OBJECTIVES: Adolescent obesity is linked to metabolic and cardiovascular risk, but its associations with adolescents' experienced health and morbidity are less clear. Morbidities experienced by overweight/obese adolescents and associations between morbidities and timing of overweight/obesity were examined. METHODS: Data were from the Health of Young Victorians Study (HOYVS; 1997, 2000, 2005), a school-based longitudinal study. Outcomes were blood pressure, health status (Pediatric Quality of ...
Wake, M.; Canterford, L.; Patton, Gc; Hesketh, K.; Hardy, P.; Williams, J.; Waters, E.; Carlin, Jb
Full Text Available In the past, morbid obesity was considered a relative contraindication to renal donation; however, more recent publications have shown that laparoscopic renal surgery is safe and effective for obese donor nephrectomy. We report the performance of a bariatric surgery before the kidney donation in 2 patients in order to improve their medical condition and to reduce their surgical risk to the transplantation procedure. After bariatric surgery, both donors lost more than 30% of their initial corporal weight and their donation procedure was successfully performed, with uneventful postoperative courses.
Anibal W. Branco
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the past, morbid obesity was considered a relative contraindication to renal donation; however, more recent publications have shown that laparoscopic renal surgery is safe and effective for obese donor nephrectomy. We report the performance of a bariatric surgery before the kidney donation in 2 p [...] atients in order to improve their medical condition and to reduce their surgical risk to the transplantation procedure. After bariatric surgery, both donors lost more than 30% of their initial corporal weight and their donation procedure was successfully performed, with uneventful postoperative courses.
Anibal W., Branco; Alcides J., Branco Filho; William, Kondo.
Full Text Available AbstractBackgroundHypertension is a major health problem, especially because it has no clear symptoms. It isstrongly correlated with modifiable risk factors such as adiposities, age, stress, high salt intake.Overweight and obesity is conveniently determined from BMI and visceral adiposity isdetermined by waist circumference. ABO blood group is one such factor which needs to beinvestigated. The present study was performed to assess the association and distribution ofhypertension, obesity, ABO blood groups in different categories of blood donors and itsmultipurpose future utilities for the health planners.Materials and MethodsA retrospective study was carried out on 23, 320 blood donors during a period of one year. Allthe blood donors were measured BMI, ABO blood group, systolic and diastolic blood pressurewere determined and correlated for each other.ResultsHypertension of ABO blood group was B (8.7% followed by group O (7.6% group A (3.7%and group AB (1.9%. In obesity of ABO blood group was B (7.9% followed by group O(6.2% group A (5.8% and group AB (1.0%. Statistically significant difference was found inboth groups (p < 0.001.ConclusionThe B blood group in blood donor was more susceptible to hypertension and obesity.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a primary hepatic manifestation of obesity and an important adverse metabolic syndrome trait. Animal models of diet-induced obesity promote liver fat accumulation putatively associated with alterations in epigenetic profile. Dietary methyl donor-supplementation may protect against this disturbance during early developmental stages affecting the molecular basis of gene regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the transcriptomic and epigenetic mechanisms implicated in liver fat accumulation as a result of an obesogenic diet and the putative preventive role of dietary methyl donors. Forty-eight male Wistar rats were assigned into four dietary groups for 8 weeks; control, control methyl-donor-supplemented with a dietary cocktail containing betaine, choline, vitamin B12 and folic acid, high-fat-sucrose and high-fat-sucrose methyl-donor-supplemented. Liver fat accumulation induced by a HFS diet was prevented by methyl donor supplementation in HFS-fed animals. A liver mRNA microarray, subsequently validated by real time-qPCR, showed modifications in some biologically relevant genes involved in obesity development and lipid metabolism (Lepr, Srebf2, Agpat3 and Esr1). Liver global DNA methylation was decreased by methyl donor supplementation in control-fed animals. Methylation levels of specific CpG sites from Srebf2, Agpat3 and Esr1 promoter regions showed changes due to the obesogenic diet and the supplementation with methyl donors. Interestingly, Srebf2 CpG23_24 methylation levels (-167 bp and -156 bp with respect to the transcriptional start site) correlated with HDLc plasma levels, whereas Esr1 CpG14 (-2623 bp) methylation levels were associated with body and liver weights and fat content. Furthermore HFS diet-induced liver fat accumulation was prevented by methyl donor supplementation. In conclusion, both obesogenic diet and methyl donor supplementation modified the mRNA hepatic profile as well as the methylation of specific gene promoters and total DNA. PMID:24084163
Cordero, Paul; Campion, Javier; Milagro, Fermin I; Martinez, J Alfredo
AbstractBackgroundHypertension is a major health problem, especially because it has no clear symptoms. It isstrongly correlated with modifiable risk factors such as adiposities, age, stress, high salt intake.Overweight and obesity is conveniently determined from BMI and visceral adiposity isdetermined by waist circumference. ABO blood group is one such factor which needs to beinvestigated. The present study was performed to assess the association and distribution ofhypertension, obesity, ABO ...
Ashish Gupta; Tulika Chandra
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) results from increased hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis, and is closely linked to liver one-carbon (C1) metabolism. We assessed in C57BL6/N mice whether NAFLD induced by a high-fat (HF) diet over 8 weeks can be reversed by additional 4 weeks of a dietary methyl-donor supplementation (MDS). MDS in the obese mice failed to reverse NAFLD, but prevented the progression of hepatic steatosis associated with major changes in key hepatic C1-metabolites, e.g. S-adenosyl-methionine and S-adenosyl-homocysteine. Increased phosphorylation of AMPK-? together with enhanced ?-HAD activity suggested an increased flux through fatty acid oxidation pathways. This was supported by concomitantly decreased hepatic free fatty acid and acyl-carnitines levels. Although HF diet changed the hepatic phospholipid pattern, MDS did not. Our findings suggest that dietary methyl-donors activate AMPK, a key enzyme in fatty acid ?-oxidation control, that mediates increased fatty acid utilization and thereby prevents further hepatic lipid accumulation. PMID:25061561
Dahlhoff, Christoph; Worsch, Stefanie; Sailer, Manuela; Hummel, Bjorn A.; Fiamoncini, Jarlei; Uebel, Kirsten; Obeid, Rima; Scherling, Christian; Geisel, Jurgen; Bader, Bernhard L.; Daniel, Hannelore
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) results from increased hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis, and is closely linked to liver one-carbon (C1) metabolism. We assessed in C57BL6/N mice whether NAFLD induced by a high-fat (HF) diet over 8 weeks can be reversed by additional 4 weeks of a dietary methyl-donor supplementation (MDS). MDS in the obese mice failed to reverse NAFLD, but prevented the progression of hepatic steatosis associated with major changes in key hepatic C1-metabolites, e.g. S-adenosyl-methionine and S-adenosyl-homocysteine. Increased phosphorylation of AMPK-? together with enhanced ?-HAD activity suggested an increased flux through fatty acid oxidation pathways. This was supported by concomitantly decreased hepatic free fatty acid and acyl-carnitines levels. Although HF diet changed the hepatic phospholipid pattern, MDS did not. Our findings suggest that dietary methyl-donors activate AMPK, a key enzyme in fatty acid ?-oxidation control, that mediates increased fatty acid utilization and thereby prevents further hepatic lipid accumulation. PMID:25061561
Dahlhoff, Christoph; Worsch, Stefanie; Sailer, Manuela; Hummel, Björn A; Fiamoncini, Jarlei; Uebel, Kirsten; Obeid, Rima; Scherling, Christian; Geisel, Jürgen; Bader, Bernhard L; Daniel, Hannelore
... 330-346. United States Department of Agriculture. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. Accessed April 21, 2012. Wadden TA, Volger S, Sarwer DB, et al. A two year randomized trial of obesity treatment in primary care practice. N Engl J Med . 2011;365:1969-1979
Background C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-established marker of inflammation. The level of CRP is affected by several lifestyle factors. A slightly increased CRP level, also known as low-grade inflammation (LGI), is associated with increased risk of several diseases, especially cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of increased CRP levels in healthy individuals. We therefore assessed CRP in a large cohort of blood donors. Methods We measured plasma CRP levels in 15,684 participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study. CRP was measured by a commercial assay. Furthermore, all participants completed a standard questionnaire on smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, diet, and various body measurements. Female participants also reported the use of contraception, childbirth, and menopausal status. The relationship between LGI (defined here as a plasma CRP level between 3 mg/L and 10 mg/L) and predictors was explored by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results were presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results We found LGI in a total of 1,561 (10.0%) participants. LGI was more frequent in women using combined oral contraception (OC) (29.9%) than in men (6.1%) and women not using OC (7.9%). Among premenopausal women, OC was the strongest predictor of LGI (odds ratio?=?8.98, p<0.001). Additionally, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were positively associated with LGI. Conclusion High BMI and abdominal obesity strongly predicted LGI among healthy individuals. However, the most striking finding was the high prevalence of LGI among premenopausal women who used combined oral contraception. Although the significance of CRP as a marker of inflammation is well known, the role of CRP in pathogenesis is still uncertain. The impact of oral contraception on CRP levels should nevertheless be considered when CRP is used in risk assessment. PMID:24516611
S?rensen, Cecilie J.; Pedersen, Ole B.; Petersen, Mikkel S.; S?rensen, Erik; Kotze, Sebastian; Th?rner, Lise W.; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Rigas, Andreas S.; M?ller, Bjarne; Rostgaard, Klaus; Riiskjaer, Mads; Ullum, Henrik; Erikstrup, Christian
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Donor nephrectomy with laparo-endoscopic single site (LESS) surgery has been reported via the transperitoneal approach. We describe a novel technique of retroperitoneal donor nephrectomy using a single surgical incision in the groin, below the abdominal skin crease or "bikini line". The LESS groin i [...] ncision offers superior cosmesis, while the retroperitoneal approach has distinct advantages, such as the ability to identify the renal vessels early. The new procedure has been performed in two obese patients (body mass index 32 and 33 kg/m2, respectively). The operative times were 4 and 5 hours, warm ischemic times 135 and 315 seconds, blood loss 100 and 250 mL, and hospitalization 3 and 2 days, respectively. Retroperitoneal LESS donor nephrectomy through a single, inconspicuous groin incision is feasible and safe. Further evaluation of the technique in a larger patient cohort is indicated.
A., Van Der Merwe; A., Bachmann; C. F., Heyns.
Thyroglobulin (TG), as autoantigen, induces in vitro proliferation of T and B cells from normal individuals, but the cytokine production differs from that in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. Here, we investigate whether normal T cells responding to TG are naive, or have previously encountered TG in vivo, using their responses to classic primary and secondary antigens, keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) and tetanus toxoid (TT), respectively, for comparison. While TG elicited T-cell proliferation kinetics typical of a secondary response, the cytokine profile was distinct from that for TT. Whereas TT induced pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-2 (IL-2)/interferon-? (IFN-?)/IL-4/IL-5], TG evoked persistent release of the regulatory IL-10. Some donors, however, also responded with late IFN-? production, suggesting that the regulation by IL-10 could be overridden. Although monocytes were prime producers of IL-10 in the early TG response, a few IL-10-secreting CD4+ T cells, primarily with CD45RO+ memory phenotype, were also detected. Furthermore, T-cell depletion from the mononuclear cell preparation abrogated monocyte IL-10 production. Our findings indicate active peripheral tolerance towards TG in the normal population, with aberrant balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine responses for some donors. This observation has implications for autoantigen recognition in general, and provides a basis for investigating the dichotomy between physiological and pathological modes of auto-recognition.
Nielsen, C. H.; Galdiers, M. P.
Thyroglobulin (TG), as autoantigen, induces in vitro proliferation of T and B cells from normal individuals, but the cytokine production differs from that in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. Here, we investigate whether normal T cells responding to TG are naive, or have previously encountered TG in vivo, using their responses to classic primary and secondary antigens, keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) and tetanus toxoid (TT), respectively, for comparison. While TG elicited T-cell proliferation kinetics typical of a secondary response, the cytokine profile was distinct from that for TT. Whereas TT induced pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin-2 (IL-2)/interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma)/IL-4/IL-5], TG evoked persistent release of the regulatory IL-10. Some donors, however, also responded with late IFN-gamma production, suggesting that the regulation by IL-10 could be overridden. Although monocytes were prime producers of IL-10 in the early TG response, a few IL-10-secreting CD4(+) T cells, primarily with CD45RO(+) memory phenotype, were also detected. Furthermore, T-cell depletion from the mononuclear cell preparation abrogated monocyte IL-10 production. Our findings indicate active peripheral tolerance towards TG in the normal population, with aberrant balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine responses for some donors. This observation has implications for autoantigen recognition in general, and provides a basis for investigating the dichotomy between physiological and pathological modes of auto-recognition.
Nielsen, Claus H; Galdiers, Marcel P
C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-established marker of inflammation. The level of CRP is affected by several lifestyle factors. A slightly increased CRP level, also known as low-grade inflammation (LGI), is associated with increased risk of several diseases, especially cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of increased CRP levels in healthy individuals. We therefore assessed CRP in a large cohort of blood donors.
SØrensen, Cecilie J; Pedersen, Ole B
The present review outlines the principles of living donor liver transplantation, donor workup, procedure and outcomes. Living donation offers a solution to the growing gap between the need for liver transplants and the limited availability of deceased donor organs. With a multidisciplinary team focused on donor safety and experienced surgeons capable of performing complex resection/reconstruction procedures, donor morbidity is low and recipient outcomes are comparable with results of decease...
Shah, Shimul A.; Levy, Gary A.; Adcock, Lesley D.; Gallagher, Gary; Grant, David R.
In the past decade, considerable technical advances have been accomplished in living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT). The procedure has become accepted globally as a standard modality for the treatment of end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in both pediatric and adult populations. During the period of this procedure's development, however, tragedy has occurred. Serious morbidity and even mortality have been experienced and reported in live donors. The transplant community has been very much aware of its responsibilities toward live donor care, and much effort has been made to improve and secure the overall outcomes of donors. Unlike in deceased-donor liver transplantation (DDLT), opportunity or chance plays a lesser role in the availability of an organ for LDLT. Judgment calls are often made by individuals; therefore, the evaluation process includes social and ethical aspects not encountered among the usual indications for hepatobiliary surgical disease. Thus, the selection of live donors should be made from a wider perspective compared with that for conventional patient care. The approach to selecting live donors may vary slightly between the West, where a large number of DDLTs are performed daily, and the Far East, where they are much less frequent. However, the recognition that the transplant community has a responsibility to provide care to living donors is common. This review provides an overview of the current donor evaluation and surgical procedures involved in LDLT, with the recognition that an open and educated debate is key to ensuring public confidence and maintaining ethical standards in the field. PMID:18392700
Tamura, Sumihito; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Kokudo, Norihiro
Full Text Available This workshop took place at the Florjan?i? studio in order to support 4th year students in designing their urban development projects in the city of Ljubljana. To serve this purpose, the workshop provided students with an opportunity to raise their awareness of a particular aspect of architecture and the city: the way it is experienced. The task was to design the undeveloped banks of the Ljubljanica River and Gruber Canal - but with an alternative perception in mind: not just as a sequence of river banks, but as parts that form a continuous promenade encircling the city which provides a whole range of spatial experiences.
In the last decades the number of obese and pre-obese patients in Western industrial nations increased. Obese patients have been largely unsuccessful in losing weight over time, but the causes of their difficulties and the causes of their obesity have remained unclear. We examined whether the attachment style and its interaction with interpersonal processes would shed light on this question. We analyzed 107 obese or pre-obese patients before the start of a weight loss intervention program. We used the Adult Attachement Prototype Rating (AAPR)-interview and related questionnaires (Helping Alliance Questionnaire (HAQ), Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-D), Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI)). According to the AAPR-rating 54% of the patients were secure and 46% insecure attached. The results suggest that insecure attachment style has an impact on psychic strain in obese patients unrelated to weight, gender and age. Additionally the insecure attachment style influences the therapeutic alliance experienced by patients and the therapist. PMID:24446185
Kiesewetter, Sybille; Köpsel, Andrea; Pfeiffer, Andreas F; Köpp, Werner; Kastner, Sabrina; Orth-Gomér, Kristina; Deter, Hans-Christian
Previous research has begun to delineate the complicated reactions experienced by bone marrow and stem cell donors. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the donor-recipient relationship on the related donor's emotional reactions. Twenty-eight adult stem cell donors completed questionnaires before donation, 30 days post stem cell infusion, and 1 year after infusion. Questionnaires addressed the donor-recipient relationship, depression, mood, guilt and responsibility, self-esteem, ambivalence about donation and reactions to the donation itself. Results indicated that most donors reported little ambivalence about donation, and their reactions to the donation itself were generally positive. Closer and more positive donor-recipient relationships were associated with less anticipated guilt and responsibility if the transplant did not work. The relationships between the donor and the recipient did not change over time. Mood disturbance and depression were low overall, not related to the donor-recipient relationship, and did not significantly change over time. These results indicate that related stem cell donors are generally without significant emotional distress, and are comfortable with the donation process. Further, a more positive relationship with the recipient may help donors to avoid feeling guilty and responsible if the transplant does not work. PMID:24637897
Labott, S; Pfammatter, A
Kidney transplantation is the preferred option for patients with end-stage renal disease facing the need for dialysis because it provides maximum survival benefit. The number of people seeking kidney transplantation greatly exceeds available deceased donor organs. Organs from live donors provide a survival advantage over organs from deceased donors while also broadening the pool of available organs. The purpose of this review is to discuss the clinical guidelines that pertain to live kidney organ donation and to describe the nutrition evaluation and care of live kidney donors. The process for living kidney donation is dictated by policies centered on protecting the donor. In a perfect world, the living donor would present with a flawless medical examination and a benign family health history. The obesity epidemic has emerged as a major health concern. Live donor programs are faced with evaluating increasing numbers of obese candidates. These "medically complex donors" may present with obesity and its associated comorbid conditions, including hypertension, impaired glycemic control, and kidney stone disease. The dietitian's role in the live donor program is not well defined. Participation in the living donor selection meeting, where details of the evaluation are summarized, provides a platform for risk stratification and identification of donors who are at increased lifetime risk for poor personal health outcomes. Guiding the donor toward maintenance of a healthy weight through diet and lifestyle choices is a legitimate goal to minimize future health risks. PMID:24523133
Bergen, Carol R; Reese, Peter P; Collins, Donna
With ever-increasing demand for liver replacement, supply of organs is the limiting factor and a significant number of patients die while waiting. Live donor liver transplantation has emerged as an important option for many patients, particularly small pediatric patients and those adults that are disadvantaged by the current deceased donor allocation system. Ideally there would be no need to subject perfectly healthy people in the prime of their lives to a potentially life-threatening operation to procure transplantable organs. Donor safety is imperative and cannot be compromised regardless of the implication for the intended recipient. The evolution of split liver transplantation is the basis upon which live donor transplantation has become possible. The live donor procedures are considerably more complex than whole organ decreased donor transplantation and there are unique considerations involved in the assessment of any specific recipient and donor. Donor selection and evaluation have become highly specialized. The critical issue of size matching is determined by both the actual size of the donor graft and the recipient as well as the degree of recipient portal hypertension. The outcomes after live donor liver transplantation have been at least comparable to those of deceased donor transplantation. Nevertheless, all efforts should be made to improve deceased donor donation so as to minimize the need for live donors. Transplant physicians, particularly surgeons, must take responsibility for regulating and overseeing these procedures. PMID:16555328
Florman, Sander; Miller, Charles M
The study was conducted to explore what it is like for individuals and family members to live with obesity as a chronic illness. An interpretive phenomenological design was used to obtain and analyze interviews of 13 obese individuals and 5 of their family members. A convenience sample was used to recruit the subjects who participated in the audiotaped interviews. The interviews used open-ended questions. Audiotapes were transcribed and analyzed for identifying the major themes within each transcript, and patterns of meaning across narratives. The major themes and patterns were described through written essays and group discussions about the transcripts. The participants revealed frequent experiences of stigmatization and discrimination on the basis of their obesity. Those who are obese are reminded through their everyday encounters with family members, peers, healthcare providers, and strangers, that their being deviates from social norms, and that they are inferior to those who are not obese. Obese subjects experience a pattern of denigration and condemnation that is so pervasive as to constitute what Harvey has called civilized oppression. A discussion of the social construction of obesity and the elements of civilized oppression, as they are experienced by those who are obese, offers new insights into interpersonal relationships that can provide a foundation for more effective care of the obese population. PMID:15602281
Rogge, Mary Madeline; Greenwald, Marti; Golden, Amelia
Full Text Available Proper evaluation of donor cornea is critical to the success of corneal transplantation. Attention must be paid to the cause of death and ocular condition as several general and ocular diseases constitute contraindications for donor corneal usage. Death to enucleation time should be noted. Gross examination and slit lamp biomicroscopy are mandatory for the evaluation of the donor eye while specular microscopy adds another useful dimension to information regarding donor cornea. This article provides a comprehensive review of all the aspects of donor corneal evaluation as practised today worldwide.
This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…
Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.
With the number of patients presently awaiting renal transplantation exceeding the number of cadaveric organs available, there is an increasing reliance on live renal donation. Of the 11,869 renal transplants performed in 2002 in the US, 52.6% were living donors from the United Network for Organ Sharing Registry. Renal allografts from living donors provide: superior immediate long-term function; require less waiting time and are more cost-effective than those from cadaveric donors. However, anticipation of postoperative pain and temporary occupational disability may dissuade many potential donors. Additionally, some recipients hesitate to accept a living donor kidney due to suffering that would be endured by the donor. It is a unique medical situation when a young, completely healthy donor undergoes a major surgical procedure to provide an organ for transplantation. It is mandatory to offer a surgical technique, which is safe and with minimal complications. It is also obvious for any organ transplantation, that the integrity of the organ remain intact, thus, enabling its successful transplantation into the recipient. An acceptably short ischemia time and adequate lengths of ureter and renal vasculature are favored. Many centers are performing laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy in an effort to ease convalescence of renal donors. This may encourage the consideration of live donation by recipients and potential donors.
Waleed A. Hasan
The criteria that define acceptable physiologic and social parameters for lung donation have remained constant since their empiric determination in the 1980s. These criteria include a donor age between 25-40, a arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/FiO2 ratio greater than 350, no smoking history, a clear chest X-ray, clean bronchoscopy, and a minimal ischemic time. Due to the paucity of organ donors, and the increasing number of patients requiring lung transplant, finding a donor that meets all of these criteria is quite rare. As such, many transplants have been performed where the donor does not meet these stringent criteria. Over the last decade, numerous reports have been published examining the effects of individual acceptance criteria on lung transplant survival and graft function. These studies suggest that there is little impact of the historical criteria on either short or long term outcomes. For age, donors should be within 18 to 64 years old. Gender may relay benefit to all female recipients especially in male to female transplants, although results are mixed in these studies. Race matched donor/recipients have improved outcomes and African American donors convey worse prognosis. Smoking donors may decrease recipient survival post transplant, but provide a life saving opportunity for recipients that may otherwise remain on the transplant waiting list. No specific gram stain or bronchoscopic findings are reflected in recipient outcomes. Chest radiographs are a poor indicator of lung donor function and should not adversely affect organ usage aside for concerns over malignancy. Ischemic time greater than six hours has no documented adverse effects on recipient mortality and should not limit donor retrieval distances. Brain dead donors and deceased donors have equivalent prognosis. Initial PaO2/FiO2 ratios less than 300 should not dissuade donor organ usage, although recruitment techniques should be implemented with intent to transplant. PMID:25132970
Chaney, John; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Cantu, Edward; van Berkel, Victor
Activation of M1 macrophages in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is produced by several external or endogenous factors: inflammatory stimuli, oxidative stress, and cytokines are known. However, any direct role of oxidative stress in causing M1 polarization in NASH has been unclear. We hypothesized that CYP2E1-mediated oxidative stress causes M1 polarization in experimental NASH, and that nitric oxide (NO) donor administration inhibits CYP2E1-mediated inflammation with concomitant attenuation of M1 polarization. Because CYP2E1 takes center stage in these studies, we used a toxin model of NASH that uses a ligand and a substrate of CYP2E1 for inducing NASH. Subsequently, we used a methionine and choline-deficient diet-induced rodent NASH model where the role of CYP2E1 in disease progression has been shown. Our results show that CYP2E1 causes M1 polarization bias, which includes a significant increase in interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and IL-12 in both models of NASH, whereas CYP2E1-null mice or diallyl sulfide administration prevented it. Administration of gadolinium chloride (GdCl3), a macrophage toxin, attenuated both the initial M1 response and the subsequent M2 response, showing that the observed increase in cytokine levels is primarily from macrophages. Based on the evidence of an adaptive NO increase, the NO donor administration in vivo that mechanistically inhibited CYP2E1 catalyzed the oxidative stress during the entire study in NASH-abrogated M1 polarization and NASH progression. The results obtained show the association of CYP2E1 in M1 polarization, and that inhibition of CYP2E1 catalyzed oxidative stress by an NO donor (DETA NONOate [(Z)-1-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl)amino]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate]) can be a promising therapeutic strategy in NASH. PMID:25347994
Seth, Ratanesh Kumar; Das, Suvarthi; Pourhoseini, Sahar; Dattaroy, Diptadip; Igwe, Stephen; Ray, Julie Basu; Fan, Daping; Michelotti, Gregory A; Diehl, Anna Mae; Chatterjee, Saurabh
Obesity is one of the largest and fastest growing public health problems in the world. Last century social changes have set an obesogenic milieu that calls for micro and macro environment interventions for disease prevention, while treatment is mandatory for individuals already obese. The cornerstone of overweight and obesity treatment is diet and physical exercise. However, many patients find lifestyle modifications difficult to comply and prone to failure in the long-term; therefore many patients consider anti-obesity drugs an important adjuvant if not a better alternative to behavioral approach or obesity surgery. Since the pharmacological options for obesity treatment remain quite limited, this is an exciting research area, with new treatment targets and strategies on the horizon. This review discusses the development of innovative therapeutic agents, focusing in energy homeostasis regulation and the use of molecular vaccines, targeting hormones such as somatostatin, GIP and ghrelin, to reduce body weight. PMID:24365968
Monteiro, Mariana P
Obesity is increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world. Today it is estimated that there are more than 300 million obese people world-wide. Obesity is a condition of excess body fat often associated with a large number of debilitating and life-threatening disorders. It is still a matter of debate as to how to define obesity in young people. Overweight children have an increased risk of being overweight as adults. Genetics, behavior, and family environment play a role in childhood over...
Ahmad, Qazi Iqbal; Ahmad, Charoo Bashir; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq
... Overweight and Obesity Share Compartir Childhood Overweight and Obesity Obesity now affects 17% of all children and adolescents ... from just one generation ago. Basics About Childhood Obesity How is childhood obesity measured? What are the ...
Childhood obesity is an issue of serious medical and social concern. In developing countries including India, it is a phenomenon seen in higher socioeconomic strata due to the adoption of a western lifestyle. Consumption of high calorie food, lack of physical activity and increased screen time are major risk factors for childhood obesity apart from other genetic, prenatal factors and socio-cultural practices. Obese children and adolescents are at increased risk of medical and psychological complications. Insulin resistance is commonly present especially in those with central obesity and manifests as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, polycystic ovarian syndrome and metabolic syndrome. Obese children and adolescents often present to general physicians for management. The latter play a key role in prevention and treatment of obesity as it involves lifestyle modification of the entire family. This article aims at discussing the approach to diagnosis and work-up, treatment and preventive strategies for childhood obesity from a general physician's perspective. PMID:23255079
Seth, Anju; Sharma, Rajni
Security is experienced differently in different contexts. This paper argues that in everyday situations, users base their security decisions on a mix of prior experiences. When approaching security and interaction design from an experience approach, tools that help bring out such relevant experiences for design are needed. This paper reports on how Prompted exploration workshops and Acting out security were developed to target such experiences when iteratively designing a mobile digital signature solution in a participatory design process. We discuss how these tools helped the design process and illustrate how the tangibility of such tools matters. We further demonstrate how the approach grants access to non-trivial insights into people's security experience. We point out how the specific context is essential for exploring the space between experience and expectations, and we illustrate how people activate their collections of security experiences rather than deploying one security strategy in all situations.
Mathiasen, Niels Raabjerg; BØdker, Susanne
The subjective experience of time will be taken as a primary motivation for an alternative, essentially discontinuous conception of time. Two types of such experience will be discussed, one based on personal episodic memory, the other on the theoretical fine texture of experienced time below the threshold of phenomenal awareness. The former case implies a discrete structure of temporal episodes on a large scale, while the latter case suggests endowing psychological time with a granular structure on a small scale, i.e. interpreting it as a semi-ordered flow of smeared (not point-like) subliminal time grains. Only on an intermediate temporal scale would the subjectively felt continuity and fluency of time emerge. Consequently, there is no locally smooth mapping of phenomenal time onto the real number continuum. Such a model has certain advantages; for instance, it avoids counterintuitive interpretations of some neuropsychological experiments (e.g. Libet's measurement) in which the temporal order of events is crucial.
Havel, Ivan M.
In order to describe accurately and comprehend quickly the perfect GIS requirements, this article will integrate the ideas of QFD (Quality Function Deployment) and UML (Unified Modeling Language), and analyze the deficiency of prototype development model, and will propose the idea of the Customer-Experienced Rapid Prototyping (CE-RP) and describe in detail the process and framework of the CE-RP, from the angle of the characteristics of Modern-GIS. The CE-RP is mainly composed of Customer Tool-Sets (CTS), Developer Tool-Sets (DTS) and Barrier-Free Semantic Interpreter (BF-SI) and performed by two roles of customer and developer. The main purpose of the CE-RP is to produce the unified and authorized requirements data models between customer and software developer.
Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Fu; Li, Anbo
Obesity has many causes, but there is growing evidence that common viruses may contribute to the condition in some people. Recently, Nikhil Dhurandhar and his colleagues at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center infected human stem cells with Ad-36, a common virus known to be associated with obesity in humans. They found that the cells they exposed to the virus accumulated a much higher amount of fat than uninfected cells.
Science Update (AAAS;)
Adult living donor liver transplantation (ALDLT) is an accepted procedure to overcome the organ shortage. The advantages of ALDLT must be balanced against the first concern of donor safety. We analyzed the results of our early experience among a series of eight ALDLT performed between April 2001 and October 2003. All patients were listed as United Network for Organ Sharing UNOS status 2b and 3. Transplant recipients consisted of four men and four women. The living donors included four sons, three daughters, and one son-in-law (ages 20 to 45 years). One donor was anti-HBc-positive and negative for hepatitis B virus-DNA by polymerase chain reaction analysis in serum and in liver tissue. GR/WR >0.8 and fatty liver <10% were considered suitable for the hepatectomy. Residual left lobe volume was at least 33%. No exogenous blood and blood products were transfused into the donors and a cell-saver device was used in all donors (blood loss 490 +/- 160 mL). All procedures were right lobe hepatectomy; in one case the middle hepatic vein was withdrawn with the right graft. The mean ischemia time was 1.5 +/- 0.5 hours. All donors survived the procedure. Median hospital stay was 8.5 +/- 2.1 days in all donors but one who had a long stay because of drug-related hepatitis. One graft was lost and one donor aborted because of preoperative overestimated volumetry. Complications were experienced by two donors (25%). Five recipients (62.5%) experienced major complications; one patient underwent retransplantation because of donor graft loss. Two biliary and two vascular complications (33.3%) occurred in three patients. No perioperative death occurred. Two patients died at 9 and 10 months after transplant because of heart and respiratory failure in the first case and tumor recurrence in the second. One-year actuarial survival is 75%. ALDLT using right lobe has gained acceptance to overcome the organ shortage. Donor selection criteria must be stringent with respect to residual donor hepatic volume, steatosis, and liver function. PMID:16757277
Cuomo, O; Ragozzino, A; Iovine, L; Santaniello, W; Di Palma, M; Ceriello, A; Arenga, G; Canfora, T; Picciotto, F; Marsilia, G Marino
Full Text Available Obesity is a civilization disease and the proportion of people suffering from it continues to grow, especially in the developed countries. Number of obese people in Europe has increased threefold over the last 20 years. The paradox of obesity and poverty relationship is observed especially in the developed and developing countries. In developing countries, along with economic development and income growth, the number of people with overweight and obesity is increasing. This paradox has a relationship with both the easy availability and low cost of highly processed foods containing ‘empty calories’ and no nutritional value. To date, this paradox has been described in the United States and the United Kingdom, although many European countries are also experiencing high percentages of obese people. Among the reasons for the growing obesity in the population of poor people are: higher unemployment, lower education level, and irregular meals. Another cause of obesity is low physical activity, which among the poor is associated with a lack of money for sports equipment. Due to the large rate of deaths caused by diseases directly linked to obesity, the governments of many countries implement prevention programmes of overweight and obesity. These programmes are based primarily on educating the public about a healthy lifestyle based on healthy eating, daily physical activity and avoiding alcohol and cigarettes.
Obesity is a civilization disease and the proportion of people suffering from it continues to grow, especially in the developed countries. Number of obese people in Europe has increased threefold over the last 20 years. The paradox of obesity and poverty relationship is observed especially in the developed and developing countries. In developing countries, along with economic development and income growth, the number of people with overweight and obesity is increasing. This paradox has a relationship with both the easy availability and low cost of highly processed foods containing 'empty calories' and no nutritional value. To date, this paradox has been described in the United States and the United Kingdom, although many European countries are also experiencing high percentages of obese people. Among the reasons for the growing obesity in the population of poor people are: higher unemployment, lower education level, and irregular meals. Another cause of obesity is low physical activity, which among the poor is associated with a lack of money for sports equipment. Due to the large rate of deaths caused by diseases directly linked to obesity, the governments of many countries implement prevention programmes of overweight and obesity. These programmes are based primarily on educating the public about a healthy lifestyle based on healthy eating, daily physical activity and avoiding alcohol and cigarettes. PMID:25292135
Zukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Wróblewska, Paula; Zwoli?ski, Jacek; Chmielewska-Badora, Jolanta; Adamczuk, Piotr; Krasowska, Ewelina; Zagórski, Jerzy; Oniszczuk, Anna; Pi?tek, Jacek; Silny, Wojciech
The prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity has tripled in the past three decades. This increase has been accompanied by a dramatic rise in obesity-related health complications among American youth. Thus, many obese youth are now experiencing illnesses that will threaten their life expectancy in the absence of significant weight loss.…
Sarwer, David B.; Dilks, Rebecca J.
... Overweight and Obesity Share Compartir Defining Overweight and Obesity Overweight and obesity are both labels for ranges ... MRI). Assessing Health Risks Associated with Overweight and Obesity BMI is just one indicator of potential health ...
