Coombes Jeff S
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Obese living donors who undergo donor nephrectomy have higher rates of intra-operative and post-operative complications. Many centres exclude obese donors from living donor transplant programs. Diet, exercise and medication are often ineffective weight loss interventions for donors, hence bariatric surgery should be considered. Case presentation We report the case of a 53-year-old Caucasian woman who underwent laparoscopically adjustable gastric banding. The procedure enabled her to lose sufficient weight to gain eligibility for kidney donation. After losing weight, she had an uncomplicated laparoscopic donor nephrectomy surgery, and the recipient underwent successful kidney transplantation. Conclusion Laparoscopically adjustable gastric banding should be considered for obese potential living kidney donors whenever transplantation units restrict access to donor nephrectomy based on the increased surgical risk for donors.
Kaspersen, Kathrine Agergård; Pedersen, Ole Birger
BACKGROUND: It is well known that obesity complicates the course of several diseases. However, it is unknown whether obesity affects the risk of infection among healthy individuals. METHODS: We included 37,808 healthy participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study, who completed a questionnaire on health-related items. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ? 30?kg/m. Infections among participants were identified by relevant ICD-10 codes in the Danish National Patient Register and Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) codes in the Danish Prescription Register. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis with age as the underlying timescale was used as the statistical model. RESULTS: During 113,717 person-years of observation, 1,233 participants were treated for infection at a hospital. Similarly, during 58,411 person-years of observation, 15,856 participants filled at least one prescription of antimicrobials. Obesity was associated with risk of hospital-based treatment for infection (women: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1, 1.9; men: HR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.9). For specific infections, obesity was associated with increased risk of abscesses (both sexes), infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (men), and respiratory tract infections and cystitis (women). Similarly, obesity was associated with filled prescriptions of antimicrobials overall (women: HR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.14, 1.30; men: HR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.33) and particularly with phenoxymethylpenicillin, macrolides, dicloxacillin and flucloxacillin, and broad-spectrum penicillins. CONCLUSIONS: In a large cohort of healthy individuals, obesity was associated with risk of infection. This result warrants further studies of metabolism and the immune response.
Cloes, Marc; Feron, Isaline; LEBRETHON, Marie-Christine
Despite ‘antifat’ attitude of some PE teachers (Greenleaf & Weiller, 2005) and the PE public relations problem in regard to how obese students are treated (Irwin et al., 2003), it seems evident that this school subject represents a key element in the involvement of the education sector in the fight against the worldwide escalating global epidemic of obesity (Tappe & Burgeson, 2004). In fact, PE teachers consider that they lack of specific knowledge to implement instructional strategies dealin...
Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories ...
Yu Xiaoling; Huang Yang; Xing Hui; Hong Kunxue; Xu Wesi; Yuan Lin; Ma Liying; Qu Shuiling; Shao Yiming
Abstract Background This study explored co-receptor usage and prediction of V3 genotyping algorithms in HIV-1 subtype B' from paid blood donors experienced anti-retroviral therapy in Chinese central province in order to design effectively therapeutic regimen. Methods HIV-1 strains were isolated in treatment HIV-1 infections and treatment-naïve HIV-1 infections, then co-receptor usage of HIV-1 strains was identified based on Ghost cell lines using flow cytometry. HIV-1 V3 region was amplified ...
While recognizing that many factors may contribute to the causation of ischaemic heart disease, this project attempts an in-depth examination of just one of them--obesity. The author has endeavoured to discover if there are sex differences in the incidence of obesity and whether or not obesity is related to age. Whilst recognizing the limitations of the small sample used in this project some tentative conclusions/speculations will be outlined. Some attempt has been made to discover if the average person is aware of what is meant by the term 'obesity' and if they see themselves as having this problem. Because of an intuition that people may become obese due to bad eating habits and ignorance about the nutritional value of certain foodstuffs, subjects were asked to list the calorific value of certain foods and their responses are discussed. A further attempt was made to ascertain whether the respondents had ever gone on a diet and if so, the type of diet and the success or otherwise of this measure. The subjects were further questioned to discover their level of knowledge regarding the possibility of certain disorders arising as a consequence of obesity and asked to outline what action they would take if they were faced with these consequences. Some conclusions have been drawn regarding the actions which would be taken when faced with crippling consequences. Finally, an attempt has been made to discover if some psychosocial states contributed to the causation of obesity or whether obesity leads to some psychosocial problems.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3844417
Callaway, C W
Obesity is not a single disease, but a variety of conditions resulting from different mechanisms and associated with various types and degrees of risks. To determine who should lose weight, how much weight should be lost, and how to undertake weight loss, the following types of information are needed: personal-demographic data, developmental patterns, family history, energy balance, body composition/fat distribution, psychological/behavioral measures, endocrine/metabolic measures, complicatio...
SØrensen, Cecilie J; Pedersen, Ole B
BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-established marker of inflammation. The level of CRP is affected by several lifestyle factors. A slightly increased CRP level, also known as low-grade inflammation (LGI), is associated with increased risk of several diseases, especially cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of increased CRP levels in healthy individuals. We therefore assessed CRP in a large cohort of blood donors. METHODS: We measured plasma CRP levels in 15,684 participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study. CRP was measured by a commercial assay. Furthermore, all participants completed a standard questionnaire on smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, diet, and various body measurements. Female participants also reported the use of contraception, childbirth, and menopausal status. The relationship between LGI (defined here as a plasma CRP level between 3 mg/L and 10 mg/L) and predictors was explored by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results were presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: We found LGI in a total of 1,561 (10.0%) participants. LGI was more frequent in women using combined oral contraception (OC) (29.9%) than in men (6.1%) and women not using OC (7.9%). Among premenopausal women, OC was the strongest predictor of LGI (odds ratio?=?8.98, p<0.001). Additionally, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were positively associated with LGI. CONCLUSION: High BMI and abdominal obesity strongly predicted LGI among healthy individuals. However, the most striking finding was the high prevalence of LGI among premenopausal women who used combined oral contraception. Although the significance of CRP as a marker of inflammation is well known, the role of CRP in pathogenesis is still uncertain. The impact of oral contraception on CRP levels should nevertheless be considered when CRP is used in risk assessment.
Full Text Available ... HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some of these ... donor, my life really hasn’t changed. My health is just as good now as it ever ...
Full Text Available ... absolute disqualifiers for a potential donor; serious medical condition, such as HIV positive status or diabetes or ... illness or severe obesity are some of these conditions. And once we’ve taken a good look ...
Full Text Available Of the various options for patients with end stage renal disease, kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for a suitable patient. The kidney for transplantation is retrieved from either a cadaver or a live donor. Living donor nephrectomy has been developed as a method to address the shortfall in cadaveric kidneys available for transplantation. Laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy (LLDN, by reducing postoperative pain, shortening convalescence, and improving the cosmetic outcome of the donor nephrectomy, has shown the potential to increase the number of living kidney donations further by removing some of the disincentives inherent to donation itself. The technique of LLDN has undergone evolution at different transplant centers and many modifications have been done to improve donor safety and recipient outcome. Virtually all donors eligible for an open surgical procedure may also undergo the laparoscopic operation. Various earlier contraindications to LDN, such as right donor kidney, multiple vessels, anomalous vasculature and obesity have been overcome with increasing experience. Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy can be done transperitoneally or retroperitoneally on either side. The approach is most commonly transperitoneal, which allows adequate working space and easy dissection. A review of literature and our experience with regards to standard approach and the modifications is presented including a cost saving model for the developing countries. An assessment has been made, of the impact of LDN on the outcome of donor and the recipient.
... In Delicous Stumble Digg More... People Experiencing Chronic Homelessness Home Population People Experiencing Chronic Homelessness What is Chronic Homelessness? Among people experiencing homelessness, there is a subset ...
A., Van Der Merwe; A., Bachmann; C. F., Heyns.
Full Text Available Donor nephrectomy with laparo-endoscopic single site (LESS) surgery has been reported via the transperitoneal approach. We describe a novel technique of retroperitoneal donor nephrectomy using a single surgical incision in the groin, below the abdominal skin crease or "bikini line". The LESS groin i [...] ncision offers superior cosmesis, while the retroperitoneal approach has distinct advantages, such as the ability to identify the renal vessels early. The new procedure has been performed in two obese patients (body mass index 32 and 33 kg/m2, respectively). The operative times were 4 and 5 hours, warm ischemic times 135 and 315 seconds, blood loss 100 and 250 mL, and hospitalization 3 and 2 days, respectively. Retroperitoneal LESS donor nephrectomy through a single, inconspicuous groin incision is feasible and safe. Further evaluation of the technique in a larger patient cohort is indicated.
SØrensen, Cecilie J; Pedersen, Ole B
C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-established marker of inflammation. The level of CRP is affected by several lifestyle factors. A slightly increased CRP level, also known as low-grade inflammation (LGI), is associated with increased risk of several diseases, especially cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of increased CRP levels in healthy individuals. We therefore assessed CRP in a large cohort of blood donors.
Niet, J.E. de
Obesity has become a global epidemic among all age groups. A number of countries have even experienced a notable shift from under- to over nutrition in youngsters or a double burden of both malnutrition and obesity. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines overweight and obesity as “abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that may impair health”. Worldwide, the impairment of health includes a number of diseases related to obesity causing death in at least 2.6 million people e...
... which may compound the stress the family feels. Families experiencing homelessness: Are typically comprised of a mother ... of other women. The Relationship Between Homelessness and Family Separation: Families who have experienced homelessness have much ...
Rosengren, Annika; Lissner, Lauren
The current obesity epidemic is largely driven by environmental factors, including nutritional transition towards refined and fatty foods with the growing production of energy-dense food at relatively low cost, increased access to motor vehicles, mechanisation of work and sedentary lifestyles. These influences in modern society are modified by individual characteristics. Ultimately, energy intake in excess of caloric expenditure causes obesity, but why this occurs in some but not all individuals is not known. Obesity is more prevalent in the lower socioeconomic classes but even so, there is a varying relation of socioeconomic status with obesity between countries at different stages of development and, even in the Western world, socioeconomic gradients with respect to obesity are both heterogeneous and in transition. Potential mechanisms for an effect of obesity on subsequent social status have been proposed, the most obvious being related to the stigmatisation experienced by the obese. Obesity seems to be causally related to mood disturbances, whereas there is no conclusive evidence that the reverse is true. When considering psychological aspects of obesity, depressive symptoms are more likely to be consequences, rather than causes of obesity. PMID:18230907
... Tool Kit Adult Overweight and Obesity Defining Adult Obesity Adult Obesity Causes & Consequences Children Defining Childhood Obesity Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences Data & Statistics Adult Obesity Facts Childhood Obesity Facts The prevalence of obesity ...
Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh
Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity. PMID:25949965
Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh
Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity. PMID:25949965
Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio
Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index?30; BMI) by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female) completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR?=?2.54, 95% CI?=?1.58-4.08) and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR?=?3.20, 95% CI?=?2.06-4.97) than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education) and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race) were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity. PMID:23894586
A one page activity that takes students to several websites related to the obesity epidemic. First they can calculate BMI, then learn about national trends in the rate of obesity and finally use a tutorial on insulin and diabetes.
Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.
This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…
Rates of obesity in the United States have increased dramatically over the past 30 years. Approximately 35% of children and 66% of adults are currently considered overweight or obese. Although obesity is seen in all ethnicities and economic classes, ethnic minorities and those of lower socioeconomic...
Walshauser, Mark A.; Aileen Go; Payal Sojitra; Girish Venkataraman; Patrick Stiff
Donor cell derived malignancies are a rare and interesting complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. We present a case of a 56-year-old male with donor cell myeloid sarcoma of the stomach and myocardium.
1. During the past 7 years, recipient sex had no apparent effect on transplant survival. 2. Recipients of female cadaver donor regrafts had an 8-12% lower graft survival rates at 1 year than recipients of male donor kidneys. Graft survival was poorer in both first and second transplants when the female donor was aged 31-50. 3. When graft function was delayed, 1-year graft survival was 6% lower for recipients of first transplants when the donor was female and 12% lower for retransplanted recipients of female donor grafts. 4. The striking effect of donor sex on regraft survival may be a transitory product of the "learning curve" for CsA. The difference between 1-year graft survival of male and female donor retransplants was 14% in 1984, 7% in 1985, and 5% in 1986. PMID:3154483
Seth, Ratanesh Kumar; Das, Suvarthi; Pourhoseini, Sahar; Dattaroy, Diptadip; Igwe, Stephen; Ray, Julie Basu; Fan, Daping; Michelotti, Gregory A; Diehl, Anna Mae; Chatterjee, Saurabh
Activation of M1 macrophages in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is produced by several external or endogenous factors: inflammatory stimuli, oxidative stress, and cytokines are known. However, any direct role of oxidative stress in causing M1 polarization in NASH has been unclear. We hypothesized that CYP2E1-mediated oxidative stress causes M1 polarization in experimental NASH, and that nitric oxide (NO) donor administration inhibits CYP2E1-mediated inflammation with concomitant attenuation of M1 polarization. Because CYP2E1 takes center stage in these studies, we used a toxin model of NASH that uses a ligand and a substrate of CYP2E1 for inducing NASH. Subsequently, we used a methionine and choline-deficient diet-induced rodent NASH model where the role of CYP2E1 in disease progression has been shown. Our results show that CYP2E1 causes M1 polarization bias, which includes a significant increase in interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and IL-12 in both models of NASH, whereas CYP2E1-null mice or diallyl sulfide administration prevented it. Administration of gadolinium chloride (GdCl3), a macrophage toxin, attenuated both the initial M1 response and the subsequent M2 response, showing that the observed increase in cytokine levels is primarily from macrophages. Based on the evidence of an adaptive NO increase, the NO donor administration in vivo that mechanistically inhibited CYP2E1 catalyzed the oxidative stress during the entire study in NASH-abrogated M1 polarization and NASH progression. The results obtained show the association of CYP2E1 in M1 polarization, and that inhibition of CYP2E1 catalyzed oxidative stress by an NO donor (DETA NONOate [(Z)-1-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl)amino]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate]) can be a promising therapeutic strategy in NASH. PMID:25347994
Kamper, A L; LØkkegaard, H
In recent years transplantation from living donors has accounted for 25-30% of all kidney transplants in Denmark corresponding to 40-45 per year. Most of these living donors are parents or siblings, although internationally an increasing number are unrelated donors. Donor nephrectomy is associated with only few complications. The long-term outcome for kidney donors is good without increase in mortality or risk for development of hypertension and renal failure; proteinuria may be seen. Living kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment of end-stage renal disease with better graft survival than in cadaver transplantation. The ethical and psychological aspects related to transplantation from a living donor are complex and need to be carefully evaluated when this treatment is offered to the patients.
Science Update (AAAS; )
Obesity has many causes, but there is growing evidence that common viruses may contribute to the condition in some people. Recently, Nikhil Dhurandhar and his colleagues at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center infected human stem cells with Ad-36, a common virus known to be associated with obesity in humans. They found that the cells they exposed to the virus accumulated a much higher amount of fat than uninfected cells.
Summerbell, C. D.; Shield, J
Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...
Summerbell, C.D.; Shield, J.
Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...
Thomas, M. A.
