Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study explored co-receptor usage and prediction of V3 genotyping algorithms in HIV-1 subtype B' from paid blood donors experienced anti-retroviral therapy in Chinese central province in order to design effectively therapeutic regimen. Methods HIV-1 strains were isolated in treatment HIV-1 infections and treatment-naïve HIV-1 infections, then co-receptor usage of HIV-1 strains was identified based on Ghost cell lines using flow cytometry. HIV-1 V3 region was amplified and submitted into web-server (WebPSSM and geno2pheno to predict HIV-1 co-receptor usage. The feasibility of prediction HIV-1 usage with Web-server assay was analyzed by comparing prediction of V3 genotyping algorithms with HIV phenotype assay based on Ghost cell line. Results 45 HIV-1 strains and 114 HIV-1 strains were isolated from HIV-1 infections exposed anti-retroviral therapy and treatment-naïve, respectively. 41% clinical viruses from ART patients and 18% from treatment-naïve patients used CXCR4 as co-receptor. The net charge in the V3 loop was significantly difference in both groups. The sensitivity and specificity for predicting co-receptor capacity is 54.6% and 90.0% on 11/25 rule, 50.0% and 90% on Web-PSSMx4r5, 68.2% and 40.0% on Geno2pheno[co-receptor]. Conclusion Dual/mixed/X4 co-receptor utilization was higher in ART patients than treatment-naïve patients. It is should paid attention to predicting HIV-1 co-receptor usage based on V3 genotyping algorithms in HIV-1 subtype B' from paid blood donors experienced anti-retroviral therapy in Chinese central province.
... obese, follow an unhealthy diet, and have an eating disorder all at the same time. Sometimes, medical problems or treatments cause weight gain, including: Underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism) Medicines such ...
Heitmann, B L; Westerterp, K R; Loos, R J F; SĂžrensen, T I A; O'Dea, K; McLean, P; Jensen, Tina Kold; Eisenmann, J; Speakman, J R; Simpson, S J; Reed, D R; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S
The 9th Stock Conference acknowledged the complex background of genetic, cultural, environmental and evolutionary factors of obesity. Gene-environment interactions underlie the flexibility in body-weight and body-fat regulation, illustrated by the hunter-gatherers' feast and famine lifestyle, the...... programming for obesity via epigenetic changes in response to a 'Western diet' results in production of lipid-poor milk and metabolically efficient pups, contributing to the perpetuation of obesity throughout generations. Evolutionary insight from comparative physiology and ecology indicates that over...... mating on obesity prevalence is unambiguously positive. The complexity that appeared can only be fully appreciated by setting the data into the context of our evolutionary history....
Kair, Laura R; Colaizy, Tarah T
Objectives This study examines the extent to which a mother's pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) category is associated with her exposure to pro-breastfeeding hospital practices. Methods Data from the 2004-2008 CDC PRAMS were analyzed for three states (Illinois, Maine, and Vermont) that had administered an optional survey question about hospital pro-breastfeeding practices. Results Of 19,145 mothers surveyed, 19Â % were obese (pre-pregnancy BMIÂ â„Â 30). Obese mothers had lower odds than mothers of normal weight of initiating breastfeeding [70 vs. 79Â % (unweighted), pÂ obese mothers had lower odds of being exposed to pro-breastfeeding hospital practices during the birth hospitalization. Specifically, obese mothers had higher odds of using a pacifier in the hospital [odds ratio (OR) 1.31, 95Â % confidence interval (CI) (1.17-1.48), pÂ breastfeeding [OR 0.71, 95Â % CI (0.57-0.89), pÂ =Â 0.002], a staff member helping them breastfeed [OR 0.69, 95Â % CI (0.61-0.78), pÂ breastfeeding in the first hour after delivery [OR 0.55, 95Â % CI (0.49-0.62), pÂ breastfeeding help [OR 0.65, 95Â % CI (0.57-0.74), pÂ Obesity stigma may be a determinant of breastfeeding outcomes for obese mothers. Breastfeeding support should be improved for this at-risk population. PMID:26515471
Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; SĂžrensen, Thorkild I A
A new report provides compelling evidence of the high prevalence of overweight and obesity throughout the world. The prevalence has increased since 1980, but at different rates across ages, times and locations. Studies exploring the causes of these differences could aid development of effective...
Full Text Available ... HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some of these ... donor, my life really hasnât changed. My health is just as good now as it ever ...
Full Text Available ... HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some of these ... donor, my life really hasnt changed. My health is just as good now as it ever ...
Full Text Available ... potential donor is medically and surgically an acceptable candidate. This shows our screening process, first the potential ... such as HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some ...
Full Text Available Of the various options for patients with end stage renal disease, kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for a suitable patient. The kidney for transplantation is retrieved from either a cadaver or a live donor. Living donor nephrectomy has been developed as a method to address the shortfall in cadaveric kidneys available for transplantation. Laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy (LLDN, by reducing postoperative pain, shortening convalescence, and improving the cosmetic outcome of the donor nephrectomy, has shown the potential to increase the number of living kidney donations further by removing some of the disincentives inherent to donation itself. The technique of LLDN has undergone evolution at different transplant centers and many modifications have been done to improve donor safety and recipient outcome. Virtually all donors eligible for an open surgical procedure may also undergo the laparoscopic operation. Various earlier contraindications to LDN, such as right donor kidney, multiple vessels, anomalous vasculature and obesity have been overcome with increasing experience. Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy can be done transperitoneally or retroperitoneally on either side. The approach is most commonly transperitoneal, which allows adequate working space and easy dissection. A review of literature and our experience with regards to standard approach and the modifications is presented including a cost saving model for the developing countries. An assessment has been made, of the impact of LDN on the outcome of donor and the recipient.
Nielsen, Claus Kim Hostein; Galdiers, Marcel P; Hedegaard, Chris Juul; Leslie, R Graham Q
. Whereas TT induced pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-2 (IL-2)/interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)/IL-4/IL-5], TG evoked persistent release of the regulatory IL-10. Some donors, however, also responded with late IFN-gamma production, suggesting that the regulation by IL-10 could be overridden. Although......Thyroglobulin (TG), as autoantigen, induces in vitro proliferation of T and B cells from normal individuals, but the cytokine production differs from that in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. Here, we investigate whether normal T cells responding to TG are naive, or have previously...... monocytes were prime producers of IL-10 in the early TG response, a few IL-10-secreting CD4(+) T cells, primarily with CD45RO(+) memory phenotype, were also detected. Furthermore, T-cell depletion from the mononuclear cell preparation abrogated monocyte IL-10 production. Our findings indicate active...
... Home Goals People Experiencing Chronic Homelessness Share This: People Experiencing Chronic Homelessness We've made significant progress ... harder in identifying, engaging, and prioritizing these vulnerable people in permanent supportive housing, but also to leaders ...
Stanley, Mark E.
This research continues the work started by Patrick James Fitzsimmons in studying how experienced and inexperienced negotiators view and employ strategy, tactics, and ethics in pursuing their interests. The research was based on mock negotiations held at The Naval Postgraduate School for third quarter students studying Acquisition and Contract Management Generally, the study found both experienced and inexperienced negotiators assume a cooperative approach to the negotiation process with the ...
... the change you want to see An unusual twist of fate Ermas story Donors and recipients meet ... donate cord blood Participate Volunteer Host a donor drive Request donor materials Attend an event Local Be ...
Gatineau; Van, M; Public Health England
This paper examines the evidence linking obesity and disability in children and young people. It looks at a range of impairments or health conditions associated with disability and explores the main obesity-related chronic health conditions that can develop during childhood and adolescence. It also highlights: inequalities experienced by children and young people in relation to obesity and disability implications for policy, practice and research survey data on obesity and limiting ...
PĂ©rez Rodrigo, Carmen
Obesity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. The worldwide prevalence of obesity has almost doubled between 1980 and 2008. In some regions, such as Europe, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Americas, more than 50% of women are overweight. Tonga, Nauru and the Cook Islands show the highest prevalence of obesity worldwide, above 60% in men and in women. China and the United States are the countries that experienced the largest absolute increase in the number of overweight and obese people between 1980 and 2008, followed by Brazil and Mexico. The regions with the largest increase in the prevalence of female obesity were Central Latin America, Oceania and Southern Latin America. Updated data provide evidence that the progression of the epidemic has effectively slowed for the past ten years in several countries. In low-income countries obesity is generally more prevalent among the better-off, while disadvantaged groups are increasingly affected as countries grow. Many studies have shown an overall socio-economic gradient in obesity in modern industrialized societies. Rates tend to decrease progressively with increasing socio-economic status. Children obesity rates in Spain are amongst the highest in the OECD. One in 3 children aged 13 to 14 are overweight. Overweight in infants and young children is observed in the upper middle-income countries. However, the fastest growth occurs in the group of lower middle-income countries. There is a growing body of evidence for an inverse association between SES and child obesity in developed countries. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is high in all age groups in many countries, but especially worrying in children and adolescents in developed countries and economies in transition. PMID:24010741
Carmen PĂ©rez Rodrigo
Full Text Available Obesity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. The worldwide prevalence of obesity has almost doubled between 1980 and 2008. In some regions, such as Europe, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Americas, more than 50% of women are overweight. Tonga, Nauru and the Cook Islands show the highest prevalence of obesity worldwide, above 60% in men and in women. China and the United States are the countries that experienced the largest absolute increase in the number of overweight and obese people between 1980 and 2008, followed by Brazil and Mexico. The regions with the largest increase in the prevalence of female obesity were Central Latin America, Oceania and Southern Latin America. Updated data provide evidence that the progression of the epidemic has effectively slowed for the past ten years in several countries. In low-income countries obesity is generally more prevalent among the better-off, while disadvantaged groups are increasingly affected as countries grow. Many studies have shown an overall socio-economic gradient in obesity in modern industrialized societies. Rates tend to decrease progressively with increasing socio-economic status. Children obesity rates in Spain are amongst the highest in the OECD. One in 3 children aged 13 to 14 are overweight. Overweight in infants and young children is observed in the upper middle-income countries. However, the fastest growth occurs in the group of lower middle-income countries. There is a growing body of evidence for an inverse association between SES and child obesity in developed countries. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is high in all age groups in many countries, but especially worrying in children and adolescents in developed countries and economies in transition.
Walshauser, Mark A; Go, Aileen; Sojitra, Payal; Venkataraman, Girish; Stiff, Patrick
Donor cell derived malignancies are a rare and interesting complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. We present a case of a 56-year-old male with donor cell myeloid sarcoma of the stomach and myocardium. PMID:24822132
Walshauser, Mark A.; Aileen Go; Payal Sojitra; Girish Venkataraman; Patrick Stiff
Donor cell derived malignancies are a rare and interesting complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. We present a case of a 56-year-old male with donor cell myeloid sarcoma of the stomach and myocardium.
Kaspersen, Kathrine AgergĂ„rd; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; MĂžller, Bjarne Kuno; Juul-SĂžrensen, Cecilie; KotzĂ©, Sebastian; Dinh, Khoa Manh; Erikstrup, Lise Tornvig; SĂžrensen, Erik; ThĂžrner, Lise Wegner; Burgdorf, Kristoffer SĂžlvsten; Ullum, Henrik; Erikstrup, Christian
BACKGROUND: It is well known that obesity complicates the course of several diseases. However, it is unknown whether obesity affects the risk of infection among healthy individuals. METHODS: We included 37,808 healthy participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study, who completed a questionnaire on...... health-related items. Obesity was defined as a body mass index â„ 30âkg/m(2). Infections among participants were identified by relevant ICD-10 codes in the Danish National Patient Register and Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) codes in the Danish Prescription Register. Multivariable Cox proportional...... prescription of antimicrobials. Obesity was associated with risk of hospital-based treatment for infection (women: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1, 1.9; men: HR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.9). For specific infections, obesity was associated with increased risk of abscesses (both sexes...
Kaspersen, Kathrine Agergćrd; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Műller, Bjarne Kuno; Juul-Sűrensen, Cecilie; Kotzé, Sebastian; Dinh, Khoa Manh; Erikstrup, Lise Tornvig; Sűrensen, Erik; Thűrner, Lise Wegner; Burgdorf, Kristoffer Sűlvsten; Ullum, Henrik; Erikstrup, Christian
BACKGROUND: It is well known that obesity complicates the course of several diseases. However, it is unknown whether obesity affects the risk of infection among healthy individuals. METHODS: We included 37,808 healthy participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study, who completed a questionnaire on...... health-related items. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ? 30?kg/m. Infections among participants were identified by relevant ICD-10 codes in the Danish National Patient Register and Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) codes in the Danish Prescription Register. Multivariable Cox proportional...... prescription of antimicrobials. Obesity was associated with risk of hospital-based treatment for infection (women: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1, 1.9; men: HR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.9). For specific infections, obesity was associated with increased risk of abscesses (both sexes...
Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh
Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity. PMID:25949965
Sultan, Sadia; Baig, Mohammad Amjad; Irfan, Syed Mohammed; Ahmed, Syed Ijlal; Hasan, Syeda Faiza
Objectives Fragmented blood transfusion services along with an unmotivated blood donation culture often leads to blood shortage. Donor retention is crucial to meet the increasing blood demand, and adverse donor reactions have a negative impact on donor return. The aim of this study was to estimate adverse donor reactions and identify any demographic association. â Methods We conducted a prospective study between January 2011 and December 2013. A total of 41,759 healthy donors were enrolled. Professionally trained donor attendants drew blood and all donors were observed during and following donation for possible adverse events for 20 minutes. Blood donors were asked to report if they suffered from any delayed adverse consequences. â Results Out of 41,759 blood donors, 537 (1.3%) experienced adverse reactions. The incidence was one in every 78 donations. The mean age of donors who experienced adverse events was 26.0Â±6.8 years, and all were male. Out of 537 donors, 429 (80%) developed vasovagal reaction (VVR), 133 (25%) had nausea, 63 (12%) fainted, 35 (6%) developed hyperventilation, 9 (2%) had delayed syncope, and 9 (2%) developed hematoma. Arterial prick, nerve injury, cardiac arrest, and seizures were not observed. Donors aged less than importance of these parameters in the donation process. A well-trained and experienced phlebotomist and pre-evaluation counseling of blood donors could further minimize the adverse reactions.
Schlumpf, KS; Glynn, SA; Schreiber, GB; Wright, DJ; Randolph Steele, W; Tu, Y.; Hermansen, S; Higgins, MJ; Garratty, G; Murphy, EL
BACKGROUND: To predict future blood donation behavior and improve donor retention, it is important to understand the determinants of donor return. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was completed in 2003 by 7905 current donors. With data mining methods, all factors measured by the survey were ranked as possible predictors of actual return within 12 months. Significant factors were analyzed with logistic regression to determine predictors of intention and of actual ret...
... Donation Student Donors Donation Process Eligibility Blood FAQs Blood Donor Community Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity History of Blood Transfusion Hosting a Blood Drive What to Expect Hosting ...
Rates of obesity in the United States have increased dramatically over the past 30 years. Approximately 35% of children and 66% of adults are currently considered overweight or obese. Although obesity is seen in all ethnicities and economic classes, ethnic minorities and those of lower socioeconomic...
Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.
This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.âŠ
AydÄ±n, Ahmet; Koca, Fahrettin; FÄ±Ă§Ä±cÄ±oÄlu, Can; Ăam, Halit; MÄ±kla, Ćerare
Management of childhood obesity and its early and late complications are among the most difficult problems confronted by pediatricians and practitioners The purpose of this review is to provide information for the evaluation and treatment of childhood obesity Key nbsp;words: nbsp;Child Obesity Etiology Management Complications
Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.
This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.
McAuley, Paul A; Blair, Steven N
In this review, we examine the original obesity paradox phenomenon (i.e. in cardiovascular disease populations, obese patients survive better), as well as three other related paradoxes (pre-obesity, "fat but fit" theory, and "healthy" obesity). An obesity paradox has been reported in a range of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular conditions. Pre-obesity (defined as a body mass index of 25.0-29.9 kg Â· mâ»ÂČ) presents another paradox. Whereas "overweight" implies increased risk, it is in fact associated with decreased mortality risk compared with normal weight. Another paradox concerns the observation than when fitness is taken into account, the mortality risk associated with obesity is offset. The final paradox under consideration is the presence of a sizeable subset of obese individuals who are otherwise healthy. Consequently, a large segment of the overweight and obese population is not at increased risk for premature death. It appears therefore that low cardiorespiratory fitness and inactivity are a greater health threat than obesity, suggesting that more emphasis should be placed on increasing leisure time physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness as the main strategy for reducing mortality risk in the broad population of overweight and obese adults. PMID:21416445
Thys, Kristof; Schwering, Karl-Leo; Siebelink, Marion; Dobbels, Fabienne; Borry, Pascal; Schotsmans, Paul; Aujoulat, Isabelle
Living-donor kidney and liver transplantation intend to improve pediatric recipients' psychosocial well-being, but psychosocial impact in recipients strongly depends upon the impact on the donor and the quality of family relations. We systematically reviewed quantitative and qualitative studies addressing the psychosocial impact of pediatric living-donor kidney and liver transplantation in recipients, donors, and the family. In accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, we systematically searched the databases Medline, Web of Knowledge, Cinahl, Embase, ERIC, and Google Scholar. We identified 23 studies that satisfied our inclusion criteria. Recipients had improved coping skills and satisfactory peer relationships, but also reported anxiety and depressive symptoms, worried about the future, and had a negative body image. Similarly, donors experienced increased self-esteem, empowerment, and community awareness, but also complained of postoperative pain and a lack of emotional support. With respect to family impact, transplantation generated a special bond between the donor and the recipient, characterized by gratitude and admiration, but also raised new expectations concerning the recipient's lifestyle. As psychological problems in recipients were sometimes induced by feelings of guilt and indebtedness toward the donor, we recommend more research on how gift exchange dynamics function within donor-recipient relationships, enrolling donors and recipients within the same study. PMID:25363518
Preston, Samuel H.; Stokes, Andrew
Background: Many studies have documented an obesity paradoxâa survival advantage of being obeseâin populations diagnosed with a medical condition. Whether obesity is causally associated with improved mortality in these conditions is unresolved. Methods: We develop the logic of collider bias as it pertains to the association between smoking and obesity in a diseased population. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) are used to investigate this bias empirically...
Mathiasen, Niels Raabjerg; BĂždker, Susanne
Security is experienced differently in different contexts. This paper argues that in everyday situations, users base their security decisions on a mix of prior experiences. When approaching security and interaction design from an experience approach, tools that help bring out such relevant...... experiences for design are needed. This paper reports on how Prompted exploration workshops and Acting out security were developed to target such experiences when iteratively designing a mobile digital signature solution in a participatory design process. We discuss how these tools helped the design process...... and illustrate how the tangibility of such tools matters. We further demonstrate how the approach grants access to non-trivial insights into people's security experience. We point out how the specific context is essential for exploring the space between experience and expectations, and we illustrate...
Havel, Ivan M.
The subjective experience of time will be taken as a primary motivation for an alternative, essentially discontinuous conception of time. Two types of such experience will be discussed, one based on personal episodic memory, the other on the theoretical fine texture of experienced time below the threshold of phenomenal awareness. The former case implies a discrete structure of temporal episodes on a large scale, while the latter case suggests endowing psychological time with a granular structure on a small scale, i.e. interpreting it as a semi-ordered flow of smeared (not point-like) subliminal time grains. Only on an intermediate temporal scale would the subjectively felt continuity and fluency of time emerge. Consequently, there is no locally smooth mapping of phenomenal time onto the real number continuum. Such a model has certain advantages; for instance, it avoids counterintuitive interpretations of some neuropsychological experiments (e.g. Libet's measurement) in which the temporal order of events is crucial.
A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion Sanguine of Geneva will be held at CERN on Tuesday 13 March 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.
A blood donors campaign, organized by the Établissement de Transfusion de Rhône-Alpes will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2000 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.
Coolican, M B; Politoski, G
This article explores how the critical care nurse can support donor families. Some of the many programs currently available to assist families after the death of a loved one and after the donation of organs and tissues are described. PMID:7946218
... size in the person who receives it (the recipient). After the transplant, the donorâs liver also grows back to full size over a ... sure the donor has a healthy piece of liver that is the right size and shape ... between transplant centers. However, most centers do the following tests ...
Bols, Mikael; Pedersen, Christian Marcus; Nordstrűm, Lars Ulrik
Glycosyl donors protected with bulky silyl protective groups (tert-butyldimethylsilyl, TBS), on the 2-, 3- and 4-OH groups were found to have superior reactivity compared with benzylated thioglucosides. The enhanced reactivity is explained by the stereoelectronic effects associated with the...
A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion d'Annemasse will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.
Wednesday 13 November 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs will be held a blood donors campaign, organized by the Etablissement de Transfusion de Haute-Savoie If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.
Tuesday 19 March 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion sanguine of Geneva If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.
The transplantation of organs and tissues from one human to another human has become an essential and well established form of therapy for many types of organ and tissue failure. In Malaysia, kidney, cornea and bone marrow transplantation are well established. Recently, liver, bone and heart transplanation have been performed. Unfortunately, because of the lack of cadaveric organ donation, only a limited number of solid organ transplantation have been performed. The cadaveric organ donor rate in Malaysia is low at less than one per million population. The first tissue transplanted in Malaysia was the cornea which was performed in the early 1970s. At that time and even now the majority of corneas came from Sri Lanka. The first kidney transplant was performed in 1975 from a live related donor. The majority of the 629 kidney transplants done at Hospital Kuala Lumpur to date have been from live related donors. Only 35 were from cadaver donors. Similarly, the liver transplantation programme which started in 1995 are from live related donors. A more concerted effort has been made recently to increase the awareness of the public and the health professionals on organ and tissue donation. This national effort to promote organ and tissue donation seems to have gathered momentum in 1997 with the first heart transplant successfully performed at the National Heart Institute. The rate of cadaveric donors has also increased from a previous average of I to 2 per year to 6 per year in the last one year. These developments are most encouraging and may signal the coming of age of our transplantati on programme. The Ministry of Health in conjunction with various institutions, organizations and professional groups, have taken a number of proactive measures to facilitate the development of the cadaveric organ donation programme. Efforts to increase public awareness and to overcome the negative cultural attitude towards organ donation have been intensified. Equally important are efforts to promote the concept and understanding of organ donation among health professionals. A review of the Human Tissues Act 1974 which governs organ and tissue donation in this country is being undertaken. A number of seminars have been held to garner the support of religious groups in the promotion of organ donation. A major weakness had been the lack of a national organizational framework to facilitate and coordinate the development of organ donation and transplantation in this country. Therefore a National Transplantation Coordinating Committee and a Transplant Programme Working Committee have been formed to oversee the development and implementation of national policy guidelines and programmes. With these measures it is hoped that the donor transplant programme in Malaysia will be one of the success stories of the future
Marli Elisa Nascimento Fernandes
Full Text Available Objective: to identify experiences and feelings on the organ donation process, from the perspective of a relative of an organ donor in a transplant unit.Method: this was exploratory research using a qualitative approach, performed with seven family members of different organ donors, selected by a lottery. Sociodemographic data and the experiences regarding the donation process were collected through semi-structured interviews. The language material was transcribed and submitted to content analysis.Results: poor sensitivity of the medical staff communicating the relative's brain death - the potential donor - and the lack of socio-emotional support prior to the situation experienced by the family was highlighted by participants.Conclusions: the study identified the need to provide social-emotional support for families facing the experience of the organ donation process. From these findings, other care and management practices in health must be discussed to impact the strengthening of the family ties, post-donation, as well as the organ procurement indexes.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT has been expanding to adult recipients by using right lobe grafts. However, the incidence of complications is more frequent than that involving left lobe grafts. Hence, we aimed to analyze postoperative complications in right lobe liver donors as a step to improve the results in the donors. Methods : Three hundred and eleven right lobe liver donors were retrospectively reviewed between February 1998 and December 2003. Results : The ages of the donors ranged from 19 to 64 years (median: 46 years. Their body mass index ranged from 16.6 to 34.3 (median: 22.1. The mean duration of the operation was 6.58 (1.25 hours and blood loss was 289 (254 mL. The estimated median donor residual liver volume was 42.2% (range: 20.6-60.3% and the median hospital stay was 14.5 days (range: 6-267 days. One donor died of liver failure due to small residual liver volume (26% and steatohepatitis. One hundred and twenty three complications occurred in 104 donors (33.4%. Donors experienced one or more complications. According to the Clavien classification, grade I complications occurred in 71 of the episodes (57.7%, grade II complications in 9 (7.3%, grade IIIa complications in 39 (31.7%, grade IIIb complications in 3 (2.5%, and grade V complications in 1 (0.8%. Biliary complications were the most common and occurred in 37 donors (12%. Conclusion : Right lobe liver donation is a widely accepted procedure that results in the expansion of the indication for LDLT to adults and large children. However, remnant liver size and anatomical variations in the biliary tree represent important risk factors for postoperative complications.
Full Text Available ... a kidney is safe. It has an excellent safety record both here and nationwide. To ensure that, ... ve had a lot of talk about the safety for the living donors. The donor for that ...
Full Text Available ... with an open incision. There is a screening process for potential donors. Itâs important to emphasize that ... surgically an acceptable candidate. This shows our screening process, first the potential donor meets with a social ...
Full Text Available ... team is really helpful with the transplant coordinators, Amy Sokolowski and her team, to help the donor ... a great team here at Norfolk General, particularly Amy who works so hard with the living donors, ...
Full Text Available ... need dialysis after the operation?â One of the advantages of living donation is that these kidneys essentially ... were removed from the donor. One of the advantages of living donor is that time is from ...
Full Text Available ... need dialysis after the operation? One of the advantages of living donation is that these kidneys essentially ... were removed from the donor. One of the advantages of living donor is that time is from ...
Full Text Available ... than with an open incision. There is a screening process for potential donors. Itâs important to emphasize ... and surgically an acceptable candidate. This shows our screening process, first the potential donor meets with a ...
Full Text Available ... would be, lets say theres a donor whose blood-type A is their intended recipient donor is blood-type B, so theyre not compatible. But if ... like 55 or 60 percent, depending on what type of deceased donor kidney youre ... family members or blood relatives of donors. We saw earlier the video ...
Wilkinson, Justine; Howard, Simon
Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...
Wyatt, Holly R.
Obesity is a disease that is defined as the accumulation of excessive amounts of body fat and is associated with increased risk of serious illness, disability, and death. In clinical practice, obesity is best assessed by calculating body mass index and measuring waist circumference. Treatment options are determined based on the body mass index, waist circumference, and adverse health consequences the patient is experiencing or is at an increased risk for facing in the future. Today, overweigh...
Full Text Available ... with the donor that really was the main source. Otherwise these patients are screened very carefully medically ... be, letâs say thereâs a donor whose blood-type A is their intended recipient donor is blood- ...
Maria Angela Boccara de Paula
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Identify the Social Representations (SR of ostomized people in terms of sexuality after the stoma. METHODS: An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study using the Social Representation Theory with 15 ostomized people (8 females, mean age of 57.9 years, between August and September 2005. Data obtained from transcribed interviews were submitted to content analysis, resulting in the thematic unit "Giving new meaning to sexuality" and subthemes. RESULTS: The study demonstrated that the intestinal stoma interferes in the sexuality experience, showing that the meanings attributed to this experience are based on individual life stories, quality of personal relationships established in practice and perception of sexuality, despite the stoma. CONCLUSIONS: The Social Representations, in terms of experiencing sexuality after the stoma, are based on meanings attributed to the body, associated with daily life and present in the social imaginary. It is influenced by other factors, such as physiological changes resulting from the surgery and the fact of having or not a partner. Care taken during sexual practices provide greater security and comfort in moments of intimacy, resembling the closest to what ostomized people experienced before the stoma. The self-irrigation technique associated or not with the use of artificial occluder, has been attested by its users as a positive element that makes a difference in sexual practice after the stoma. The support to ostomized people should be comprehensive, not limited to technical care and disease, which are important, but not sufficient. The interdisciplinary health team should consider all aspects of the person, seeking a real meeting between subjects.OBJETIVO: Identificar as RepresentaĂ§Ă”es Sociais (RS da pessoa estomizada intestinal sobre vivĂȘncia da sexualidade apĂłs confecĂ§ĂŁo do estoma. MĂTODOS: Estudo exploratĂłrio, descritivo, qualitativo do ponto de vista do referencial da RepresentaĂ§ĂŁo Social. Participaram 15 estomizados, sendo 8 mulheres, com idade mĂ©dia de 57,9 anos, entre agosto e setembro de 2005. Dados obtidos por entrevistas, transcritas, foram submetidos Ă anĂĄlise de conteĂșdo, originando a unidade temĂĄtica "Ressignificando a sexualidade" e subtemas. RESULTADOS: Demonstrou-se que o estoma intestinal interfere na dinĂąmica da vivĂȘncia da sexualidade, desvelando que os significados a ela atribuĂdos estĂŁo ancorados nas histĂłrias individuais de vida, na qualidade das relaĂ§Ă”es pessoais/conjugais estabelecidas na prĂĄtica e na percepĂ§ĂŁo da sexualidade, apesar do estoma. CONCLUSĂES: RepresentaĂ§Ă”es Sociais sobre vivĂȘncia da sexualidade apĂłs estoma estĂŁo ancoradas nos significados atribuĂdos ao corpo, veiculadas no cotidiano e presentes no imaginĂĄrio social. Ă influenciada por outros fatores, como alteraĂ§Ă”es fisiolĂłgicas decorrentes do ato cirĂșrgico e da existĂȘncia de parceiro. Cuidados adotados nas prĂĄticas sexuais propiciam maior seguranĂ§a e conforto nos momentos de intimidade, tornando-as mais prĂłximas daquilo que vivenciavam antes do estoma. A autoirrigaĂ§ĂŁo, associada ou nĂŁo ao oclusor, constituiu estratĂ©gia facilitadora para melhor aceitaĂ§ĂŁo do estoma, sendo essencial para vida sexual mais prazerosa. A assistĂȘncia Ă pessoa estomizada deve ser integral, nĂŁo se limitando apenas Ă doenĂ§a e ao cuidado tĂ©cnico, que sĂŁo importantes, mas nĂŁo Ășnicos. O trabalho interdisciplinar da equipe de saĂșde deve vislumbrar a pessoa em sua totalidade, buscando real encontro entre sujeitos.
Karow, A M
Most American donor insemination programs include a policy of complete confidentiality concerning the donor of the semen. This is the result of a long legal tradition of American constitutional law. However, some slight abridgement of this body of legal decisions might be very much in the best interests of children arising from donor insemination, and even--in most cases, in fact--the donors themselves. With regard to the children, the factors involved are both those of genetic counseling, should the need arise, and psychological development. Of course, as at present, the donor must be relieved of all responsibility, both legal and financial. PMID:8348162
... Balance âș Hormones and Obesity Fact Sheet Hormones and Obesity March, 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Caroline Apovian, MD Judith Korner, MD, PhD What is obesity? Obesity is a chronic (long-term) medical problem ...
Shi, Ling; Wang, Jingxing; Liu, Zhong; Stevens, Lori; Sadler, Andrew; Ness, Paul; Shan, Hua
Despite a steady increase in total blood collections and voluntary non-remunerated blood donors, China continues to have many challenges with its blood donation system. The country's donation rate remains low at 9%o, with over 60% of donors being first-time donors. Generally there is a lack of adequate public awareness about blood donation. The conservative donor selection criteria, the relatively long donation interval, and the small donation volume have further limited blood supply. To ensure a sufficient and safe blood supply that meets the increasing clinical need for blood products, there is an urgent need to strengthen the country's blood donor management. This comprehensive effort should include educating and motivating more individuals especially from the rural areas to be involved in blood donation, developing rational and evidence-based selection criteria for donor eligibility, designing a donor follow-up mechanism to encourage more future donations, assessing the current donor testing strategy, improving donor service and care, building regional and national shared donor deferral database, and enhancing the transparency of the blood donation system to gain more trust from the general public. The purpose of the review is to provide an overview of the key process of and challenges with the blood donor management system in China. PMID:25254023
Full Text Available Obesity is a civilization disease and the proportion of people suffering from it continues to grow, especially in the developed countries. Number of obese people in Europe has increased threefold over the last 20 years. The paradox of obesity and poverty relationship is observed especially in the developed and developing countries. In developing countries, along with economic development and income growth, the number of people with overweight and obesity is increasing. This paradox has a relationship with both the easy availability and low cost of highly processed foods containing âempty caloriesâ and no nutritional value. To date, this paradox has been described in the United States and the United Kingdom, although many European countries are also experiencing high percentages of obese people. Among the reasons for the growing obesity in the population of poor people are: higher unemployment, lower education level, and irregular meals. Another cause of obesity is low physical activity, which among the poor is associated with a lack of money for sports equipment. Due to the large rate of deaths caused by diseases directly linked to obesity, the governments of many countries implement prevention programmes of overweight and obesity. These programmes are based primarily on educating the public about a healthy lifestyle based on healthy eating, daily physical activity and avoiding alcohol and cigarettes.
Carlin, JesseLea; George, Robert; Reyes, Teresa M
Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during pregnancy increases the offspring risk for obesity. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that maternal consumption of a high fat (60%) diet leads to global and gene specific decreases in DNA methylation in the brain of the offspring. The present experiments were designed to attempt to reverse this DNA hypomethylation through supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors, and to determine whether methyl donor supplementation cou...
Vrieze, A.; van Nood, E.; Holleman, F.; Heilig, G. H. J.; Zoetendal, E. G.; De Vos, W. M.
Alterations in intestinal microbiota are associated with obesity and insulin resistance. We studied the effects of infusing intestinal microbiota from lean donors to male recipients with metabolic syndrome on the recipients' microbiota composition and glucose metabolism. Subjects were assigned randomly to groups that were given small intestinal infusions of allogenic or autologous microbiota. Six weeks after infusion of microbiota from lean donors, insulin sensitivity of recipients increased ...
Sarwer, David B.; Dilks, Rebecca J.
The prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity has tripled in the past three decades. This increase has been accompanied by a dramatic rise in obesity-related health complications among American youth. Thus, many obese youth are now experiencing illnesses that will threaten their life expectancy in the absence of significant weight loss.âŠ
Sarwer, David B.; Dilks, Rebecca J.
The prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity has tripled in the past three decades. This increase has been accompanied by a dramatic rise in obesity-related health complications among American youth. Thus, many obese youth are now experiencing illnesses that will threaten their life expectancy in the absence of significant weight loss.
Full Text Available Context: Blood donation results in a substantial loss of iron (200 to 250 mg at each bleeding procedure (425 to 475 ml and subsequent mobilization of iron from body stores. Recent reports have shown that body iron reserves generally are small and iron depletion is more frequent in blood donors than in non-donors. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors and to establish the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors according to sex, whether they were first-time or multi-time donors. Design: From march 20 to April 5, 2004, three hundred potential blood donors from Hemocentro del Café y Tolima Grande were studied. Diagnostic tests: Using a combination of biochemical measurements of iron status: serum ferritin (RIA, ANNAR and the hemoglobin pre and post-donation (HEMOCUE Vital technology medical . Results: The frequency of iron deficiency in potential blood donors was 5%, and blood donors accepted was 5.1%; in blood donors rejected for low hemoglobin the frequency of iron deficiency was 3.7% and accepted blood donors was 1.7% in male and 12.6% in female. The frequency of iron deficiency was higher in multi-time blood donors than in first-time blood donors, but not stadistic significative. Increase nivel accepted hemoglobina in 1 g/dl no incidence in male; in female increase of 0.5 g/dl low in 25% blood donors accepted with iron deficiency, but increased rejected innecesary in 16.6% and increased is 1 g/dl low blood donors female accepted in 58% (7/12, but increased the rejected innecesary in 35.6%. Conclusions: We conclude that blood donation not is a important factor for iron deficiency in blood donors. The high frequency of blood donors with iron deficiency found in this study suggests a need for a more accurate laboratory trial, as hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement alone is not sufficient for detecting and excluding blood donors with iron deficiency without anemia, and ajustes hacia nivel more high in standars of accepted of hemoglobin no help the situation and no assure the blood suplly; increased exclusion blood donors of 9% at 44.6%.
Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren
Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively....... The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar...
Full Text Available Background: Platelet transfusions are essential to prevent morbidity and mortality in patients who are severely thrombocytopenic and are at risk of spontaneous bleeding. Platelets are currently obtained either by fractionation of whole blood or by platelet apheresis. The quality of single donor platelets (SDP in terms of yield influences platelet recovery in the recipient and allows prolonging intervals between transfusions. Material and Methods: Donor demographic and laboratory data were analyzed prior to performing plateletpheresis to identify donor factors that influence platelet yield. The study was conducted on 130 healthy, first-time plateletpheresis donors over a period of 4 years. The plateletpheresis procedures were performed using Fresenius Kabi COM.TEC and Hemonetics MCS plus separator. A relationship between pre-donation donor variables and yield of platelets was studied using the Pearson correlation. Results: The mean platelet yield was 3.16ï±0.62x1011 per unit. A positive correlation was observed between platelet yield and pre-donation platelet count, body mass index (BMI; Kg/m2 of the donor, while a negative correlation was observed between age and the platelet yield. Conclusion: Donor pre-donation platelet count, BMI and donor age influence platelet yield. Young healthy donors with a high platelet count and better BMI can give a better platelet yield in the SDP.
van den Heuvel, Wim J.A.; van Santvoort, Marc M.
This study analyses the experienced age discrimination of old European citizens and the factors related to this discrimination. Differences in experienced discrimination between old citizens of different European countries are explored. Data from the 2008 ESS survey are used. Old age is defined as being 62 years or older. The survey data come from 28 European countries and 14,364 old-age citizens. Their average age is 72 years. Factor analysis is used to construct the core variable experienc...
Kumar, Naveen; Choudhary, Narendra Singh
The problem of obesity is increasing worldwide in epidemic proportions; the situation is similarly becoming more common in patients with cirrhosis which negatively affect the prognosis of disease and also makes liver transplantation difficult especially in the living donor liver transplantation setting where low graft to recipient weight ratio negatively affects survival. Treatment of obesity is difficult in cirrhosis due to difficulty in implementation of lifestyle measures, limited data on safety of anti-obesity drugs and high risk of surgery. Currently approved anti-obesity drugs have limited data in patients with cirrhosis. Bariatric surgery remains an option in selected compensated cirrhotic patients. Endoscopic interventions for obesity are emerging and are quite promising in patients with cirrhosis as these are minimally invasive. In present review, we briefly discuss various modalities of weight reduction in obese patients and their applicability in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:26668693
In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive.Â Â Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.Â Â Date Released: 3/6/2014.
Kumar, Naveen; Choudhary, Narendra Singh
The problem of obesity is increasing worldwide in epidemic proportions; the situation is similarly becoming more common in patients with cirrhosis which negatively affect the prognosis of disease and also makes liver transplantation difficult especially in the living donor liver transplantation setting where low graft to recipient weight ratio negatively affects survival. Treatment of obesity is difficult in cirrhosis due to difficulty in implementation of lifestyle measures, limited data on ...
Canoy, Dexter; Bundred, Peter
Obesity is the result of long-term energy imbalances, where daily energy intake exceeds daily energy expenditure. Obesity in children is associated with physical as well as psychosocial problems. Long-term adverse health consequences of childhood obesity may include increased risk for cardiovascular and metabolic disease in adulthood. Most obese adolescents stay obese as adults.
Full Text Available ... first the potential donor meets with a social worker and a psychologist, and there are also some ... was still -- I mean I was still in pain and recovering, but its funny, I ... of that, but it is extremely low. The donors that it has been a problem ...
Donor selection is one of the most important aspects of tissue banking practice. Without a good donor selection criteria, the results of any effort of trying to preserve tissues will have disastrous outcome for the recipient of these tissues. While with a very good and strict donor selection the Tissue Bank can guarantee safe and effective tissue allografts. There are significant aspects in the history and physical examination of the donor that must be emphasized. A donor exclusion criteria has also been formulated together with a list of all the needed laboratory examinations to eliminate possible diseases that may be transferred from the donor. The methods of procurement of tissue allografts from living and cadaver donors will be described. The limitations and advantages of each will be taken.There are also special restrictions that are important in the practice of removing the tissues from the donors. All the necessary equipment should be ready and the potential risk on the personnel should be known to all doing Tissue Banking
Full Text Available ... can do a paired donation; a paired donation exchange, living donor exchange, where the A donor would donate to the ... commonplace. Theyre the first of the matched exchanges. Here is an interesting question, and Ill ...
Full Text Available ... Boston. Dr. Joseph Murray was awarded the Nobel Prize for that pioneering work. And weâve had a lot of talk about the safety for the living donors. The donor for that operation turned 80 last year, which is really quite an accomplishment. On ...
Lauren K King
Full Text Available The most significant impact of obesity on the musculoskeletal system is associated with osteoarthritis (OA, a disabling degenerative joint disorder characterized by pain, decreased mobility and negative impact on quality of life. OA pathogenesis relates to both excessive joint loading and altered biomechanical patterns together with hormonal and cytokine dysregulation. Obesity is associated with the incidence and progression of OA of both weight-bearing and non weight-bearing joints, to rate of joint replacements as well as operative complications. Weight loss in OA can impart clinically significant improvements in pain and delay progression of joint structural damage. Further work is required to determine the relative contributions of mechanical and metabolic factors in the pathogenesis of OA.
Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren
Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectivel...... Wittner Bynner (1881-1968) wrote, "The biggest problem in the world could have been solved when it was small"....
... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic Whites are 60% ... findings/nhqrdr/nhqrdr12/index.html HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6104.pdf [PDF | 3.5MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...
Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is a condition in some obese people in which poor breathing leads to ... Maintain a healthy weight and avoid obesity. Use your CPAP or BiPAP treatment as your provider prescribed.
... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 78 ... ss6104.pdf [PDF | 3.5MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...
... CDC Employees and Reasonable Accommodations (RA) Disability and Obesity Language: English EspaĂ±ol (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... and Disability at http://www.ncpad.org/ The Obesity Epidemic Obesity affects different people in different ways ...
... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome? Obesity hypoventilation (HI-po-ven-tih- ... NHLBI Research Featured in HBO Documentary Series on Obesity Hear people talk about their challenges and successes ...
Simona Ianosi Edith; Alexandra Comes; Gabriela Jimborean
Obesity is a disease with severe health consequences and increased risk of mortality. The most commonly used criteria to assess the presence and the severity of obesity are body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and the presence of the health conditions caused or worsened by obesity. Worldwide obesity has more than doubled in the last 4 decades. Obesity is the second of the leading preventable causes of death worldwide (after smoking). Obesity has a plurifactorial pathoge...
Cai, Larry; Yeh, Benjamin M; Westphalen, Antonio C; Roberts, John P; Wang, Zhen J
Adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is increasingly used for the treatment of end-stage liver disease. The three most commonly harvested grafts for LDLT are left lateral segment, left lobe, and right lobe grafts. The left lateral segment graft, which includes Couinaud's segments II and III, is usually used for pediatric recipients or small size recipients. Most of the adult recipients need either a left or a right lobe graft. Whether a left or right lobe graft should be harvested from the donors depends on estimated graft and donor remnant liver volume, as well as biliary and vascular anatomy. Detailed preoperative assessment of the potential donor liver volumetrics, biliary and vascular anatomy, and liver parenchyma is vital to minimize risks to the donors and maximize benefits to the recipients. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are currently the imaging modalities of choice in the preoperative evaluation of potential donors. This review provides an overview of key surgical considerations in LDLT that the radiologists must be aware of, and imaging findings on CT and MRI that the radiologists must convey to the surgeons when evaluating potential donors for LDLT. PMID:26912106
Kahneman, Daniel; Wakker, Peter; Sarin, Rakesh
textabstractTwo core meanings of âutilityâ are distinguished. âDecision utilityâ is the weight of an outcome in a decision. âExperienced utilityâ is hedonic quality, as in Benthamâs usage. Experienced utility can be reported in real time (instant utility), or in retrospective evaluations of past episodes (remembered utility). Psychological research has documented systematic errors in retrospective evaluations, which can induce a preference for dominated options. We propose a formal normative ...
... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Obesity Prevalence Maps Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Obesity prevalence in 2014 varies across states and territories. ...
Yanke, D. R.
Medical advances have made bone marrow transplantation the treatment of choice for certain hematologic diseases. For those patients eligible for a marrow transplant only about 30 percent find an HLA-compatible match within their families. Studies indicate that unrelated volunteers are willing to donate their marrow. The National Marrow Donor Program was formed in 1986 as a result of a federal contract. This group is a network of donor centers, transplant centers, and collection centers. The C...
Full Text Available Francesca Giuliani,1 Ilaria Rovelli,1 Chiara Peila,1 Stefania Alfonsina Liguori,2 Enrico Bertino,1 Alessandra Coscia1 1SCDU Neonatologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Pediatriche e dell'Adolescenza, UniversitĂ degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy; 2SC Neonatologia, Ospedale Maria Vittoria, Torino, Italy Abstract: Mother's own milk is widely recognized as the optimal feeding for term infants, but increasing evidence exists of its benefits also for sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units. However, the nutritional needs for appropriate growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of such a particular population of infants should be attentively evaluated, considering also the indication to an appropriate fortification of human milk. The target is to achieve growth potential for preterm newborns while ensuring good metabolic outcomes and normal neurological development. When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, donor human milk (DHM represents the second best choice and, although somewhat modified by the Holder pasteurization process, it preserves many benefits when compared to formula, as documented by more and more reports, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analyses published in the past few years. Evidence exists of the protection exerted by DHM from necrotizing enterocolitis, while further studies are required to look at possible beneficial effects regarding infections, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, long-term cardiovascular risk factors, feeding tolerance, neurological outcome, and allergy. Finally, the concern that the use of DHM might decrease preterm infant breastfeeding is being raised. Conversely, publications exist showing that the use of DHM in the neonatal unit increases breastfeeding rates at discharge for infants of very low birth weight. Keywords: human milk, preterm infant feeding, milk bank, breast milk, mother's own milk, pasteurized human milk, fortification
Children Now, 2011
Too many California children suffer from high rates of preventable chronic conditions associated with childhood obesity and dental disease. The state is experiencing a crisis in both areas. Fortunately, common factors that contribute to both conditions--including the rates of breastfeeding, access to healthy food and the consumption ofâŠ
Full Text Available ... choose one donor over another? There are several factors go into that. If somebodyâs fortunate enough to have more than one person who is willing to donate them a kidney, ...
Full Text Available ... with the donor that really was the main source. Otherwise these patients are screened very carefully medically ... to learn more. Just click on the Request information button on your webcast screen and open the ...
Full Text Available ... ever be a donor?â No. The recipient, by definition, had end-stage kidney disease and certainly canâ ... And you had that PCA pump for pain control to where you push the button to help ...
Full Text Available ... spread much at all, so it has little risk of damaging other tissues. But it does a ... donor, particularly because theyâre at long-term risks for health problems such as diabetes, which in ...
Full Text Available ... Transplant meetings they had a celebration of the event and that donor it was there to accept ... yet. Certainly, weâve all heard about artificial heart and ventricular assist device that have been successful. ...
Full Text Available ... that would be removed. A patient who had chronic infections in one of their kidneys, we would ... The recipient, by definition, had end-stage kidney disease and certainly cant ever be a donor, ...
Full Text Available ... a potential donor; serious medical condition, such as HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental ... problems such as diabetes, which in turn can cause kidney disease, but also because of risks perioperatively ...
Full Text Available ... can. Finally, after that is done, the patient sees Dr. Robey for a surgical clearance. There are ... at the potential donor and we donât see any reasons why they canât safely donate, ...
Full Text Available ... of work for a little while and my child is grown and I dont have to ... donor, Anna, a question that pertains to having children. What was your understanding about being able to ...
Full Text Available ... donor meets with a social worker and a psychologist, and there are also some basic medical tests ... steroidal medications like ibuprofen, which can affect kidney function. And then about four weeks after surgery, Iâ ...
Full Text Available ... choose one donor over another? There are several factors go into that. If somebodyâs fortunate enough to ... a difference in the first year. The rejection rate in the first year after kidney transplant is ...
Full Text Available ... was no benefit to that, and at a finite risk to the patient. There are some patients ... a transplanted kidney? Thats one of the key differences between deceased donor kidneys and a living kidney. ...
Full Text Available ... medical care. OR-Live, the vision of improving health. Good evening, Im Dr. John Colonna, the ... donor, my life really hasnt changed. My health is just as good now as it ever ...
Full Text Available ... on living donor kidney transplant surgery. Please feel free to e-mail questions as we go on. ... we can pass instruments that allow us to free up the kidney. Heres a view from inside ...
Full Text Available Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery Sentara Norfolk General Hospital, Norfolk, Virginia March 25, 2009 Welcome to this â ... than 100 caregiving sites, including seven acute care hospitals, four advanced imaging centers, seven nursing homes, and ...
Full Text Available ... a matter of experience as you -- in medical school and you do gross anatomy and you learn ... than an older donor, say, choosing between a parent over a sibling, or how would you choose ...
Full Text Available ... with the donor that really was the main source. Otherwise these patients are screened very carefully medically ... here. And there is quite a bit of information now coming out in studies that preemptive living ...
Full Text Available ... northeastern North Carolina. Nationally recognized for quality and innovation, Sentara employs over 15,000 people and operates ... with an open incision. There is a screening process for potential donors. Itâs important to emphasize that ...
Full Text Available ... of a machine, have a better quality of life. It ended up not happening until 2001. It ... Since Iâve become a kidney donor, my life really hasnât changed. My health is just ...
Full Text Available ... good the next day, because all of a sudden, all the toxins in their bloodstream are being ... that would make the difference for us. Very young donors such as -- we would never take anyone ...
Full Text Available ... process, first the potential donor meets with a social worker and a psychologist, and there are also ... ever was. I donât have any side effects or any problems as a result of donating ...
Full Text Available ... on potential donors? The answer to that is, Yes. We look closely not at the weight but ... third and people get transplanted that way. So, yes, there are ways to make it so a ...
Full Text Available ... of work for a little while and my child is grown and I donât have to ... donor, Anna, a question that pertains to having children. âWhat was your understanding about being able to ...
Full Text Available ... 800 kidneys have been transplanted, and 441 of these have been living donor transplants, and that will ... John Hopkins, and we have done hundreds of these since then. The procedure is beneficial to patients ...
Full Text Available ... on living donor kidney transplant surgery. Please feel free to e-mail questions as we go on. ... we can pass instruments that allow us to free up the kidney. Hereâs a view from inside ...
Full Text Available ... nationwide. To ensure that, we take every step possible to make sure that the potential donor is ... fact that the space is smaller? Is it possible to transplant an adult kidney to a child? ...
Full Text Available ... potential donor; serious medical condition, such as HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness ... ever was. I donât have any side effects or any problems as a result of donating ...
Full Text Available ... years. We talk about five year survival and one year survival of the kidney. At five years, something like 55 or 60 percent, depending on what type of deceased donor kidney youâre talking about, ...
Full Text Available ... process, first the potential donor meets with a social worker and a psychologist, and there are also ... that came in. They would come in three times a week, so basically you become their family. ...
Full Text Available Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery Sentara Norfolk General Hospital, Norfolk, Virginia March 25, 2009 Welcome to this OR-Live webcast presentation presented by Sentara Healthcare. ...
Full Text Available ... process, first the potential donor meets with a social worker and a psychologist, and there are also ... sometimes six weeks. Long-term, really the only issue is just taking care of their bodies. We ...
Full Text Available ... a potential donor; serious medical condition, such as HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental ... have better visualization of the organs and the structures. The scope can get up within millimeters or ...
Craig, J. M.; Barratt, C L; Kinghorn, G. R.
AIM: The British Andrology Society recommends screening semen donors for sexually transmitted infections to minimise the risk of pathogen transmission to the mother and fetus. The aim was to review recent findings of semen donor screening and, if appropriate, recommend changes to the screening protocol. SUBJECTS: 175 consecutive men attending for STD screening between January 1992 and December 1995 who had been preselected by the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology as suitable semen dono...
Jayasinghe, Thilini N; Chiavaroli, Valentina; Holland, David J; Cutfield, Wayne S; O'Sullivan, Justin M
Key Points The microbiome has been implicated in the development of obesity.Conventional therapeutic methods have limited effectiveness for the treatment of obesity and prevention of related complications.Gut microbiome transplantation may represent an alternative and effective therapy for the treatment of obesity. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Despite a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and growing treatment options, a significant proportion of obese patients do not respond to treatment. Recently, microbes residing in the human gastrointestinal tract have been found to act as an "endocrine" organ, whose composition and functionality may contribute to the development of obesity. Therefore, fecal/gut microbiome transplantation (GMT), which involves the transfer of feces from a healthy donor to a recipient, is increasingly drawing attention as a potential treatment for obesity. Currently the evidence for GMT effectiveness in the treatment of obesity is preliminary. Here, we summarize benefits, procedures, and issues associated with GMT, with a special focus on obesity. PMID:26925392
Jayasinghe, Thilini N.; Chiavaroli, Valentina; Holland, David J.; Cutfield, Wayne S.; O'Sullivan, Justin M.
Key Points The microbiome has been implicated in the development of obesity.Conventional therapeutic methods have limited effectiveness for the treatment of obesity and prevention of related complications.Gut microbiome transplantation may represent an alternative and effective therapy for the treatment of obesity. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Despite a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and growing treatment options, a significant proportion of obese patients do not respond to treatment. Recently, microbes residing in the human gastrointestinal tract have been found to act as an endocrine organ, whose composition and functionality may contribute to the development of obesity. Therefore, fecal/gut microbiome transplantation (GMT), which involves the transfer of feces from a healthy donor to a recipient, is increasingly drawing attention as a potential treatment for obesity. Currently the evidence for GMT effectiveness in the treatment of obesity is preliminary. Here, we summarize benefits, procedures, and issues associated with GMT, with a special focus on obesity. PMID:26925392
Full Text Available ... HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some of these ... are. And then as you do your surgery training you get more and more experience. And really, ...
Full Text Available ... HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some of these ... unusual to have bleeding that is difficult to control laparoscopically. But we tell patients ahead of time ...
Full Text Available ... such as HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some ... if they were, lets say, to develop a cancer in one of their kidneys, and certainly that ...
Full Text Available ... such as HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some ... if they were, letâs say, to develop a cancer in one of their kidneys, and certainly that ...
Full Text Available ... medical condition, such as HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity ... long-term risks for health problems such as diabetes, which in turn can cause kidney disease, but ...
Full Text Available ... diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some of these conditions. And once weâ ... of work for a little while and my child is grown and I donât have to ...
Full Text Available ... diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some of these conditions. And once weâ ... Once a child is, you know, kind of adolescent age, itâs really the same as doing a ...
Yucetin, L; Bozoklar, C A; Yanik, O; Tekin, S; Tuncer, M; Demirbas, A
More than 1 million patients are estimated to have undergone transplantation in the past years. In recent years, living-donor kidney transplantation accounted for more than 50% of all transplantations. Kidney transplantation from living donors is regarded as a contradictory case to the "do no harm" principle as a major surgical intervention is performed on a normal and healthy person at the expense of recovery of the organ recipient. The purpose of this study was to investigate positive psychological experiences, specifically post-traumatic growth (PTG), among living kidney donors. The sample consisted of a total of 184 kidney donors. The age of donors ranged between 21-76 (mean, 50.76; SD, 10.93). In this study 67.9% of donors were female. The recipients on dialysis group had higher scores than the recipients who did not have dialysis; the mean difference was significant on the subscales of change in life philosophy, change in relationships, change in self-perception, and in the PTGI score. The donors with higher education levels received higher scores on the subscale of change in relationships in comparison with donors with low education. The donors who were married and older than 51 years had higher scores than donors who were not married or younger on the subscale of change in self-perception. This is a single-center study; this center performs more than 500 kidney transplantations per year. There is a good system and experience at each step before and after transplantation for donor and recipient and relatives. It is a really big potential trauma to donate a kidney to your relative; you can change this negative effect to a positive effect with a good system. The present study also showed that when compared with the scale's absolute midpoint, kidney donors in the study sample experienced moderate-to-high levels of PTG. PMID:26093699
Muńoz López, Alejandro
Full Text Available Purpose: to examine kinematic differences of instep soccer kick between experienced and non-experienced soccer players. Subjects: 17 men between 17 and 21 years old. Methodology: a 3D film system with 4 cameras was used. Maximum power instep kicks were executed. It was analyzed feet velocity in the impact, maximum hip extension, maximum knee flexion and kick phases duration. Results: were found significant differences in feet velocity with non-dominant leg in the impact moment (m/s (Experienced: 14.5±.52, Non-experienced: 12.5±.5; p<.001 and maximum hip extension (degrees (Experienced: 39.2 ± 1.3, Non-experienced: 34.28±3.2; p<.001. Also were significant differences in the second phase duration in both legs (p<.05. Conclusions: Maximum instep soccer kick show significant differences between groups of different level only in non-dominant leg.
Gonnelli, Stefano; Caffarelli, Carla; Nuti, Ranuccio
Obesity and osteoporosis are two common diseases with an increasing prevalence and a high impact on morbidity and mortality. Obese women have always been considered protected against osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. However, several recent studies have challenged the widespread belief that obesity is protective against fracture and have suggested that obesity is a risk factor for certain fractures.
The prevalence of childhood obesity has steadily increased over the last decades, with approximately 35% of children aged 6-19 classified as overweight or obese. Recently, a plateau in the increasing rates of obesity has been observed. Despite this leveling off, overweight and obese children are hea...
Obesity is the result of long term energy imbalances, where daily energy intake exceeds daily energy expenditure. Along with long term health problems, obesity in children is associated with short term psychosocial problems, including social marginalisation, low self esteem, and impaired quality of life.Most obese adolescents stay obese as adults.
F. M. Wagner
Full Text Available Donor heart preservation and perfusionFlorian M. WagnerDept. of Cardiovascular Surgery, University Heart Center Hamburg, Germany[Applied Cardiopulmonary Pathophysiology 15: 198-206, 2011] AbstractDue to its technically simple and easily reproducible nature cold static preservation is still the current gold standard for myocardial protection in between donor explantation and recipient implantation. It allows safe overall ischemic periods of up to 4 hours with a primary graft failure rate less than 2%. Additional measures such as second rinsing or leucocyte depleted in-situ reperfusion allow to extend the ischemic tolerance in ideal donor hearts to 6 hours. Recent technological progress and research improved results of continuous warm, blood based in-vitro perfusion reducing the necessity of myocardial ischemia to the surgical procedures of ex- and implantation. First clinical experiences with this challenging but also very expensive technology indicate its safety and efficacy with at least similar results as cold static preservation even with extended transport times. Due to possible donor evaluation or even resuscitation strategies during ex-vivo perfusion, it offers furthermore promising potential to compensate the ever increasing donor risk profile and could also help to increase availability of transplantable donor hearts. As of December 2011 a German multicenter prospective registry study will start with the goal to evaluate efficacy and outcome of this method in 250 heart transplants using donor organs with extended criteria or expected transport times of >3 hours. Expected duration of this project is 2 years and final analyses of collected data will help to clarify if application of this complex and expensive technology is ultimately beneficial and justified.
TĂĄki AthanĂĄssios Cordas; Ruth Fabbri Ramos Ascencio
Great population studies do not confirm the hypothesis that atypical personality of obese would exist. Obeses in the generalpopulation do not present more psychological disturbs thanthe ones that are not obeses. Obeses adolescents and adultsare discriminated in their academic and professional lifes. Thissocial, cultural, economic and affective impoverishment seemsto be directly related to the gravity of their obesity, what means,higher the ICM (Index of Corporal Mass), bigger are thepsycholog...
Abdulrahman Saleh Al-Mulhim; Hessah Abdulaziz Al-Hussaini; Bashaeer Abdullah Al-Jalal; Rehab Omar Al-Moagal; Sara Abdullah Al-Najjar
Obesity is a medical disease that is increasing significantly nowadays. Worldwide obesity prevalence doubled since 1980. Obese patients are at great risk for complications with physical and psychological burdens, thus affecting their quality of life. Obesity is well known to have higher risk for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, musculoskeletal diseases and shorter life expectancy. In addition, obesity has a great impact on surgical diseases, and elective surgeries in comparison to ...
Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Klingner, Janette K.; Swanson, Elizabeth A.; Boardman, Alison; Stillman-Spisak, Stephanie J.; Mohammed, Sarojani S.; Leroux, Audrey J.
This study examined the effects and fidelity of collaborative strategic reading (CSR) implemented by experienced CSR teachers (participated in previous study; Vaughn et al., 2011) on the reading comprehension outcomes of students in English/Language Arts (ELA) or Reading classes. Eligible teachers (12 of 17; others reassigned to teachâŠ
Otnes, Cele; And Others
Compares the perspectives of more experienced art directors and copywriters to those of newer ones, on such topics as the skills educators should incorporate in advertising courses, electives that benefit aspiring "creatives," and techniques creatives used to secure their jobs. (SR)
Nickerson, Susan D.
High quality teaching is critical to student learning, yet takes considerable time to develop in particular content areas. Students in high-poverty, urban settings are less likely to encounter experienced and trained teachers. Administrators from a large school district and university mathematics education faculty partnered and attempted to
Overlien, Carolina; Hyden, Margareta
The aim of this article is, by analysing children's discourses, to investigate their actions or absence of actions during a domestic violence episode. The empirical data are recorded group therapy sessions and individual interviews with children who have grown up experiencing their fathers' violence against their mothers. The analysis shows that
Reports that in a word naming experiment, experienced readers of Persian named high frequency transparent Persian words significantly faster than matched low frequency words. Finds no such effects for adults who had, for 10 years, little experience in reading Persian due to emigration to the West; overall, previously experienced adults named wordsâŠ
Abdallah Abbass; Achkar Alice; Yahia Najat; Rizk Sandra
Abstract Background In the past year Lebanon has been experiencing a nutritional transition in food choices from the typical Mediterranean diet to the fast food pattern. As a consequence, the dietary habits of young adults have been affected; thus, overweight and obesity are increasingly being observed among the young. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity on a sample of students from the Lebanese American University (in Beirut) and to examine their e...
Hutt, D; Nehari, M; Munitz-Shenkar, D; Alkalay, Y; Toren, A; Bielorai, B
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is widely used for treatment of various life-threatening pediatric diseases. It is an intensive process that psychologically affects the whole family. Pediatric donors represent a very unique, underreported, group. The aim of this study is to investigate the sibling donors' and their parents' perspective on the donation process. The cohort included 36 sibling donors and 50 parents of pediatric patients who underwent allogeneic SCT between 1995 and 2010 and were alive at the time of the study. Mean age at donation was 14.78Â±8.350 years in donors' group and 8.22Â±4.639 years in parents' group. Data were collected by anonymous questionnaires. Three psychological dimensions were analyzed: donors' personal perspective; donor-recipient interpersonal relationship and the influence of the donation on the family unit. Results showed that the donors experienced a wide range of complex emotional responses, positive and negative, whereas the parents' responses were mainly positive and less complex. This study presents both the sibling donor's and parents' perspective, giving a more complete picture of the donation process within the family. The effects of this intense experience of SCT has a long-term impact on the whole family, indicating the need for follow-up and psychosocial support. PMID:26146807
Full Text Available Because the supply of cadaveric organ donors is limited and their ICU management is complex, a multidisciplinary, well-coordinated, and institutionally supported approach to management is essential to ensure the maintenance of the current supply and to increase the future supply of organs and tissues that are suitable for transplantation. The potential organ donor is at high risk for instability as a direct consequence of the loss of physiologic homeostatic mechanisms that are dependent on functioning of the central nervous system. The keys to successful ICU management of the potential organ donor include a team approach that is focused on the anticipation of complications, appropriate physiologic monitoring, aggressive life support, with frequent reassessment and titration of therapy.
Courchelle, J; Baudry, C; Bourboul, M-C; Coudurier, N
For a long time, safety has been patient-centred and taken for granted. Indeed, it needed a dramatic accident and the study of post-donation information for the question to be looked into again. However, under various statutory, organizational aspects and the professionalization of the staffs, safety has always accompanied the donor throughout its course of donation. Self-sufficiency is, certainly, the first mission of the Établissement Français du Sang: while we have to supply patients with sufficient blood products complying with quality criteria, we must not however forget the essential respect for the safety of the donor. PMID:21440480
... importance of further study into donor management and its outcomes. Suggestions and comments concerning... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Donor Management Research: Improvements in Clinical Management of Deceased Organ Donors AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration...
Full Text Available Burnout is a serious psychological syndrome that can affect not only an individuals well-being, but also the functioning of whole organisations, such as schools. It is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and decreased personal accomplishment.The level of burnout among teachers in the field of education has a negative impact on student success. The present investigation examines the level of burn out among high and low experienced teachers. It focused on a group of English teachers from different nationalities: Iranian, and Malaysian at UPM to examine if there is any relation between burnout and experience level. The sample consisted of 30 English teachers. Two instruments namely, The Maslach Burnout Inventory and Demographic Questionnaire were used to collect data. Data analysis revealed that there is no significant difference in depersonalization and personal accomplishment scores between low and high experienced teachers. But the result of this study also revealed that there is a significant difference in Emotional Exhaustion scores between low and high experienced teachers. Further research is required to explore the roots and the causes of burnout.Keywords: teacher burnout, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment
Full Text Available ... these conditions. And once weâve taken a good look at the potential donor and we donât see any reasons why they canât safely donate, then they ... life? Is kidney function still normal?â Thatâs a good question. As soon ... 65 percent of your original kidney function even though half of your kidney ...
Full Text Available ... medical care. âOR-Live,â the vision of improving health. Good evening, Iâm Dr. John Colonna, the ... donor, my life really hasnât changed. My health is just as good now as it ever ...
Full Text Available ... And weâll see them again about six months after the surgery, and then about 18 months after just to be sure that the donor ... process was such a whirlwind. Itâs been six months since I even knew I had the disease. ...
Full Text Available ... an adult kidney to a child? Certainly. Our team here works with childrens hospital the Kings Daughters with their ... members of the team. We have a great team here at Norfolk General, particularly Amy who works so hard with the living donors, but really ...
Full Text Available ... an adult kidney to a child?â Certainly. Our team here works with childrenâs hospital the Kingâs Daughters with their ... members of the team. We have a great team here at Norfolk General, particularly Amy who works so hard with the living donors, but really ...
Full Text Available ... Well there have been kidney transplants done as long as 72 hours after a kidney was removed from the donor. ... is a question for our recipient. Sarah, How long did it take for you to begin to feel like your kidney was working normally? Well, itâs funny, even right after the ...
Full Text Available ... Can someone receive a transplant before going into kidney failure?â Absolutely. Thatâs call a âpreemptive transplant.â There are ... donor cleared, and to get everybody together before kidney failure actually occurs. But we do do preemptive transplants ...
... an adult kidney to a child? Certainly. Our team here works with childrens hospital the Kings Daughters with their ... members of the team. We have a great team here at Norfolk General, particularly Amy who works so hard with the living donors, but really ...
Full Text Available ... Once a child is, you know, kind of adolescent age, itâs really the same as doing a transplant on a smaller adult. But in babies, and we do them as ... very small children, theyâre done routinely with adult ... one of the key differences between deceased donor kidneys and a living kidney. ...
Eberhardt, R. N.
Leukocyte separation-and-retrieval device utilizes granulocyte and monocyte property of leukoadhesion to glass surfaces as basis of their separation from whole blood. Device is used with single donor technique and has application in biological and chemical processing, veterinary research and clinical care.
Full Text Available ... have waited on the list even more than five years and maybe even more receive their living donor. We had the good question about making people who have a lot of antibodies. There are ways to try to reduce it so they can ...
Full Text Available ... donors that theyâre going to feel pretty bad the day after surgery, because we canât make them feel any better, whereas the recipient, like Sarah said, is going to feel really good the next day, because all of a sudden, ...
Full Text Available ... donor where a kidney was transported perhaps across country or even from one country to another. Typically, we try to get a ... our position is. A few programs in the country will transplant older recipients. We did have a ...