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Identificar as Representações Sociais (RS) da pessoa estomizada intestinal sobre vivência da sexualidade após confecção do estoma. MÉTODOS: Estudo exploratório, descritivo, qualitativo do ponto de vista do referencial da Representação Social. Participaram 15 estomizados, sendo 8 mulheres, [...] com idade média de 57,9 anos, entre agosto e setembro de 2005. Dados obtidos por entrevistas, transcritas, foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo, originando a unidade temática "Ressignificando a sexualidade" e subtemas. RESULTADOS: Demonstrou-se que o estoma intestinal interfere na dinâmica da vivência da sexualidade, desvelando que os significados a ela atribuídos estão ancorados nas histórias individuais de vida, na qualidade das relações pessoais/conjugais estabelecidas na prática e na percepção da sexualidade, apesar do estoma. CONCLUSÕES: Representações Sociais sobre vivência da sexualidade após estoma estão ancoradas nos significados atribuídos ao corpo, veiculadas no cotidiano e presentes no imaginário social. É influenciada por outros fatores, como alterações fisiológicas decorrentes do ato cirúrgico e da existência de parceiro. Cuidados adotados nas práticas sexuais propiciam maior segurança e conforto nos momentos de intimidade, tornando-as mais próximas daquilo que vivenciavam antes do estoma. A autoirrigação, associada ou não ao oclusor, constituiu estratégia facilitadora para melhor aceitação do estoma, sendo essencial para vida sexual mais prazerosa. A assistência à pessoa estomizada deve ser integral, não se limitando apenas à doença e ao cuidado técnico, que são importantes, mas não únicos. O trabalho interdisciplinar da equipe de saúde deve vislumbrar a pessoa em sua totalidade, buscando real encontro entre sujeitos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Identify the Social Representations (SR) of ostomized people in terms of sexuality after the stoma. METHODS: An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study using the Social Representation Theory with 15 ostomized people (8 females), mean age of 57.9 years, between August and September 200 [...] 5. Data obtained from transcribed interviews were submitted to content analysis, resulting in the thematic unit "Giving new meaning to sexuality" and subthemes. RESULTS: The study demonstrated that the intestinal stoma interferes in the sexuality experience, showing that the meanings attributed to this experience are based on individual life stories, quality of personal relationships established in practice and perception of sexuality, despite the stoma. CONCLUSIONS: The Social Representations, in terms of experiencing sexuality after the stoma, are based on meanings attributed to the body, associated with daily life and present in the social imaginary. It is influenced by other factors, such as physiological changes resulting from the surgery and the fact of having or not a partner. Care taken during sexual practices provide greater security and comfort in moments of intimacy, resembling the closest to what ostomized people experienced before the stoma. The self-irrigation technique associated or not with the use of artificial occluder, has been attested by its users as a positive element that makes a difference in sexual practice after the stoma. The support to ostomized people should be comprehensive, not limited to technical care and disease, which are important, but not sufficient. The interdisciplinary health team should consider all aspects of the person, seeking a real meeting between subjects.
Maria Angela Boccara de, Paula; Renata Ferreira, Takahashi; Pedro Roberto de, Paula.
... You Can Do Understanding the American Obesity Epidemic Obesity and Stroke: What is their connection? Stress Management How Does ... Brochures • Obesity - Introduction - Understanding the American Obesity Epidemic - Obesity and Stroke: What is their connection? - Treating Obesity as a ...
Full Text Available ... with an open incision. There is a screening process for potential donors. It’s important to emphasize that ... surgically an acceptable candidate. This shows our screening process, first the potential donor meets with a social ...
Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during pregnancy increases the offspring risk for obesity. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that maternal consumption of a high fat (60%) diet leads to global and gene specific decreases in DNA methylation in the brain of the offspring. The present experiments were designed to attempt to reverse this DNA hypomethylation through supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors, and to determine whether methyl donor supplementation cou...
Carlin, Jesselea; George, Robert; Reyes, Teresa M.
Full Text Available Presently life style modification at the transitionof menopause will go long way in preventing weight gainduring this metabolically vulnerable period which will helpin primary and secondary prevention of several chronicdiseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer,hypertension, obesity, depression and osteoporosis andpremature death beside keeping women physically andmentally fit in her menopause.
In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive. Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Date Released: 3/6/2014.
Obese people as a group have similar mental health as normal weight people, and there are no psychiatric features characteristic of obesity in general. However, small subgroups of obese individuals may have psychiatric abnormalities which are specific for obesity, such as body image disturbance or periodic compulsive overeating (bulimia). Obesity is strongly related to sociocultural factors. In western countries obesity is commoner in lower than in higher social classes. Thus, the development of obesity is influenced by social status. However, also the converse is true: recent observations suggest that obese people lose social status. This is probably due to prejudice and discrimination against obese persons in the modern western society. PMID:3477994
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La prevalencia está aumentando de forma alarmante en todo el mundo y en todas las edades. Las complicaciones aparecen cada vez antes, son ya visibles en niños y adolescentes: problemas psicológicos, de adaptación social, ortopédicos, hiperlipidemia, hipertensión, apneas del sueño... La obesidad infa [...] ntil es el principal factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de obesidad en el adulto, que se asocia a un mayor número de factores de riesgo cardiovascular y a la disminución de la esperanza de vida. Aunque existen factores genéticos, el aumento de la obesidad está claramente unido al cambio del estilo de vida (mayor ingesta calórica y menor actividad física). El tratamiento es difícil, requiere de una estrategia multidisciplinaria actuando sobre el paciente y su entorno (familia). Por este motivo es clave la prevención primaria estimulando un estilo de vida saludable. Abstract in english Obesity prevalence is an increasing and alarming problem in the whole world and at all ages. Important consequences are coming earlier and they are visible in childhood and adolescence: Psychological problems, social acceptance, orthopaedic problems, high level of lipids, hypertension, sleep apnoeas [...] ... Children's obesity is the main risk factor for adult obesity, what is related to more cardiovascular risk factors and to a decrease in life expectancy. Although there are genetics factors, the rise of obesity is eventually in relation with life stile (more food calories intake and less practice of physical activity). Treatment is difficult. It is mandatory a multidisciplinary strategy effort toward patients and their families. Primary prevention is a key factor through encouraging a healthy life style.
M., Duelo Marcos; E., Escribano Ceruelo; F., Muñoz Velasco.
Full Text Available Context: Blood donation results in a substantial loss of iron (200 to 250 mg at each bleeding procedure (425 to 475 ml and subsequent mobilization of iron from body stores. Recent reports have shown that body iron reserves generally are small and iron depletion is more frequent in blood donors than in non-donors. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors and to establish the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors according to sex, whether they were first-time or multi-time donors. Design: From march 20 to April 5, 2004, three hundred potential blood donors from Hemocentro del Café y Tolima Grande were studied. Diagnostic tests: Using a combination of biochemical measurements of iron status: serum ferritin (RIA, ANNAR and the hemoglobin pre and post-donation (HEMOCUE Vital technology medical . Results: The frequency of iron deficiency in potential blood donors was 5%, and blood donors accepted was 5.1%; in blood donors rejected for low hemoglobin the frequency of iron deficiency was 3.7% and accepted blood donors was 1.7% in male and 12.6% in female. The frequency of iron deficiency was higher in multi-time blood donors than in first-time blood donors, but not stadistic significative. Increase nivel accepted hemoglobina in 1 g/dl no incidence in male; in female increase of 0.5 g/dl low in 25% blood donors accepted with iron deficiency, but increased rejected innecesary in 16.6% and increased is 1 g/dl low blood donors female accepted in 58% (7/12, but increased the rejected innecesary in 35.6%. Conclusions: We conclude that blood donation not is a important factor for iron deficiency in blood donors. The high frequency of blood donors with iron deficiency found in this study suggests a need for a more accurate laboratory trial, as hemoglobin or hematocrit measurement alone is not sufficient for detecting and excluding blood donors with iron deficiency without anemia, and ajustes hacia nivel more high in standars of accepted of hemoglobin no help the situation and no assure the blood suplly; increased exclusion blood donors of 9% at 44.6%.
This review seeks to provide a current overview of musculoskeletal pain in overweight and obese children. Databases searched were Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Medline, Proquest Health and Medical Complete, Scopus, Google Scholar, SPORTDiscuss and Trove for studies published between 1 January 2000 and 30 December 2012. We used a broad definition of children within a 3- to 18-year age range. The search strategy included the following terms: obesity, morbid obesity, overweight, pain, musculoskeletal pain, child, adolescent, chronic pain, back pain, lower back pain, knee pain, hip pain, foot pain and pelvic pain. Two authors independently assessed each record, and any disagreement was resolved by the third author. Data were analysed using a narrative thematic approach owing to the heterogeneity of reported outcome measures. Ninety-seven records were initially identified using a variety of terms associated with children, obesity and musculoskeletal pain. Ten studies were included for thematic analysis when predetermined inclusion criteria were applied. Bone deformity and dysfunction, pain reporting and the impact of children being overweight or obese on physical activity, exercise and quality of life were the three themes identified from the literature. Chronic pain, obesity and a reduction in physical functioning and activity may contribute to a cycle of weight gain that affects a child's quality of life. Future studies are required to examine the sequela of overweight and obese children experiencing chronic musculoskeletal pain. PMID:24077005
Smith, S M; Sumar, B; Dixon, K A
... CDC Employees and Reasonable Accommodations (RA) Disability and Obesity Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir Overweight and ... and Disability at http://www.ncpad.org/ The Obesity Epidemic Obesity affects different people in different ways ...
... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome? Obesity hypoventilation (HI-po-ven-tih-LA-shun) syndrome ( ... a machine that supports breathing.) OHS occurs with obesity, so your doctor will likely recommend weight loss ...
Complex program "Surgery without blood" was developed and introduced into a broad clinical practice. The main elements of this program are stimulation of erythropoesis, preparing in autoserum and autoblood before surgery with acute normovolemic hemodilution method, precise surgical technique, reinfusion of blood from wound and drainages, adequate anesthesia and correction of hemostasis system. This program permits one to minimize infusion of donor's blood components (DBC) in elective surgery (cardiosurgery, orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, oncology, general surgery) and reduce significantly transfusion of DBC in urgent surgery. Rejection of DBC transfusion decreases number of postoperative complications and hospital stay, improves results of treatment and is cost-effective. PMID:15477831
Tarichko, Iu V; Ermolov, A S; Nemytin, Iu V; Domrachev, S A; Kurbanov, F S; Khvatov, B V; Ragimov, A A
Too many California children suffer from high rates of preventable chronic conditions associated with childhood obesity and dental disease. The state is experiencing a crisis in both areas. Fortunately, common factors that contribute to both conditions--including the rates of breastfeeding, access to healthy food and the consumption of…
Children Now, 2011
The aerospace industry, along with other industries, has recognised the need to bridge the gap between novice and experienced designers. Research is being undertaken to identify the support a novice designer would require to gain experience faster. A major part of this research is to understand the differences between novice and experienced designers more fully. Results of studies of novice and experienced designers undertaken in the aerospace industry are described. This paper provides the background to the area; describes the data gathering methods; presents the results of the studies; provides some specific examples; and draws conclusions in terms of what actions might be taken to "bridge the experience gap".
Ahmed, Saeema; Wallace, Ken M.
Context: Blood donation results in a substantial loss of iron (200 to 250 mg) at each bleeding procedure (425 to 475 ml) and subsequent mobilization of iron from body stores. Recent reports have shown that body iron reserves generally are small and iron depletion is more frequent in blood donors than in non-donors. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors and to establish the frequency of iron deficiency in blood donors according to s...
Armando Cortés; Martha Lucía Jiménez; Ariadna Fajardo; Gloria Valencia; Martha Cecilia Marín; Norma Sandoval
Obesity and overweight are increasing in KSA with an overall obesity prevalence of 35.5%. Reduction in overweight and obesity are of considerable importance to public health. Therefore, we recommend a national obesity prevention program at community level to be implemented sooner to promote leaner and consequently healthier community.
Mansour M. Al-Nozha
... About CDC.gov . Overweight and Obesity Share Compartir Obesity Prevalence Maps Obesity prevalence in 2013 varies across states and territories ... 9% in Puerto Rico. + Prevalence* of Self-Reported Obesity Among U.S. Adults by State and Territory, BRFSS, ...
Donor selection is one of the most important aspects of tissue banking practice. Without a good donor selection criteria, the results of any effort of trying to preserve tissues will have disastrous outcome for the recipient of these tissues. While with a very good and strict donor selection the Tissue Bank can guarantee safe and effective tissue allografts. There are significant aspects in the history and physical examination of the donor that must be emphasized. A donor exclusion criteria has also been formulated together with a list of all the needed laboratory examinations to eliminate possible diseases that may be transferred from the donor. The methods of procurement of tissue allografts from living and cadaver donors will be described. The limitations and advantages of each will be taken.There are also special restrictions that are important in the practice of removing the tissues from the donors. All the necessary equipment should be ready and the potential risk on the personnel should be known to all doing Tissue Banking
Full Text Available ... Boston. Dr. Joseph Murray was awarded the Nobel Prize for that pioneering work. And we’ve had a lot of talk about the safety for the living donors. The donor for that operation turned 80 last year, which is really quite an accomplishment. On ...
Full Text Available ... there any risk that you can lose the patient during this surgery? If so, what is the risk?” There have been deaths from donor kidney removal. They’re very rare. Much less than one percent, so, yes, there is a risk of that, but it is extremely low. The donors that it has been a problem ...
A totally voluntary plasmapheresis program recruits 900 individual donors per year at a cancer institute, where 500 to 900 units of platelets are transfused each month. Staff and donors use a film and brochures to recruit donors from the local community. Television and radio spots, with donor recognition pins, certificates, receptions, and picnics are utilized. Donor motivation was studied by use of: 1) California Psychological Inventory--measures a variety of "normal" personality traits; 2) Study of values--measures theoretical, economic, aesthetic, social, political, religious values; 3) Internal-External Control Scale--measures degree to which a person blames self vs. external events for what happens to him; 4) Faith in People Scale--measures individual's confidence in his fellow man; 5) Anomia Scale--measure of feelings of self-to-others alienation; 6) Mach IV Scale--measure of persons tendency to manipulate others; and 7) Biographical Data Form. Results are presented for 25 male donor subjects studied, as they compare with normative data for the scales used. Donors appeared to have the same traits as do the general population, but appeared lower in Machiavellianism than non-plasmapheresis donors. Prospective study plans include additional subjects to provide appropriate control groups. PMID:951736
Cataldo, J F; Cohen, E; Morganti, J B
The emphasis on high-school blood drives and acceptance of 16-year-old blood donors led to more research on physiologic and psychological ways to decrease vasovagal reaction rates in young blood donors and to increase donor retention. Research on how to accomplish this has been advantageous for the blood collection industry and blood donors. This review discussed the current situation and what can be done psychologically, physiologically, and via process improvements to decrease vasovagal reaction rates and increase donor retention. The donation process can be significantly improved. Future interventions may include more dietary salt, a shorter muscle tension program to make it more feasible, recommendations for post-donation muscle tension / squatting / laying down for lightheadedness, more donor education by the staff at the collection site, more staff attention to donors with fear or higher risk for a vasovagal reaction (e.g. estimated blood volume near 3.5 l, first-time donor), and a more focused donation process to ensure a pleasant and safer procedure. PMID:25254024
Newman, Bruce H
Living kidney donors were analyzed in different respects in our long-term study. There were important findings, which include the following: 1. Kidney donors live longer, most likely due to a selection of healthy individuals. 2. Remnant kidney function increases for a long period, both in younger and older donors. There is a subsequent decrease in function that is more apparent in the elderly. 3. Hypertension is a common long-term finding, suggesting the need for regular blood pressure check-ups after donation. 4. Altruistic reasons were the most common motives for donation. 5. Spouses seem to be the best choice, since quality of life improves for the entire family. 6. For the donor, the transplantation results are the most important. Not only immunosuppressive therapy, but also treating co-morbidity in the recipients is therefore important. 7. Personal experience supports the use of living donors. PMID:25095507
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative for chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), but many patients lack a suitably matched related donor. We report successful outcomes after mismatched, unrelated-donor umbilical cord blood transplantation (uUCBT) in two boys with X-linked CGD. Both patients experienced autologous recovery after first transplants, required second transplants to achieve durable donor engraftment, and are alive 27 and 15 months post-transplant. Both had invasive fungal disease and received granulocyte transfusions. In conclusion, uUCBT is effective in children with CGD, but immunosuppression in the conditioning regimen may need to be increased to decrease the risk of graft rejection. PMID:17941061
Parikh, Suhag H; Szabolcs, Paul; Prasad, Vinod K; Lakshminarayanan, Sonali; Martin, Paul L; Driscoll, Timothy A; Kurtzberg, Joanne
Obesity is a risk factor for colorectal cancer based on its molecular and metabolic effects on insulin and IGF-1, leptin, adipocytokines, and sex hormones. Obese men have a higher risk of colorectal cancer compared with normal weight men, but the association between obesity and rectal cancer is weaker than with colon cancer. There is a weaker association between obesity and colon cancer in women than in men, and no appreciable association between obesity and rectal cancer in women. Although o...
Gribovskaja-rupp, Irena; Kosinski, Lauren; Ludwig, Kirk A.
Obesity is an important disease with a growing incidence. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, and decreases life span, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain breeds is often suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of o...
Corbee, R. J.
Although obesity has been associated with improved survival on dialysis, its short-and long-term effects on renal transplantation outcomes remain unclear. Herein, we evaluate the short-term and intermediate long-term effects of obesity on first-time renal transplant patients. A retrospective analysis was performed on 180 consecutive renal transplant recipients from living unrelated donors during 2006-2008 in a major transplantation center in Tehran, Iran. Among these, 34 (18%) patients were found to be obese (body mass index ?30 kg/m 2 ). Obese patients were more likely to develop post-transplant renal artery stenosis (RAS) (17.6% vs. 2.8%, P <0.001), hematoma (47.9% vs. 17.6, P = 0.009), surgical wound complications (64.7% vs. 9.6%, P <0.001) and renal vein thrombosis (2% vs. 0%, P <0.001). However, the incidence of delayed graft function, lymphocele, urologic complications of ureterovesical junction stenosis or urinary leakage, surgical complications of excessive bleeding or renal artery thrombosis and duration of hospitalization were similar between the two groups. The two-year patient and graft survival were also statistically not different. Renal transplantation in obese recipients is associated with a higher incidence of post-transplant RAS, hematoma, surgical wound complications and renal vein thrombosis, but similar two-year patient and graft survival. PMID:24625995
Behzadi, Ashkan Heshmatzadeh; Kamali, Koosha; Zargar, Mohammad; Abbasi, Mohammad Amin; Piran, Pirouz; Bastani, Bahar
Large registries of potential unrelated stem cell donors have been established in order to enable stem cell transplantation for patients without HLA-identical related donors. Donor search is complicated by the fact that the stored HLA information of many registered donors is incomplete. We carried out a project that was aimed to improve chances of patients with ongoing donor searches to find an HLA-matched unrelated donor. For that purpose, we carried out additional donor center-initiated HLA-DRB1 typing of donors who were only typed for the HLA loci A and B so far and were potential matches for patients in need of a stem cell transplant. In total, 8,861 donors were contacted for donor center-initiated HLA-DRB1 typing within 1,089 donor searches. 12 of these donors have donated stem cells so far, 8 thereof for their respective target patients. We conclude that chances of patients with ongoing donor searches to find an HLA-matched unrelated donor can indeed be improved by donor-center initiated typing that is carried out in addition to the standard donor search process. Our results also raise questions regarding the appropriate use of incompletely typed donors within unrelated donor searches. PMID:21625451
Schmidt, Alexander H.; Solloch, Ute V.; Baier, Daniel; Grathwohl, Alois; Hofmann, Jan; Pingel, Julia; Stahr, Andrea; Ehninger, Gerhard
Aberrations in gut microbiota are associated with metabolic disorders, including obesity. However, whether shifts in the microbiota profile during obesity are a characteristic of the phenotype or a consequence of obesogenic feeding remains elusive. Therefore, we aimed to determine differences in the gut microbiota of obese-prone (OP) and obese-resistant (OR) rats and examined the contribution of this microbiota to the behavioral and metabolic characteristics during obesity. We found that OP rats display a gut microbiota distinct from OR rats fed the same high-fat diet, with a higher Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio and significant genera differences. Transfer of OP but not OR microbiota to germ-free (GF) mice replicated the characteristics of the OP phenotype, including reduced intestinal and hypothalamic satiation signaling, hyperphagia, increased weight gain and adiposity, and enhanced lipogenesis and adipogenesis. Furthermore, increased gut permeability through conventionalization resulted in inflammation by proinflammatory nuclear factor (NF)-?B/inhibitor of NF-?B kinase subunit signaling in adipose tissue, liver, and hypothalamus. OP donor and GF recipient animals harbored specific species from Oscillibacter and Clostridium clusters XIVa and IV that were completely absent from OR animals. In conclusion, susceptibility to obesity is characterized by an unfavorable microbiome predisposing the host to peripheral and central inflammation and promoting weight gain and adiposity during obesogenic feeding. PMID:24430437
Duca, Frank A; Sakar, Yassine; Lepage, Patricia; Devime, Fabienne; Langelier, Bénédicte; Doré, Joël; Covasa, Mihai
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo la autora propone para la obesidad una intervención estratégica basada en el comportamiento. Explica los asuntos teóricos de base y expone con detalle las fases de actuación. El método, por su estructuración, puede interesar no solo a psicólogos y psicoterapeutas sino también a médi [...] cos de familia puesto que la parte propiamente psicoterapéutica no es larga y puede ser realizada por un profesional que colabora sólo durante las cuatro primeras entrevistas. Abstract in english The author proposes a strategic intervention on behavioural base for obesity. The article exposes the theoretical points wich is based on and the phases of intervention are described in detail. The method, because of its structure will not only be of interest to psychologist and psychotherapist, but [...] also to family doctors as the psychotherapeutic part is limited and may be put into act by a supporting therapist during the first four sessions.
Antiretroviral therapy (ART)-experienced individuals may choose to modify their regimens because of suboptimal virologic response, poor tolerability, convenience, or to minimize interactions with other medications or food. Constructing a new regimen for any of these reasons requires a thorough review of prior antiretroviral drug use and available drug resistance results. This article summarizes the strategies used in managing the ART-experienced individual who is considering a modification in therapy at the time of suboptimal virologic response or while virologically suppressed on a stable regimen. PMID:25151565
Calvo, Katya R; Daar, Eric S
The conventional incision for donor hepatectomy is a right subcostal incision with a midline extension. With increased experience in both donor hepatectomy and laparoscopy, the conventional incision can be shortened to a significant extent. Laparoscopic mobilization of the liver coupled with a hand port allows the insertion of one hand inside the abdomen for control; this makes small-incision donor hepatectomy a technically feasible alternative. We compared 26 right lobe donor hepatectomies performed with a laparoscopy-assisted technique (the laparoscopy-assisted donor hepatectomy group) to 24 donor hepatectomies performed with the conventional open technique (the conventional donor hepatectomy group). The donors in both groups and their recipients were followed for 6 months. Pain, discomfort related to the scar [including abdominal wall sensorineural deficits (numbness and differences in tactile and temperature sensations) and tightness around the scar], and donor quality of life (assessed with the International Quality of Life Assessment Short Form 8 scoring system) were compared between the 2 groups. In conclusion, laparoscopy-assisted surgery can be a technically feasible alternative in experienced hands, and as with other minimally invasive surgeries, it has advantages such as significantly less pain, reduced incision-related complications, and better donor quality of life during the early postoperative period without compromising donor safety. Liver Transpl 20:1229-1236, 2014. © 2014 AASLD. PMID:24961992
Makki, Kausar; Chorasiya, Vishal Kumar; Sood, Gaurav; Srivastava, Piyush Kumar; Dargan, Puneet; Vij, Vivek
This paper is about how rural landscape is experienced according to combinations of practical engagements with land and the ways meaning is made in relation to it. It presents the case of the ambiguous position of the Orkney Islands within categorisations of Highland and Lowland landscapes in Scotland. Through a discussion of the physical and…
Considers the difficulties experienced by the East German School system adjusting to a more progressive educational philosophy. Specifically, contrasts the traditional East German geography instruction (focused solely on physical geography) with the West German emphasis on social issues and problem solving. Many East German instructors distrust…
Mai, Uli; Burpee, Peter
The aim of this article is, by analysing children's discourses, to investigate their actions or absence of actions during a domestic violence episode. The empirical data are recorded group therapy sessions and individual interviews with children who have grown up experiencing their fathers' violence against their mothers. The analysis shows that…
Overlien, Carolina; Hyden, Margareta
Investigates 10 student teachers' understanding of the different ways in which the function of the ecosystem could be experienced. Explores the functional aspects of the ecosystem using a system approach. Concludes that the idea of transformation is crucial to more complex ways of understanding photosynthesis. (Contains 62 references.) (Author/YDS)
Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity in the United States is increasing in all age groups. During the past 30 years, the proportion of older adults who are obese has doubled. In this article the author describes the prevalence and causes of obesity among older adults as well as the consequences of obesity in older adults. Recommendations for interventions to address obesity are also provided. Differences between the two groups of older adults, those 50 to 65 years of age, and those over 65 years of age, will be addressed. The goal of the article is to raise nurses’ awareness of the challenges of obesity in older adults.
Ann Mabe Newman
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is the result of long-term energy imbalances, where daily energy intake exceeds daily energy expenditure. Along with long-term health problems, obesity in children may also be associated with psychosocial problems, including social marginalisation, low self-esteem, and impaired quality of life. Most obese adolescents stay obese as adults. Obesity is increasing among children and adolescents, with 16.8% of boys and 15.2% of girls in the UK aged 2 to 15 years obese in 2008...
Canoy, D.; Bundred, P.
Full Text Available Francesca Giuliani,1 Ilaria Rovelli,1 Chiara Peila,1 Stefania Alfonsina Liguori,2 Enrico Bertino,1 Alessandra Coscia1 1SCDU Neonatologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Pediatriche e dell'Adolescenza, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy; 2SC Neonatologia, Ospedale Maria Vittoria, Torino, Italy Abstract: Mother's own milk is widely recognized as the optimal feeding for term infants, but increasing evidence exists of its benefits also for sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units. However, the nutritional needs for appropriate growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of such a particular population of infants should be attentively evaluated, considering also the indication to an appropriate fortification of human milk. The target is to achieve growth potential for preterm newborns while ensuring good metabolic outcomes and normal neurological development. When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, donor human milk (DHM represents the second best choice and, although somewhat modified by the Holder pasteurization process, it preserves many benefits when compared to formula, as documented by more and more reports, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analyses published in the past few years. Evidence exists of the protection exerted by DHM from necrotizing enterocolitis, while further studies are required to look at possible beneficial effects regarding infections, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, long-term cardiovascular risk factors, feeding tolerance, neurological outcome, and allergy. Finally, the concern that the use of DHM might decrease preterm infant breastfeeding is being raised. Conversely, publications exist showing that the use of DHM in the neonatal unit increases breastfeeding rates at discharge for infants of very low birth weight. Keywords: human milk, preterm infant feeding, milk bank, breast milk, mother's own milk, pasteurized human milk, fortification
We calculate the binding energy of an electron bound to a donor in a semiconductor inverse opal. Inverse opals have two kinds of cavities, which we call octahedral and tetrahedral, according to their group symmetry. We put the donor in the center of each of these two cavities and obtain the binding energy. The binding energies become very large when the inverse opal is made from templates with small spheres. For spheres less than 50 nm in diameter, the donor binding can increase to several times its unconfined value. Then electrons become tightly bound to the donor and are unlikely to be thermally activated to the semiconductor conduction band. This conclusion suggests that inverse opals will be poor conductors.
Mahan, G. D.
Full Text Available Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery Sentara Norfolk General Hospital, Norfolk, Virginia March 25, 2009 Welcome to this “ ... than 100 caregiving sites, including seven acute care hospitals, four advanced imaging centers, seven nursing homes, and ...
Full Text Available ... northeastern North Carolina. Nationally recognized for quality and innovation, Sentara employs over 15,000 people and operates ... process, first the potential donor meets with a social worker and a psychologist, and there are also ...
Full Text Available Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery Sentara Norfolk General Hospital, Norfolk, Virginia March 25, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” webcast presentation presented by Sentara Healthcare. Sentara Healthcare is a not-for-profit integrated ...
Full Text Available ... multiple-list paired exchange. There are now several national registries of donors and they’re incompatible, so ... accomplishment. On the 50thanniversary of that transplant the National Transplant meetings they had a celebration of the ...
Second language teacher education community has become increasingly interested in the pedagogical knowledge base of teachers as a window into practitioners' mental lives. The present study was conducted to document likely differences between the pedagogic thoughts of experienced and less experienced teachers. Eight teachers participated in the…
Akbari, Ramin; Tajik, Leila
Two experiments with 3 1/2- to 6 1/2-year-old children showed that theory-of-mind development is associated with the growth of episodic memory. Episodic memory was assessed by manipulating informational conditions such that they permit or prevent the formation of episodic memories in terms of re-experiencing the recalled event. Only experienced…
Perner, Josef; Kloo, Daniela; Gornik, Edith
Full Text Available Due to its technically simple and easily reproducible nature cold static preservation is still the current gold standard for myocardial protection in between donor explantation and recipient implantation. It allows “safe” overall ischemic periods of up to 4 hours with a primary graft failure rate less than 2%. Additional measures such as second rinsing or leucocyte depleted in-situ reperfusion allow to extend the ischemic tolerance in ideal donor hearts to 6 hours. Recent technological progress and research improved results of continuous warm, blood based in-vitro perfusion reducing the necessity of myocardial ischemia to the surgical procedures of ex- and implantation. First clinical experiences with this challenging but also very expensive technology indicate its safety and efficacy with at least similar results as cold static preservation even with extended transport times. Due to possible donor evaluation or even resuscitation strategies during ex-vivo perfusion, it offers furthermore promising potential to compensate the ever increasing donor risk profile and could also help to increase availability of transplantable donor hearts. As of December 2011 a German multicenter prospective registry study will start with the goal to evaluate efficacy and outcome of this method in 250 heart transplants using donor organs with extended criteria or expected transport times of >3 hours. Expected duration of this project is 2 years and final analyses of collected data will help to clarify if application of this complex and expensive technology is ultimately beneficial and justified.
F. M. Wagner
Obesity belongs to the five most important health burdens in modern societies and reaches with ~20?% prevalence in Germany epidemic proportions. Obesity significantly increases the risk of developing metabolic (e.?g. type 2 diabetes), cardiovascular, orthopaedic, psychologic and other disorders. Despite the well established epidemiologic relationship between obesity and these co-morbidities, there is a subgroup of metabolically healthy obese patients, which seems to be protected against metabolic and cardiovascular obesity related disorders. Compared to metabolically unhealthy or high risk obese patients, metabolically healthy obese individuals are characterized by preserved insulin sensitivity, lower liver fat content, lower visceral fat mass, as well as normal adipose tissue function. Noteworthy, metabolically healthy obese individuals do not significantly improve their obesity-associated risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and vascular diseases. Therefore, distinction between metabolically healthy from high-risk obese phenotypes will facilitate the identification of the obese person who will benefit the most from early lifestyle, pharmacological or bariatric surgery interventions. A stratified treatment approach considering these different obesity phenotypes should be introduced into clinical management of obese patients. PMID:24823981
Some living kidney donors incur economic consequences as a result of donation; however, these costs are poorly quantified. We developed a framework to comprehensively assess economic consequences from the donor perspective including out-of-pocket cost, lost wages and home productivity loss. We prospectively enrolled 100 living kidney donors from seven Canadian centers between 2004 and 2008 and collected and valued economic consequences ($CAD 2008) at 3 months and 1 year after donation. Almost all (96%) donors experienced economic consequences, with 94% reporting travel costs and 47% reporting lost pay. The average and median costs of lost pay were $2144 (SD 4167) and $0 (25th-75th percentile 0, 2794), respectively. For other expenses (travel, accommodation, medication and medical), mean and median costs were $1780 (SD 2504) and $821 (25th-75th percentile 242, 2271), respectively. From the donor perspective, mean cost was $3268 (SD 4704); one-third of donors incurred cost >$3000, and 15% >$8000. The majority of donors (83%) reported inability to perform usual household activities for an average duration of 33 days; 8% reported out-of-pocket costs for assistance with these activities. The economic impact of living kidney donation for some individuals is large. We advocate for programs to reimburse living donors for their legitimate costs. PMID:24597854
Klarenbach, S; Gill, J S; Knoll, G; Caulfield, T; Boudville, N; Prasad, G V R; Karpinski, M; Storsley, L; Treleaven, D; Arnold, J; Cuerden, M; Jacobs, P; Garg, A X
Full Text Available Research question: Whether certain personality characteristics of obese women make them prone towards psychological problem? Objective: To assess certain personality characteristics of obese women. Study design: Cross-sectional community based study. Setting: Affluent localities of Varanasi city. Participants: Women above 15 years of age. Statistical Analysis: Mean, S.D and â€˜tâ€? test. Results: On 16 PF scale obese women were found more reserved, critical, depressed, worried and troubled than the non-obese women. Obese also manifested subsequently less felling of contentment, happiness satisfaction with life experiences, low sense of achievement on PGI Well-Being. Obese women showed more distress and apprehension over their negative evaluation and distressed with day to day Conclusion: Obese women evidenced significantly more neurotic than non- obese women.
Full Text Available Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pathophysiological mechanisms such as impaired brain circuit regulation and neuroendocrine hormone dysfunction. Dieting and physical exercise offer the mainstays of obesity treatment, and anti-obesity drugs may be taken in conjunction to reduce appetite or fat absorption. Bariatric surgeries may be performed in overtly obese patients to lessen stomach volume and nutrient absorption, and induce faster satiety. This review provides a summary of literature on the pathophysiological studies of obesity and discusses relevant therapeutic strategies for managing obesity.
The prevalence of obesity has considerably increased during the past thirty years. Possible consequences of obesity on respiratory physiology include a restrictive disorder, changes in ventilatory mechanics and an alteration of respiratory drive. Apart from the well established relation between obesity and obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome, obesity is associated with two other respiratory disorders. On one hand, epidemiological and animal data suggest a causal relationship between obesity and asthma. On the other hand, morbid obesity is associated, through an alteration of the respiratory drive involving leptin, with a diurnal and nocturnal alveolar hypoventilation defining the obesity-hypoventilation syndrome. These data emphasize the necessity for the medical practitioner to investigate any respiratory symptomatology in obese patients. PMID:19127895
Réthoret-Lacatis, Codrina; Janssens, Jean-Paul
Aim: To compare diets between obese and non-obese in children. Methods: Thirty-four obese and ten non-obese school children were recruited and their habitual factors of obesity were asked. Intakes of food in the obesity and non-obesity groups were checked using a model nutritional balance chart (MNBC). Results: Average intake ratio of food relative to ideal food intake was significantly higher in the non-obesity group than the obesity group. The relationship between obesity and exercise was s...
Atsuko Satoh; Seiko Fujita; Kazuko Menzawa; Sangun Lee; Masao Miyamoto; Hidatada Sasaki
BACKGROUND: Most people do not realize how prejudicially damaging they behave, particularly towards the obese. Their discrimination has been deemed, unconsciously perhaps, as acceptable by society. METHODS: This paper describes a high school senior's exploration of prejudice and discrimination towards the obese. RESULTS: Through interviews with bariatric surgeons, bariatric patients, an obese victim of prejudice in her high school, attendance at support group meetings, statements from others experiencing similar bias in their workplace as well as a review of the relevant literature, the author developed a new understanding of the extent and depth of prejudice against the obese in North American society. She realized how this prejudice limits social opportunities and access of all sorts, interferes with employment opportunities, and even how deeply it penetrates the medical community. CONCLUSION: The intent of this paper is to educate those in society who continue to discriminate against the obese, and to open our eyes to our own behavior, as the author's have been opened. PMID:10729890
The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many countries. While its impact on overall health is well documented, less is known about the ocular manifestations of obesity. Amongst different eye diseases, obesity has been linked with age-related cataract, glaucoma, age-related maculopathy, and diabetic retinopathy. Numerous population-based and prospective studies support an association between obesity and risk of age-related cataract. However, the nature and strength of the...