The shifting ideological winds of foreign aid donors have driven their policy towards governments in poor countries. Donors supported state-led development policies in poor countries from the 1940s to the 1970s; market and private-sector driven reforms during the 1980s and 1990s; and returned their attention to the state with an emphasis on…
Thys, Kristof; Schwering, Karl-Leo; Siebelink, Marion; Dobbels, Fabienne; Borry, Pascal; Schotsmans, Paul; Aujoulat, Isabelle
Living-donor kidney and liver transplantation intend to improve pediatric recipients' psychosocial well-being, but psychosocial impact in recipients strongly depends upon the impact on the donor and the quality of family relations. We systematically reviewed quantitative and qualitative studies addressing the psychosocial impact of pediatric living-donor kidney and liver transplantation in recipients, donors, and the family. In accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, we systematically searched the databases Medline, Web of Knowledge, Cinahl, Embase, ERIC, and Google Scholar. We identified 23 studies that satisfied our inclusion criteria. Recipients had improved coping skills and satisfactory peer relationships, but also reported anxiety and depressive symptoms, worried about the future, and had a negative body image. Similarly, donors experienced increased self-esteem, empowerment, and community awareness, but also complained of postoperative pain and a lack of emotional support. With respect to family impact, transplantation generated a special bond between the donor and the recipient, characterized by gratitude and admiration, but also raised new expectations concerning the recipient's lifestyle. As psychological problems in recipients were sometimes induced by feelings of guilt and indebtedness toward the donor, we recommend more research on how gift exchange dynamics function within donor-recipient relationships, enrolling donors and recipients within the same study. PMID:25363518
Full Text Available Obesity is a civilization disease and the proportion of people suffering from it continues to grow, especially in the developed countries. Number of obese people in Europe has increased threefold over the last 20 years. The paradox of obesity and poverty relationship is observed especially in the developed and developing countries. In developing countries, along with economic development and income growth, the number of people with overweight and obesity is increasing. This paradox has a relationship with both the easy availability and low cost of highly processed foods containing ‘empty calories’ and no nutritional value. To date, this paradox has been described in the United States and the United Kingdom, although many European countries are also experiencing high percentages of obese people. Among the reasons for the growing obesity in the population of poor people are: higher unemployment, lower education level, and irregular meals. Another cause of obesity is low physical activity, which among the poor is associated with a lack of money for sports equipment. Due to the large rate of deaths caused by diseases directly linked to obesity, the governments of many countries implement prevention programmes of overweight and obesity. These programmes are based primarily on educating the public about a healthy lifestyle based on healthy eating, daily physical activity and avoiding alcohol and cigarettes.
› Hormones and Obesity Share: Fact Sheet Hormones and Obesity March, 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Caroline Apovian, MD Judith Korner, MD, PhD What is obesity? Obesity is a chronic (long-term) medical problem ...
... gov . Adolescent and School Health Share Compartir Childhood Obesity Facts Childhood obesity has more than doubled in ... environmental factors. 5,6 Health Effects of Childhood Obesity Obese Youth Over Time: Selected U.S. States Maps ...
Sarwer, David B.; Dilks, Rebecca J.
The prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity has tripled in the past three decades. This increase has been accompanied by a dramatic rise in obesity-related health complications among American youth. Thus, many obese youth are now experiencing illnesses that will threaten their life expectancy in the absence of significant weight loss.…
Chaney, John; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Cantu, Edward; van Berkel, Victor
The criteria that define acceptable physiologic and social parameters for lung donation have remained constant since their empiric determination in the 1980s. These criteria include a donor age between 25-40, a arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/FiO2 ratio greater than 350, no smoking history, a clear chest X-ray, clean bronchoscopy, and a minimal ischemic time. Due to the paucity of organ donors, and the increasing number of patients requiring lung transplant, finding a donor that me...
... View My Story Update My Story Upload My Photo Attach My Video Change My ... Donor Family Writing anything can be a challenge. Staring at a blank sheet of paper, you want to make sure to convey what ...
Mathiasen, Niels Raabjerg; BØdker, Susanne
Security is experienced differently in different contexts. This paper argues that in everyday situations, users base their security decisions on a mix of prior experiences. When approaching security and interaction design from an experience approach, tools that help bring out such relevant experiences for design are needed. This paper reports on how Prompted exploration workshops and Acting out security were developed to target such experiences when iteratively designing a mobile digital signature solution in a participatory design process. We discuss how these tools helped the design process and illustrate how the tangibility of such tools matters. We further demonstrate how the approach grants access to non-trivial insights into people's security experience. We point out how the specific context is essential for exploring the space between experience and expectations, and we illustrate how people activate their collections of security experiences rather than deploying one security strategy in all situations.
In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive. Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Date Released: 3/6/2014.
Masser, Barbara M; White, Katherine M; Terry, Deborah J
Using the belief basis of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the current study explored the rate of mild reactions reported by donors in relation to their first donation and the intention and beliefs of those donors with regard to returning to donate again. A high proportion of first-time donors indicated that they had experienced a reaction to blood donation. Further, donors who reacted were less likely to intend to return to donate. Regression analyses suggested that targeting different beliefs for those donors who had and had not reacted would yield most benefit in bolstering donors' intentions to remain donating. The findings provide insight into those messages that could be communicated via the mass media or in targeted communications to retain first-time donors who have experienced a mild vasovagal reaction. PMID:23820434
Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT has been expanding to adult recipients by using right lobe grafts. However, the incidence of complications is more frequent than that involving left lobe grafts. Hence, we aimed to analyze postoperative complications in right lobe liver donors as a step to improve the results in the donors. Methods : Three hundred and eleven right lobe liver donors were retrospectively reviewed between February 1998 and December 2003. Results : The ages of the donors ranged from 19 to 64 years (median: 46 years. Their body mass index ranged from 16.6 to 34.3 (median: 22.1. The mean duration of the operation was 6.58 (1.25 hours and blood loss was 289 (254 mL. The estimated median donor residual liver volume was 42.2% (range: 20.6-60.3% and the median hospital stay was 14.5 days (range: 6-267 days. One donor died of liver failure due to small residual liver volume (26% and steatohepatitis. One hundred and twenty three complications occurred in 104 donors (33.4%. Donors experienced one or more complications. According to the Clavien classification, grade I complications occurred in 71 of the episodes (57.7%, grade II complications in 9 (7.3%, grade IIIa complications in 39 (31.7%, grade IIIb complications in 3 (2.5%, and grade V complications in 1 (0.8%. Biliary complications were the most common and occurred in 37 donors (12%. Conclusion : Right lobe liver donation is a widely accepted procedure that results in the expansion of the indication for LDLT to adults and large children. However, remnant liver size and anatomical variations in the biliary tree represent important risk factors for postoperative complications.
Maria Angela Boccara de, Paula; Renata Ferreira, Takahashi; Pedro Roberto de, Paula.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar as Representações Sociais (RS) da pessoa estomizada intestinal sobre vivência da sexualidade após confecção do estoma. MÉTODOS: Estudo exploratório, descritivo, qualitativo do ponto de vista do referencial da Representação Social. Participaram 15 estomizados, sendo 8 mulheres, [...] com idade média de 57,9 anos, entre agosto e setembro de 2005. Dados obtidos por entrevistas, transcritas, foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo, originando a unidade temática "Ressignificando a sexualidade" e subtemas. RESULTADOS: Demonstrou-se que o estoma intestinal interfere na dinâmica da vivência da sexualidade, desvelando que os significados a ela atribuídos estão ancorados nas histórias individuais de vida, na qualidade das relações pessoais/conjugais estabelecidas na prática e na percepção da sexualidade, apesar do estoma. CONCLUSÕES: Representações Sociais sobre vivência da sexualidade após estoma estão ancoradas nos significados atribuídos ao corpo, veiculadas no cotidiano e presentes no imaginário social. É influenciada por outros fatores, como alterações fisiológicas decorrentes do ato cirúrgico e da existência de parceiro. Cuidados adotados nas práticas sexuais propiciam maior segurança e conforto nos momentos de intimidade, tornando-as mais próximas daquilo que vivenciavam antes do estoma. A autoirrigação, associada ou não ao oclusor, constituiu estratégia facilitadora para melhor aceitação do estoma, sendo essencial para vida sexual mais prazerosa. A assistência à pessoa estomizada deve ser integral, não se limitando apenas à doença e ao cuidado técnico, que são importantes, mas não únicos. O trabalho interdisciplinar da equipe de saúde deve vislumbrar a pessoa em sua totalidade, buscando real encontro entre sujeitos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Identify the Social Representations (SR) of ostomized people in terms of sexuality after the stoma. METHODS: An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study using the Social Representation Theory with 15 ostomized people (8 females), mean age of 57.9 years, between August and September 200 [...] 5. Data obtained from transcribed interviews were submitted to content analysis, resulting in the thematic unit "Giving new meaning to sexuality" and subthemes. RESULTS: The study demonstrated that the intestinal stoma interferes in the sexuality experience, showing that the meanings attributed to this experience are based on individual life stories, quality of personal relationships established in practice and perception of sexuality, despite the stoma. CONCLUSIONS: The Social Representations, in terms of experiencing sexuality after the stoma, are based on meanings attributed to the body, associated with daily life and present in the social imaginary. It is influenced by other factors, such as physiological changes resulting from the surgery and the fact of having or not a partner. Care taken during sexual practices provide greater security and comfort in moments of intimacy, resembling the closest to what ostomized people experienced before the stoma. The self-irrigation technique associated or not with the use of artificial occluder, has been attested by its users as a positive element that makes a difference in sexual practice after the stoma. The support to ostomized people should be comprehensive, not limited to technical care and disease, which are important, but not sufficient. The interdisciplinary health team should consider all aspects of the person, seeking a real meeting between subjects.
Maria Angela Boccara de Paula
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Identify the Social Representations (SR of ostomized people in terms of sexuality after the stoma. METHODS: An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study using the Social Representation Theory with 15 ostomized people (8 females, mean age of 57.9 years, between August and September 2005. Data obtained from transcribed interviews were submitted to content analysis, resulting in the thematic unit "Giving new meaning to sexuality" and subthemes. RESULTS: The study demonstrated that the intestinal stoma interferes in the sexuality experience, showing that the meanings attributed to this experience are based on individual life stories, quality of personal relationships established in practice and perception of sexuality, despite the stoma. CONCLUSIONS: The Social Representations, in terms of experiencing sexuality after the stoma, are based on meanings attributed to the body, associated with daily life and present in the social imaginary. It is influenced by other factors, such as physiological changes resulting from the surgery and the fact of having or not a partner. Care taken during sexual practices provide greater security and comfort in moments of intimacy, resembling the closest to what ostomized people experienced before the stoma. The self-irrigation technique associated or not with the use of artificial occluder, has been attested by its users as a positive element that makes a difference in sexual practice after the stoma. The support to ostomized people should be comprehensive, not limited to technical care and disease, which are important, but not sufficient. The interdisciplinary health team should consider all aspects of the person, seeking a real meeting between subjects.OBJETIVO: Identificar as Representações Sociais (RS da pessoa estomizada intestinal sobre vivência da sexualidade após confecção do estoma. MÉTODOS: Estudo exploratório, descritivo, qualitativo do ponto de vista do referencial da Representação Social. Participaram 15 estomizados, sendo 8 mulheres, com idade média de 57,9 anos, entre agosto e setembro de 2005. Dados obtidos por entrevistas, transcritas, foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo, originando a unidade temática "Ressignificando a sexualidade" e subtemas. RESULTADOS: Demonstrou-se que o estoma intestinal interfere na dinâmica da vivência da sexualidade, desvelando que os significados a ela atribuídos estão ancorados nas histórias individuais de vida, na qualidade das relações pessoais/conjugais estabelecidas na prática e na percepção da sexualidade, apesar do estoma. CONCLUSÕES: Representações Sociais sobre vivência da sexualidade após estoma estão ancoradas nos significados atribuídos ao corpo, veiculadas no cotidiano e presentes no imaginário social. É influenciada por outros fatores, como alterações fisiológicas decorrentes do ato cirúrgico e da existência de parceiro. Cuidados adotados nas práticas sexuais propiciam maior segurança e conforto nos momentos de intimidade, tornando-as mais próximas daquilo que vivenciavam antes do estoma. A autoirrigação, associada ou não ao oclusor, constituiu estratégia facilitadora para melhor aceitação do estoma, sendo essencial para vida sexual mais prazerosa. A assistência à pessoa estomizada deve ser integral, não se limitando apenas à doença e ao cuidado técnico, que são importantes, mas não únicos. O trabalho interdisciplinar da equipe de saúde deve vislumbrar a pessoa em sua totalidade, buscando real encontro entre sujeitos.
... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome? Obesity hypoventilation (HI-po-ven-tih- ... NHLBI Research Featured in HBO Documentary Series on Obesity Hear people talk about their challenges and successes ...
... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 78 ... ss6104.pdf [PDF | 3.5MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6104.pdf [PDF | 3.5MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...
Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is a condition in some obese people in which poor breathing leads to ... Maintain a healthy weight and avoid obesity. Use your CPAP or BiPAP treatment as your health care provider prescribed.
... CDC Employees and Reasonable Accommodations (RA) Disability and Obesity Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... and Disability at http://www.ncpad.org/ The Obesity Epidemic Obesity affects different people in different ways ...
... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Overweight and Obesity? Español The terms "overweight" and "obesity" refer to ... disease risk. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Obesity happens one pound at a time. So does ...
... What are Some Benefits of a Living-donor Liver Transplant? In the U.S., more than 17,500 patients ... 1,700 patients die each year while waiting. Liver transplants are given to patients on the basis of ...
A blood donors campaign, organized by the Établissement de Transfusion de Rhône-Alpes will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2000 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.
A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion d'Annemasse will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.
Tuesday 19 March 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion sanguine of Geneva If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.
Wednesday 13 November 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs will be held a blood donors campaign, organized by the Etablissement de Transfusion de Haute-Savoie If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.
A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion Sanguine of Geneva will be held at CERN on Tuesday 13 March 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.
The transplantation of organs and tissues from one human to another human has become an essential and well established form of therapy for many types of organ and tissue failure. In Malaysia, kidney, cornea and bone marrow transplantation are well established. Recently, liver, bone and heart transplanation have been performed. Unfortunately, because of the lack of cadaveric organ donation, only a limited number of solid organ transplantation have been performed. The cadaveric organ donor rate in Malaysia is low at less than one per million population. The first tissue transplanted in Malaysia was the cornea which was performed in the early 1970s. At that time and even now the majority of corneas came from Sri Lanka. The first kidney transplant was performed in 1975 from a live related donor. The majority of the 629 kidney transplants done at Hospital Kuala Lumpur to date have been from live related donors. Only 35 were from cadaver donors. Similarly, the liver transplantation programme which started in 1995 are from live related donors. A more concerted effort has been made recently to increase the awareness of the public and the health professionals on organ and tissue donation. This national effort to promote organ and tissue donation seems to have gathered momentum in 1997 with the first heart transplant successfully performed at the National Heart Institute. The rate of cadaveric donors has also increased from a previous average of I to 2 per year to 6 per year in the last one year. These developments are most encouraging and may signal the coming of age of our transplantati on programme. The Ministry of Health in conjunction with various institutions, organizations and professional groups, have taken a number of proactive measures to facilitate the development of the cadaveric organ donation programme. Efforts to increase public awareness and to overcome the negative cultural attitude towards organ donation have been intensified. Equally important are efforts to promote the concept and understanding of organ donation among health professionals. A review of the Human Tissues Act 1974 which governs organ and tissue donation in this country is being undertaken. A number of seminars have been held to garner the support of religious groups in the promotion of organ donation. A major weakness had been the lack of a national organizational framework to facilitate and coordinate the development of organ donation and transplantation in this country. Therefore a National Transplantation Coordinating Committee and a Transplant Programme Working Committee have been formed to oversee the development and implementation of national policy guidelines and programmes. With these measures it is hoped that the donor transplant programme in Malaysia will be one of the success stories of the future
APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)
Press release on a recent study where researchers developed a strain of mice more likely to be obese and then, using this strain, identified four genes in mouse chromosome 7 that may relate to obesity. This study, Â?Four Out of Eight Genes in a Mouse Chromosome 7 Congenic Donor Region are Candidate Obesity Genes,Â? was conducted by Craig H. Warden, Kari A. Sarahan, and Janis S. Fisler of the University of California, Davis. The study is published in Physiologic Genomics.
... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding IMMPaCt State and Local Programs Obesity Prevalence Maps Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Obesity prevalence in 2013 varies across states and territories ...