This paper draws on some of the major findings of a recent large-scale study of over 400 adult adopted people, who either searched for origins information or were sought out by birth relatives, to identify the potential profile of donor offspring seeking origins information. It is predicted that more women than men will search, that people who search will be in their twenties or older, and that the age at which searching begins may be delayed by the effects of the social stigma attached to gamete donation and by the greater likelihood of accidental disclosure in adulthood resulting from the higher incidence of secrecy about donor assisted conception. Two of the single triggers for adopted people to begin searching (as opposed to multiple triggers) - becoming a parent and the death of adoptive parents - may also be among the triggers for donor offspring to begin searching. The search may be complicated further when undertaken after accidental disclosure. Finally, it is argued that some donor offspring will experience a normative urge for identity completion and seeking relationships similar to that experienced by adopted people. This urge may stem from the fact that some donor offspring attach an identity to their donor that extends beyond needing factual details about their physical characteristics (though not necessarily a desire to establish a relationship). Some donor offspring are likely to encounter a desire for face-to-face contact, regardless of whether a face-to-face meeting was the original intention. The need for services to help donor offspring, donors, family members and others affected by the situation is identified. PMID:11897902
Barranco, P.; GarcĂa-RĂo, F.; Olivares, J; LĂłpez-Carrasco, V.; Ălvarez-Sala, R.; Quirce, S.
Background: Several studies have suggested a relationship between asthma and obesity; however, this relationship is unclear when obesity is compared with bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Aim: To determine whether obesity is associated with a diagnosis of asthma. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in a population of Spanish adults in the north of Madrid, Spain between 2003 and 2007. The patients included had experienced asthma symptoms during the previous y...
Full Text Available Research question: Whether certain personality characteristics of obese women make them prone towards psychological problem? Objective: To assess certain personality characteristics of obese women. Study design: Cross-sectional community based study. Setting: Affluent localities of Varanasi city. Participants: Women above 15 years of age. Statistical Analysis: Mean, S.D and ĂąâŹËtĂąâŹÂ test. Results: On 16 PF scale obese women were found more reserved, critical, depressed, worried and troubled than the non-obese women. Obese also manifested subsequently less felling of contentment, happiness satisfaction with life experiences, low sense of achievement on PGI Well-Being. Obese women showed more distress and apprehension over their negative evaluation and distressed with day to day Conclusion: Obese women evidenced significantly more neurotic than non- obese women.
... Apnea and Anesthesia Smoking and Anesthesia Outpatient Surgery Obesity and Anesthesia More than one-third of Americans ... Sleep Apnea, a chronic medical problem common with obesity, can present with serious breathing problems before, during, ...
Obesity increases a person's risk of illness and death due to diabetes, stroke, heart disease, hypertension, high cholesterol, and kidney and gallbladder disease. Obesity may increase the risk for some types of ...
... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...
Full Text Available Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pathophysiological mechanisms such as impaired brain circuit regulation and neuroendocrine hormone dysfunction. Dieting and physical exercise offer the mainstays of obesity treatment, and anti-obesity drugs may be taken in conjunction to reduce appetite or fat absorption. Bariatric surgeries may be performed in overtly obese patients to lessen stomach volume and nutrient absorption, and induce faster satiety. This review provides a summary of literature on the pathophysiological studies of obesity and discusses relevant therapeutic strategies for managing obesity.
Atsuko Satoh; Seiko Fujita; Kazuko Menzawa; Sangun Lee; Masao Miyamoto; Hidatada Sasaki
Aim: To compare diets between obese and non-obese in children. Methods: Thirty-four obese and ten non-obese school children were recruited and their habitual factors of obesity were asked. Intakes of food in the obesity and non-obesity groups were checked using a model nutritional balance chart (MNBC). Results: Average intake ratio of food relative to ideal food intake was significantly higher in the non-obesity group than the obesity group. The relationship between obesity and exercise was s...
Acosta, Andres; Camilleri, Michael
Obesity is a complex disease that results from increased energy intake and decreased energy expenditure. The gastrointestinal system plays a key role in the pathogenesis of obesity and facilitates caloric imbalance. Changes in gastrointestinal hormones and the inhibition of mechanisms that curtail caloric intake result in weight gain. It is not clear if the gastrointestinal role in obesity is a cause or an effect of this disease. Obesity is often associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM...
Arteburn, David E
The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past decades all over the world. The majority of obesity in adulthood has its origins in childhood which makes obesity a pediatric concern and the period when interventions should be done. Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in adult life and several adverse consequences in childhood like insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, polycystic ovarian syndrome, pulmonary and orthopedic dis...
Truswell, Arthur Stewart
This paper contains the following sections, in approximate chronological order: Early years, Scientific research on energy metabolism, Clinical teaching, Evidence on health risks, Slow recognition of obesity in diabetes, Depression and war, some Obesity research continued in the 1950s and 1960s, New approaches to management, a Universal standard weight for height, Luxuskonsumption, Calories (incompletely) replaced by Joules, Food intakes of obese people, Genetics, unexpected Surge of obesity ...
Hladik, Claude Marcel; Cohen, Emmanuel; Pasquet, Patrick
Understanding the links between taste perception and obesity would help authorities cope with obesity, which diminishes the health of human populations. This has been highlighted by a study of the impact of programs intended to educate obese adolescents about healthy diets (Pasquet et al., 2007)1. We present and discuss the results of this study in this chapter. In order to analyze the relationships between taste perceptions and obesity, we will (I) present the main aspects of taste perceptio...
GennĂ©-Bacon, Elizabeth A.
Obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are growing worldwide health concerns, yet their causes are not fully understood. Research into the etiology of the obesity epidemic is highly influenced by our understanding of the evolutionary roots of metabolic control. For half a century, the thrifty gene hypothesis, which argues that obesity is an evolutionary adaptation for surviving periods of famine, has dominated the thinking on this topic. Obesity researchers are often not aware that there i...
SandĂže, Peter; Palmer, Clare; Corr, Sandra; Astrup, Arne; BjĂžrnvad, Charlotte Reinhard
Recent years have seen a drastic increase in the rates of overweight and obesity among people living in some developed nations. There has also been increased concern over obesity in companion animals. In the latest article in Veterinary Record's series on One Health, Peter SandĂže and colleagues...... argue that the relationship between obesity in people and in companion animals is closer and more complex than previously thought, and that obesity should be treated as a One Health problem....
E. A. Strebkova
Full Text Available The review highlights the impact of obesity on the development, progression, and severity of osteoarthritis (OA and discusses treatments for obesity in this disease. Weight loss in obese patients with OA is shown to lead to a reduction in clinical manifestations. Despite a great deal of performed investigations of the impact of non-drug therapy for obesity (diet, physical activity, their results are contradictory and call for further investigation
Ahima, Rexford S.
The growing problem of obesity is associated with multiple morbidities, including increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, sleep apnea, and cancer. Obesity promotes disability, decreases productivity, and shortens life span. Although much attention has been focused on diet and exercise, these strategies alone are not effective in preventing obesity and maintaining weight loss. Moreover, the development of pharmacological approaches for obesity treatment has been dogged by poor...
Re, Richard N
Obesity-associated arterial hypertension is characterized by activation of the sympathetic nervous system, activation of the renin-angiotensin system, and sodium retention, among other abnormalities. In this review, the following 3 facets of the obesity/hypertension nexus will be discussed: the potential mechanisms by which obesity can lead to elevated arterial pressure, the interaction of obesity with the sequelae of hypertension, and the therapies that are believed to optimally treat obesit...
Sandűe, Peter; Palmer, Clare; Corr, Sandra; Astrup, Arne; Bjűrnvad, Charlotte Reinhard
Recent years have seen a drastic increase in the rates of overweight and obesity among people living in some developed nations. There has also been increased concern over obesity in companion animals. In the latest article in Veterinary Record's series on One Health, Peter Sandűe and colleagues...... argue that the relationship between obesity in people and in companion animals is closer and more complex than previously thought, and that obesity should be treated as a One Health problem....
Li, Mingfang; Cheung, Bernard M. Y.
Obesity is associated with increased risk of conditions such as hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes mellitus, and obstructive sleep apnoea. Pharmacotherapy for obesity should be considered in combination with lifestyle changes in obese patients, or overweight patients with other conditions that put them at risk of developing heart disease. Sibutramine and orlistat are the only two anti-obesity medications approved for long-term use. Sibutramine is a serotonergic and adrenergic drug that red...
Energy migration and transfer from acriflavine to rhodamine B and malachite green in poly (methylmethacrylate) have been investigated using the decay function analysis. It is found that the influence of energy migration in energy transfer can be described quite convincingly by making use of the theories of Loring, Andersen and Fayer (LAF) and Huber. At high acceptor concentration direct donor-acceptor transfer occurs through Forster mechanism. (author). 17 refs., 5 figs
... calories than they burn, the energy balance tips toward weight gain, overweight, and obesity. Children need to balance their energy, ... genes, eating habits, how and where people live, attitudes and emotions, life habits, and ... of Overweight and Obesity Overweight and obesity are risk factors ...
Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ali, Zarqa; Nilas, Lisbeth; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli
Obesity is a major health problem, and obesity is associated with a high incidence of asthma and poor asthma control. The aim of the present paper is to systematically review the current knowledge of the effect on overall asthma control of weight reduction in overweight and obese adults with asthma....
With Americans fatter and more malnourished than ever--almost two-thirds of the population is considered overweight or obese compared with 56 percent in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and people of color and the poor are the most obese of all--federal and university researchers and outreach workers from various anti-obesity organizations aim toâŠ
Full Text Available Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.Keywords: obesity, lung function, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, anesthesia
Reilly, John J.
This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In
With Americans fatter and more malnourished than ever--almost two-thirds of the population is considered overweight or obese compared with 56 percent in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and people of color and the poor are the most obese of all--federal and university researchers and outreach workers from various anti-obesity organizations aim to
Reilly, John J.
This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. InâŠ
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Gaurav G; Santosh K; Samiran A; Ganesh G.
Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is a routine practice but still requires an intense level of attention to prevent complications. We report a rare case of gross hematuria in postoperative period after an uneventful laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.
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Van Parys, Hanna; Wyverkens, Elia; Provoost, Veerle; De Sutter, Petra; Pennings, Guido; Buysse, Ann
In this qualitative study of 10 lesbian couples who built their families through anonymous donor conception, we explore how lesbian parents experience communication about the donor conception within the family. While for these families "disclosure" of donor conception is often seen as evident, the way parents and children discuss this subject and how this is experienced by the parents themselves has not received much research attention. To meet this gap in the literature, in-depth interviews with lesbian couples were conducted. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis showed that this family communication process can be understood within the broader relational context of parent-child relationships. Even though parents handled this family communication in many different ways, these were all inspired by the same motives: acting in the child's best interest and-on a more implicit level-maintaining good relations within the family. Furthermore, parents left the initiative for talking about the DC mostly to the child. Overall, parents aimed at constructing a donor conception narrative that they considered acceptable for both the children and themselves. They used different strategies, such as gradual disclosure, limiting the meaning of the donor, and justifying the donor conception. Building an acceptable donor conception narrative was sometimes challenged by influences from the social environment. In the discussion, we relate this qualitative systemic study to the broader issues of selective disclosure and bidirectionality within families. PMID:25393909
Lim, Wai H; McDonald, Stephen P; Coates, Patrick T; Chapman, Jeremy R; Russ, Graeme R; Wong, Germaine
Noninherited maternal human leukocyte antigens may be less detrimental on allograft outcomes after kidney transplantation compared with noninherited paternal antigens, but this association in the era of modern immunosuppression remains unknown. Here we determine the association between parental donor kidneys, acute rejection, and graft failure in primary live-donor parental kidney transplant recipients using data from the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry between 1997 and 2012. Of the 1139 recipients followed for a median of 7.2 years (8588 person-years), 652 received kidneys from maternal donors. Compared with paternal donor kidneys, maternal donor kidneys were associated with a significantly increased risk of acute rejection (adjusted odds ratio 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-2.07) and significant overall graft loss. The latter was confined to recipients who have experienced acute rejection (adjusted hazard ratio 1.60; 95%CI, 1.05-2.43) but not in those who did not experience acute rejection. Thus, our study suggests that recipients of maternal donor kidneys have a greater risk of rejection and graft loss. Hence, clinicians and patients should be cognizant of this association when determining which of the 2 parental donors is most suitable for transplantation. PMID:26880459
Alwayn Ian PJ
Full Text Available Abstract Background Transplantation is the only treatment offering long-term benefit to patients with chronic kidney failure. Live donor nephrectomy is performed on healthy individuals who do not receive direct therapeutic benefit of the procedure themselves. In order to guarantee the donor's safety, it is important to optimise the surgical approach. Recently we demonstrated the benefit of laparoscopic nephrectomy experienced by the donor. However, this method is characterised by higher in hospital costs, longer operating times and it requires a well-trained surgeon. The hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic technique may be an alternative to a complete laparoscopic, transperitoneal approach. The peritoneum remains intact and the risk of visceral injuries is reduced. Hand-assistance results in a faster procedure and a significantly reduced operating time. The feasibility of this method has been demonstrated recently, but as to date there are no data available advocating the use of one technique above the other. Methods/design The HARP-trial is a multi-centre randomised controlled, single-blind trial. The study compares the hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic approach with standard laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. The objective is to determine the best approach for live donor nephrectomy to optimise donor's safety and comfort while reducing donation related costs. Discussion This study will contribute to the evidence on any benefits of hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic versus standard laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. Trial Registration Dutch Trial Register NTR1433
da Luz, Kely Regina; Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira; Schmidtt, Pablo Henrique; Barlem, Edison Luiz Devos; Tomaschewski-Barlem, Jamila Geri; da Rosa, Luciana Martins
Objective: to know the ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses. Method: descriptive and exploratory study with a qualitative approach, performed in inpatient units and in chemotherapy out-patients units that provide assistance to oncological patients in two capitals in the South region of Brazil. Eighteen nurses participated in this study, selected by snowball sampling type. For data collection, semi-structured interviews were carried out, which were recorded and transcribed, and then analyzed by thematic analysis. Results: two categories were established: when informing or not becomes a dilemma - showing the main difficulties related to oncological treatment information regarding health staff, health system, and infrastructure; to invest or not - dilemmas related to finitude - showing situations of dilemmas related to pain and confrontation with finitude. Conclusion: for the effective confrontation of the ethical problems experienced by oncology nurses to occur, it is important to invest in the training of these professionals, preparing them in an ethical and human way to act as lawyers of the patient with cancer, in a context of dilemmas related mainly to the possibility of finitude. PMID:26626012
Ahad Jafari Ghods
Full Text Available During the past decade, the number of transplantation from living kidney donors has substantially increased worldwide. The rate of increase varies from one country to another. The risk of unilateral nephrectomy to the donor includes perioperative mortality and morbidity plus the long-term risk of living with a single kidney. The rate of perioperative mortality and morbidity is about 0.03% and 10%, respectively. More attentionis required to prevent serious complications of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. A grading system in recording perioperative complications is necessary for making it available to each potential donor. The number of studies on long-term outcome of living donors is very limited. The overall evidence suggests that the risk of end-stage kidney disease is not increased in donors, however, mild renal failure, hypertension and proteinuria are not uncommon in living donors. There is also concern that the incidence of cardiovasculardisease may be higher in kidney donors. Establishing living donor registry and follow-up is extremely important. Only through these registries the long-term risk of kidney donation will become more apparent. Because of severe shortage of transplantable kidneys, some transplant centers are now using donors with comorbidities and few centers are involved in transplant tourism with inadequate donor screening and follow-up. Prevention of these unacceptable practices in living kidney donors was emphasized in AmsterdamForum in 2004 and Istanbul Summit in 2008.
Wagner, Franz F.
Screening blood donors for rare antigen constellations has been implemented using simple PCR methods: PCR with enzyme digestion has been used to type donor cohorts for Dombrock antigens, and PCR with sequence-specific priming to identify donors negative for antigens of high frequency. The advantages and disadvantages of the methods as well as their current state is discussed.
Marco Antonio Zapata Sampedro
Full Text Available The standardized nursing care plan can be used as a means through which the nurse will assess and identify the particular needs of the blood donor.To draw up the care plan, we have conducted the evaluation on the basis of the Marjory Gordonâs functional health patterns.The more prevailing diagnosis according to the NANDA taxonomy have been identified, results have been established according to the NOC (Nursing Outcomes Classification taxonomy, and nursing interventions have been suggested according to the NIC (Nursing Interventions Classification taxonomy. Also, certain potential complications, which are infrequent, must be observed and controlled in the blood donation process. Our main aim with this article has been to offer to professionals resources that grant to the caring activity scientific rigor, professional recognition and an unique and valid tool to evaluate the assistance with the best levels of quality for the blood donor.
Full Text Available ... really sure you have it, and then you go through it, and youâre like, âOh, itâs exactly like what they said. Itâs not too bad at all.â It was, I think, in my opinion, a pretty easy ... for all this. And it is a lot to go through. We tend to tell the donors that ...
The production of n-type semiconducting diamond has been a long-standing experimental challenge. The first-principles simulation of shallow dopants in semiconductors has been a long-standing theoretical challenge. A desirable theoretical goal is to identify impurities that will act as shallow donors in diamond and assess their experimental viability. I will discuss this identification process for the LiN4 donor complex. It builds a scientific argument from several models and computational results in the absence of computational tools that are both trustworthy and computationally tractable for this task. I will compare the theoretical assessment of viability with recent experimental efforts to co-dope diamond with lithium and nitrogen. Finally, I discuss the computational tools needed to facilitate future work on this problem and some preliminary simulations of donors near diamond surfaces. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program lab managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Full Text Available The present study was carried out in B.A.R.C. Hospital Blood Bank over a span of five years, and includes 2734 donors. All the bags were screened for HIV, HBsAg, HCV and VDRL and the plasma in the pilot tubes of the blood bags was observed to detect any abnormality in color. In 27 cases plasma was found to be icteric and liver function tests were carried out on these samples. Two donors showed higher SGPT level, and were excluded. No significant increases in liver enzymes were recorded in the others. Causes of icteric plasma in these apparently healthy donors are discussed. Differential diagnosis includes GilbertâČs disease, hemolytic anemia, drug-induced anemia and other hepatic causes of hyperbilirubinemia, of which GilbertâČs disease is most probable cause with a prevalence of 0.91% in our population. As there are no studies to document the safety of the recipients receiving such abnormal colored plasma as well as to document the hazards in its transfusion, the question arises whether to transfuse such units or not. This study highlights this dilemma. A reassessment of existing policies and regulations is merited.
Bour, Eric S
Despite aims at prevention, obesity in the United States is now an epidemic. Along with the rise in obesity, the United States has experienced a concomitant rise in obesity-related comorbidities. Furthermore overweight and obesity present a major economic public health challenge. Physicians are likely to recommend weight loss to their overweight patients. Diet, exercise, and behavior modification are often effective during the course of treatment but are subject to recidivism and post-treatment weight gain. Obesity intervention mandates that providers consider the need for surgery in many cases. The three most commonly performed weight loss surgical procedures in the United States include gastric banding, gastric bypass, and sleeve gastrectomy. Patients undergoing surgery lose considerable amounts of excess weight and experience marked improvement in many other obesity-related comorbidities. Surgery is a proven therapy for patients who do not respond to less invasive measures and should be considered mainstream therapy in the treatment of the obesity epidemic. PMID:25757004
Sampath, Kartik; Dinani, Amreen M; Rothstein, Richard I
The obesity epidemic, recognized by the World Health Organization in 1997, refers to the rising incidence of obesity worldwide. Lifestyle modification and pharmacotherapy are often ineffective long-term solutions; bariatric surgery remains the gold standard for long-term obesity weight loss. Despite the reported benefits, it has been estimated that only 1% of obese patients will undergo surgery. Endoscopic treatment for obesity represents a potential cost-effective, accessible, minimally invasive procedure that can function as a bridge or alternative intervention to bariatric surgery. We review the current endoscopic bariatric devices including space occupying devices, endoscopic gastroplasty, aspiration technology, post-bariatric surgery endoscopic revision, and obesity-related NOTES procedures. Given the diverse devices already FDA approved and in development, we discuss the future directions of endoscopic therapies for obesity. PMID:27115879
Lissner, L; Troiano, R P; Midthune, D; Heitmann, B L; Kipnis, V; Subar, A F; Potischman, N
OBJECTIVE: Obesity-related under-reporting of usual dietary intake is one of the most persistent sources of bias in nutrition research. The aim of this paper is to characterize obese and non-obese individuals with respect to reporting errors observed with two common dietary instruments, using...... energy and protein recovery biomarkers as reference measures. POPULATION AND METHODS: This report employs data from the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) study. Analyses are based on stratified samples of 211 (57 obese) men and 179 (50 obese) women who completed 24-h recalls (24HR), food...... frequency questionnaires (FFQ), doubly labelled water (DLW) and urinary nitrogen (UN) assessments. RESULTS: In obese and non-obese subgroups, FFQ yielded lower energy and protein intake estimates than 24HR, although biomarker-based information indicated under-reporting with both dietary instruments. Gender...
Marcella Malavolti; Paolo De Cristofaro; Angelo Pietrobelli; Simone Rugolotto
Prevalence of pediatric obesity continues to rise worldwide. Increasing the number of health care practitioners as well as pediatricians with expertise in obesity treatment is necessary. Because many obese patients suffer obesity-associated cardiovascular, metabolic and other health complications that could increase the severity of obesity, it is fundamental not only to identify the child prone to obesity as early as possible, but to recognize, treat and monitor obesity-related diseases durin...
Butterick, Tammy A.; Charles J. Billington; Catherine M Kotz; Nixon, Joshua P.
Obesity has increased in prevalence worldwide, attributed in part to the influences of an obesity-promoting environment and genetic factors. While obesity and overweight increasingly seem to be the norm, there remain individuals who resist obesity. We present here an overview of data supporting the idea that hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin A (OXA; hypocretin 1) may be a key component of brain mechanisms underlying obesity resistance. Prior work with models of obesity and obesity resistance i...
Rajab, Amer; Pelletier, Ronald P
Hand-assisted laparoscopic donor (HALD) nephrectomy has been performed at our institution since December 1999. Through May 2014, a total of 1500 HALD procedures have been performed. We have evaluated the outcomes of HALD. The HALD procedure consists of a hand-port incision as well as two 12-mm ports. Mean donor age was 40.8 ± 10.8 yr, BMI was 27.9 ± 5.0, there were 541 males, 1271 Caucasians, and the left kidney was removed in 1236 patients. All procedures were successfully completed. Four donors (0.27%) were converted to an open technique due to bleeding. Four donors required blood transfusions. 53 donors (3.5%) were readmitted in the first month post-donation; almost half were due to gastrointestinal complaints. Six donors required reoperation; three for SBO and three for wound dehiscence. 27 patients (1.8%) developed incisional hernias. Seven donors (0.47%) developed bowel obstruction. All donors recovered well with a mean hospital stay after donation of 2.1 ± 0.3 d. All except one kidney were successfully implanted. Twenty-one recipients (1.4%) experienced DGF. Ureter complications occurred in 17 (1.1%) recipients. Early graft loss occurred in 13 patients (0.9%). In conclusion, HALD is a safe procedure for the donor with good recipient outcomes. PMID:25529029
Urvershi Kotwal; Veena Doda; Satyam Arora; Meena Joshi
Donor notification and post-donation counseling is an essential role of blood bank. If a donor is reactive for any marker, the blood bank counselor, informs the donor and advices him/her to report to the blood bank for further counseling and management. The counselor at our blood bank informed a young female voluntary donor to be reactive for HIV both with ELISA as well as NAT. When the donor reported to blood bank, the repeat testing was negative and no history of high risk behavior could be...
Laakasuo, Michael; PalomĂ€ki, Jussi; Salmela, Mikko
Online poker and poker subcultures have become exceedingly popular. Previous studies assessing experience and skill in poker have revealed that proficiency in emotion regulation is a consequential factor in explaining financial success in the game. We assessed (N=478) the associations between poker players' (recruited from online poker forums) level of poker experience and HEXACO-PI-R personality traits. The results indicate that a predisposition for emotional stability-that is, lower scores on emotionality-is linked to high levels of poker experience. Thus, in order to become a successful and experienced poker player, it helps to be able to "keep cool" under pressure. Further exploratory analyses suggest that players who prefer live play to online play are more likely to be extroverted and open to experiences. The results contribute to the extant literature on individual differences in personality in poker players, and in particular help to fill the interdisciplinary gap between personality and gambling research. PMID:25238100
Secchi, Davide; Seri, Raffaello
This article proposes a framework for the analysis of experienced discrimination in home mortgages. It addresses the problem of home mortgage lending discrimination in one of the richest areas of northern Italy. Employees of a local hospital were interviewed to study their perception (or experience......) of discriminatory behavior related to home financing. The analysis follows two steps. The first evaluates self-selection (the probability that individuals apply) and the second focuses on the likelihood that applications are accepted by the bank. Findings show that discrimination is likely to appear...... when the applicantâs nationality is considered. In addition to its findings, the study (a) provides an original econometric model on a two-step procedure to test perceived discrimination and (b) suggests a method and approach that may constitute a point of reference for those willing to study perceived...
Giessing, Markus; Fuller, T Florian; Friedersdorff, Frank; Deger, Serdar; Wille, Andreas; Neumayer, Hans-Hellmut; Schmidt, Danilo; Budde, Klemens; Liefeldt, Lutz
Rate of acceptance of deceased-donor kidneys decreases with donor age despite the growing number of aged transplant candidates on the waiting list. In the Eurotransplant Senior Program, HLA-unmatched kidneys from deceased donors aged ?65 yr are transplanted regionally into recipients aged ?65 yr. Because we have become more willing to accept kidneys from donors aged ?75 yr than previous years, we performed a retrospective analysis of this subgroup. Kidneys were accepted from donors aged ?75 y...
Allin, Leigh J; Wu, Xuefang; Nussbaum, Maury A; Madigan, Michael L
Falls due to slipping are a serious concern, with slipping estimated to cause 40-50% of all fall-related injuries. Epidemiological data indicates that older and obese adults experience more falls than young, non-obese individuals. An increasingly heavier and older U.S. population and workforce may be exacerbating the problem of slip-induced falls. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of obesity and age on slip severity and rate of falling resulting from laboratory-induced slips. Four groups of participants (young obese, young non-obese, older obese, older non-obese) were slipped while walking at a self-selected, slightly hurried pace. Slip severity (slip distance, slip duration, mean slip speed and peak slip speed) and slip outcome (fall or recovery) were compared between groups. Obese individuals experienced 22% faster slips than non-obese individuals in terms of mean slip speed (p=0.022). Obesity did not affect slip distance, slip duration or peak slip speed. Obese individuals also exhibited a higher rate of falls; 32% of obese individuals fell compared to 10% of non-obese (p=0.005). Obese individuals were more than eight times more likely to experience a fall than non-obese individuals when adjusting for age, gender and gait speed. No age effects were found for slip severity or slip outcome. These results, along with epidemiological data reporting higher fall rates among the obese, indicate that obesity may be a significant risk factor for experiencing slip-induced falls. Slip severity thresholds were also reported that may have value in developing controls for fall prevention. PMID:26897650
Veroux, Massimiliano; Ardita, Vincenzo; Corona, Daniela; Giaquinta, Alessia; Ekser, Burcin; Sinagra, Nunziata; Zerbo, Domenico; PatanĂš, Marco; Gozzo, Cecilia; Veroux, Pierfrancesco
The growing demand for organ donors to supply the increasing number of patients on kidney waiting lists has led most transplant centers to develop protocols that allow safe use of organs from donors with special clinical situations previously regarded as contraindications. Deceased donors with previous hepatitis B may be a safe resource to increase the donor pool even if there is still controversy among transplantation centers regarding the use of hepatitis B surface antigen-positive donors for renal transplantation. However, when allocated to serology-matched recipients, kidney transplantation from donors with hepatitis B may result in excellent short-term outcome. Many concerns may arise in the long-term outcome, and studies must address the evaluation of the progression of liver disease and the rate of reactivation of liver disease in the recipients. Accurate selection and matching of both donor and recipient and correct post-transplant management are needed to achieve satisfactory long-term outcomes. PMID:27123988
Caldas, M C; Serrette, J M; Jain, S K; Makhlouf, M; Olson, G L; McCormick, D P
The objective of this study was to evaluate health outcomes and costs of pregnancies complicated by extreme maternal obesity (class III obesity, body mass indexââ„â40). We conducted a retrospective case-control descriptive study comparing extremely obese women (cases) and their infants with randomly selected controls. Health outcomes were obtained from the medical records and costs from billing data. Total costs for each mother-infant dyad were calculated. Compared with 85 controls, the 82 cases experienced higher morbidity, higher costs and prolonged hospital stay. However, 26% of cases maintained or lost weight during pregnancy, whereas none of the controls maintained or lost weight during pregnancy. When mother/infant dyads were compared on costs, case subjects who maintained or lost weight experienced lower costs than those who gained weight. Neonatal intensive care consumed 78% of total hospital costs for infants of the obese women who gained weight, but only 48% of costs for infants of obese women who maintained or lost weight. For extremely obese women, weight management during pregnancy was achievable, resulted in healthier neonatal outcomes and reduced perinatal healthcare costs. PMID:26434773
Choi, Joon Woo; Kim, Eun-Ju; Min, Byung Woo; Ban, Jong Seouk; Lee, Sang Gon; Lee, Ji-Hyang
Prader-Willi syndrome is characterized by infantile hypotonia, childhood-onset obesity, short stature, mental retardation, hyperphagia, hypogonadism. After infantile hypotonia phase, patient is prone to morbid obesity due to hyperphagia. Complications associated with morbid obesity are recognized as the main risk factors for death the lifespan of patients with Prader-Willi syndrome. We experienced desaturation and bronchospasm during arteriovenous fistula surgery in an obese adult with Prader...
Reese, Peter P; Hall, Isaac E; Weng, Francis L; SchrĂ¶ppel, Bernd; Doshi, Mona D; Hasz, Rick D; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Ficek, Joseph; Rao, Veena; Murray, Patrick; Lin, Haiqun; Parikh, Chirag R
Assessment of deceased-donor organ quality is integral to transplant allocation practices, but tools to more precisely measure donor kidney injury and better predict outcomes are needed. In this study, we assessed associations between injury biomarkers in deceased-donor urine and the following outcomes: donor AKI (stage 2 or greater), recipient delayed graft function (defined as dialysis in first week post-transplant), and recipient 6-month eGFR. We measured urinary concentrations of microalbumin, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), IL-18, and liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) from 1304 deceased donors at organ procurement, among whom 112 (9%) had AKI. Each biomarker strongly associated with AKI in adjusted analyses. Among 2441 kidney transplant recipients, 31% experienced delayed graft function, and meanÂ±SD 6-month eGFR was 55.7Â±23.5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) In analyses adjusted for donor and recipient characteristics, higher donor urinary NGAL concentrations associated with recipient delayed graft function (highest versus lowest NGAL tertile relative risk, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.43). Linear regression analyses of 6-month recipient renal function demonstrated that higher urinary NGAL and L-FABP concentrations associated with slightly lower 6-month eGFR only among recipients without delayed graft function. In summary, donor urine injury biomarkers strongly associate with donor AKI but provide limited value in predicting delayed graft function or early allograft function after transplant. PMID:26374609
Mitre Anuar I.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience of videolaparoscopic nephrectomy in live renal donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April 2000 to August 2003, 50 left nephrectomies in live donor were performed by videolaparoscopy for transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were male (56% and 22 female (44%. Mean age was 37.2 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 27.1 kg/mÂČ. RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 179.5 minutes, and warm ischemia time of the graft was 3.79 minutes. The mean estimated bleeding was 141 mL. There was no need of blood transfusion or conversion to open surgery. In 42 cases (84%, the vascular portion of the graft was considered good by the recipient's surgical team and in all cases, the ureter was considered of proper size, though in one of them (2% its vascularization was considered improper. The transplanted kidneys produced urine still in the surgical room in 46 of the 50 transplantations considered. In only 2 cases opioid was required for analgesia. In average, 3.1 doses of dipyrone were used for each patient during hospital stay, and hospital discharge occurred, in average, after 3.2 days post-operatively. Two patients required re-operations and one of them evolved to death. CONCLUSIONS: The laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor for renal transplantation is an alternative to conventional open surgery. In relation to the graft, no alteration, either anatomic or functional, was detected. Though there is already a large documentation in the international literature regarding this procedure, in our setting a prospective randomized study with the usual surgical study is still necessary in order to prove the advantages and disadvantages of the method.
Anuar I. Mitre
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience of videolaparoscopic nephrectomy in live renal donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April 2000 to August 2003, 50 left nephrectomies in live donor were performed by videolaparoscopy for transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were male (56% and 22 female (44%. Mean age was 37.2 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 27.1 kg/mÂČ. RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 179.5 minutes, and warm ischemia time of the graft was 3.79 minutes. The mean estimated bleeding was 141 mL. There was no need of blood transfusion or conversion to open surgery. In 42 cases (84%, the vascular portion of the graft was considered good by the recipient's surgical team and in all cases, the ureter was considered of proper size, though in one of them (2% its vascularization was considered improper. The transplanted kidneys produced urine still in the surgical room in 46 of the 50 transplantations considered. In only 2 cases opioid was required for analgesia. In average, 3.1 doses of dipyrone were used for each patient during hospital stay, and hospital discharge occurred, in average, after 3.2 days post-operatively. Two patients required re-operations and one of them evolved to death. CONCLUSIONS: The laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor for renal transplantation is an alternative to conventional open surgery. In relation to the graft, no alteration, either anatomic or functional, was detected. Though there is already a large documentation in the international literature regarding this procedure, in our setting a prospective randomized study with the usual surgical study is still necessary in order to prove the advantages and disadvantages of the method.