Cheung, Ning; Wong, Tien Y.
Obesity is an increasingly serious socioeconomic and clinical problem. Between 1/4 - 1/3 of population in the developed countries can be classified as obese. Four major etiological factors for development of obesity are genetic determinants, environmental factors, food intake and exercise. Obesity increases the risk of the development of various pathologic conditions including: insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, endocrine problems, ...
Gurevich-panigrahi, Tatiana; Wiechec, Emilia; Panigrahi, Soumya; Los, Marek Jan
The growing problem of obesity is associated with multiple morbidities, including increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, sleep apnea, and cancer. Obesity promotes disability, decreases productivity, and shortens life span. Although much attention has been focused on diet and exercise, these strategies alone are not effective in preventing obesity and maintaining weight loss. Moreover, the development of pharmacological approaches for obesity treatment has been dogged by poor...
Ahima, Rexford S.
Abstract An epidemic of pediatric obesity has occurred across the world in recent years. There are subgroups within the population at high-risk of becoming obese and especially of having experience of precocious cardiovascular and metabolic co-morbidities of obesity. One of these subgroups comprises patients treated for childhood cancers and namely survivors of craniopharyngioma. The high incidence of obesity in this group makes these patients an important disease model to better un...
Bruzzi Patrizia; Iughetti Lorenzo
The incidence of chronic, noncommunicable diseases, such as heart disease, is increasing at an alarming rate on the global scale. The growing prevalence of overweight and obesity have led to an upsurge in cases of diabetes and other obesity-related diseases. About 18 million people die every year from heart disease, of which diabetes and obesity are major predisposing factors. Worldwide, more than 1.1 billion adults are overweight, 312 million of which are obese. The number of children that a...
Kollar, Lenka; Epifano, Evienne; Mckneight, Molly; Miskovich, Jeff; Moore, Heather
Full Text Available The philosopher Eugene Gendlin argues that a distinctive mode of reasoning, called experiencing, is necessary for working through personally salient problems such as are encountered in psychotherapy. We review supporting empirical support. It is now possible to consider Gendlin’s ideas from a neurological perspective. Work directed at understanding the neurological underpinnings of consciousness and self-related processing, as well as comparative neuroanatomical work, are all consistent with and elucidated by Gendlin’s experiencing construct. We argue from this data that the human mind is composed of three interacting systems that are unique to or enhanced in humans compared to other primates. Two are dedicated to “hot and cold” cognition. The most important, least well-studied third system is dedicated to mediating between these forms of cognition. We outline how interactions between these systems define different forms of psychopathology and what they suggest about the structure of the human mind.
Full Text Available Donor heart preservation and perfusionFlorian M. WagnerDept. of Cardiovascular Surgery, University Heart Center Hamburg, Germany[Applied Cardiopulmonary Pathophysiology 15: 198-206, 2011] AbstractDue to its technically simple and easily reproducible nature cold static preservation is still the current gold standard for myocardial protection in between donor explantation and recipient implantation. It allows “safe” overall ischemic periods of up to 4 hours with a primary graft failure rate less than 2%. Additional measures such as second rinsing or leucocyte depleted in-situ reperfusion allow to extend the ischemic tolerance in ideal donor hearts to 6 hours. Recent technological progress and research improved results of continuous warm, blood based in-vitro perfusion reducing the necessity of myocardial ischemia to the surgical procedures of ex- and implantation. First clinical experiences with this challenging but also very expensive technology indicate its safety and efficacy with at least similar results as cold static preservation even with extended transport times. Due to possible donor evaluation or even resuscitation strategies during ex-vivo perfusion, it offers furthermore promising potential to compensate the ever increasing donor risk profile and could also help to increase availability of transplantable donor hearts. As of December 2011 a German multicenter prospective registry study will start with the goal to evaluate efficacy and outcome of this method in 250 heart transplants using donor organs with extended criteria or expected transport times of >3 hours. Expected duration of this project is 2 years and final analyses of collected data will help to clarify if application of this complex and expensive technology is ultimately beneficial and justified.
F. M. Wagner
This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…
Reilly, John J.
... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Overweight and Obesity? The terms "overweight" and "obesity" refer to body weight that’s greater than what ... height. The most useful measure of overweight and obesity is body mass index (BMI). BMI is calculated ...
With Americans fatter and more malnourished than ever--almost two-thirds of the population is considered overweight or obese compared with 56 percent in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and people of color and the poor are the most obese of all--federal and university researchers and outreach workers from various anti-obesity organizations aim to…
Full Text Available Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.Keywords: obesity, lung function, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, anesthesia
Full Text Available ... Mortality HealthDay July 9, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Health Statistics Obesity Transcript America's obesity epidemic is showing no signs of abating. In fact, 6% of the American public now struggles with so-called "extreme obesity" a ...
Full Text Available Aim: To compare diets between obese and non-obese in healthy older subjects. Methods: Forty-five obese and eighty-seven non-obese older subjects were recruited and their habitual factors that may contribute to obesity were assessed. Intakes of food by food-group in the obesity and non-obesity groups were checked using a visual type presentation of model nutriational balance chart (MNBC. Results: Average intake ratio of food relative to ideal food intake was significantly higher in the obesity group than the non-obesity group. The relationship of obesity and exercise or habitual activities was not significant. Conclusion: Food intake is a primary factor of obesity but regular exercise or habitual activities is not a key factor for obesity in older subjects. Since exercise habit is difficult to achieve in older subjects, particularly those who are obese, food control using the present visualtype MNBC would be one strategy forthe management of obesity.
James P. Butler
Full Text Available Aim: To compare diets between obese and non-obese in children. Methods: Thirty-four obese and ten non-obese school children were recruited and their habitual factors of obesity were asked. Intakes of food in the obesity and non-obesity groups were checked using a model nutritional balance chart (MNBC. Results: Average intake ratio of food relative to ideal food intake was significantly higher in the non-obesity group than the obesity group. The relationship between obesity and exercise was significant but not significant for intake ratio of food, times watching TV and playing games. Conclusion: Food intake is not a primary factor of obesity but exercise is a key factor for obesity in school children. Since the effect of diet intervention in obese children was slight, exercise habit would be a more important strategy to reduce obesity than diet in school children.
The last decades, obesity represents one of the most serious health issues with approximately 310 million people presently affected globaly and is frequently cited as a chronic disease. The term obesity refers to the excessive accumulation of fat, mainly under the skin but also on various organs of the body. Obesity’s most common cause is the intake of more calories than those required for one’s daily needs.The aim of the study was to review etiology of obesity, as well as the accountab...
Magdalini Zerdila; Styliani Zerva
Full Text Available Rebecca D Goldberg, Stefanie C Cardamone, Amitasrigowri S MurthyDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Obesity is increasing worldwide and is affecting the reproductive health of women. Contraceptive considerations are difficult in obese women given concerns about efficacy and comorbid conditions. Once surgical treatment of obesity has occurred and weight loss initiated, fertility risks increase and unintended pregnancy can result; often at the time of greatest weight loss. Family planning counseling in the obese patient must account for both preoperative conditions as well as postoperative return to fertility.Keywords: obesity, contraception, bariatric surgery
Prevalence of pediatric obesity continues to rise worldwide. Increasing the number of health care practitioners as well as pediatricians with expertise in obesity treatment is necessary. Because many obese patients suffer obesity-associated cardiovascular, metabolic and other health complications that could increase the severity of obesity, it is fundamental not only to identify the child prone to obesity as early as possible, but to recognize, treat and monitor obesity-related diseases durin...
Marcella Malavolti; Paolo De Cristofaro; Angelo Pietrobelli; Simone Rugolotto
Full Text Available Because the supply of cadaveric organ donors is limited and their ICU management is complex, a multidisciplinary, well-coordinated, and institutionally supported approach to management is essential to ensure the maintenance of the current supply and to increase the future supply of organs and tissues that are suitable for transplantation. The potential organ donor is at high risk for instability as a direct consequence of the loss of physiologic homeostatic mechanisms that are dependent on functioning of the central nervous system. The keys to successful ICU management of the potential organ donor include a team approach that is focused on the anticipation of complications, appropriate physiologic monitoring, aggressive life support, with frequent reassessment and titration of therapy.
The World Health Organization estimates that since 1980 the prevalence of obesity has increased more than threefold throughout much of the world, and this increase is not limited to developed nations. Indeed, the incidence of obesity is increasing most rapidly among rapidly industrializing countries raising the spectre of a burgeoning epidemic in obesity-associated diseases, including diabetes, dyslipidemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis. Reducing the rates of obesity and its attendant complications will require both coordinated public health policy and a better understanding of the pathophysiology of obesity. Obesity is associated with low grade chronic inflammation, a common feature of many complications of obesity that appears to emanate in part from adipose tissue. In obese individuals and rodents adipose tissue macrophage accumulation is a critical component in the development of obesity-induced inflammation. The macrophages in adipose tissue are bone marrow-derived and their number is strongly correlated with bodyweight, body mass index and total body fat. The recruited macrophages in adipose tissue express high levels of inflammatory factors that contribute to systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. Interventions aimed at either reducing macrophage numbers or decreasing their inflammatory characteristics improves insulin sensitivity and decreases inflammation. Macrophage accumulation and adipose tissue inflammation are dynamic processes under the control of multiple mechanisms. Investigating the role of macrophages in adipose tissue biology and the mechanisms involved in their recruitment and activation in obesity will provide useful insights for developing therapeutic approaches to treating obesity-induced complications. PMID:19346774
Subramanian, Vidya; Ferrante, Anthony W
Obesity carries a unique disease burden on women and is influenced by a variety of biological, hormonal, environmental, and cultural factors. Reproductive transitions, such as pregnancy and menopause, increase the risk for obesity. Psychologically, obese women experience greater weight-related stigma and discrimination and are at increased risk for depression than obese men. Women are also particularly susceptible to psychological stress, sleep debt, and lack of physical activity, all of which are risk factors for the development of excess weight. Obesity risk is increased among women with psychiatric disorders and those who use certain psychotropic medications. Obesity treatment should take into consideration degree of obesity, health risks, past weight loss attempts, and individual differences in motivation and readiness for treatment. PMID:20385345
Azarbad, Leila; Gonder-Frederick, Linda
The European Association of Tissue Banks (EATB) Donor Case Workshop is a forum held within the programme of the EATB annual Congress since 2003. This workshop has been used to discuss clinical donor cases with peer review of practice. It was agreed in advance that the experience of the 2007 workshop should be shared by publication as an example of participative learning which can be extended to other fields within tissue banking and which may be applicable in other disciplines. The EATB Congress in 2008 will extend the idea of participative open workshops with two additional workshops, one on Quality System cases and another on heart valve cases. PMID:19224394
Saegeman, Veroniek S M; Chandrasekar, Akila; van Wijk, Marja J; Beele, Hilde; Montenero, Monica M; Navarro, Aurora; Van Geyt, Caroline; Bokhorst, Arlinke G; Fehily, Deirdre; Warwick, Ruth M
In 2009, Elena Long created the LGBT+ Physicists website (http://lgbtphysicists.x10hosting.com) as a warehouse for resources useful for sexual and gender minorities working in physics. This resource has grown to include networking resources, lists of LGBT-friendly universities and localities, recommendations for enacting positive change in physics communities, and out-reach to other STEM-oriented LGBT organizations. This has been possible in large part by the dynamic community of LGBT+ physicists and allies looking to make physics more welcoming towards our community. In 2011, Elena used hir position as Member at Large on the executive committee of the Forum of Graduate Student Affairs (FGSA) to conduct a climate survey that included, among other things, the first serious look at LGBT+ demographics in physics. The survey focused particularly on issues of language heard and harassment experienced by physicists and was broken down into categories based on race, physical and mental ability, gender, and sexuality. Furthermore, it examined the outcomes of experienced harassment and the reasons for when harassment was not reported. Due to the nature of the study, overlapping demographics, especially ``multiple minorities,'' were also explored. This talk will give a brief history of the LGBT+ Physicists resource as well as an overview of the FGSA study.
Full Text Available The last decades, obesity represents one of the most serious health issues with approximately 310 million people presently affected globaly and is frequently cited as a chronic disease. The term obesity refers to the excessive accumulation of fat, mainly under the skin but also on various organs of the body. Obesity’s most common cause is the intake of more calories than those required for one’s daily needs.The aim of the study was to review etiology of obesity, as well as the accountable risk factors.The method ?f this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature which referred to the etiology, the risk factors of obesity and the beneficial role of physical exercise on weight management.Results: The majority of research studies showed that a growing number of adults, children and adolescents around the world, is facing the danger of becoming obese. In literature is cited that both genetic and environmental factors are accountable for the development of obesity. It is well established that the main therapeutic approaches to loose weight are life-style modifications and the combination of a well-balanced hypocaloric diet with regular physical exercise.Conclusions: The problem of obesity and overweight has become an epidemic in most developed countries. The rapid increase in the numbers of obese people reflects environmental changes, the reduced activity and also the increased food intake.
The prevalence of obesity is rising worldwide. To investigate how fixed-wing air ambulances handle bariatric transfers, we conducted a survey addressing logistical and medical issues. A questionnaire was sent to 24 air ambulance companies in Europe. Seventy-nine percent of European companies returned the questionnaire, 95% of the companies consider the transfer of heavyweight patients challenging, and 21% have experienced critical incidents related to the patient's obesity. Forty-seven percent have standard operating procedures in place for bariatric transports. Only 26% will dispatch extra personnel for such flights. Dedicated tools for transferring, bedding, and securing patients are available very inconsistently. Medical provisions such as airway management, monitoring, and vascular access for the obese reach high standards. While medical resources for obesity-related problems reach a high standard, poor logistical preparations could lead to harm for patient and medical escort alike. PMID:24296875
Prottengeier, Johannes; Meyer, Michael; Münster, Tino
Childhood obesity is an epidemic in the United States, with children experiencing chronic adult diseases and poor health outcomes. Focus groups were held with parents of children between 6-12 years of age in three different communities in Brooklyn and the Bronx, New York, to explore their attitudes and practices regarding food availability. Poor food quality and discrimination were the key themes affecting parents' food choices and perceptions of food availability in their neighborhoods. Social workers are in a position to decrease obesity prevalence by supporting childhood obesity policy legislation, designing interventions to increase parental awareness of childhood obesity and the importance of making healthy food choices, and working with parents to improve food quality and availability in their neighborhoods. PMID:20640967
Sealy, Yvette M
The stability of mass transfer in binaries with convective giant donors remains an open question in modern astrophysics. There is a significant discrepancy between what the existing methods predict for a response to mass loss of the giant itself, as well as for the mass transfer rate during the Roche lobe overflow. Here we show that the recombination energy in the superadiabatic layer plays an important and hitherto unaccounted-for role in he donor's response to mass loss, in particular on its luminosity and effective temperature. Our improved optically thick nozzle method to calculate the mass transfer rate via $L_1$ allows us to evolve binary systems for a substantial Roche lobe overflow. We propose a new, strengthened criterion for the mass transfer instability, basing it on whether the donor experiences overflow through its outer Lagrangian point. We find that with the new criterion, if the donor has a well-developed outer convective envelope, the critical initial mass ratio for which a binary would evolv...
Full Text Available ... Can someone receive a transplant before going into kidney failure?” Absolutely. That’s call a “preemptive transplant.” There are ... donor cleared, and to get everybody together before kidney failure actually occurs. But we do do preemptive transplants ...
Full Text Available ... get off of a machine, have a better quality of life. It ended up not happening until 2001. It was 20 years later then after I decided. Since I’ve become a kidney donor, my life really hasn’t changed. My health is just as good now as it ever ...
Full Text Available ... process, first the potential donor meets with a social worker and a psychologist, and there are also some basic ... another person, that recipient can be treated with treatments that will bind up their antibodies and allow them to accept a kidney from a ...
Full Text Available ... a potential donor; serious medical condition, such as HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental ... that we put between the ureter and the bladder to allow this hookup a little time ... let’s say, to develop a cancer in one of their kidneys, and certainly that ...
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of donor epidemiologic characteristics and donor corneal examination findings on quality of donor cornea. Methods: The records of our eye bank were analyzed for one year period between March 2012-February 2013 with respect to donor demographics (gender, age, donor procurement source, donor cause of death, death-to-preservation interval, donor cornea laboratory assessment, corneal tissue utilization, and distribution. Results: During the study period, 98 corneas were retrieved from 52 donors (44.2% male, 55.8% female, with the mean age of donors 49.1±15.7 years. (Range 5 to 68 years. The most common causes of donor death were cardiovascular disease (46.2% and cerebrovascular disease (23.1%. Only 5.7% of the donors were derived from multiorgan donations at other centers and the rest were from our hospital. The mean death-to-preservation time was 1.65±1.26 hours. Overall, 96.2% of corneal tissue procured was used for corneal transplantation (95.75% in our hospital, 4.25% in other transplantation centers and 3.8 % was discarded. There were significant correlations between donor age and endothelial cell density (ECD, and donor age and hexagonality. Regression analysis showed that the most determinative factor on tissue quality was ECD. Only reason for discarding tissue was abnormal serology. Conclusion: The main parameter that affects quality of donor cornea was ECD and the most significant factor having impact on ECD was donor age. The reason for no evidence of tissue discarding because of low tissue quality was thought to be related with a comprehensive preliminary assessment and not to receive corneas from older donors.
Abstract Background China has experienced an increase in the prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity over the last decades. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome among Chinese school children and determine if there is a significant association between childhood obesity and metabolic syndrome. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1844 children (938 males and 906 females) in six elementary schoo...
Liu AiLing; Lin Rong; Liu WeiJia; Du Lin; Chen Qing
Obesity in pregnancy remains a significant health problem that result in physiological, emotional, social and economic consequences on woman, their families and society. Obesity is considered one of the nutritional problems complicating pregnancy in our country. This study was conducted in antenatal clinic at out patient department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, BIRDEM Hospital, one of the countries largest tertiary level hospitals, during January 2007 to December 2008. During the study period of two years, a total no. of 100 cases were enrolled in two groups. Out of this 50 were control and 50 were over weight and obese. In this study, Mean of height, weight and BMI of the over weight and obese group were 5.21±0.21, 79.35±13.66, 32.36±4.76 respectively. The Mean of birth weight, APGAR score after 1 min and after 5 min of the over weight and obese group were 3.07±0.75, 7.10±1.11, 9.92±0.98 respectively and in normal weight group were 2.74±0.55, 7.40±1.56, 9.92±1.83 respectively. There was significant difference in birth weight, APGAR score after 1 min between the groups (p0.05). Regarding the fetal outcome in this study, 20% of the over weight and obese group delivered macrosomic baby in comparison to only 4% in the normal weight group. On the other hand 46% of the case group had to refer their babies to the neonatal unit in comparison to only 12% in the control group. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) (46%) and Preeclampsia (44%) developed more in obese group. Eighty eight (88%) of obese and overweight mother experienced in caesarean delivery. Asphyxia, Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS), congenital anomaly and prenatal death were more in the over weight and obese group than normal weight group. Thus, overweight and obesity has got significant deleterious effect on maternal and perinatal outcomes of pregnancy. PMID:21522090
Mazumder, U; Sarker, S; Riaz, B K; Chowdhury, T A
BACKGROUND: As obesity is an increasing problem among fertile women, it is crucial that specialists involved in the treatment of these women be aware of the risks of complications and know how to deal with them. Complications associated with obesity in pregnancy are gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertensive disorders, and thromboembolic complications. Complications associated with obesity in labor are augmentation, early amniotomy, cephalopelvic disproportion, cesarean section, and perioperative morbidity. Complications associated with obesity in children are macrosomia, shoulder dystocia, small for gestational age, late fetal death, and congenital malformations, especially neural tube defects. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to review the potential complications associated with obesity and pregnancy. RESULTS: Obesity is associated with a higher risk of all reviewed complications except small for gestational age.
Andreasen, Kirsten Riis; Andersen, Malene Lundgren
Abstract Online poker and poker subcultures have become exceedingly popular. Previous studies assessing experience and skill in poker have revealed that proficiency in emotion regulation is a consequential factor in explaining financial success in the game. We assessed (N=478) the associations between poker players' (recruited from online poker forums) level of poker experience and HEXACO-PI-R personality traits. The results indicate that a predisposition for emotional stability-that is, lower scores on emotionality-is linked to high levels of poker experience. Thus, in order to become a successful and experienced poker player, it helps to be able to "keep cool" under pressure. Further exploratory analyses suggest that players who prefer live play to online play are more likely to be extroverted and open to experiences. The results contribute to the extant literature on individual differences in personality in poker players, and in particular help to fill the interdisciplinary gap between personality and gambling research. PMID:25238100
Laakasuo, Michael; Palomäki, Jussi; Salmela, Mikko
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to describe forgivenessand the factors contribute to it in wives experiencing domestic violence who choose to save their marriages in UPT-P2TP2A Kota Bandung. Descriptive method was employed in this study with 15 participants as the subjects. The data were gathered through forgiveness measurement adopted and based in the forgiveness theory proposed by McCullough. Its reliability score was 0,721. The results of the study revealed that 73, 3% of domestic violence victims who insist to save their marriages did forgive or gave for forgiveness. Among the factors determine the forgiveness, the low Rumination factor as well as high personal and moral commitment, encouraged a wife to forgive. Forgiveness showed by a wife, in some way impacted on the domestic violence doer. It lessened the intensity of the violence.
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Employees attach value to their job features/total job and when they perceive threats to these and experience feelings of powerlessness, their level of job insecurity increases. Since job insecurity is a subjective phenomenon, the study aims to assess who is more susceptible to experiencing job inse [...] curity by assessing biographical correlates. The research adopts a formal, hypothesis-testing approach where quantitative data were collected using a cross-sectional, survey method from a sample of 1620 employees. The results, generated using the ANOVA model, indicate that biographical influences do exist in terms of job insecurity. The implication is that change managers need to take cognisance of these influences and develop suitable strategies for each group to reduce the prevalence of job insecurity. Recommendations are made in this regard.
Leigh-Anne Paul, Dachapalli; Sanjana Brijball, Parumasur.
Obesity represents one of the most serious global health issues with approximately 310 million people presently affected. Main cause of it’s development is the increase of energy intake in regard to energy expenditure.Aim: The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the causes and treatment of obesity, as well as the anthropometrical measurements used for the assessment of obesity. The method ?f this study included bibliography research from both the review and the rese...
Marianna Ntokou; Maria Saridi
Full Text Available Obesity represents one of the most serious global health issues with approximately 310 million people presently affected. Main cause of it’s development is the increase of energy intake in regard to energy expenditure.Aim: The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the causes and treatment of obesity, as well as the anthropometrical measurements used for the assessment of obesity. The method ?f this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature, mainly in the “pub med data base” which referred to the causes and treatment of obesity, as well as the anthropometrical measurements used for the assessment of obesity. Results: The prevalence of obesity has increased markedly, throughout the world. Although the etiology of obesity has not been fully understood yet, however it seems to be a multifactorial disease for which are responsible a great deal of psychological, environmental, genetic and behavioral factors. The most common anthropometrical measurement that is used for assessment of obesity is Body Mass Index (BMI and is calculated by the following equation: ???=Weight/Height2. A value of ??? ? 30 kg/m2 equals obesity. Another simple test used to measure obesity is Waist to Hip Ratio, which measures abdominal adiposity. Values greater than 0,95 should be treated seriously as they normally indicate body fatness. The majority of studies show that life-style modification in conjunction with a well-balanced nutrition and regular physical exercise consist the cornerstone for the treatment and prevention of obesity.Conclusions: Obesity is a disease that can be preventable through modification of way of living. The development of proper strategy prevention capable to change attitudes, to promote nutrition and physical activity should be the primary goal of every community and government.
Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ produ...
Christopher Zammit; Helen Liddicoat; Ian Moonsie; et al
Worldwide, obesity trends are causing serious public health concern and in many countries threatening the viability of basic health care delivery. It is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and significantly increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. The last two decades have witnessed an increase in health care costs due to obesity and related issues among children and adolescents. Childhood obesity is a global phenomenon affecting all socio-economic groups, irrespectiv...
Raj, Manu; Kumar, R. Krishna
Obesity is becoming a major medical concern in several parts of the world, with huge economic impacts on health- care systems, resulting mainly from increased cardiovascular risks. At the same time, obesity leads to a number of sleep-disordered breathing patterns like obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS), leading to increased morbidity and mortality with reduced quality of life. OHS is distinct from other sleep- related breathing disorders although overlap may ex...
Al Dabal Laila; BaHammam Ahmed
Obesity is a major health problem and an immense economic burden on the health care systems both in the United States and the rest of the world. The prevalence of obesity in children and adults in the United States has increased dramatically over the past decade. Besides environmental factors, genetic factors are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed strongly associated genomic variants associated with most common ...
Grant, Struan F. A.; Jianhua Zhao
Obesity is a common and preventable disease of clinical and public health importance. It is often a major risk factor for the development of several non-communicable diseases, significant disability and premature death. There is presently a global epidemic of obesity in all age groups and in both developed and developing countries. The increasing prevalence of obesity places a large burden on health care use and costs. Weight loss is associated with significant health and economic benefits. E...
Obesity is new in human evolutionary history, having become possible at the population level with increased food security. Across the past 60 years, social, economic, and technological changes have altered patterns of life almost everywhere on Earth. In tandem, changes in diet and physical activity patterns have been central to the emergence of obesity among many of the world's populations, including the developing world. Increasing global rates of obesity are broadly attributed to environmen...
Ulijaszek, Stanley J.; Lofink, Hayley
Asthma and obesity are prevalent disorders, each with a significant public health impact, and a large and growing body of literature suggests an association between the two. The systemic inflammatory milieu in obesity leads to metabolic and cardiovascular complications, but whether this environment alters asthma risk or phenotype is not yet known. Animal experiments have evaluated the effects of leptin and obesity on airway inflammation in response to both allergic and nonallergic exposures a...
Beuther, David A.; Weiss, Scott T.; Sutherland, E. Rand
Research question: Whether certain personality characteristics of obese women make them prone towards psychological problem? Objective: To assess certain personality characteristics of obese women. Study design: Cross-sectional community based study. Setting: Affluent localities of Varanasi city. Participants: Women above 15 years of age. Statistical Analysis: Mean, S.D and â€˜tâ€? test. Results: On 16 PF scale obese women were found more reserved, critical...
Asthana Sunita; Gupta V.M
Full Text Available Background: Significant morbidity is associated with standard open flank living donor nephrectomy. Laparoscopicdonor nephrectomy is criticized for a steep learning curve and a tendency to avoid the right kidney. The anterior muscle-splitting technique uses principles or advantages of an open extraperitoneal approach with minimal morbidity and the advantageous muscle-splitting (instead of cutting procedure.Objective: To compare mini-incision laparoscopic instrument-assisted (MILIA live donor nephrectomy using a muscle-splitting technique to the standard open-flank donor nephrectomy (ODN approach for efficacy and safety.Methods: MILIA living donor nephrectomies were performed in 119 donors and compared to a cohort of open-flank nephrectomy donors (n=38 from the same center. Both donor groups were matched for body mass index as well as other personal characteristics.Results: The mean donor age was 35 (range: 18–60 years. The right kidney was procured in 28% of cases. The majority of donors were female (58% and Caucasian (60%. No differences were observed between MILIA and ODN donors for the age, gender and ethnicity. However, MILIA donors experienced a longer mean±SD operative time (234±47 vs. 197±33 min, p<0.0001 but a shorter hospital stay (4±1 vs. 6±3 days for the ODN group, p<0.0001 and less intraoperative blood loss (215±180 vs. 331±397 mL, p<0.02. No difference was found in the number of units of blood transfused (0.13±0.6 vs. 0.34±1.0 units, p=0.13. Right-sided kidneys were almost equally harvested in both groups (29% of MILIA donors vs. 26% of ODN donors. Post-operatively, MILIA donors had a significantly lower mean pain scores at one week and one month after surgery (p<0.001. They showed significant better post-operative recovery—earlier stopping of pain medications and restoration of other preoperative activities. Moreover, they were better satisfied with their scar appearance. Scores on the short form-36 quality of life questionnaire were comparable for both groups.Conclusion: MILIA is a viable option as an alternative for pure laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. MILIA appearsto be as safe as open donor nephrectomy and may provide advantages over ODN, such as smaller incision, shorter hospital stay, and less incisional pain. Patient recovery and satisfaction after MILIA are excellent.This technique avoids the possibility of adhesive intestinal obstruction and also improves handling of major complications (e.g., bleeding of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. Utilization of this hybrid techniqueis particularly feasible on smaller (BMI<24 kg/m2 and medium-sized (BMI<28 kg/m2 donors. We believe that this technique should be adopted by centers that have limited advanced laparoscopic surgical experience and also it could be used selectively for the right donor nephrectomies, even in centers performinghand assisted donor nephrectomies by including a small patch of inferior vena cava for a better quality of right donor kidney during transplantation.
Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018
Corbee, R J
Full Text Available It is estimated that about half of the population in developed countries are either overweight or obese. In some developing nations obesity rates have increased to surpass those seen in Western countries. This rate increase in obesity has many implications as obesity has been associated with numerous negative health effects including increased risks of hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, liver disease, apnea, and some cancer types. Obesity is now considered to be one of the major public health concerns facing the society. Cholangiocarcinomas (bile duct cancers are malignant tumors arising from cholangiocytes inside or outside of the liver. Although cholangiocarcinomas are relatively rare, they are highly lethal. The low survival rate associated with cholangiocarcinoma is due to the advanced stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis. Prevention is therefore especially important in this cancer type. Some data suggest that the incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in the western world is on the rise. Increasing rate of obesity may be one of the factors responsible for this increase. Determining whether obesity is a risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma has significant clinical and societal implications as obesity is both prevalent and modifiable. This paper seeks to provide a summary of the current knowledge linking obesity and cholangiocarcinoma, and encourage further research on this topic.
Mansour A Parsi
Full Text Available Great population studies do not confirm the hypothesis that atypical personality of obese would exist. Obeses in the generalpopulation do not present more psychological disturbs thanthe ones that are not obeses. Obeses adolescents and adultsare discriminated in their academic and professional lifes. Thissocial, cultural, economic and affective impoverishment seemsto be directly related to the gravity of their obesity, what means,higher the ICM (Index of Corporal Mass, bigger are thepsychological problems. This abandonment contributes to thebig risk of unchain psychiatric pictures as depression, anxyetdisturbs, drugs and alcoholic excessive consumption andalimentary disturbs. Obeses of the general population do notpresent more psychological or psychiatric symptoms than theclinical population of obeses (obeses under treatment, presentmore clinical and psychiatric problems, mainly compulsoryalimentary standards. Some studies indicate that there is alinear relation between the ICM and the highest frequency ofalimentary compulsory behavior or bulimic episode. Thepsychiatric patients negative body perception added to theirother negative perceptions about their performance in searchingsocial interaction increase the trend to the isolation. Thepsychiatric picture presence in the bariatric surgery preoperatoryin a III degree overweight pacient has not to be facedas absolute surgery counter indication since such procedurecan be the difference between giving a better life quality orwaiting for a potentially lethal complication. We cannot forgetthat the obesity itself, due to the common associatedcomorbidyties, loads a great lethality potential. The surgerycounter-indication could be relative, it depending on how muchthe psychiatric disturbs interfere on the treatment andconditioned to the rigorous psychiatric control in the anteriorand post surgical period.
Táki Athanássios Cordas
Full Text Available During the past decade, the number of transplantation from living kidney donors has substantially increased worldwide. The rate of increase varies from one country to another. The risk of unilateral nephrectomy to the donor includes perioperative mortality and morbidity plus the long-term risk of living with a single kidney. The rate of perioperative mortality and morbidity is about 0.03% and 10%, respectively. More attentionis required to prevent serious complications of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. A grading system in recording perioperative complications is necessary for making it available to each potential donor. The number of studies on long-term outcome of living donors is very limited. The overall evidence suggests that the risk of end-stage kidney disease is not increased in donors, however, mild renal failure, hypertension and proteinuria are not uncommon in living donors. There is also concern that the incidence of cardiovasculardisease may be higher in kidney donors. Establishing living donor registry and follow-up is extremely important. Only through these registries the long-term risk of kidney donation will become more apparent. Because of severe shortage of transplantable kidneys, some transplant centers are now using donors with comorbidities and few centers are involved in transplant tourism with inadequate donor screening and follow-up. Prevention of these unacceptable practices in living kidney donors was emphasized in AmsterdamForum in 2004 and Istanbul Summit in 2008.
Ahad Jafari Ghods
More and more often living donors worldwide are used for kidney transplantation. The results are excellent, much better than from the deceased donors, disregarding the genetic disparity. Not surprisingly, living donation has not influenced the existing gap, and waiting lists are increasing. Live kidney donation technically has become a standardized, safe procedure. Many papers, including that from the Minneapolis Center quote follow-up results documenting that unilateral nephrectomy is safe. The Amsterdam Forum established criteria for living kidney donors. Most unfortunately, however, the continuous need for kidneys has led in the recent three years to the use of the so-called "complex" or "marginal" living donors, that is donors with metabolic syndrome. The argument for a continuous increase in living kidney donation, often used by transplant physicians, is quoted in the title of the abstract. This argument should never be used, especially by transplant physicians, who must consider the interests of both the recipient and the donor. Our own data presented at the last Congress of the Transplantation Society showed that moderate hypertension occurs in some patients. The risk of cardiovascular complications is definitely higher among donors with the metabolic syndrome, those with prediabetes, obesity, or mild hypertension. Most unfortunately there are no long-term follow-up data concerning such donors. They may require preemptive prophylaxis with step-wise interventional reno-protection and cardio-protection programs, which so far have not been implemented. For this reason, a Living Donor Registry is needed. It would allow objective assessment of the long-term risks of uninephrectomy among donors with metabolic syndrome. Such a registry is in operation in our country. Considering the use of kidney donors with the metabolic syndrome, one should remember a popular saying: "Be good, and if you cannot be good--be careful." PMID:21168589
Rowinski, W; Czerwinski, J; Kosieradzki, M
Full Text Available The present study was carried out in B.A.R.C. Hospital Blood Bank over a span of five years, and includes 2734 donors. All the bags were screened for HIV, HBsAg, HCV and VDRL and the plasma in the pilot tubes of the blood bags was observed to detect any abnormality in color. In 27 cases plasma was found to be icteric and liver function tests were carried out on these samples. Two donors showed higher SGPT level, and were excluded. No significant increases in liver enzymes were recorded in the others. Causes of icteric plasma in these apparently healthy donors are discussed. Differential diagnosis includes Gilbert?s disease, hemolytic anemia, drug-induced anemia and other hepatic causes of hyperbilirubinemia, of which Gilbert?s disease is most probable cause with a prevalence of 0.91% in our population. As there are no studies to document the safety of the recipients receiving such abnormal colored plasma as well as to document the hazards in its transfusion, the question arises whether to transfuse such units or not. This study highlights this dilemma. A reassessment of existing policies and regulations is merited.