Full Text Available ... us today, one of a group of sisters, Anna and Sarah, who have been a living donor and living donor recipient, Anna donating to Sarah. The program, kidney transplantation at ...
... Types of stem cell transplants for treating cancer Sources of stem cells for transplant Donor matching for allogeneic transplant The ... stem cells? To learn more References Previous Topic Sources of stem cells for transplant Next Topic The transplant process Donor ...
Full Text Available ... with an open incision. There is a screening process for potential donors. It’s important to emphasize that ... surgically an acceptable candidate. This shows our screening process, first the potential donor meets with a social ...
Full Text Available ... a kidney is safe. It has an excellent safety record both here and nationwide. To ensure that, ... ve had a lot of talk about the safety for the living donors. The donor for that ...
Full Text Available ... is their intended recipient donor is blood-type B, so they’re not compatible. But if there ... would donate to the A recipient and the B donor to the B recipient. And those are ...
Children Now, 2011
Too many California children suffer from high rates of preventable chronic conditions associated with childhood obesity and dental disease. The state is experiencing a crisis in both areas. Fortunately, common factors that contribute to both conditions--including the rates of breastfeeding, access to healthy food and the consumption of…
Bray, George A
As Erwin Chargaff observed, "Scientific autobiography belongs to a most awkward literary genre," and mine is no exception. In reviewing my scientific life, I contrast the nutritional influences that would have existed had I been born 100 or 200 years earlier than I actually was. With this background, I trace the influences on my formative years in science beginning in high school and ending as a postdoctoral fellow in Professor E.B. Astwood's laboratory, when my directional sails were set and obesity was the compass heading. With this heading, the need for organized national and international meetings on obesity and the need for a scientific journal dealing with obesity as its subject matter became evident and occupied considerable energy over the next 30 years. The next section of this memoir traces the wanderings of an itinerant academic who moved from Boston to Los Angeles and finally to Baton Rouge. The influence of Sir William Osler's idea that there is a time for education, a time for scholarship, a time for teaching, and time to retire has always been a guide to allocating time ever since I was an intern at Johns Hopkins Hospital. It was in Baton Rouge that the final phase began: I agreed to become the first full-time executive director of the Pennington Biomedical Research Center, a decision that changed my life. The article ends with a quotation from Tennessee Williams that reflects the theater, which has given me so much pleasure over the years: "There is a time for departure even when there's no certain place to go." PMID:26185976
van den Heuvel, Wim J.A.; van Santvoort, Marc M.
This study analyses the experienced age discrimination of old European citizens and the factors related to this discrimination. Differences in experienced discrimination between old citizens of different European countries are explored. Data from the 2008 ESS survey are used. Old age is defined as being 62 years or older. The survey data come from 28 European countries and 14,364 old-age citizens. Their average age is 72 years. Factor analysis is used to construct the core variable ‘experienc...
Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Gourabathini, Siva Prasad
Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for a medically eligible patient with end stage renal disease. The number of renal transplants has increased rapidly over the last two decades. However, the demand for organs has increased even more. This disparity between the availability of organs and waitlisted patients for transplants has forced many transplant centers across the world to use marginal kidneys and donors. We performed a Medline search to establish the current status of margi...
The prevalence of childhood obesity has steadily increased over the last decades, with approximately 35% of children aged 6-19 classified as overweight or obese. Recently, a plateau in the increasing rates of obesity has been observed. Despite this leveling off, overweight and obese children are hea...
Sowa, Claudia J.; Barsanti, Anne, N.
Examined differences between distress ratings of anticipated and experienced life events in 168 college students. Found gender differences and significant differences between perceived and experienced aversion across events predicting symptoms of stress, depression, anxiety, and somatic discomfort in occupational, social and familial situations.…
Speiser, Phyllis W; Rudolf, Mary C J; Anhalt, Henry; Camacho-Hubner, Cecilia; Chiarelli, Francesco; Eliakim, Alon; Freemark, Michael; Gruters, Annette; Hershkovitz, Eli; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Krude, Heiko; Latzer, Yael; Lustig, Robert H; Pescovitz, Ora Hirsch; Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Rogol, Alan D; Shalitin, Shlomit; Sultan, Charles; Stein, Daniel; Vardi, Pnina; Werther, George A; Zadik, Zvi; Zuckerman-Levin, Nehama; Hochberg, Zeev
In March 2004 a group of 65 physicians and other health professionals representing nine countries on four continents convened in Israel to discuss the widespread public health crisis in childhood obesity. Their aim was to explore the available evidence and develop a consensus on the way forward. The process was rigorous, although time and resources did not permit the development of formal evidence-based guidelines. In the months before meeting, participants were allocated to seven groups covering prevalence, causes, risks, prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and psychology. Through electronic communication each group selected the key issues for their area, searched the literature, and developed a draft document. Over the 3-d meeting, these papers were debated and finalized by each group before presenting to the full group for further discussion and agreement. In developing a consensus statement, this international group has presented the evidence, developed recommendations, and provided a platform aimed toward future corrective action and ongoing debate in the international community. PMID:15598688
van den Heuvel, Wim J A; van Santvoort, Marc M
This study analyses the experienced age discrimination of old European citizens and the factors related to this discrimination. Differences in experienced discrimination between old citizens of different European countries are explored. Data from the 2008 ESS survey are used. Old age is defined as being 62 years or older. The survey data come from 28 European countries and 14,364 old-age citizens. Their average age is 72 years. Factor analysis is used to construct the core variable 'experienced discrimination'. The influence of the independent variables on experienced discrimination is analysed using linear regression analysis. About one-quarter of old European citizens sometimes or frequently experience discrimination because of their age. Gender, education, income and belonging to a minority are related to experienced age discrimination. Satisfaction with life and subjective health are strongly associated with experienced age discrimination, as is trust in other people and the seriousness of age discrimination in the country. Large, significant differences in experienced discrimination due to old age exist between European countries. A north-west versus south-east European gradient is found in experienced discrimination due to old age. The socio-cultural context is important in explaining experienced age discrimination in old European citizens. Old-age discrimination is experienced less frequently in countries with social security arrangements. Further research is needed to understand the variation in (old) age discrimination between European countries. Measures recommended include increasing public awareness about the value of ageing for communities and changing public attitudes towards the old in a positive way. PMID:22207825
Schmidt, Alexander H.; Solloch, Ute V.; Baier, Daniel; Grathwohl, Alois; Hofmann, Jan; Pingel, Julia; Stahr, Andrea; Ehninger, Gerhard
Large registries of potential unrelated stem cell donors have been established in order to enable stem cell transplantation for patients without HLA-identical related donors. Donor search is complicated by the fact that the stored HLA information of many registered donors is incomplete. We carried out a project that was aimed to improve chances of patients with ongoing donor searches to find an HLA-matched unrelated donor. For that purpose, we carried out additional donor center-initiated HLA...
Full Text Available Background: Platelet transfusions are essential to prevent morbidity and mortality in patients who are severely thrombocytopenic and are at risk of spontaneous bleeding. Platelets are currently obtained either by fractionation of whole blood or by platelet apheresis. The quality of single donor platelets (SDP in terms of yield influences platelet recovery in the recipient and allows prolonging intervals between transfusions. Material and Methods: Donor demographic and laboratory data were analyzed prior to performing plateletpheresis to identify donor factors that influence platelet yield. The study was conducted on 130 healthy, first-time plateletpheresis donors over a period of 4 years. The plateletpheresis procedures were performed using Fresenius Kabi COM.TEC and Hemonetics MCS plus separator. A relationship between pre-donation donor variables and yield of platelets was studied using the Pearson correlation. Results: The mean platelet yield was 3.16?0.62x1011 per unit. A positive correlation was observed between platelet yield and pre-donation platelet count, body mass index (BMI; Kg/m2 of the donor, while a negative correlation was observed between age and the platelet yield. Conclusion: Donor pre-donation platelet count, BMI and donor age influence platelet yield. Young healthy donors with a high platelet count and better BMI can give a better platelet yield in the SDP.
... 99 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Adult Obesity Obesity Rises Among Adults Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... healthy eating and active living. Â Problem Adult Obesity Obesity is a national epidemic, causing higher medical ...
Ann Mabe Newman
Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity in the United States is increasing in all age groups. During the past 30 years, the proportion of older adults who are obese has doubled. In this article the author describes the prevalence and causes of obesity among older adults as well as the consequences of obesity in older adults. Recommendations for interventions to address obesity are also provided. Differences between the two groups of older adults, those 50 to 65 years of age, and those over 65 years of age, will be addressed. The goal of the article is to raise nurses’ awareness of the challenges of obesity in older adults.
Caliendo, Marco; Lee, Wang-Sheng
This paper focuses on estimating the magnitude of any potential weight discrimination by examining whether obese job applicants in Germany get treated or behave differently from non-obese applicants. Based on two waves of rich survey data from the IZA Evaluation dataset, which includes measures that control for education, demographic characteristics, labor market history, psychological factors and health, we estimate differences in job search behavior and labor market outcomes between obese/overweight and normal weight individuals. Unlike other observational studies which are generally based on obese and non-obese individuals who might already be at different points in the job ladder (e.g., household surveys), in our data, individuals are newly unemployed and all start from the same point. The only subgroup we find in our data experiencing any possible form of negative labor market outcomes is obese women. Despite making more job applications and engaging more in job training programs, we find some indications that they experienced worse (or at best similar) employment outcomes than normal weight women. Obese women who found a job also had significantly lower wages than normal weight women. PMID:22391338
... citizens have been organ donors. Can non-resident aliens donate and receive organs? Non-resident aliens can both donate and receive organs in the ... the 12,375 organ donors were non-resident aliens. In this same year, 259 (1%) of the ...
Grant, Gerald T.; Liacouras, Peter; Santiago, Gabriel F.; Garcia, Juan R.; Al Rakan, Mohammed; Murphy, Ryan; Armand, Mehran; Gordon, Chad R.
Introduction Current protocols for facial transplantation include the mandatory fabrication of an alloplastic “mask” to restore the congruency of the donor site in the setting of “open casket” burial. However, there is currently a paucity of literature describing the current state-of-the-art and available options. Methods During this study, we identified that most of donor masks are fabricated using conventional methods of impression, molds, silicone, and/or acrylic application by an experienced anaplastologist or maxillofacial prosthetics technician. However, with the recent introduction of several enhanced computer-assisted technologies, our facial transplant team hypothesized that there were areas for improvement with respect to cost and preparation time. Results The use of digital imaging for virtual surgical manipulation, computer-assisted planning, and prefabricated surgical cutting guides—in the setting of facial transplantation—provided us a novel opportunity for digital design and fabrication of a donor mask. The results shown here demonstrate an acceptable appearance for “open-casket” burial while maintaining donor identity after facial organ recovery. Conclusions Several newer techniques for fabrication of facial transplant donor masks exist currently and are described within the article. These encompass digital impression, digital design, and additive manufacturing technology. PMID:24835867
... instructional sessions. We Can! is unique among existing youth obesity-prevention initiatives because it focuses its activities and ... from traditional behavior-modification approaches to childhood and adolescent obesity," says Terry Huang, M.D., Program Director of ...
Full Text Available Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pathophysiological mechanisms such as impaired brain circuit regulation and neuroendocrine hormone dysfunction. Dieting and physical exercise offer the mainstays of obesity treatment, and anti-obesity drugs may be taken in conjunction to reduce appetite or fat absorption. Bariatric surgeries may be performed in overtly obese patients to lessen stomach volume and nutrient absorption, and induce faster satiety. This review provides a summary of literature on the pathophysiological studies of obesity and discusses relevant therapeutic strategies for managing obesity.
... findings/nhqrdr/nhqrdr12/index.html HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ... nhqrdr12/index.html At a Glace – Risk Factors Obesity is a risk factor for several diseases. For ...
Obesity increases a person's risk of illness and death due to diabetes, stroke, heart disease, hypertension, high cholesterol, and kidney and gallbladder disease. Obesity may increase the risk for some types of ...
Do obesity treatment strategies based on calorie restriction and increased physical activity work? Researchers identified more than 175,000 ... those lost pounds. The study concludes non-surgical obesity treatments are failing to help the majority of ...
... Apnea and Anesthesia Smoking and Anesthesia Outpatient Surgery Obesity and Anesthesia More than one-third of Americans ... Sleep Apnea, a chronic medical problem common with obesity, can present with serious breathing problems before, during, ...
... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...
Atsuko Satoh; Seiko Fujita; Kazuko Menzawa; Sangun Lee; Masao Miyamoto; Hidatada Sasaki
Aim: To compare diets between obese and non-obese in children. Methods: Thirty-four obese and ten non-obese school children were recruited and their habitual factors of obesity were asked. Intakes of food in the obesity and non-obesity groups were checked using a model nutritional balance chart (MNBC). Results: Average intake ratio of food relative to ideal food intake was significantly higher in the non-obesity group than the obesity group. The relationship between obesity and exercise was s...
...Donor Screening Tests To Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular...Donor Screening Tests to Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular...Donor Screening Tests to Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and...
Gurevich-Panigrahi, Tatiana; Wiechec, Emilia; Panigrahi, Soumya; Los, Marek Jan
Obesity is an increasingly serious socioeconomic and clinical problem. Between 1/4 - 1/3 of population in the developed countries can be classified as obese. Four major etiological factors for development of obesity are genetic determinants, environmental factors, food intake and exercise. Obesity increases the risk of the development of various pathologic conditions including: insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, endocrine problems, ...
Hladik, Claude Marcel; Cohen, Emmanuel; Pasquet, Patrick
Understanding the links between taste perception and obesity would help authorities cope with obesity, which diminishes the health of human populations. This has been highlighted by a study of the impact of programs intended to educate obese adolescents about healthy diets (Pasquet et al., 2007)1. We present and discuss the results of this study in this chapter. In order to analyze the relationships between taste perceptions and obesity, we will (I) present the main aspects of taste perceptio...
Obesity epidemics affect 35.7% of adults and approximately 17% of children in the United States. Obesity has been associated with several health disorders, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, fatty liver disease, and certain forms of cancer. Medical costs associated with obesity were estimated at $147 billion in 2008. Chronic tissue inflammation, particularly in adipose tissue, has been considered as a key underlying mechanism for the development of obesity-related metabolic syn...
Cheung, Ning; Wong, Tien Y.
The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many countries. While its impact on overall health is well documented, less is known about the ocular manifestations of obesity. Amongst different eye diseases, obesity has been linked with age-related cataract, glaucoma, age-related maculopathy, and diabetic retinopathy. Numerous population-based and prospective studies support an association between obesity and risk of age-related cataract. However, the nature and strength of the...
Arteburn, David E
The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past decades all over the world. The majority of obesity in adulthood has its origins in childhood which makes obesity a pediatric concern and the period when interventions should be done. Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in adult life and several adverse consequences in childhood like insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, polycystic ovarian syndrome, pulmonary and orthopedic dis...
Acosta, Andres; CAMILLERI, MICHAEL
Obesity is a complex disease that results from increased energy intake and decreased energy expenditure. The gastrointestinal system plays a key role in the pathogenesis of obesity and facilitates caloric imbalance. Changes in gastrointestinal hormones and the inhibition of mechanisms that curtail caloric intake result in weight gain. It is not clear if the gastrointestinal role in obesity is a cause or an effect of this disease. Obesity is often associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM...
Full Text Available ... and that will be the focus of our presentation today. Dr. Robey will now introduce the laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. We started the laparoscopic approach to donor nephrectomies in 1999. My partner, Dr. Fabrizio, brought this technique to us from John Hopkins, and we have ...
Full Text Available ... Please feel free to e-mail questions as we go on. We’ll try to get to as many of them as we can. We make group some together if they’re similar. ... Robey will now introduce the laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. We started the laparoscopic approach to donor nephrectomies in ...