Andreasen, Kirsten Riis; Andersen, Malene Lundgren; Schantz, Anne Louise
BACKGROUND: As obesity is an increasing problem among fertile women, it is crucial that specialists involved in the treatment of these women be aware of the risks of complications and know how to deal with them. Complications associated with obesity in pregnancy are gestational diabetes mellitus......, hypertensive disorders, and thromboembolic complications. Complications associated with obesity in labor are augmentation, early amniotomy, cephalopelvic disproportion, cesarean section, and perioperative morbidity. Complications associated with obesity in children are macrosomia, shoulder dystocia, small for...... gestational age, late fetal death, and congenital malformations, especially neural tube defects. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to review the potential complications associated with obesity and pregnancy. RESULTS: Obesity is associated with a higher risk of all reviewed complications except small for gestational age....
Mortensen, Anette; Lenz, Katja; AbildstrĂžm, Hanne; Lauritsen, Torsten L B
The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing. The focus of this review is the special anesthetic considerations regarding the perioperative management of obese children. With obesity the risk of comorbidity such as asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, and diabetes increases. The...... obese child has an increased risk of perioperative complications especially related to airway management and ventilation. There is a significantly increased risk of difficult mask ventilation and perioperative desaturation. Furthermore, obesity has an impact on the pharmacokinetics of most anesthetic...... drugs. This has important implications on how to estimate the optimal drug dose. This article offers a review of the literature on definition, prevalence and the pathophysiology of childhood obesity and provides suggestions on preanesthetic evaluation, airway management and dosage of the anesthetic...
Olsen, Nanna Julie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal
Obesity prevention should remain a priority, even if there is some suggestion that the epidemic may presently have reached a stable level. However, previous interventions have not been effective in preventing overweight and obesity, and at the same time studies suggest that some subgroups are more...... predisposed to future obesity. The purpose of this paper is to review interventions on obesity prevention published during the past year, and to examine if interventions targeting predisposed groups or individuals seem more efficient in preventing obesity than studies targeting general populations. Among 15...... status. Thus, we may be more successful in preventing obesity when targeting predisposed individuals, but more studies are needed before a firm conclusion can be drawn....
Sivapalan, Pradeesh; Diamant, Zuzana; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant impact on asthma incidence and manifestations. The purpose of the review is to discuss recent observations regarding the association between obesity and asthma focusing on underlying mechanisms, clinical presentation, response to therapy and effect of...... weight reduction. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical and epidemiological studies indicate that obese patients with asthma may represent a unique phenotype, which is more difficult to control, less responsive to asthma medications and by that may have higher healthcare utilization. A number of common comorbidities...... have been linked to both obesity and asthma, and may, therefore, contribute to the obese-asthma phenotype. Furthermore, recently published studies indicate that even a modest weight reduction can improve clinical manifestations and outcome of asthma. SUMMARY: Compared with normal-weight patients, obese...
Full Text Available Why screening?Thirty years ago most donors suffered from head trauma (Morbus Kawasaki and a donor older than 35 years was beyond the pale, i.e. donors were young and healthy, and since these early days of transplantation donor hearts have been regarded as healthy per definitionem (1. However, due to the general organ shortage the criteria for the acceptance of donor hearts have been widely liberalized. According to the current quarterly data report of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT nearly two thirds of donors in Europe (64.3% were older than 35 years, more than a quarter (26.0% were even older than 50 years and less than 10% of organ donors suffered from head trauma (2. Meanwhile the average (European donor is 45 years old and is suffering from intracranial bleeding, i.e. the so-called donor pool represents a subpopulation with significantly elevated risk for cardiac diseases such as coronary atherosclerosis and hypertension-related myocardial hypertrophy (Fig. 1. Unfortunately, daily experience shows that donor heart screening has not been adapted to this development (3. Therefore, the question Why screening? is not as trivial as it may look: Donor coronary angiography is still an exception (performed in 5-10% of donors despite the fact that  the prevalence of significant atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD in the donor pool is about 20%,  the risk of CAD transmission without angiography is about 5% to 10% despite organ inspection by the harvesting surgeon and  the risk for early graft failure with transmitted significant CAD is three times as high (4,5.
GilvĂąnia PatrĂcia do Nascimento PaixĂŁo
Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the family relationship, in childhood and adolescence, of women who experience conjugal violence.Method: qualitative study. Interviews were held with 19 women, who were experiencing conjugal violence, and who were resident in a community in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The project was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (N. 42/2011.Results: the data was organized using the Discourse of the Collective Subject, identifying the summary central ideas: they witnessed violence between their parents; they suffered repercussions from the violence between their parents: they were angry about the mother's submission to her partner; and they reproduced the conjugal violence. The discourse showed that the women witnessed, in childhood and adolescence, violence between their parents, and were injured both physically and psychologically. As a result of the mother's submission, feelings of anger arose in the children. However, in the adult phase of their own lives, they noticed that their conjugal life resembled that of their parents, reproducing the violence.Conclusion: investment is necessary in strategies designed to break inter-generational violence, and the health professionals are important in this process, as it is a phenomenon with repercussions in health. Because they work in the Family Health Strategy, which focuses on the prevention of harm and illness, health promotion and interdepartmentality, the nurses are essential in the process of preventing and confronting this phenomenon.
Osborn, L M; Harris, D L; Reading, J C; Prather, M B
To investigate potential adverse effects of residency training on pregnancy outcome, a cohort study was conducted among 45 university-affiliated residency programs. Outcomes of the first pregnancy experienced during residency were compared between 92 female residents and 144 spouses of male residents. Despite long hours, sleep deprivation, and an increase in perceived stress, the female residents were as likely to give birth to a live, full-term newborn as the spouses of male residents. For white cohort members, an increased risk of premature labor without delivery was identified (RR = 12.3, 95% confidence interval 2.4-61.6). No significant differences were found in prematurity, spontaneous and therapeutic abortions, or presence of congenital abnormalities in the infants. Method of delivery and use of anesthetics and of other medications were similar in both groups. Pregnancy outcomes between the two groups were similar; however, the increased risk for premature labor among female residents is a cause for concern and should be further investigated. PMID:2246636
Asthana Sunita; Gupta V.M
Research question: Whether certain personality characteristics of obese women make them prone towards psychological problem? Objective: To assess certain personality characteristics of obese women. Study design: Cross-sectional community based study. Setting: Affluent localities of Varanasi city. Participants: Women above 15 years of age. Statistical Analysis: Mean, S.D and ĂąâŹËtĂąâŹ test. Results: On 16 PF scale obese women were found more reserved, critical, ...
Goldberg RD; Cardamone SC; Murthy AS
Rebecca D Goldberg, Stefanie C Cardamone, Amitasrigowri S MurthyDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Obesity is increasing worldwide and is affecting the reproductive health of women. Contraceptive considerations are difficult in obese women given concerns about efficacy and comorbid conditions. Once surgical treatment of obesity has occurred and weight loss initiated, fertility risks increase and unintended pregnancy can ...
Full Text Available Obesity represents one of the most serious global health issues with approximately 310 million people presently affected. Main cause of itâs development is the increase of energy intake in regard to energy expenditure.Aim: The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the causes and treatment of obesity, as well as the anthropometrical measurements used for the assessment of obesity. The method Îżf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature, mainly in the âpub med data baseâ which referred to the causes and treatment of obesity, as well as the anthropometrical measurements used for the assessment of obesity. Results: The prevalence of obesity has increased markedly, throughout the world. Although the etiology of obesity has not been fully understood yet, however it seems to be a multifactorial disease for which are responsible a great deal of psychological, environmental, genetic and behavioral factors. The most common anthropometrical measurement that is used for assessment of obesity is Body Mass Index (BMI and is calculated by the following equation: ÎÎÎ=Weight/Height2. A value of ÎÎÎ â„ 30 kg/m2 equals obesity. Another simple test used to measure obesity is Waist to Hip Ratio, which measures abdominal adiposity. Values greater than 0,95 should be treated seriously as they normally indicate body fatness. The majority of studies show that life-style modification in conjunction with a well-balanced nutrition and regular physical exercise consist the cornerstone for the treatment and prevention of obesity.Conclusions: Obesity is a disease that can be preventable through modification of way of living. The development of proper strategy prevention capable to change attitudes, to promote nutrition and physical activity should be the primary goal of every community and government.
Chandra, Aravind; Biersmith, Michael; TOLOUIAN, RAMIN
Context: Obesity, both directly and indirectly, increases the risk for a variety of disease conditions including diabetes, hypertension, liver disease, and certain cancers, which in turn, decreases the overall lifespan in both men and women. Though the cardiovascular risks of obesity are widely acknowledged, less often identified is the relationship between obesity and renal function. Evidence Acquisitions: Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed, EBSCO and Web of Sci...
Yi (Leaf) Zhang; Ju Liu; Jianliang Yao; Gang Ji; Long Qian; Jing Wang; Guansheng Zhang; Jie Tian; Yongzhan Nie; Yi Edi. Zhang; Gold, Mark S.; Yijun Liu
Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pat...
Herrera, Blanca M.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.
Obesity is a result of excess body fat accumulation. This excess is associated with adverse health effects such as CVD, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. The development of obesity has an evident environmental contribution, but as shown by heritability estimates of 40% to 70%, a genetic susceptibility component is also needed. Progress in understanding the etiology has been slow, with findings largely restricted to monogenic, severe forms of obesity. However, technological and analytical advances ...
Mazura, Ivan; Ochoa-Rebato, E.
Budapest : EĂ¶tvĂ¶s University Press, 2010 - (BodzsĂĄr, E.; Susanne, C.), s. 119-140 ISBN 978-963-88941-0-6. - (Biennial Books of the EAA. 6) R&D Projects: GA MĆ k(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : aetiology of obesity * genetic factors * obesity genes * polymorphism * obesity -associated syndromes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology
Jungheim, Emily S; Travieso, Jennifer L.; Carson, Kenneth R.; Moley, Kelle H.
Obesity is associated with multiple adverse reproductive outcomes, but the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Public health scientists studying obesity and its effects on health outcomes have referred to obesity as a complex system, defined as a system of heterogeneous parts interacting in nonlinear ways to influence the behavior of the parts as a whole1,22. By this definition, human reproduction is also a complex system which may explain some of the difficulty in identifying the mech...
Grant, Struan F. A.; Jianhua Zhao
Obesity is a major health problem and an immense economic burden on the health care systems both in the United States and the rest of the world. The prevalence of obesity in children and adults in the United States has increased dramatically over the past decade. Besides environmental factors, genetic factors are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed strongly associated genomic variants associated with most common ...
Hill, James O; Wyatt, Holly R; Peters, John C.
This paper describes the interplay among energy intake, energy expenditure and body energy stores and illustrates how an understanding of energy balance can help develop strategies to reduce obesity. First, reducing obesity will require modifying both energy intake and energy expenditure and not simply focusing on either alone. Food restriction alone will not be effective in reducing obesity if human physiology is biased toward achieving energy balance at a high energy flux (i.e. at a high le...
Pulsford, Richard M; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Britton, Annie R.; Brunner, Eric J.; Hillsdon, Melvyn M.
Background Prospective studies report associations between indicators of time spent sitting and obesity risk. Most studies use a single indicator of sedentary behavior and are unable to clearly identify whether sedentary behavior is a cause or a consequence of obesity. Purpose To investigate cross-sectional and prospective associations between multiple sitting time indicators and obesity and examine the possibility of reverse causality. Methods Using data from the Whitehall II cohort, multipl...
Pranab Baruwa; Kripesh Ranjan Sarmah
Asthma and obesity are prevalent disorders, each with a significant public health impact, and a large and growing body of literature suggests an association between the two. The systemic inflammatory milieu in obesity leads to metabolic and cardiovascular complications, but whether this environment alters asthma risk or phenotype is not yet known. Animal experiments have evaluated the effects of leptin and obesity on airway inflammation in response to both allergic and nonallergic exposures a...
TĂĄki AthanĂĄssios Cordas
Full Text Available Great population studies do not confirm the hypothesis that atypical personality of obese would exist. Obeses in the generalpopulation do not present more psychological disturbs thanthe ones that are not obeses. Obeses adolescents and adultsare discriminated in their academic and professional lifes. Thissocial, cultural, economic and affective impoverishment seemsto be directly related to the gravity of their obesity, what means,higher the ICM (Index of Corporal Mass, bigger are thepsychological problems. This abandonment contributes to thebig risk of unchain psychiatric pictures as depression, anxyetdisturbs, drugs and alcoholic excessive consumption andalimentary disturbs. Obeses of the general population do notpresent more psychological or psychiatric symptoms than theclinical population of obeses (obeses under treatment, presentmore clinical and psychiatric problems, mainly compulsoryalimentary standards. Some studies indicate that there is alinear relation between the ICM and the highest frequency ofalimentary compulsory behavior or bulimic episode. Thepsychiatric patients negative body perception added to theirother negative perceptions about their performance in searchingsocial interaction increase the trend to the isolation. Thepsychiatric picture presence in the bariatric surgery preoperatoryin a III degree overweight pacient has not to be facedas absolute surgery counter indication since such procedurecan be the difference between giving a better life quality orwaiting for a potentially lethal complication. We cannot forgetthat the obesity itself, due to the common associatedcomorbidyties, loads a great lethality potential. The surgerycounter-indication could be relative, it depending on how muchthe psychiatric disturbs interfere on the treatment andconditioned to the rigorous psychiatric control in the anteriorand post surgical period.
Larsen, S H; Wagner, G; Heitmann, B L
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on the relationship between obesity and sexual function. METHOD: A search in the medical literature from 1966 and onwards was carried out through Medline and Embase for publications on obesity, in combination with Medical Subject Heading words related to sexual...... function and dysfunction. COMMENTS: Four prospective and seven cross-sectional studies were found describing association between obesity and erectile dysfunction (ED). One cross-sectional study was found describing obesity and female sexual dysfunction (FSD). The prospective studies on ED all demonstrated...
Full Text Available The markedly high prevalence of obesity contributes to the increased incidence of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea, and heart disease. Because of high prevalence of obesity in almost all countries, it has been the focus of many researches throughout the world during the recent decades. Along with increasing researches, new concepts and controversies have been emerged. The existing controversies on the topic are so deep that some researches argue on absolutely philosophical questions such as âIs obesity a disease?â or âIs it correct to treat obesity?â These questions are based on a few theories and real data that explain obesity as a biological adaptation and also the final results of weight loss programs. Many people attempt to lose weight by diet therapy, physical activity and lifestyle modifications. Importantly, weight loss strategies in the long term are ineffective and may have unintended consequences including decreasing energy expenditure, complicated appetite control, eating disorders, reducing self-esteem, increasing the plasma and tissue levels of persistent organic pollutants that promote metabolic complications, and consequently, higher risk of repeated cycles of weight loss and weight regain. In this review, major paradoxes and controversies on obesity including classic obesity paradox, pre-obesity; fat-but-fit theory, and healthy obesity are explained. In addition, the relevant strategies like âHealth at Every Sizeâ that emphasize on promotion of global health behaviors rather than weight loss programs are explained.
Andreasen, Kirsten Riis; Andersen, Malene Lundgren; Schantz, Anne Louise
BACKGROUND: As obesity is an increasing problem among fertile women, it is crucial that specialists involved in the treatment of these women be aware of the risks of complications and know how to deal with them. Complications associated with obesity in pregnancy are gestational diabetes mellitus...... gestational age, late fetal death, and congenital malformations, especially neural tube defects. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to review the potential complications associated with obesity and pregnancy. RESULTS: Obesity is associated with a higher risk of all reviewed complications except small for gestational age....
... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Overweight and Obesity? EspaĂ±ol The terms "overweight" and "obesity" refer to ... disease risk. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Obesity happens one pound at a time. So does ...
Candela, Joseph; Velmurugan, Gopal V; White, Carl
Structural remodeling of the microvasculature occurs during obesity. Based on observations that impaired H2S signaling is associated with cardiovascular pathologies, the current study was designed to test the hypothesis that altered H2S homeostasis is involved in driving the remodeling process in a diet-induced mouse model of obesity. The structural and passive mechanical properties of mesenteric resistance arterioles isolated from 30-wk-old lean and obese mice were assessed using pressure myography, and vessel H2S levels were quantified using the H2S indicator sulfidefluor 7-AM. Remodeling gene expression was assessed using quantitative RT-PCR, and histological staining was used to quantify vessel collagen and elastin. Obesity was found to be associated with decreased vessel H2S concentration, inward hypertrophic remodeling, altered collagen-to-elastin ratio, and reduced vessel stiffness. In addition, mRNA levels of fibronectin, collagen types I and III, matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 were increased and elastin was decreased by obesity. Evidence that decreased H2S was responsible for the genetic changes was provided by experiments in which H2S levels were manipulated, either by inhibition of the H2S-generating enzyme cystathionine Îł-lyase with dl-propargylglycine or by incubation with the H2S donor GYY4137. These data suggest that, during obesity, depletion of H2S is involved in orchestrating the genetic changes underpinning inward hypertrophic remodeling in the microvasculature. PMID:26993223
Full Text Available In recent years, transplantation has assumed an important role in the treatment of patients with end-stage organ failure. With the passage of Transplantation of Human Organ Act by the Indian parliament, transplantation of organs from brain dead donors has become a reality. Although there are many issues in success of cadaver programme, intensivists can play a crucial role by converting a potential donor into an actual donor. This article reviews the identification of potential organ donor and pathophysiological changes surrounding brain death, with particular emphasis on management of the organ donor in the intensive care unit. With an increased awareness of donor management issues and the application of a rational physiological approach, the number of functional organs for transplantation can be increased.
Full Text Available Donor notification and post-donation counseling is an essential role of blood bank. If a donor is reactive for any marker, the blood bank counselor, informs the donor and advices him/her to report to the blood bank for further counseling and management. The counselor at our blood bank informed a young female voluntary donor to be reactive for HIV both with ELISA as well as NAT. When the donor reported to blood bank, the repeat testing was negative and no history of high risk behavior could be elicited. The hospital information system (HIS records were checked again immediately for clarification and showed consistency with her demographic profile. But when her manual records and donor questionnaire were retrieved, showed information displayed in the HIS system was wrongly interpreted by the counselor. In this era of information technology being highly advanced, the role of manual record keeping is still the gold standard.
Hartstra, Annick V; Bouter, Kristien E C; BĂ€ckhed, Gert Fredrik; Nieuwdorp, Max
The worldwide prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) continues to rise at an alarming pace. Recently the potential role of the gut microbiome in these metabolic disorders has been identified. Obesity is associated with changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota, and...... the obese microbiome seems to be more efficient in harvesting energy from the diet. Lean male donor fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in males with metabolic syndrome resulted in a significant improvement in insulin sensitivity in conjunction with an increased intestinal microbial diversity...
JosĂ© Roque Nodal Arruebarrena; JosĂ© Noel Marrero RodrĂguez; Yenisey Quintero MenĂ©ndez; Aida M. Reyes PĂ©rez; Julio Jova DueĂ±as
Clinical Practice Guidelines for Potential Donors Management. It has been defined as the patient in Glasgow coma with scale higher or equal to 8 who doesnÂŽt present contradictions for transplant (possible donor) and who has been diagnosed of encephalic death. This document reviews and updates concepts, lists indications and contraindications for different organs donation, clinical assessment of the donor and its treatment. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspect...
José Roque Nodal Arruebarrena
Full Text Available Clinical Practice Guidelines for Potential Donors Management. It has been defined as the patient in Glasgow coma with scale higher or equal to 8 who doesnŽt present contradictions for transplant (possible donor and who has been diagnosed of encephalic death. This document reviews and updates concepts, lists indications and contraindications for different organs donation, clinical assessment of the donor and its treatment. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.
Keser, Alev; YĂŒksel, AyĆegĂŒl; YeĆiltepe Mutlu, GĂŒl; Bayhan, Asuman; Ăzsu, Elif; Hatun, ĆĂŒkrĂŒ
Uncontrolled eating behavior in obese subjects is very similar to behavior in food addiction, suggesting a relationship. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between childhood obesity and food addiction and to determine the frequency of food addiction among obese children and adolescents. The study included 100 overweight and obese children. Food addiction was evaluated by the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS). The cutoff value for food addiction was defined as the presence of 3 or more symptoms. Participants were between 10 and 18 years of age; 63% were girls. Of the participants, 71% had food addiction. The most addictive foods were chocolate, ice cream, carbonated beverages, French fries, white bread, rice, candy, chips and pasta, in decreasing order of frequency. Experiencing a frequent feeling of hunger was associated with a 2.2-fold increase in food addiction risk, while consumption of French fries â„1-2 times per week was associated with a 2.3-fold increase in risk (p<0.05). The high YFAS scores in obese and overweight adolescents suggest that food addiction plays an important role in childhood obesity. Evaluation of food addiction in more detail may open a new perspective on the prevention and treatment of obesity. PMID:26701938
Williams, Joel E; Kabukuru, Annah; Mayo, Rachel; Griffin, Sarah F
The Southeast United States has experienced rapid growth in the Latino population - mostly Mexican immigrants - with the number of Latinos in the region nearly quadrupling over the past decade. These states, known as new settlement areas, are not as well prepared to meet the health needs of Spanish-speaking immigrants compared to traditional settlement states like Florida, Texas, and California. Unfortunately for these families, immigration to the United States is often associated with becoming obese, or having children at a higher risk for obesity. Rates of obesity have risen dramatically among all racial and ethnic groups in the past few decades, however, Latinos of all ages have the highest rates of overweight and obesity compared to other racial and ethnic groups. One explanation is that although adjustment to a new environment and culture takes considerable time, the adoption of a more sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy diet occurs more rapidly, leading to significant increases in obesity between first and subsequent generations. Families are important referents in establishing health behaviors in children, and there are broader social and physical environmental factors that have strong associations with the development of obesity as well. Moreover, immigrant families must strive to be healthy while coping with acculturative stressors. Relationships between all of these factors are typically studied in isolation. This article explores obesity among new settlement Latino families and provides an integrated conceptual model anchored in the social ecological perspective. PMID:22428352
Conclusion: Following a 9-month intensive lifestyle intervention combining HIIT and MedD counseling, obese subjects experienced significant improvements of FPG and insulin resistance. This is the first study to expose the effects of a long-term program combining HIIT and MedD on glycemic control parameters among obese subjects.
Mwaikambo, Sijenunu A.; Leyna, Germana H.; Killewo, Japhet; Simba, Azma; Puoane, Thandi
Background The world is experiencing an alarming increase in prevalence of childhood obesity. Despite this trend little is known about determinants of childhood obesity in Tanzania. A cross sectional study determined the prevalence and factors associated with overweight and obesity in 1722 children aged 7â14 years (10.9âÂ±â1.74) attending primary schools in Dar es Salaam. Methods Six public and four private schools were systemically selected from a total of 227 primary schools. Anthropometric ...
Full Text Available Kidney transplantation is considered the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease. Living donor transplantation has increased because of the shortage, the needs of cadaver donors.Based on existing literature the authors address ethical issues and major psychiatric aspects involved in the evaluation of living donor kidney transplant, and the interference of this procedure on quality of life for donors, and their contraindications. The authors further describe the evaluation procedures used in the Hospital S. Joa?o, as well as data related to the 32 patients evaluated in the Department of Psychiatry since 2004.
Fu, Shuang; Majhail, Navneet S
Alternative donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) using umbilical cord blood, haploidentical or mismatched unrelated donors is a viable option for patients without human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling or matched unrelated donors. The same principles of supportive care as conventional graft sources apply to alternative donor HCT recipients. However, there are some unique supportive care issues related to post-transplant complications, engraftment, graft-versus-host disease, immune reconstitution, and infections that are unique to each of the three alternative graft sources, both in the early and late post-transplant periods. This review discusses the supportive care issues relevant to this population and their management. PMID:27000738
The interests of gamete donors have only recently been recognized in assisted reproduction; traditionally, the interests of the patients (typically a couple) and the prospective child are paramount. However, assisted reproduction would not be possible without donors, and the simple utilitarian view would be to place their interests first to maximize the availability of the practice. There are several ethical issues on both sides of the donor--recipient equation, some of which are mutual and others are in conflict. For example, the word 'donation' implies there is no payment. Informed consent for donation is essential if the autonomy of the donor is to be respected, and includes information about the results of screening. This is a sensitive issue, especially when pathology is found in a donor who is not being screened for his or her own immediate benefit. Counselling may result in donors refusing to take part, but may also lead to selection by the person recruiting the donors, sometimes as a consequence of examining the motivation of the donor. In this case, the main problem is the ethical basis of the selection process. Other aspects of gamete donation may lead to a conflict of interests between the donor, the recipients and even the prospective child, particularly in terms of anonymity and the information that is made available about the specific circumstances of donation. Implications and support counselling are essential tools in achieving an acceptable balance for all parties involved. PMID:11844334
Low, G. [Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada)], E-mail: email@example.com; Wiebe, E. [Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada); Walji, A.H. [Division of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta (Canada); Bigam, D.L. [Department of Surgery, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada)
Liver transplants, originally obtained from deceased donors, can now be harvested from living donors as well. This technique, called living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), provides an effective alternative means of liver transplantation and is a method of expanding the donor pool in light of the demand and supply imbalance for organ transplants. Imaging plays an important role in LDLT programmes by providing robust evaluation of potential donors to ensure that only anatomically suitable donors with no significant co-existing pathology are selected and that crucial information that allows detailed preoperative planning is available. Imaging evaluation helps to improve the outcome of LDLT for both donors and recipients, by improving the chances of graft survival and reducing the postoperative complication rate. In this review, we describe the history of LDLT and discuss in detail the application of imaging in donor assessment with emphasis on use of modern computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques.
Liver transplants, originally obtained from deceased donors, can now be harvested from living donors as well. This technique, called living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), provides an effective alternative means of liver transplantation and is a method of expanding the donor pool in light of the demand and supply imbalance for organ transplants. Imaging plays an important role in LDLT programmes by providing robust evaluation of potential donors to ensure that only anatomically suitable donors with no significant co-existing pathology are selected and that crucial information that allows detailed preoperative planning is available. Imaging evaluation helps to improve the outcome of LDLT for both donors and recipients, by improving the chances of graft survival and reducing the postoperative complication rate. In this review, we describe the history of LDLT and discuss in detail the application of imaging in donor assessment with emphasis on use of modern computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques
Full Text Available FIELD NO 601665 FIELD TI #601665 OBESITY LEAN NESS, INCLUDED FIELD TX A number sign (#) is used w ... major obesity susceptibility loci, as well as some lean ness susceptibility loci, have been identified (see ... tes and correspondingly more Firmicutes than their lean ... wildtype sibs. They also showed that the relative ...
Powell, Lynda H.; Calvin, James E., III; Calvin, James E., Jr.
To curb the epidemic of obesity in the United States, revised Medicare policy allows support for efficacious obesity treatments. This review summarizes the evidence from rigorous randomized trials (9 lifestyle trials, 5 drug trials, and 2 surgical trials) on the efficacy and risk-benefit profile of lifestyle, drug, and surgical interventions aimedâŠ
Simona Ianosi Edith
Full Text Available Obesity is a disease with severe health consequences and increased risk of mortality. The most commonly used criteria to assess the presence and the severity of obesity are body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio and the presence of the health conditions caused or worsened by obesity. Worldwide obesity has more than doubled in the last 4 decades. Obesity is the second of the leading preventable causes of death worldwide (after smoking. Obesity has a plurifactorial pathogenesis. The central perturbation consists in the imbalance between calories intake and calories consumption (by inappropriate diet and sedentary lifestyle. Identification of all the ethiological factors is important for treatment and prophylaxis. Weight loss benefits are multiple and important: improvement in glicemic control and in plasma lipid levels, blood presure control, obstructiv sleep apneea reduction, improvement in management of daily activities and profesional performances, increase quality of life, reduction in mortality. Overweight or obese patient will complete a diagnostic and a treatment program. Treatment of obesity claims a targeted multidimensional therapy: weight and lifestyle management, diet, sustained physical activity in daily life, exercise, decrease life stressors, smoking cessation, drug therapy, bariatric surgery psichological, familial and social suport. Weight loss program must be carefully planned, adapted to the patientâs abilities and comorbidities and supervised by a nutritionist and a physiotherapist.
Full Text Available The last decades, obesity represents one of the most serious health issues with approximately 310 million people presently affected globaly and is frequently cited as a chronic disease. The term obesity refers to the excessive accumulation of fat, mainly under the skin but also on various organs of the body. Obesityâs most common cause is the intake of more calories than those required for oneâs daily needs.The aim of the study was to review etiology of obesity, as well as the accountable risk factors.The method Îżf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature which referred to the etiology, the risk factors of obesity and the beneficial role of physical exercise on weight management.Results: The majority of research studies showed that a growing number of adults, children and adolescents around the world, is facing the danger of becoming obese. In literature is cited that both genetic and environmental factors are accountable for the development of obesity. It is well established that the main therapeutic approaches to loose weight are life-style modifications and the combination of a well-balanced hypocaloric diet with regular physical exercise.Conclusions: The problem of obesity and overweight has become an epidemic in most developed countries. The rapid increase in the numbers of obese people reflects environmental changes, the reduced activity and also the increased food intake.
Learn about obesity and the community initiatives taking place to prevent and reduce this epidemic.Â Â Created: 7/18/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity.Â Â Date Released: 7/18/2011.
Ali, Zarqa; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli
Epidemiological data has established increasing adiposity as a risk factor for incident asthma. However, the mechanisms underlying the association between obesity and asthma are incompletely understood. In the present paper, we review current knowledge of possible mechanisms mediating the observed...... association between obesity and asthma....
The study of obesity is a relatively new interdisciplinary academic field. The community college library shelves should contain two types of resources. First, several kinds of reference materials, and second, a host of broader materials that place the discussion of obesity within a cultural framework. This overview is divided into two majorâŠ
The study of obesity is a relatively new interdisciplinary academic field. The community college library shelves should contain two types of resources. First, several kinds of reference materials, and second, a host of broader materials that place the discussion of obesity within a cultural framework. This overview is divided into two major
Bhanu P; Archana.; Anil; Watsala
A 3 Years retrospective study conducted on âDonor Deferral Pattern among Blood Donors in Blood Bankââ of a Medical College Hospital of Chhattisgarh. This study shows the major possible causes of deferrals for donation of blood in northern Chhattisgarh. Donorâs detail information on the donor deferral including the cause of deferral was recorded in deferral register. Donors deferred were analyzed and computed for study on the bas ic of medical examination. In the study done f...
Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure
Online crowdfunding platforms like DonorsChoose.org and Kickstarter allow specific projects to get funded by targeted contributions from a large number of people. Critical for the success of crowdfunding communities is recruitment and continued engagement of donors. With donor attrition rates above 70%, a significant challenge for online crowdfunding platforms as well as traditional offline non-profit organizations is the problem of donor retention. We present a large-scale study of millions ...
NĂžhr, Ellen Aagaard
Background: The obesity epidemic has led to an increase in obese women of childbearing age. This gives cause for concern because prepregnancy obesity is associated with a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The newly established Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) has a size that permits an...... investigation of the association between maternal obesity and rare, but important outcomes, for which more insight is needed, such as fetal death, subtypes of preterm birth, and neonatal mortality. The low participation rate of 30% to the DNBC may, however, raise new questions related to the validity of the...... findings, so we also carried out a study of the consequences of this selection on the estimates of relative risk.Studies of maternal obesity: Within the DNBC we examined the association between prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and the risk of fetal death (n=54,505), subtypes of preterm birth (n=62...
Ulrik, Charlotte S
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant negative impact on asthma control and risk of exacerbations. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent studies evaluating the effects of weight reduction on asthma control in obese adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical studies have shown that weight...... reduction in obese patients is associated with improvements in symptoms, use of controller medication, and asthma-related quality of life together with a reduction in the risk for severe exacerbations. Furthermore, several studies have also revealed improvements in lung function and airway responsiveness......: Weight reduction in obese adults with asthma leads to an overall improvement in asthma control, including airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Weight reduction should be a cornerstone in the management of obese patients with asthma....
Juel, Caroline Trunk-Black; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli
Asthma is more prevalent in obese compared with normal weight subjects. Our aim has been to review current knowledge of the impact of obesity on asthma severity, asthma control, and response to therapy.Several studies have shown that overweight and obesity is associated with more severe asthma and...... impaired quality of life compared with normal weight individuals. Furthermore, obesity is associated with poorer asthma control, as assessed by asthma control questionnaires, limitations in daily activities, breathlessness and wheezing, use of rescue medication, unscheduled doctor visits, emergency...... department visits, and hospitalizations for acute asthma. Studies of the impact of a high body mass index (BMI) on response to asthma therapy have, however, revealed conflicting results. Most studies show that overweight and obesity is associated with less favorable response to asthma therapy with regard to...
Pokrywka, MaĆgorzata; KieÄ-Wilk, Beata; Polus, Anna; WybraĆska, Iwona
The number of overweight and obese people is increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the developed and developing countries. Obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, and in consequence for premature death. The development of obesity results from the interplay of both genetic and environmental factors, which include sedentary life style and abnormal eating habits. In the past few years a number of events accompanying obesity, affecting expression of genes which are not directly connected with the DNA base sequence (e.g. epigenetic changes), have been described. Epigenetic processes include DNA methylation, histone modifications such as acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, as well as non-coding micro-RNA (miRNA) synthesis. In this review, the known changes in the profile of DNA methylation as a factor affecting obesity and its complications are described. PMID:25531701
Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity has significant negative impact on asthma control and risk of exacerbations. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent studies evaluating the effects of weight reduction on asthma control in obese adults. RECENT FINDINGS: Clinical studies have shown that weight...... reduction in obese patients is associated with improvements in symptoms, use of controller medication, and asthma-related quality of life together with a reduction in the risk for severe exacerbations. Furthermore, several studies have also revealed improvements in lung function and airway responsiveness......: Weight reduction in obese adults with asthma leads to an overall improvement in asthma control, including airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Weight reduction should be a cornerstone in the management of obese patients with asthma....
Miller, Melissa B.; Hendren, Ryan; Gilligan, Peter H
A North Carolinian developed fatal coccidioidomycosis immediately after bilateral lung transplantation. The donor had previously traveled to Mexico, and the recipient had no travel history to an area where Coccidioides immitis is endemic. Immunosuppresive therapy of the transplant recipient likely reactivated latent Coccidioides infection in the donor lungs, leading to posttransplant coccidioidomycosis.