Obesity is associated with different disturbances in endocrine function. Both spontaneous growth hormone (GH) secretion and its response to several stimuli have shown to be reduced in obese patients. The GH responses to GH-releasing hormone and other challenges by pyridostigmine suggest that the reduction in GH secretion is related to an increased somatostatinergic tone. Other experiments point to a down-regulation of somatostatin receptors in the somatotroph cell. Ghrelin administration is followed by a massive GH release, but the possibility that ghrelin or GHRH deficiency are the cause of GH deficiency in obesity is unlikely. The increase in free fatty acids in obesity might be related to GH reduction, since acipimox administration is able to reverse GH secretion. In women, abdominal obesity is associated with hyperandrogenism and low sex hormone-binding globulin levels. Obese men have low testosterone and gonadotrophin concentrations, specially in cases of morbid obesity. An increase in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and some resistance to dexamethasone suppression have been described in abdominal obesity. This effect may be due to neuroendocrine alterations related to a genetic origin. Adrenal hyperfunction may favour cardiovascular and metabolic complications. There are no disturbances in thyroid function. Sometimes a reduction in prolactin response to several stimuli has been reported. This effect may be due to hyperinsulinaemia or to disturbances in the dopaminergic tone. PMID:15382610
Isidro, M L; Alvarez, P; Martínez, T; Cordido, F
Full Text Available ... more victimization but it was also associated with more aggression. Children who were obese had a significantly higher risk of being both a victim and a bully than normal-weight students. The researchers say close monitoring of the social well-being of obese children should begin at ...
Full Text Available Obesity means excessive body fat. The term obese, derived from Latin word means fattened by eating. The amount of fat tissue may increased to such an extent that mental and physical health is affected and life expectancy is reduced.
Dr. S. Manimala Rao
Obesity is a health condition, but its consequences extend far beyond the realm of health. To illuminate an important route by which the experience of obesity can filter into the status attainment process, this study drew on nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to test a social psychological…
Describes causes of overweight and obesity in children; cites research linking good nutrition and a child's capacity to learn; includes six Web-based links to resources to help principals and teachers reduce the serious problem of overweight and obese children. (PKP)
Kelly, Mark; Moag-Stahlberg, Alicia
Learn about obesity and the community initiatives taking place to prevent and reduce this epidemic. Created: 7/18/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity. Date Released: 7/18/2011.
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the August 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. The rate of obesity among low-income preschoolers has declined, but one in eight is still obese. This program briefly discusses what can be done. Created: 8/6/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 8/6/2013.
The study of obesity is a relatively new interdisciplinary academic field. The community college library shelves should contain two types of resources. First, several kinds of reference materials, and second, a host of broader materials that place the discussion of obesity within a cultural framework. This overview is divided into two major…
This women's health podcast focuses on obesity in women and girls. It discusses obesity-related health risks and includes tips to help achieve and maintain a healthy weight. Created: 5/11/2009 by Office of Womenâ??s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 5/11/2009.
This study examines transitions and consistencies in the views of donor sperm recipients on ‘parenthood’ and ‘family’ over time. A longitudinal qualitative study was carried out with 19 donor sperm recipients. Interviews took place during pregnancy, at birth and 1.5–2 years after birth and were analysed using a grounded theory approach. Participants intending to disclose the donor conception to their offspring (13/19) exhibited a transition from feeling anxious prior to birth to feeling more confident during the toddler stage about their parenthood. Previous anxieties about the lack of biological ties decreased as emerging social ties became more significant. Following birth, these participants (13/19) felt acknowledged by others as parents, which elicited feelings of normalization. Being able to engage in parenting and develop parental relations enhanced their confidence in their parental position. This confidence empowered donor sperm recipients to tackle future challenges and made them more convinced about their disclosure intention. Participants intending not to disclose the donor conception (6/19) reported viewing their parenthood as no different from parenthood experienced by naturally conceiving parents, no transitions were observed and insecurity about physical traits that could reveal the donor conception remained. These findings have implications for counselling throughout specific stages in parenthood. PMID:24257206
Indekeu, A; D'Hooghe, T; Daniels, K R; Dierickx, K; Rober, P
Full Text Available Abstract An epidemic of pediatric obesity has occurred across the world in recent years. There are subgroups within the population at high-risk of becoming obese and especially of having experience of precocious cardiovascular and metabolic co-morbidities of obesity. One of these subgroups comprises patients treated for childhood cancers and namely survivors of craniopharyngioma. The high incidence of obesity in this group makes these patients an important disease model to better understand the metabolic disturbances and the mechanisms of weight gain among cancer survivors. The hypothalamic-pituitary axis damage secondary to cancer therapies or to primary tumor location affect long-term outcomes. Nevertheless, the aetiology of obesity in craniopharyngioma is not yet fully understood. The present review has the aim of summarizing the published data and examining the most accepted mechanisms and main predisposing factors related to weight gain in this particular population.
Kidney transplantation is the preferred modality of renal replacement therapy. Long-term patient and graft survival have only improved marginally over the recent decade, mainly because of the development of cardiovascular disease after transplantation. Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is common before and after transplantation. This article reviews the literature assessing the role of pre- and post-transplant obesity on patient and graft survival, discusses the underlying obesity-related mechanisms leading to inferior kidney transplant outcomes, and explores the role of nutritional intervention on improving long-term outcomes of transplantation. Although the role of pretransplant obesity remains uncertain, post-transplant obesity increases the risk of graft failure and mortality. Nutritional intervention is effective in achieving post-transplant weight loss, but the effect on long-term outcomes has not been established. Future research should focus on conducting nutritional intervention studies aiming to improve long-term outcomes of kidney transplantation. PMID:24231063
Chan, Winnie; Bosch, Jos A; Jones, David; McTernan, Philip G; Phillips, Anna C; Borrows, Richard
Blood transfusion services are the integral part of health care system and these services have safe blood transfusion as the major goal. Voluntary blood donation is the key to safe blood and this safety is further enhanced when the voluntary blood donors become repeat/regular donors. Retention of donors is therefore a very crucial strategy to ensure enhanced blood safety. Tele-recruitment is an effective medium of recruiting and more importantly retaining donors via means of telephone/Short Message Service. This study was carried out at a standalone blood bank during the period from January to December 2011 with objectives of donor retention, relationship management with the support of personnel with good communication skills, Donor data base, Integrated software and communication facility. For Initial 4 months there was no tele-recruiter, then for 2 months two tele-recruiter and for next 6 months three tele-recruiter were dedicated. Only impact of tele-recruitment on in-house donation was taken into consideration. 2,091 donors were recruited through tele-recruitment in this eight-month period. This was 63 % of in-house donations and 13 % of total donations. In other words out of every five in-house donations, three donations were from people contacted through tele-recruitment. Repeat voluntary blood donation is the safest donation. Tele-recruitment does this by converting 'first-time' donors into repeat/regular donors. Simple intervention like reminder calls on telephone can be highly effective tool to retain donors. Tele-recruitment helped the blood center establish relationships with individual donors, and, maybe, even the society at large. Tele-recruitment is a very low-cost model which can be easily replicated in all kind of blood banks, be it standalone, or a hospital based. Even the blood centers which are largely dependent on replacement donors can possibly have good results and convert replacement donors into repeat/regular voluntary blood donors. PMID:24554816
Agrawal, Amit; Tiwari, A
Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental disorders in developed countries. On the other hand, obesity is recognized to be one of the greatest public health problems worldwide.The connection between body weight and mental disorders remains an open issue. Low body weight has been studied enough (anorexia nervosa is a typical example) but high body weight has not been addressed sufficiently. It is known that obesity has been related with depression. Although moderate level of evidence exists for a positive association between obesity and anxiety disorders, the exact association between these two conditions is not clear yet.The studies about this subject are quite few and they follow different methodology. Furthermore,anxiety disorders share some common elements such as anxiety, avoidance and chronicity, but they also present a great deal of differences in phenomenology, neurobiology, treatment response and prognosis. This factor makes general conclusions difficult to be drawn. Obesity has been associated with anxiety disorders as following: most of the studies show a positive relationship with panic disorder, mainly in women, with specific phobia and social phobia. Some authors have found a relationship with generalised anxiety disorder but a negative relationship has been also reported.Only few studies have found association between obesity and agoraphobia, panic attacks and posttraumatic stress disorder. There has not been reported a relationship between obesity and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The causal relationship from obesity to anxiety disorders and vice versa is still under investigation. Pharmacological factors used for obesity treatment, such as rimonabant,were associated with depression and anxiety. Questions still remain regarding the role of obesity severity and subtypes of anxiety disorders. Besides, it is well known that in the morbidly obese patients before undergoing surgical treatment, unusual prevalence of psychopathology, namely depression and anxiety disorders, is observed. Anxiety is also a common trait in personality disorders.There is no single personality type characteristic of the morbidly obese, they differ from the general population as their self-esteem and impulse control is lower. Obese patients present with passive-dependent and passive-aggressive personality traits, as well as a trend for somatization and problem denial. Their thinking is usually dichotomous and catastrophic. Obese patients also show low cooperativeness and fail to see the self as autonomous and integrated. When trying to participate in society roles they are subject to prejudice and discrimination and should be treated with concern to help alleviate their feelings of rejection and guilt. PMID:22271843
Lykouras, L; Michopoulos, J
Context: Although the prevalence rates of childhood obesity have seemingly been stable over the past few years, far too many children and adolescents are still obese. Childhood obesity, and its associated metabolic complications, is rapidly emerging as one of the greatest global challenges of the 21st century. About 110 million children are now classified as overweight or obese.
Cali, Anna M. G.; Caprio, Sonia
This review summarizes current understanding of economic factors during the obesity epidemic and dispels some widely held, but incorrect, beliefs. Rising obesity rates coincided with increases in leisure time (rather than increased work hours), increased fruit and vegetable availability (rather than a decline in healthier foods), and increased exercise uptake. As a share of disposable income, Americans now have the cheapest food available in history, which fueled the obesity epidemic. Weight gain was surprisingly similar across sociodemographic groups or geographic areas, rather than specific to some groups (at every point in time; however, there are clear disparities). It suggests that if one wants to understand the role of the environment in the obesity epidemic, one needs to understand changes over time affecting all groups, not differences between subgroups at a given time. Although economic and technological changes in the environment drove the obesity epidemic, the evidence for effective economic policies to prevent obesity remains limited. Taxes on foods with low nutritional value could nudge behavior toward healthier diets, as could subsidies/discounts for healthier foods. However, even a large price change for healthy foods could close only part of the gap between dietary guidelines and actual food consumption. Political support has been lacking for even moderate price interventions in the United States and this may continue until the role of environmental factors is accepted more widely. As opinion leaders, clinicians play an important role in shaping the understanding of the causes of obesity. PMID:24853237
Sturm, Roland; An, Ruopeng
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Paediatric liver transplantation is a highly effective therapy for children with end-stage liver disease; 1-year survival rates currently exceed 90% and long-term survivors enjoy an almost-normal quality of life. Key to the success of paediatric liver transplantation has been the technical refinemen [...] t to provide children with suitably sized grafts. Adult-to-paediatric living donor liver transplantation highlights this success and has been instrumental in decreasing waiting list mortality to less than 5%.
J F, Botha.
In recent years, developing countries like Nigeria have been experiencing a nutritional transition in food choices from the typical starchy (mainly carbohydrate diets) to the fast food pattern and as a result of this, the dietary habits of young adults like university students have been affected. Thus, overweight and obesity are increasingly being observed among the young adults. This study assesses the prevalence of obesity on a sample of students from Tai Solarin University of Education in ...
Omotayo, O. A.; Olusanya, J. O.
Abstract Background Brazil is currently experiencing a nutrition transition: the displacement of traditional diets with foods high in saturated fat, sodium, and cholesterol and an increase in sedentary lifestyles. Despite these trends, our understanding of child obesity in Brazil is limited. Thus, the aims of this study were (1) to investigate the current prevalence of overweight and obesity in a large sample of children and adolescents living in São Paulo, Brazil, and (2) t...
Codogno Jamile S; Fm, Segatto Aline; D-n, Bastos Karolynne; Buonani Camila; Fernandes Romulo A; Duncan Elizabeth K; Duncan Scott; Gomes Igor C; Freitas Ismael F
The regulation of energy balance is enormously complex, with numerous genetic, hormonal, neural/behavioral, and societal influences. Although the current epidemic of obesity has its underpinnings in the changes in culture during the last half century, the role of the neuroendocrine system in the genesis of obesity is physiologically and therapeutically unavoidable. Increased understanding of this system has suggested organic etiologies (and therapies) for some rare and not-so-rare forms of obesity. With so many inputs, it is not implausible that dysfunction of other parts of this feedback system will be found to explain other forms of obesity in the future. Fortunately or unfortunately, diet and exercise remain the mainstays of obesity therapy. Most diet-exercise programs result in an acute 11-kg weight loss in adults; the question is whether it can be sustained without significant long-term behavior modification. In the European Sibutramine Trial of Obesity Reduction and Maintenance (STORM), 42% of treated patients dropped out; of those remaining, 77% of subjects lost more than 5% of initial body weight, but only 43% of these individuals maintained greater than 80% of this loss over 2 years. Could there be an organic component in persons who do not respond? Obesity pharmacotherapies sometimes have beneficial acute effects, but these effects are impermanent; discontinuation tends to result in a rebound weight gain, suggesting that the etiology of the obesity is still present. A useful guiding principle is that patients who do not respond to diet and exercise should undergo an initial medical evaluation, including assessments of birth weight, past medical history, weight history, family history, diet, exercise, and fasting insulin and thyroid levels. As the nosology of obesity improves, diagnostic efficiency and therapeutic success should increase, leading to a decrease in associated morbidity, mortality, and socioeconomic ramifications. PMID:11571940
Lustig, R H
Background: The behavior and dietary treatments are not so successful for extremely obese adolescents. Therefore, using drugs to treat extremely obese children and adolescents are among the modern approaches. This research aims to study the pharmaceutical interventions performed for treatment of obese children. Materials and Methods: The strategy of research was using of key words ‘obesity’, ‘adolescence’, ‘treatment’ and ‘anti-obesity drugs’ were searched in websites of PubMe...
Zinat Salem; Mohsen Rezaeian
Obesity is a common disorder affecting approximately 1 in 3 women. Assessment should consist of measuring BMI and waist circumference, a thorough history regarding nutrition, physical activity, and prior attempts at weight loss, and identification of obesity-related comorbidities. As a chronic disease, obesity requires management using a chronic care model employing multimodal therapy. Behavioral therapy to bring about changes in nutrition and physical activity can be supplemented with long-term use of medications (lorcaserin, orlistat, phentermine/topiramate) to help patients both achieve and maintain meaningful weight loss. PMID:24527479
Ryan, Donna H; Braverman-Panza, Jill
Donor notification and post-donation counseling is an essential role of blood bank. If a donor is reactive for any marker, the blood bank counselor, informs the donor and advices him/her to report to the blood bank for further counseling and management. The counselor at our blood bank informed a young female voluntary donor to be reactive for HIV both with ELISA as well as NAT. When the donor reported to blood bank, the repeat testing was negative and no history of high risk behavior could be elicited. The hospital information system (HIS) records were checked again immediately for clarification and showed consistency with her demographic profile. But when her manual records and donor questionnaire were retrieved, showed information displayed in the HIS system was wrongly interpreted by the counselor. In this era of information technology being highly advanced, the role of manual record keeping is still the gold standard. PMID:25161357
Kotwal, Urvershi; Doda, Veena; Arora, Satyam; Joshi, Meena
The motor components of local cranial nerves provide a series of options for the surgical rehabilitation of the paralyzed face. Nerve donor sites vary with respect to their motor power, functional deficit, and synergy with facial expression. A thorough understanding of each donor nerve's strengths and weaknesses facilitates the selection process. Technical modifications to reduce donor site morbidity and the emerging role of the masseter nerve are examined.
Klebuc, Michael; Shenaq, Saleh M.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a strong social gradient in the prevalence of obesity, there is little scientific understanding of obesity in people settled in deprived neighbourhoods. Few studies are actually based on objectively measured data using random sampling of residents in deprived neighbourhoods. In addition, most studies use a crude measure, the body mass index, to estimate obesity. This is of concern because it may cause inaccurate estimations of the true prevalence and give the wrong picture of the factors associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of, and analyse the sociodemographic factors associated with, three indices of obesity in different ethnic groups settled in two deprived neighbourhoods in Sweden. Methods Height and weight, waist circumference and body fat percentage were objectively measured in a random sample (n = 289. Sociodemographic data were obtained through a survey. Established cut-offs were used to determine obesity. Country of birth was categorized as Swedish, Other European, and Middle Eastern. Odds ratios were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. Results One third of the sample was classified as obese overall, with 39.0% of women being abdominally obese. After adjusting for age, we found higher odds of obesity in Middle Eastern women than in Swedish women regardless of outcome with odds ratios ranging between 2.74 and 5.53. Men of other European origin had higher odds of BMI obesity than Swedish men. Most associations between country of birth and obesity remained in the full model. Conclusion This study demonstrates the magnitude of the obesity problem and the need for prevention programmes targeting native and immigrant adults in deprived neighbourhoods in Sweden. The initiatives should also focus on particular groups, e.g. immigrant women and those experiencing economic difficulties. Further studies are needed on behavioural and environmental factors influencing the risk of obesity in residents settled in deprived neighbourhoods.
The rate of renal transplantation has plateaued and is now limited by the number of donor organs available. In the past all donor kidneys came from living donors or controlled non-heart beating donors. It was not until the introduction of brainstem death criteria that cadaveric heart beating donors became the main source. Recently, there has been renewed interest in non-heart beating donors, who have already suffered cardiorespiratory arrest. Kidneys from these donors have a unique set of pro...
Kimber, R.; Metcalfe, M.; White, S.; Nicholson, M.
Kidney transplantation remains the best treatment option of end-stage renal disease. Kidney donations are of particular interest with the currently increasing practice of living-donor transplantation. The purpose of this study was to analyze retrospectively the general health status as well as renal and cardiovascular consequences of living-related kidney donation. A total of 549 living-related kidney donors had donated their kidneys between 1986 and 2007. We attempted to contact all donors to determine short- and long-term outcome following kidney donation. All kidney donors who responded underwent detailed clinical and biochemical evaluation. The data were compared with age-matched health tables of the Tunisian general population. In all, 284 donors (52%) had a complete evaluation. They included 117 men and 167 women with a mean age of 42 ± 12 years. The major peri-operative complications that occurred in these donors included four cases of pneumothorax, six cases of surgical site infection, one case of phlebitis and one case of pulmonary embolism. None of the study cases died. The median length of hospital stay after donor nephrectomy was 6.5 days (range: 3-28 days). The median follow-up period was eight years. The mean creatinine clearance after donation was 90.4 ± 25 mL/min in men and 81.5 ± 27.2 mL/min in women. Proteinuria was >300 mg/24 h in 17 cases (5.9%). Fifty-eight (20.4%) donors became hypertensive and 19.6% of the men and 37.2% of the women became obese. Diabetes mellitus developed in 24 (8.4%), and was more common in patients who had significant weight gain. Our study suggests that kidney donors have minimal adverse effects on overall health status. Regular follow-up identifies at-risk populations and potentially modifiable factors. Creation of a national registry of living donors and their monitoring are an absolute necessity. PMID:22805410
Helal, Imed; Abdallah, Taieb Ben; Ounissi, Monder; Tahar, Gargah; Cherif, Mejda; Boubaker, Karima; Karoui, Cyrine; Hamida, Fethi Ben; Adberrahim, Ezzedine; El Younsi, Fethi; Kheder, Adel; Sfaxi, Mohamed; Derouiche, Amine; Chebil, Mohamed; Hachicha, Jamil; Mehiri, Mohamed Nabil; Skhiri, Habib; Elmay, Mezri; Harzallah, Kais; Elmanaa, Mezri Jamel; Hmida, Jalel
Obesity is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular health problems including diabetes, hypertension, and stroke. These cardiovascular afflictions increase risk for cognitive decline and dementia, but it is unknown whether these factors, specifically obesity and type II diabetes, are associated with specific patterns of brain atrophy. We used tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to examine gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume differences in 94 elderly subjects who remained cogniti...
Raji, Cyrus A.; Ho, April J.; Parikshak, Neelroop; Becker, James T.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Hua, Xue; Leow, Alex D.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.
The development of obesity is the consequence of a multitude of complex interactions between both genetic and environmental factors. It has been suggested that the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity over the past 30 years has been the result of environmental changes that have enabled the full realization of genetic susceptibility present in the population. Among the many environmental alterations that have occurred in our recent history is the ever-increasing dyssynchrony between ...
Bray, Molly S.; Young, Martin E.
The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects o...
Aller, Erik E. J. G.; Arne Astrup; Alfredo Martinez, J.; Itziar Abete; Baak, Marleen A.
Obesity is an epidemic disease that threatens to inundate health care resources by increasing the incidence of diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, and cancer. These effects of obesity result from two factors: the increased mass of adipose tissue and the increased secretion of pathogenetic products from enlarged fat cells. This concept of the pathogenesis of obesity as a disease allows an easy division of disadvantages of obesity into those produced by the mass of fat and those produced by the metabolic effects of fat cells. In the former category are the social disabilities resulting from the stigma associated with obesity, sleep apnea that results in part from increased parapharyngeal fat deposits, and osteoarthritis resulting from the wear and tear on joints from carrying an increased mass of fat. The second category includes the metabolic factors associated with distant effects of products released from enlarged fat cells. The insulin-resistant state that is so common in obesity probably reflects the effects of increased release of fatty acids from fat cells that are then stored in the liver or muscle. When the secretory capacity of the pancreas is overwhelmed by battling insulin resistance, diabetes develops. The strong association of increased fat, especially visceral fat, with diabetes makes this consequence particularly ominous for health care costs. The release of cytokines, particularly IL-6, from the fat cell may stimulate the proinflammatory state that characterizes obesity. The increased secretion of prothrombin activator inhibitor-1 from fat cells may play a role in the procoagulant state of obesity and, along with changes in endothelial function, may be responsible for the increased risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. For cancer, the production of estrogens by the enlarged stromal mass plays a role in the risk for breast cancer. Increased cytokine release may play a role in other forms of proliferative growth. The combined effect of these pathogenetic consequences of increased fat stores is an increased risk of shortened life expectancy. PMID:15181027
Bray, George A
In recent years the levels of obesity in the United States has risen greatly especially amongst children. Doctors, psychologists, and other scientists have been studying the growing problem for years. Implications for childhood obesity not only have enormous physical consequences but emotional repercussions which can affect the child’s academic and social development. A number of factors have been identified as having an effect on these children; family life reveals the grocery store habits...
The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically worldwide, predisposing individuals to an increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Less recognized is the fact that obesity may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary diseases through mechanisms that may involve proinflammatory mediators produced in adipose tissue that contribute to a low-grade state of systemic inflammation. In animal models, inflammatory responses in th...
Obesity is a very common disease with very difficult treatment. Most patients are not able to change their behaviour. Most hopeful for the future is a safe pharmacotherapy which could be widely used. In this review, old and potentially new drugs decreasing weight are mentioned (centrally acting anorectics, orlistat, incretine analogues and gliphlozines). Review of newly in U.S.A used antiobesitics is also mentioned. Finally potentially new principles of obesity pharmacotherapy are enumerated. PMID:24968289
Sva?ina, St?pán; Sucharda, Petr; Stránská, Zuzana; Matoulek, Martin
This booklet, part of The Science Inside series, discusses the importance of good health habits such as eating right and exercising. The Science Inside series presents science information in an easy-to-read format. This particular resource describes how the body takes in energy and what it does with excess energy. This booklet also covers the health problems caused by obesity, as well as how to prevent and treat obesity. Additional resources include a bibliography, and a glossary.
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Caffeine pharmacokinetics were studied in 16 obese (mean +/- s.e. mean body weight; 110 +/- 8 kg; % ideal body weight (IBW); 186 +/- 14%) and 23 normal body weight (64 +/- 3 kg; 103 +/- 3% IBW) subjects. Eight obese and four control subjects were cigarette smokers. After abstaining from caffeine for 48 h and an overnight fast, each subject ingested 162 mg caffeine orally. Concentrations of caffeine were measured in plasma samples obtained during the 24 h following the dose and pharmacokinetic...
Abernethy, D. R.; Todd, E. L.; Schwartz, J. B.
Although the formula for weight control is a simple matter, namely ensure that calories consumed equals calories expended, its implementation is a source of great frustration for an estimated 85 million Americans. This results in an estimated 40 billion dollars spent each year in health and related treatment costs. This review outlines the epidemiology, health consequences, and treatment of obesity with an emphasis on newer developments in our understanding of the etiology of obesity and its treatment. PMID:9660530
Schaefer, D C; Cheskin, L J
Full Text Available
Obesity is one of the fast-growing major diseases in developed and developing countries. As has been persuasively argued, long-term imbalance between intake and expenditure of fat is a central factor in the etiology of obesity. Obesity aggravates insulin resistance and promotes cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that elevating lipoprOtein lipase (LPL activity in skeletal muscle would cause an improvement of obesity. To test this hypothesis, we studied the effects of the LPL activator NO-1886 inobese animals. NO-1886 elevated LPL activity in skeletal muscle, and improved obesity as well as insulin resistance in obese rats. Furthermore, NO-1886 mitigated body weight gain induced by pioglitazone without suppressive effect on the adiponectin-increasing action of pioglitazone. LPL activators hold a lot of promise of curing several diseases shown above in clinical scene.
Full Text Available In recent years, it has been thought that a strong association exists between metabolic syndrome, specifically obesity, and psoriasis. Obesity is a multifactorial disease affected by both genetic and environmental factors. Adipokines (e.g. leptin secreted by the adipose tissue are believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. The main role of leptin is to adjust metabolism by controlling appetite. Serum leptin levels in patients with severe and moderate psoriasis were found to be higher than in normal control groups. In many similar studies, leptin secretion has been found to stimulate keratinocyte proliferation, which is one of the characteristics of psoriasis. Although many studies showed increased prevalence of obesity in psoriasis patients, few others reported development of obesity in psoriasis patients. Additionally, obesity was found to affect treatment responses not only in classical systemic/topical treatment approaches in psoriasis, but also in newer biological treatments. Overall, increasing epidemiological evidence suggests strong association between obesity and psoriasis, increase in serum leptin levels is thought to have a major role, and weight loss may have significant impact on response to treatment.
Mehmet Ali Gürer
Full Text Available The prevalence of overweight and obesity and their associated metabolic disorders are considered a major threat to the public’s health. While several diet and exercise programs are available for weight loss and prevention of weight regain, progress is often slow and disappointing. Recently, natural bioactive phytochemicals present in foods have been discovered for their potential health benefit effects on the prevention of chronic disorders such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory and metabolic diseases including obesity.Polyphenols are a class of naturally-occurring phytochemicals, of which some such as catechins, anthocynines, resveratrol and curcumin have been shown to modulate physiological and molecular pathways that are involved in energy metabolism, adiposity, and obesity. The potential in vivo, beneficial effects of these polyphenols on adiposity and obesity as complementary agents in the up-regulation of energy expenditure have emerged by investigating these compounds in cell cultures, animal models of obesity and in some human clinical and epidemiological studies. In this brief review, the efficacy of the above-named polyphenols and their potential efficacy to modulate obesity and some associated disorders are discussed.
National studies have been demonstrating the positive relationship among inequality, poverty and obesity revealing the singularities and complexity of the nutritional transition in Brazil. In this direction, the women constitute a vulnerable group to the dynamics of the obesity in the poverty context. Such fact imposes the theoretical deepening and the accomplishment of researches that make possible a larger approach with the phenomenon in subject. In this perspective, the study analyzed the daily life of poor and obese women, users of basic units of health of the city of Diamantina, Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais State. The results revealed the complex relationship between feminine obesity and poverty. The cultural and material aspects of life, as well as the different feeding and body conceptions that demonstrated to be fundamental elements for the analysis of the multiple faces of the obesity among the investigated group. Facing these results it is appropriate to encourage public policies that promote equity widening the access of those groups to the main resources for the prevention and combat of obesity. PMID:20640303
Ferreira, Vanessa Alves; Silva, Aline Elizabeth; Rodrigues, Chrystiellen Ayana Aparecida; Nunes, Nádia Lúcia Almeida; Vigato, Tássia Cassimiro; Magalhães, Rosana
Obesity was probably rare in ancient times, with the current increase starting in the Industrial Revolution of the eighteenth century, and becoming much more widespread from about 1950, so concurrent with the increased consumption of carbohydrates from cereals in the Green Revolution. However, dietary components such as oligosaccharides from plants including cereals may improve health following fermentation to short-chain carboxylic acids in the intestine by bacteria which constitute of the microbiome. Such non-digestible and fermentable components of diet, called prebiotics, have been part of the human diet since at least Palaeolithic times, and include components of the cereals domesticated in the Neolithic Revolution. If consumption of these cereals has now increased, why is obesity increasing? One reason could be lowered prebiotic intake combined with increased intake of simple sugars, thus changing the bacteria in the microbiome. Processing of food has played an important role in this change of diet composition. Since obesity is a low-grade inflammation, changing the microbiome by increased consumption of simple carbohydrates and saturated fats may lead to obesity via increased systemic inflammation. Conversely, there is now reasonable evidence that increased dietary prebiotic intake decreases inflammation, improves glucose metabolism and decreases obesity. Would widespread increases in prebiotics in the modern diet, so mimicking Palaeolithic or Neolithic nutrition, decrease the incidence and morbidity of obesity in our communities? PMID:24844456
Carnahan, S; Balzer, A; Panchal, S K; Brown, L
Obesity is an important disease with a growing incidence. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, and decreases life span, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain breeds is often suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, we investigated 1379 dogs of 128 different breeds by determining their body condition score (BCS). Overall, 18.6% of the show dogs had a BCS >5, and 1.1% of the show dogs had a BCS>7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be correlated to the breed standards. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and judges in order to come to different interpretations of the standards to prevent overweight conditions from being the standard of beauty. PMID:22882163
Corbee, R J
Due to disparity between organ supply and demand, use of kidneys from suboptimal donors has become increasingly common. Several donor quality systems have been developed to identify kidneys with an increased risk for graft dysfunction and loss. The purpose of our study was to compare the utility of deceased donor score (DDS) and expanded criteria donor (ECD) status to predict kidney transplant outcomes in a single center. We analysed 280 deceased donor renal transplantation procedures, collecting data from the prospectively maintained institutional database. Kidney transplant outcome variable included delayed graft function, 1-year glomerular filtration rate (GFR1y), and death-censored graft loss (DCGL). Kidneys were obtained from marginal donors in 45.7% of transplant recipients by DDS and in 24.9% by ECD. DDS-defined marginal donors suffered delayed graft function (DGF) more frequently than nonmarginal donors (40.8% vs 25.0%; P = .006), whereas ECD did not develop DGF at a greater rate. GFR1Y was significantly worse among patients receiving kidneys from marginal donors: DDS 40.3 ± 12.9 vs 57.7 ± 19.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (P DDS (grade D) showed an independently worse death-censored graft survival hazard rate [HR] 2.661, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.076-6.582; P = .034). DDS and ECD scoring systems are based on donor information available at the time of transplantation that predict 1-year graft function. Moreover in our center, DDS was better to predict DGF and death-censored graft survival than ECD. PMID:23146452
Arnau, A; Rodrigo, E; Miñambres, E; Ruiz, J C; Ballesteros, M A; Piñera, C; Fernandez-Fresnedo, G; Palomar, R; Arias, M
Living unrelated donors (LUDs) constitute an incremental source of kidneys for transplantation at a global level. Excellent outcomes are reported, superior to those of deceased-donor transplantation and comparable to related donor transplantation. LUD include six categories: spouses, distant relatives, paired-exchange, living-deceased exchange, and non-directed and directed donors. Although a financial reward may be involved in any of these categories, it is in the declared selling of organs that ethical concerns have intensified. There are three patterns of paid LUDs in the developing world: organized, erratic and commercial. The only model of organized LUDs is in Iran, where a central agency assigns and compensates the donors. Erratic LUD transplantation has been experienced, and subsequently banned, in the development of transplant programmes in most developing countries. However, the tightness and enforcement of the official ban are geographically different, providing variable room for uncontrolled trafficking. Commercial transplantation has, thus, become phenomenal in a few countries, gradually evolving into an organized business that follows market dynamics, including advertisement, brokerage, commissions, auctions and tourism. While most international organizations and activist groups condemn commercial transplantation, it is often perceived, in certain cultures and under particular socioeconomic standards, as a human right that meets the demands of all stakeholders, and should be organized rather than declined just for the purpose of meeting the values of a third party. PMID:18536939
Barsoum, Rashad S
The utilization of en bloc renal allografts from small pediatric donors has been adopted as an effective strategy to expand the organ donor pool in adult recipients. Data in children are limited. The aim of our study is to describe the outcomes of en bloc renal transplants in children from our center. Medical records of children receiving pediatric en bloc renal transplants at our institution from January 2007 were abstracted. Data collected included recipient and donor demographics, operative technique and complications, and post-operative studies. Eight children received en bloc renal transplants at a median age of 17 yr; median follow-up was 0.9 yr. Donor body weight ranged from 4 to 22 kg. One kidney was lost to intra-operative thrombosis, while the other kidney from this en bloc graft remained viable. All grafts showed increased renal size at follow-up ultrasound. Surveillance biopsies showed glomerulomegaly in two patients. At last follow-up, the median eGFR was 130 mL/min/1.73 m(2). The urinary protein to creatinine ratio was normal in four of seven patients. Our data suggest that in experienced centers, en bloc renal transplantation from young donors into pediatric recipients is effective. Long-term follow-up to monitor for complications, including hyperfiltration injury, is warranted. PMID:23170991
Butani, Lavjay; Troppmann, Christoph; Perez, Richard V
Despite growing recognition of the problem, the obesity epidemic continues in the U.S., and obesity rates are increasing around the world. The latest estimates are that approximately 34% of adults and 15–20% of children and adolescents in the U.S. are obese. Obesity affects every segment of the U.S. population. Obesity increases the risk of many chronic diseases in children and adults. The epidemic of obesity arose gradually over time, apparently from a small, consistent degree of positive ...
Mitchell, Nia; Catenacci, Vicki; Wyatt, Holly R.; Hill, James O.
This article describes the experiences, feelings, and ideas of living kidney donors. Using a phenomenological, qualitative research approach, the authors interviewed 12 purposefully selected living kidney donors (eight men and four women), who were between four and 29 years since donation. Interviews were audiotaped, and transcribed verbatim, and…
Brown, Judith Belle; Karley, Mary Lou; Boudville, Neil; Bullas, Ruth; Garg, Amit X.; Muirhead, Norman
Full Text Available Obesity is now present worldwide, including China, India and developing countries. It now seems no longer acceptable to argue that obesity can simply be explained in terms of caloric consumption only using simple concept of energy in and energy out. There may be specific causes of altered metabolism that produce nutritional imbalances. Individual variation in response to food intake may also be considered. Specific substances in the food chain can influence meta-bolism towards an increase in fat deposits. Xenoestrogens have been suggested to have such an influence. Soy contains phytoestrogens plus phytates, protease inhibitors and other anti-nutrients which block or compromise the body’s uptake of essential vitamins and minerals. This may contribute to nutritional anomalies. We analyzed data from WHO and FAO for 167 countries. These contained percentage of obese individuals (BMI > 30 kg/m2, GDP, caloric consump-tion per capita, and sugar and soy consumption per capita. Regressions and partial correlations were used. Soy con-sumption correlates significantly with levels of obesity, irrespective of GDP and caloric intake. For instance, poor Latin America with soy consumption of 28.9 kg/person/year has more obesity (18.4% than better off European Union (14.1% consuming 16.1 kg/person/year of soy. Soy consumption seems to contribute approximately 10% - 21% to the worldwide variation in obesity, depending on the method of statistical analysis. The ubiquitous presence of unfermented soy products in mass produced foods seems to be an important contributor to the obesity epidemic.
