 2004 and correlated these findings with patient outcomes through 2009. Transplants were performed against a complement-dependent T- and B-negative crossmatch. Pre- and posttransplant sera were available from 94 of the 118 patients (80%). Antibodies were detected using a solid-phase (LuminexH), single-bead assay, and all tests were performed simultaneously. RESULTS: Sixteen patients exhibited pretransplant donor-specific antibodies, but only 3 of these patients (19%) developed antibody-mediated rejection and 2 of them experienced early graft losses. Excluding these 2 losses, 6 of 14 patients exhibited donor-specific antibodies at the final follow-up exam, whereas 8 of these patients (57%) exhibited complete clearance of the donor-specific antibodies. Five other patients developed ''de novo'' posttransplant donor-specific antibodies. Death-censored graft survival was similar in patients with pretransplant donor-specific and non-donor-specific antibodies after a mean follow-up period of 70 months. CONCLUSION: Pretransplant donor-specific antibodies with a negative complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch are associated with a risk for the development of antibody-mediated rejection, although survival rates are similar when patients transpose the first months after receiving the graft. Our data also suggest that early posttransplant donor-specific antibody monitoring should increase knowledge of antibody dynamics and their impact on long-term graft outcome.

  5. The impact of pretransplant donor-specific antibodies on graft outcome in renal transplantation: a six-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias David-Neto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The significance of pretransplant, donor-specific antibodies on long-term patient outcomes is a subject of debate. This study evaluated the impact and the presence or absence of donor-specific antibodies after kidney transplantation on short- and long-term graft outcomes. METHODS: We analyzed the frequency and dynamics of pretransplant donor-specific antibodies following renal transplantation from a randomized trial that was conducted from 2002 to 2004 and correlated these findings with patient outcomes through 2009. Transplants were performed against a complement-dependent T- and B-negative crossmatch. Pre- and posttransplant sera were available from 94 of the 118 patients (80%. Antibodies were detected using a solid-phase (LuminexH, single-bead assay, and all tests were performed simultaneously. RESULTS: Sixteen patients exhibited pretransplant donor-specific antibodies, but only 3 of these patients (19% developed antibody-mediated rejection and 2 of them experienced early graft losses. Excluding these 2 losses, 6 of 14 patients exhibited donor-specific antibodies at the final follow-up exam, whereas 8 of these patients (57% exhibited complete clearance of the donor-specific antibodies. Five other patients developed ''de novo'' posttransplant donor-specific antibodies. Death-censored graft survival was similar in patients with pretransplant donor-specific and non-donor-specific antibodies after a mean follow-up period of 70 months. CONCLUSION: Pretransplant donor-specific antibodies with a negative complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch are associated with a risk for the development of antibody-mediated rejection, although survival rates are similar when patients transpose the first months after receiving the graft. Our data also suggest that early posttransplant donor-specific antibody monitoring should increase knowledge of antibody dynamics and their impact on long-term graft outcome.

  6. Obesity: occurrence, treatment, and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, M S; Armstrong, P J; Allen, T A

    1989-05-01

    Obesity is the most common nutritionally related disease of dogs and cats. Several of the important health problems that are inherent with obesity are resolved when the patient's body weight is returned to normal. Proper dietary management is central to successful treatment and prevention. Low-fat, high-fiber diets provide fewer available calories but induce a greater degree of satiety than simple restriction of the obese patient's regular food. Care must be taken to assure that overweight cats are not fasted, because preliminary reports indicate an alarming association between severe caloric restriction and hepatic lipidosis in obese cats. Obesity prevention should ideally be proactive, owing to the predictability of obesity in certain groups of pets. The large number of reduced-energy maintenance type diets that are available for obesity prevention facilitate this goal. PMID:2658285

  7. Sudden cardiac death and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plourde, Benoit; Sarrazin, Jean-François; Nault, Isabelle; Poirier, Paul

    2014-09-01

    For individuals and the society as a whole, the increased risk of sudden cardiac death in obese patients is becoming a major challenge, especially since obesity prevalence has been increasing steadily around the globe. Traditional risk factors and obesity often coexist. Hypertension, diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea and metabolic syndrome are well-known risk factors for CV disease and are often present in the obese patient. Although the bulk of evidence is circumstantial, sudden cardiac death and obesity share common traditional CV risk factors. Structural, functional and metabolic factors modulate and influence the risk of sudden cardiac death in the obese population. Other risk factors such as left ventricular hypertrophy, increased number of premature ventricular complexes, altered QT interval and reduced heart rate variability are all documented in both obese and sudden cardiac death populations. The present review focuses on out-of-hospital sudden cardiac death and potential mechanisms leading to sudden cardiac death in this population. PMID:25160995