Kotzé, Sebastian R; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S; Sűrensen, Erik; Thűrner, Lise W; Sűrensen, Cecilie J; Rigas, Andreas S; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Ullum, Henrik; Erikstrup, Christian
BACKGROUND: It is well known that blood donors are at increased risk of iron deficiency and subsequent development of iron deficiency anemia. We aimed to investigate the effect of factors influencing hemoglobin (Hb) levels. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Initiated in 2010, the Danish Blood Donor Study...
Full Text Available Purpose: In order to select the most appropriate donor and minimize psychological and physical complications in the kidney donors, it is of high importance to prepare the donor meticulously. The essential respective items are reviewed in this study.Materials and Methods: The available published literature and papers presented in Medline from 1983 to 2003 were reviewed.Results: One the sources of sources of kidney donation is the live donor which is mostly used in Iran. Similarly, due to long waiting lists of kidney recipients, live donor kidney transplantation have been increasingly used in developed countries. Consequently, several aspects of this issue have been considered and specific recommendations have been discussed; anatomy of the donor's kidney, age, ABO blood group, viral infections, weight, HLA type compatibility, psychological status, and diseases such as diabetes, ADPKD, and Alport syndrome should be evaluated in donation candidates. Conclusion: Live donor kidney donation has the advantage of elective and programmed transplantation over cadaveric transplantation. However, removal of an intact organ from the body of a normal individual may lead to complications, as it may so in any other major surgical operation. Thus, it is strongly recommended to select the most appropriate donor patiently by a series of accurate evaluations.
Friedman, E A; Friedman, A L
Continuous growth of the end stage renal disease population treated by dialysis, outpaces deceased donor kidneys available, lengthens the waiting time for a deceased donor transplant. As estimated by the United States Department of Health & Human Services: '17 people die each day waiting for transplants that can't take place because of the shortage of donated organs.' Strategies to expand the donor pool--public relations campaigns and Drivers' license designation--have been mainly unsuccessful. Although illegal in most nations, and viewed as unethical by professional medical organizations, the voluntary sale of purchased donor kidneys now accounts for thousands of black market transplants. The case for legalizing kidney purchase hinges on the key premise that individuals are entitled to control of their body parts even to the point of inducing risk of life. One approach to expanding the pool of kidney donors is to legalize payment of a fair market price of about 40,000 dollars to donors. Establishing a federal agency to manage marketing and purchase of donor kidneys in collaboration with the United Network for Organ Sharing might be financially self-sustaining as reduction in costs of dialysis balances the expense of payment to donors. PMID:16482095
M. L. Arefjev
Full Text Available There is well known fact that kidney transplants from Extended Criteria Donors may increase risk of De- layed Graft Function and Primary Non-Function of transplants. We have collected and tested 65 «zero» kidney biopsies from cadaver donors aged from 19 to 71 years old. In the pool of elderly donors who died from cerebrovascular accident the frequency of nephrosclerosis presentation was higher than in donors of yonger age who died from craniocephalic trauma. Nevertheless in the general donor pool the number of sclerosed glomeruli was no more than 12%. We did not meet at all in the whole volume of material any bi- opsy with the severe degree of arteriosclerosis. The «zero» biopsies of cadaver kidneys is quite usable and unexpensive tool to measure the degree of nephrosclerosis in order to exclude kidneys which are not fitable for transplantation.
As increasing demand for organs is a challenge for transplant services worldwide it is essential to audit the process of organ donation. To address this, a national audit of potential organ donors was undertaken across hospitals with Intensive Care Units (N = 36). Questionnaires were returned on all patients (n = 2073) who died in these units from 1\\/9\\/07-31\\/8\\/08; 200 (10%) of these patients were considered for Brain Stem Testing (BST), 158 patients (79%) were diagnosed Brain Stem Dead (BSD) and 138 patients (87%) became potential donors. Consent for donation was given by 92 (69%) next of kin and 90 potential donors (65%) became organ donors. There was no evidence of a large number of potential organ donors being missed. Recommendations included completion of BSTs on all appropriate patients, development of support on BST, referral of all BSD patients to the Organ Procurement Service; enhanced co-ordination within hospitals and sustained information\\/education campaigns.
Holub, Christina K.; Elder, John P.; Arredondo, Elva M.; Barquera, SimĂłn; Eisenberg, Christina M.; Romero, Luz MarĂa SĂĄnchez; Rivera, Juan; Lobelo, Felipe; Simoes, Eduardo J.
Context Latinos are the largest and fastest-growing ethnically diverse group in the U.S.; they are also the most overweight. Mexico is now second to the U.S. in experiencing the worst epidemic of obesity in the world. Objectives of this study were to (1) conduct a systematic review of obesity-related interventions targeting Latinos living in the U.S. and Latin America and (2) develop evidence-based recommendations to inform culturally relevant strategies targeting obesity. Evidence acquisition Obesity-related interventions, published between 1965 and 2010, were identified through searches of major electronic databases in 2010â2011. Selection criteria included evaluation of obesity-related measures; intervention conducted in a community setting; and at least 50.0% Latino/Latin American participants, or with stratified results by race/ethnicity. Evidence synthesis Body of evidence was based on the number of available studies, study design, execution, and effect size. Of 19,758 articles, 105 interventions met final inclusion criteria. Interventions promoting physical activity and/or healthy eating had strong or sufficient evidence for recommending (1) school-based interventions in the U.S. and Latin America; (2) interventions for overweight or obese children in the healthcare context in Latin America; (3) individual-based interventions for overweight or obese adults in the U.S.; (4) individual-based interventions for adults in Latin America; and (5) healthcare-based interventions for overweight or obese adults in Latin America. Conclusions Most intervention approaches combined physical activity and healthy eating to address both sides of the energy-balance equation. Results can help guide comprehensive evidence-based efforts to tackle the obesity epidemic in the U.S. and Latin America. PMID:23597819
Cali, Anna M.G.; Caprio, Sonia
Context: Although the prevalence rates of childhood obesity have seemingly been stable over the past few years, far too many children and adolescents are still obese. Childhood obesity, and its associated metabolic complications, is rapidly emerging as one of the greatest global challenges of the 21st century. About 110 million children are now classified as overweight or obese.
Serap Ejder Apay
Full Text Available Obesity; a state of being 20% over oneÂs normal weight due to excessive fat; that is, it is defined as the accumulation of too much fat in the body. The rate of obesity in the world has elevated. In the last two decades, it is considered that there have been increases in the rates of the obesity with changes in the socio-economic state and nutritional habits in Turkey as well as in modern western countries. The increase of the obesity is a matter of concern but the aspect which is much more matter of concern is in the increase of obesity in women at the reproductive age or gradually increasing rate of being overweight. If the pregnant woman is obese, most of the physiological changes occurring during pregnancy may be various. During their childbearing years, obese women are at an increased risk for pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes, labour induction, caesareans births, and failed vaginal birth following to caesarean. Nurses should have the knowledge to adapt the care they provide according to this knowledge and encourage the pregnant women to acquire behaviours which will improve their health. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(4.000: 345-350
Sturm, Roland; An, Ruopeng
This review summarizes current understanding of economic factors during the obesity epidemic and dispels some widely held, but incorrect, beliefs. Rising obesity rates coincided with increases in leisure time (rather than increased work hours), increased fruit and vegetable availability (rather than a decline in healthier foods), and increased exercise uptake. As a share of disposable income, Americans now have the cheapest food available in history, which fueled the obesity epidemic. Weight gain was surprisingly similar across sociodemographic groups or geographic areas, rather than specific to some groups (at every point in time; however, there are clear disparities). It suggests that if one wants to understand the role of the environment in the obesity epidemic, one needs to understand changes over time affecting all groups, not differences between subgroups at a given time. Although economic and technological changes in the environment drove the obesity epidemic, the evidence for effective economic policies to prevent obesity remains limited. Taxes on foods with low nutritional value could nudge behavior toward healthier diets, as could subsidies/discounts for healthier foods. However, even a large price change for healthy foods could close only part of the gap between dietary guidelines and actual food consumption. Political support has been lacking for even moderate price interventions in the United States and this may continue until the role of environmental factors is accepted more widely. As opinion leaders, clinicians play an important role in shaping the understanding of the causes of obesity. PMID:24853237
Full Text Available Background: We retrospectively analyzed the results of totally 6 patients who received a renal graft from >80 years aged donors in Eurotransplant senior program. Patients and methods: Between May 1999 and March 2007 a total of 70 kidney transplants from donors aged over 65 years were given to recipients over 65 at our center. Six out of them, mean age 66,0 (65-68 years, received organs from donors, mean age 81,3 years, who had no history of hypertension, diabetes, smoking or obesity, and a latest mean serum creatinine of 0,7 (0,7-0,9 mg/dL. Baseline biopsy of four grafts showed in two of them a 20% / 8% glomerulosclerosis and mild tubular atrophy but otherwise normal histology. The mean cold storage time was 11:35 (7:19 â 16:02 hours. The initial immunosuppression was CNI-free in five patients consisting of an IL-II receptor antibody + MMF + Steroids. Cyclosporine A was started at day 8,2 (7-10, when graft function had stabilized. In one patient each Belatacept or CyA were given from the beginning, according to a study protocol. Results: The ATN-rate was 2/6. Altogether 2 biopsy-proven acute rejection episodes were reversed by pulsed steroids. Apart from one Polyomavirus infection which led to graft loss at month 9, all other infectious complications, mostly urinary tract infections, were treated successfully. Other postoperative complications were caused by preexisting comorbidities and could be managed. One patient died from an intracerebral B-cell Lymphoma at month 27 with a functioning graft. The 2-years patient / graft survival was 100 / 83,3%. The actual mean serum creatinine of the survivors was 1,6 (0,7-2,4 mg/dL. Conclusion: We conclude that good results can be achieved with kidneys from donors over 80 years without cardiac risk factors and good renal function and if nephrotoxic drugs are used with caution.
Dietz, W H
The increasing prevalence of childhood obesity, its attendant morbidity, and the limited success of therapy mandate increased attention to preventive approaches. Environmental and family variables serve to identify families with children at risk for the development of obesity. Although the behavioral correlates that link these risk factors to childhood obesity remain unclear, inactivity and increased dietary intake of fat appear at this time to be the most logical foci for preventive interventions. Television viewing, which promotes both increased food consumption and reduced activity, represents a major concern at which counseling should be directed. PMID:3737257
Kalish, Virginia B
The percentage of older obese adults is on the rise. Many clinicians underestimate the health consequences of obesity in the elderly, citing scarce evidence and concerns that weight loss might be detrimental to the health of older adults. Although overweight and obese elders are not at the same risk for morbidity and mortality as younger individuals, quality of life and function are adversely impacted. Weight loss plans in the elderly should include aerobic activities as well as balance and resistance activities to maintain optimal physical function. PMID:26896206
This paper examines the child obesity epidemic that is gripping our nation, and explores various causes and treatments that may help to defeat child obesity. First there is a description of the obesity epidemic, its causal factors, and its consequences. Additionally there is a summary and critique of the FDAĂąâŹâąs obesity report and recommendations. There is a description of drug treatments that are available for obese children and why more research is necessary to ensure the s...
Sevil Ä°nal; Nejla Canbulat
Until recently, it has not been put much emphasis on obesity in children and the view of âobese child is healthyâ is widely accepted by families. However, understanding that a close relation exists between obesity prevalence and childhood obesity, which increased in recent years both across the world and in our country, and many diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases changed the opinion of both of health care professionals and the society about childhood obesity in T...
Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh
Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with m...
Varness, Todd; Allen, David B.; Carrel, Aaron L.; Fost, Norman
The incidence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically, including severe childhood obesity and obesity-related comorbid conditions. Cases of severe childhood obesity have prompted the following question: does childhood obesity ever constitute medical neglect? In our opinion, removal of a child from the home is justified when all 3 of the following conditions are present: (1) a high likelihood that serious imminent harm will occur; (2) a reasonable likelihood that coercive state interve...
Elmehdawi, Rafik R.; Abdulwahab M. Albarsha
Obesity is a global epidemic resulting in major morbidity and premature death. About 64% of Libyan adults are either overweight or obese, obesity progressively increasing with age, and two times more common among Libyan women than men. Cases of obesity and overweight are increasing in Libya as well as all over the world, with genetic and environmental factors playing a contributory role. With its known significant morbidity and mortality, obesity should draw the attention of the healthcare co...
Full Text Available Deceased organ donors in an intensive care unit (ICU are the richest source of organs for transplantation. Careful donor maintenance plays a vital role in the successful functioning of the organ in the recipient. Aims : Early identification of brain stem death (BSD in the ICU, problems and management in donor maintenance till retrieval are the main objectives. Materials and Methods : BSD was identified in a level I trauma center over a period of eight years (1996-2004 using UK code. After screening for fitness, they were maintained to achieve normothermia, systolic BP > 90 mm Hg, CVP 8-10 cm water, urine output > 80 ml/hour and normal acid base balance. Results: 168 cases of BSD were maintained, 30 with identity unknown. Common transient complications noted were hypotension (68%, hypokalemia (62%, hypothermia (12%, diabetes insipidus (70%. Brain stem death was identified early and resuscitated to maintain normal tissue perfusion. 17 (12.3% consent for organ donation was obtained. Organs (24 kidneys and one liver were retrieved from 12 donors. Four donors sustained cardiac arrest before retrieval. Conclusion: Early recognition of brain stem death and prompty correction of hemodyanamic instability is the key to deceased donor maintenance. Optimal care of potential donor translates to care of multiple recipients.
In Egypt there is no doubt that chronic liver diseases are a major health concern. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among the 15â59 years age group is estimated to be 14.7%. The high prevalence of chronic liver diseases has led to increasing numbers of Egyptian patients suffering from end stage liver disease (ESLD), necessitating liver transplantation (LT). We reviewed the evolution of LT in Egypt and the current status. A single center was chosen as an example to review the survival and mortality rates. To date, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has not been implemented in any program though Egyptian Parliament approved the law in 2010. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) seemed to be the only logical choice to save many patients who are in desperate need for LT. By that time, there was increase in number of centers doing LDLT (13 centers) and increase in number of LDLT cases [2,400] with improvement of the results. Donor mortality rate is 1.66 per 1,000 donors; this comprised four donors in the Egyptian series. The exact recipient survival is not accurately known however, and the one-year, three-year and five-year survival were 73.17%, 70.83% and 64.16% respectively in the International Medical Center (IMC) in a series of 145 adult to adult living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) cases. There was no donor mortality in this series. LDLT are now routinely and successfully performed in Egypt with reasonable donor and recipient outcomes. Organ shortage remains the biggest hurdle facing the increasing need for LT. Although LDLT had reasonable outcomes, it carries considerable risks to healthy donors. For example, it lacks cadaveric back up, and is not feasible for all patients. The initial success in LDLT should drive efforts to increase the people awareness about deceased organ donation in Egypt. PMID:27115003
Amer, Khaled E; Marwan, Ibrahim
In Egypt there is no doubt that chronic liver diseases are a major health concern. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among the 15-59 years age group is estimated to be 14.7%. The high prevalence of chronic liver diseases has led to increasing numbers of Egyptian patients suffering from end stage liver disease (ESLD), necessitating liver transplantation (LT). We reviewed the evolution of LT in Egypt and the current status. A single center was chosen as an example to review the survival and mortality rates. To date, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has not been implemented in any program though Egyptian Parliament approved the law in 2010. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) seemed to be the only logical choice to save many patients who are in desperate need for LT. By that time, there was increase in number of centers doing LDLT (13 centers) and increase in number of LDLT cases [2,400] with improvement of the results. Donor mortality rate is 1.66 per 1,000 donors; this comprised four donors in the Egyptian series. The exact recipient survival is not accurately known however, and the one-year, three-year and five-year survival were 73.17%, 70.83% and 64.16% respectively in the International Medical Center (IMC) in a series of 145 adult to adult living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) cases. There was no donor mortality in this series. LDLT are now routinely and successfully performed in Egypt with reasonable donor and recipient outcomes. Organ shortage remains the biggest hurdle facing the increasing need for LT. Although LDLT had reasonable outcomes, it carries considerable risks to healthy donors. For example, it lacks cadaveric back up, and is not feasible for all patients. The initial success in LDLT should drive efforts to increase the people awareness about deceased organ donation in Egypt. PMID:27115003
Bray, George A
Obesity results from a prolonged small positive energy imbalance, and treatment needs to reverse this imbalance. Many different diets have been tried to treat obesity, and weight loss occurs with all of them. There is currently no evidence that supports the superiority of one macronutrient composition for diets over any other. The principal effect seems to be the degree of adherence to the prescribed calorie reduction. Obesity drugs have been developed that tap brain mechanisms for controlling feeding and the gastrointestinal tract and its peptides. Orlistat blocks intestinal lipase and produces modest weight loss. Sibutramine is a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor that has a warning on its label from the US Food and Drug Administration because of cardiovascular risk. Its marketing has been suspended in Europe. Several drug combinations are on the horizon for treatment of obesity. PMID:20960545
... High blood cholesterol or triglycerides High blood glucose (sugar), a sign of type 2 diabetes These other risk factors for heart disease and stroke are not caused by obesity: Having a family member under the age of ...
Marcio C Mancini; Alfredo Halpern
Pharmacological treatment of obesity is an area of sudden changes,development of new drugs and treatment propositions. This articlepresents information on physiological agents that are currentlybeing used as well as drugs that were widely used but are nomore available.
Valera, Beatriz; Sohani, Zahra; Rana, Ayesha; Poirier, Paul; Anand, Sonia S
The prevalence of overweight and obesity varies significantly across ethnic groups and among aboriginal people in Canada and appears to be increasing overall in children and youth, which will have significant health consequences in the future. Individual health behaviours, genetic predisposition, and community-level factors all contribute to the high burden of overweight and obesity across communities in Canada. Preliminary studies indicate that individuals who live in neighbourhoods in Canada with increased walkability, fewer fast food outlets, and higher socioeconomic status have lower rates of overweight/obesity when compared with other neighbourhoods. However, more research is required to understand the impact of community level factors on overweight/obesity trends in Canadian ethnic groups, including children and youth, and aboriginal people. PMID:25661548
Full Text Available Maternal perinatal nutrition may program offspring metabolic features. Epigenetic regulation is one of the candidate mechanisms that may be affected by maternal dietary methyl donors intake as potential controllers of plasma homocysteine levels. Thirty-two Wistar pregnant rats were randomly assigned into four dietary groups during lactation: control, control supplemented with methyl donors, high-fat-sucrose and high-fat-sucrose supplemented with methyl donors. Physiological outcomes in the offspring were measured, including hepatic mRNA expression and global DNA methylation after weaning. The newborns whose mothers were fed the obesogenic diet were heavier longer and with a higher adiposity and intrahepatic fat content. Interestingly, increased levels of plasma homocysteine induced by the maternal high-fat-sucrose dietary intake were prevented in both sexes by maternal methyl donors supplementation. Total hepatic DNA methylation decreased in females due to maternal methyl donors administration, while Dnmt3a hepatic mRNA levels decreased accompanying the high-fat-sucrose consumption. Furthermore, a negative association between Dnmt3a liver mRNA levels and plasma homocysteine concentrations was found. Maternal high-fat-sucrose diet during lactation could program offspring obesity features, while methyl donors supplementation prevented the onset of high hyperhomocysteinemia. Maternal dietary intake also affected hepatic DNA methylation metabolism, which could be linked with the regulation of the methionine-homocysteine cycle.
Seidell, J C
Obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 kg/m2 or more, is common in many parts of the world, especially in the established market economies, the former socialist economies of Europe, Latin America, the Caribbean and the Middle Eastern Crescent. As many as 250 million people worldwide may be obese (7% of the adult population) and two to three times as many may be considered overweight. The prevalence of obesity seems to be increasing in most parts of the world, even where it used to be rare. Increased fatness, measured by a high BMI, a large waist circumference or a high waist/hip circumference ratio, is associated with many chronic diseases as well as with poor physical functioning. Assessments of the prevalence of obesity, and trends in this prevalence over time, are more difficult in children than adults, due to the lack of international criteria for classifying individuals as overweight or obese. The World Health Organization has now recommended the use of BMI-for-age percentiles, but the reference curves are still under development. France. The Netherlands, the UK and the USA are among the countries that have reported recent increases in the prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents. Although there are no accurate estimates of the components of energy balance and their changes over time, the available evidence suggests that the trends in obesity rates are related more to a reduction in energy expenditure than to an increase in caloric intake. Prevention of obesity through the promotion of a healthy lifestyle is among the important challenges for the new millennium, and should start in childhood. PMID:10102051
Majid Karandish; Fatemeh Shirani
The markedly high prevalence of obesity contributes to the increased incidence of chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea, and heart disease. Because of high prevalence of obesity in almost all countries, it has been the focus of many researches throughout the world during the recent decades. Along with increasing researches, new concepts and controversies have been emerged. The existing controversies on the topic are so deep that some researches argue on absolutely phil...
Berger, Nathan A.
Overweight and obesity have reached pandemic levels on a worldwide basis and are associated with increased risk and worse prognosis for many but not all malignancies. Pathophysiologic processes that affect this association are reviewed, with a focus on the relation of type 2 diabetes mellitus with cancer, lessons learned from the use of murine models to study the association, the impact of obesity on pancreatic cancer, the effect of dietary fats and cholesterol as cancer promoters, and the me...
Background: Obesity is a modern day epidemic. The incidence appears to be rapidly increasing in bothdeveloped and developing countries and has become much more obvious in the last decade.Aim& Objective: The present research was done with the aim of studying the effects of obesity definedas a first trimester maternal body mass index >30 on the preeclampsia.Methods: This study was a descriptive-comparative study two hundred fifty singleton pregnancies ofwomen with first trimester BMI >30 who de...
Kulkarni, Kunal; Karssiens, Timothy; Kumar, Vijay; Pandit, Hemant
This paper provides an up-to-date review of obesity and lower limb osteoarthritis (OA). OA is a major global cause of disability, with the knee being the most frequently affected joint. There is a proven association between obesity and knee OA, and obesity is suggested to be the main modifiable risk factor. Obese patients (Body Mass Index, BMI, over 30kg/m(2)) are more likely to require total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The global prevalence of obesity has doubled since 1980; by 2025, 47% of UK men and 36% of women are forecast to be obese. This rising global burden is a key factor in the growing rise in the use of TKA. It is therefore important to appreciate the outcomes of surgery in patients with end-stage OA and a high BMI. This review found that while OA is felt to contribute to weight gain, it is unclear whether TKA facilitates weight reduction. Surgery in obese patients is more technically challenging. This is reflected in the evidence, which suggests higher rates of short- to medium-term complications following TKA, including wound infection and medical complications, resulting in longer hospital stay, and potentially higher rates of malalignment, dislocation, and early revision. However, despite slower initial recovery and possibly lower functional scores and implant survival in the longer term, obese patients can still benefit from TKA in terms of improved function, quality of life and satisfaction. In conclusion, despite higher risks and more uncertain outcomes of surgery, higher BMI in itself should not be a contraindication to TKA; instead, each patient's individual circumstances should be considered. PMID:27180156
This women's health podcast focuses on obesity in women and girls. It discusses obesity-related health risks and includes tips to help achieve and maintain a healthy weight.Â Â Created: 5/11/2009 by Office of WomenĂąÂÂs Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).Â Â Date Released: 5/11/2009.
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the August 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. The rate of obesity among low-income preschoolers has declined, but one in eight is still obese. This program briefly discusses what can be done.Â Â Created: 8/6/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).Â Â Date Released: 8/6/2013.
In recent years the levels of obesity in the United States has risen greatly especially amongst children. Doctors, psychologists, and other scientists have been studying the growing problem for years. Implications for childhood obesity not only have enormous physical consequences but emotional repercussions which can affect the childâs academic and social development. A number of factors have been identified as having an effect on these children; family life reveals the grocery store habits o...
Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg
The fast global increased prevalence of obesity has been classifiedas an epidemics by the World Health Organization. The etiology ofobesity is very complex and involves genetic and environmentalfactors. One of the main factors that trigger obesity is sedentarylife, as well as the great availability of fat-rich foods that present ahigh energy density. According to the NHANES II, although thepopulation has decreased the ingestion of fat, the total consumptionof food has increased. The main fact...
LondoĂ±o-Lemos, Milton Enrique
Obesity is one of the most critical diseases of the 21st century, which is associated with other health problems such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and reduced life expectancy, and a strong effect on the economy. Over time, have developed anti-obesity drugs which work in different ways: by suppressing appetite, altering metabolism or inhibiting absorption heat. However, these drugs have had serious concerns about the safety of commonly prescribed use derivative side effects, lead...
Joo, Jong Kil; Lee, Kyu Sup
Obesity is an important risk factor for metabolic disease and various cancers. Treatments of obesity include lifestyle intervention, pharmacotherapy, and bariatric surgery. If weight loss with lifestyle intervention is only modest, pharmacotherapy might be needed. Pharmacotherapy agents can be grouped by treatment period as short term or long term use agent. Several sympathomimetic drugs such as benzphetamine, diethylpropion, phendimetrazine and phentermine, are approved for short term treatm...
There is no single unifying theory to explain the aetiology of obesity but several environmental factors, such as decreased physical activity and increased fat intake may contribute to its development in genetically predisposed individuals. Dietary and pharmacological treatments of morbid obesity have been proven to be unsuccessful. Modern surgical treatments have been shown to be effective in achieving significant weight loss with consequent reduction in morbidity. Despite the fact that surg...
Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars
The present paper examines the macroeconomic impact of aid, by introducing endogenous aid allocations into a neoclassical growth framework. On this basis it is shown that donor policies can have important implications for the trajectory of recipients' GDP per capita. Depending on specific donor...... policy choices, aid disbursements may lead to faster transitional growth, stagnation or cyclical growth. Moreover, the analysis also suggests that donor policies may be part of the reason why foreign aid is not found to be uniformly effective in raising long-run productivity across recipients...
Cheng, Yu-Fan; Ou, Hsin-You; Yu, Chun-Yen; Tsang, Leo Leung-Chit; Huang, Tung-Liang; Chen, Tai-Yi; Hsu, Hsien-Wen; Concerjero, Allan M; Wang, Chih-Chi; Wang, Shih-Ho; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Yong, Chee-Chien; Lin, Yu-Hung; Lin, Chih-Che; Chiu, King-Wah; Jawan, Bruno; Eng, Hock-Liew; Chen, Chao-Long
The shortage of deceased donor liver grafts led to the use of living donor liver transplant (LDLT). Patients who undergo LDLT have a higher risk of complications than those who undergo deceased donor liver transplantation (LT). Interventional radiology has acquired a key role in every LT program by treating the majority of vascular and non-vascular post-transplant complications, improving graft and patient survival and avoiding, in the majority of cases, surgical revision and/or re-transplant. The aim of this paper is to review indications, diagnostic modalities, technical considerations, achievements and potential complications of interventional radiology procedures after LDLT. PMID:24876742
Mehmet Ali GĂŒrer
Full Text Available In recent years, it has been thought that a strong association exists between metabolic syndrome, specifically obesity, and psoriasis. Obesity is a multifactorial disease affected by both genetic and environmental factors. Adipokines (e.g. leptin secreted by the adipose tissue are believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. The main role of leptin is to adjust metabolism by controlling appetite. Serum leptin levels in patients with severe and moderate psoriasis were found to be higher than in normal control groups. In many similar studies, leptin secretion has been found to stimulate keratinocyte proliferation, which is one of the characteristics of psoriasis. Although many studies showed increased prevalence of obesity in psoriasis patients, few others reported development of obesity in psoriasis patients. Additionally, obesity was found to affect treatment responses not only in classical systemic/topical treatment approaches in psoriasis, but also in newer biological treatments. Overall, increasing epidemiological evidence suggests strong association between obesity and psoriasis, increase in serum leptin levels is thought to have a major role, and weight loss may have significant impact on response to treatment.
Full Text Available The prevalence of overweight and obesity and their associated metabolic disorders are considered a major threat to the publicâs health. While several diet and exercise programs are available for weight loss and prevention of weight regain, progress is often slow and disappointing. Recently, natural bioactive phytochemicals present in foods have been discovered for their potential health benefit effects on the prevention of chronic disorders such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory and metabolic diseases including obesity.Polyphenols are a class of naturally-occurring phytochemicals, of which some such as catechins, anthocynines, resveratrol and curcumin have been shown to modulate physiological and molecular pathways that are involved in energy metabolism, adiposity, and obesity. The potential in vivo, beneficial effects of these polyphenols on adiposity and obesity as complementary agents in the up-regulation of energy expenditure have emerged by investigating these compounds in cell cultures, animal models of obesity and in some human clinical and epidemiological studies. In this brief review, the efficacy of the above-named polyphenols and their potential efficacy to modulate obesity and some associated disorders are discussed.
Corbee, R J
Obesity is an important disease with a growing incidence. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, and decreases life span, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain breeds is often suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, we investigated 1379 dogs of 128 different breeds by determining their body condition score (BCS). Overall, 18.6% of the show dogs had a BCS >5, and 1.1% of the show dogs had a BCS>7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be correlated to the breed standards. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and judges in order to come to different interpretations of the standards to prevent overweight conditions from being the standard of beauty. PMID:22882163
Carnahan, S; Balzer, A; Panchal, S K; Brown, L
Obesity was probably rare in ancient times, with the current increase starting in the Industrial Revolution of the eighteenth century, and becoming much more widespread from about 1950, so concurrent with the increased consumption of carbohydrates from cereals in the Green Revolution. However, dietary components such as oligosaccharides from plants including cereals may improve health following fermentation to short-chain carboxylic acids in the intestine by bacteria which constitute of the microbiome. Such non-digestible and fermentable components of diet, called prebiotics, have been part of the human diet since at least Palaeolithic times, and include components of the cereals domesticated in the Neolithic Revolution. If consumption of these cereals has now increased, why is obesity increasing? One reason could be lowered prebiotic intake combined with increased intake of simple sugars, thus changing the bacteria in the microbiome. Processing of food has played an important role in this change of diet composition. Since obesity is a low-grade inflammation, changing the microbiome by increased consumption of simple carbohydrates and saturated fats may lead to obesity via increased systemic inflammation. Conversely, there is now reasonable evidence that increased dietary prebiotic intake decreases inflammation, improves glucose metabolism and decreases obesity. Would widespread increases in prebiotics in the modern diet, so mimicking Palaeolithic or Neolithic nutrition, decrease the incidence and morbidity of obesity in our communities? PMID:24844456
Full Text Available Introduction: Everyday, millions of people around the world go through phlebotomy, either to donate blood or for therapeutic intention. The most important worrisome adverse effects are hemodynamic alterations. In this study, hemodynamic changes following blood donation were assessed. Methods & Materials: Three hundred laborers who donated blood voluntarily were enrolled in this study. Blood pressure (BP and pulse rate were measured before the procedure, ten minutes afterwards, and one week following phlebotomy. Hemoglobin (Hgb and hematocrit (Hct were also determined prior to and one week after phlebotomy. Finally, results before and after donation were compared with each other. Results: 242 volunteers had normal BP and 58 were hypertensive. The mean systolic blood pressures (SBP before phlebotomy, ten minutes after the procedure, and one week later were 120, 117, and 122 mmHg, respectively. During the same periods of time, the mean of diastolic blood pressures (DBP were 77 , 78 and 78 mmHg , in order , while pulse rates on average were 80 , 82 and 76 beats/minute . None of the aforementioned changes were clinically significant. After one week, Hgb decreased by about 0.3 g/dl (P<0.001 and Hct declined on average of 1.7 (P<0.001. Forty six individuals had high DBP and one week after donation, their DBP was reduced by 7 mmHg. Age, body mass index and smoking did not have any significant effect on hemodynamic status. Conclusion: Hemodynamic changes in healthy blood donors were not clinically significant. It seems that DBP drops desirably in hypertensive individuals. This needs to be evaluated more carefully in future studies.
Sarros, James C.; Sarros, Anne M.
Experienced leaders face challenges that demand different leadership approaches to those of inexperienced leaders. The purposes of this article are to: (1) explore the leadership initiatives prominent for experienced leaders compared with inexperienced leaders; (2) examine the relationship between transformational leadership and these initiatives;
Cardno, Carol; Youngs, Howard
This article presents the perceptions of approximately 300 experienced New Zealand principals who participated in a pilot leadership development initiative funded by the Ministry of Education. The Experienced Principals Development Programme (EPDP) underwent a rigorous evaluation that included formative (mid-point) and summative (end-point)âŠ
Gibbs, Beth Ellen
The purpose of this study was to examine how experienced elementary general music teachers perceived the effectiveness of their instructional interactions with students in the music classroom. The following questions were addressed in this study: What types of interactions do experienced teachers use most frequently and perceive as effective inâŠ
Grothaus, Tim; Lorelle, Sonya; Anderson, Kie; Knight, Jasmine
After a review of the literature elucidating the status quo for students experiencing homelessness, this article shares the results of a mixed methods study. With a phenomenological qualitative emphasis, the mixed methods study explored the perceptions of parents and children experiencing homelessness regarding their academic needs and the
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a strong social gradient in the prevalence of obesity, there is little scientific understanding of obesity in people settled in deprived neighbourhoods. Few studies are actually based on objectively measured data using random sampling of residents in deprived neighbourhoods. In addition, most studies use a crude measure, the body mass index, to estimate obesity. This is of concern because it may cause inaccurate estimations of the true prevalence and give the wrong picture of the factors associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of, and analyse the sociodemographic factors associated with, three indices of obesity in different ethnic groups settled in two deprived neighbourhoods in Sweden. Methods Height and weight, waist circumference and body fat percentage were objectively measured in a random sample (n = 289. Sociodemographic data were obtained through a survey. Established cut-offs were used to determine obesity. Country of birth was categorized as Swedish, Other European, and Middle Eastern. Odds ratios were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. Results One third of the sample was classified as obese overall, with 39.0% of women being abdominally obese. After adjusting for age, we found higher odds of obesity in Middle Eastern women than in Swedish women regardless of outcome with odds ratios ranging between 2.74 and 5.53. Men of other European origin had higher odds of BMI obesity than Swedish men. Most associations between country of birth and obesity remained in the full model. Conclusion This study demonstrates the magnitude of the obesity problem and the need for prevention programmes targeting native and immigrant adults in deprived neighbourhoods in Sweden. The initiatives should also focus on particular groups, e.g. immigrant women and those experiencing economic difficulties. Further studies are needed on behavioural and environmental factors influencing the risk of obesity in residents settled in deprived neighbourhoods.