There are two groups of approved drugs that can be used to manage weight in patients with obesity: medications approved for obesity per se and medications that affect body weight for obese patients who have complications from their obesity and are receiving these medications for chronic disease management. For obesity per se, treatment is with one of the three drugs currently approved for long-term treatment of obesity or one of a few others that can be used for short-term treatment. Among these, orlistat partially blocks intestinal digestion of fat and produces weight loss of 5-8 kg but major limitations are associated gastrointestinal symptoms; lorcaserin, a serotonin-2C agonist with few side effects, produces a mean weight loss of 4-7 kg; and the combination of phentermine and topiramate (extended release) produces a mean weight loss of 8-10 kg, but should only be used after verifying a woman is not pregnant. Failure to lose more than 3% of body weight within 3 months with any of these agents should lead to reevaluation of therapy. The short-term drugs for treating obesity per se are sympathomimetics, with phentermine being most widely used. The second group of drugs is for weight-centric prescribing for patients with a chronic disease such as diabetes, depression, or psychiatric disorders. For each disorder, some drugs produce weight gain, others are weight neutral, but the best choice for these patients is the combination of drugs that treat the underlying condition and also produce weight loss. PMID:24641701
Bray, George A; Ryan, Donna H
Hypertension after pediatric renal transplant is a common and important risk factor for graft loss and patient survival. The mechanism of post kidney transplant hypertension is complex and multifactorial. Control of blood pressure in renal transplant patients is important but often times blood pressures remain uncontrolled. The management of hypertension and obesity in pediatric kidney transplant patients is based on the pathophysiology. Compared to the general pediatric hypertensive population, special attention needs to be focused on the additional impact of immunosuppressive medications side effects and interactions, recurrent disease, and donor and recipient comorbidities such as obesity on blood pressure control with thoughtful consideration of the risk of graft failure. In general, there is a need for prospective studies in pediatric kidney transplant patients to understand the pathophysiology of hypertension and obesity and the appropriate approach to achieve a balance between the primary need to avoid rejection and the need to lower blood pressure and prevent obesity. PMID:24791188
John, Eunice G.; Domingo, Liezl T.
Hypertension after pediatric renal transplant is a common and important risk factor for graft loss and patient survival. The mechanism of post kidney transplant hypertension is complex and multifactorial. Control of blood pressure in renal transplant patients is important but often times blood pressures remain uncontrolled. The management of hypertension and obesity in pediatric kidney transplant patients is based on the pathophysiology. Compared to the general pediatric hypertensive population, special attention needs to be focused on the additional impact of immunosuppressive medications side effects and interactions, recurrent disease, and donor and recipient comorbidities such as obesity on blood pressure control with thoughtful consideration of the risk of graft failure. In general, there is a need for prospective studies in pediatric kidney transplant patients to understand the pathophysiology of hypertension and obesity and the appropriate approach to achieve a balance between the primary need to avoid rejection and the need to lower blood pressure and prevent obesity. PMID:24791188
John, Eunice G; Domingo, Liezl T
Full Text Available Maternal perinatal nutrition may program offspring metabolic features. Epigenetic regulation is one of the candidate mechanisms that may be affected by maternal dietary methyl donors intake as potential controllers of plasma homocysteine levels. Thirty-two Wistar pregnant rats were randomly assigned into four dietary groups during lactation: control, control supplemented with methyl donors, high-fat-sucrose and high-fat-sucrose supplemented with methyl donors. Physiological outcomes in the offspring were measured, including hepatic mRNA expression and global DNA methylation after weaning. The newborns whose mothers were fed the obesogenic diet were heavier longer and with a higher adiposity and intrahepatic fat content. Interestingly, increased levels of plasma homocysteine induced by the maternal high-fat-sucrose dietary intake were prevented in both sexes by maternal methyl donors supplementation. Total hepatic DNA methylation decreased in females due to maternal methyl donors administration, while Dnmt3a hepatic mRNA levels decreased accompanying the high-fat-sucrose consumption. Furthermore, a negative association between Dnmt3a liver mRNA levels and plasma homocysteine concentrations was found. Maternal high-fat-sucrose diet during lactation could program offspring obesity features, while methyl donors supplementation prevented the onset of high hyperhomocysteinemia. Maternal dietary intake also affected hepatic DNA methylation metabolism, which could be linked with the regulation of the methionine-homocysteine cycle.
This study examined the perceptions of a cross section of new and experienced assistant principals regarding the realities of their jobs. Findings indicated that their challenges pertain to workload and task management, conflicts with adults and students, and curriculum and instruction issues. Novice and experienced assistant principals' responses…
Barnett, Bruce G.; Shoho, Alan R.; Oleszewski, Ashley M.
Summary Background The relationship between malaria and obesity are largely unknown. This is partly due to the fact that malaria occurs mainly in tropical areas where, until recently, obesity was not prevalent. It now appears, however, that obesity is emerging as a problem in developing countries. To investigate the possible role of obesity on the host-parasite response to malarial infection, this study applied a murine model, which uses the existence of genetically well char...
Lombard Marie-Noëlle; Thouvenot Catherine; Depoix Delphine; Bourgouin Catherine; Robert Vincent; Grellier Philippe
Obesity is an epidemic problem in the world and is associated with several health problems, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, respiratory failure, muscle weakness, and cancer. The precise molecular mechanisms by which obesity induces these health problems are not yet clear. To better understand the pathomechanisms of human disease, good animal models are essential. In this paper, we will analyze animal models of obesity and their use in the research of obesity-associated human he...
Keizo Kanasaki; Daisuke Koya
Full Text Available Introduction. Blood groups are inherited biological characteristics that do not change throughout life in healthy people. Blood groups represent antigens found on the surface of red blood cells. Kell blood group system consists of 31 antigens. Kell antigen (K is present in 0.2% of the population (the rare blood group. Cellano antigen is present in more than 99% (the high-frequency antigen. These antigens have a distinct ability to cause an immune response in the people after blood transfusion or pregnancy who, otherwise, did not have them before. Case Report. This paper presents a blood donor with a rare blood group, who was found to have an irregular antibody against red blood cells by indirect antiglobulin test. Further testing determined the specificity of antibody to be anti-Cellano. The detected antibody was found in high titers (1024 with erythrocyte phenotype Kell-Cellano+. The blood donor was found to have a rare blood group KellKell. This donor was excluded from further blood donation. It is difficult to find compatible blood for a person who has developed an antibody to the high-frequency antigen. The donor’s family members were tested and Cellano antigen was detected in her husband and child. A potential blood donor was not found among the family members. There was only one blood donor in the Register of blood donors who was compatible in the ABO and Kell blood group system. Conclusion. For the successful management of blood transfusion it is necessary to establish a unified national register of donors of rare blood groups and cooperate with the International Blood Group Reference Laboratory in Bristol with the database that registers donors of rare blood groups from around the world.
Full Text Available Akira Kobayashi, Hideaki Yokogawa, Natsuko Yamazaki, Toshinori Masaki, Kazuhisa Sugiyama Department of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa, Japan Abstract: Here we report a case of endothelial keratoplasty with infant donor tissue obtained after brain death. A 52-year-old man with endothelial dysfunction of unknown cause in the right eye underwent non-Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (nDSAEK with tissue from an infant donor (2 years. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded. Best corrected visual acuity and donor central endothelial cell density were recorded preoperatively and postoperatively. Infant donor tissue preparation with a microkeratome set at 300 µm was successful; the donor tissue was extremely elastic and soft compared with adult tissue. The central endothelial cell density of the infant donor tissue was as high as 4,291 cells/mm2. No complications were observed during donor tissue (8.0 mm in diameter insertion with the double-glide technique (Busin glide with intraocular lens sheet glide or any of the other procedures. Best corrected visual acuity improved from 1.7 logMAR (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution; 0.02 decimal visual acuity preoperatively to 0.2 logMAR (0.6 after 6 months and 0.1 logMAR (0.8 after 1 year. The central endothelial cell density after 6 months was 4,098 cells/mm2 (representing a 4.5% cell loss from preoperative donor cell measurements, and the central endothelial cell density after 1 year was 4,032 cells/mm2 (6.0% decrease. Infant donor tissue may be preferably used for DSAEK/nDASEK, since it may not be suitable for penetrating keratoplasty or Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty. Keywords: brain death, non-Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty, infant donor, endothelial keratoplasty
Full Text Available Introduction Studies carried out in various parts of the world indicate that family obesity significantly affects the incidence of obesity in children. This is especially a characteristic of children whose both parents are obese. Material and methods The study was conducted using a polling method. Questionnaires were filled out by parents and brothers and sisters, including their body height and weight. The collected data served as the basis for assessing the family nutritional status. Results Statistical analysis of the results showed that obese children frequently have obese parents, brothers and sisters in regard to normal-weight children. Differences are statistically significant in relation to fathers (r=0.043, i.e. statistically obese schoolchildren have more frequently obese fathers than those of normal nutritional status. Other differences could not be considered significant (p > 0.05. Discussion Obese children have more often obese parents, brothers and sisters than normal-weight children. It was found that the nutritional status of moderately and extremely obese children was quite different from that of normal-weight children and that there was a statistically significant dependence between the nutritional status of children and their fathers. Conclusion This research showed that family obesity is a potential contributing factor to obesity of schoolchildren.
Since the prevalence of obesity is high in Saudis and since obesity and hypertension occur together and cause serious complications, it is strongly suggested that measures are adopted to decrease prevalence of obesity and its underlying complications. Awareness programs are required at the level of the general public for successful implication of preventive programs.
M. A. El-Hazmi
Full Text Available Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity.
Full Text Available Obesity is characterized by the abnormal or excessive deposition of fat in the adipose tissue. Its consequences go far beyond adverse metabolic effects on health, causing an increase in oxidative stress, which leads not only to endothelial dysfunction but also to negative effects in relation to periodontitis, because of the increase in proinflammatory cytokines. Thus obesity appears to participate in the multifactorial phenomenon of causality of periodontitis through the increased production of reactive oxygen species. The possible causal relationship between obesity and periodontitis and potential underlying biological mechanisms remain to be established; however, the adipose tissue actively secretes a variety of cytokines and hormones that are involved in inflammatory processes, pointing toward similar pathways involved in the pathophysiology of obesity, periodontitis and related inflammatory diseases. So the aim of this article is to get an overview of the association between obesity and periodontitis and to review adipose-tissue - derived hormones and cytokines that are involved in inflammatory processes and their relationship to periodontitis.
Full Text Available ... Dr. Michael Tarnoff, MD, FACS, an adjunct associate professor of Surgery at Tufts University School of Medicine. Dr. Tarnoff specializes in minimally invasive and bariatric surgery at Tufts Medical Center. What is morbid obesity? Morbid obesity is ...
Obesity is a common contributing factor to the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Obesity participates in the genesis of CKD by predisposing to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, and focal and segmental glomerular sclerosis. It also predisposes to calcium oxalate and urate stones. Additionally, obesity is associated with an increased prevalence and magnitude of proteinuria and a more rapid progression to CKD. There are many mechanisms by which obesity alters renal physiology and metabolism. More effective methods for treating obesity and preventing the development and progression of obesity-associated CKD are clearly needed. Therefore, there is a greater need for a better understanding of the causes of the excessive energy intake that leads to obesity and the mechanisms responsible for the refractoriness of obese individuals to treatment. PMID:20797567
Kopple, Joel D
Full Text Available ... everything related. How is morbid obesity managed? The management of morbid obesity generally includes two broad options. ... of the associated comorbid health conditions, most specifically diabetes, I would overwhelmingly be concerned about my health ...
Obesity increases the risk of metabolic complications such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, systemic hypertension and cardiovascular disease. These are mainly responsible for the increased mortality of obese people. Other metabolic consequences of obesity are: gallstones, steatosis of the liver and the polycystic ovary syndrome. Beside the body mass index the distribution of body fat is important. Centralized obesity, as measured by the waist-to-hip circumference ratio (WHR), is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia seem to play a central role in the pathogenesis of this association. Obesity has not only metabolic complications. There is a relationship between obesity and impaired respiratory function. Furthermore is obesity a risk factor for osteoarthrosis of the knee, the hip and even the hand and for pulmonary embolism and venous thrombosis. Obesity can also lead to psycho-social problems such as depression, social discrimination and isolation. PMID:11026085
Simon-Vermot, I; Keller, U
Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity, an established risk and progression factor for many cancers, has increased dramatically in many countries over the past three decades. Worldwide, an estimated 600 million adults are currently obese. Thus, a better understanding of the mechanistic links between obesity and cancer is urgently needed to identify intervention targets and strategies to offset the procancer effects of obesity. This review synthesizes the evidence on key biological mechanisms underlying the obesity-cancer association, with particular emphasis on obesity-associated enhancements in growth factor signaling, inflammation, and perturbations in the tumor microenvironment. These interrelated pathways and processes that are aberrantly regulated in obese individuals represent mechanism-based targets for disrupting the obesity-cancer link using phytochemicals.
Full Text Available Obesity is an important and chronic disease. It occurs due to more body fat accumulation than normal levels, it associates with many factor and it needs to medical treatment. Important risk factors of obesity are feeding habits, sexualty (Female, age, education, marriage, labor number and hereditary. Obesity, may be originated from hereditary factors and it progresses very fastly in developed and developing countries. More than 30 % percent of population is obese in Turkey (male %7,9 female %23,4. It is known that obesity closely related with many chronic disorders. Thus, well knowledge about effects of obesity and its alternative treatments is important for determining ideal treatment of obesity and its complications. Aim of this review to represent effects, causing obesity and its treatment options together.
Berrin Zuhal Bulucu Altunkaynak
Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the ...
Merchant Anwar T; Akhtar-Danesh Noori; Dehghan Mahshid
Obesity is at epidemic proportions in the United States and in other developed and developing countries. The prevalence of obesity is increasing not only in adults, but especially among children and adolescents. In the United States in 2003 to 2004, 17.1% of children and adolescents were overweight, and 32.2% of adults were obese. Obesity is a significant risk factor for and contributor to increased morbidity and mortality, most importantly from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes, but ...
This article unites the results from an integrative reconsideration of actual data about obesity from the viewpoint of recent developments in general pathology, epidemiology, immunology, genetics, and evolution. The focus is on the origin of genetic diversity in obesity manifestations on different levels of the disease. In contrast to the current paradigm of nutritive origin of obesity, the revealed set of evidences shows that the origin of obesity is based on either hereditary or post-infect...
Rumyantsev, Sergey N.
Because obesity is a risk factor for many serious illnesses such as diabetes, better understandings of obesity and eating disorders have been attracting attention in neurobiology, psychiatry, and neuroeconomics. This paper presents future study directions by unifying (i) economic theory of addiction and obesity (Becker and Murphy, 1988; Levy 2002; Dragone 2009), and (ii) recent empirical findings in neuroeconomics and neurobiology of obesity and addiction. It is suggested th...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity can be defined using body mass index (BMI or waist (abdominal obesity. Little information exists regarding its prevalence and determinants in Switzerland. Hence, we assessed the levels of obesity as defined by BMI or waist circumference in a Swiss population-based sample. Methods Cross-sectional, population-based non-stratified random sample of 3,249 women and 2,937 men aged 35–75 years living in Lausanne, Switzerland. Overall participation rate was 41%. Results In men, the prevalences of overweight (BMI ?25 kg/m2 and obesity (BMI ?30 kg/m2 were 45.5% and 16.9%, respectively, higher than in women (28.3% and 14.3%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity (waist ?102 in men and ?88 cm in women was higher in women than in men (30.6% vs. 23.9%. Obesity and abdominal obesity increased with age and decreased with higher educational level in both genders. In women, the prevalence of obesity was lower among former and current smokers, whereas in men the prevalence of obesity was higher in former smokers but did not differ between current and never smokers. Multivariate analysis showed age to be positively related, and education and physical activity to be negatively related with obesity and abdominal obesity in both genders, whereas differential effects of smoking were found between genders. Conclusion The prevalence of abdominal obesity is higher than BMI-derived obesity in the Swiss population. Women presented with more abdominal obesity than men. The association between smoking and obesity levels appears to differ between genders.
Full Text Available Obesity is becoming a major medical concern in several parts of the world, with huge economic impacts on health- care systems, resulting mainly from increased cardiovascular risks. At the same time, obesity leads to a number of sleep-disordered breathing patterns like obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS, leading to increased morbidity and mortality with reduced quality of life. OHS is distinct from other sleep- related breathing disorders although overlap may exist. OHS patients may have obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea with hypercapnia and sleep hypoventilation, or an isolated sleep hypoventilation. Despite its major impact on health, this disorder is under-recognized and under-diagnosed. Available management options include aggressive weight reduction, oxygen therapy and using positive airway pressure techniques. In this review, we will go over the epidemiology, pathophysiology, presentation and diagnosis and management of OHS.
Al Dabal Laila
This article reviews information on discriminatory attitudes and behaviors against obese individuals, integrates this to show whether systematic discrimination occurs and why, and discusses needed work in the field. Clear and consistent stigmatization, and in some cases discrimination, can be documented in three important areas of living: employment, education, and health care. Among the findings are that 28% of teachers in one study said that becoming obese is the worst thing that can happen to a person; 24% of nurses said that they are "repulsed" by obese persons; and, controlling for income and grades, parents provide less college support for their overweight than for their thin children. There are also suggestions but not yet documentation of discrimination occurring in adoption proceedings, jury selection, housing, and other areas. Given the vast numbers of people potentially affected, it is important to consider the research-related, educational, and social policy implications of these findings. PMID:11743063
Puhl, R; Brownell, K D
The obese are subject to health problems directly relating to the carriage of excess adipose tissue. These problems range from arthritis, aches and pains, sleep disturbance, dyspnea on mild exertion, and excessive sweating to social stigmatization and discrimination, all of which may contribute to low quality of life and depression (Table 1). The most serious medical consequences of obesity are a result of endocrine and metabolic changes, most notably type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and increased risk of cancer. Not all obesity comorbidities are fully reversed by weight loss. The degree and duration of weight loss required may not be achievable by an individual patient. Furthermore, "weight cycling" may be more detrimental to both physical and mental health than failure to achieve weight loss targets with medical and lifestyle advice. PMID:15475229
Lawrence, Victor J; Kopelman, Peter G
Full Text Available Objectives: To examine pre-pregnancy obesity and gestational weight gain as predictors for adverse pregnancy outcomes in a predominantly non-white obstetric resident clinic population. Methods: Prenatal charts for patients with pre-pregnancy obesity cared for at our resident clinic from January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2010 were reviewed. Adverse maternal outcomes were grouped into a “Composite Morbidity Index” (CMI-M and included gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, superimposed preeclampsia, dystocia, operative delivery, Cesarean section for arrest disorders, wound infection and disruption, and thromboembolic events. Fetal events, similarly categorized into a composite adverse fetal index (CMI-F, included macrosomia, Apgar at 5 minutes (?3, NICU admission, congenital anomalies and intrauterine fetal demise. Results: 627 women with a singleton pregnancy and a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI of 30 and greater were included in the analysis. As measured by the composite morbidity index, women with Class III obesity at their first prenatal visit were more likely to have at least one or more maternal and fetal complications compared to women with Class II or Class I obesity. For adverse maternal outcomes (CMI-M, 40.2%, 33.8%, and 27.4% of women within each respective obesity class experienced an adverse event (p = 0.027. Applying the CMI-F, fetal complications were observed in 28.2%, 18%, and 13.9% of Class III, II, and I obesity (p = 0.003. Total gestational weight gain per week was significantly greater for patients with one or more maternal complications (p = 0.045. Conclusion: Among an obese, resident clinic population comprised primarily of women of ethnic minorities, pre-pregnancy body mass index was the strongest indicator for adverse maternal and fetal outcomes.
Shelly H. Tien
Describes the role caregivers play in helping young children dealing with obesity. Examines: (1) causes of childhood obesity; (2) caregiver's position; (3) learning nutrition concepts; (4) preparing and serving healthy foods; (5) encouraging physical activity; (6) working with parents; and (7) assisting an obese child. (SD)
U.S. health experts declared obesity an epidemic over a decade ago. Schools have tried to implement prevention programs for students, but as budgets shrink, educating students about obesity is increasingly falling to classroom instructors, including science teachers. The good news is that obesity-related classroom activities can be engaging, and…
Bratsis, Michael E.
Summary Donors are the key to the core business of Blood Collection Agencies (BCAs). However, historically, they have not been a focus of research undertaken by these organizations. This model is now changing, with significant donor research groups established in a number of countries, including Australia. Donor research in the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (Blood Service) is concentrated in the Donor and Community Research (DCR) team. Cognizant of the complex and ever-changing landscape with regard to optimal donor management, the DCR team collaborates with academics located at universities around Australia to coordinate a broad program of research that addresses both short- and-long term challenges to the blood supply. This type of collaboration is not, however, without challenges. Two major collaborative programs of the Blood Service's research, focusing on i) the recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors and ii) the role of the emotion pride in donor motivation and return, are showcased to elucidate how the challenges of conducting collaborative BCA research can be met. In so doing, these and the other research programs described herein demonstrate how the Blood Service supports and contributes to research that not only revises operational procedures but also contributes to advances in basic science.
Masser, Barbara; Smith, Geoff; Williams, Lisa A.
Donors are the key to the core business of Blood Collection Agencies (BCAs). However, historically, they have not been a focus of research undertaken by these organizations. This model is now changing, with significant donor research groups established in a number of countries, including Australia. Donor research in the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (Blood Service) is concentrated in the Donor and Community Research (DCR) team. Cognizant of the complex and ever-changing landscape with regard to optimal donor management, the DCR team collaborates with academics located at universities around Australia to coordinate a broad program of research that addresses both short- and-long term challenges to the blood supply. This type of collaboration is not, however, without challenges. Two major collaborative programs of the Blood Service's research, focusing on i) the recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors and ii) the role of the emotion pride in donor motivation and return, are showcased to elucidate how the challenges of conducting collaborative BCA research can be met. In so doing, these and the other research programs described herein demonstrate how the Blood Service supports and contributes to research that not only revises operational procedures but also contributes to advances in basic science. PMID:25254025
Masser, Barbara; Smith, Geoff; Williams, Lisa A
Full Text Available Deceased organ donors in an intensive care unit (ICU are the richest source of organs for transplantation. Careful donor maintenance plays a vital role in the successful functioning of the organ in the recipient. Aims : Early identification of brain stem death (BSD in the ICU, problems and management in donor maintenance till retrieval are the main objectives. Materials and Methods : BSD was identified in a level I trauma center over a period of eight years (1996-2004 using UK code. After screening for fitness, they were maintained to achieve normothermia, systolic BP > 90 mm Hg, CVP 8-10 cm water, urine output > 80 ml/hour and normal acid base balance. Results: 168 cases of BSD were maintained, 30 with identity unknown. Common transient complications noted were hypotension (68%, hypokalemia (62%, hypothermia (12%, diabetes insipidus (70%. Brain stem death was identified early and resuscitated to maintain normal tissue perfusion. 17 (12.3% consent for organ donation was obtained. Organs (24 kidneys and one liver were retrieved from 12 donors. Four donors sustained cardiac arrest before retrieval. Conclusion: Early recognition of brain stem death and prompty correction of hemodyanamic instability is the key to deceased donor maintenance. Optimal care of potential donor translates to care of multiple recipients.
Previous studies have suggested that living kidney donors maintain long-term renal function and experience no increase in cardiovascular or all-cause mortality. However, most analyses have included control groups less healthy than the living donor population and have had relatively short follow-up periods. Here we compared long-term renal function and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in living kidney donors compared with a control group of individuals who would have been eligible for donation. All-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was identified in 1901 individuals who donated a kidney during 1963 through 2007 with a median follow-up of 15.1 years. A control group of 32,621 potentially eligible kidney donors was selected, with a median follow-up of 24.9 years. Hazard ratio for all-cause death was significantly increased to 1.30 (95% confidence interval 1.11-1.52) for donors compared with controls. There was a significant corresponding increase in cardiovascular death to 1.40 (1.03-1.91), while the risk of ESRD was greatly and significantly increased to 11.38 (4.37-29.6). The overall incidence of ESRD among donors was 302 cases per million and might have been influenced by hereditary factors. Immunological renal disease was the cause of ESRD in the donors. Thus, kidney donors are at increased long-term risk for ESRD, cardiovascular, and all-cause mortality compared with a control group of non-donors who would have been eligible for donation. PMID:24284516
Mjøen, Geir; Hallan, Stein; Hartmann, Anders; Foss, Aksel; Midtvedt, Karsten; Øyen, Ole; Reisæter, Anna; Pfeffer, Per; Jenssen, Trond; Leivestad, Torbjørn; Line, Pål-Dag; Øvrehus, Magnus; Dale, Dag Olav; Pihlstrøm, Hege; Holme, Ingar; Dekker, Friedo W; Holdaas, Hallvard
Dr Philip Hopkins defines obesity and describes its incidence in his general practice. He stresses the importance of dealing with underlying psychological factors in the treatment of the condition.Dr A A Lewis discusses hormonal influences and advocates a high protein diet as being an acceptable means of achieving weight reduction.Professor John Yudkin shows that a low protein diet is impracticable, and stresses the importance of physical activity in the treatment of obesity. He advocates a low carbohydrate diet with unrestricted fat and protein. PMID:14269775
Much research is underway on the links between diet and obesity. So too are long-running disputes among nutritionists on core questions about the relationship. This editorial reviews the state-of-play on four issues: what makes people fat, how to lose weight, how much do we eat, and what policies to adopt towards obesity. The practical consequence is that, at present, frontline health professionals will not find in nutrition science agreed, actionable solutions to assist overweight patients. But research and debate continues actively. PMID:25156753
In children with sickle cell disease (SCD), primary and secondary prevention of strokes require indefinite regular blood transfusion therapy. The risks associated with repeated transfusions include alloimmunization and increased donor exposure. The Charles Drew Program is a directed blood donor program designed to lower donor exposure, decreasing the associated complications of transfusion; however, no evidence exists demonstrating the magnitude of the benefit to the recipient. Further, the use of extended red blood cell (RBC) antigen matching for C, E, and K has been well documented in a clinical trial setting but not extensively evaluated in a standard care setting. The goal of this study is to assess the effectiveness in reducing alloimmunization when matching for C, E, and K and the magnitude of the decrease in donor exposure in a directed blood donor program. The rate of alloimmunization and reduction of donor exposure were determined during the course of 1 year in a cohort of children with SCD who received regular directed donor blood transfusions. A total of 24 recipients were in the program, 16 females and 8 males, 4 to 20 years of age. During 2008, alloimmunization was 0 percent and donor exposure was reduced by 20 percent, compared with usual care. Extended RBC antigen matching has the same benefit as in a clinical trial setting for patients with SCD receiving blood transfusion therapy. Despite significant effort, we only achieved a modest decrease in donor exposure and cannot determine the immediate benefit of a directed blood donor program. PMID:22646143
Roberts, D O; Covert, B; Lindsey, T; Edwards, V; McLaughlin, L; Theus, J; Wray, R J; Jupka, K; Baker, D; Robbins, M; DeBaun, M R
Background In the U.S., Europe, and throughout the world, abdominal obesity prevalence is increasing. Depressive symptoms may contribute to abdominal obesity through the consumption of diets high in energy density. Purpose To test dietary energy density ([DED]; kilocalories/gram of food and beverages consumed) for an independent relationship with abdominal obesity or as a mediator between depressive symptoms and abdominal obesity. Methods This cross-sectional study included 87 mid-life, overweight adults; 73.6% women; 50.6% African-American. Variables and measures: Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) to measure depressive symptoms; 3-day weighed food records to calculate DED; waist circumference, an indicator of abdominal obesity. Hierarchical regression tested if DED explained waist circumference variance while controlling for depressive symptoms and consumed food and beverage weight. Three approaches tested DED as a mediator. Results Nearly three-quarters of participants had abdominal obesity, and the mean waist circumference was 103.2 (SD 14.3) cm. Mean values: BDI-II was 8.67 (SD 8.34) which indicates most participants experienced minimal depressive symptoms, and 21.8% reported mild to severe depressive symptoms (BDI-II ? 14); DED was 0.75 (SD 0.22) kilocalories/gram. Hierarchical regression showed an independent association between DED and waist circumference with DED explaining 7.0% of variance above that accounted for by BDI-II and food and beverage weight. DED did not mediate between depressive symptoms and abdominal obesity. Conclusions Depressive symptoms and DED were associated with elevated waist circumference, thus a comprehensive intervention aimed at improving depressive symptoms and decreasing DED to reduce waist circumference is warranted. PMID:21530408
Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; Dunbar, Sandra B.; Gary, Rebecca; Tohill, Beth C.; Frediani, Jennifer K.; Higgins, Melinda K.
Like other nations experiencing rapid industrialization, urbanization and a nutrition transition, there is concern in Malaysia of a possible escalation in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. In 1996, the National Health and Morbidity Survey reported a 16.6% and 4.4% prevalence of overweight and obesity, respectively. In the following decade, there have been several national and community surveys on overweight and obesity in Malaysia. The objective of this systematic review is to describe the trend from 1996 to 2009 in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults in Malaysia nationally and by gender, age and race. Results indicate that there has been a small rise in overweight adults in the years 1996, 2003 and 2006 (20.7%, 26.7% and 29.1%) and a much more dramatic increase in obesity in 1996, 2003, 2004 and 2006 (5.5%, 12.2%, 12.3% and 14.0%). Evidence showed a greater risk for overweight and obesity among women compared with men. Based on the highest-quality studies, overweight and obesity levels were highest among adults 40-59 years old. Overweight levels were highest among Indians, followed by Malays, Chinese and Aboriginals, with less consistency across studies on the order of risk or obesity by ethnicity. PMID:20233309
Khambalia, A Z; Seen, L S
Obesity prevalence has more than doubled globally within the last 30 years. Obesity affects quality of life as well as impacts the risks and prognosis for a number of serious diseases. Established causes include a high calorie diet combined with a sedentary lifestyle and possibly the widespread cessation of smoking, but these do not fully explain the epidemic. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals and evidence from animal experiments suggests an association with obesity development. Our knowledge of the effects of these compounds on weight gain in humans is limited. Our objective was to investigate the association between exposure to PCBs experienced by a general Danish population and development of obesity. We randomly selected 204 persons (113 obese and 91 overweight), aged ? 50 years, from a prospective Danish cohort of 57,053 persons and examined ten PCBs as potential determinants of abdominal obesity. Adipose tissue was collected upon enrolment and PCBs were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Median levels of the included PCBs were lower in women, except for PCB118 and all PCBs were positively associated with increased abdominal circumference, although this association was not significant. These data indicate a positive link between PCBs and obesity. More work is needed to fully elucidate the complex role of compounds such as PCBs in the present obesity epidemic.
Bräuner, Elvira; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
Full Text Available Improvements in surgical techniques, immunosuppression, and post-transplantation patientcare have led to the optimization of liver transplantation outcomes. However, the waiting listfor liver transplantation is increasing at a greater pace. The large gap between the growing poolof patients waiting for liver transplantation and the scarcity of donor organs has fueled effortsto maximize existing donors and identify new sources.This article will be focused on the current state of liver transplantation using grafts from extendedcriteria donors (elderly donors, steatotic donors, donors with malignancies, donors withviral hepatitis and from donation after cardiac death (DCD, as well as the use of partial grafts(split grafts and living-donor liver transplantation and other suboptimal donors (donors withhypernatremia, infections, hypotension and inotropic support. Overall, broadened criteria foracceptable donor livers appear to lessen graft survival rates somewhat compared with rates forstandard criteria organs.
R. F. Saidi
This study investigates whether experienced physical education teachers perceive the same frustrations and negative orientations as beginning teachers. Furthermore, it considers if the professionalization-deprofessionalization tension is a useful theoretical framework for analyzing the perspectives of experienced physical educators. In-depth interviews were conducted with 11 experienced physical education teachers. Data suggest that in many respects their working conditions and orientations are more supportive and positive than those reported for beginning physical educators. After presenting the teachers' perspectives in terms of their sense of commitment, competence, and power, it is concluded that the professional satisfaction of these experienced teachers can be instructive for improving the working conditions of all teachers. PMID:10100334
Full Text Available Aim of this research was to describe the nature, direction and severity of anticipated and experienced discrimination reported by people with schizophrenia. We applied interview to 50 patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia in two psychiatric hospitals in Belgrade. Discrimination was measured with discrimination and stigma scale (DISC which produce 3 subscores, positive experienced discrimination, negative experienced discrimination and anticipated discrimination. The same scale was used in cross-cultural research in 27 european countries. Results have shown that participants from Serbia do not recognize discrimination in all areas of life equally. The discrimination recognized is more frequentlly negative then positive and is associated with existentially important realms of life. Due to anticipated discrimination participants in our study prevent themselves from looking for a close relationship. Anticipated discrimination could not be predicted on the grounds of experienced, positive or negative discrimination.
... EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING AND RETRAINING OF MINERS ENGAGED IN SHELL DREDGING OR EMPLOYED AT SAND, GRAVEL, SURFACE STONE, SURFACE CLAY, COLLOIDAL PHOSPHATE, OR SURFACE LIMESTONE MINES. § 46.6 Newly hired experienced miner...
... Living Organ Donor? Questions and Answers about Live Organ Donation American Society of Transplantation 1120 Route 73, Suite ... and state employees can get special leave for organ donation. Some private employers also give special leave. Talk ...
In patients with metastatic breast cancer, immune cells from a genetically matched donor can attack and shrink tumors, researchers from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) announced today at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology in Chicago.
Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood was collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff want to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.
Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood were collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff wish to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.
Full Text Available Transplantation of the liver is one of the most traumatic operations yet deviced and there is a tendency for it to be offered as a possible life-saving therapy to some of the sickest patients that are submitted to surgery. The concept of vascularized liver graft resulted from the pioneering work of Moore (1959 and Starzl (1960. In the last twenty years, the concept of multiorgan donor has been accepted in most European countries and USA, and, where possible, all organs that can be used are transplanted from a given donor, provided permission is forthcoming. Procurement of the whole liver graft from a heart-beating, but brain-dead, donor remains the standard method of liver procurement and is usually carried out as part af a multiple organ retrieval that also includes the kidneys, pancreas and thoracic organs, and occasionally intestinal grafts are being recovered. The author describes the standard approach for donor hepatectomy.
Full Text Available ... warns that extreme obesity will shorten a person's life by roughly 6 to 14 years. The finding published in the journal PLOS Medicine is based on a review of 20 previously conducted investigations. In total, the studies included more than 300,000 healthy weight adults and nearly 9,600 classified as ...