  8. Clinician challenges in providing health care for a morbidly obese family member: a bariatric case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitz, Janice M

    2015-01-01

    Morbid obesity is a chronic disease affecting millions of Americans. The disorder is likely to increase in prevalence because currently one third of the American population is obese. Many factors are associated with morbid obesity, including psychological (eg, depression), physiological (eg, hypothyroidism) mechanisms, sleep disorders (eg, sleep apnea), drug therapy (antidepressants, antidiabetic agents, steroids), and genetics. Increasing numbers of morbidly obese patients are requiring critical care, presenting major challenges to professional staff across the disciplines. This manuscript presents a case study describing the experiences of a morbidly obese woman in the final years of her life from the perspective of her health professional relative. The patient typifies many of the major risk factors for morbid obesity; her story reveals many of the issues faced as she revolved in and out of the critical care and acute care system. Her substantive health problems affected multiple body systems and included hypothyroidism, congestive heart failure, hyperlipidemia, and subclinical Cushing's Syndrome, likely related to previous medical therapy (cortisone) for rheumatic fever in childhood. The case description addresses many integumentary system issues the patient experienced; skin injuries and infections that can pose serious life-threatening situations for the morbidly obese patient must be prevented or treated efficiently. Health professionals can learn a great deal and improve the care they provide by listening to morbidly obese patients. PMID:25581606

  9. Chronodisruption and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attempts to understand the causes of obesity and develop new therapeutic strategies have mostly focused on caloric intake and energy expenditure. Recent studies have shown that the circadian clock controls energy homeostasis by regulating circadian expression and/or activity of enzymes, hormones, and transport systems involved in metabolism. Moreover, disruption of circadian rhythms leads to obesity and metabolic disorders. CONTENT:Regularly alternating periods of light and darkness, such as normally occur with the rising and the setting of the sun, are essential for the maintenance of undisturbed circadian rhythms in all organisms including humans. The light-dark environment, as detected by specialized photoreceptors in the retinas, impacts the endogenous circadian clock in the anterior hypothalamus, the suprachiasmatic nuclei. These nuclei, via both neural and humoral signals, communicate with cells throughout the organism to establish regular circadian rhythms. The introduction of artificial sources of light roughly 150 years ago has significantly undermined the naturally occurring light-dark environment and, likewise, has disturbed circadian rhythms since light is now available at unusual times, i.e., at night. Light at night is known to cause circadian disruption and melatonin suppression. Many potentially pathophysiological consequences of these artificial light-mediated changes, include cancer, cardiovascular diseases, insomnia, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cognitive disorders may be aggravated by the increased exposure to light at night, which is inevitable in well-developed societies that have undergone extensive electrification. SUMMARY: Therefore, it is plausible that resetting of the circadian clock can be used as a new approach to attenuate obesity. Feeding regimens, such as restricted feeding, calorie restriction and intermittent fasting, provide a time cue and reset the circadian clock and lead to better health. In contrast, high-fat diet leads to disrupted circadian expression of metabolic factors and obesity. KEYWORDS: obesity, circadian clock, metabolism, chronodisruption.

  10. Stereoselective glycosylations using oxathiane spiroketal glycosyl donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fascione, Martin A; Webb, Nicola J; Kilner, Colin A; Warriner, Stuart L; Turnbull, W Bruce

    2012-02-01

    Novel oxathiane spiroketal donors have been synthesised and activated via an umpolung S-arylation strategy using 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene and 1,3-dimethoxybenzene. The comparative reactivity of the resulting 2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl (TMP)- and 2,4-dimethoxyphenyl (DMP)-oxathiane spiroketal sulfonium ions is discussed, and their ?-stereoselectivity in glycosylation reactions is compared to the analogous TMP- and DMP-sulfonium ions derived from an oxathiane glycosyl donor bearing a methyl ketal group. The results show that the stereoselectivity of the oxathiane glycosyl donors is dependent on the structure of the ketal group and reactivity can be tuned by varying the substituent on the sulfonium ion. PMID:22200482

  11. Negatively charged donors in flat quantum dots

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis F., García; Jairo H., Marín; Ilia D., Mikhailov.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The ground state energies of off-axis negatively charged donors in axially symmetrical quantum dots, with different shapes but in all cases with a small height-to-base radius aspect ratio are calculated in adiabatic approximation by using the Hylleraas-type trial function. The dependencies of the ne [...] utral and negative donor binding energies and their ratios on the base radius in the pyramid, lens and disk are calculated and compared with previously obtained results for the spherical quantum dot. We also present the contour plots of the binding energies of the neutral and negative donors with different positions along a vertical cross section in the middle of the quantum dots.