Full Text Available ... Well there have been kidney transplants done as long as 72 hours after a kidney was removed from the donor. ... when it’s hooked up. Here’s another question. “How long does ... this is going to take about five hours for each of the procedures, the donor and ...
Full Text Available ... for two to three days until they can eat solid foods. A few images of the procedure show this ... would be, let’s say there’s a donor whose blood-type A is their intended recipient donor is blood- ...
Full Text Available ... of being a donor, he’s still alive and well. Here is a couple of the questions that I’ll answer. “Does the living donor experience weight loss?” Just from being in the hospital and not eating for a couple of days, maybe some weight ...
Full Text Available ... compatible with the donor kidney. We have one more question, and we’ll give this to Anna, our donor. This person is going to be donating a kidney to her mother, and her concern is about the pain afterwards. ...
Full Text Available ... can do a paired donation; a paired donation exchange, living donor exchange, where the A donor would donate to the ... commonplace. They’re the first of the matched exchanges. Here is an interesting question, and I’ll ...
Donor selection is one of the most important aspects of tissue banking practice. Without a good donor selection criteria, the results of any effort of trying to preserve tissues will have disastrous outcome for the recipient of these tissues. While with a very good and strict donor selection the Tissue Bank can guarantee safe and effective tissue allografts. There are significant aspects in the history and physical examination of the donor that must be emphasized. A donor exclusion criteria has also been formulated together with a list of all the needed laboratory examinations to eliminate possible diseases that may be transferred from the donor. The methods of procurement of tissue allografts from living and cadaver donors will be described. The limitations and advantages of each will be taken.There are also special restrictions that are important in the practice of removing the tissues from the donors. All the necessary equipment should be ready and the potential risk on the personnel should be known to all doing Tissue Banking
Reilly, John J.
This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…
... obesity. Source: NHANES, 2009–2010 Estimated Percentage of Youth with Overweight or Obesity, United States, 2009–2011 Children and Adolescents 3 ... and Mexican American women. 2 Among children and adolescents, the prevalence of obesity also increased in the 1980s and 1990s but ...
With Americans fatter and more malnourished than ever--almost two-thirds of the population is considered overweight or obese compared with 56 percent in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and people of color and the poor are the most obese of all--federal and university researchers and outreach workers from various anti-obesity organizations aim to…
Gilliam, Thomas B.
Childhood obesity starts at a very early age, and preventive measures taken early enough may retard the development of fat cells. It appears that physical activity plays an important role in reducing obesity. The activity program must start early, in preschool days. It is felt that screening children for obesity when they first enter school and…
The donors’ mean age was 25.53± 6.39 years with a range of 18-45 years. Males represented 64.7 % and females were 35.3%. The most common donors (32.1%, n_62, were sons and daughters to their parents (sons: n_43, daughters: n_19 while parents to their offsprings represent 15% (mothers: n_21, fathers: n_8. Brothers and sisters represent 16.5 % (brothers: n_22, sisters: n_10. Nephews & nieces giving their uncles or aunts were 14%. The number of wives donating to their husbands was 11 (5.7%. Interestingly, there was no single husband who donated his wife. Among the remaining donors, there were 11 cousins & one uncle. Unrelated donors were 20 (10.4%. Several factors seemed to contribute to motivation for donation: the seriousness of the potential recipient condition, the relationship and personal history of the donor to the potential recipient, the religious beliefs, the trust in the health care system, and family dynamics and obligations. Conclusions. Absolute absence of coercion on the living-liver donor’s motives may not be realistic because of the serious condition of the potential recipient. It is mandatory that
Schmidt, Alexander H; Solloch, Ute V; Baier, Daniel; Grathwohl, Alois; Hofmann, Jan; Pingel, Julia; Stahr, Andrea; Ehninger, Gerhard
Large registries of potential unrelated stem cell donors have been established in order to enable stem cell transplantation for patients without HLA-identical related donors. Donor search is complicated by the fact that the stored HLA information of many registered donors is incomplete. We carried out a project that was aimed to improve chances of patients with ongoing donor searches to find an HLA-matched unrelated donor. For that purpose, we carried out additional donor center-initiated HLA-DRB1 typing of donors who were only typed for the HLA loci A and B so far and were potential matches for patients in need of a stem cell transplant. In total, 8,861 donors were contacted for donor center-initiated HLA-DRB1 typing within 1,089 donor searches. 12 of these donors have donated stem cells so far, 8 thereof for their respective target patients. We conclude that chances of patients with ongoing donor searches to find an HLA-matched unrelated donor can indeed be improved by donor-center initiated typing that is carried out in addition to the standard donor search process. Our results also raise questions regarding the appropriate use of incompletely typed donors within unrelated donor searches. PMID:21625451
Bour, Eric S
Despite aims at prevention, obesity in the United States is now an epidemic. Along with the rise in obesity, the United States has experienced a concomitant rise in obesity-related comorbidities. Furthermore overweight and obesity present a major economic public health challenge. Physicians are likely to recommend weight loss to their overweight patients. Diet, exercise, and behavior modification are often effective during the course of treatment but are subject to recidivism and post-treatment weight gain. Obesity intervention mandates that providers consider the need for surgery in many cases. The three most commonly performed weight loss surgical procedures in the United States include gastric banding, gastric bypass, and sleeve gastrectomy. Patients undergoing surgery lose considerable amounts of excess weight and experience marked improvement in many other obesity-related comorbidities. Surgery is a proven therapy for patients who do not respond to less invasive measures and should be considered mainstream therapy in the treatment of the obesity epidemic. PMID:25757004
Makki, Kausar; Chorasiya, Vishal Kumar; Sood, Gaurav; Srivastava, Piyush Kumar; Dargan, Puneet; Vij, Vivek
The conventional incision for donor hepatectomy is a right subcostal incision with a midline extension. With increased experience in both donor hepatectomy and laparoscopy, the conventional incision can be shortened to a significant extent. Laparoscopic mobilization of the liver coupled with a hand port allows the insertion of one hand inside the abdomen for control; this makes small-incision donor hepatectomy a technically feasible alternative. We compared 26 right lobe donor hepatectomies performed with a laparoscopy-assisted technique (the laparoscopy-assisted donor hepatectomy group) to 24 donor hepatectomies performed with the conventional open technique (the conventional donor hepatectomy group). The donors in both groups and their recipients were followed for 6 months. Pain, discomfort related to the scar [including abdominal wall sensorineural deficits (numbness and differences in tactile and temperature sensations) and tightness around the scar], and donor quality of life (assessed with the International Quality of Life Assessment Short Form 8 scoring system) were compared between the 2 groups. In conclusion, laparoscopy-assisted surgery can be a technically feasible alternative in experienced hands, and as with other minimally invasive surgeries, it has advantages such as significantly less pain, reduced incision-related complications, and better donor quality of life during the early postoperative period without compromising donor safety. PMID:24961992
Marcella Malavolti; Paolo De Cristofaro; Angelo Pietrobelli; Simone Rugolotto
Prevalence of pediatric obesity continues to rise worldwide. Increasing the number of health care practitioners as well as pediatricians with expertise in obesity treatment is necessary. Because many obese patients suffer obesity-associated cardiovascular, metabolic and other health complications that could increase the severity of obesity, it is fundamental not only to identify the child prone to obesity as early as possible, but to recognize, treat and monitor obesity-related diseases durin...
The belief that obese people ought to lose weight and keep it off is widespread, and has a profound negative impact on the lives of the obese. I argue in this paper that most obese people have no such obligation, even if obesity is bad, and caused by calorie input exceeding output. Obese people do not have an obligation to achieve long-term weight loss if this is impossible for them, is worse than the alternative, or requires such an enormous effort in relation to what stands to be gained that this option is supererogatory rather than obligatory. It is highly plausible that most obese people fall into one of these three groups. Politicians may still have obligations to fight obesity, but they ought to do so through progressive politics rather than blaming and shaming. PMID:25843121
Choi, Joon Woo; KIM, Eun-Ju; Min, Byung Woo; Ban, Jong Seouk; Lee, Sang Gon; Lee, Ji-Hyang
Prader-Willi syndrome is characterized by infantile hypotonia, childhood-onset obesity, short stature, mental retardation, hyperphagia, hypogonadism. After infantile hypotonia phase, patient is prone to morbid obesity due to hyperphagia. Complications associated with morbid obesity are recognized as the main risk factors for death the lifespan of patients with Prader-Willi syndrome. We experienced desaturation and bronchospasm during arteriovenous fistula surgery in an obese adult with Prader...
Yanke, D. R.
Medical advances have made bone marrow transplantation the treatment of choice for certain hematologic diseases. For those patients eligible for a marrow transplant only about 30 percent find an HLA-compatible match within their families. Studies indicate that unrelated volunteers are willing to donate their marrow. The National Marrow Donor Program was formed in 1986 as a result of a federal contract. This group is a network of donor centers, transplant centers, and collection centers. The C...
Hoekstra, Annemarieke; Beijaard, Douwe; Brekelmans, Mieke; Korthagen, Fred
The purpose of this paper is to explore how experienced teachers learn informally, and more specifically, how they learn through the activities they undertake when teaching classes. Regarding these activities we studied four aspects: behaviour, cognition, motivation and emotion. During one year, data were collected through observations of and…
Overlien, Carolina; Hyden, Margareta
The aim of this article is, by analysing children's discourses, to investigate their actions or absence of actions during a domestic violence episode. The empirical data are recorded group therapy sessions and individual interviews with children who have grown up experiencing their fathers' violence against their mothers. The analysis shows that…
Peterson, Brennan D.; Newton, Christopher R.; Rosen, Karen H.; Schulman, Robert S.
This study explored the coping processes of couples experiencing infertility. Participants included 420 couples referred for advanced reproductive treatments. Couples were divided into groups based on the frequency of their use of eight coping strategies. Findings suggest that coping processes, which are beneficial to individuals, may be…
Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Klingner, Janette K.; Swanson, Elizabeth A.; Boardman, Alison; Stillman-Spisak, Stephanie J.; Mohammed, Sarojani S.; Leroux, Audrey J.
This study examined the effects and fidelity of collaborative strategic reading (CSR) implemented by experienced CSR teachers (participated in previous study; Vaughn et al., 2011) on the reading comprehension outcomes of students in English/Language Arts (ELA) or Reading classes. Eligible teachers (12 of 17; others reassigned to teach…
Full Text Available ... diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some of these conditions. And once we’ ... Once a child is, you know, kind of adolescent age, it’s really the same as doing a ...
Full Text Available ... such as HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some ... if they were, let’s say, to develop a cancer in one of their kidneys, and certainly that ...
Full Text Available ... diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some of these conditions. And once we’ ... ever was. I don’t have any side effects or any problems as a result of donating ...
Full Text Available ... medical condition, such as HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity ... long-term risks for health problems such as diabetes, which in turn can cause kidney disease, but ...
Full Text Available ... diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some of these conditions. And once we’ ... look closely not at the weight but the body mass index, which is a formula derived from ...
Full Text Available ... make sure that there’s no reason that this person can’t get there through the surgery okay ... derived from the weight and height of the person. We generally try and avoid the very obese ...
Full Text Available ... positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some of these conditions. ... some ways you just sort of grit your teeth and get through it, but it was hard, ...
Full Text Available ... said, out of a hundred kidney transplants, it’s rare that even one of them we had to ... deaths from donor kidney removal. They’re very rare. Much less than one percent, so, yes, there ...
Full Text Available ... the past two years, “U.S. News” and “World Report” has recognized Norfolk general as one of the ... donor, my life really hasn’t changed. My health is just as good now as it ever ...
Full Text Available ... northeastern North Carolina. Nationally recognized for quality and innovation, Sentara employs over 15,000 people and operates ... process, first the potential donor meets with a social worker and a psychologist, and there are also ...
Full Text Available ... with the donor that really was the main source. Otherwise these patients are screened very carefully medically ... Request information” button on your webcast screen and open the door to informed medical care. “OR-Live,” ...
Full Text Available ... Robey for a surgical clearance. There are some absolute disqualifiers for a potential donor; serious medical condition, ... need dialysis after the operation?” One of the advantages of living donation is that these kidneys essentially ...
Full Text Available ... urine tests are done. 1 And then after all that is done, the potential donor meets with ... and this makes Dr. Colonna’s work of hooking all this back up more tedious but still works ...
Full Text Available ... living donor transplants, and that will be the focus of our presentation today. Dr. Robey will now ... the right kidney. Here is another CT angiogram image, and you can see how clear these are. ...
Full Text Available ... years. We talk about five year survival and one year survival of the kidney. At five years, something like 55 or 60 percent, depending on what type of deceased donor kidney you’re talking about, ...
Full Text Available ... on living donor kidney transplant surgery. Please feel free to e-mail questions as we go on. ... we can pass instruments that allow us to free up the kidney. Here’s a view from inside ...
Full Text Available ... and nationwide. To ensure that, we take every step possible to make sure that the potential donor ... age 30 or so. But it’s a complex decision. We have another question. We’re getting close ...
... donor recipient, Anna donating to Sarah. The program, kidney transplantation at Norfolk General was started in 1972. Since that time, over 1,800 kidneys have been transplanted, and 441 of these have ...
Full Text Available ... donor recipient, Anna donating to Sarah. The program, kidney transplantation at Norfolk General was started in 1972. Since that time, over 1,800 kidneys have been transplanted, and 441 of these have ...
Full Text Available ... multiple-list paired exchange. There are now several national registries of donors and they’re incompatible, so ... accomplishment. On the 50thanniversary of that transplant the National Transplant meetings they had a celebration of the ...
Full Text Available ... donate a kidney. We encourage those people to lose weight, and then we reevaluate them and try and ... I’ll answer. “Does the living donor experience weight loss?” Just from being in the hospital and not ...
Full Text Available ... a potential donor; serious medical condition, such as HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental ... in a lot of -- in the things they test. We’re not doctors, so I don’t ...
Full Text Available ... medical care. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. Good evening, I’m Dr. John Colonna, the ... donor, my life really hasn’t changed. My health is just as good now as it ever ...
Full Text Available ... of a machine, have a better quality of life. It ended up not happening until 2001. It ... Since I’ve become a kidney donor, my life really hasn’t changed. My health is just ...
Full Text Available ... has recognized Norfolk general as one of the 50 best hospitals in the America for patients with ... office. It was really, really quite moving. Over 50 years now of being a donor, he’s still ...
Full Text Available ... process, first the potential donor meets with a social worker and a psychologist, and there are also ... sometimes six weeks. Long-term, really the only issue is just taking care of their bodies. We ...
Full Text Available ... questions is, “Do other organs fill in the place where the kidney was removed from the donor?” ... have the surgical procedures that have to take place before dialysis, and that is an ideal situation. ...
Full Text Available ... that would be removed. A patient who had chronic infections in one of their kidneys, we would ... The recipient, by definition, had end-stage kidney disease and certainly can’t ever be a donor, ...