Buffets are the "perfect" environment for facilitating excessive energy intake. Customers at buffets often eat considerably more food than is the usual case at regular restaurants. However, extremely little research has been conducted on the relationship between buffets, energy intake, and weight gain. Research studies are therefore needed that investigate whether buffets do indeed contribute to excessive food intake and thence obesity. PMID:22889598
Temple, Norman J; Nowrouzi, Behdin
Type 2 diabetes and obesity are intimately linked; reduction of bodyweight improves glycemic control, mortality and morbidity. Treating obesity in the diabetic is hampered as some diabetic treatments lead to weight gain. Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective antiobesity treatment and causes long-term remission of diabetes in many patients. However, surgery has a high cost and is associated with a significant risk of complications, and in practical terms only limited numbers can undergo this therapy. The choice of pharmacological agents suitable for treatment of diabetes and obesity is currently limited. The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists improve glycemia and induce a modest weight loss, but there are doubts over their long-term safety. New drugs such as lorcaserin and phentermine/topiramate are being approved for obesity and have modest, salutary effects on glycemia, but again long-term safety is unclear. This article will also examine some future avenues for development, including gut hormone analogues that promise to combine powerful weight reduction with beneficial effects on glucose metabolism. PMID:23473594
Kenkre, Julia; Tan, Tricia; Bloom, Stephen
Full Text Available ... right-hand corner of the player. Obesity and School Bullying HealthDay August 25, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Bullying ... should begin at the very start of primary school and they recommend anti-bullying programs become part of the curriculum as early ...
Full Text Available ... lower right-hand corner of the player. Obesity and School Bullying HealthDay August 25, 2014 Related MedlinePlus ... on bullying behavior surrounding these students including verbal and physical attacks. More than 1,300 children were ...
Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and…
While much of the industrialized world struggles for clues to the growing rise in obesity in their respective countries, researchers and service providers involved in understanding the health characteristics and health behaviors of persons with intellectual disability (ID) struggle with their own issues regarding the increased prevalence of…
Rimmer, James H.; Yamaki, Kiyoshi
Full Text Available Pharmacological treatment of obesity is an area of sudden changes,development of new drugs and treatment propositions. This articlepresents information on physiological agents that are currentlybeing used as well as drugs that were widely used but are nomore available.
Marcio C. Mancini
Full Text Available The fast global increased prevalence of obesity has been classifiedas an epidemics by the World Health Organization. The etiology ofobesity is very complex and involves genetic and environmentalfactors. One of the main factors that trigger obesity is sedentarylife, as well as the great availability of fat-rich foods that present ahigh energy density. According to the NHANES II, although thepopulation has decreased the ingestion of fat, the total consumptionof food has increased. The main factors that influence in choice offood are flavor, followed by cost, convenience and, finally, itsnutritional value. The dietary treatment of obesity should haverealistic goals concerning weight loss rate and amount. It issuggested to prescribe a balanced low-calorie diet, emphasizingmostly the quality of foods by using the food pyramid. Therefore,patients may learn the appropriate criteria to select food and makehealthy choices. The dietary treatment of obesity also includesthe use of behavioral techniques directed at dietary education,thus resulting in choice of healthy foods with adequate energyvalue.
Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg
Three examples of the appropriateness of including the investigation of commensality to curb obesity epidemics, and a methodological note on the application of the concept of Foodscape as a fruitful holistic analytical perspective on the interplay between food, people, meals, and the physical conditions under which we eat.
Obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) more than or equal to 30kg/m(2), promotes pelvic floor disorders such as urinary incontinence (UI) and genital prolapse. Datas from cohort studies found an association between high BMI and the onset of UI. This association seems to be predominant with for mixed UI and stress UI. For the urge UI and overactive bladder syndrome, the analysis of the literature found a weaker association. The weight is therefore the only modifiable risk factor. Thus, the weight loss by a hypocaloric diet associated with pelvic floor muscle training should be the front line treatment in the obese patient suffering from UI. Bariatric surgery can be discussed in the most obese patient, even if the risk/benefit balance should be weighed because of significant morbidity of this surgery. The results of sub urethral sling (by retropubic tension-free vaginal tape or transobturator sling) in obese patients appear to be equivalent to those obtained in patients of normal weight. Datas on per- and postoperative complications for suburethral slings are reassuring. PMID:22516035
Legendre, G; Fritel, X; Capmas, P; Pourcelot, A-G; Fernandez, H
Full Text Available Background: Our blood bank is a regional blood transfusion centre, which accepts blood only from voluntary donors. Aim: The aim is to study iron status of regular voluntary donors who donated their blood at least twice in a year. Materials and Methods: Prior to blood donation, blood samples of 220 male and 30 female voluntary donors were collected. Control included 100 each male and female healthy individuals in the 18- to 60-year age group, who never donated blood and did not have any chronic infection. In the study and control groups, about 10% subjects consumed non-vegetarian diet. After investigation, 85 males and 56 females having haemoglobin (Hb levels above 12.5 g/dl were selected as controls. Donors were divided into ?10, 11-20, 21-50 and> 50 blood donation categories. Majority of the donors in> 50 donation category donated blood four times in a year, whereas the remaining donors donated two to three times per year. Haematological parameters were measured on fully automatic haematology analyzer, serum iron and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC by biochemical methods, ferritin using ELISA kits and transferrin using immunoturbidometry kits. Iron/TIBC ratio x 100 gave percentage of transferrin saturation value. Statistical Analysis: Statistical evaluation was done by mean, standard deviation, pair t -test, ?2 and anova ( F -test. Results: Preliminary analysis revealed that there was no significant difference in the iron profile of vegetarian and non-vegetarian subjects or controls and the donors donating < 20 times. Significant increase or decrease was observed in mean values of various haematological and iron parameters in donors who donated blood for> 20 times ( P < 0.001, compared to controls. Anaemia, iron deficiency and depletion of iron stores were more prevalent in female donors ( P < 0.05 compared to males and especially in those male donors who donated their blood for more than 20 times. Conclusion: Regular voluntary blood donors should receive iron supplementation to prevent iron deficiency and depletion in iron stores.
The growing urbanization of poverty poses a significant challenge to governments and donors alike, particularly in Asia, which houses 60 per cent of the world's slum dwellers. Donors have been slow to respond to the urban challenge, however, both in their funding patterns and their priorities. There remains, therefore, significant scope for tangible benefits for the urban poor through greater formal and informal recognition, and in the process, through improved access to services and infrastr...
Recently in Northern Ireland there has been a rapid increase in demand for a variety of blood components. To meet this need a large proportion of routine blood donations must be processed at the Transfusion Centre. In addition, several blood components are collected direct from donors by apheresis techniques. Apheresis is currently restricted to the collection of components from highly selected donors, but in future this method is likely to be employed for collection of some routine component...
Mcclelland, W. M.
We studied bacterial contamination of corneal donor material following processing by two techniques prior to immersion in McCarey-Kaufman medium. If the whole eye was immersed in Neosporin, 24.5% of cultures were positive. If eyes were only rinsed with Neosporin, 47.5% of cultures were positive. No eyes receiving this tissue developed infections. Cultures were much more likely to be positive if the donors had been on a respirator prior to death. PMID:6992008
Sugar, J; Liff, J
A series of the thiophene donor-acceptor rotaxanes have been synthesized based on the inclusion complexes of cyclobis(paraquat- p-phenylene) (CBPQT4+) with thiophene, bithiophene, and terthiophene. The maximum wavelength of the charge-transfer band strongly depends on the number of thiophene units, while the association constant does not. These donor-acceptor pairs will be fascinating constituents for optoelectronic and electromechanical materials. PMID:18454536
Ikeda, Taichi; Higuchi, Masayoshi; Sato, Akira; Kurth, Dirk G
Urban Tanzania is currently experiencing nutrition transition- a globalization-related phenomenon that entails the progressive displacement of traditional diets richer in nutrients, in favour of the consumption of unhealthy foods; heavy in added sugar, saturated fat, and sodium and an increase in sedentary life style. Despite these trends little is known about childhood obesity in Tanzania. This study intended to determine prevalence of and factors associated with overweight and obesity among...
Mwaikambo, Sijenunu A.
While undernutrition and infectious diseases are still persistent in developing countries, overweight, obesity, and associated comorbidities have become more prevalent. Uganda, a developing sub-Saharan African country, is currently experiencing the public health paradox of undernutrition and overnutrition. We utilized the 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) to examine risk factors and hot spots for underweight, overweight, and obesity among adult females (N = 2,420) and their chil...
Turi, Kedir N.; Grigsby-toussaint, Diana S.; Christoph, Mary J.
The growing trend of obesity worldwide and in sub-Saharan Africa can be linked to theurbanization drift experienced in recent years both in developed and developing countrieslike Nigeria, at four pivotal points namely: physical activity level, socio-economic status(SES), nutritional and psychosocial factors. Literature search was done usingMedline/PubMed and Google Scholar for published studies on the urbanization rate, andthe prevalence of overweight and obesity in Nigeria. The socio-demogra...
Akpan E.E; Ekpenyong C.E.
Full Text Available Background: The persisting lack of cadaveric organs for transplantation has led to a rising number of transplantations after living donation. In addition to the medical risk the financial risk for the donor is essential especially in case of complications which potentially can lead to disability and loss of work. We report the experiences of those who have donated a kidney in our transplant centre. Methods: Using a questionnaire we asked 80 donors who donated a kidney at least 6 months prior to our evaluation. 58 (72% answered the 33 questions (21 (36% male, 37 (64% female donors; mean age: 54 ± 10 (33 - 75 years. The mean time since donation was 28 ± 18 months. 40 (69% donated for a relative, 18 (31% donated for husband or wife. Results: 91 % (53 of the donors reported to have no financial expenses due to donation. 5 (9 % of the donors had expenses, but only few of them clarified the exact amount and circumstances. 1 donor had to lend money to cover the lack of money when he was not able to do his job. Another claimed the disparity between normal salary and payment from the insurance company while he was ill as a financial expense. The days for evaluation prior to donation were organised very variously: Some of the donors were on holiday while evaluated, some officially were ill, others had to take some days off without payment. None of the donors lost his job due to donation. Conclusion: The financial risk of living donation is – theoretically – well covered by different insurances. However some of the donors had to cover some expenses by themselves. Fortunately so far in our centre a major complication did not occur and any of the donors went home in good health after donation. If any costs are covered if a healthy donor looses his ability to work due to donation remains unclear until the first donor will experience it.
Selection of the appropriate donor is essential to a successful allograft recipient outcome for solid organ transplantation. Multiple infectious diseases have been transmitted from the donor to the recipient via transplantation. Donor-transmitted infections cause increased morbidity and mortality to the recipient. In recent years, a series of high-profile transmissions of infections have occurred in organ recipients prompting increased attention on the process of improving the selection of an appropriate donor that balances the shortage of needed allografts with an approach that mitigates the risk of donor-transmitted infection to the recipient. Important advances focused on improving donor screening diagnostics, using previously excluded high-risk donors, and individualizing the selection of allografts to recipients based on their prior infection history are serving to increase the donor pool and improve outcomes after transplant. This article serves to review the relevant literature surrounding this topic and to provide a suggested approach to the selection of an appropriate solid organ transplant donor. PMID:25032095
Jr, Christopher S Kovacs; Koval, Christine E; van Duin, David; de Morais, Amanda Guedes; Gonzalez, Blanca E; Avery, Robin K; Mawhorter, Steven D; Brizendine, Kyle D; Cober, Eric D; Miranda, Cyndee; Shrestha, Rabin K; Teixeira, Lucileia; Mossad, Sherif B
Background Optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed that cells lining proximal convoluted tubules of living donor kidneys (LDKs) procured by laparoscopic procedures were very swollen in response to the brief period of ischemia experienced between the time of arterial vessel clamping and flushing the excised kidney with cold preservation solution. Damage to the tubules as a result of this cell swelling resulted in varying degrees of acute tubular necrosis (ATN) that slowed the recovery of the donor kidneys during the first 2 weeks after their transplantation. Methods To prevent this cell damage during LDK procurement, we changed the protocol for intravenous administration of mannitol (i.e., 12.5 or 25 g) to the donor. Specifically, we reduced the time of mannitol administration from 30 to 15 min or less before clamping the renal artery. Result OCT revealed that this change in the timing of mannitol administration protected the human donor proximal tubules from normothermic-induced cell swelling. An evaluation of posttransplant recovery of renal function showed that patients treated with this modified protocol returned to normal renal function significantly faster than those treated with mannitol 30 min or more before clamping the renal artery. Conclusion Because slow graft recovery in the first weeks after transplantation represents a risk factor for long-term graft function and survival, we believe that this change in pretreatment protocol will improve renal transplants in patients receiving LDK. PMID:24831920
Andrews, Peter M.; Cooper, Matthew; Verbesey, Jennifer; Ghasemian, Seyed; Rogalsky, Derek; Moody, Patrick; Chen, Allen; Alexandrov, Peter; Wang, Hsing-Wen; Chen, Yu
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic are [...] as of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species) and malaria antigen (Plasmodium falciparum only) in samples from Venezuelan blood donors (n = 762). All samples were further studied by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The antibody results showed that P. falciparum-infected patients had a lower sample/cut-off ratio than Plasmodium vivax-infected patients. Conversely, a higher ratio for antigen was observed among all P. falciparum-infected individuals. Sensitivity and specificity were higher for malarial antigens (100 and 99.8%) than for antibodies (82.2 and 97.4%). Antibody-positive donors were observed in Caracas, Ciudad Bolívar, Puerto Ayacucho and Cumaná, with prevalences of 1.02, 1.60, 3.23 and 3.63%, respectively. No PCR-positive samples were observed among the donors. However, our results show significant levels of seropositivity in blood donors, suggesting that more effective measures are required to ensure that transfusion transmission does not occur.
Carmen Elena, Contreras; Marcos de, Donato; María Ana, Rivas; Hectorina, Rodulfo; Robert, Mora; María Eulalia, Batista; Norka, Marcano.
Background Clinician adherence to obesity screening guidelines from United States health agencies remains suboptimal. This study explored how personal and career demographics influence pediatricians' weight assessment and management practices. Methods A web-based survey was distributed to U.S. pediatricians. Respondents were asked to identify the weight status of photographed children and about their weight assessment and management practices. Associations between career and personal demographic variables and pediatricians' weight perceptions, weight assessment and management practices were evaluated using univariate and multivariate modeling. Results 3,633 pediatric medical providers correctly identified the weight status of children at a median rate of 58%. The majority of pediatric clinicians were white, female, and of normal weight status with more than 10 years clinical experience. Experienced pediatric medical providers were less likely than younger colleagues to correctly identify the weight status of pictured children and were also less likely to know and use BMI criteria for assessing weight status. General pediatricians were more likely than subspecialty practitioners to provide diverse interventions for weight management. Non-white and Hispanic general practitioners were more likely than counterparts to consider cultural approaches to weight management. Conclusion Pediatricians' perceptions of children's weight and their weight assessment and management practices are influenced by career and personal characteristics. Objective criteria and clinical guidelines should be uniformly applied by pediatricians to screen for and manage pediatric obesity. PMID:19265553
Huang, Jeannie S; Donohue, Michael; Golnari, Golnaz; Fernandez, Susan; Walker-Gallego, Edward; Galvan, Kate; Briones, Christina; Tamai, Jennifer; Becerra, Karen
Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinician adherence to obesity screening guidelines from United States health agencies remains suboptimal. This study explored how personal and career demographics influence pediatricians' weight assessment and management practices. Methods A web-based survey was distributed to U.S. pediatricians. Respondents were asked to identify the weight status of photographed children and about their weight assessment and management practices. Associations between career and personal demographic variables and pediatricians' weight perceptions, weight assessment and management practices were evaluated using univariate and multivariate modeling. Results 3,633 pediatric medical providers correctly identified the weight status of children at a median rate of 58%. The majority of pediatric clinicians were white, female, and of normal weight status with more than 10 years clinical experience. Experienced pediatric medical providers were less likely than younger colleagues to correctly identify the weight status of pictured children and were also less likely to know and use BMI criteria for assessing weight status. General pediatricians were more likely than subspecialty practitioners to provide diverse interventions for weight management. Non-white and Hispanic general practitioners were more likely than counterparts to consider cultural approaches to weight management. Conclusion Pediatricians' perceptions of children's weight and their weight assessment and management practices are influenced by career and personal characteristics. Objective criteria and clinical guidelines should be uniformly applied by pediatricians to screen for and manage pediatric obesity.
Full Text Available Background Iron deficiency in children and adolescents maybe due to an inadequate supply of iron as well as increased iron requirements for growth and developmental processes. The increasing prevalence of obesity puts children at risk of iron deficiency. Studies on the effects of obesity on iron deficiency have focused on low grade systemic inflammation as well as examining soluble transferrin receptor levels (sTfR as an indicator of iron deficiency. Objective To compare sTfR levels in obese and non-obese adolescents, assess for correlations between BMI, sTfRr and obesity, and determine the risk of iron deficiency in obese adolescents. Method This cross sectional study was conducted on 20 obese and 20 non-obese adolescents aged 15-17 in East Aceh District, from September to December 2011. Subject were chosen through cluster sampling. The obese subjects had BMI >95th percentile and the non-obese subjects had BMI ?85th percentile based on the 2000 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS. Exclusion criteria were blood disorders, chronic diseases, and a history of bleeding. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test and T-test with a significance level of P 2.5 ?g/mL was more common in obese than in non-obese adolescents [(55% vs. 15%, respectively, (P = 0.019]. Analysis of the relationship between obesity according to BMI and sTfR revealed an OR of 6.93; 95% CI 1.53 to 31.38. The relationship between the BMI and sTfRr levels indicated a positive, moderate strength of association (r = 0.392. Conclusion The mean sTfRr levels in obese adolescents is significantly higher than in non-obese individuals. Obese adolescents have a 6.93 times higher risk of iron deficiency than non-obese adolescents. Body mass index has a positive and moderate association with sTfR.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The significance of pretransplant, donor-specific antibodies on long-term patient outcomes is a subject of debate. This study evaluated the impact and the presence or absence of donor-specific antibodies after kidney transplantation on short- and long-term graft outcomes. METHODS: We anal [...] yzed the frequency and dynamics of pretransplant donor-specific antibodies following renal transplantation from a randomized trial that was conducted from 2002 to 2004 and correlated these findings with patient outcomes through 2009. Transplants were performed against a complement-dependent T- and B-negative crossmatch. Pre- and posttransplant sera were available from 94 of the 118 patients (80%). Antibodies were detected using a solid-phase (LuminexH), single-bead assay, and all tests were performed simultaneously. RESULTS: Sixteen patients exhibited pretransplant donor-specific antibodies, but only 3 of these patients (19%) developed antibody-mediated rejection and 2 of them experienced early graft losses. Excluding these 2 losses, 6 of 14 patients exhibited donor-specific antibodies at the final follow-up exam, whereas 8 of these patients (57%) exhibited complete clearance of the donor-specific antibodies. Five other patients developed ''de novo'' posttransplant donor-specific antibodies. Death-censored graft survival was similar in patients with pretransplant donor-specific and non-donor-specific antibodies after a mean follow-up period of 70 months. CONCLUSION: Pretransplant donor-specific antibodies with a negative complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch are associated with a risk for the development of antibody-mediated rejection, although survival rates are similar when patients transpose the first months after receiving the graft. Our data also suggest that early posttransplant donor-specific antibody monitoring should increase knowledge of antibody dynamics and their impact on long-term graft outcome.
Elias, David-Neto; Patricia Soares, Souza; Nicolas, Panajotopoulos; Helcio, Rodrigues; Carlucci Gualberto, Ventura; Daisa Silva Ribeiro, David; Francine Brambate Carvalhinho, Lemos; Fabiana, Agena; William Carlos, Nahas; Jorge Elias, Kalil; Maria Cristina Ribeiro, Castro.
Full Text Available Prevalence of pediatric obesity continues to rise worldwide. Increasing the number of health care practitioners as well as pediatricians with expertise in obesity treatment is necessary. Because many obese patients suffer obesity-associated cardiovascular, metabolic and other health complications that could increase the severity of obesity, it is fundamental not only to identify the child prone to obesity as early as possible, but to recognize, treat and monitor obesity-related diseases during adolescence. This short review outlines the treatment of pediatric obesity that may have applications in the primary care setting. It examines current information on eating behavior, sedentary behavior, and details studies of multidisciplinary, behavior-based, obesity treatment programs. We also report the less common and more aggressive forms of treatment, such as medication and bariatric surgery. We emphasize that health care providers have the potential to improve outcomes by performing early identification, helping families create the best possible home environment, and by providing structured guidance to obese children and their families.
Prevalence of pediatric obesity continues to rise worldwide. Increasing the number of health care practitioners as well as pediatricians with expertise in obesity treatment is necessary. Because many obese patients suffer obesity-associated cardiovascular, metabolic and other health complications that could increase the severity of obesity, it is fundamental not only to identify the child prone to obesity as early as possible, but to recognize, treat and monitor obesity-related diseases during adolescence. This short review outlines the treatment of pediatric obesity that may have applications in the primary care setting. It examines current information on eating behavior, sedentary behavior, and details studies of multidisciplinary, behavior-based, obesity treatment programs. We also report the less common and more aggressive forms of treatment, such as medication and bariatric surgery. We emphasize that health care providers have the potential to improve outcomes by performing early identification, helping families create the best possible home environment, and by providing structured guidance to obese children and their families. PMID:22253978
Pietrobelli, Angelo; Rugolotto, Simone; Cristofaro, Paolo De; Malavolti, Marcella
Including the middle hepatic vein (MHV) in the right lobe liver graft for adult-to-adult live donor liver transplantation provides more functional liver by securing adequate venous drainage. Donor outcome of this procedure in relation to different venous drainage patterns of segment 4 is unknown. Modification of graft harvesting technique by preserving segment 4b hepatic vein (V4b) in theory compensates for unfavorable venous drainage patterns. Consecutive 120 right lobe live donors were included. Computed tomography was studied in detail to assign each donor to one of the three types of the Nakamura classification of venous drainage pattern of segment 4. Type I drainage was mainly via the left hepatic vein (LHV), type II drainage was equally into the MHV and LHV, and type III drainage was predominantly into the MHV. Any distinct umbilical vein was also noted. In the early part of the series, the V4b draining into the MHV was divided to provide a long MHV stump in the graft. In the later part of the series, prominent V4b draining into the MHV was preserved in the donor as far as possible. Donor outcomes were measured by peak values of prothrombin time (PT), serum bilirubin and transaminases levels. There was no donor mortality. Type I donors (n=69) had the best outcome with peak PT of 17.9 sec (range 12.3-23.3 sec). Type II donors (n=44) had peak PT of 18.5 sec (range 15.4-24.4 sec). When V4b was preserved in type II donors (n=19), the peak PT (18.0 sec, range 15.4-20.7 sec) became significantly lower than that of type II donors who had V4b sacrificed (20.3 sec, range 16.2-24.4 sec) (P=0.001). A distinct umbilical vein (n=91, 75.8%) was insignificant for donor outcome measured by peak PT. Multivariate analysis identified that type II donors with V4b sacrificed (n=25), type III donors (n=7), and the first 50 cases had less favorable outcomes. In conclusion, unfavorable venous drainage patterns were one of the independent factors compromising postoperative donor liver function, but was circumvented by preservation of V4b. PMID:15162470
Chan, See Ching; Lo, Chung Mau; Liu, Chi Leung; Wong, Yik; Fan, Sheung Tat; Wong, John
Full Text Available Background: Surgical intervention has been recently advocated in the treatment of morbid obesity. The objective of this study was to review surgery as an alternative in the treatment of morbidly obese adolescents. Materials and Methods: This research was conducted by searching English websites such as PubMed, Up to Date, and Google Scholar, as well as some Persian websites including SID, Iranmedex, and Magiran. Articles published from 2000 to 2010 on interventional and clinical trials were reviewed for treatment of morbid obesity in adolescents. Keywords used in internet searches include obesity; adolescence; and surgery.Results: The results obtained from the studies indicated that 4% of American adolescents suffer from morbid obesity. So far, pharmacological treatment and other approaches toward this type of obesity have been inefficient. Hence, surgery was employed as one of the new approaches to the treatment of this disorder. According to the National Health Institute criteria, in the treatment of adolescent candidates for surgery, anthropometric measurements are performed together with the measurement of other co-morbidities of obesity. Adolescents whose percentiles are ?99 are considered as morbidly obese patients. Conclusion: The results of the studies suggested that for the extremely obese adolescents, who do not respond to other types of medical interventions within 6 months, surgery can be performed. Adolescents with BMI of ?40 kg/m2 and skeletal maturity, or those with co morbidities of obesity, or 13-year-old girls and boys ?15 years of age can be candidates for surgery. However, the side effects of obesity should not be neglected. Therefore, before the adolescent obesity become morbid obesity, preventive measures should be taken through changes in lifestyle.
Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the relationship between donor safety and remnant liver volume in right lobe living donor liver transplantation (LDLT. METHODS: From July 2001 to January 2009, our liver transplant centers carried out 197 LDLTs. The clinical data from 151 cases of adult right lobe living donors (not including the middle hepatic vein were analyzed. The conditions of the three groups of donors were well matched in terms of the studied parameters. The donors’ preoperative data, intraoperative and postoperative data were calculated for the three groups: Group 1 remnant liver volume (RLV < 35%, group 2 RLV 36%-40%, and group 3 RLV > 40%. Comparisons included the different remnant liver volumes on postoperative liver function recovery and the impact of systemic conditions. Correlations between remnant liver volume and post-operative complications were also analyzed. RESULTS: The donors’ anthroposomatology data, operation time, and preoperative donor blood test indicators were calculated for the three groups. No significant differences were observed between the donors’ gender, age, height, weight, and operation time. According to the Chengdu standard liver volume formula, the total liver volume of group 1 was 1072.88 ± 131.06 mL, group 2 was 1043.84 ± 97.11 mL, and group 3 was 1065.33 ± 136.02 mL. The three groups showed no statistically significant differences. When the volume of the remnant liver was less than 35% of the total liver volume, the volume of the remnant had a significant effect on the recovery of liver function and intensive care unit time. In addition, the occurrence of complications was closely related to the remnant liver volume. When the volume of the remnant liver was more than 35% of the total liver volume, the remnant volume change had no significant effect on donor recovery. CONCLUSION: To ensure donor safety, the remnant liver volume should be greater than the standard liver volume (35% in right lobe living donor liver transplantation.
Abstract Background Obesity can be defined using body mass index (BMI) or waist (abdominal obesity). Little information exists regarding its prevalence and determinants in Switzerland. Hence, we assessed the levels of obesity as defined by BMI or waist circumference in a Swiss population-based sample. Methods Cross-sectional, population-based non-stratified random sample of 3,249 women and 2,937 men aged 35–75 years living in Lausanne, Switzerland. Overall par...
Paccaud Fred; Mooser Vincent; Bochud Murielle; Marques-Vidal Pedro; Waeber Gérard; Vollenweider Peter
Lung capillary filtration coefficient (Kf) and impacts of oxidative stress have not been determined in the setting of severe trauma, especially in obese patients who exhibit increased lung injury. We hypothesized that severe trauma leads to a greater increase in lung Kf in obesity due to exacerbated production of and/or vulnerability to oxidative stress. Severe trauma was induced in lean and obese Zucker rats by muscle injury, fibula fracture, and bone component injection to both hindlimbs, with or without 24-h treatments of apocynin, a NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor. Lung wet/dry weight ratios, lung vascular Kf, lung neutrophil counts, lung NOX and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and plasma IL-6 levels were measured 24 h after trauma. In an additional study, lungs were isolated from nontrauma lean and obese rats to determine the acute effect of phenazime methosulfate, a superoxide donor, on pulmonary vascular Kf. After trauma, compared with lean rats, obese rats exhibited greater increases in lung capillary Kf, neutrophil accumulation, NOX and MPO activity, and plasma IL-6. The lung wet/dry weight ratio was increased in obese rats but not in lean rats. Apocynin treatment decreased lung Kf, neutrophil counts, NOX and MPO activities, wet/dry weight ratio, and plasma IL-6 in obese rats. Phenazime methosulfate treatment resulted in a greater increase in lung Kf in nontrauma obese rats compared with nontrauma lean rats. These results suggest that obese rats are susceptible to lung injury following severe trauma due to increased production of and responsiveness to pulmonary oxidative stress. PMID:24414071
Xiang, Lusha; Lu, Silu; Mittwede, Peter N; Clemmer, John S; Hester, Robert L
In some semiconductors donor impurity atoms can attract additional electrons, forming negative donor impurity ions. Thus we have 3 energy levels for electrons: zero energy levels at the bottom of the conductivity band, negative energy levels of the bounded electrons of the negative donor impurity ions, and deeper negative energy levels of the outer electrons of the neutral donor impurity atoms. So the donor impurity atoms could serve as active centres for a maser. The maximu...
Full Text Available Summary Background The relationship between malaria and obesity are largely unknown. This is partly due to the fact that malaria occurs mainly in tropical areas where, until recently, obesity was not prevalent. It now appears, however, that obesity is emerging as a problem in developing countries. To investigate the possible role of obesity on the host-parasite response to malarial infection, this study applied a murine model, which uses the existence of genetically well characterized obese mice. Methods The receptivity of obese homozygous ob/ob mice was compared to the receptivity of control heterozygous ob/+ lean mice after a single injection of Plasmodium berghei ANKA sporozoites. Both parasitaemia and mortality in response to infection were recorded. Results The control mice developed the expected rapid neurological syndromes associated with the ANKA strain, leading to death after six days, in absence of high parasitaemia. The obese mice, on the other hand, did not develop cerebral malaria and responded with increasing parasitaemia, which produced severe anemia leading to death 18–25 days after injection. Conclusion The observed major differences in outward symptoms for malarial infection in obese versus control mice indicate a link between obesity and resistance to the infection which could be addressed by malariologists studying human malaria.
Bariatric surgery is a treatment approach for patients for whom multiple attempts at weight loss through lifestyle interventions and/or pharmacotherapy have not been successful. Surgery for obesity management produces greater weight loss than medical therapy alone. Four procedures frequently covered by health insurance are laparoscopic adjustable gastric band, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, laparoscopic vertical sleeve gastrectomy, and biliopancreatic diversion with or without duodenal switch. Current indications for bariatric surgery include a body mass index of 40 kg/m(2) or greater or a body mass index of 35 kg/m(2) or greater with at least one major obesity-associated comorbid condition. Expected weight loss can range from 37% to 79% of excess weight at 2 years after surgery depending on the procedure. Patients must commit to lifelong adherence to dietary supplementation and monitoring of vitamin levels, because nutritional deficiencies are common. PMID:25325918
Vesely, Jennifer M; DeMattia, Laure G
Overweight and obesity is associated with a broad variety of stigmatization and discrimination in every day live. Obese people have more difficulties in finding a job, have a lower income, and are less often seen in leadership positions. In society, responsibility for the weight situation in seen as lying by the individuals affected altogether, leading to chronic stress, problems with self esteem and perception of loss of control. As a consequence, there is an increased risk for developing serious psychological problems such as affective and anxiety disorders. As a reaction, coping strategies to deal with the psychological pressure such as dysfunctional eating behavior, binge eating and physical inactivity are used. Females, people belonging to another ethnic or social minority, adolescents and people with eating disorders are considered at increased risk of psychological distress. Psychological vulnerabilities and the consequences of stigmatization need to be considered. Moreover, perceived behavioral control and self esteem are key aspects of to be addressed on the treatment. PMID:23385186
Transferring gut microbiota from one individual to another may enable researchers to "humanize'' the gut of animal models and transfer phenotypes between species. To date, most studies of gut microbiota transfer are performed in germ-free mice. In the studies presented, it was tested whether an antibiotic treatment approach could be used instead. C57BL/6 mice were treated with ampicillin prior to inoculation at weaning or eight weeks of age with gut microbiota from lean or obese donors. The gut microbiota and clinical parameters of the recipients was characterized one and six weeks after inoculation. The results demonstrate, that the donor gut microbiota was introduced, established, and changed the gut microbiota of the recipients. Six weeks after inoculation, the differences persisted, however alteration of the gut microbiota occurred with time within the groups. The clinical parameters of the donor phenotype were partly transmissible from obese to lean mice, in particularly beta cell hyperactivity in the obese recipients. Thus, a successful inoculation of gut microbiota was not age dependent in order for the microbes to colonize, and transferring different microbial compositions to conventional antibiotic-treated mice was possible at least for a time period during which the microbiota may permanently modulate important host functions.
Ellekilde, Merete; Selfjord, Ellika
Obesity in children is a significant public health concern. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Jordanian children, and adolescents has increased in the last decade. The consequences of obesity to health in childhood and adulthood have both medical, and economic cost to individuals and society. This paper reviews the factors that contribute to adolescent obesity and emphasizes behavioral and environmental factors. An individual's behaviors such as increased consumption of high caloric foods, increased sedentary activity while decreasing physical activity has been identified as key issues in the development of obesity. Additionally, the current environment in homes, schools, and neighborhoods tend to discourage a healthy lifestyle. A comprehensive approach that involves the whole community is the best strategy for preventing adolescent obesity. Nurses are in a unique position to provide leadership in developing programs for healthier lifestyle choices for adolescents' and adoption of these goals into their daily lives. PMID:19526153
Al-Kloub, Manal I; Froelicher, Erika S
Obesity in children is a significant public health concern. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Jordanian children, and adolescents has increased in the last decade. The consequences of obesity to health in childhood and adulthood have both medical, and economic cost to individuals and society. This paper reviews the factors that contribute to adolescent obesity and emphasizes behavioral and environmental factors. An individual's behaviors such as increased consumption of high caloric foods, increased sedentary activity while decreasing physical activity has been identified as key issues in the development of obesity. Additionally, the current environment in homes, schools, and neighborhoods tend to discourage a healthy lifestyle. A comprehensive approach that involves the whole community is the best strategy for preventing adolescent obesity. Nurses are in a unique position to provide leadership in developing programs for healthier lifestyle choices for adolescents' and adoption of these goals into their daily lives.
Manal I. Al-Kloub
Obese patients are at an increased risk for developing many medical problems, including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, stroke, sleep apnea, gallbladder disease, hyperuricemia and gout, and osteoarthritis. Certain cancers are also associated with obesity, including colorectal and prostate cancer in men and endometrial, breast, and gallbladder cancer in women (1-6). Excess body weight is also associated with substantial increases in mortality from all causes, in particular, cardiovascular disease. More than 5% of the national health expenditure in the United States is directed at medical costs associated with obesity (7). In addition, certain psychologic problems, including binge-eating disorder and depression, are more common among obese persons than they are in the general population (8.9). Finally, obese individuals may suffer from social stigmatization and discrimination, and severely obese people may experience greater risk of impaired psychosocial and physical functioning, causing a negative impact on their quality of life (10). PMID:10696282
Khaodhiar, L; McCowen, K C; Blackburn, G L
Full Text Available Objectives: To report experience with laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG in obese, morbidly obese, and super morbid obese patients, and to evaluate comparative efficacy of LSG among these patient groups. Methods: A total of 147 patients underwent LSG between March 2008 and December 2011 at the Department of Surgery, King Saud Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Patients were grouped according to the preoperative body mass index (BMI into obese (35-39.9 kg/m2, morbidly obese (40-49.9 kg/m2, and super morbid obese (>50 kg/m2. Patients who did not have a regular follow-up (n=38 were excluded, and 108 patients were included in this prospective study. Results: The mean total weight loss (TWL among the super morbid obese group (41.31 ± 21.23 kg was statistically significantly greater compared to the obese group (24.31 ± 13.00 kg, p=0.009 and morbidly obese group (26.81 ± 15.56 kg, p=0.001. The mean percentage excess weight loss (EWL was clinically significant among obese (57.8%, morbidly obese (42.5%, and super morbid obese patients (45.7%, however, it was not statistically significant between the groups (F[2,105]=2.132, p=0.124. There was no mortality; however, 6 major complications occurred including intra-abdominal collection with suspected leak, staple line bleeding, bowel ischemia, and inferior vena cava injury. Conclusion: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy resulted in satisfactory and effective EWL in all 3 groups of obesity patients at 30-months follow-up.