  12. Childhood Obesity: Epidemiological and Clinical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    ELAMIN, Abdelaziz

    2010-01-01

    Primary childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in industrialized countries particularly in North America. Twenty five percent of children and adolescents in the United States are overweight and 14% are obese. However, the prevalence of obesity is alarmingly rising in other less developed parts of the world, like Asia, the Middle East and some parts of Africa. Overweight and obesity in childhood extend to adulthood and the majority of obese children grew as obese adults. Obesity has sig...

  13. Risks for donors in uterus transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisu, Iori; Mihara, Makoto; Banno, Kouji; Umene, Kiyoko; Araki, Jun; Hara, Hisako; Suganuma, Nobuhiko; Aoki, Daisuke

    2013-12-01

    Uterus transplantation (UTx) is an alternative to gestational surrogacy and adoption for patients with absolute uterine infertility. Studies have been conducted in animals, and UTx is now within the reach of clinical application in humans. Procedures in humans have been published, but many medical, ethical, and social problems and risks of UTx require discussion prior to widespread clinical application, from the perspectives of donors, recipients, families, and newborns. In this article, we summarize the burdens and risks of UTx, with a focus on donors who provide the uterus. PMID:23793471

  14. Phosphorus donors in highly strained silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Huebl, H; Stutzmann, M; Brandt, M S; Vogg, G; Bensch, F; Rauls, E; Gerstmann, U; Huebl, Hans; Stegner, Andre R.; Stutzmann, Martin; Brandt, Martin S.; Vogg, Guenther; Bensch, Frank; Rauls, Eva; Gerstmann, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    The hyperfine interaction of phosphorus donors in fully strained Si thin films grown on virtual Si$_{1-x}$Ge$_x$ substrates with $x\\leq 0.3$ is determined via electrically detected magnetic resonance. For highly strained epilayers, hyperfine interactions as low as 0.8 mT are observed, significantly below the limit predicted by valley repopulation. Within a Green's function approach, density functional theory (DFT) shows that the additional reduction is caused by the volume increase of the unit cell and a local relaxation of the Si ligands of the P donor.

  15. Phosphorus donors in highly strained silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebl, Hans; Stegner, Andre R; Stutzmann, Martin; Brandt, Martin S; Vogg, Guenther; Bensch, Frank; Rauls, Eva; Gerstmann, Uwe

    2006-10-20

    The hyperfine interaction of phosphorus donors in fully strained Si thin films grown on virtual Si(1-x)Ge(x) substrates with x< or =0.3 is determined via electrically detected magnetic resonance. For highly strained epilayers, hyperfine interactions as low as 0.8 mT are observed, significantly below the limit predicted by valley repopulation. Within a Green's function approach, density functional theory shows that the additional reduction is caused by the volume increase of the unit cell and a relaxation of the Si ligands of the donor. PMID:17155419

  16. Radioimmunological determination of neopterin in blood donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 518 sera from blood donors below 30 years of age neopterin was determined by radioimmunoassay. 21 of these patients (4.05%) showed elevated serum levels for neopterin. By clinical investigation of these cases viral infections of the upper airways were found. Furthermore after elimination of elevated values significant differences in normal neopterin serum levels could be demonstrated for female and male blood donors (p < 0.01). Because elevated neopterin serum levels indicate immune responses to several antigens, determination of neopterin from serum may be useful for detection of infectious blood samples. (author)

  17. 30 CFR 48.6 - Experienced miner training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... District Manager under 30 CFR 75.1502 or the escape and evacuation plan under 30 CFR 57.11053, as...) Newly employed by the operator; (2) Transferred to the mine; (3) Experienced underground miners... to work environment. The course shall include a visit and tour of the mine. The methods of...

  18. 30 CFR 48.26 - Experienced miner training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...), this section applies to experienced miners who are— (1) Newly employed by the operator; (2) Transferred... a visit and tour of the mine. The methods of mining or operations utilized at the mine shall be...' representatives; and an introduction to the operator's rules and the procedures for reporting hazards....

  19. 30 CFR 46.6 - Newly hired experienced miner training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Newly hired experienced miner training. 46.6 Section 46.6 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING AND RETRAINING OF MINERS ENGAGED IN SHELL DREDGING OR EMPLOYED AT SAND, GRAVEL, SURFACE STONE, SURFACE CLAY, COLLOIDAL...

  20. Apparent and Actual Use of Observational Frameworks by Experienced Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satern, Miriam N.

    This study investigated observational strategies that were used by six experienced physical education teachers when viewing a videotape of motor skills (standing vertical jump, overarm throw, tennis serve, basketball jump shot and dance sequence). Four observational frameworks were proposed as being representative of subdisciplinary knowledge…