Gonnelli, Stefano; Caffarelli, Carla; Nuti, Ranuccio
Obesity and osteoporosis are two common diseases with an increasing prevalence and a high impact on morbidity and mortality. Obese women have always been considered protected against osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. However, several recent studies have challenged the widespread belief that obesity is protective against fracture and have suggested that obesity is a risk factor for certain fractures. Fat and bone are linked by many pathways, which ultimately serve the function of providing a skeleton appropriate to the mass of adipose tissue it is carrying. Leptin, adiponectin, adipocytic estrogens and insulin/amylin are involved in this connection. However, excessive body fat, and particularly abdominal fat, produces inflammatory cytokines which may stimulate bone resorption and reduce bone strength. This review aimed to examine the literature data on the relationships of BMI and fat mass with factures in adult and elderly subjects. Even though the more recent studies have shown conflicting results, there is growing evidence that obesity, and particularly severe obesity, may be related to an increased risk of fracture at different skeletal sites which is partially independent from BMD. Moreover, the relationship between obesity and fracture appears to be markedly influenced by ethnicity, gender and fat distribution. Even though the incidence and the pathogenesis of fracture in obese individuals has not yet been clearly defined, the growing evidence that obesity may be related to an increased risk of fracture has important public health implications and emphasizes the need to develop effective strategies to reduce fracture risk in obese subjects. PMID:25002873
Ramos Salas, X; Forhan, M; Sharma, A M
Misinformation or myths about obesity can lead to weight bias and obesity stigma. Counteracting myths with facts and evidence has been shown to be effective educational tools to increase an individuals' knowledge about a certain condition and to reduce stigma.The purpose of this study was to identify common obesity myths within the healthcare and public domains and to develop evidence-based counterarguments to diffuse them. An online search of grey literature, media and public health information sources was conducted to identify common obesity myths. A list of 10 obesity myths was developed and reviewed by obesity experts and key opinion leaders. Counterarguments were developed using current research evidence and validated by obesity experts. A survey of obesity experts and health professionals was conducted to determine the usability and potential effectiveness of the myth-fact messages to reduce weight bias. A total of 754 individuals responded to the request to complete the survey. Of those who responded, 464 (61.5%) completed the survey. All 10 obesity myths were identified to be deeply pervasive within Canadian healthcare and public domains. Although the myth-fact messages were endorsed, respondents also indicated that they would likely not be sufficient to reduce weight bias. Diffusing deeply pervasive obesity myths will require multilevel approaches. PMID:25826775
Full Text Available Francesca Giuliani,1 Ilaria Rovelli,1 Chiara Peila,1 Stefania Alfonsina Liguori,2 Enrico Bertino,1 Alessandra Coscia1 1SCDU Neonatologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Pediatriche e dell'Adolescenza, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy; 2SC Neonatologia, Ospedale Maria Vittoria, Torino, Italy Abstract: Mother's own milk is widely recognized as the optimal feeding for term infants, but increasing evidence exists of its benefits also for sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units. However, the nutritional needs for appropriate growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of such a particular population of infants should be attentively evaluated, considering also the indication to an appropriate fortification of human milk. The target is to achieve growth potential for preterm newborns while ensuring good metabolic outcomes and normal neurological development. When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, donor human milk (DHM represents the second best choice and, although somewhat modified by the Holder pasteurization process, it preserves many benefits when compared to formula, as documented by more and more reports, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analyses published in the past few years. Evidence exists of the protection exerted by DHM from necrotizing enterocolitis, while further studies are required to look at possible beneficial effects regarding infections, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, long-term cardiovascular risk factors, feeding tolerance, neurological outcome, and allergy. Finally, the concern that the use of DHM might decrease preterm infant breastfeeding is being raised. Conversely, publications exist showing that the use of DHM in the neonatal unit increases breastfeeding rates at discharge for infants of very low birth weight. Keywords: human milk, preterm infant feeding, milk bank, breast milk, mother's own milk, pasteurized human milk, fortification
Emani, Sitaramesh; Sai-Sudhakar, Chittoor B.; Higgins, Robert S. D.; Whitson, Bryan A.
There is increased scrutiny on the quality in health care with particular emphasis on institutional heart transplant survival outcomes. An important aspect of successful transplantation is appropriate donor selection. We review the current guidelines as well as areas of controversy in the selection of appropriate hearts as donor organs to ensure optimal outcomes. This decision is paramount to the success of a transplant program as well as recipient survival and graft function post-transplant. PMID:25132976
Kilic, Ahmet; Emani, Sitaramesh; Sai-Sudhakar, Chittoor B; Higgins, Robert S.D.; Whitson, Bryan A
There is increased scrutiny on the quality in health care with particular emphasis on institutional heart transplant survival outcomes. An important aspect of successful transplantation is appropriate donor selection. We review the current guidelines as well as areas of controversy in the selection of appropriate hearts as donor organs to ensure optimal outcomes. This decision is paramount to the success of a transplant program as well as recipient survival and graft function post-transplant.
Pavlovskii, K.; Ivanova, N.
The stability of mass transfer in binaries with convective giant donors remains an open question in modern astrophysics. There is a significant discrepancy between what the existing methods predict for a response to mass-loss of the giant itself, as well as for the mass-transfer rate during the Roche lobe overflow. Here we show that the recombination energy in the superadiabatic layer plays an important and hitherto unaccounted-for role in the donor's response to mass-loss, in particular on its luminosity and effective temperature. Our improved optically thick nozzle method to calculate the mass-transfer rate via L1 allows us to evolve binary systems for a substantial Roche lobe overflow. We propose a new, strengthened criterion for the mass-transfer instability, basing it on whether the donor experiences overflow through its outer Lagrangian point. We find that with the new criterion, if the donor has a well-developed outer convective envelope, the critical initial mass ratio for which a binary would evolve stably through the conservative mass transfer varies from 1.5 to 2.2, which is about twice as large as previously believed. In underdeveloped giants with shallow convective envelopes, this critical ratio may be even larger. When the convective envelope is still growing, and in particular for most cases of massive donors, the critical mass ratio gradually decreases to this value, from that of radiative donors.
Prottengeier, Johannes; Meyer, Michael; Münster, Tino
The prevalence of obesity is rising worldwide. To investigate how fixed-wing air ambulances handle bariatric transfers, we conducted a survey addressing logistical and medical issues. A questionnaire was sent to 24 air ambulance companies in Europe. Seventy-nine percent of European companies returned the questionnaire, 95% of the companies consider the transfer of heavyweight patients challenging, and 21% have experienced critical incidents related to the patient's obesity. Forty-seven percent have standard operating procedures in place for bariatric transports. Only 26% will dispatch extra personnel for such flights. Dedicated tools for transferring, bedding, and securing patients are available very inconsistently. Medical provisions such as airway management, monitoring, and vascular access for the obese reach high standards. While medical resources for obesity-related problems reach a high standard, poor logistical preparations could lead to harm for patient and medical escort alike. PMID:24296875
Júlio Cezar Uili Coelho
Full Text Available RACIONAL: A qualidade de vida do doador após transplante hepático intervivos ainda não foi avaliada em nosso meio. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade de vida do doador após transplante hepático intervivos. MÉTODOS: De um total de 300 transplantes hepáticos, 51 foram de doadores vivos. Doadores com seguimento menor do que 6 meses e os que não quiseram participar do estudo foram excluídos. Os doadores responderam a um questionário de 28 perguntas abordando os vários aspectos da doação, sendo também avaliados dados demográficos e clínicos dos mesmos. RESULTADOS: Trinta e sete doadores aceitaram participar do estudo. Destes, 32 eram parentes de primeiro ou de segundo grau do receptor. O esclarecimento sobre o caráter voluntário da doação foi adequado para todos pacientes. Apenas um (2% não doaria novamente. A dor pós-operatória foi pior do que o esperado para 22 doadores (59%. O retorno às atividades normais ocorreu em menos de 3 meses para 21 doadores (57%. Vinte e um doadores (57% tiveram perda financeira com a doação devido a gastos com medicamentos, exames, transporte ou perda de rendimentos. Trinta e três (89% não tiveram modificação ou limitação na sua vida após a doação. Os aspectos mais negativos da doação foram a dor pós-operatória e a presença de cicatriz cirúrgica. A maioria das complicações pós-operatória foi resolvida com o tratamento clínico, mas complicações graves ou potencialmente fatais ocorreram em dois pacientes. CONCLUSÕES: A maioria dos doadores apresentou boa recuperação e retornou completamente as suas atividades normais poucos meses após a doação. O aspecto mais negativo da doação foi a dor pós-operatória.BACKGROUND: Quality of life of the donor after living donor liver transplantation has not been evaluated in Brazil yet. AIM: To evaluate the quality of live of the donor after living donor liver transplantation. METHODS: Of a total of 300 liver transplantations, 51 were of living donors. All donors with less than 6 months of follow-up and those who did not want to participate were excluded from the study. The donors answered a questionnaire contained 28 questions about several aspects of donation. Demographic and clinical data from the donors were also evaluated. RESULTS: Thirty-seven donors were included in the study. Thirty-two were first or second degree relatives of the receptor. Only one donor would not donate again. Twenty-two donors (59% experienced more postoperative pain than they had previously anticipated. Return to regular activities occurred in less than 3 months for 21 donors (57%. Twenty-one donors (57% referred financial loss with the donation due to expenses with medications, exams, transportation or lost wages. Thirty-three (89% had no modification or limitation in their lives after donation. The most negative aspects of donation were postoperative pain and the presence of a surgical scar. Most postoperative complications resolved with clinical treatment, but severe or potentially fatal complications occurred in two patients. CONCLUSIONS: Most donors had good recovery and returned to regular activities few months after donation. The most negative aspect of donation was postoperative pain.
Júlio Cezar Uili, Coelho; Mônica Beatriz, Parolin; Giorgio Alfredo Pedroso, Baretta; Silvania Klug, Pimentel; Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira de, Freitas; Daniel, Colman.
Full Text Available RACIONAL: A qualidade de vida do doador após transplante hepático intervivos ainda não foi avaliada em nosso meio. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade de vida do doador após transplante hepático intervivos. MÉTODOS: De um total de 300 transplantes hepáticos, 51 foram de doadores vivos. Doadores com seguim [...] ento menor do que 6 meses e os que não quiseram participar do estudo foram excluídos. Os doadores responderam a um questionário de 28 perguntas abordando os vários aspectos da doação, sendo também avaliados dados demográficos e clínicos dos mesmos. RESULTADOS: Trinta e sete doadores aceitaram participar do estudo. Destes, 32 eram parentes de primeiro ou de segundo grau do receptor. O esclarecimento sobre o caráter voluntário da doação foi adequado para todos pacientes. Apenas um (2%) não doaria novamente. A dor pós-operatória foi pior do que o esperado para 22 doadores (59%). O retorno às atividades normais ocorreu em menos de 3 meses para 21 doadores (57%). Vinte e um doadores (57%) tiveram perda financeira com a doação devido a gastos com medicamentos, exames, transporte ou perda de rendimentos. Trinta e três (89%) não tiveram modificação ou limitação na sua vida após a doação. Os aspectos mais negativos da doação foram a dor pós-operatória e a presença de cicatriz cirúrgica. A maioria das complicações pós-operatória foi resolvida com o tratamento clínico, mas complicações graves ou potencialmente fatais ocorreram em dois pacientes. CONCLUSÕES: A maioria dos doadores apresentou boa recuperação e retornou completamente as suas atividades normais poucos meses após a doação. O aspecto mais negativo da doação foi a dor pós-operatória. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Quality of life of the donor after living donor liver transplantation has not been evaluated in Brazil yet. AIM: To evaluate the quality of live of the donor after living donor liver transplantation. METHODS: Of a total of 300 liver transplantations, 51 were of living donors. All donors [...] with less than 6 months of follow-up and those who did not want to participate were excluded from the study. The donors answered a questionnaire contained 28 questions about several aspects of donation. Demographic and clinical data from the donors were also evaluated. RESULTS: Thirty-seven donors were included in the study. Thirty-two were first or second degree relatives of the receptor. Only one donor would not donate again. Twenty-two donors (59%) experienced more postoperative pain than they had previously anticipated. Return to regular activities occurred in less than 3 months for 21 donors (57%). Twenty-one donors (57%) referred financial loss with the donation due to expenses with medications, exams, transportation or lost wages. Thirty-three (89%) had no modification or limitation in their lives after donation. The most negative aspects of donation were postoperative pain and the presence of a surgical scar. Most postoperative complications resolved with clinical treatment, but severe or potentially fatal complications occurred in two patients. CONCLUSIONS: Most donors had good recovery and returned to regular activities few months after donation. The most negative aspect of donation was postoperative pain.
Andreasen, Kirsten Riis; Andersen, Malene Lundgren
BACKGROUND: As obesity is an increasing problem among fertile women, it is crucial that specialists involved in the treatment of these women be aware of the risks of complications and know how to deal with them. Complications associated with obesity in pregnancy are gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertensive disorders, and thromboembolic complications. Complications associated with obesity in labor are augmentation, early amniotomy, cephalopelvic disproportion, cesarean section, and perioperative morbidity. Complications associated with obesity in children are macrosomia, shoulder dystocia, small for gestational age, late fetal death, and congenital malformations, especially neural tube defects. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to review the potential complications associated with obesity and pregnancy. RESULTS: Obesity is associated with a higher risk of all reviewed complications except small for gestational age.
Yanovski, Jack A
The prevalence of child and adolescent obesity in the United States increased dramatically between 1970 and 2000, and there are few indications that the rates of childhood obesity are decreasing. Obesity is associated with myriad medical, psychological, and neurocognitive abnormalities that impact children's health and quality of life. Genotypic variation is important in determining the susceptibility of individual children to undue gains in adiposity; however, the rapid increase in pediatric obesity prevalence suggests that changes to children's environments and/or to their learned behaviors may dramatically affect body weight regulation. This paper presents an overview of the epidemiology, consequences, and etiopathogenesis of pediatric obesity, serving as a general introduction to the subsequent papers in this Special Issue that address aspects of childhood obesity and cognition in detail. PMID:25836737
Globally obesity has reached to epidemic proportions, and the people of the Gulf countries have also affected, especially high-income, oil-producing countries. The prevalence of obesity in Gulf Countries among children and adolescents ranges from 5% to 14% in males and from 3% to 18% in females. In adult females there is a significant increase of obesity with a prevalence of 2%–55% and in adult males 1%–30% in countries of gulf region.
Mazura, Ivan; Ochoa-Rebato, E.
Budapest : Eötvös University Press, 2010 - (Bodzsár, E.; Susanne, C.), s. 119-140 ISBN 978-963-88941-0-6. - (Biennial Books of the EAA. 6) R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : aetiology of obesity * genetic factors * obesity genes * polymorphism * obesity -associated syndromes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology
Hill, James O.; Wyatt, Holly R.; Peters, John C.
This paper describes the interplay among energy intake, energy expenditure and body energy stores and illustrates how an understanding of energy balance can help develop strategies to reduce obesity. First, reducing obesity will require modifying both energy intake and energy expenditure and not simply focusing on either alone. Food restriction alone will not be effective in reducing obesity if human physiology is biased toward achieving energy balance at a high energy flux (i.e. at a high le...
Christopher Zammit; Helen Liddicoat; Ian Moonsie; et al.
Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ produ...
Herrera, Blanca M.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.
Obesity is a result of excess body fat accumulation. This excess is associated with adverse health effects such as CVD, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. The development of obesity has an evident environmental contribution, but as shown by heritability estimates of 40% to 70%, a genetic susceptibility component is also needed. Progress in understanding the etiology has been slow, with findings largely restricted to monogenic, severe forms of obesity. However, technological and analytical advances ...
Ulijaszek, Stanley J.; Lofink, Hayley
Obesity is new in human evolutionary history, having become possible at the population level with increased food security. Across the past 60 years, social, economic, and technological changes have altered patterns of life almost everywhere on Earth. In tandem, changes in diet and physical activity patterns have been central to the emergence of obesity among many of the world's populations, including the developing world. Increasing global rates of obesity are broadly attributed to environmen...
Raj, Manu; Kumar, R Krishna
Worldwide, obesity trends are causing serious public health concern and in many countries threatening the viability of basic health care delivery. It is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and significantly increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. The last two decades have witnessed an increase in health care costs due to obesity and related issues among children and adolescents. Childhood obesity is a global phenomenon affecting all socio-economic groups, irrespectiv...