Haitham M. Al Falah
Many chemicals in the environment, in particular those with estrogenic activity, can disrupt the programming of endocrine signaling pathways that are established during development and result in adverse consequences that may not be apparent until much later in life. Most recently, obesity and diabetes join the growing list of adverse consequences that have been associated with developmental exposure to environmental estrogens during critical stages of differentiation. These diseases are quick...
Newbold, Retha R.; Padilla-banks, Elizabeth; Jefferson, Wendy N.
The high prevalence of obesity and diabetes will lead to higher rates of morbidity and mortality. The search for drugs to treat these metabolic disorders has, therefore, intensified. The stomach-derived peptide ghrelin regulates food intake and body weight. Recent work suggests that ghrelin also controls glucose metabolism. In addition, current evidence suggests that most of the actions of ghrelin could contribute to the metabolic syndrome. The ghrelin signaling system is, therefore, a promis...
The purpose of this study was to evaluate organ donation in Chile following the creation of the "Corporación Nacional de Fomento de Trasplantes." The corporation was created in 1991 as a private, nonprofit organization whose main purpose was to increase the number of actual donors and multiorgan procurement. The organization is independent of the national government and acts as a link between the needs of patients and society and those of the National Ministry of Health. Following the creation of the corporation, the number of actual donors increased from 32 to 98. The number of potential donors increased 3-fold. Family refusal for organ donation was between 28% and 53.4%. Pediatric and marginal donors increased from 2% to 15%. Ninety-five percent of the donors came from Santiago, where 33% of the population lives and most of the efforts were concentrated. The corporation is working to increase organ donation throughout the rest of the country by organizing public campaigns; promoting knowledge about transplantation among medical and nursing personnel at hospitals, schools, universities, and social gatherings; evaluating technical and financial results; and helping with the processes of organ procurement. PMID:10205466
Palacios, J M
This paper describes a study to understand the use of analogies by design engineers with different levels of experience. Protocol analyses of twelve design engineers have been analysed to understand the functions and reasoning of the analogies. The protocols are real world data from the aerospace industry. The findings indicate a significant difference in both the functions and reasoning by novices and experienced designers. Novices were found to predominantly transfer information without explicit reference to design issues, whereas experienced designers tended to either solve or identify problems. Experienced designers were found to reason about the function of a component and to some degree the predicted behaviour of the component, whereas the novices seem to lack such reasoning processes.
Ahmed, Saeema; Christensen, Bo T.
The U.S. prevalence of obesity increases since the mid-70s of the 20th century. Around that time high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)--mixture of fructose and glucose was introduced as a sweetener replacing sucrose in the food production. HFCS containing 55% fructose and 42-45% glucose (HFCS55) has dominated the American soft drink industry and HFCS has recently become commonly used in Poland. The coincidence of HFCS introduction and obesity epidemic raised widely publicized suspicions of a causal relationship between the two. As a possible mechanism, a higher content of fructose in the HFCS55, as compared with sucrose was suggested -fructose is known to increase serum uric acid level, induce hepatic lipogenesis and not stimulate postprandial hyperinsulinemia, a main activator of leptin release. Few comparative studies of HFCS and sucrose have largely failed to reveal any different impacts on the metabolic parameters, yet they were mainly short-term. It has been recently shown that obesity is linked with changes in the intenstinal flora. Among the causes of allegedly different effects of sucrose and HFCS on metabolism, their influence on the gut microbiome has not been examined. Some bacterial types do not hydrolyze sucrose which may determine different compositions of gut flora with the use of both sweeteners. Studies involving quantitative analysis of bacterial DNA in the stool, both in animals and in humans, shall shed light on the issue that has recently so much absorbed the U.S. public opinion. PMID:23029710
Wystrychowski, Grzegorz; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Obuchowicz, Ewa; Grzeszczak, W?adys?aw; Wystrychowski, Antoni
Obesity is strongly associated with conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and osteoarthritis that have known adverse health outcomes. The rising prevalence of obesity threatens to overburden our health care system. As a result, the need for safe and effective treatment options is urgent. Unfortunately, pharmacologic treatment options have been disappointing either because of poor side effect profiles or limited long-term efficacy. Our goal is to review currently available pharmacologic treatments and the data supporting their use so that practicing physicians may better incorporate them into a comprehensive, long-term treatment strategy for their patients. We focus on orlistat and sibutramine as these are the two medicines approved by the FDA for long-term treatment of obesity. In addition, we review briefly agents approved for short-term use as well as agents such as zonisamide and topiramate which have shown some promise as weight loss agents in specific clinical circumstances. Finally, we highlight one medicine currently in phase III clinical trials, an endocannabinoid receptor antagonist. Given the overwhelming research focus on this disease, it is likely that the coming years will bring more treatment options, raising the chance that our patients will have meaningful and sustained weight loss. PMID:16418541
Sidhaye, Aniket; Cheskin, Lawrence J
This review summarizes the state of the current literature relating to the associations of lung disease on obesity and adipokines (proteins produced by adipose tissue) in humans. Obesity is an independent risk factor for asthma. Recent studies suggest that obesity is also an independent risk factor for chronic airflow obstruction, as is seen with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The mechanistic basis for these associations in humans is not established, although a possible role fo...
Pediatric obesity is a major health problem and has reached epidemiological proportions today. The present paper reviews major psychological issues in pediatric obesity from a developmental perspective. Research and literature has shown that a number of developmental, family, maternal and child factors are responsible in the genesis of pediatric obesity. Family food habits, early developmental lifestyle of the child, parenting, early family relationships and harmony all contribute towards the...
Kalra, Gurvinder; Sousa, Avinash; Sonavane, Sushma; Shah, Nilesh
Full Text Available Abstract Background Smokers usually have a lower Body Mass Index (BMI when compared to non-smokers. Such a relationship, however, has not been fully studied in obese and morbidly obese patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between smoking and BMI among obese and morbidly obese subjects. Methods In a case-control study design, 1022 individuals of both genders, 18-65 years of age, were recruited and grouped according to their smoking status (smokers, ex-smokers, and non-smokers and nutritional state according to BMI (normal weight, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese. Results No significant differences were detected in the four BMI groups with respect to smoking status. However, there was a trend towards a higher frequency of smokers among the overweight, obese, and morbidly obese subjects compared to normal weight individuals (p = 0.078. In a logistic regression, after adjusting for potential confounders, morbidly obese subjects had an adjusted OR of 2.25 (95% CI, 1.52-3.34; p Discussion In this sample, while the frequency of smokers diminished in normal weight subjects as the BMI increased, such a trend was reversed in overweight, obese, and morbidly obese patients. In the latter group, the prevalence of smokers was significantly higher compared to the other groups. A patient with morbid obesity had a 2-fold increased risk of becoming a smoker. We speculate that these finding could be a consequence of various overlapping risk behaviors because these patients also are generally less physically active and prefer a less healthy diet, in addition to having a greater alcohol intake in relation to their counterparts. The external validity of these findings must be confirmed.
Chatkin José M
Obesity results from interactions between environmental and genetic factors. Despite a relatively high heritability of common, non-syndromic obesity (40–70%), the search for genetic variants contributing to susceptibility has been a challenging task. Genome wide association (GWA) studies have dramatically changed the pace of detection of common genetic susceptibility variants. To date, more than 40 genetic variants have been associated with obesity and fat distribution. However, since these...
Herrera, Blanca M.; Keildson, Sarah; Lindgren, Cecilia M.
Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are public health problems, with health consequences and economic costs that have raised concern worldwide. The increase in the prevalence of diabetes parallels that of obesity. Some experts call this dual epidemic ‘diabesity’ Elevated body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were significantly associated T2DM. One consequence of obesity is an increased risk of developing T2DM. There is evidence that the prenatal, early child...
This paper uses longitudinal micro-evidence from the European Community Household Panel to investigate the obesity phenomenon in nine EU countries from 1998 to 2001. The author documents cross-country prevalence, trends and cohort-age profiles of obesity among adults and analyses the socioeconomic factors contributing to the problem. The associated costs of obesity are also investigated, both in terms of health status, health care spending and absenteeism.
... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button CDC Features Obesity Trends in Adults with Arthritis Share Compartir Obesity rates are 54% ... arthritis from 2003 to 2009. The prevalence of obesity among adults with arthritis is on average 54% higher than ...
... feeding and inflammation. In addition to age and gender differences, how obesity is measured or estimated is important ... tie between episodic migraine and obesity when obesity definitions were based on self-report of height and ...
... Safety Obesity FRIDAY, Oct. 3, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Cyberbullying and negative messages targeting overweight and obese people ... activity about overweight and obesity. For example, anti-cyberbullying programs and celebrities could send messages to social ...
Obesity and diabetes have become pandemic in the United States, with more than one-third of the US population obese and 8.3% of the population affected by diabetes. Efforts to prevent type 2 diabetes focus primarily on healthy eating and physical activity. In particular, women from at-risk racial and ethnic groups and those who have experienced gestational diabetes are at high risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Achieving a healthy weight prior to conception, staying within weight gain guidelines during pregnancy, and losing accumulated pregnancy weight postpartum are key prevention factors. Maintaining a healthy weight in the long-term is a challenge. Behavioral psychology and coaching techniques are presented in this article that can be useful in sustaining behaviors that promote a healthy weight. PMID:23647939
Trout, Kimberly K; Ellis, Kathryn K; Bratschie, Alexandra
There is an obesity epidemic worldwide, which has been increasing in recent years. An epidemiologic cross-sectional study was conducted among 3799 persons who were 30-70 years old in Semnan Province, Iran. Multistage cluster sampling was performed, and subjects were selected from urban and rural populations. Body weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Overweight and obesity were defined as 25 or =30 respectively in men with WHR > or = 0.9 or WC > or = 102 cm, and women with WHR > or = 0.8 or WC > or = 88 cm were considered centrally obesite. Prevalence of obesity and overweight was 26.3% and 40.6% respectively. Prevalence of obesity was more among women (39.5%) than men (14.5%) with central obesity prevalence using WHR and WC cut-points of 72.2% and 26.6% respectively. There was a significant association between obesity and age, gender, residential area and educational level (P < 0.01). In conclusion, prevalence of obesity and overweight among 30-70 years old, especially among women, was higher than expected. A comprehensive educational programme on obesity risk factors and obesity-related diseases is necessary. PMID:19021868
Rashidy-Pour, A; Malek, M; Eskandarian, R; Ghorbani, R
Global increases in obesity have led public health experts to declare this disease a pandemic. Although prevalent in all ages, the dire consequences associated with maternal obesity have a pronounced impact on the long-term health of their children as a result of the intergenerational effects of developmental programming. Previously, fetal under-nutrition has been linked to the predisposition to pediatric obesity explained by the adiposity rebound and ‘catch-up’ growth that occurs when a ...
Zach Ferraro; Adamo, Kristi B.
Uterus transplantation (UTx) is an alternative to gestational surrogacy and adoption for patients with absolute uterine infertility. Studies have been conducted in animals, and UTx is now within the reach of clinical application in humans. Procedures in humans have been published, but many medical, ethical, and social problems and risks of UTx require discussion prior to widespread clinical application, from the perspectives of donors, recipients, families, and newborns. In this article, we summarize the burdens and risks of UTx, with a focus on donors who provide the uterus. PMID:23793471
Kisu, Iori; Mihara, Makoto; Banno, Kouji; Umene, Kiyoko; Araki, Jun; Hara, Hisako; Suganuma, Nobuhiko; Aoki, Daisuke
The policies and procedures for solid-organ donation, under the auspices of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network, currently cannot be applied to hand donation, because a hand allograft is considered a tissue in the United States and is under the jurisdiction of the Food and Drug Administration. Hand transplant centers have developed their own protocols. This article discusses the unique elements of such protocols, including training and education, the consent process, the necessary recipient and donor data, donor management, and operating room procedures. Candidate listing, allocation, and oversight of hand donation in the future are also discussed. PMID:22051395
McDiarmid, Sue V; Azari, Kodi K
Full Text Available Biliary atresia is the most common cause of chroniccholestasis in infants and children. The incidence is estimatedat 3.7:10,000 among Taiwanese infants. Kasai hepatoportoenterostomyhelps children survive beyond infancy. Liver transplantationis indicated when the Kasai procedure fails to workor when patients develop progressive deterioration of liverfunction despite an initially successful Kasai operation. Livingdonor liver transplantation was developed to alleviate organshortage from deceased donors. It has decreased the waitingtime for transplantation and, therefore, improves patient survival.One hundred living donor liver transplantations havebeen performed for biliary atresia at Chang Gung MemorialHospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center with both 98% 1-year and5-year actual recipient survival.
Objective: To examine the effect of depression on health-related quality of life, work productivity, resource use, and costs among women experiencing menopausal symptoms, including hot flashes. Method: The study included data from the 2005 US National Health and Wellness Survey (N = 41,184), a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey representative of the adult US population. Among women who reported experiencing menopausal symptoms, including hot flashes, women who reported experiencing depression in the last year (n = 1,165) were compared with women who did not report experiencing depression in the last year (n = 2,467), controlling for demographic and health characteristics. Outcome measures included health-related quality of life (Medical Outcomes Study 8-item Short-Form Health Survey [SF-8]), work productivity within the past 7 days, self-reported health care resource use within the past 6 months, and indirect and direct costs. Results: Women experiencing depression were significantly more likely to be white, to be unemployed, to be uninsured, to currently smoke, to not exercise, and to be obese (all P < .05). After controlling for these differences, women experiencing depression reported significantly lower mental (39.66 vs 50.85, P < .05) and physical (44.05 vs 46.38, P < .05) SF-8 component summary scores. Similarly, the prevalences of time missed from work (5.31% vs 2.80%, P < .05), impairment while at work (25.00% vs 14.32%, P < .05), and impairment of daily activities (37.32% vs 23.16%, P < .05) due to health were greater among women experiencing depression. The numbers of physician visits (2.47 vs 1.77, P < .05), emergency room visits (0.27 vs 0.16, P < .05), and days hospitalized (0.36 vs 0.18, P < .05) in the past 6 months were also higher among women experiencing depression. Per woman per year indirect and direct costs were $3,066 and $1,075 higher, respectively, for women experiencing depression compared with those not experiencing depression. Conclusion: Approximately one-third of women experiencing menopausal symptoms, including hot flashes, also reported experiencing depression. These women reported significantly worse quality of life and significantly greater work productivity loss, health care resource use, and costs. Given the prevalence and burden, these findings suggest that proper assessment and management of depressive symptoms among women with menopause may have an important humanistic and economic benefit. PMID:23586001
DiBonaventura, Marco daCosta; Wagner, Jan-Samuel; Alvir, Jose
Experienced mental abacus (MA) users are able to perform mental arithmetic calculations with unusual speed and accuracy. However, it remains unclear whether their extraordinary gains in mental arithmetic ability are accompanied by an improvement in numerical processing efficiency. To address this question, the present study, using a numerical…
Wang, Yunqi; Geng, Fengji; Hu, Yuzheng; Du, Fenglei; Chen, Feiyan
Listeners (N=120) heard test words in three conditions: in sentences, as isolated words, and as segmented words. For both experienced and inexperienced listeners, scores varied systematically depending on the relative predicted intelligibility of the test words and the amount of context in the sentence. (Author/CL)
McGarr, Nancy S.
Team cognition in experienced command-and-control teams is examined in an UAV (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle) simulation. Five 3-person teams with experience working together in a command-and-control setting were compared to 10 inexperienced teams. Each team participated in five 40-min missions of a simulation in which interdependent team members…
Cooke, Nancy J.; Gorman, Jamie C.; Duran, Jasmine L.; Taylor, Amanda R.
When working with parents of handicapped children, principals should be aware of the various grieving stages that such parents may be experiencing. This article details these stages (denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance) and advises principals to develop a supportive, nonjudgmental attitude while helping parents plan their…
Witcher, Ann E.
Guided by insights from cognitive theories, this article explores the links between entrepreneurs' prior business ownership experience and their opportunity identification behavior. Hypotheses were tested using data from 630 entrepreneurs. Experienced entrepreneurs identified more opportunities and exploited more innovative opportunities with greater wealth creation potential. Entrepreneurs that had owned more than 4.5 businesses, however, identified fewer opportunities. The nature of prior b...
Ucbasaran, D.; Westhead, P.; Wright, M.
The prevalence of traumatic stress in the lives of families who are homeless is extraordinarily high. Often these families are headed by single mothers who have experienced ongoing trauma in the form of childhood abuse and neglect, domestic violence, and community violence, as well as the trauma associated with poverty and the loss of home,…
Guarino, Kathleen; Bassuk, Ellen
American women holding full-time jobs provided definitions of sexual harassment somewhat narrower than those used in previous studies. While sexual attention experienced was not related to subjects' definitions, having been harassed according to one's definition appeared to influence beliefs concerning the seriousness of sexual harassment in the…
Powell, Gary N.
The creative and expressive use of music can be a powerful therapeutic intervention with children and adolescents who have experienced trauma. In this article, a model for increasing self-awareness and self-understanding including materials, facilitation, and processing of musical activities in group format is presented. Creative activities such…
Davis, Keith M.
Ambivalence in the decision-making process for living liver donors has the potential to result in their experiencing a negative mental status. To promote donor candidates' well-being, it is important to study the factors related to ambivalence. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the ambivalence of living liver donor candidates and to investigate the effect of social support and donation-related concerns on their ambivalence. A cross-sectional design was used. In total, 100 living liver donor candidates who underwent a preoperative evaluation between April and October 2009 were recruited for the study. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that contained items related to ambivalence, donation-related concerns, and social support. The mean score for ambivalence was 3.14 (standard deviation?=?1.8), and the median was 3. Only 7% of the study sample reported no ambivalence during the assessment stage. Ambivalence was positively correlated with donation-related concerns (physical concerns, r?=?0.39; psychosocial concerns, r?=?0.43; financial concerns, r?=?0.29) and negatively correlated with social support (r?=?-0.16 to -0.33). Those with psychosocial concerns had significantly worse ambivalence (??=?0.29, P?=?0.03), but social support mitigated ambivalence (??=?-0.34, P?=?0.01). When intimacy and social support were included in the model, the effect of psychosocial concerns on ambivalence became nonsignificant (??=?0.24, P?=?0.08). Ambivalence is common among living liver donor candidates, but instrumental social support can mediate the negative effect of donation-related concerns. Recommendations include providing appropriate social support to minimize donation-related concerns and, thus, to reduce the ambivalence of living liver candidates. Liver Transpl 20:1365-1371, 2014. © 2014 AASLD. PMID:25044400
Lai, Yun-Chieh; Lee, Wei-Chen; Juang, Yeong-Yuh; Yen, Lee-Lan; Weng, Li-Chueh; Chou, Hsueh Fen
Abstract Little is known about recipients' views of their sperm donor. This study aimed to examine the possible transitions or consistencies in donor sperm recipients' (DSRs') view on the sperm donor over time. A longitudinal qualitative study of 19 Belgian heterosexual DSRs was undertaken. Interviews took place with both partners of the couple during pregnancy, at birth and 1.5-2 years after birth, and were analysed using a grounded theory approach. Recipients who intended to disclose exhibited a transition in their awareness of the donor from being of minimal importance to one who was increasingly seen as part of their family narrative. This was partly triggered by the offspring's life, remarks about resemblance and the socio-cultural context. The perceived position of the donor changed for most recipients from a threatening rival to a 'distractor'. This change was supported by the emerging father-child bond and the confidence that stemmed from it. These observations were applicable to those recipients who intended to disclose their donor conception; for those recipients who intended not to disclose, little or no transition was observed. This study describes and analyses the transitions and consistencies in recipients' views of the donor over different stages of the family life-cycle (pregnancy, birth, toddler stage) and could help the fertility clinics tailor their counselling to the specific stages of parenthood. PMID:24851674
Indekeu, Astrid; D'Hooghe, Thomas; Daniels, Ken R; Dierickx, Kris; Rober, Peter
Full Text Available According to the German transplantation law of 1997 the ethical and psychopathological investigation of potential donors before a living donation is a major basis of the decision of the expert commission at the General Medical Council. But the concrete practice in the different transplantation regions is somehow varying with respect to micro goals, proceeding, efforts and formalia of the expertise. In the ‘Muenster Model’ this practice has been proven successful since 1998, involving three sessions, one together with donor and recipient (conducted by two experienced psychosocial experts, and one each only with donor or recipient. The interdisciplinary communication with surgeons and physicians seems important with respect to an early identification of problems and therefore chances of problem solving. Donations among spouses or from parents to child were the most common constellations; 64% of the donors were women. Although in the great majority of the cases no severe problems or even donation obstacles occured, in some cases psychopathology and/or family conflicts were found, which confirmed the need for a psychosocial screening (and counseling. Problems of the procedure have also been identified, e.g. the conflict between marked empathy and the voluntariness demanded but also problems with respect to the limited predictability of relationship dynamics and the coping ressources for future crises. For this reason it seems important to combine the assessment with an offer for counseling and psychosocial care for donor and recipient after the tranplantation.
IVF using donated oocytes offers benefits to many infertile patients, yet the technique also raises a number of ethical concerns, including worries about potential physical and psychological risks to oocyte donors. In the USA, oversight of oocyte donation consists of a combination of federal and state regulations and self-regulatory guidelines promulgated by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. This study assesses compliance with one of these self-regulatory guidelines - specifically, ASRM's preferred minimum age for donors of 21. To assess compliance, 539 oocyte donor recruitment advertisements from two recruitment channels (Craigslist and college newspapers) were collected and evaluated. Of these, 61% in the Craigslist dataset and 43% in the college newspaper dataset listed minimum ages between 18 and 20, which is inconsistent with ASRM's preferred minimum age recommendation of 21. Advertisements placed by oocyte donor recruitment agencies were more likely than advertisements placed by clinics to specify minimum ages between 18 and 20. These results indicate that ASRM should evaluate and consider revising its donor age guidelines. IVF using donated human eggs can help many patients who have difficulty having children. However, the technique also raises ethical concerns, including concerns about potential physical and psychological harms to egg donors. In the USA, oversight of egg donation relies on a combination of federal and state regulation and professional self-regulation. Governmental regulations address only limited aspects of egg donation, such as the potential spread of infectious diseases and the reporting of success rates, leaving voluntary guidelines developed by an association of medical professionals to address most issues, including ethical concerns raised by the practice. One of these voluntary guidelines recommends that egg donors should be at least 21 years of age. In this article, we analysed 539 egg donor recruitment advertisements published on Craigslist and in college newspapers to see whether fertility clinics and egg donor recruitment agencies follow this recommendation. We found that 61% of advertisements in the Craigslist dataset and 43% of advertisements in the college newspaper dataset listed minimum ages between 18 and 20 and, thus, did not follow the recommendation that egg donors be at least 21 years of age. Advertisements placed by egg donor recruitment agencies were more likely than advertisements placed by fertility clinics to list minimum ages between 18 and 20. These results indicate that the American Society for Reproductive Medicine should evaluate and consider revising its donor age guidelines. PMID:23337419
Alberta, Hillary B; Berry, Roberta M; Levine, Aaron D
The present study was carried out on a total number of 116 obese and 23 non-obese control females. Obesity was assessed mainly by body mass index (BMI). Other skinfold thickness e.g. triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, as parameters of obesity assessment were determined in some obese patients. The degree of obesity was assessed by BMI and categorized as follows: i- Mild obesity, BMI=25-30 Kg/m2. ii-Moderate obesity, BMI=31-35 kg/m2. iii-severe obesity, BMI= above 35 kg/m2. Type of fat distribution was assessed by waist/hip circumference ratio (w/H) as :- i-gynoid (lower body segment obesity). (? 0.81) i i- android (upper body segment obesity). (?0.82)
The prevalence of obesity has increased substantially over the past decades in most industrialized countries. Obesity is a systemic disease that predisposes to a variety of co-morbidities and complications that affect overall health. Cross-sectional studies suggest that obesity is also associated with oral diseases, particularly periodontal disease, and prospective studies suggest that periodontitis may be related to cardiovascular disease. The possible causal relationship between obesity and periodontitis and potential underlying biological mechanisms remain to be established; however, the adipose tissue actively secretes a variety of cytokines and hormones that are involved in inflammatory processes, pointing toward similar pathways involved in the pathophysiology of obesity, periodontitis, and related inflammatory diseases. We provide an overview of the definition and assessment of obesity and of related chronic diseases and complications that may be important in the periodontist's office. Studies that have examined the association between obesity and periodontitis are reviewed, and adipose-tissue-derived hormones and cytokines that are involved in inflammatory processes and their relationship to periodontitis are discussed. Our aim is to raise the periodontist's awareness when treating obese individuals. PMID:17452558
Pischon, N; Heng, N; Bernimoulin, J-P; Kleber, B-M; Willich, S N; Pischon, T
Full Text Available This article unites the results from an integrative reconsideration of actual data about obesity from the viewpoint of recent developments in general pathology, epidemiology, immunology, genetics, and evolution. The focus is on the origin of genetic diversity in obesity manifestations on different levels of the disease. In contrast to the current paradigm of nutritive origin of obesity, the revealed set of evidences shows that the origin of obesity is based on either hereditary or post-infectious incongruence between the regulators of fat metabolism and their receptors. The incongruence may be created either by the destruction of receptors during infection or by genome mutations, which by natural selection, lead both to life-saving incongruence between the infectious agent and its receptor, and simultaneously, in evolution to a life-threatening obesogenic incongruence in the regulator-receptor interaction. The pandemic spread of obesity is induced by xenogamous intercourse between constitutionally incongruent ethnoses, which regulator-receptor evolution has processed at different epidemic conditions. The achieved results have allowed a replenish model for the molecular pathogenesis of obesity to explain the genetics of both obesity and its pandemic spread. The formerly maladroit issues of obesity origin, genetic, pathogenesis, and pandemic spread are transformed in an entire replenished system.
Sergey N. Rumyantsev
This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between college women's attitudes toward obesity and their own body weight. Subjects were placed in three categories: (1) acceptable level of body fat, (2) overweight, and (3) obese. Correlational techniques were used to determine the relationship between the subjects percent of body fat and…
Chambless, Jim R.; Anderson, Eugene R.
In this world of receiving immediate gratification, being over scheduled, and having access to a myriad of technology, poor nutrition and lack of daily physical activity are two of the results. "Obesity is a silent epidemic," former U.S. Surgeon General David Satcher stated in 2002 (Healthy schools summit weighs in on obesity). Due to the demands…
According to data from the National Center for Health Statistics, childhood obesity rates are highest among ethnic minorities. It is very helpful to consider the role of culture when attempting to analyze and explain obesity rates in ethnic minority populations. Culture influences the attitudes and beliefs toward exercise, food and nutrition, and…
This podcast is based on the August 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. The rate of obesity among low-income preschoolers has declined, but one in eight is still obese. This program briefly discusses what can be done. Created: 8/6/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 8/6/2013.
Childhood obesity is on the rise across the country and in North Carolina, with four times as many children exhibiting signs of obesity now as they did 20 years ago. The costs in terms of medical expenses are staggering, with one estimate putting the cost to North Carolina at $16 million a year. Some North Carolina legislators have expressed…
James B. Hunt Jr. Institute for Educational Leadership and Policy, 2008
The clinical presentations of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) occurring after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) have not been fully described. We performed a retrospective analysis of 297 LDLT cases. Nineteen patients (6.4%) experienced GIB after LDLT. The etiology of GIB included bleeding at the jejunojejunostomy following hepaticojejunostomy (n = 13), peptic ulcer disease (n = 2), portal hypertensive gastropathy (n = 2), and other causes (n = 2). Hemostasis was achieved in 13 patients (68.4%) by endoscopic (n = 3), surgical (n = 1), or supportive treatments (n = 15), but not in the other six patients. Graft dysfunction (P 20 mmHg (P = 0.002), and operative blood loss >10 L (P = 0.004) were risk factors. One-year graft survival rate was significantly lower in patients with GIB than in patients without GIB (P < 0.001). The inhospital mortality rate was 52.6% for patients with GIB, 75.0% for patients with graft dysfunction, and 14.3% for patients without graft dysfunction (P = 0.028). Despite its infrequency after LDLT, GIB has strong correlation with graft dysfunction and inhospital mortality. PMID:24673842
Kimura, Koichi; Ikegami, Toru; Bekki, Yuki; Ninomiya, Mizuki; Yamashita, Yo-Ichi; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Yoshiya, Shohei; Soejima, Yuji; Harada, Noboru; Shirabe, Ken; Maehara, Yoshihiko
There is a pressing need to reduce both the prevalence and impact of obesity. This review begins with a discussion of the roles of treatment and prevention. Two overriding issues, weight bias and the addictive nature of food, are covered because of their importance not only to the individuals affected but also to public policy. We then cover promising policy areas in which changes can be implemented to support healthy behaviors: school policy, food marketing, food labeling and packaging, and taxes on unhealthy foods. The roles of the food industry and federal, state, and local governments are also discussed. PMID:22224839
Gearhardt, Ashley N; Bragg, Marie A; Pearl, Rebecca L; Schvey, Natasha A; Roberto, Christina A; Brownell, Kelly D
Full Text Available Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Consequently, both over-consumption of calories and reduced physical activity are involved in childhood obesity. Almost all researchers agree that prevention could be the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic of obesity. Prevention may include primary prevention of overweight or obesity, secondary prevention or prevention of weight regains following weight loss, and avoidance of more weight increase in obese persons unable to lose weight. Until now, most approaches have focused on changing the behaviour of individuals in diet and exercise. It seems, however, that these strategies have had little impact on the growing increase of the obesity epidemic. While about 50% of the adults are overweight and obese in many countries, it is difficult to reduce excessive weight once it becomes established. Children should therefore be considered the priority population for intervention strategies. Prevention may be achieved through a variety of interventions targeting built environment, physical activity, and diet. Some of these potential strategies for intervention in children can be implemented by targeting preschool institutions, schools or after-school care services as natural setting for influencing the diet and physical activity. All in all, there is an urgent need to initiate prevention and treatment of obesity in children.
Merchant Anwar T
Tumor of the pancreas allograft is extremely rare. We report a case of an occult donor malignant undifferentiated tumor arising in a pancreas allograft. A 42-year-old female with Type 1 diabetes received a macroscopically normal pancreas allograft. The donor was a 22-year-old male who died of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. She underwent transplant pancreatectomy, the histology of the pancreas allograft demonstrated a tumor measuring 5 mm in diameter, and a diagnosis of malignant undifferentiated tumor was made. In a different transplant center, the recipient of the left kidney transplant from the same donor had a nephrectomy, and the recipient of the liver transplant died of metastatic disease. Microscopic examination of the liver and kidney allografts subsequently revealed histological features identical to the pancreas tumor. Tumor transmission in transplantation may occur from an organ that contains metastatic cells or, less commonly, from the transmission of an unrecognized or occult primary tumor. A report from the United Network for Organs Sharing transplant data 1997-2002 is illustrated and discussed. This case illustrates the difficulties associated with identifying donors with occult primary tumor or metastases. PMID:17365945
Wong, Christopher; Hold, Phoebe; Mohteshamzadeh, Mobin; Dhanda, Raman; Sells, Robert
...showed evidence of infection due to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) when previously tested under § 610.40(a), (b...Human) provided the current donation tests nonreactive for HBsAg and the donor is otherwise determined to be suitable;...
Charged donor-acceptor catenanes containing cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) as the ring component can be synthesised in yields of up to 88% in under one hour by heating two precursors in the presence of macrocyclic polyether templates in N,N-dimethylformamide at 80 °C. PMID:22854807
Fahrenbach, Albert C; Hartlieb, Karel J; Sue, Chi-Hau; Bruns, Carson J; Barin, Gokhan; Basu, Subhadeep; Olson, Mark A; Botros, Youssry Y; Bagabas, Abdulaziz; Khdary, Nezar H; Stoddart, J Fraser
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the use of plasma homocysteine levelsin blood bank donors as a risk marker for the development ofcardiovascular diseases in healthy individuals. Methods: Thirtynineblood donors were evaluated and a correlation was establishedbetween the plasma homocysteine levels and the different ageand gender groups. Results: The values of homocysteine levelswere found to be within the normal range, as expected for a healthypopulation. Only three male donors, aged between 40 and 60years, presented hyperhomocysteinemia within the risk rangefor developing cardiovascular disease. Comparing females andmales with regard to homocysteine levels, the values presentedstatistically significant differences, however of little relevance.Variance analysis did not show significant differences betweenthe considered age groups, regardless of gender, but there was aclear increase in homocysteine concentration in males betweenthe 5th and 6th decades of life. Conclusions: It was not possible tosuggest the use of plasma homocysteine levels as an early markerfor the development of cardiovascular diseases in healthy bloodbank donors, but one can speculate about a critical homocysteinelevel to be defined as a cutoff point, above which there wouldbe an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
Luiz Antonio Rosa
The obesity, serious frequenty sanitary problem, cause of complications that effects to the expectation of life, with aesthetic repercussion and with an increase in the last decades. Admitted the obesity android, gynoide, central or abdominal, wide aesthetic repercussion and physiopathologic like hyperdislipemias, metabolic alterations (diabetes mellitus, etc...), arterial hypertension, column arthrosis and outlying. Ethiopathologics co-factors, sedentariness, genotypic predisposition, endocrine alterations and of the leptina secretion. Illustrative cases of obesity in the painting of those that characteristic models are exposed, from slight grades to intense affecting to both genders. The thinness counterpoint of the obesity, multicausal process, less frequent than the obesity with aesthetic and psychological repercussion. It is the formed aesthetic thinness to the diverse types physiopathologic, without forgetting the constitutional and family form and the anorexy, the serial ones to disasters, wars, famines, etc..., the mystic thinness of saints and ascetics, and the serial one to consuming processes. PMID:15997591
Schüller Pérez, Amador
Full Text Available Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM are public health problems, with health consequences and economic costs that have raised concern worldwide. The increase in the prevalence of diabetes parallels that of obesity. Some experts call this dual epidemic ‘diabesity’ Elevated body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC were significantly associated T2DM. One consequence of obesity is an increased risk of developing T2DM. There is evidence that the prenatal, early childhood, and adolescent periods are critical in the development of obesity. Most obese individuals have elevated plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFA, which are known to cause peripheral (muscle insulin resistance. Weight loss either with lifestyle modification, pharmacotherapy or bariatric surgery improves glycemic control and metabolic parameters that are related to cardiovascular disease. Pharmacotherapy for glycemic control with metformin or GLP-1 agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors help in weight reduction.