Lampic, C; Skoog Svanberg, A; SydsjĂ¶, Gunilla
STUDY QUESTION: What are oocyte donors and sperm donors attitudes towards disclosure and relationship to donor offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER: Oocyte and sperm donors in an identity-release donor programme support disclosure to donor offspring and have overall positive or neutral attitudes towards future contact with offspring. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: There is a global trend towards open-identity gamete donation with an increasing number of countries introducing legislation allowing only identifiab...
Full Text Available ... on Jul 19, 2011 Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true ... Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation ( ...
Full Text Available ... blood stem cell (PBSC) donor, explains the donation process - Duration: 3:28. Be The Match 22,464 views 3:28 Pain Control: Support for People with Cancer - Duration: 11:58. ...
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Full Text Available ... on Jul 19, 2011 Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this ... Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and peripheral blood stem cell ...
Living donor liver transplant (LDLT) accounts for a small volume of the transplants in the USA. Due to the current liver allocation system based on the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), LDLT has a unique role in providing life-saving transplantation for patients with low MELD scores and significant complications from portal hypertension, as well as select patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Donor safety is paramount and has been a topic of much discussion in the transplant community as well as the general media. The donor risk appears to be low overall, with a favorable long-term quality of life. The latest trend has been a gradual shift from right-lobe grafts to left-lobe grafts to reduce donor risk, provided that the left lobe can provide adequate liver volume for the recipient. PMID:27115007
Responding to the HUG (HĂŽpitaux Universitaires de GenĂšve) hospitalsâ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood were collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERNâs medical staff wish to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.
Responding to the HUG (HĂŽpitaux Universitaires de GenĂšve) hospitalsâ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood was collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERNâs medical staff want to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.
Full Text Available ... Duration: 3:35. hemaquebec1998 667 views 3:35 Bone Marrow/Stem Cell ... Jeff, peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donor, explains the donation process - Duration: 3:28. Be The Match 22,203 ...
Full Text Available ... on the use of BMT and PBSCT, see http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/fa... If you are ... registry of volunteers willing to be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard ...
Tumin, Makmor; Noh, Abdillah; Chong, Chin-Sieng; Lim, Soo-Kun; Abdullah, Nawi; Ng, Kok-Peng
Malaysians indicating that they did not intend to become organ donors upon their death were surveyed regarding interest in non-fungible financial incentives to be granted to surviving family members. Among the 730 (56% of the total sample of 1311) indicating unwillingness to be donors, 29.6% (216/730) subsequently indicated that they would be willing donors if the government introduced policies that, upon their death, "rewarded your (their) family with incentives for your (their) deeds." Among the 69% (504/730) who insisted that they would not become organ donor even with incentive, nearly 80% (404/501) of them were able to identify relevant incentives they thought should be provided by the state to those who make organ donations upon death. The majority of both groups preferred the state provide medical benefits to a surviving family member, suggesting this may be an attractive policy option for the state to raise the deceased organ donation pool. PMID:23600843
Sominsky, Luba; Spencer, Sarah J.
Stress causes or contributes to a huge variety of diseases and disorders. Recent evidence suggests obesity and other eating-related disorders may be among these. Immediately after a stressful event is experienced, there is a corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH)-mediated suppression of food intake. This diverts the bodyâs resources away from the less pressing need to find and consume food, prioritizing fight, flight, or withdrawal behaviors so the stressful event can be dealt with. In the hou...
Stress causes or contributes to a huge variety of diseases and disorders. Recent evidence suggests obesity and other eating-related disorders may be among these. Immediately after a stressful event is experienced, there is a corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH)-mediated suppression of food intake. This diverts the bodyâs resources away from the less pressing need to find and consume food, prioritizing fight, flight, or withdrawal behaviours so the stressful event can be dealt with. In the ho...
Recent epidemiological studies indicate a strong link between intrauterine under-nutrition and propensity of such offspring for developing obesity and metabolic syndrome in later life. Garg et al investigated the mechanistic basis of this phenomenon and its potential reversibility in rats. The authors found that rats experiencing gestational under-nutrition but fed normally after birth (IUGR) gained body mass with excessive subcutaneous and visceral fat. The IUGR rats were also metabolically ...
Rock, G.; Decary, F; McCombie, N; Smiley, R K; Aye, M. T.; Huebsch, L.
Reports of successful transplantation of bone marrow obtained from unrelated donors who were histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) identical prompted the Canadian Red Cross Blood Transfusion Service in Ottawa to assess the possibility of developing a bone marrow donor registry in Canada. We sent a pamphlet that explained the program to 1568 people who had undergone apheresis and asked them to reply, stating their interest. At the same time the pamphlets and a poster were placed in the bl...
Full Text Available Introduction. Blood groups are inherited biological characteristics that do not change throughout life in healthy people. Blood groups represent antigens found on the surface of red blood cells. Kell blood group system consists of 31 antigens. Kell antigen (K is present in 0.2% of the population (the rare blood group. Cellano antigen is present in more than 99% (the high-frequency antigen. These antigens have a distinct ability to cause an immune response in the people after blood transfusion or pregnancy who, otherwise, did not have them before. Case Report. This paper presents a blood donor with a rare blood group, who was found to have an irregular antibody against red blood cells by indirect antiglobulin test. Further testing determined the specificity of antibody to be anti-Cellano. The detected antibody was found in high titers (1024 with erythrocyte phenotype Kell-Cellano+. The blood donor was found to have a rare blood group KellKell. This donor was excluded from further blood donation. It is difficult to find compatible blood for a person who has developed an antibody to the high-frequency antigen. The donorâs family members were tested and Cellano antigen was detected in her husband and child. A potential blood donor was not found among the family members. There was only one blood donor in the Register of blood donors who was compatible in the ABO and Kell blood group system. Conclusion. For the successful management of blood transfusion it is necessary to establish a unified national register of donors of rare blood groups and cooperate with the International Blood Group Reference Laboratory in Bristol with the database that registers donors of rare blood groups from around the world.
Kumar, A; Elenin, H.; Clayton, C.; Basarab-Horwath, C.; Man Shrestha, B.
Acute abdominal pain following laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy (LLDN) might be a diagnostic dilemma, and prompt diagnosis and management is of paramount importance. Herein, we describe a case of acute appendicitis in a 62-year-old kidney donor who presented with acute abdominal pain 16 days following LLDN with features inconsistent with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis. An ultrasound scan suggested strangulated Spigelian hernia unrelated to the operative wound. Exploration of the wound a...
Scott, S G; Mortimer, D.; P J Taylor; Leader, A; Pattinson, H A
Although it is now accepted that cryopreserved semen must, on ethical and medicolegal grounds, be used for donor insemination many clinicians still believe that it has an unacceptably reduced fecundability rate as compared with fresh semen. We studied the outcome of 81 recipients who started therapeutic donor insemination (TDI) treatment during 1986 in a program that used exclusively cryopreserved semen; 55 had never undergone TDI and were receiving the first series (six cycles), 6 were recei...
Mitchell, Nia; Catenacci, Vicki; Wyatt, Holly R.; Hill, James O.
Despite growing recognition of the problem, the obesity epidemic continues in the U.S., and obesity rates are increasing around the world. The latest estimates are that approximately 34% of adults and 1520% of children and adolescents in the U.S. are obese. Obesity affects every segment of the U.S. population. Obesity increases the risk of many chronic diseases in children and adults. The epidemic of obesity arose gradually over time, apparently from a small, consistent degree of positive en...
Skoog Svanberg, Agneta; Lampic, Claudia; Gejerwall, Ann-Louise; Gudmundsson, Johannes; Karlstrom, Per-Olof; Solensten, Nils-Gunnar; SydsjĂ¶, Gunilla
ObjectiveTo explore oocyte and sperm donors' emotional stress, experiences of care and satisfaction after donation. DesignProspective multicenter study. SettingsAll fertility clinics performing gamete donation in Sweden during the period 2005 to 2008. PopulationOf 220 eligible oocyte donors who were approached, 181 agreed to complete the first questionnaire and 165 completed the second questionnaire 2âmonths after oocyte donation. Of 156 eligible sperm donors 119 accepted to complete the firs...
Hertz, R.; Nelson, M.K.; Kramer, W.
This study explores the attitudes and experiences of 57 sperm donors who responded to a survey posted online in the United States and indicated that they had had contact with their donor-conceived offspring or the parents of their donor-conceived offspring. On average, 18 years had elapsed since the respondents donated sperm. In the interim between donating and having contact with offspring, most had become curious about their offspring. Most made contact through a bank or online registry. Most respondents had communicated with at least one offspring at least once and most had exchanged photos with offspring. Approximately two-thirds had met in person once; the same proportion had communicated over email or text. Other forms of communication were less common. Almost half of the respondents now considered their donor-conceived offspring to be like a family member. At the same time, donors are respectful of the integrity of the family in which their offspring were raised. Donors with contact are open to having their partners and children know their donor-conceived offspring. Although contact is generally positive, donors report that establishing boundaries and defining the relationship can be very difficult. Some donors also urge those who are thinking of donating to consider the consequences and some suggest avoiding anonymity. There were no significant differences in attitudes and experiences between those who donated anonymously and those who had been identity-release for their offspring when they turned 18. PMID:26175887
BrĂ€uner, Elvira; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana; HalkjĂŠr, Jytte; TjĂžnneland, Anne; Loft, Steffen; Knudsen, Sofie
Obesity prevalence has more than doubled globally within the last 30 years. Obesity affects quality of life as well as impacts the risks and prognosis for a number of serious diseases. Established causes include a high calorie diet combined with a sedentary lifestyle and possibly the widespread...... cessation of smoking, but these do not fully explain the epidemic. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals and evidence from animal experiments suggests an association with obesity development. Our knowledge of the effects of these compounds on weight gain in humans is...... limited. Our objective was to investigate the association between exposure to PCBs experienced by a general Danish population and development of obesity. We randomly selected 204 persons (113 obese and 91 overweight), aged â„ 50 years, from a prospective Danish cohort of 57,053 persons and examined ten...
BrĂ€uner, Elvira; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana; HalkjĂŠr, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; TjĂžnneland, Anne; Loft, Steffen
Obesity prevalence has more than doubled globally within the last 30 years and obesity affects quality of life as well as impacts the risks and prognosis for a number of serious diseases. Established causes include a high calorie diet combined with a sedentary lifestyle, but these do not fully...... explain the epidemic. Evidence from animal experiments suggests that exposure to endocrine disruptors such as PCBs is associated with the development of obesity but our knowledge of the effects of these compounds on weight gain in humans is limited. Our objective was to investigate the association between...... exposure to PCBs experienced by a general Danish population and abdominal obesity. Adipose tissue was collected upon enrolment of 245 randomly selected persons from a prospective cohort of 57,053 persons enrolled between 1993 and 1997. Abdominal obesity was quantified using self-reported waist...
Fred-JimĂ©nez, Ruth M.; Arroyo-Ăvila, MariangelĂ; Mayor, Ăngel M.; RĂos, Grissel; VilĂĄ, Luis M.
Objective. To determine the clinical manifestations associated with overweight/obesity in Hispanics from Puerto Rico with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed in 144 patients with FMS (per American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria). Sociodemographic features, FMS-related symptoms, tender points (per ACR criteria), comorbidities, and FMS treatment were examined. BMI was calculated and patients were grouped into two categories: BMI â€ 24.9âkg/m2 (nonoverweight/obese) and BMI â„ 25âkg/m2 (overweight/obese). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate differences between the study groups. Results. The mean (standard deviation (SD)) age of patients was 50.2 (9.9) years; 95.1% were females and 75.7% were overweight/obese. In the bivariate analysis, overweight/obese patients were more likely to have self-reported memory impairment, anxiety, shortness of breath, and urinary frequency than nonoverweight/obese patients. In addition, the tender point count was higher in the overweight/obese group. In the logistic regression analyses, self-reported memory impairment and urinary frequency differences remained significant after adjusting for confounding variables. Conclusion. In this population of Puerto Ricans with FMS, overweight/obese patients experienced more FMS-related manifestations than nonoverweight/obese individuals. However, prospective studies are needed to confirm these associations and to elucidate if weight reduction interventions could favorably impact the severity of FMS. PMID:26885384
Keizo Kanasaki; Daisuke Koya
Obesity is an epidemic problem in the world and is associated with several health problems, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, respiratory failure, muscle weakness, and cancer. The precise molecular mechanisms by which obesity induces these health problems are not yet clear. To better understand the pathomechanisms of human disease, good animal models are essential. In this paper, we will analyze animal models of obesity and their use in the research of obesity-associated human healt...
Myers, Candice A.; Slack, Tim; Martin, Corby K.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Heymsfield, Steven B.
Objective To examine change in county-level adult obesity prevalence between 2004 and 2009 and identify associated community characteristics. Methods Change in county-level adult (â„20 years) obesity prevalence was calculated for a 5-year period (2004â2009). Community measures of economic, healthcare, recreational, food environment, population structure, and education contexts were also calculated. Regression analysis was used to assess community characteristics associated (p<0.01) with change in adult obesity prevalence. Results MeanÂ±SD change in obesity prevalence was 5.1Â±2.4%. Obesity prevalence decreased in 1.4% (n = 44) and increased in 98% (n = 3,060) of counties from 2004â2009. Results showed that both baseline levels and increases in physically inactive adults were associated with greater increases in obesity prevalence, while baseline levels of and increases in physician density and grocery store/supercenter density were related to smaller increases in obesity rates. Baseline levels of the Hispanic population share were negatively linked to changing obesity levels, while places with greater Hispanic population growth saw greater increases in obesity. Conclusions Most counties in the U.S. experienced increases in adult obesity prevalence from 2004 to 2009. Findings suggest that community-based interventions targeting adult obesity need to incorporate a range of community factors, such as levels of physical inactivity, access to physicians, availability of food outlets, and ethnic/racial population composition. PMID:26849803
Malik Vasanti S; Ding Eric L
Abstract As China is undergoing dramatic development, it is also experiencing major societal changes, including an emerging obesity epidemic, with the prevalence of overweight and obesity doubling in the past decade. However, the implications of a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) traditional Chinese diet are adversely changing in modern times, as a high-glycemic diet is becoming a greater contributor to diabetes and cardiovascular risks in a population with rising obesity and d...
Eunice G John
Full Text Available Hypertension after pediatric renal transplant is a common and important risk factor for graft loss and patient survival. The mechanism of post kidney transplant hypertension is complex and multifactorial. Control of blood pressure in renal transplant patients is important but often times blood pressures remain uncontrolled. The management of hypertension and obesity in pediatric kidney transplant patients is based on the pathophysiology. Compared to the general pediatric hypertensive population, special attention needs to be focused on the additional impact of immunosuppressive medications side effects and interactions, recurrent disease, and donor and recipient comorbidities such as obesity on blood pressure control with thoughtful consideration of the risk of graft failure. In general, there is a need for prospective studies in pediatric kidney transplant patients to understand the pathophysiology of hypertension and obesity and the appropriate approach to achieve a balance between the primary need to avoid rejection and the need to lower blood pressure and prevent obesity.
Pandolfi, Julieta B; Ferraro, Ariel A; Sananez, InĂ©s; Gancedo, Maria C; Baz, PlĂĄcida; Billordo, Luis A; Fainboim, Leonardo; Arruvito, Lourdes
Obesity-induced inflammation is conducted by a metabolic pathway, which eventually causes activation of specialized immune cells and leads to an unresolved inflammatory response within the tissue. For this reason, it is critically important to determine how hypertrophic fat tissue alters T cell balance to drive inflammation. In this study, we identify the purinergic signaling as a novel mechanism driving the adaptive Th17 response in human visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of metabolically unhealthy obese patients. We demonstrate that ATP acting via the P2X7 receptor pathway promotes a Th17 polarizing microenvironment with high levels of IL-1ÎČ, IL-6, and IL-17 in VAT explants from lean donors. Moreover, in vitro blockade of the P2X7 receptor abrogates the levels of these cytokines. These findings are consistent with a greater frequency of Th17 cells in tissue from metabolically unhealthy obese donors, revealed not only by the presence of a baseline Th17-promoting milieu, but also by the higher expression of steadily recognized Th17 markers, such as RORC, IL-17 cytokine, and IL-23R, in comparison with metabolically healthy obese and lean donors. In addition, we demonstrate that CD39 expression on CD4(+)effector T cells represents a novel Th17 marker in the inflamed VAT, which also confers protection against ATP-induced cell death. The manipulation of the purinergic signaling might represent a new therapeutic target to shift the CD4(+)T cell balance under inflammatory conditions. PMID:26951799
Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a modern day epidemic. The incidence appears to be rapidly increasing in bothdeveloped and developing countries and has become much more obvious in the last decade.Aim& Objective: The present research was done with the aim of studying the effects of obesity definedas a first trimester maternal body mass index >30 on the preeclampsia.Methods: This study was a descriptive-comparative study two hundred fifty singleton pregnancies ofwomen with first trimester BMI >30 who delivered at Emam Hospital, Sari Iran during 2008â2009 werestudied A control group with two hundred fifty nine women of normal body mass index matched for ageand parity were selected and incidence of preeclampsia were compared between groups. Ï2 and Oddsratioand 95% confidence were used to analyze the data. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05.Results: There was a significant relation between obesity and preeclampsia (20.8 vs. 5.8%, P<0.0001compared to non-obese women.Conclusion: Obesity in pregnant women appears to be a risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes.
Full Text Available Obesity is characterized by the abnormal or excessive deposition of fat in the adipose tissue. Its consequences go far beyond adverse metabolic effects on health, causing an increase in oxidative stress, which leads not only to endothelial dysfunction but also to negative effects in relation to periodontitis, because of the increase in proinflammatory cytokines. Thus obesity appears to participate in the multifactorial phenomenon of causality of periodontitis through the increased production of reactive oxygen species. The possible causal relationship between obesity and periodontitis and potential underlying biological mechanisms remain to be established; however, the adipose tissue actively secretes a variety of cytokines and hormones that are involved in inflammatory processes, pointing toward similar pathways involved in the pathophysiology of obesity, periodontitis and related inflammatory diseases. So the aim of this article is to get an overview of the association between obesity and periodontitis and to review adipose-tissue - derived hormones and cytokines that are involved in inflammatory processes and their relationship to periodontitis.
Full Text Available Introduction Studies carried out in various parts of the world indicate that family obesity significantly affects the incidence of obesity in children. This is especially a characteristic of children whose both parents are obese. Material and methods The study was conducted using a polling method. Questionnaires were filled out by parents and brothers and sisters, including their body height and weight. The collected data served as the basis for assessing the family nutritional status. Results Statistical analysis of the results showed that obese children frequently have obese parents, brothers and sisters in regard to normal-weight children. Differences are statistically significant in relation to fathers (r=0.043, i.e. statistically obese schoolchildren have more frequently obese fathers than those of normal nutritional status. Other differences could not be considered significant (p > 0.05. Discussion Obese children have more often obese parents, brothers and sisters than normal-weight children. It was found that the nutritional status of moderately and extremely obese children was quite different from that of normal-weight children and that there was a statistically significant dependence between the nutritional status of children and their fathers. Conclusion This research showed that family obesity is a potential contributing factor to obesity of schoolchildren.
DeKosky, Brandon J; Lungu, Oana I; Park, Daechan; Johnson, Erik L; Charab, Wissam; Chrysostomou, Constantine; Kuroda, Daisuke; Ellington, Andrew D; Ippolito, Gregory C; Gray, Jeffrey J; Georgiou, George
Elucidating how antigen exposure and selection shape the human antibody repertoire is fundamental to our understanding of B-cell immunity. We sequenced the paired heavy- and light-chain variable regions (VH and VL, respectively) from large populations of single B cells combined with computational modeling of antibody structures to evaluate sequence and structural features of human antibody repertoires at unprecedented depth. Analysis of a dataset comprising 55,000 antibody clusters from CD19(+)CD20(+)CD27(-) IgM-naive B cells, >120,000 antibody clusters from CD19(+)CD20(+)CD27(+) antigen-experienced B cells, and >2,000 RosettaAntibody-predicted structural models across three healthy donors led to a number of key findings: (i) VH and VL gene sequences pair in a combinatorial fashion without detectable pairing restrictions at the population level; (ii) certain VH:VL gene pairs were significantly enriched or depleted in the antigen-experienced repertoire relative to the naive repertoire; (iii) antigen selection increased antibody paratope net charge and solvent-accessible surface area; and (iv) public heavy-chain third complementarity-determining region (CDR-H3) antibodies in the antigen-experienced repertoire showed signs of convergent paired light-chain genetic signatures, including shared light-chain third complementarity-determining region (CDR-L3) amino acid sequences and/or VÎș,Î»-JÎș,Î» genes. The data reported here address several longstanding questions regarding antibody repertoire selection and development and provide a benchmark for future repertoire-scale analyses of antibody responses to vaccination and disease. PMID:27114511
... Services reduced barriers to obtaining Medicare coverage for obesity treatments. Bariatric surgery may be covered under these conditions: âą ... Reading for Health Care Providers Pharmacological and Surgical Treatment of Obesity: Evidence Report/Technology Assessment: Number 103. Shekelle PG, ...
... resources ââ. Alternate Language URL Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity Page Content How can I tell if I ... type 2 diabetes. [ Top ] How are overweight and obesity treated? The best way to control your weight ...
... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Overweight and Obesity? Lack of Energy Balance A lack of energy ... Deficiency article. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Obesity happens one pound at a time. So does ...
Bayon, Virginie; Leger, Damien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Vecchierini, Marie-FranĂ§oise; Chennaoui, Mounir
Short sleep duration has been shown to be associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) in many epidemiological studies. Several pathways could link sleep deprivation to weight gain and obesity, including increased food intake, decreased energy expenditure, and changes in levels of appetite-regulating hormones, such as leptin and ghrelin. A relatively new factor that is contributing to sleep deprivation is the use of multimedia (e.g. television viewing, computer, and internet), which may aggravate sedentary behavior and increase caloric intake. In addition, shift-work, long working hours, and increased time commuting to and from work have also been hypothesized to favor weight gain and obesity-related metabolic disorders, because of their strong link to shorter sleep times. This article reviews the epidemiological, biological, and behavioral evidence linking sleep debt and obesity. PMID:25012962
Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is a significant public health problem in the 21st century due to its scale, common existence and its cause-effect association with multiple diseases. Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in humans is regarded as a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and skeletal diseases. However, data from recent years have revealed that obesity is also strongly associated with increased risk of the majority of cancers in humans, including those originating from the gastrointestinal tract. During the last few year this association has been thoroughly proven and supported by several epidemiological analyses. The authors present i the current state of knowledge regarding key (pathomechanisms that link metabolism of human adipose tissue to development/progression of neoplasms (especially in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as ii the results of selected clinical studies in which the influence of obesity on risk of gastrointestinal cancer development has been addressed.
Al Dabal Laila
Full Text Available Obesity is becoming a major medical concern in several parts of the world, with huge economic impacts on health- care systems, resulting mainly from increased cardiovascular risks. At the same time, obesity leads to a number of sleep-disordered breathing patterns like obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS, leading to increased morbidity and mortality with reduced quality of life. OHS is distinct from other sleep- related breathing disorders although overlap may exist. OHS patients may have obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea with hypercapnia and sleep hypoventilation, or an isolated sleep hypoventilation. Despite its major impact on health, this disorder is under-recognized and under-diagnosed. Available management options include aggressive weight reduction, oxygen therapy and using positive airway pressure techniques. In this review, we will go over the epidemiology, pathophysiology, presentation and diagnosis and management of OHS.
Dilek Yildiz; Berna Eren Fidanci; Derya Suluhan
Childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past two decades. The growing incidence of childhood obesity is alarming, given the significant short and long term health problems associated with obesity. Being overweight or obese may increase the rate of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It may contribute to shortening life expectancy and adversely affects the quality of life. Therefore, it is important to prevent childhood obe...
Crocker, Melissa K; Yanovski, Jack A
This paper reviews factors that contribute to excessive weight gain in children and outlines current knowledge regarding approaches for treating pediatric obesity. Virtually all of the known genetic causes of obesity primarily increase energy intake. Genes regulating the leptin signaling pathway are particularly important for human energy homeostasis. Obesity is a chronic disorder that requires long-term strategies for management. The foundation for all treatments for pediatric obesity remain...
Because obesity is a risk factor for many serious illnesses such as diabetes, better understandings of obesity and eating disorders have been attracting attention in neurobiology, psychiatry, and neuroeconomics. This paper presents future study directions by unifying (i) economic theory of addiction and obesity (Becker and Murphy, 1988; Levy 2002; Dragone 2009), and (ii) recent empirical findings in neuroeconomics and neurobiology of obesity and addiction. It is suggested that neurobiological...
Rajitha Sunkara; Martha Verghese
Obesity is a global problem and numbers are rising at a fast pace in developing countries and it becomes a major public health concern. Economic costs associated with obesity are high and increasing as the rate of obesity. Obesity leads to its co-morbidities; namely diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, osteoarthritis, stroke and inflammatory diseases. Changes in life-style along with modifications to the diet are important in the management of ...
Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Eiben, Gabriele; FernĂĄndez-Alvira, Juan M.; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalampos; Henauw, Stefaan De; KovĂĄcs, Eva; Lauria, Fabio; Veidebaum, Toomas; Williams, Garrath; Bammann, Karin
The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....
Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Henauw, Stefaan De; Eiben, Gabriele; FernĂĄndez-Alvira, Juan M.; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalampos; KovĂĄcs, Eva; Lauria, Fabio; Veidebaum, Toomas; Williams, Garrath; Bammann, Karin
The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....
Merchant Anwar T; Akhtar-Danesh Noori; Dehghan Mahshid
Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising pre...
Obesity is at epidemic proportions in the United States and in other developed and developing countries. The prevalence of obesity is increasing not only in adults, but especially among children and adolescents. In the United States in 2003 to 2004, 17.1% of children and adolescents were overweight, and 32.2% of adults were obese. Obesity is a significant risk factor for and contributor to increased morbidity and mortality, most importantly from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes, but ...
Childhood obesity has been increasing rapidly. Previous work investigating body composition in obese children and adolescents has relied primarily on body mass index (BMI), or on measures that assume constant properties of fat-free mass (FFM). This limits our understanding of the effect of treatment. My PhD is divided into three aims. First, I explored differences in body composition between obese and non-obese children using multi-component models. Second, I investigated the effectiveness of...
Huang, Jeannie S.; Barlow, Sarah E.; Quiros-Tejeira, Ruben E.; Scheimann, Ann; Skelton, Joseph; Suskind, David; Tsai, Patrika; Uko, Victor; Warolin, Joshua P.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.
Obesity in childhood is one of the major health issues in pediatric health care today. As expected, the prevalence of obesity-related comorbidities has risen in parallel with that of obesity. Consultation regarding these concomitant diseases and subsequent management by subspecialists, including pediatric gastroenterologists, is now common and has resulted in obesity being recognized as a chronic disease requiring coordination of care. Although medications and even surgery may provide effecti...
Cabler, Stephanie; Agarwal, Ashok; Flint, Margot; Du Plessis, Stefan S.
The obesity pandemic has grown to concerning proportions in recent years, not only in the Western World, but in developing countries as well. The corresponding decrease in male fertility and fecundity may be explained in parallel to obesity, and obesity should be considered as an etiology of male fertility. Studies show that obesity contributes to infertility by reducing semen quality, changing sperm proteomes, contributing to erectile dysfunction, and inducing other physical problems related...
Rumyantsev, Sergey N.
This article unites the results from an integrative reconsideration of actual data about obesity from the viewpoint of recent developments in general pathology, epidemiology, immunology, genetics, and evolution. The focus is on the origin of genetic diversity in obesity manifestations on different levels of the disease. In contrast to the current paradigm of nutritive origin of obesity, the revealed set of evidences shows that the origin of obesity is based on either hereditary or post-infect...
Mohammed I Yasawy
Full Text Available Background: The obesity epidemic, which is among the most common nutritional disorders, is rising rapidly worldwide. It leads to several health problems such as metabolic disorders, stroke, and even cancer. Efforts to control obesity with exercise and diet have a limited value in obese patients and different approaches to do this have been tried. In this paper, we share our experience with bioenteric intragastric balloon (BIB in treating obesity: Its safety, tolerability, and its efficacy in weight reduction. Materials and Methods: From January 2009 to September 2012, a total of 190 gastric balloons was inserted on patients at the endoscopy unit in King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar. This is an evaluation of the first 100 patients. All the patients had a body mass index of over 30 kg/m 2 and were within the age range of 17-55 with a mean age of 32 years. After consent, preballoon investigation tests and anesthesia evaluation, BIB was inserted under monitored anesthesia care sedation in the endoscopy suite. The balloon was filled with 500-700 mls of stained saline. All patientsâČ were given an analgesic and antiemetic for a week and antisecretory proton pump inhibitorâČs for 6 months. Diet and the importance of the exercise were part of the preballoon insertion phase and protocol. The balloon was removed after 6-12 months. Results: The weight loss response to BIB in the 100 patients are classified into four groups: In the uncooperative, noncompliant patients - the maximum weight loss was 7 kg, while in the most compliant patients the weight loss reached up to 39 kg. In addition, there was significant improvement into diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and fatty liveras. Its safety and tolerability were extremely acceptable. Conclusion: Our data indicates that in well-selected patients, BIB is an effective device, which with minimum complications helps to achieve body weight loss and resolve many obesity related morbidities in cooperative and dedicated obese patients.
Full Text Available Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating energy intake and expenditure and body size mainly occurs in the first 1,000 days of life. Therefore, factors affecting the foetal exposition to maternal metabolic environment and early postnatal nutrition are crucial in modulating the definition of the metabolic programming processes in the brain. Maternal diseases, mainly malnutrition for defect or excess, obesity and diabetes, placental disorders and dysfunctions, maternal use of alcohol and drugs, smoking, affect long term metabolic programming of the foetus with lifelong consequences. Similarly, early nutrition contributes to complete the long-term metabolic regulating framework initiated in the uterus. Breastfeeding, adequate weaning, attention to portion size and diet composition are potential tools for reducing the obesity risk later in childhood. Longitudinal randomized controlled studies are needed for exploring the efficacy of obesity prevention strategies initiated after conception.Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology Â· Cagliari (Italy Â· October 22nd-25th, 2014 Â·Â The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou
Messer, Melanie; Steinzen, Andrea; VervĂ¶lgyi, Elke; Lerch, Christian; Richter, Bernd; Dreger, Peter; Herrmann-Frank, Annegret
Abstract Allogeneic stem cell transplant (allo-SCT) is considered a clinical option for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) who have experienced at least two chemosensitive relapses. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the benefits and harms of allo-SCT with an unrelated donor (UD) versus related donor (RD) allo-SCT for adult patients with HL. Alternative donor sources such as haploidentical donor cells (Haplo) and umbilical cord blood (UCB) were also included. The available evidence was limited. Ten studies were included in this assessment. Four studies provided sufficient data to compare UD with RD allo-SCT. None of these studies was a randomized controlled trial. Additionally, three non-comparative studies, such as registry analyses, which considered patients with UD transplants were included. The risk of bias in the studies was high. Results on overall and progression-free survival (PFS) showed no consistent tendency in favor of a donor type. Results on therapy-associated mortality and acute (grade II-IV) and chronic graft-versus-host disease were also inconsistent. The study comparing UCB with RD transplants and two non-comparative studies with UCB transplants showed similar results. One of the studies comparing additionally Haplo with RD transplants indicated a benefit in PFS for the Haplo transplant group. In summary, our findings do not indicate a substantial outcome disadvantage of UD and alternative donor sources versus RD allo-SCT for adult patients with advanced HL. PMID:23656201
Bratsis, Michael E.
U.S. health experts declared obesity an epidemic over a decade ago. Schools have tried to implement prevention programs for students, but as budgets shrink, educating students about obesity is increasingly falling to classroom instructors, including science teachers. The good news is that obesity-related classroom activities can be engaging, andâŠ
Describes the role caregivers play in helping young children dealing with obesity. Examines: (1) causes of childhood obesity; (2) caregiver's position; (3) learning nutrition concepts; (4) preparing and serving healthy foods; (5) encouraging physical activity; (6) working with parents; and (7) assisting an obese child. (SD)
... snacks. Overweight and obesity affect people in all income ranges. But people who live in low-income areas may face even greater barriers to eating ... NIDDK) conducts and supports a broad range of basic and clinical obesity research. More information about obesity ...
Bratsis, Michael E.
U.S. health experts declared obesity an epidemic over a decade ago. Schools have tried to implement prevention programs for students, but as budgets shrink, educating students about obesity is increasingly falling to classroom instructors, including science teachers. The good news is that obesity-related classroom activities can be engaging, and
Full Text Available Aim of this research was to describe the nature, direction and severity of anticipated and experienced discrimination reported by people with schizophrenia. We applied interview to 50 patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia in two psychiatric hospitals in Belgrade. Discrimination was measured with discrimination and stigma scale (DISC which produce 3 subscores, positive experienced discrimination, negative experienced discrimination and anticipated discrimination. The same scale was used in cross-cultural research in 27 european countries. Results have shown that participants from Serbia do not recognize discrimination in all areas of life equally. The discrimination recognized is more frequentlly negative then positive and is associated with existentially important realms of life. Due to anticipated discrimination participants in our study prevent themselves from looking for a close relationship. Anticipated discrimination could not be predicted on the grounds of experienced, positive or negative discrimination.
Martins, Diana; Almendra, Joana; de Jesus, Marta; Soares, Sandra; Dias, TĂąnia; Ferro-Lebres, Vera; Fernandes, AntĂłnio
The internet is widely used by everyone as a source of health information, namely in obesity and weight lost. However, the easy production and edition of documents on the Internet enables any user to be an author and write the information according to their will, not ensuring the veracity of it. In this context the internet may be seen as a threat to oneâs health. Thus, the aim of the study was to characterize and evaluate Portuguese websites obesity information and verify i...