Greenway, Frank L; Caruso, Mary K
The safety of obesity drugs has historically been poor. This and the stigmatisation of obesity in society ensured that a higher standard of safety for obesity drugs must be met. The authors review the safety disasters of obesity drugs that were withdrawn. The authors then review the safety of presently available drugs--benzphetamine, phendimetrazine, diethylpropion, phentermine, sibutramine and orlistat. The safety of rimonabant, a drug with a pending new drug application that has an independent effect on metabolic syndrome, is also reviewed. The authors compare the stage of obesity drug development to that of hypertension in the 1950s. As new and safer drugs with more downstream mechanisms are developed that have independent effects on the cardiovascular risks associated with obesity, third party reimbursement for obesity medicine is likely to improve. This may lead to obesity being treated like hypertension and other chronic diseases with long-term medication. With improved technological tools, the authors believe this process will be more rapid for obesity than it was for hypertension. PMID:16255666
Mahan, G D
We calculate the optical phonon correction to the binding energy of electrons to donors in cubic materials. Previous theories calculated the Rydberg energy reduced by the effective mass and the static dielectric function. They omitted an important energy term from the long-range polarization of the ionized donor, which vanishes for the neutral donor. They also omitted the donor-phonon interaction. Including these terms yields a new formula for the donor binding energy.
Mahan, G. D.; Berland, Kristian
We calculate the optical-phonon correction to the binding energy of electrons to donors in cubic materials. Previous theories calculated the Rydberg energy reduced by the effective mass and the static dielectric function. They omitted an important energy term from the long-range polarization of the ionized donor, which vanishes for the neutral donor. They also omitted the donor-phonon interaction. The inclusion of these terms yields a new formula for the donor binding energy.
As other developed countries of the world, obesity has become a major health problem of children and adolescents in Taiwan. According to an island-wide survey, the prevalence of obesity varied from 4.3% to 17.4% in children aged three to nineteen years. Obesity is defined as an excess of body fat. Since the standard references of weight-for-height and body mass index for Taiwanese are not available, a weight-for-length index has been introduced. We have found that its easy computation and interpretation with high reliability make it a desirable measure of relative weight either in clinical practice or in research. The family background of the obese children has been investigated by many workers. In our own series, the obese children were about five times as likely to have an obese parent as control. There was also a significant difference in the chance of having an obese sibling between the obese and control groups. Several health sequelae of childhood obesity have been studied in Taiwan. Obese children appear to have high prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and abnormal glucose metabolism. Of several cutaneous manifestations of obesity, colored striae were sometimes overlooked. In our experience, 40% of the moderate to severe obese cases have such striking marks prominently located on the thighs, arms and abdomen. A few pediatric weight-losing programs have been carried out in Taiwan. In our Pediatric Anti-Obesity Club, four fundamental components: diet, exercise, behavior modification and parent involvement were included in the treatment program. In family-based parent-directed program, 11% of the participants showed decreases in degree of obesity after one year follow-up, compared to 3% of a control group. In another individualized outpatient counseling clinic, the success rate was 59% after one year. Although the long-term effectiveness cannot determined, it seems rational that a realistic and culturally sensitive weight reduction program should be developed for countries, such as Taiwan, with increasing prevalence of childhood obesity. PMID:9473815
... between obesity and prostate cancer. However, when the data from multiple studies are pooled, analyses show that obesity may be associated with a ... to collect objective physical activity, sleep, and strength data for NHANES. ... an individual’s biological response to those influences on the level of ...
Base-Smith, Victoria; Campinha-Bacote, Josepha
The purpose of this article is to provide nurses with a model for the culture of obesity to more fully understand this distinct cultural group. Although individuals from all walks of life are affected by obesity, it occurs at higher rates among specific ethnic groups such as African-Americans. Obesity puts African-Americans at further risk for health problems such as diabetes, hypertension and heart disease. In seeking culturally responsive interventions for African-Americans who are obese, it is important to realize that they belong to two cultural groups; the African-American culture and the culture of obesity. It is hoped that knowledge regarding the culture of obesity, coupled with the nurses pre-exiting knowledge about the culture of African-Americans, will provide a foundation for the development of culturally responsive nursing interventions for African-Americans who are obese. The authors utilized Giger and Davidhizar's Transcultural Assessment Model (1999), as the guiding framework to present a model of the culture of obesity. PMID:15259999
... only are there health costs associated with childhood obesity , but your child’s weight problem is also intimately entangled in his ... being overweight can be as damaging to a child as the physical diseases and conditions that often accompany obesity. You can probably see it in the eyes ...
This women's health podcast focuses on obesity in women and girls. It discusses obesity-related health risks and includes tips to help achieve and maintain a healthy weight. Created: 5/11/2009 by Office of Womenâ??s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 5/11/2009.
Full Text Available Do obesity treatment strategies based on calorie restriction and increased physical activity work? Researchers identified more than 175,000 obese adults in the United Kingdom who had not undergone bariatric surgery. They tracked their body mass index for ...
Full Text Available Do obesity treatment strategies based on calorie restriction and increased physical activity work? Researchers identified more than 175,000 ... those lost pounds. The study concludes non-surgical obesity treatments are failing to help the majority of ...
The study of obesity is a relatively new interdisciplinary academic field. The community college library shelves should contain two types of resources. First, several kinds of reference materials, and second, a host of broader materials that place the discussion of obesity within a cultural framework. This overview is divided into two major…
This 60 second public service announcement is based on the August 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. The rate of obesity among low-income preschoolers has declined, but one in eight is still obese. This program briefly discusses what can be done. Created: 8/6/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 8/6/2013.
Learn about obesity and the community initiatives taking place to prevent and reduce this epidemic. Created: 7/18/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity. Date Released: 7/18/2011.
... among Non-Hispanic Blacks Obesity among Hispanics Surveillance Systems Resources & ... that is higher than what is considered as a healthy weight for a given height is described as overweight or obese. Body Mass Index, or BMI, is used as a ...
Obesity is one of the most significant health concerns in the United States and other countries worldwide. In the United States, 68% of adults and 34% of children are overweight or obese. Prevalence rates continue to rise along with corresponding increases in health consequences. Type 2 diabetes, hy...
Trotter, James F.; Wisniewski, Karen A.; Terrault, Norah A.; James E. Everhart; Kinkhabwala, Milan; Weinrieb, Robert M.; Fair, Jeffrey H.; Fisher, Robert A.; KOFFRON, ALAN J.; Saab, Sammy; Merion, Robert M
The purpose of donor evaluation for adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is to discover medical conditions that could increase the donor postoperative risk of complications and to determine whether the donor can yield a suitable graft for the recipient. We report the outcomes of LDLT donor candidates evaluated in a large multicenter study of LDLT. The records of all donor candidates and their respective recipients between 1998 and 2003 were reviewed as part of the Adult-to...
Alwayn Ian PJ
Full Text Available Abstract Background Transplantation is the only treatment offering long-term benefit to patients with chronic kidney failure. Live donor nephrectomy is performed on healthy individuals who do not receive direct therapeutic benefit of the procedure themselves. In order to guarantee the donor's safety, it is important to optimise the surgical approach. Recently we demonstrated the benefit of laparoscopic nephrectomy experienced by the donor. However, this method is characterised by higher in hospital costs, longer operating times and it requires a well-trained surgeon. The hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic technique may be an alternative to a complete laparoscopic, transperitoneal approach. The peritoneum remains intact and the risk of visceral injuries is reduced. Hand-assistance results in a faster procedure and a significantly reduced operating time. The feasibility of this method has been demonstrated recently, but as to date there are no data available advocating the use of one technique above the other. Methods/design The HARP-trial is a multi-centre randomised controlled, single-blind trial. The study compares the hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic approach with standard laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. The objective is to determine the best approach for live donor nephrectomy to optimise donor's safety and comfort while reducing donation related costs. Discussion This study will contribute to the evidence on any benefits of hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic versus standard laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. Trial Registration Dutch Trial Register NTR1433
R. F. Saidi
Full Text Available Background: Donor safety is the first priority in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT.Objective: To determine the characteristics and outcome of live liver donors who underwent donor hepatectomyfrom January, 1997 to May, 2007 at Massachusetts General Hospital.Methods: 30 patients underwent LDLT between January, 1997 and May, 2007 at our institution.Results: The type of graft was the right lobe (segments 5-8 in 14, left lobe (segments 2-4 in 4, and left lateralsector (segments 2 and 3 in 12 patients. The mean donor age was 36 (range: 26-57 years. The mean follow-up was 48 (range: 18-120 months. No deaths occurred. Overall, 8 (26.6% patients experienced a total of 14 post-operative complications. Donor complications based on graft type were as follows: left lateralsector (16.7%, left lobe (25%, and right lobe (35.7%. The experience was divided into two periods 1997-2001 (n=15 and 2002-2007 (n=15. Overall complications during 2 periods were 40% and 13.3%, respectively (p<0.001. The incidence of grade III complication also significantly decreased; 66.7% vs 33.3% (p<0.01.Conclusion: Partial hepatectomy in living donors has a learning curve which appears to be approximately 15 cases. This learning curve is not restricted to the surgeons performing the procedure but involves all aspects of patient care.
Sun, Zhongquan; Yu, Zhiyong; Yu, Songfeng; Chen, Jihao; Wang, Jingqiao; Yang, Cheng; Jin, Mengmeng; Yan, Sheng; Zhang, Mangli; Zhang, Min; Zheng, Shusen
The gap between the growing demand for available organs and the cadaveric organs facilitates the adoption of living donor liver transplantation. We retrospectively identified and evaluated the post-operative complications as per the modified Clavien classification system in 152 living liver donors at at the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University between December, 2006 and June, 2014. Post-operative complications were observed in 61 patients (40.1%) in the present study, but no mortality was reported. Complications developed in 58 (40.0%) right, 1 (33.3%) left, and 2 (66.7%) lateral left hepatectomy donors. The prevalence of re-operation was 1.3%. Grade I and II complications were observed in 38 (25.0%) and 11 (7.2%) donors, respectively. Grade IIIa complications developed in 9 (5.9%) donors and only 3 (2.0%) patients reported grade IIIb complications. The most common complication was pleural effusion that occurred in 31 (20.4%) donors. No significant prognostic baseline factor was identified in this study. In conclusion, living donors experienced various complications, which were usually mild and had a good prognosis. PMID:26270475
Van Parys, Hanna; Wyverkens, Elia; Provoost, Veerle; De Sutter, Petra; Pennings, Guido; Buysse, Ann
In this qualitative study of 10 lesbian couples who built their families through anonymous donor conception, we explore how lesbian parents experience communication about the donor conception within the family. While for these families "disclosure" of donor conception is often seen as evident, the way parents and children discuss this subject and how this is experienced by the parents themselves has not received much research attention. To meet this gap in the literature, in-depth interviews with lesbian couples were conducted. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis showed that this family communication process can be understood within the broader relational context of parent-child relationships. Even though parents handled this family communication in many different ways, these were all inspired by the same motives: acting in the child's best interest and-on a more implicit level-maintaining good relations within the family. Furthermore, parents left the initiative for talking about the DC mostly to the child. Overall, parents aimed at constructing a donor conception narrative that they considered acceptable for both the children and themselves. They used different strategies, such as gradual disclosure, limiting the meaning of the donor, and justifying the donor conception. Building an acceptable donor conception narrative was sometimes challenged by influences from the social environment. In the discussion, we relate this qualitative systemic study to the broader issues of selective disclosure and bidirectionality within families. PMID:25393909
Maluf, D G; Carrico, R J; Rosendale, J D; Perez, R V; Feng, S
The optimal balance between maximizing the number versus the outcome of transplantation utilizing kidneys from small (?20 kg) pediatric donors remains unclear, complicated by the choice of single versus en bloc transplantation with their attendant technical risks. Using the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) database, we examined kidney recovery and utilization patterns, and 1-year transplant outcomes by single kilogram weight strata. Between January 1, 2005 and June 30, 2010, 2352 kidneys from ?20 kg donors were transplanted into 1531 recipients, 710 single kidney transplants (SKTs) and 821 en bloc kidney transplants (EBKTs). Increased donor weight was associated with higher rates of recovery, transplantation and SKT. Low donor weight (linear p < 0.001; quadratic p = 0.003), SKT versus EBKT (p = 0.008), increased cold ischemia time (p = 0.003), local versus nonlocal donor (p = 0.0044), low versus high volume center (p = 0.003) and the interaction term between center volume and donor weight (p = 0.0024) were associated with graft failure. Notably, lower donor weight exacerbated the negative impact of low center volume but did not worsen the negative impact of SKT on outcomes. Our data show that EBKT offers superior 1-year survival at the expense of accomplishing one rather than two transplants. However, SKTs yield excellent outcomes when performed at experienced centers. PMID:24010942
Messinis, Ioannis E; Messini, Christina I; Anifandis, George; Dafopoulos, Konstantinos
Almost 50% of the women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are obese. Obesity in PCOS affects reproduction via various mechanisms. Hyperandrogenism, increased luteinizing hormone (LH) and insulin resistance play a pivotal role. Several substances produced by the adipose tissue including leptin, adiponectin, resistin and visfatin may play a role in the pathophysiology of PCOS. Infertility in PCOS is related to anovulation. For induction of ovulation, clomiphene citrate and human gonadotrophins are first- and second-line treatments, respectively. Other treatment modalities include the use of insulin sensitizers, such as metformin as well as aromatase inhibitors and laparoscopic ovarian drilling, while in vitro fertilization is the last resort. Obesity can adversely affect infertility treatment in PCOS. Diet and lifestyle changes are recommended for the obese women before they attempt conception. The use of anti-obesity drugs and bariatric surgery in PCOS require further evaluation. PMID:25487256
Pokrywka, Ma?gorzata; Kie?-Wilk, Beata; Polus, Anna; Wybra?ska, Iwona
The number of overweight and obese people is increasing at an alarming rate, especially in the developed and developing countries. Obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, and in consequence for premature death. The development of obesity results from the interplay of both genetic and environmental factors, which include sedentary life style and abnormal eating habits. In the past few years a number of events accompanying obesity, affecting expression of genes which are not directly connected with the DNA base sequence (e.g. epigenetic changes), have been described. Epigenetic processes include DNA methylation, histone modifications such as acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, as well as non-coding micro-RNA (miRNA) synthesis. In this review, the known changes in the profile of DNA methylation as a factor affecting obesity and its complications are described. PMID:25531701
The risk of obesity in adult life is subject to programming during gestation. To examine whether in utero exposure to maternal obesity increases the risk of obesity in the offspring, we have developed an overfeeding-based model of maternal obesity in rats utilizing intragastric feeding of diets via ...
The risk of obesity in adult-life is subject to programming during gestation. To examine whether in utero exposure to maternal obesity increases the risk of obesity in the offspring, we have developed an overfeeding-based model of maternal obesity in rats utilizing intragastric feeding of diets via ...
This volume brings together dynamic perspectives on the concept of liveness in the performing arts, engaging with the live through the particular analytical focus of audiences and experience. The status and significance of the live in performance has become contested: perceived as variously as a marker of ontological difference, a promotional slogan, or a mystical evocation of cultural value. Moving beyond debates about the relationship between the live and the mediated, this collection considers what we can know and say about liveness in terms of processes of experiencing and processes of making. Drawing together contributions from theatre, music, dance, and performance art, it takes an interdisciplinary approach in asking not what liveness is, but how it matters and to whom. The book invites readers to consider how liveness is produced through processes of audiencing - as spectators bring qualities of (a)liveness into being through the nature of their attention - and how it becomes materialized in acts of performance, acts of making, acts of archiving, and acts of remembering. Theoretical chapters and practice-based reflections explore liveness, eventness and nowness as key concepts in a range of topics such as affect, documentation, embodiment, fandom, and temporality, showing how the relationship between audience and event is rarely singular and more often malleable and multiple. With its focus on experiencing liveness, this collection will be of interest to disciplines including performance, audience and cultural studies, visual arts, cinema, and sound technologies.
Cali', Anna M. G.; Caprio, Sonia
Context: Although the prevalence rates of childhood obesity have seemingly been stable over the past few years, far too many children and adolescents are still obese. Childhood obesity, and its associated metabolic complications, is rapidly emerging as one of the greatest global challenges of the 21st century. About 110 million children are now classified as overweight or obese.