In industrial nations, over the last five decades conditions concerning nutrition and physical exercise as well as socio-economic circumstances have changed radically. One of the consequences following from this development has been a rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity. Studies have shown that currently 20 percent of the German adult population suffer from obesity. Investigations into the etiology of obesity have to address complex interactions between genetic, socio-economic and psychosocial factors. A year ago, at the University Hospital Tübingen different departments joined to set up the "Plattform Adipositas". Endocrinologists, obesity surgeons, professionals in sports medicine and psychosomatic medicine as well as dieticians are collaborating to develop scientifically based therapy programs and treatment pathways for obese patients. The following article gives an account of this exemplary interdisciplinary cooperation. PMID:16941394
Becker, S; Niess, A; Hipp, A; Fritsche, A; Gallwitz, B; Granderath, F; Kramer, M; Zipfel, S
Traditional and cyberbullying victimization as correlates of psychosocial distress and barriers to a healthy lifestyle among severely obese adolescents - a matched case-control study on prevalence and results from a cross-sectional study
Background Obese youth are at increased risk for peer victimization, which may heighten their risk of psychosocial problems and physical activity avoidance, and lower the effectiveness of professional and lifestyle weight-loss initiatives. Little is known about obese adolescents’ risk for victimization from cyber-bullying and how this relates to psychosocial functioning and healthy lifestyle barriers. The purpose of the study was to assess traditional and cyber-victimization among adolescents with severe obesity and its relation to psychosocial distress and barriers to healthy lifestyles. Methods A sample of 102 obese adolescents (mean age?=?15.32 ±1.71) in residential treatment was matched with 102 normal-weight youngsters from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study (mean age?=?15.30 ±1.73). Results Adolescents with obesity were significantly more often cyber-victimized than normal-weight peers. Obese youth victimized by traditional bullying experienced lower quality of life, lower motivation for physical activity and higher avoidance and emotional coping towards healthy lifestyles than those non-victimized. Obese cyber-victims experienced significantly higher suicidal ideation. Conclusions Traditional and cyber-victimization may hinder treatment effectiveness and healthy lifestyle change in adolescents with obesity. Health professionals should pro-actively address peer victimization and psychosocial functioning during multidisciplinary obesity treatment. Schools could contribute to a better physical and psychosocial health of obese youth by implementing multi-behavioral health-promotion programs. PMID:24593118
Indigenous populations throughout the Arctic are experiencing a rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes. The role of physical activity in relation to glucose metabolism in Arctic populations is not well studied. We examined the association between objectively measured physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and glucose metabolism in a population-based study of adult Inuit in Greenland.
Dahl-Petersen, Inger Katrine; Bjerregaard, Peter
We report on a sexithienyl and two donor-acceptor-donor oligothiophenes, employing benzothiadiazole and isoindigo as electron-acceptors, each functionalized with a phosphonic acid group for anchoring onto TiO2 substrates as light-harvesting molecules for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). These dyes absorb light to wavelengths as long as 700 nm, as their optical HOMO/LUMO energy gaps are reduced from 2.40 to 1.77 eV with increasing acceptor strength. The oligomers were adsorbed onto mesoporous TiO2 films on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO)/glass substrates and incorporated into DSSCs, which show AM1.5 power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) ranging between 2.6% and 6.4%. This work demonstrates that the donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) molecular structures coupled to phosphonic acid anchoring groups, which have not been used in DSSCs, can lead to high PCEs. PMID:24807377
Stalder, Romain; Xie, Dongping; Islam, Ashraful; Han, Liyuan; Reynolds, John R; Schanze, Kirk S
Blood transfusion safety in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is marred by the high prevalence of infectious agents, chronic blood shortage and lack of resources. However, considerable pressure is applied by richer countries and international transfusion bodies to establish voluntary, non-remunerated blood donors (VNRD) as the only source of blood, excluding the traditional family/replacement donors on the grounds of a higher level of safety. Such a policy increases the cost of a unit of blood by two to fivefold and exacerbates the pre-existing blood shortage. This review provides compelling evidence that first-time VNRD are no safer than family/replacement donors and that only repeat donation provides improved blood safety. In order to limit blood shortage and maintain affordability of the blood supply in SSA, both types of donors should be accepted and both should be encouraged to donate regularly. PMID:21539535
Full Text Available Background: The number of cadaver donors is far beyond demand. The use of marginaldonors may increase the number of organs available for transplantation.Methods: We expanded our criteria for cadaver donors to include those with activeinfections. From January 2004 through August 2005, there were 25 cadaverictransplantations in our center. Infected donors accounted for 13 transplantsand the remaining 12 that were not infected were used as the control subjects.Blood and infected locus cultures were performed before transplantationand the recipients were treated accordingly.Results: There were no statistically significant differences between post-transplantationcreatinine levels of the kidneys from infected and non-infected donors at1 month (1.50
Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages.
Erik E. J. G. Aller
The first asymmetric insertion reactions of donor-donor carbenoids, i.e., those with no pendant electron-withdrawing groups, are reported. This process enables the synthesis of densely substituted benzodihydrofurans with high levels of enantio- and diastereoselectivity. Preliminary results show similar efficiency in the preparation of indanes. This new method is used in the first enantioselective synthesis of an oligoresveratrol natural product (E-?-viniferin). PMID:25308822
Soldi, Cristian; Lamb, Kellan N; Squitieri, Richard A; González-López, Marcos; Di Maso, Michael J; Shaw, Jared T
Knowledge of the life spans actually experienced by steam-electric generating units is useful for a number of purposes. Industry data on experienced life spans have been limited, but recently became available from the Utility Data Institute (UDI) and the Edison Electric Institute (EEI). The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the author's analyses of these data and his interpretation of their significance. The UDI data are from the January 1990, Publication UDI-005-90, Inventory of Retired U.S. Steam-Electric Plants. Units for which fuel type, size, installation date and retirement date are listed were extracted from this UDI publication, which amounted to about 65 percent of the units listed. The EEI data are from the 1990 Power Directory, which was produced by UDI. Only units currently in operation were extracted from this EEI publication
Full Text Available Affective forecasting with respect to two environmental risks (ozone depletion, air pollution was investigated by studying tourists who travelled to either Australia or Bangkok and were thus confronted with one of these risks. We measured anticipated outcome and anticipated emotions before the journey, actually experienced outcome and actually experienced emotions during the journey, and anticipated outcome and emotions concerning a future encounter with the same risk after the journey. Results indicate that tourists underestimate (air pollution or correctly predict (ozone depletion both the seriousness of the outcome and their emotional reactions. The relationship between actual outcome and actual emotions is stronger than that between anticipated outcome and anticipated emotions. Furthermore, tourists learn from their travel experience and adjust their anticipations concerning future encounters with the environmental risk. Findings suggest that the domain of environmental risks differs from personal outcomes with respect to the process of affective forecasting.
Rapid thermal annealing of thermal donors in Si with 10 sec anneal times at temperatures between 600 and 10000C has been investigated by infrared absorption at 80 K. Thermal donors A through D, which are identified by excited state absorption, are present in as-grown Czochralski Si; whereas excited states for donors A through F as well as photoionization of thermal donors are observed after extended heating at 4500C. The temperature required for rapid thermal annealing is lower when only donors A through D are present. Removal of thermal donors A through F by rapid thermal annealing at temperatures > 8000C restores 7 to 8 oxygen atoms to interstitial sites per electrically measured donor removed. This ratio supports oxygen cluster models for thermal donors but does not support previous suggestions that such clusters are embryonic forms of high temperature oxygen precipitates
Full Text Available Introduction. In most developed countries, endometrial cancer appears as most frequent invasive neoplasm of genital tract. Obesity is one of most important risk factors. Aim of study was to establish characteristics endometrial cancer in obese women. Material and methods. The study included 50 surgically treated women with endometrial cancer. According body mass index they were divided into two groups - group A (30 obese women, group B (20 non-obese women. Results and Discussion. Non-obese women with endometrial cancer are statistically significantly older than obese. Menopausal status, parity are not statistically significant. The obese group most frequently includes endometrioid type of tumor, while non-obese group most frequently includes non-endometrioid types of endometrial cancer. Over 50% thick myometrial invasion is statistically more frequent in non-obese group than in obese group. In obese group, less than 50% thick myometrial invasion, is statistically significant in comparison to non-obese group. High-differentiated endometrial cancer(G1 is statistically significantly more present in obese women than non-obese. Low-diferentiated endometrial cancer is statistically more frequent in non-obese women than in obese. Most frequent in both groups is NG2. According to FIGO stage I, disease is statistically significantly more frequent in obese group than in non-obese. In non-obese group, total number of deseased in higher stages (II and III is statistically significantly higher than in stage I. Conclusion. Endometrial cancer present in obese women is mostly endometroid type I, with slow myometrial invasion, with hystological grade I, nuclear grade II in FIGO stage I of disease. In non-obese women, non-endometrioid cancer - type II is more frequent, with faster myometrial invasion, hystological grade II and III, nuclear grade II, in FIGO stage II of disease.
The aim of this article is, by analysing childrens discourses, to investigate their actions or absence of actions during a domestic violence episode. The empirical data are recorded group therapy sessions and individual interviews with children who have grown up experiencing their fathers violence against their mothers. The analysis shows that the childrens stories contain two aspects of actions: one related to the actions during the ongoing episode, and one the child perceives as possible/de...
O?verlien, Carolina; Hyde?n, Margareta
The aim of the research is to examine the peculiarities of addictive substance use among 18-26-year-old youths who experienced parental divorce. 271 youths participated in the research, who attend Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas University of Applied Sciences, Vilnius Co-operative College (Kaunas campus), Kaunas Trade and Business School, Kaunas Communication School, Kaunas Builders’ Training Centre. For the statistical analysis, the data of 18-26-year-old youths were used. 125 (46,1 per...
Buks?nyte?, Loreta; Kavaliauskiene?, Dalia
The consequences of early developmental conditions for performance in later life are now subjected to convergent interest from many different biological sub-disciplines. However, striking data, largely from the biomedical literature, show that environmental effects experienced even before conception can be transmissible to subsequent generations. Here, we review the growing evidence from natural systems for these cross-generational effects of early life conditions, showing that they can be ge...
Burton, Tim; Metcalfe, Neil B.
Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a significantly disabling disease that affects all major areas of life. There is a lack of comprehensive synthesis of research findings on the full extent of psychosocial difficulties (PSDs) experienced by people living with schizophrenia. This paper provides a systematic review of the literature concerning PSDs and their associated factors in schizophrenia. PSDs were conceptualized in accordance with the International Classification of Fu...
?witaj Piotr; Anczewska Marta; Chrostek Anna; Sabariego Carla; Cieza Alarcos; Bickenbach Jerome; Chatterji Somnath
Full Text Available Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to life expectancy and increased health problems. In keeping with the general international trend of rising prevalence of obesity, maternal obesity prevalence is rising. According to WHO, the prevalence of obesity in pregnancy ranges from 1.8 to 25.3%. Maternal obesity has been identified to be a risk factor for maternal and perinatal mortality. The aim of this article was reviewed in research about maternal obesity in Pubmed, which published between 2009 and 2010. 7 reviews and 13 studies was examined and they presented under this headings: impacts of maternal obesity in pregnancy, obstetric outcomes of maternal obesity, postpartum outcomes of maternal obesity, impact of maternal obesity on breastfeeding, impact of maternal obesity on procedure of anomaly scan and risk determination, maternal obesity and fetal complications, impact of maternal obesity on Apgar scores, obesity and infertility, pregnancy following bariatric surgery, long term effects of obesity, management of maternal obesity. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 353-364
Studies have shown that vegetation near to or integrated in buildings can increase the quality of life by e.g. visual appeal, stress reduction, climatic comfort, and protection from pollution and noise. Vegetation can furthermore provide solutions to make our buildings and cities more environmentally sustainable for example as a passive technology of energy reduction, or as a way to avoid overheat of cities. This paper studies the experienced qualities of a vegetated space – a one-family Stockholmian house completely covered by trellis. The house is 180 sq., two-story, built in 2008, and drawn by Swedish architects Tham & Videgård. There is a close contact between interior space and façade plants as a large part of the façade behind the trellis is glass. The paper addresses potentially fruitful approaches to studying experienced qualities of vegetated space, such as visual ethnography, and interviews with residents about their experiences of comfort and discomfort of dwelling. The larger perspective of this study is to investigate the performance of vegetated space in a temperate Scandinavian climate within an agenda of environmental architecture and to identify the perspectives in new low energy buildings or renovations that combine insulation and vegetation, thus offering new experienced qualities in urban environments and within houses.
Olesen, Hans Bruun
Each year, a relevant proportion of the invited blood donors is eventually deferred from donation because of low hemoglobin (Hb) levels. Deferrals are meant to protect donors from developing iron deficiency anemia after a blood donation, however, they may increase the risk of donor lapse, even though the donor may actually meet the Hb criterion at the time of the next donation invitation. Early estimation of the risk of Hb deferral on the next visit to the blood collection center could be hel...
Baart, A. M.
Obesity is an epidemic that threatens the health of millions of people worldwide and is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. There are multiple and complex mechanisms to explain how obesity can cause cardiovascular disease. In recent years, studies have shown some limitations in the way we currently define obesity and assess adiposity. This review focuses on the mechanisms involved in the cardiometabolic consequences of obesity and on the relationship between obesity and cardiovascular comorbidities, and provides a brief review of the latest studies focused on normal weight obesity and the obesity paradox. PMID:24048571
Diaz-Melean, Carlos M; Somers, Virend K; Rodriguez-Escudero, Juan Pablo; Singh, Prachi; Sochor, Ondrej; Llano, Ernesto Manuel; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco
Enterostatins [Val-Pro-Asp-Pro-Arg (VPDPR), Val-Pro-Gly-Pro-Arg (VPGPR), and Ala-Pro-Gly-Pro-Arg (APGPR)] are pentapeptides derived from the NH2-terminus of procolipase after tryptic cleavage and belong to the family of gut-brain peptides. Although enterostatin-like immunoreactivities exist in blood, brain, and gut, and exogenous enterostatins decrease fat appetite and insulin secretion in rats, the roles of these peptides in human obesity remain to be examined. To determine whether VPDPR and APGPR secretion is altered in obesity, serum VPDPR and APGPR levels were measured in 38 overnight-fasted subjects (body mass index, 17.9-54.7 kg/m2) before and after a meal. The mean fasting VPDPR in the serum of lean subjects was significantly lower than that in obese subjects [lean = 603 +/- 86 nmol/L (n = 17); obese, 1516 +/- 227 nmol/L (n = 21); P = 0.0023]. In addition, the rise in serum APGPR after a meal (postmeal/fasting ratio) was significantly higher in lean than in obese subjects [lean, 1.71 +/- 0.24 (n = 17); obese, 1.05 +/- 0.14 (n = 21); P = 0.0332]. The results of these studies show hyperenterostatinemia in obesity and a diminution in enterostatin secretion after satiety. PMID:10084574
Prasad, C; Imamura, M; Debata, C; Svec, F; Sumar, N; Hermon-Taylor, J
Since severe obesity is frequently associated with serious metabolic, cardiovascular and psychological co-morbid conditions, and given the usually unsuccessful results of conservative therapeutic approaches, surgical treatment based on gastric restriction procedures is increasingly recognized as a treatment of choice for morbidly obese persons. Among several surgical approaches designed to promote a substantial loss of weight, two gastric restriction procedures, i.e. the vertical banded gastroplasty and the gastric bypass, have been increasingly used during the past years. Both techniques induce an impressive loss of weight, and are surprisingly well tolerated, even by severely obese persons. The usual 50-75% reduction of initial weight excess, is followed by a clear-cut reduction, or even disappearance of, obesity-related co-morbidity, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus or sleep apnea syndrome. While serious peri- and postoperative risks are very limited, the intractable vomiting occurring after gastroplasty, and potential sequelae related to iron and calcium malabsorption after the gastric bypass, represent much more frequent complications of the surgical treatment of obesity. There is also a tendency towards a late regain of weight, but the benefit in terms of improvement in the obesity-associated co-morbidity is in general maintained despite this partial increase in weight. Gastric procedures are, therefore, an effective treatment of severe obesity and of its co-morbid conditions. However, careful medical and nutritional supervision is necessary during the follow-up after surgery, to prevent potential nutritional or digestive complications. PMID:9246844
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity among an Irish obstetric population over a 10-year period, and to evaluate the obstetric features of such pregnancies. Of 31,869 women delivered during the years 2000-2009, there were 306 women in the study group, including 173 in the moderate or Class 2 obese category (BMI 35-39.9) and 133 in the extreme or Class 3 obese category (BMI > or = 40).The prevalence of obese women with BMI > or = 35 was 9.6 per 1000 (0.96%), with an upward trend observed from 2.1 per 1000 in the year 2000, to 11.8 per 1000 in the year 2009 (P = 0.001). There was an increase in emergency caesarean section (EMCS) risk for primigravida versus multigravid women, within both obese categories (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in EMCS rates observed between Class 2 and Class 3 obese women, when matched for parity. The prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity reported in this population is high, and appears to be increasing. The increased rates of abdominal delivery, and the levels of associated morbidity observed, have serious implications for such women embarking on pregnancy.
Abdelmaboud, M O
The only universally accepted risk factors for the development of pancreatic cancer are a positive family history or a history of smoking. Although the contribution of pancreatitis to pancreatic carcinogenesis has been debated for decades in the epidemiology literature, the actual mechanism is still unclear. With the rising epidemic of obesity, scientists have begun to focus on the contribution of chronic inflammatory state of morbidly obese patients in an effort to better understand the contribution of inflammation to the comorbidities of obesity. Notably, population studies are beginning to show that one of the most serious potential comorbidities of obesity is an increased lifetime risk of developing cancer. In this article, the current literature that exists supporting this Chronic Inflammatory Hypothesis as it pertains to obesity and pancreatic carcinogenesis is reviewed. To date, studies have focused on interleukin-6, a cytokine known to play a role in obesity, chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. The anti-inflammatory adipocytokine, adiponectin, has also shown promise as a key player in this mechanism and has recently been found to be more specific than standard tumor markers in differentiating pancreatic cancer from chronic pancreatitis. If the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer is related to hormone levels associated with obesity, such as adipocytokines, and cytokines associated with chronic inflammation, this could potentially lead to the development of new pancreatic cancer tumor markers and ultimately new therapies and methods of prevention. PMID:18563497
Gumbs, Andrew A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight-related stigmatization is a public health problem. It impairs the psychological well-being of obese individuals and hinders them from adopting weight-loss behaviors. We conducted an experimental study to investigate weight stigmatization in work settings using a sample of experienced human resource (HR professionals from a real-life employment setting. Methods In a cross-sectional, computer-based experimental study, a volunteer sample of 127 HR professionals (age: 41.1?±?10.9 yrs., 56% female, who regularly make career decisions about other people, evaluated individuals shown in standardized photographs regarding work-related prestige and achievements. The photographed individuals differed with respect to gender, ethnicity, and Body Mass Index (BMI. Results Participants underestimated the occupational prestige of obese individuals and overestimated it for normal-weight individuals. Obese people were more often disqualified from being hired and less often nominated for a supervisory position, while non-ethnic normal-weight individuals were favored. Stigmatization was most pronounced in obese females. Conclusions The data suggest that HR professionals are prone to pronounced weight stigmatization, especially in women. This highlights the need for interventions targeting this stigmatization as well as stigma-management strategies for obese individuals. Weight stigmatization and its consequences needs to be a topic that is more strongly addressed in clinical obesity care.
Giel Katrin E
Obesity prevalence has more than doubled globally within the last 30 years and obesity affects quality of life as well as impacts the risks and prognosis for a number of serious diseases. Established causes include a high calorie diet combined with a sedentary lifestyle, but these do not fully explain the epidemic. Evidence from animal experiments suggests that exposure to endocrine disruptors such as PCBs is associated with the development of obesity but our knowledge of the effects of these compounds on weight gain in humans is limited. Our objective was to investigate the association between exposure to PCBs experienced by a general Danish population and abdominal obesity. Adipose tissue was collected upon enrolment of 245 randomly selected persons from a prospective cohort of 57,053 persons enrolled between 1993 and 1997. Abdominal obesity was quantified using self-reported waist circumference 5 years after enrolment. We examined ten polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) as potential determinants. All PCBs included were positively associated with increased abdominal circumference, although this association was not significant. These data do not support the hypotheses of a link between PCBs and waist circumference as suggested by laboratory evidence. More work is needed to fully elucidate the role of compounds such as PCBs in the present obesity epidemic.
Bräuner, Elvira; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
INTRODUCTION: Southern Mediterranean countries have experienced a marked increase in the prevalence of obesity whose consequences for gender related health inequities have been little studied. We assessed gender obesity inequalities and their environmental and socio-economic modifiers among Tunisian adults. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey in 2005; national, 3 level random cluster sample of 35-70 years Tunisians (women: n = 2964, men: n = 2379). Overall adiposity was assessed by BMI = weight(...
El Ati, J.; Traissac, P.; Delpeuch, F.; Aounallah-skhiri, H.; Beji, C.; Eymard-duvernay, S.; Bougatef, S.; Kolsteren, P.; Maire, B.; Ben Romdhane, H.
Identification of an HLA identical donor/recipient pair using high-resolution techniques at HLA A, B, C, and DRB1 optimizes survival after adult unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplant. It has been estimated that roughly 50% of African-Americans have suitable unrelated donors based on serologic typing, but there is little information on the likelihood of identifying an HLA-identical unrelated donor using molecular techniques. From February 2002 to May 2007, we performed 51 unrelated donor searches for African-American patients using the National Marrow Donor Program and found HLA identical unrelated donors for only 3. By contrast, 50 (98%) had at least 1, and often multiple, appropriately matched cord blood units available. Very few African-American recipients have HLA-identical unrelated donors. To allow more African-American patients to proceed to transplant, innovative donor strategies, including adult cord blood transplantation, haploidentical transplant, or the identification of permissive mismatches should be investigated. PMID:18640578
Dew, Alexander; Collins, Demetria; Artz, Andrew; Rich, Elizabeth; Stock, Wendy; Swanson, Kate; van Besien, Koen
Five basic premises underlie the recommendation that obese persons should lose weight: (1) obesity is physically unhealthy; (2) in obese persons, weight loss improves physical health; (3) long-term weight loss is possible; (4) the benefits of weight loss exceed the costs; and (5) weight loss is superior to or can add incrementally to the effects of alternative methods of improving the health and happiness of obese persons. Although the data are occasionally ambiguous, they generally support these premises. Obesity apparently causes increased morbidity and decreased longevity, even after controlling for many plausible confounding factors. Clinical studies consistently show that weight loss reduces morbidity. No adequate data exist on which to evaluate the effects of weight loss on mortality among obese persons. Additional data are needed, but long-term weight loss seems possible, although such losses remain difficult to maintain. A crude estimate is that about 20% of obese persons who attempt to lose weight can achieve and maintain a clinically meaningful weight loss. The short-term health and psychologic costs of gradual weight loss are minor, manageable, and easily surpassed by the short-term health and psychologic benefits. Long-term effects of weight loss on mortality are difficult to judge, and further research is needed. Weight loss can add incrementally to the effects of alternative methods to improve health and happiness among obese persons. Thus, these "alternatives" are better termed "complementary approaches," and their use need not preclude attempts at weight loss. Finally, we provide several guidelines to help practitioners assist obese persons in making reasonable informed decisions about weight loss. PMID:15251583
Allison, D B; Pi-Sunyer, F X
Background Obesity prevention is an international public health priority. The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing in child populations throughout the world, impacting on short and long-term health. Obesity prevention strategies for children can change behaviour but efficacy in terms of preventing obesity remains poorly understood. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent obesity in childhood through diet, physical activity and/or li...
Summerbell, C. D.; Waters, E.; Edmunds, L. D.; Kelly, S. A. M.; Brown, T. A.; Campbell, K. J.
Objective: To study the clinical significance and the relations of leptin and insulin on obesity group. Methods: Leptin and insulin were tested with radioimmunoassay (RIA) in pre-obesity group and obesity group respectively. Results: Serum leptin and insulin levels were significantly elevated in obesity group compare with the controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: Changing with insulin, the elevation of leptin in obesity group has been identified as an important agent of diabetes mellitus (DM)
The prevalence of obesity (severe overweight) has been increasing in western societies during the last decades. Epidemiological studies to the public health impact of obesity are therefore warranted. This thesis aimed at describing the long-term and recent time trends of obesity in the Netherlands, and to explore the relations between obesity, mortality, morbidity, and disability.The prevalence of obesity, body mass index (BMI)?30.0 kg/m 2, increased steadily in Dutch adults betw...
Visscher, T. L. S.
Obesity has become pandemic, and the annual cost in related illnesses and loss of productivity is already over $100 billion and rising. Research has shown that obesity can and does cause changes in behavior and in the brain itself that are very similar to changes caused by drugs of abuse. While food addiction is not the causal agent of all obesity, it is clear that many people no longer eat to survive, but instead survive to eat. This review considers the importance of the brain’s reward sy...
Yarnell, S.; Oscar-berman, M.; Avena, Nm; Blum, K.; Gold, Ms
Full Text Available Ghrelin coded by the GHRL gene is related to weight-gain, its deactivation possibly depending on its hydrolyzation by butyrylcholinesterase (BChE encoded by the BCHE gene, an enzyme already associated with the body mass index (BMI. The aim was to search for relationships between SNPs of the GHRL and BCHE genes with BChE activity, BMI and obesity in 144 obese and 153 nonobese Euro-Brazilian male blood donors. In the obese individuals, a significant association with higher BChE activity, in the 72LM+72MM; -116GG genotype class (GHRL and BCHE genes, respectively was noted. No significant differences were found otherwise, through comparisons between obese and control individuals, of genotype and allele frequencies in SNPs of the GHRL gene (Arg51Gln and Leu72Met, or mean BMI between 72LL and 72LM+72MM genotypes. Although there appears to be no direct relationship between the examined GHRL SNPs and BMI, the association of the 72M SNP with higher BChE activity in obese subjects probably points to a regulatory mechanism, thereby implying the influence of the GHRL gene on BChE expression, and a consequential metabolic role in the complex process of fat utilization.
Vitor G.L. Dantas
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Ghrelin coded by the GHRL gene is related to weight-gain, its deactivation possibly depending on its hydrolyzation by butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) encoded by the BCHE gene, an enzyme already associated with the body mass index (BMI). The aim was to search for relationships between SNPs of the GHRL a [...] nd BCHE genes with BChE activity, BMI and obesity in 144 obese and 153 nonobese Euro-Brazilian male blood donors. In the obese individuals, a significant association with higher BChE activity, in the 72LM+72MM; -116GG genotype class (GHRL and BCHE genes, respectively) was noted. No significant differences were found otherwise, through comparisons between obese and control individuals, of genotype and allele frequencies in SNPs of the GHRL gene (Arg51Gln and Leu72Met), or mean BMI between 72LL and 72LM+72MM genotypes. Although there appears to be no direct relationship between the examined GHRL SNPs and BMI, the association of the 72M SNP with higher BChE activity in obese subjects probably points to a regulatory mechanism, thereby implying the influence of the GHRL gene on BChE expression, and a consequential metabolic role in the complex process of fat utilization.
Vitor G.L., Dantas; Lupe, Furtado-Alle; Ricardo L.R., Souza; Eleidi A., Chautard-Freire-Maia.
Safety of blood and blood products is a major problem all over the world. Screening for the markers of infectious diseases is an incomplete solution. One of the most important steps in improving the safety of blood and blood products is donor selection. In this study, causes of donor deferral were evaluated retrospectively in the blood center of a children's hospital. Analysis of the deferrals showed that the most commonly defined causes were recent sexual exposure in high-risk activity, recent ingestion of medication, low hemoglobin level, abnormal blood pressure, being underweight, tattoos, piercing or acupuncture in the preceding 6 months, recent history of infection and presenting for a subsequent donation too soon, elevation of transaminases, presence of the markers of the infectious diseases. PMID:16651236
Gülen, Hüseyin; Tüzün, Funda; Ayhan, Yüce; Erbay, Ayse; Oztürk, Ercan; Inan, Seyhan; Vergin, Canan
Full Text Available Acute abdominal pain following laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy (LLDN might be a diagnostic dilemma,and prompt diagnosis and management is of paramount importance. Herein, we describe a case of acute appendicitis in a 62-year-old kidney donor who presented with acute abdominal pain 16 days following LLDN with features inconsistent with a diagnosis of acute appendicitis. An ultrasound scan suggested strangulatedSpigelian hernia unrelated to the operative wound. Exploration of the wound and mini-laparotomy showed no evidence of wound dehiscence or a hernia, but revealed an inflamed appendix wrapped up with omentum. Appendectomy led to complete recovery of the patient. It is imperative to maintain a high index of suspicion for acute appendicitis in this situation to avoid septic complications that might adversely affect the residual renal function and cause negative impact on kidney donation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of acute appendicitis following LLDN.
Mechanisms underlying antipsychotic cardiometabolic adverse effects are incompletely understood. This hampers the identification of high-risk patients, low-risk antipsychotics and preventive/ameliorative treatments. Recent clinical, molecular, and genetic data suggest that i) antipsychotic-naïve samples provide the greatest power for mechanistic studies; ii) weight and metabolic effects can be discordant, pointing to overlapping and distinct mechanisms; iii) antipsychotics affect satiety and energy homeostasis signaling; iv) the specific peptides mediating these effects are unknown but likely overlap with those involved in idiopathic obesity; and v) single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding known neurotransmitter receptors and metabolic proteins are promising pharmacogenomic targets for countering adverse affects. However, sophisticated molecular studies and genome-wide association studies, ideally in antipsychotic-naïve/first episode samples, are needed to further advance the field. PMID:21185230
Correll, Christoph U.; Lencz, Todd; Malhotra, Anil K.
Several health hazards and social disabilities are associated with obesity. Increased mortality is associated with increased body weight. A high rate of mortality results from heart disease, diabetes mellitus, gallbladder disease, high blood pressure, and cancer. Physiologic cardiovascular changes occur, leading to left ventricular hypertrophy and lipid abnormalities. Hypertension, stroke, and venous stasis are increased. Pulmonary abnormalities include obstructive sleep apnea, which can be associated with secondary polycythemia and right ventricular hypertrophy. Gallstones, gallbladder disease, and accumulation of fat on the liver are significantly increased. Gout and reproductive abnormalities in women are common. Osteoarthritis of the knees and spine occur, although osteoporosis is rare. Risk for endometrial and breast cancer is increased, particularly in the presence of increased central fat. Changes in the skin include stretch marks, acanthosis negricans, hirsutism, intertrigo, and multiple papillomas. Impaired psychosocial function is manifested as social isolation, loss of job mobility, increased employee absenteeism, and economic and social discrimination. PMID:8977052
Bray, G A
During the last 10 years, the number of alternative Haematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCTs) performed on children in Europe has increased significantly and has reached 61% of the allografts. In this paper, we provide practical guidelines to help define an algorithm for the treatment of children relapsing during or after first-line chemotherapy for ALL and lacking a matched sibling donor. A simultaneous search for an unrelated donor and for a cord blood unit should be started. This study focuses mainly on the effects of some factors on survival in an effort to highlight the influence that these factors have on our choices. Matching the patient for HLA-A, -B, -C and -DRB1 alleles remains the top priority: a single HLA class I or II allele mismatch has no influence on survival, while multiple mismatching for more than one class I allele and simultaneous disparities in class I and II alleles increase mortality. The impact of additional mismatches for HLA-DQ and -DP loci on survival is still controversial. Young donor age is the most important factor that has a significant effect on better survival from among several other factors, including CMV sero-status, gender and ABO. An 18- to 30-year-old, 8/8 allele-matched donor (excluding allele matching at DQB1) or for many teams 10/10 allele-matched donor; or a 4 out of 6 (considering Ag HLA-A, -B and allelic typing of DRB1) CB unit containing more than 3.0 x 10(7) nuclear cells is considered by most institutions. The choice should be made on the basis of urgency. If a donor or a CB unit is not found within an appropriate time frame, generally less than 3 months after obtention of remission, haploidentical HSCT should be offered. Some institutions consider haploidentical HSCT the second therapeutic option when a matched donor is not available. PMID:18545249
Lanino, E; Sacchi, N; Peters, C; Giardino, S; Rocha, V; Dini, G
...Tests to Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and...Determination for Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and...draft guidance before it begins work on the final version of the...Tests to Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular...
Full Text Available Aims & Objectives: Blood transfusion can cause the transmission of infections to recipients. This is an important mode of infection. The aim of study was to assess the prevalence of such type of infections among blood donors and to compare the seroprevalence of transfusion transmitted diseases in voluntary donors and replacement donors. Retrospective study of five years from Jan. 2007 to Dec. 2011 was done. This study was conducted at Blood bank, MIMSR Medical College Latur, Govt. Medical College, Latur and Bhalchandra Blood bank, Latur. Material & Methods: Total 10, 4925 donors were tested. Donors were screened for seroprevalence of HIV, HBC, HCV and Syphilis. Screening of HIV, HBV & HCV was done by ELISA method & Syphilis was screened by RPR type. Results: The comparison of seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV & Syphilis in voluntary donors and replacement donors showed significant difference only for HIV in the years 2007, 2010, and 2011. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of transfusion transmitted diseases in the study is very low or negligible in voluntary donors as compared to replacement donors. There was a declining trend of seroprevalence for all the disease screened. But in our study the difference is not significant, which indicates that the selection of donors is of low quality. The selection of high quality voluntary donors should be achieved by creation of awareness by education of the prospective donor populations.
Rangrao H. Deshpande
Liver transplantation is the most effective treatment for various end-stage liver diseases. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) was first developed in Asia due to the severe lack of cadaveric graft in this region. The Liver Transplant Service at Queen Mary Hospital (QMH), Hong Kong, has pioneered the application of LDLT to patients using both left lobe and right lobe grafts. The QMH liver transplant programme is the largest of its kind in China and Southeast Asia.
Full Text Available In this paper I investigate, from an ethical perspective, the legal prospects of unrelated living donors from Romania. In the present-day shortage of organs necessary for transplantation, the organs from living donors represent an alternative to the organs from deceased ones. Worldwide, unrelated living donors begin to be considered as a promising category among overall living donors. However, their situation raises many ethical questions that need to be addressed by adequate regulations and protections. The paper analyzes the case of non-related living donors applied to the Romanian present situation, in an attempt to underline the ethical limitations their situation presents.
This study assessed whether people's affective attitudes predicted organ donor registration at a later time. People who were not registered as an organ donor prior to completing the study (N = 150) first rated their affective attitudes towards organ donation. We then measured whether they clicked on a hyperlink to register as an organ donor. Believing that the body should be kept whole for burial (bodily integrity) was the only affective attitude to predict this organ donation behaviour. Future campaigns should target this concern in order to increase organ donor registration and the availability of donor organs. PMID:23740267
Shepherd, Lee; O'Carroll, Ronan E
The charity HENRY trains healthcare practitioners to support families with young children to eat healthily and avoid obesity. This means building on each family's strengths to encourage healthy lifestyles and role-modelling good behaviour. PMID:25182897