Problem definitions constitute a crucial part of the policy process. In 2008 the Labour Government presented a plan to reduce the obesity prevalence in England. Only three years later the Conservative-Liberal Government introduced a plan on the same topic, which it presented as new and innovative....... The aim of this study is to analyse the respective governments' problematisations of obesity and to identify similarities and differences. Despite the different hues of the two governments, the programmes are surprisingly similar. They seek to simultaneously govern and not to govern. They adhere to...
Overcast, T D; Evans, R W; Bowen, L E; Hoe, M M; Livak, C L
A survey of organ procurement programs and district attorneys' offices was undertaken in all 50 states and the District of Columbia to determine to what extent organ donor cards were effective in obtaining organs for purposes of transplantation. Results of the survey revealed that all 50 states and the District of Columbia have adopted some form of the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act (UAGA), but in 47 states, even when a signed donor card is available, surgeons still require family approval for removal of organs despite the fact that the provisions of the UAGA do not require this. In addition, it was found that while 44 states have a provision on their permanent drivers' licenses for organ donation, no state requires drivers to indicate whether they want to donate organs. While there is little information on the number of persons who actually carry donor cards, four states indicated that between 1.7% and 8.5% of their drivers were designated as donors. In Colorado, however, it was reported that 60% of all drivers are designated as donors. Nevertheless, in all states it was determined that few actual donors were carrying donor cards at the time of their death. It must therefore be concluded that while donor cards are an excellent educational medium and certainly facilitate the activities of transplant coordination, they are not an effective means of substantially increasing the supply of organs for transplantation. PMID:6700054
Butter, R.; Hermanns, J.
The level of work engagement is an important aspect of organizational culture. In this empirical study the relation between engagement and experienced professionalism of probation officers is investigated. Starting from ideal-typical theories on professionalism, a psychometric instrument for measuring experienced professionalism was developed and administered to a sample of Dutch probation officers. Two reliable scales could be constructed that account for 64% of the variance in work engageme...
Wittmann, Marc; Otten, Simone; SchĂ¶tz, Eva; Sarikaya, Anna; Lehnen, Hanna; Jo, Han-Gue; Kohls, Niko; Schmidt, Stefan; Meissner, Karin
Experienced meditators typically report that they experience time slowing down in meditation practice as well as in everyday life. Conceptually this phenomenon may be understood through functional states of mindfulness, i.e., by attention regulation, body awareness, emotion regulation, and enhanced memory. However, hardly any systematic empirical work exists regarding the experience of time in meditators. In the current cross-sectional study, we investigated whether 42 experienced mindfulness...
Objective: To share experience of live donor nephrectomy (including intraoperative variables, morbidity and ethical aspects) and to give an overview of surgical technique being practiced. Results: Majority of the donors (58.5%) were 31-50 years old and 70.6% were first-degree relatives. Left sided kidney was taken in 96.5% cases. Mean operative time was 145 minutes. Mean renal warm ischemia time from cross clamping of renal vessels to cold perfusion on the bench was 1.5 minutes per operation. Operative complications encountered were injury to lumbar veins in 5.1 % cases, slipping of satinsky clamp on vena cava stump in 1.7 % and accidental pleural damage in 5.1 % cases. Postoperative morbid complications found were urinary retention in 6.4 % cases, epididymo-orchitis in 1.7 %, prolonged lymph drain in 3.4 %, stitch infection in 1.7 % and prolonged wound discomfort in 5.1 % patients. Conclusions: Open live donor nepherectomy appears to be safe procedure for harvesting kidney. Related or emotionally related donors must be the choice in all cases. Non-related donors may be entertained in selected cases despite the probability of organ vending in our society. (author)
Nance, S; Scharberg, E A; Thornton, N; Yahalom, V; Sareneva, I; Lomas-Francis, C
International rare blood donor panels or registries are important in the consistent availability of rare blood for patients who need this scarce resource. In countries where it has been possible to commit resources to this effort and often where the need is great, donors have been entered into a registry. The ISBT leadership recognized the importance of this very challenging inventory management activity and created a Working Party to support it. Individual countries support the WHO International Rare Donor Panel by submitting their donors' phenotype or genotype information to be catalogued into the database. It is extremely important that this database be cultivated and grown. The contributing countries keep their list updated and supply the blood product as they can when requested. It is known that some blood types are extremely scarce worldwide and requests for these are particularly difficult to fulfil. Thus, it is important to have a protocol to identify and recruit donors with rare blood types. It is equally or perhaps more important to ensure that the patients who need the rare blood are being managed appropriately in the presence and absence of rare blood products being available. PMID:26689301
Francou, J. M.; Saminadayar, K.; Pautrat, J. L.
Photoluminescence and high-resolution selective excitation of luminescence have been used to study shallow donors in non-intentionally-doped Te-rich or nearly stoichiometric CdTe crystals and their evolution after controlled thermal annealings (specifically under Cd overpressure). It has been shown that there are at least six native donors. For each of these donors, the (1s-->2s) and (1s-->3s) transition energies, the ionization energy, and the exciton localization energy have been determined. The ionization energies range from 13.71 to 14.79 meV and the localization energies obey Haynes's rule. Doping experiments clearly identify the chemical nature of three donors (Ga, In, and Cl), and two other native donors are tentatively ascribed to Al and F. This study clearly indicates that the conversion to n-type behavior induced by the annealing under Cd overpressure does not involve stoichiometric defects like interstitial Cd but is essentially related to a modification of the solubility of the residual contaminants of the ingots.
Rodino, Iolanda S; Byrne, Susan; Sanders, Katherine A
Obesity negatively affects reproductive functioning and psychological wellbeing. Distress experienced by infertile women with elevated body mass index (BMI) was investigated. Infertile women (n = 403) were stratified according to World Health Organization (2000) BMI categories (normal, overweight and obese) and infertility category (polycystic ovary syndrome [PCOS] or non-PCOS). Participants anonymously completed a Demographics Questionnaire, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, Fertility Problem Inventory, Clinical Perfectionism Questionnaire and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Women in the obese BMI group were no more psychologically vulnerable to general mood (depression, anxiety and stress) or fertility-specific distress than normal or overweight BMI women. Independent of their PCOS status, obese women reported more frequent episodes of binge eating, shape concerns and low self-esteem symptoms associated with disordered eating. Women with PCOS had elevated shape concerns and anxiety independent of their BMI category compared with women who did not have PCOS. Obese infertile women presenting with the characteristics of binge eating, low self-esteem and body shape concerns may represent a vulnerable subgroup that could benefit from accessing targeted psychological interventions as do women with PCOS who have body shape concerns. PMID:26611501
Mertens zur Borg, Ingrid
A successful renal transplant for patients with kidney failure reduces mortality rate when compared to patients who continue dialysis. Organ donation from living donors has significant better results over organ donation from deceased donors. Traditionally the surgical approach for living donor nephrectomy was performed through a subcostal lateral incision. Now, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has become the method of choice to procure kidneys from living donors, because of the reduced procedur...
Wiener, Lori S.; Steffen-Smith, Emilie; Battles, Haven B.; Wayne, Alan; Love, Cynthia P.; Fry, Terry
Allogeneic bone marrow (BM) and cytokine mobilized peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation can be curative for patients with malignant and nonmalignant hematologic diseases. Siblings are most often selected as a donor match; however, research on sibling donors is limited and has focused primarily on conventional BM donors. This exploratory study describes the experiences of PBSC sibling donors at a single institution. Through retrospective interviews, 14 sibling donors shared their ...
Balakrishnan Nirmal; Savitha Somiah; Sarvajnamurthy A Sacchidanand
Background: The advent of follicular unit transplantation (FUT) has given a natural appearance in the recipient area in the past two decades, but has left behind an unsightly scar in the donor area. A study of donor area and techniques to make it cosmetically acceptable is lacking. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the donor area after follicular unit hair transplantation and to show a few techniques to make the donor scar aesthetically pleasing. Materials and Methods: The donor area...
Ullum, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Kamper-JĂžrgensen, Mads; Reilly, Marie; Melbye, Mads; NyrĂ©n, Olof; Norda, Rut; Edgren, Gustaf; Hjalgrim, Henrik
BACKGROUND: Studies have repeatedly demonstrated that blood donors experience lower mortality than the general population. While this may suggest a beneficial effect of blood donation, it may also reflect the selection of healthy persons into the donor population. To overcome this bias, we...... investigated the relation between blood donation frequency and mortality within a large cohort of blood donors. In addition, our analyses also took into consideration the effects of presumed health differences linked to donation behavior. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the Scandinavian Donation and...... Transfusion database (SCANDAT), we assessed the association between annual number of donations in 5-year windows and donor mortality by means of Poisson regression analysis. The analyses included adjustment for demographic characteristics and for an internal healthy donor effect, estimated among elderly...
Purpose: to evaluate contrast-enhanced 3D magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in comparison with the intraoperative findings in living kidney donors. Materials and methods: a total of 156 kidneys in 78 potential kidney donors were prospectively examined using CE-MRA (0.2 mmol Gd/kg, voxel size 1.3 x 0.8 x 2.0) and DSA. Two experienced radiologists assessed the images in consensus regarding the renal vascular anatomy and variants. The results for the 67 candidates accepted for donation were compared to the intraoperative findings. In the other kidneys not accepted for donor nephrectomy, MRA and DSA were compared with each other. Results: nineteen arterial variants were identified intraoperatively, of which 11 (58%) were also detected by preoperative CE-MRA and 10 (53%) by preoperative DSA. Of the 10 venous variants found intraoperatively, CE-MRA detected 8 (80%) and DSA 3 (30%). The agreement (kappa test) between MRI and DSA for all 156 evaluated kidneys was 0.7 for arterial variants (McNemar p = 0.12) and 0.3 for venous variants (McNemar p = 0.01). The preoperative choice of kidney (right or left) made on the basis of the renal vascular anatomy seen on CE-MRA and DSA differed in 22% of the 78 potential donors (McNemar P = 0.3). (orig.)
Stewart Taryn P; Mao Xia; Aqqad Maha N; Uffort Deon; Dillon Kristy D; Saxton Arnold M; Kim Jung
Abstract Background We previously established a congenic mouse strain with TALLYHO/Jng (TH) donor segment on chromosome 6 in a C57BL/6 (B6) background that harbors an obesity quantitative trait locus, tabw2. The B6.TH-tabw2 congenic mice developed increased adiposity that became exacerbated upon feeding a high fat-high sucrose (HFS) diet. To fine map the tabw2, in this study we generated and characterized subcongenic lines with smaller TH donor segments. Results We fixed four subcongenic line...
Fascione, Martin A; Webb, Nicola J; Kilner, Colin A; Warriner, Stuart L; Turnbull, W Bruce
Novel oxathiane spiroketal donors have been synthesised and activated via an umpolung S-arylation strategy using 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene and 1,3-dimethoxybenzene. The comparative reactivity of the resulting 2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl (TMP)- and 2,4-dimethoxyphenyl (DMP)-oxathiane spiroketal sulfonium ions is discussed, and their ?-stereoselectivity in glycosylation reactions is compared to the analogous TMP- and DMP-sulfonium ions derived from an oxathiane glycosyl donor bearing a methyl ketal group. The results show that the stereoselectivity of the oxathiane glycosyl donors is dependent on the structure of the ketal group and reactivity can be tuned by varying the substituent on the sulfonium ion. PMID:22200482
Birdsell, D C; Hein, K S; Lindsay, R L
Many of the choices for managing split-thickness skin graft donor sites are satisfactory, but none is ideal. Epidermal regeneration in a donor site is readily available for clinical study. We have reviewed experimental studies of epidermal regeneration and applied those results to the clinical study of a new donor site dressing. This dressing is a vapor-permeable, transparent, polyurethane film with a polyvinyl ether adhesive. Used on 100 patients, it was found to be safe and effective in allowing rapid and painless healing. Although the dressing is occlusive and theoretically could promote infection in a contaminated wound, no infections were encountered. Comparison was made with 15 patients managed by other methods. No marked difference in healing time was noted clinically. The striking advantage of the new dressing was painless healing. PMID:396845
KotzĂ©, Sebastian R; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S; SĂžrensen, Erik; ThĂžrner, Lise W; SĂžrensen, Cecilie J; Rigas, Andreas S; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Ullum, Henrik; Erikstrup, Christian
BACKGROUND: It is well known that blood donors are at increased risk of iron deficiency and subsequent development of iron deficiency anemia. We aimed to investigate the effect of factors influencing hemoglobin (Hb) levels. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Initiated in 2010, the Danish Blood Donor Study...... is a population-based study and biobank. We performed multivariable linear regression analysis to assess the effects of donation activity, physiologic and lifestyle factors, and diet on Hb levels among 15,197 donors. We also performed multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of these...... factors on the risk of having low Hb (defined as Hb below the 10th percentile among men and women, respectively) and of a decrease in Hb greater than 0.5 mmol/L (0.8 g/dL) between successive donations. All analyses were performed stratified for sex and smoking status. We also tested a previously used...
Rafik R. Elmehdawi
Full Text Available Obesity is a global epidemic resulting in major morbidity and premature death. About 64% of Libyan adults are either overweight or obese, obesity progressively increasing with age, and two times more common among Libyan women than men. Cases of obesity and overweight are increasing in Libya as well as all over the world, with genetic and environmental factors playing a contributory role. With its known significant morbidity and mortality, obesity should draw the attention of the healthcare community, researchers, and policy makers in Libya.
Hutchinson, Jeff; Emerick, Jill; Saxena, Harshita
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports a steady increase in obesity over the last 30 years. The greatest increase was seen in 15 to 19 year olds, whose obesity prevalence almost doubled from 10.5% to 19.4%. The solution to pediatric obesity requires a multidisciplinary approach addressing cultural norms, technologic advances, and family engagement. Future treatment strategies to combat the obesity epidemic will have to extend beyond the health care provider's office. Behavior modification remains the key component to pediatric obesity prevention and treatment. PMID:26896196
Full Text Available Pediatric obesity is a major health problem and has reached epidemiological proportions today. The present paper reviews major psychological issues in pediatric obesity from a developmental perspective. Research and literature has shown that a number of developmental, family, maternal and child factors are responsible in the genesis of pediatric obesity. Family food habits, early developmental lifestyle of the child, parenting, early family relationships and harmony all contribute towards the growth and development of a child. The present review focuses on the role of developmental psychological factors in the pathogenesis of pediatric obesity and highlights the developmental factors that must be kept in mind when evaluating a case of pediatric obesity.
Mohammed Quader; Luke Wolfe; Gundars Katlaps; Vigneshwar Kasirajan
Background. Procurement of hearts from cardiopulmonary arrest and resuscitated (CPR) donors for transplantation is suboptimal. We studied the influences of donor factors and regional wait times on CPR donor heart utilization. Methods. From UNOS database (1998 to 2012), we identified 44,744 heart donors, of which 4,964 (11%) received CPR. Based on procurement of heart for transplantation, CPR donors were divided into hearts procured (HP) and hearts not procured (HNP) groups. Logistic regressio...
Indriyanti Rafi Sukmawati
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity has reached global epidemic proportions in both adults and children and is associated with numerous comorbidities, including hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, dyslipidemia and major cardiovascular diseases (CVD. CONTENT: Adiposity may cause adipocyte and adipose tissue anatomic and functional abnormalities, termed adiposopathy (adipose-opathy or "sick fat," that result in endocrine and immune derangements. Adiposopathy may directly contribute to CVD through pericardiac and perivascular effects on the myocardium and blood vessels. Adiposopathy may also indirectly contribute to CVD through promoting or worsening major CVD risk factors such as T2DM, high blood pressure, and dyslipidemia. Despite this adverse association, numerous studies have documented an obesity paradox in which overweight and obese people with established CVD, including hypertension, heart failure, coronary heart disease, and peripheral arterial disease, have a better prognosis compared with nonoverweight/nonobese patients. These paradoxical findings are made less paradoxical when the pathogenic potential of excessive body fat is assessed based on adipose tissue dysfunction rather than simply on increased fat mass alone. SUMMARY: Adiposopathy is defined as pathological adipose tissue function that may be promoted and exacerbated by fat accumulation (adiposity and sedentary lifestyle in genetically susceptible patients. Adiposopathy is a root cause of some of the most common metabolic diseases observed in clinical practice, including T2DM, hypertension and dyslipidemia. KEYWORDS: adiposopathy, adiposity, obesity paradox, adipocyte dysfunction, adipose hypertrophy, adipose hyperplasia.
Liu, Yaqin; Ferreira, Susana; Colson, Gregory; Wetzstein, Michael
A theoretical model is developed addressing habit formation and time-inconsistent preferences in consumption of unhealthy foods. In particular, the effects of counseling in altering the consumption satiation point and lowering individual discount rates are investigated. The model highlights the importance of health counseling and offers support to initiatives such as low-cost obesity screening and counseling.
... risk. Other possible mechanisms include altered immune responses, effects on the nuclear factor kappa beta system, and oxidative stress . What ... factors relate to less common cancers, such as thyroid and gallbladder cancer. ... for differential effects of obesity in diverse populations, NCI supports research ...
Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying andâŠ
Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg
Full Text Available The fast global increased prevalence of obesity has been classifiedas an epidemics by the World Health Organization. The etiology ofobesity is very complex and involves genetic and environmentalfactors. One of the main factors that trigger obesity is sedentarylife, as well as the great availability of fat-rich foods that present ahigh energy density. According to the NHANES II, although thepopulation has decreased the ingestion of fat, the total consumptionof food has increased. The main factors that influence in choice offood are flavor, followed by cost, convenience and, finally, itsnutritional value. The dietary treatment of obesity should haverealistic goals concerning weight loss rate and amount. It issuggested to prescribe a balanced low-calorie diet, emphasizingmostly the quality of foods by using the food pyramid. Therefore,patients may learn the appropriate criteria to select food and makehealthy choices. The dietary treatment of obesity also includesthe use of behavioral techniques directed at dietary education,thus resulting in choice of healthy foods with adequate energyvalue.
Lewis, Anne C.
Headlines recently were full of studies about the obesity problem of America's children and young people, as if kids became overweight without anyone noticing. An accumulation of both school and family habits, however, have been contributing to the fact that at least 13% of children ages 7 to 11 are overweight, double those of the 1970s (andâŠ
Natalya Victorova Strueva
Full Text Available Objectives:Â The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of duration and individual characteristics of sleep and chronotype on body weight, eating behavior, anxiety, depression, life quality, metabolic and hormonal parameters of obese patients.Â Materials and methods: 200 patients with primary obesity were studied: 83 men and 117 women at age from 18 to 61 years old, median age 41,5Â years [31,0; 50,0]; body weight 107 kg [94; 128,5], waist circumference 112 cm [102; 124]; neck circumference 41 cm [38; 46], body mass index (BMI 36,9 [32,8; 42,3].Â Results:Â We found an association between sleep duration, chronotype and the emotional eating. Significant sleep reduction (to less than 6 hours was associated with high level of anxiety, depression, emotional eating and insomnia. Younger age, early onset and shorter duration of obesity and brisk weight gain during last is connected to the evening chronotype. The emotional eating associated with hypersomnolence in the absence of statistically significant increase of anxiety and depression in individuals with evening chronotype. Sleep duration and chronotype have no significant effect on the body weight, metabolic, hormonal parameters and the dynamics of body. weight after 7Â±1 months of treatment of obesity.
Gomis BarbarĂĄ, R
The pharmacological treatment of obesity should be considered when cannot be achieved a 10% weight loss with diet therapy and physical activity. The drugs effective in obesity treatment may act by different mechanisms such as reduction in food intake, inhibition of fat absorption, increase of thermogenesis and stimulation of adipocyte apoptosis. At present, we only have two marketed drugs for obesity treatment. Sibutramine is an inhibitor of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonina reuptake which inhibits food intake and increases thermogenesis. Sibutramine administration for a year can induce a weight loss of 4-7%. Its main side effects are hypertension, headache, insomnia and constipation. Orlistat is an inhibitor of pancreatic lipase which is able to block the absorption of 30% of ingested fat. Its administration induces weight loss and reduction of ulterior weight regain. Also, this drug improves hypertension dyslipdaemia and helps to prevent diabetes in 52% of cases when administered over four years. The increase in frequency of stools and interference with vitamin absorption are its main side effects. Glucagon-like peptide 1, which increases insulin sensitivity and satiety, adiponectin and PPAR-gamma agonists which reduce insulin resistance and modulates adipocyte generation are the basis for future therapeutic approaches of obesity. Phosphatase inhibitors induce PPAR-gamma phosphorylation and UCP-1 expression leading to an increase in thermogenesis and reduction in appetite. PMID:15382615
Videogames can be used to help children change their obesity-related diet and physical activity behaviors. A review of the relevant literature in this special issue of the Games for Health Journal indicated that video games did influence children's adiposity, but only among children who were alread...
Marcio C. Mancini
Full Text Available Pharmacological treatment of obesity is an area of sudden changes,development of new drugs and treatment propositions. This articlepresents information on physiological agents that are currentlybeing used as well as drugs that were widely used but are nomore available.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The significance of pretransplant, donor-specific antibodies on long-term patient outcomes is a subject of debate. This study evaluated the impact and the presence or absence of donor-specific antibodies after kidney transplantation on short- and long-term graft outcomes. METHODS: We analyzed the frequency and dynamics of pretransplant donor-specific antibodies following renal transplantation from a randomized trial that was conducted from 2002 to 2004 and correlated these findings with patient outcomes through 2009. Transplants were performed against a complement-dependent T- and B-negative crossmatch. Pre- and posttransplant sera were available from 94 of the 118 patients (80%. Antibodies were detected using a solid-phase (LuminexH, single-bead assay, and all tests were performed simultaneously. RESULTS: Sixteen patients exhibited pretransplant donor-specific antibodies, but only 3 of these patients (19% developed antibody-mediated rejection and 2 of them experienced early graft losses. Excluding these 2 losses, 6 of 14 patients exhibited donor-specific antibodies at the final follow-up exam, whereas 8 of these patients (57% exhibited complete clearance of the donor-specific antibodies. Five other patients developed ''de novo'' posttransplant donor-specific antibodies. Death-censored graft survival was similar in patients with pretransplant donor-specific and non-donor-specific antibodies after a mean follow-up period of 70 months. CONCLUSION: Pretransplant donor-specific antibodies with a negative complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch are associated with a risk for the development of antibody-mediated rejection, although survival rates are similar when patients transpose the first months after receiving the graft. Our data also suggest that early posttransplant donor-specific antibody monitoring should increase knowledge of antibody dynamics and their impact on long-term graft outcome.
Flesland, O; Botten, G; Solheim, B G; Orjasaeter, H
In analyses of cost-effectiveness it is customary to count knowledge of having a high serum cholesterol level as a negative factor. There is little support for this practice in the literature. We have studied the attitude of 305 Norwegian blood donors towards cholesterol testing. 63% stated that they were interested in their serum cholesterol level, and 40% said they knew their own serum cholesterol level. The attitude towards cholesterol testing was clearly positive, both among men and among women, regardless of age. Only one donor stated that she did not want to have her serum cholesterol tested in conjunction with blood donation. PMID:1509430
Kisu, Iori; Mihara, Makoto; Banno, Kouji; Umene, Kiyoko; Araki, Jun; Hara, Hisako; Suganuma, Nobuhiko; Aoki, Daisuke
Uterus transplantation (UTx) is an alternative to gestational surrogacy and adoption for patients with absolute uterine infertility. Studies have been conducted in animals, and UTx is now within the reach of clinical application in humans. Procedures in humans have been published, but many medical, ethical, and social problems and risks of UTx require discussion prior to widespread clinical application, from the perspectives of donors, recipients, families, and newborns. In this article, we summarize the burdens and risks of UTx, with a focus on donors who provide the uterus. PMID:23793471
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attempts to understand the causes of obesity and develop new therapeutic strategies have mostly focused on caloric intake and energy expenditure. Recent studies have shown that the circadian clock controls energy homeostasis by regulating circadian expression and/or activity of enzymes, hormones, and transport systems involved in metabolism. Moreover, disruption of circadian rhythms leads to obesity and metabolic disorders. CONTENT:Regularly alternating periods of light and darkness, such as normally occur with the rising and the setting of the sun, are essential for the maintenance of undisturbed circadian rhythms in all organisms including humans. The light-dark environment, as detected by specialized photoreceptors in the retinas, impacts the endogenous circadian clock in the anterior hypothalamus, the suprachiasmatic nuclei. These nuclei, via both neural and humoral signals, communicate with cells throughout the organism to establish regular circadian rhythms. The introduction of artificial sources of light roughly 150 years ago has significantly undermined the naturally occurring light-dark environment and, likewise, has disturbed circadian rhythms since light is now available at unusual times, i.e., at night. Light at night is known to cause circadian disruption and melatonin suppression. Many potentially pathophysiological consequences of these artificial light-mediated changes, include cancer, cardiovascular diseases, insomnia, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cognitive disorders may be aggravated by the increased exposure to light at night, which is inevitable in well-developed societies that have undergone extensive electrification. SUMMARY: Therefore, it is plausible that resetting of the circadian clock can be used as a new approach to attenuate obesity. Feeding regimens, such as restricted feeding, calorie restriction and intermittent fasting, provide a time cue and reset the circadian clock and lead to better health. In contrast, high-fat diet leads to disrupted circadian expression of metabolic factors and obesity. KEYWORDS: obesity, circadian clock, metabolism, chronodisruption.
Primary childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in industrialized countries particularly in North America. Twenty five percent of children and adolescents in the United States are overweight and 14% are obese. However, the prevalence of obesity is alarmingly rising in other less developed parts of the world, like Asia, the Middle East and some parts of Africa. Overweight and obesity in childhood extend to adulthood and the majority of obese children grew as obese adults. Obesity has sig...
Beitz, Janice M
Morbid obesity is a chronic disease affecting millions of Americans. The disorder is likely to increase in prevalence because currently one third of the American population is obese. Many factors are associated with morbid obesity, including psychological (eg, depression), physiological (eg, hypothyroidism) mechanisms, sleep disorders (eg, sleep apnea), drug therapy (antidepressants, antidiabetic agents, steroids), and genetics. Increasing numbers of morbidly obese patients are requiring critical care, presenting major challenges to professional staff across the disciplines. This manuscript presents a case study describing the experiences of a morbidly obese woman in the final years of her life from the perspective of her health professional relative. The patient typifies many of the major risk factors for morbid obesity; her story reveals many of the issues faced as she revolved in and out of the critical care and acute care system. Her substantive health problems affected multiple body systems and included hypothyroidism, congestive heart failure, hyperlipidemia, and subclinical Cushing's Syndrome, likely related to previous medical therapy (cortisone) for rheumatic fever in childhood. The case description addresses many integumentary system issues the patient experienced; skin injuries and infections that can pose serious life-threatening situations for the morbidly obese patient must be prevented or treated efficiently. Health professionals can learn a great deal and improve the care they provide by listening to morbidly obese patients. PMID:25581606
Azevedo, R T; Macaluso, E; Viola, V; Sani, G; Aglioti, S M
Explicit negative attitudes and blameful beliefs (e.g. poor diet, laziness) towards obese individuals are well documented and are pervasive even among health professionals. Here we sought to determine whether obesity stigma is reflected in a fundamental feature of intersubjectivity namely the automatic neural resonance with others' affective experiences. During fMRI, normal-weight female participants observed short clips depicting normal-weight (NW) and obese (Ob) models experiencing pain. Importantly, participants believed that half of the Ob were overweight due to a hormonal disorder (HormOb) and ignored the cause of obesity of the remaining models (Unknown obese models; UnkOb). Analyses of hemodynamic responses showed reduced activity to the pain of Ob compared to that of NW in areas associated with pain processing and early visual processing. The comparison between the two Ob conditions revealed a further decrease of activity to HormOb's pain compared to UnkOb's (and NW) pain in the right inferior frontal gyrus, an area associated with emotional resonance. Our study demonstrates that stigma for obese individuals can be observed at implicit levels, and that it is modulated by knowledge concerning the etiology of obesity, with the seemingly surprising result that obesity due to disease may result in greater stigmatization. Moreover, the perceived similarity with the models and the ambivalent emotion of pity may index biased brain responses to obese individuals' pain. The study highlights a possibly important neural link between resonance with the pain of others and obesity stigma. PMID:24287441
Lindhardt, Christina Louise; Rubak, Sune; Mogensen, Ole; Hansen, Helle Ploug; Goldstein, Henri; Lamont, Ronald F; Joergensen, Jan Stener
OBJECTIVE: to explore and describe how healthcare professionals in the Southern Region of Denmark experienced motivational interviewing as a communication method when working with pregnant women with obesity. DESIGN: a qualitative, descriptive study based on face-to-face interviews with 11 obstet...
Chen, Kuo-Hsin; Huang, Chun-Chieh; Siow, Tiing-Foong; Chio, U-Chon; Chen, Shian-Dian; Chen, Ying-Da; Lin, Tzu-Chao; Huang, Shu-Yi; Wu, Jiann-Ming; Jeng, Kuo-Shyang
Donor operation in adult living donor liver transplantation is associated with significant postoperative morbidity. To avoid laparotomy wound complications and shorten postoperative recovery, laparoscopic liver graft harvest has been developed recently. However, to determine the cut point of bile duct is challenging. Herein, we report the application of totally laparoscopic approach for right liver graft harvest in a donor with trifurcation of the bile duct. A19-year-old man volunteered for living donation to his father who suffered from hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis of liver and hepatocellular carcinoma. The graft was 880 mL with a single right hepatic artery and portal vein. The graft to recipient weight ratio was 1.06. The middle hepatic vein was preserved for the donor and the liver remnant was 42.3%. Two branches of middle hepatic veins were > 5 mm in diameter and needed reconstruction with cryopreserved allograft. Ductoplasty using laparoscopic intracorporeal suture technique was done to achieve single orifice of the graft bile duct. The postoperative course was uneventful for the donor. This report adds evidence of the feasibility of pure laparoscopic right donor hepatectomy and describes the necessary steps for bile duct division in donors with trifurcation of bile duct. PMID:26211878
Hainer, V; Kunesová, M; Parízková, J; Stunkard, A
An increasing prevalence of obesity all over the world reflects a lack of effective measures in both prevention and treatment of obesity. Obesity as a disease has been underestimated by the lay-public as well as health care providers. However, obesity represents a substantial health problem associated with a decreased quality of life. Obesity is linked to numerous chronic diseases (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, gout, osteoarthritis, gall-stones, and bowel, breast and genitourinary cancers) that lead to premature disability and mortality. Health risks increase with a body mass index (BMI) over 25 in individuals 19-35 years of age and with a BMI over 27 in those 35 years of age and older. Health risks also increase with an excess accumulation of visceral fat manifested as an increase in waist circumference (> 100 cm) or in waist to hip ratio (> 0.85 for females and > 1.00 for males). According to studies carried out in different countries current economic costs of obesity represent 5-8% of all direct health costs. In contrast, effective treatment of obesity results in a substantial decrease in expenditures associated with pharmacotherapy of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and osteoarthritis. Both scientists and clinicians involved in obesity research and treatment recommend to introduce the long-term weight management programs focussing more on the overall health of the participants than the weight loss per se. Therefore, it will be necessary to establish new realistic goals in the obesity management that reflect reasonable weights and recently experienced beneficial health effects of modest (5-10%) weight loss. Comprehensive obesity treatment consisting of low fat diet, exercise, behavioral modification, drug therapy and surgical procedures requires differentiated weight management programs modified according to the degree and type of obesity as well as to current health complications present. The Czech Society for the Study of Obesity defined a comprehensive weight reduction program carried out in weight reduction clubs, out-patient obesity clinics and in specialized departments attached to the university hospitals. In order to provide an integrated knowledge from many different disciplines connected with obesity three week postgraduate course has been organized for physicians involved in obesity management. Even the most spread weight reduction clubs in our country (STOB) are supervised by the trained counselors. The main goal of different weight management programs is to find out optimal approaches leading to long-term beneficial outcome and ameliorating the variety of disorders associated with obesity. PMID:9333508
MĂŒller, Hermann L.
Purpose of review Hypothalamic alterations, pathological or treatment induced, have major impact on prognosis in craniopharyngioma patients mainly because of consequent hypothalamic obesity. Recent insight in molecular genetics, treatment strategies, risk factors and outcomes associated with hypothalamic obesity provide novel therapeutic perspectives. This review includes relevant publications since 2013. Recent findings Recent findings confirm that alterations in posterior hypothalamic areas because of tumour location and/or treatment-related injuries are associated with severe hypothalamic obesity, reduced overall survival and impaired quality of life in long-term survivors of childhood-onset craniopharyngioma. However, eating disorders are observed because of hypothalamic obesity without clear disease-specific patterns. Treatment options for hypothalamic obesity are very limited. Treatment with invasive, nonreversible bariatric methods such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is most efficient in weight reduction, but controversial in the paediatric population because of medical, ethical, and legal considerations. Accordingly, treatment in craniopharyngioma should focus on prevention of (further) hypothalamic injury. Presurgical imaging for grading of hypothalamic involvement should be the basis for hypothalamus-sparing strategies conducted by experienced multidisciplinary teams. Summary Until a nonsurgical therapeutic option for hypothalamic obesity for paediatric patients is found, prevention of hypothalamic injury should be the preferred treatment strategy, conducted exclusively by experienced multidisciplinary teams. PMID:26574645
Broman, SĂžren LindbĂŠk; Jevric, Martyn; Bond, Andrew; Nielsen, Mogens BrĂžndsted
The dihydroazulene (DHA)/vinylheptafulvene (VHF) photo/thermoswitch has been of interest for use in molecular electronics and advanced materials. The switching between the two isomers has previously been found to depend strongly on the presence of donor and acceptor groups. The fine-tuning of opt...