Full Text Available ... I’ll answer. “Does the living donor experience weight loss?” Just from being in the hospital and not eating for a couple of days, maybe some weight loss from that. The kidney doesn’t weigh enough ...
Full Text Available ... an adult kidney to a child?” Certainly. Our team here works with children’s hospital the King’s Daughters with their ... members of the team. We have a great team here at Norfolk General, particularly Amy who works so hard with the living donors, but really ...
Full Text Available ... allow them to accept a kidney from a person that previously they were non-compatible, so technically they would then be compatible. There are also other options in terms of identifying another donor perhaps for a different patient who they incompatible but would be compatible ...
Zhang, Xin; Lerman, Lilach O
Obesity remains a prominent public health concern. Obesity not only contributes greatly to cardiovascular events but has also been identified to initiate and affect the progression of preexisting chronic kidney disease. The prevalence of renal artery stenosis is growing world-wide, especially in the elderly population and in individuals with atherosclerotic risk factors such as obesity. Prolonged renovascular disease causes inflammation and microvascular remodeling within the post-stenotic kidney, which promote tissue scarring and may account for irreversible renal damage. Obesity has been shown to aggravate kidney damage via several pathways, including exacerbation of microvascular regression and renal cell injury mediated by adipocytes and insulin resistance, thereby worsening the structural and functional outcomes of the kidney in renovascular disease. Dietary modification and inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have been shown to alleviate obesity-induced tissue injury and remodeling. Possibly, angiogenic factors may boost microvascular repair in the ischemic kidney in the obesity milieu. Novel therapeutic interventions targeting deleterious pathways that are activated by obesity and responsible for kidney damage need to be explored in future studies. PMID:26041447
Leigh-Anne Paul, Dachapalli; Sanjana Brijball, Parumasur.
Full Text Available Employees attach value to their job features/total job and when they perceive threats to these and experience feelings of powerlessness, their level of job insecurity increases. Since job insecurity is a subjective phenomenon, the study aims to assess who is more susceptible to experiencing job inse [...] curity by assessing biographical correlates. The research adopts a formal, hypothesis-testing approach where quantitative data were collected using a cross-sectional, survey method from a sample of 1620 employees. The results, generated using the ANOVA model, indicate that biographical influences do exist in terms of job insecurity. The implication is that change managers need to take cognisance of these influences and develop suitable strategies for each group to reduce the prevalence of job insecurity. Recommendations are made in this regard.
... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 333 Subscription preferences ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...
Khorsandi, Shirin Elizabeth; Ruiz Edo, Neus; Vilca-Melendez, Hector; Heaton, Nigel
The following is the first report of a pediatric organ donor with caval agenesis and the subsequent use of this liver for transplantation. Caval embryology and potential implications of utilizing a donor liver with caval agenesis are reviewed. PMID:26103057
Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh
Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with m...
This paper examines the child obesity epidemic that is gripping our nation, and explores various causes and treatments that may help to defeat child obesity. First there is a description of the obesity epidemic, its causal factors, and its consequences. Additionally there is a summary and critique of the FDAâ€™s obesity report and recommendations. There is a description of drug treatments that are available for obese children and why more research is necessary to ensure the s...
Varness, Todd; Allen, David B.; Aaron L. Carrel; Fost, Norman
The incidence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically, including severe childhood obesity and obesity-related comorbid conditions. Cases of severe childhood obesity have prompted the following question: does childhood obesity ever constitute medical neglect? In our opinion, removal of a child from the home is justified when all 3 of the following conditions are present: (1) a high likelihood that serious imminent harm will occur; (2) a reasonable likelihood that coercive state interve...
Rafik R. Elmehdawi; Albarsha, Abdulwahab M.
Obesity is a global epidemic resulting in major morbidity and premature death. About 64% of Libyan adults are either overweight or obese, obesity progressively increasing with age, and two times more common among Libyan women than men. Cases of obesity and overweight are increasing in Libya as well as all over the world, with genetic and environmental factors playing a contributory role. With its known significant morbidity and mortality, obesity should draw the attention of the healthcare co...
Kikkawa, Kazuro; Wakamiya, Takahito; Kusumoto, Hiroki; Matsumura, Nagahide; Kohjimoto, Yasuo; Hara, Isao
We report a case of renal transplantation using a horseshoe kidney from a living, genetically unrelated donor. The recipient was a 60-year-old man with diabetic nephropathy, and the donor was the 63-year-old wife of the recipient with a horseshoe kidney free of complications. Computed tomography showed two renal arteries and one renal vein on the left side, and the isthmus was perfused by several accessory arteries and veins. To demarcate the boundary of the isthmus, the left renal artery was ligated and cannulated for in situ perfusion. Furthermore, the isthmus was clamped, and the boundary of the isthmus was confirmed. The kidney was divided at the left margin of the perfused boundary. The cut ends of the isthmus were closed by sutures. The left kidney was transplanted into the right iliac fossa of the recipient. Asymptomatic fluid collection occurred on the cut surface at the isthmus of the donor, and this fluid decreased in due course. On the other hand, the recipient experienced no surgical complication or rejection, while maintaining serum creatinine levels of 2.00-2.20?mg/dL over a 22-month follow-up period. Horseshoe kidneys may be used for transplantation in selected cases after a detailed preoperative evaluation. PMID:26240774
Jacob A. Akoh; Mathuram Thiyagarajan, Umasankar
Acceptance of elderly living kidney donors remains controversial due to the higher incidence of comorbidity and greater risk of postoperative complications. This is a review of publications in the English language between 2000 and 2013 about renal transplantation from elderly living donors to determine trends and effects of donation, and the outcomes of such transplantation. The last decade witnessed a 50% increase in living kidney donor transplants, with a disproportionate increase in donors...
Agrawal, Amit; Tiwari, A.
Blood transfusion services are the integral part of health care system and these services have safe blood transfusion as the major goal. Voluntary blood donation is the key to safe blood and this safety is further enhanced when the voluntary blood donors become repeat/regular donors. Retention of donors is therefore a very crucial strategy to ensure enhanced blood safety. Tele-recruitment is an effective medium of recruiting and more importantly retaining donors via means of telephone/Short M...
Masser, Barbara; Smith, Geoff; Williams, Lisa A
Donors are the key to the core business of Blood Collection Agencies (BCAs). However, historically, they have not been a focus of research undertaken by these organizations. This model is now changing, with significant donor research groups established in a number of countries, including Australia. Donor research in the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (Blood Service) is concentrated in the Donor and Community Research (DCR) team. Cognizant of the complex and ever-changing landscape with re...
O.A. Omotayo; J.O. Olusanya
In recent years, developing countries like Nigeria have been experiencing a nutritional transition in food choices from the typical starchy (mainly carbohydrate diets) to the fast food pattern and as a result of this, the dietary habits of young adults like university students have been affected. Thus, overweight and obesity are increasingly being observed among the young adults. This study assesses the prevalence of obesity on a sample of students from Tai Solarin University of Education in ...
Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Vilar, Miguel; Wilson, Michelle; Soloway, Laura E; DeHuff, Christa; Chan, Chim; Tarivonda, Len; Regenvanu, Ralph; Kaneko, Akira; Lum, J. Koji; Garruto, Ralph M.
The South Pacific archipelago of Vanuatu, like many developing countries, is currently experiencing a shift in disease burdens from infectious to chronic diseases with economic development. A rapid increase in obesity prevalence represents one component of this “health transition.” We sought to identify behaviors associated with measures of obesity in Vanuatu. We surveyed 534 adults from three islands varying in level of economic development. We measured height; weight; waist and hip circumfe...
Rodino, I S; Burton, P J; Sanders, K A
Donor conception research supports open-identity donor programmes and disclosure to donor-conceived offspring. This study examines Australian donors', recipients' and donor-conceived offspring's views on the importance of different types of biographical information about the donor. Participants (125 recipients, 39 donors (known, identity-release and anonymous), 23 donor-conceived offspring) completed an online or paper self-administered anonymous questionnaire. Individuals rated the importance of 15 types of biographical information and subsequently chose the three they deemed most important. All groups included donor's health history and name as key variables to be available to donor-conceived offspring. Recipients viewed the donor's decision to donate as important, donors thought their feelings about being contacted were important and donor-conceived offspring expressed an interest in the donor's own family. Sperm donors were less inclined to view the provision of information as important compared with offspring. For recipients, the importance of information became apparent once they had disclosed to their children. This is the first study to gauge Australian stakeholders' attitudes to release of information in the donor conception process. The findings support the move to open-identity donation systems and emphasize the importance of considering the varying perspectives of all stakeholders by policy developers. PMID:21269882
... However, changes over the last few decades in lifestyle and food choices have led to the rise of obesity ... help your child lose weight. CHANGING YOUR CHILD'S LIFESTYLE Eating ... amounts of foods and drinks to keep their body healthy. Know ...
Full Text Available ... health news that matters to you. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Nutrition Obesity in Children Parenting About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us on Twitter ...
Mathur, Ruchi; Barlow, Gillian M
Obesity constitutes a significant and rapidly increasing public health challenge and is associated with significant co-morbidities and healthcare costs. Although undoubtedly multifactorial, research over the last decade has demonstrated that the microbes that colonize the human gut may contribute to the development of obesity through roles in polysaccharide breakdown, nutrient absorption, inflammatory responses and gut permeability. Studies have consistently shown that the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, in particular, is increased in obesity and reduces with weight loss. In addition, we and others have shown that the methanogenic Archaea may also contribute to altered metabolism and weight gain in the host. However, much remains to be learned about the roles of different gut microbial populations in weight gain and obesity and the underlying mechanisms before we can begin to approach targeted treatments. PMID:26082274
... PubMed Abstract] Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Curtin LR. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US ... 98–4083. Bethesda, MD. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, Lamb MM, Flegal KM. Prevalence of high ...
Mancini, Marcio C; Alfredo Halpern
Pharmacological treatment of obesity is an area of sudden changes,development of new drugs and treatment propositions. This articlepresents information on physiological agents that are currentlybeing used as well as drugs that were widely used but are nomore available.
... that a heavy child is simply less likable. Self-Esteem & School Bullying True, some overweight children are very ... obese, he is more likely to have low self-esteem than his thinner peers. His weak self-esteem ...
In recent years the levels of obesity in the United States has risen greatly especially amongst children. Doctors, psychologists, and other scientists have been studying the growing problem for years. Implications for childhood obesity not only have enormous physical consequences but emotional repercussions which can affect the child’s academic and social development. A number of factors have been identified as having an effect on these children; family life reveals the grocery store habits o...
Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg
The fast global increased prevalence of obesity has been classifiedas an epidemics by the World Health Organization. The etiology ofobesity is very complex and involves genetic and environmentalfactors. One of the main factors that trigger obesity is sedentarylife, as well as the great availability of fat-rich foods that present ahigh energy density. According to the NHANES II, although thepopulation has decreased the ingestion of fat, the total consumptionof food has increased. The main fact...
Joo, Jong Kil; Lee, Kyu Sup
Obesity is an important risk factor for metabolic disease and various cancers. Treatments of obesity include lifestyle intervention, pharmacotherapy, and bariatric surgery. If weight loss with lifestyle intervention is only modest, pharmacotherapy might be needed. Pharmacotherapy agents can be grouped by treatment period as short term or long term use agent. Several sympathomimetic drugs such as benzphetamine, diethylpropion, phendimetrazine and phentermine, are approved for short term treatm...
DeLaet, David; Schauer, Daniel
About one third of the US population and one quarter of the UK population are obese, with increased risks of hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, CVD, osteoarthritis, and some cancers. Fewer than 10% of overweight or obese adults aged 40 to 49 years revert to a normal body weight after 4 years.Nearly 5 million US adults used prescription weight-loss medication between 1996 and 1998, but one quarter of all users were not overweight.
Coggon, D.; Reading, I.; Croft, P; McLaren, M.; Barrett, D; Cooper, C.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the risk of knee osteoarthritis (OA) attributable to obesity, and the interactions between obesity and other established causes of the disorder. METHODS: We performed a population-based case-control study in three health districts of England (Southampton, Portsmouth and North Staffordshire). A total of 525 men and women aged 45 y and over, consecutively listed for surgical treatment of primary knee OA, were compared with 525 controls matched by age, sex and family practi...
Bray, Molly S.; Young, Martin E.
The development of obesity is the consequence of a multitude of complex interactions between both genetic and environmental factors. It has been suggested that the dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity over the past 30 years has been the result of environmental changes that have enabled the full realization of genetic susceptibility present in the population. Among the many environmental alterations that have occurred in our recent history is the ever-increasing dyssynchrony between ...
Much research is underway on the links between diet and obesity. So too are long-running disputes among nutritionists on core questions about the relationship. This editorial reviews the state-of-play on four issues: what makes people fat, how to lose weight, how much do we eat, and what policies to adopt towards obesity. The practical consequence is that, at present, frontline health professionals will not find in nutrition science agreed, actionable solutions to assist overweight patients. ...
Science NetLinks (; )
This booklet, part of The Science Inside series, discusses the importance of good health habits such as eating right and exercising. The Science Inside series presents science information in an easy-to-read format. This particular resource describes how the body takes in energy and what it does with excess energy. This booklet also covers the health problems caused by obesity, as well as how to prevent and treat obesity. Additional resources include a bibliography, and a glossary.
Obesity is a worldwide problem affecting both children and adults. Genetic, physiological, environmental, psychological, social and economic factors interact in varying degrees, influencing body weight and fat distribution and the progress of obesity. Moreover, some anthropogenic chemicals have proven to be endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with the potential to interfere with different actions of hormones in the body. EDCs may thereby disrupt homeostasis, modifying developmental, behavio...
Background: Obesity is a modern day epidemic. The incidence appears to be rapidly increasing in bothdeveloped and developing countries and has become much more obvious in the last decade.Aim& Objective: The present research was done with the aim of studying the effects of obesity definedas a first trimester maternal body mass index >30 on the preeclampsia.Methods: This study was a descriptive-comparative study two hundred fifty singleton pregnancies ofwomen with first trimester BMI >30 who de...
Roland J. Thorpe; Ferraro, Kenneth F
Although there is widespread agreement that obesity (body mass index [BMI] ? 30 kg/m2) raises health risks, debate has ensued on whether obese older adults are also at greater risk. This study examines the effect of obesity on mortality for younger and older adults to determine whether the risk of obesity is lessened in later life. Data from a 20-year follow-up of a national sample of adults were used to examine the risk of obesity on mortality (N = 6,767). Cox models reveal that obesity rais...
Full Text Available The prevalence of overweight and obesity and their associated metabolic disorders are considered a major threat to the public’s health. While several diet and exercise programs are available for weight loss and prevention of weight regain, progress is often slow and disappointing. Recently, natural bioactive phytochemicals present in foods have been discovered for their potential health benefit effects on the prevention of chronic disorders such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory and metabolic diseases including obesity.Polyphenols are a class of naturally-occurring phytochemicals, of which some such as catechins, anthocynines, resveratrol and curcumin have been shown to modulate physiological and molecular pathways that are involved in energy metabolism, adiposity, and obesity. The potential in vivo, beneficial effects of these polyphenols on adiposity and obesity as complementary agents in the up-regulation of energy expenditure have emerged by investigating these compounds in cell cultures, animal models of obesity and in some human clinical and epidemiological studies. In this brief review, the efficacy of the above-named polyphenols and their potential efficacy to modulate obesity and some associated disorders are discussed.