Brandt, Rasmus Guldbæk; Yue, Wei; Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Hinge, Mogens; Bundgaard, Eva; Krebs, Frederik C; Yu, Donghong
In this work, the design, synthesis, and characterization of a donor-acceptor polymer from dithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]pyrrole and isoindigo (i-ID) are presented. The synthesized polymer has been applied in large area ITO-free organic photovoltaics, both as spin coated and roll coated devices; the lat...
The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Electron Donor Acceptor Interactions was held at Salve Regina University, Newport, Rhode Island, 8/11-16/02. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.
Chun, Hong-Min; Munyi, Elijah Nyaga; Lee, Heejin
South Korea's official development assistance (ODA) has been increasing rapidly and will continue to do so. Korea is one of the few countries which have successfully transitioned from a recipient to a donor. It became a member of DAC (development assistance committee), OECD in November 2009. Korea...
Full Text Available ... Dartmouth-Hitchcock 7,963 views 4:25 Two days following Peripheral Stem Cell Donation - Duration: 7:37. ... 4:32 World Health Organization World blood Donor Day Share Button - Duration: 1:14. Advantage Y&R ...
Ounnoughene, N; Sandid, I; Carlier, M; Joussemet, M; Ferry, N
This work aim to present the descriptive analysis of serious adverse reactions in donors (dSAR's), which were notified in 2010 and 2011 in the French national haemovigilance database "e-FIT" (Internet secured haemovigilance reporting system). Some data, which are necessary for this analysis, also come from the regional haemovigilance coordinators' reports (RHC). The other parts of haemovigilance in the context of donation, without donors adverse reactions, such as post-donation information (PDI), adverse events occurred in the blood collection steps of the transfusion chain and epidemiology are not subject to this work analysis. This work shows that the quality of the data gradually improved since the setting up of the notification system of dSAR's. These data are particularly rich in learning lessons, but are still improving. It allows us to confirm that donor's safety, blood components quality, while preserving the blood components self-sufficiency in France, remains a priority. For these reasons, it is important to continue this haemovigilance awareness and to implement necessary actions that would be required for the protection of the donor's health and comfort during donation. PMID:23587615
Full Text Available ... be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show ... 41. Annabelle Monks 3,487 views 4:41 Science Friction: Stem Cell Research - Duration: 54:44. Irishstemcell ...
Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100ânmâĂâ150ânm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants
Full Text Available Until recently, it has not been put much emphasis on obesity in children and the view of âobese child is healthyâ is widely accepted by families. However, understanding that a close relation exists between obesity prevalence and childhood obesity, which increased in recent years both across the world and in our country, and many diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases changed the opinion of both of health care professionals and the society about childhood obesity in Turkey, like it changed the opinion in all around the world. Although there are no studies in our country, which have been conducted to investigate obesity prevalence and affecting factors in children nationwide, it is reported in studies carried out in various cities that rate of overweight children in preschool children is between 4-13%, whereas rate of obese children is between 9-27%. In the literature, a positive correlation was found between the frequency of taking the children to fast-food restaurants, compelling children to eat foods on their dishes, one or two of the parents being obese and obesity of children in Turkey. In this review will focus on the risk factors of childhood obesity in Turkey. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2013; 11: 27-30
Butterick, Tammy A.; Billington, Charles J.; Kotz, Catherine M.; Nixon, Joshua P.
Obesity has increased in prevalence worldwide, attributed in part to the influences of an obesity-promoting environment and genetic factors. While obesity and overweight increasingly seem to be the norm, there remain individuals who resist obesity. We present here an overview of data supporting the idea that hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin A (OXA; hypocretin 1) may be a key component of brain mechanisms underlying obesity resistance. Prior work with models of obesity and obesity resistance in rodents has shown that increased orexin and/or orexin sensitivity is correlated with elevated spontaneous physical activity (SPA), and that orexin-induced SPA contributes to obesity resistance via increased non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT). However, central hypothalamic orexin signaling mechanisms that regulate SPA remain undefined. Our ongoing studies and work of others support the hypothesis that one such mechanism may be upregulation of a hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1?)-dependent pathway, suggesting that orexin may promote obesity resistance both by increasing SPA and by influencing the metabolic state of orexin-responsive hypothalamic neurons. We discuss potential mechanisms based on both animal and in vitro pharmacological studies, in the context of elucidating potential molecular targets for obesity prevention and therapy. PMID:24005942
Full Text Available Prevalence of pediatric obesity continues to rise worldwide. Increasing the number of health care practitioners as well as pediatricians with expertise in obesity treatment is necessary. Because many obese patients suffer obesity-associated cardiovascular, metabolic and other health complications that could increase the severity of obesity, it is fundamental not only to identify the child prone to obesity as early as possible, but to recognize, treat and monitor obesity-related diseases during adolescence. This short review outlines the treatment of pediatric obesity that may have applications in the primary care setting. It examines current information on eating behavior, sedentary behavior, and details studies of multidisciplinary, behavior-based, obesity treatment programs. We also report the less common and more aggressive forms of treatment, such as medication and bariatric surgery. We emphasize that health care providers have the potential to improve outcomes by performing early identification, helping families create the best possible home environment, and by providing structured guidance to obese children and their families.
Because many obese children become obese adults, the recent rapid increase in juvenile obesity poses a major public health challenge. Enhanced physical activity is a cornerstone in a multidisciplinary approach to preventing and treating juvenile obesity. Giving exercise recommendations focused for obese youth is critical. Cutting down on sedentaryâŠ
Stalder, Romain; Xie, Dongping; Islam, Ashraful; Han, Liyuan; Reynolds, John R; Schanze, Kirk S
We report on a sexithienyl and two donor-acceptor-donor oligothiophenes, employing benzothiadiazole and isoindigo as electron-acceptors, each functionalized with a phosphonic acid group for anchoring onto TiO2 substrates as light-harvesting molecules for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). These dyes absorb light to wavelengths as long as 700 nm, as their optical HOMO/LUMO energy gaps are reduced from 2.40 to 1.77 eV with increasing acceptor strength. The oligomers were adsorbed onto mesoporous TiO2 films on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO)/glass substrates and incorporated into DSSCs, which show AM1.5 power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) ranging between 2.6% and 6.4%. This work demonstrates that the donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) molecular structures coupled to phosphonic acid anchoring groups, which have not been used in DSSCs, can lead to high PCEs. PMID:24807377
Full Text Available Background: The number of cadaver donors is far beyond demand. The use of marginaldonors may increase the number of organs available for transplantation.Methods: We expanded our criteria for cadaver donors to include those with activeinfections. From January 2004 through August 2005, there were 25 cadaverictransplantations in our center. Infected donors accounted for 13 transplantsand the remaining 12 that were not infected were used as the control subjects.Blood and infected locus cultures were performed before transplantationand the recipients were treated accordingly.Results: There were no statistically significant differences between post-transplantationcreatinine levels of the kidneys from infected and non-infected donors at1 month (1.50
Babey, Susan H; Wolstein, Joelle; Diamant, Allison L.; Bloom, Amanda; Goldstein, Harold
In California, more than one-third (38%) of fifth-, seventh-, and ninth-grade public schoolÂ students were overweight or obese in 2010. This number represents a 1.1 percent decrease inÂ the statewide prevalence of overweight and obesity from 2005, suggesting that the 30-year trendÂ of increasing childhood obesity rates may be leveling off. However, overweight and obesity continue to be of major concern in the state, with more than half of California counties experiencingÂ increases in rates of ov...
Ismail, M N; Chee, S S; Nawawi, H; Yusoff, K; Lim, T O; James, W P T
This study was undertaken to assess the recent data on Malaysian adult body weights and associations of ethnic differences in overweight and obesity with comorbid risk factors, and to examine measures of energy intake, energy expenditure, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and physical activity changes in urban and rural populations of normal weight. Three studies were included (1) a summary of a national health morbidity survey conducted in 1996 on nearly 29 000 adults > or =20 years of age; (2) a study comparing energy intake, BMR and physical activity levels (PALs) in 409 ethnically diverse, healthy adults drawn from a population of 1165 rural and urban subjects 18-60 years of age; and (3) an examination of the prevalence of obesity and comorbid risk factors that predict coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes in 609 rural Malaysians aged 30-65 years. Overweight and obesity were calculated using body mass index (BMI) measures and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Energy intake was assessed using 3-d food records, BMR and PALs were assessed with Douglas bags and activity diaries, while hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and glucose intolerance were specified using standard criteria. The National Health Morbidity Survey data revealed that in adults, 20.7% were overweight and 5.8% obese (0.3% of whom had BMI values of >40.0 kg m(-2)); the prevalence of obesity was clearly greater in women than in men. In women, obesity rates were higher in Indian and Malay women than in Chinese women, while in men the Chinese recorded the highest obesity prevalences followed by the Malay and Indians. Studies on normal healthy subjects indicated that the energy intake of Indians was significantly lower than that of other ethnic groups. In women, Malays recorded a significantly higher energy intake than the other groups. Urban male subjects consumed significantly more energy than their rural counterparts, but this was not the case in women. In both men and women, fat intakes (%) were significantly higher in Chinese and urban subjects. Men were moderately active with the exception of the Dayaks. Chinese women were considerably less active than Chinese men. Chinese and Dayak women were less active than Malay and Indian women. In both men and women, Indians recorded the highest PALs. Hence, current nutrition and health surveys reveal that Malaysians are already affected by western health problems. The escalation of obesity, once thought to be an urban phenomenon, has now spread to the rural population at an alarming rate. As Malaysia proceeds rapidly towards a developed economy status, the health of its population will probably continue to deteriorate. Therefore, a national strategy needs to be developed to tackle both dietary and activity contributors to the excess weight gain of the Malaysian population. PMID:12164473
Overweight and obesity is associated with a broad variety of stigmatization and discrimination in every day live. Obese people have more difficulties in finding a job, have a lower income, and are less often seen in leadership positions. In society, responsibility for the weight situation in seen as lying by the individuals affected altogether, leading to chronic stress, problems with self esteem and perception of loss of control. As a consequence, there is an increased risk for developing serious psychological problems such as affective and anxiety disorders. As a reaction, coping strategies to deal with the psychological pressure such as dysfunctional eating behavior, binge eating and physical inactivity are used. Females, people belonging to another ethnic or social minority, adolescents and people with eating disorders are considered at increased risk of psychological distress. Psychological vulnerabilities and the consequences of stigmatization need to be considered. Moreover, perceived behavioral control and self esteem are key aspects of to be addressed on the treatment. PMID:23385186
Cook, Stephen; Kavey, Rae Ellen W.
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States despite a steady reduction in mortality over the last 4 decades. Much of this success is attributed to public health efforts to reduce cardiovascular risk factors, such as national dietary changes and reductions of smoking, as well as more aggressive treatment of clinical disease, including recognition and treatment of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. The rising rates of obesity and diabetes, especially among adol...
Full Text Available Chronobiology is a word derived from three Greek stems: kronos for time, bios for life and logos for study. From microarrays studies, now it is accepted that 10-30% of the human genome is under the control of circadian molecular clocks. This implies that most behavioral, physiological and biochemical variables display circadian rhythms in their expression. In its simplest form, circadian clocks are composed of a set of proteins that generate self-sustained circadian oscillations. The molecular clock comprises two transcription factors, CLOCK and BMAL1, whereas PERs and CRYs are responsible for the negative limb. One of the most important questions related to the circadian system and obesity, was to elucidate if adipose tissue displayed circadian rhythmicity or whether it had an internal peripheral clock. Our group of research has provided an overall view of the internal temporal order of circadian rhythms in human adipose tissue. A new concept related to illness is Chronodisruption (CD. It is defined as a relevant disturbance of the internal temporal order of physiological and behavioral circadian rhythms. In our modern society, CD may be common in several conditions such as jet lag, shift work, light at night, or social jet lag. In addition clock gene polymorphisms and aging may have also chronodisruptive effects. Our group has also demonstrated that Obesity and CD are also highly interconnected. With the help of chronobiology we can reach a new view of obesity considering not only "what" are the factors involved in obesity, but also "when" these factors are produced.
Newbold, Retha R.; Padilla-Banks, Elizabeth; Jefferson, Wendy N.
Many chemicals in the environment, in particular those with estrogenic activity, can disrupt the programming of endocrine signaling pathways that are established during development and result in adverse consequences that may not be apparent until much later in life. Most recently, obesity and diabetes join the growing list of adverse consequences that have been associated with developmental exposure to environmental estrogens during critical stages of differentiation. These diseases are quick...
Koch, Felix-Sebastian; Sepa, Anneli; Ludvigsson, Johnny
Objective: To examine whether there is a relationship between psychological stress in the family and obesity in 5- to 6-year-old children. Study design: A total of 7443 Swedish families reported on psychological stress across 4 domains as part of the prospective All Babies in Southeast Sweden-project (ABIS). Domains assessed included serious life events, parenting stress, lack of social support, and parental worries. These variables were summarized in cross-sectional and longitudinal composit...
Huaidong, D.U.; Feskens, E.J.M.
Obesity has become a serious public health problem worldwide, and dietary composition can play a role in its prevention and treatment. However, available literature on the impacts of different dietary factors on weight change is inconsistent, or even conflicting. In this review, we briefly summarized the mechanisms and influences of several major dietary determinants of weight change, with a focus on their potential in the prevention of weight gain or regain. We discussed the intake of fat, p...
Carr, Katelyn A.; Daniel, Tinuke Oluyomi; Lin, Henry; Epstein., Leonard H.
Obesity is, in part, a result of positive energy balance or energy intake exceeding physiological needs. Excess energy intake is determined by a series of food choices over time. These choices involve both motivational and executive function processes. Problems arise when there is excessive motivation to eat and low impulse control, a situation we have termed reinforcement pathology. Motivational and executive function processes have also been implicated in the development of drug dependence ...
Beck, Amy R
This article is the sixth in a series of the comorbidities of childhood obesity and reviews psychosocial aspects with a focus on weight-based victimization and discrimination stemming from weight bias and stigma. Outcomes from these bullying and discriminatory experiences are pervasive and impact youth across all settings, including school. Lastly, this article provides recommendations on how to reduce bias and stigma to better serve these students in the school environment. PMID:26739931
Locke, Jayme E; Warren, Daniel S.; Dominici, Francesca; Cameron, Andrew M.; Leffell, M. Sue; McRann, Deborah A.; Melancon, J. Keith; Segev, Dorry L.; Simpkins, Christopher E.; Singer, Andrew L; Zachary, Andrea A; Montgomery, Robert A.
Although the majority of deceased-donor kidneys are donated after brain death, increased recovery of kidneys donated after cardiac death could reduce the organ shortage and is now a national priority. Racial disparities in donations after brain death have been well described for renal transplantation, but it is unknown whether similar disparities occur in donations after cardiac death. In this study, outcomes of adult deceased-donor renal transplant recipients included in the United Network f...
Intravenous infusion of mice with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) incompatible lymphocytes can inhibit the response of recipient T cells capable of recognizing the injected cells, and can enhance survival of grafts sharing MHC with the injected cells. However, neither T cell inactivation nor graft survival enhancement is always achieved. This is particularly true for donor cells that are fully allogeneic (as compared to semiallogeneic) to the recipient. We show here that both donor-spe...
Greco, Emanuela A; Lenzi, Andrea; Migliaccio, Silvia
During the last decades, obesity and osteoporosis have become important global health problems, and the belief that obesity is protective against osteoporosis has recently come into question. In fact, some recent epidemiologic and clinical studies have shown that a high level of fat mass might be a risk factor for osteoporosis and fragility fractures. Several potential mechanisms have been proposed to explain the complex relationship between adipose tissue and bone. Indeed, adipose tissue secretes various molecules, named adipokines, which are thought to have effects on metabolic, skeletal and cardiovascular systems. Moreover, fat tissue is one of the major sources of aromatase, an enzyme that synthesizes estrogens from androgen precursors, hormones that play a pivotal role in the maintenance of skeletal homeostasis, protecting against osteoporosis. Moreover, bone cells express several specific hormone receptors and recent observations have shown that bone-derived factors, such as osteocalcin and osteopontin, affect body weight control and glucose homeostasis. Thus, the skeleton is considered an endocrine target organ and an endocrine organ itself, likely influencing other organs as well. Finally, adipocytes and osteoblasts originate from a common progenitor, a pluripotential mesenchymal stem cell, which has an equal propensity for differentiation into adipocytes or osteoblasts (or other lines) under the influence of several cell-derived transcription factors. This review will highlight recent insights into the relationship between fat and bone, evaluating both potential positive and negative influences between adipose and bone tissue. It will also focus on the hypothesis that osteoporosis might be considered the obesity of bone. PMID:26623005
Liu, Junli; Lee, Jaemin; Salazar Hernandez, Mario Andres; Mazitschek, Ralph; Ozcan, Umut
Despite all modern advances in medicine, an effective drug treatment of obesity has not been found yet. Discovery of leptin two decades ago created hopes for treatment of obesity. However, development of leptin resistance has been a big obstacle, mitigating a leptin-centric treatment of obesity. Here, by using inÂ silico drug-screening methods, we discovered that Celastrol, a pentacyclic triterpene extracted from the roots of Tripterygium Wilfordi (thunder god vine) plant, is a powerful anti-obesity agent. Celastrol suppresses food intake, blocks reduction of energy expenditure, and leads to up to 45% weight loss in hyperleptinemic diet-induced obese (DIO) mice by increasing leptin sensitivity, but it is ineffective in leptin-deficient (ob/ob) and leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mouse models. These results indicate that Celastrol is a leptin sensitizer and a promising agent for the pharmacological treatment of obesity. PMID:26000480
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Newly hired experienced miner training. 46.6 Section 46.6 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING AND RETRAINING OF MINERS ENGAGED IN SHELL DREDGING OR EMPLOYED AT SAND, GRAVEL, SURFACE STONE, SURFACE CLAY, COLLOIDAL...
Venville, Annie; Street, Annette F.
Vocational Education and Training (VET) students experiencing mental illness have been described as one of the most vulnerable student groups in the Australian post-secondary sector. This vulnerability can be attributed to the impacts of illness, the oft-reported experiences of stigma and discrimination, and low educational outcomes. There isâŠ
Wang, Yunqi; Geng, Fengji; Hu, Yuzheng; Du, Fenglei; Chen, Feiyan
Experienced mental abacus (MA) users are able to perform mental arithmetic calculations with unusual speed and accuracy. However, it remains unclear whether their extraordinary gains in mental arithmetic ability are accompanied by an improvement in numerical processing efficiency. To address this question, the present study, using a numericalâŠ
Courtois, Christine A.; Watts, Deborah L.
Discusses the definition and incidence of incest, counseling needs of incest victims, and strategies for working with women who experienced incest in childhood or adolescence. Identifies techniques and resources for individual and group counseling. Suggests counselors expand their knowledge about incest in order to offer appropriate services.âŠ
Ersozlu, Alpay; Cayci, Dilara
The aim of this study is to examine the views of experienced teachers related to the changes in their understanding of classroom management in general terms until today. In this study according to the information given by teachers, it is expected to contribute to the discussions about the development of classroom management, which is a key toâŠ
Cooke, Nancy J.; Gorman, Jamie C.; Duran, Jasmine L.; Taylor, Amanda R.
Team cognition in experienced command-and-control teams is examined in an UAV (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle) simulation. Five 3-person teams with experience working together in a command-and-control setting were compared to 10 inexperienced teams. Each team participated in five 40-min missions of a simulation in which interdependent team members
Guarino, Kathleen; Bassuk, Ellen
The prevalence of traumatic stress in the lives of families who are homeless is extraordinarily high. Often these families are headed by single mothers who have experienced ongoing trauma in the form of childhood abuse and neglect, domestic violence, and community violence, as well as the trauma associated with poverty and the loss of home,âŠ
Bell, Kathleen E.; Holden, Janice Miner; Bedwell, James
This article provides a thorough, literature-based review of the impact of near-death experiences on children and adolescents in the areas of social and academic functioning in school. Gleaned from the published literature about how various non-school health professionals can most effectively assist near-death experiencers, practical suggestionsâŠ
Guarino, Kathleen; Bassuk, Ellen
The prevalence of traumatic stress in the lives of families who are homeless is extraordinarily high. Often these families are headed by single mothers who have experienced ongoing trauma in the form of childhood abuse and neglect, domestic violence, and community violence, as well as the trauma associated with poverty and the loss of home,
Stough, Laura M.; Montague, Marcia L.; Landmark, Leena Jo; Williams-Diehm, Kendra
Experienced special education teachers (n = 62) were surveyed on their professional preparation to become effective classroom managers. Despite having received extensive preservice training, over 83% of the sample reported being underprepared in classroom management and behavioral interventions. No statistically significant difference was foundâŠ
... of highwalls, water hazards, pits, and spoil banks; illumination and night work. The course shall... the physical and health hazards of chemicals in the miner's work area, the protective measures a miner... Areas of Underground Mines Â§ 48.26 Experienced miner training. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...
Angeline, Vincent R.
Drawing from inquiry on human motivation can serve to inform seasoned educators in questing for a more individualized form of professional development. Experienced music teachers who have moved beyond the formative stages benefit from crafting self-defined experiences that satisfy needs-based states. Research in self-determination theory reveals
Witcher, Ann E.
When working with parents of handicapped children, principals should be aware of the various grieving stages that such parents may be experiencing. This article details these stages (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) and advises principals to develop a supportive, nonjudgmental attitude while helping parents plan their
Ellekilde, Merete; Selfjord, Ellika; Larsen, Christian S; Jakesevic, Maja; Rune, Ida; Tranberg, Britt; Vogensen, Finn K; Nielsen, Dennis S; Bahl, Martin I; Licht, Tine R; Hansen, Axel K; Hansen, Camilla H F
Transferring gut microbiota from one individual to another may enable researchers to "humanize" the gut of animal models and transfer phenotypes between species. To date, most studies of gut microbiota transfer are performed in germ-free mice. In the studies presented, it was tested whether an antibiotic treatment approach could be used instead. C57BL/6 mice were treated with ampicillin prior to inoculation at weaning or eight weeks of age with gut microbiota from lean or obese donors. The gut microbiota and clinical parameters of the recipients was characterized one and six weeks after inoculation. The results demonstrate, that the donor gut microbiota was introduced, established, and changed the gut microbiota of the recipients. Six weeks after inoculation, the differences persisted, however alteration of the gut microbiota occurred with time within the groups. The clinical parameters of the donor phenotype were partly transmissible from obese to lean mice, in particularly ÎČ cell hyperactivity in the obese recipients. Thus, a successful inoculation of gut microbiota was not age dependent in order for the microbes to colonize, and transferring different microbial compositions to conventional antibiotic-treated mice was possible at least for a time period during which the microbiota may permanently modulate important host functions. PMID:25082483
Gurvinder Kalra; Avinash De Sousa; Sushma Sonavane; Nilesh Shah
Pediatric obesity is a major health problem and has reached epidemiological proportions today. The present paper reviews major psychological issues in pediatric obesity from a developmental perspective. Research and literature has shown that a number of developmental, family, maternal and child factors are responsible in the genesis of pediatric obesity. Family food habits, early developmental lifestyle of the child, parenting, early family relationships and harmony all contribute towards the...
Lumeng, Carey N.
The innate immune system is a prewired set of cellular and humoral components that has developed to sense perturbations in normal physiology and trigger responses to restore the system back to baseline. It is now understood that many of these components can also sense the physiologic changes that occur with obesity and be activated. While the exact reasons for this chronic immune response to obesity are unclear, there is strong evidence to suggest that innate inflammatory systems link obesity...
Chatkin JosĂ© M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Smokers usually have a lower Body Mass Index (BMI when compared to non-smokers. Such a relationship, however, has not been fully studied in obese and morbidly obese patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between smoking and BMI among obese and morbidly obese subjects. Methods In a case-control study design, 1022 individuals of both genders, 18-65 years of age, were recruited and grouped according to their smoking status (smokers, ex-smokers, and non-smokers and nutritional state according to BMI (normal weight, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese. Results No significant differences were detected in the four BMI groups with respect to smoking status. However, there was a trend towards a higher frequency of smokers among the overweight, obese, and morbidly obese subjects compared to normal weight individuals (p = 0.078. In a logistic regression, after adjusting for potential confounders, morbidly obese subjects had an adjusted OR of 2.25 (95% CI, 1.52-3.34; p Discussion In this sample, while the frequency of smokers diminished in normal weight subjects as the BMI increased, such a trend was reversed in overweight, obese, and morbidly obese patients. In the latter group, the prevalence of smokers was significantly higher compared to the other groups. A patient with morbid obesity had a 2-fold increased risk of becoming a smoker. We speculate that these finding could be a consequence of various overlapping risk behaviors because these patients also are generally less physically active and prefer a less healthy diet, in addition to having a greater alcohol intake in relation to their counterparts. The external validity of these findings must be confirmed.
Sutin, Angelina R.; Terracciano, Antonio
Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Indexâ„30; BMI) by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk ...
Salazar, Maria L.; Lea S. Eiland
Childhood obesity is increasing in prevalence in the United States. Comorbid diseases once thought of as adult issues such as hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, are now being encountered in the pediatric population as a result of obesity. Primary prevention is still the most cost-effective approach to this growing problem. In terms of management, the treatment of obesity in children is not identical to that in adults. Thus far, the only accepted weight loss therapy for children are die...
The prevalence of obesity among US children and adolescents has rapidly increased in the past several decades, and the epidemic of childhood obesity is currently a serious public health concern in the United States. This dissertation consists of three studies examining individual- and neighborhood-level determinants of childhood obesity. The study area was Los Angeles County in California. Our first study examined the effects of maternal employment, individual socioeconomic status (SES), and ...
Musso, Giovanni; Gambino, Roberto; Cassader, Maurizio
The connection between gut microbiota and energy homeostasis and inflammation and its role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related disorders are increasingly recognized. Animals models of obesity connect an altered microbiota composition to the development of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes in the host through several mechanisms: increased energy harvest from the diet, altered fatty acid metabolism and composition in adipose tissue and liver, modulation of gut peptide YY and glucagon...
Herrera, Blanca M.; Keildson, Sarah; Lindgren, Cecilia M
Obesity results from interactions between environmental and genetic factors. Despite a relatively high heritability of common, non-syndromic obesity (40â70%), the search for genetic variants contributing to susceptibility has been a challenging task. Genome wide association (GWA) studies have dramatically changed the pace of detection of common genetic susceptibility variants. To date, more than 40 genetic variants have been associated with obesity and fat distribution. However, since these v...
Full Text Available According to the German transplantation law of 1997 the ethical and psychopathological investigation of potential donors before a living donation is a major basis of the decision of the expert commission at the General Medical Council. But the concrete practice in the different transplantation regions is somehow varying with respect to micro goals, proceeding, efforts and formalia of the expertise. In the âMuenster Modelâ this practice has been proven successful since 1998, involving three sessions, one together with donor and recipient (conducted by two experienced psychosocial experts, and one each only with donor or recipient. The interdisciplinary communication with surgeons and physicians seems important with respect to an early identification of problems and therefore chances of problem solving. Donations among spouses or from parents to child were the most common constellations; 64% of the donors were women. Although in the great majority of the cases no severe problems or even donation obstacles occured, in some cases psychopathology and/or family conflicts were found, which confirmed the need for a psychosocial screening (and counseling. Problems of the procedure have also been identified, e.g. the conflict between marked empathy and the voluntariness demanded but also problems with respect to the limited predictability of relationship dynamics and the coping ressources for future crises. For this reason it seems important to combine the assessment with an offer for counseling and psychosocial care for donor and recipient after the tranplantation.
Buell, Joseph F; Hanaway, Michael J; Potter, Steven R; Cronin, David C; Yoshida, Atsushi; Munda, Rino; Alexander, J Wesley; Newell, Kenneth A; Bruce, David S; Woodle, E Steve
The benefits of laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy (LDN) are well described, while similar data on hand-assisted laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy (HALDN) are lacking. We compare hand-assisted laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy with open donor nephrectomy. One hundred consecutive hand-assisted laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy (10/98-8/01) donor/recipient pairs were compared to 50 open donor nephrectomy pairs (8/97-1/00). Mean donor weights were similar (179.6 +/- 40.8 vs. 167.4 +/- 30.3 lb; p = NS), while donor age was greater among hand-assisted laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy (38.2 +/- 9.5 vs. 31.2 +/- 7.8 year; p < 0.01). Right nephrectomies was fewer in hand-assisted laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy [17/100 (17%) vs. 22/50 (44%); p < 0.05]. Operative time for hand-assisted laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy (3.9 +/- 0.7 vs. 2.9 +/- 0.5 h; p < 0.01) was longer; however, return to diet (6.9 +/- 2.8 vs. 25.6 +/- 6.1 h; p < 0.01), narcotics requirement (17.9 +/- 6.3 vs. 56.3 +/- 6.4h; p < 0.01) and length of stay (51.7 +/- 22.2 vs. 129.6 +/- 65.7 h; p < 0.01) were less than open donor nephrectomy. Costs were similar ($11072 vs. 10840). Graft function and 1-week Cr of 1.4 +/- 0.9 vs. 1.6 +/- 1.1 g/dL (p = NS) were similar. With the introduction of HALDN, our laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy program has increased by 20%. Thus, similar to traditional laparoscopic donor nephrectomy, hand-assisted laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy provides advantages over open donor nephrectomy without increasing costs. PMID:12482153
Full Text Available Background: Voluntary blood donation is not satisfactory all over India. In India, about 55% of donation is through voluntary non-remunerated blood donors (VNRBD. However, about one third already motivated blood donors are deferred due to stringent screening criteria, either temporarily or permanently. The temporarily deferred donors could be a good source of blood donation after deferral period. Aims: The present study is carried out to know retrieval of blood donors those who are deferred temporarily. Design: The present study is carried out in the Regional Blood Transfusion Centre of Western India. All donors screened as per the guideline and deferred donors are categorized as temporary and permanently deferred donors. Materials and Methods: From temporarily deferred donors, reason for deferral is considered. As per reason of deferral, time duration for recalling the donor is defined. Based on this, donor is called back to donate again. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test is applied. Result: A total of 33% donors were deferred either temporarily or permanently. In the repeat donors (5.32% deferral rate was significantly higher than first time (1.32% donors. Significant female preponderance was observed (15.05% vs 2.51%. Majority of temporarily deferred donors were less than 40 years of age (80.80%, graduate (82.90%, from low income group (62.90% and profession was service (48.10%. Conclusion: Low hemoglobin (78.30% was the most common reason of temporary deferral, both in first time and repeat donors (71.00%. Efforts to increase the hemoglobin in the repeat donors will improve the donor retention and overall blood safety can be increased.
Akerlof, K.; Maibach, E.
The Great Lakes of the United States - the largest freshwater system in the world - have been termed "the canary in the coal mine" of environmental change. To assess if and how residents of Alger County, Michigan are experiencing changes in climate on the shores of Lake Superior, during the summer of 2010 we conducted a representative household mail survey in collaboration with a national lakeshore and watershed partnership. A total of 765 adult residents (18 years or older) responded to the survey; a 57% survey completion rate. We content analyzed respondents' open-ended characterizations of how they have personally experienced global warming, and compared the results with land surface and storm data for the same geographic region to see whether public perceptions of local changes match trends in National Climatic Data Center data. Just over a quarter of residents (27%) indicated that they had personally experienced global warming. Those who had were most likely to say that they had experienced global warming locally (as opposed to in other locations of the country or globally), and most frequently cited changes in seasons, weather, lake levels, and animals or plant species. However, some local public perceptions appeared to conflict with weather records. For example, residents were more likely to say that they had been experiencing less snow in the winters, while NCDC data suggests the reverse is true. As climate changes differentially in regions across the United States, the public will in turn experience its physical impacts in distinct ways that are unique to each landscape. This may be counter-intuitive to a public that increasingly experiences the world, and issues such as climate change, through sources of information such as national news media that operate at much larger geographic scales. Understanding where these forms of cognitive dissonance may arise may assist researchers, educators, and communicators in furthering discourses with the public about the local impacts of climate change.
Cordero, P.; Milagro, F. I.; Campion, J; Martinez, J. A.
Methyl donor supplementation has been reported to prevent obesity-induced liver fat accumulation in adult rats. We hypothesized that this protection could be mediated by perinatal nutrition. For this purpose, we assessed the response to an obesogenic diet (high-fat-sucrose, HFS) during adulthood depending on maternal diet during lactation. Female Wistar rats fed control diet during pregnancy were assigned to four postpartum dietary groups: control, control supplemented with methyl do...
SĂžrensen, Thorkild I.A.; Due, P.; Hansen, B.; Heitmann, B.L.; Jorgensen, K.; Lichtenberg, A.; Michaelsen, K.F.; Muller, P.; Richelsen, B.
obesity should be estimated in a non-biased randomly selected sample of the population once yearly, using all available data from routine measurements and encouraging new measurements conducted in professional settings where routine data are not available Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1/28......The Danish Fitness and Nutrition Council has proposed a model to monitor the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Denmark. The model should make it possible to assess whether different initiatives reduce the prevalence of obesity and to gain knowledge on how to prevent obesity. The prevalence of...
Yatri R. Shah; Dhrubo Jyoti Sen; Ravi N. Patel; Jimit S. Patel; Ankit D. Patel; Parimal M.Prajapati
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems. Body mass index (BMI), a measurement which compares weight and height, defines people as overweight (pre-obese) if their BMI is between 25 kg/m2 and 30 kg/m2, and obese when it is greater than 30 kg/m2. Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases, particularly heart disease, type 2 diab...
Minasyan, Anna; Nunnenkamp, Peter
We argue that donors could improve the effectiveness of foreign aid by pursuing complementary and coherent non-aid policies. In particular, we hypothesize that aid from donors that are open to immigration has stronger growth effects than aid from closed donors. We estimate the aid-growth nexus in first differences to mitigate endogeneity concerns. Our empirical results support the hypothesis that donors' openness to immigration strengthens the growth effects of foreign aid.
Singh, M.; Pacheco, J.L.; Perry, D; Garratt, E.; Eyck, G. Ten; Bishop, N. C.; Wendt, J. R.; Manginell, R. P.; Dominguez, J.; Pluym, T.; Luhman, D. R.; Bielejec, E.; Lilly, M. P.; Carroll, M. S.
Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors close to quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dot...