Kelly, D M; Jones, T H
Testosterone is a key hormone in the pathology of metabolic diseases such as obesity. Low testosterone levels are associated with increased fat mass (particularly central adiposity) and reduced lean mass in males. These morphological features are linked to metabolic dysfunction, and testosterone deficiency is associated with energy imbalance, impaired glucose control, reduced insulin sensitivity and dyslipidaemia. A bidirectional relationship between testosterone and obesity underpins this association indicated by the hypogonadal-obesity cycle and evidence weight loss can lead to increased testosterone levels. Androgenic effects on enzymatic pathways of fatty acid metabolism, glucose control and energy utilization are apparent and often tissue specific with differential effects noted in different regional fat depots, muscle and liver to potentially explain the mechanisms of testosterone action. Testosterone replacement therapy demonstrates beneficial effects on measures of obesity that are partially explained by both direct metabolic actions on adipose and muscle and also potentially by increasing motivation, vigour and energy allowing obese individuals to engage in more active lifestyles. The degree of these beneficial effects may be dependent on the treatment modality with longer term administration often achieving greater improvements. Testosterone replacement may therefore potentially be an effective adjunctive treatment for weight management in obese men with concomitant hypogonadism. PMID:25982085
Mehmet Ali Gürer
Full Text Available In recent years, it has been thought that a strong association exists between metabolic syndrome, specifically obesity, and psoriasis. Obesity is a multifactorial disease affected by both genetic and environmental factors. Adipokines (e.g. leptin secreted by the adipose tissue are believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. The main role of leptin is to adjust metabolism by controlling appetite. Serum leptin levels in patients with severe and moderate psoriasis were found to be higher than in normal control groups. In many similar studies, leptin secretion has been found to stimulate keratinocyte proliferation, which is one of the characteristics of psoriasis. Although many studies showed increased prevalence of obesity in psoriasis patients, few others reported development of obesity in psoriasis patients. Additionally, obesity was found to affect treatment responses not only in classical systemic/topical treatment approaches in psoriasis, but also in newer biological treatments. Overall, increasing epidemiological evidence suggests strong association between obesity and psoriasis, increase in serum leptin levels is thought to have a major role, and weight loss may have significant impact on response to treatment.
For patients with antibodies against the most common blood groups a rapid and efficient supply of compatible erythrocyte concentrates is self-evident. But typically we have to make the greatest effort providing blood for these patients, which have made antibodies against common blood groups. There are however patients with antibodies against rare blood group antigens that need special blood. The supply of such blood can be very difficult and mostly time-consuming. For this reason we set up a database of blood donors with rare blood groups. Since 2005 the BTS SRC Berne Ltd. has run this database on behalf of the Swiss BTS SRC. After a reorganization and extension of the database, conducted during 2011/2012, the data file was renamed 'DGTI Register of Rare Donors' and is now run under the patronage of the German Society for Transfusion Medicine and Immunohematology (DGTI). PMID:25538534
Hoofnagle, J H; Lombardero, M; Zetterman, R K; Lake, J; Porayko, M; Everhart, J; Belle, S H; Detre, K M
To evaluate the effect of donor age on graft and patient outcome after liver transplantation an analysis of a large-scale cohort study was performed at three tertiary referral liver transplant centers. Between April 1990 and June 1994, 772 adults underwent an initial single-organ liver transplantation. The age of the donors averaged 35 years;193 (25%) were 50 or above, the age used to define "older" donors. Groups were compared for demographic, clinical, and biochemical features. Outcome was measured using results of biochemical tests after transplantation and by graft and patient survival. Compared with younger donors, older donors were more commonly women (59% vs. 33%:P system causes (79% vs. 28%) as opposed to trauma (13% vs. 63%:P donor livers did not differ in important respects. However, intraoperatively, livers from older donors were more likely to be assessed as either "poor" or "fair" as opposed to "good" (17% vs. 4%:P donor livers. During follow-up, graft survival was less for recipients of older donor livers at 3 months (81% vs.91%:P = .0001) and at 1 (76% vs. 85%:P = .007) and 2 years (71% vs. 80%:P = .005); patient survival showed similar though less marked differences. This association of donor age and poorer graft survival persisted after adjusting for many variables using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Importantly, however, the association with poor graft survival was largely among recipients of older donor livers, the quality of which was assessed as fair or poor by the harvesting surgeon; recipients of older donor livers assessed as good had a retransplant-free survival similar to that of younger donor livers (87% vs. 91% at 3 months). Thus, use of older donor livers, the quality of which are judged to be good by the harvesting surgeon, is not associated with a decrease in patient or graft survival after liver transplantation. differences. This association of donor age and poorer graft survival persisted after adjusting for many variables using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Importantly, however, the association with poorer graft survival was largely among recipients of older donor livers, the quality of which was assessed as fair or poor by the harvesting surgeon; recipients of older donor livers, the quality of which was assessed as fair or poor by the harvesting surgeon; recipients of older donor livers assessed as good had a retransplant-free survival similar to that of younger donor livers (87% vs. 91% at 3 months). Thus, use of older donor livers, the quality of which are judged to be good by the harvesting surgeon, is not associated with a decrease in patient or graft survival after liver transplantation. PMID:8707288
Kotwal, Urvershi; Doda, Veena; Arora, Satyam; Joshi, Meena
Donor notification and post-donation counseling is an essential role of blood bank. If a donor is reactive for any marker, the blood bank counselor, informs the donor and advices him/her to report to the blood bank for further counseling and management. The counselor at our blood bank informed a young female voluntary donor to be reactive for HIV both with ELISA as well as NAT. When the donor reported to blood bank, the repeat testing was negative and no history of high risk behavior could be...
Stankov Ivana; Olds Timothy; Cargo Margaret
Abstract A systematic review of qualitative studies was undertaken to understand the barriers to physical activity experienced by adolescents who were overweight or obese. From a search of electronic databases and ‘grey’ literature, published between 1950 and 2009, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. Bronfenbrenner’s model of human development provided an ecological lens for identifying and synthesising barriers to physical activity. Two reviewers appraised study quality. Miles and Huberma...
The production of n-type semiconducting diamond has been a long-standing experimental challenge. The first-principles simulation of shallow dopants in semiconductors has been a long-standing theoretical challenge. A desirable theoretical goal is to identify impurities that will act as shallow donors in diamond and assess their experimental viability. I will discuss this identification process for the LiN4 donor complex. It builds a scientific argument from several models and computational results in the absence of computational tools that are both trustworthy and computationally tractable for this task. I will compare the theoretical assessment of viability with recent experimental efforts to co-dope diamond with lithium and nitrogen. Finally, I discuss the computational tools needed to facilitate future work on this problem and some preliminary simulations of donors near diamond surfaces. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program lab managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Full Text Available The present study was carried out in B.A.R.C. Hospital Blood Bank over a span of five years, and includes 2734 donors. All the bags were screened for HIV, HBsAg, HCV and VDRL and the plasma in the pilot tubes of the blood bags was observed to detect any abnormality in color. In 27 cases plasma was found to be icteric and liver function tests were carried out on these samples. Two donors showed higher SGPT level, and were excluded. No significant increases in liver enzymes were recorded in the others. Causes of icteric plasma in these apparently healthy donors are discussed. Differential diagnosis includes Gilbert?s disease, hemolytic anemia, drug-induced anemia and other hepatic causes of hyperbilirubinemia, of which Gilbert?s disease is most probable cause with a prevalence of 0.91% in our population. As there are no studies to document the safety of the recipients receiving such abnormal colored plasma as well as to document the hazards in its transfusion, the question arises whether to transfuse such units or not. This study highlights this dilemma. A reassessment of existing policies and regulations is merited.
Mitchell, Nia; Catenacci, Vicki; Wyatt, Holly R.; Hill, James O.
Despite growing recognition of the problem, the obesity epidemic continues in the U.S., and obesity rates are increasing around the world. The latest estimates are that approximately 34% of adults and 15–20% of children and adolescents in the U.S. are obese. Obesity affects every segment of the U.S. population. Obesity increases the risk of many chronic diseases in children and adults. The epidemic of obesity arose gradually over time, apparently from a small, consistent degree of positive en...
Malik Vasanti S; Ding Eric L
Abstract As China is undergoing dramatic development, it is also experiencing major societal changes, including an emerging obesity epidemic, with the prevalence of overweight and obesity doubling in the past decade. However, the implications of a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) traditional Chinese diet are adversely changing in modern times, as a high-glycemic diet is becoming a greater contributor to diabetes and cardiovascular risks in a population with rising obesity and d...
Sharifnia, Torfay; Antoun, Joseph; Verriere, Thomas G C; Suarez, Giovanni; Wattacheril, Julia; Wilson, Keith T; Peek, Richard M; Abumrad, Naji N; Flynn, Charles R
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease occurs frequently in the setting of metabolic syndrome, but the factors leading to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are not fully understood. This study investigated Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in human liver with the goal of delineating whether activation of this pathway segregates those with nonalcoholic fatty liver from those with NASH. Experiments were performed using liver biopsy tissue obtained from class III obese subjects undergoing bariatric surgery, and extended to an immortalized human hepatocyte HepaRG cell line and primary human hepatocytes. The bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and total free fatty acid levels were significantly increased in plasma of NASH patients. TLR4 mRNA levels were significantly increased in subjects with NASH compared with NAFL as was interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3 in the myeloid differentiation factor 88-independent signaling pathway. In HepaRG cells, nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) nuclear translocation and functional activity increased following treatment with the fatty acid, palmitate, and following exposure to LPS compared with hepatocytes stimulated with a lipogenic treatment that induced de novo lipogenesis. Palmitate and LPS induction of NF-?B activity was partially attenuated by chemical- or small-interfering RNA-mediated inhibition of TLR4. Expression of TLR4 and its downstream mediators was upregulated with palmitate and LPS. Similar results were observed using primary human hepatocytes from a lean donor. Interestingly, NF-?B activity assays showed obese donor hepatocytes were resistant to chemical TLR4 inhibition. In conclusion, TLR4 expression is upregulated in a large cohort of NASH patients, compared with those with NAFL, and this occurs within the setting of increased LPS and fatty acids. PMID:26113297
Rohra, D K; Juriasinghani, V; Rai, K; Azam, S I
Vasovagal reaction (VVR) is a very common adverse event related to blood donation. No study has been conducted in Pakistan to estimate the prevalence of VVR in blood donors. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of immediate VVR in blood donors of Karachi, Pakistan. The study was conducted in two blood banks of Karachi. Data regarding the development of immediate VVR were documented. The effect of blood donation on vital parameters like pulse rate, blood pressure (BP), temperature and respiratory rate was also observed. Six hundred and seventy-four blood donors were recruited. All the donors who consented were males. Weakness and dizziness were two most common symptoms which were reported by 91 (13.5%) and 73 (10.8%) of the participants, respectively. Out of 91 donors in whom signs and symptoms of immediate VVR were observed, a significant drop in systolic BP (13.5 +/- 2.5 mmHg) and decrease in pulse rate (13.3 +/- 3.6) were concurrently noted in 55 donors (8.2% of all the participants). There was lack of association of age, body mass index (BMI), estimated blood volume, ethnicity, educational status, profession and first time donation status with the frequency of VVR. Only marital status was found to be significantly associated with higher frequency of immediate VVR, where married donors were having higher odds as compared to singles. The prevalence of VVR in the blood donors at two blood banks of Karachi is at least 8.2%. Furthermore, married men are at more risk of experiencing VVR in our population. PMID:19958470
Full Text Available Introduction Studies carried out in various parts of the world indicate that family obesity significantly affects the incidence of obesity in children. This is especially a characteristic of children whose both parents are obese. Material and methods The study was conducted using a polling method. Questionnaires were filled out by parents and brothers and sisters, including their body height and weight. The collected data served as the basis for assessing the family nutritional status. Results Statistical analysis of the results showed that obese children frequently have obese parents, brothers and sisters in regard to normal-weight children. Differences are statistically significant in relation to fathers (r=0.043, i.e. statistically obese schoolchildren have more frequently obese fathers than those of normal nutritional status. Other differences could not be considered significant (p > 0.05. Discussion Obese children have more often obese parents, brothers and sisters than normal-weight children. It was found that the nutritional status of moderately and extremely obese children was quite different from that of normal-weight children and that there was a statistically significant dependence between the nutritional status of children and their fathers. Conclusion This research showed that family obesity is a potential contributing factor to obesity of schoolchildren.
Full Text Available Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity.
Full Text Available Why screening?Thirty years ago most donors suffered from head trauma (“Morbus Kawasaki” and a donor older than 35 years was beyond the pale, i.e. donors were young and healthy, and since these early days of transplantation donor hearts have been regarded as healthy “per definitionem” (1. However, due to the general organ shortage the criteria for the acceptance of donor hearts have been widely liberalized. According to the current quarterly data report of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT nearly two thirds of donors in Europe (64.3% were older than 35 years, more than a quarter (26.0% were even older than 50 years and less than 10% of organ donors suffered from head trauma (2. Meanwhile the average (European donor is 45 years old and is suffering from intracranial bleeding, i.e. the so-called “donor pool” represents a subpopulation with significantly elevated risk for cardiac diseases such as coronary atherosclerosis and hypertension-related myocardial hypertrophy (Fig. 1. Unfortunately, daily experience shows that donor heart screening has not been adapted to this development (3. Therefore, the question “Why screening?” is not as trivial as it may look: Donor coronary angiography is still an exception (performed in 5-10% of donors despite the fact that  the prevalence of significant atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD in the donor pool is about 20%,  the risk of CAD transmission without angiography is about 5% to 10% despite organ inspection by the harvesting surgeon and  the risk for early graft failure with transmitted significant CAD is three times as high (4,5.
Full Text Available ... everything related. How is morbid obesity managed? The management of morbid obesity generally includes two broad options. ... my health status; I would be concerned about quality of life, and I would be concerned about ...
... Preventing Childhood Obesity: Tips for Parents and Caretakers Obesity in Infants and Preschoolers Infographic How to Make a Healthy Home Dietary Recommendations for Healthy Children Tips to Make Fast Food Friendlier for Kids Top 10 Tips to Help ...
Full Text Available ... specifically issues related to informed consent about the risks, benefits and alternatives of weight loss surgery, and everything related. How is morbid obesity managed? The management of morbid obesity generally includes two broad options. ...
... your child has. Measuring body fat and diagnosing obesity in children is different than measuring these things in adults. ... 44. US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for obesity in ... adolescents: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation ...
ADVICE FOR PATIENTS Sugary Drinks and Childhood Obesity T his month’s Archives focuses on new research about childhood obesity. Being overweight is now the most common medical condition of childhood. Nearly ...
... of Testing for Concussion If I Had - Morbid Obesity - Dr. Michael Tarnoff, MD, FACS, Tufts University School ... Back to Home Page If I Had - Morbid Obesity - Dr. Michael Tarnoff, MD, FACS, Tufts University School ...
... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Overweight and Obesity? Lack of Energy Balance A lack of energy ... Deficiency article. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Obesity happens one pound at a time. So does ...
... American College of Gastroenterology www.acg.gi.org/obesity Great tools including a food tracker, portion size ... http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/heart/obesity/ lose_wt/patmats.htm Weight loss information from ...
... resources ??. Alternate Language URL Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity Page Content How can I tell if I ... National Diabetes Education Program. How are overweight and obesity treated? The best way to control your weight ...
... resources ??. Alternate Language URL Bariatric Surgery for Severe Obesity Page Content Bariatric Surgery for Adults Bariatric Surgery ... may be an option for adults with severe obesity. Body mass index (BMI), a measure of height ...
Full Text Available ... of Testing for Concussion If I Had - Morbid Obesity - Dr. Michael Tarnoff, MD, FACS, Tufts University School ... Back to Home Page If I Had - Morbid Obesity - Dr. Michael Tarnoff, MD, FACS, Tufts University School ...
Full Text Available ... obesity? Morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI of 35 or above. That corresponds roughly to ... of these procedure anatomically. If I had a BMI of 35 or greater… If I had a ...
Gabay, Odile; Hall, David J.; Berenbaum, Francis; Henrotin, Yves; Sanchez, Christelle
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease. Different risk factors have been identified such as aging and obesity and different models have been used to study the impact of obesity and overweight in this pathology.
Mitre Anuar I.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience of videolaparoscopic nephrectomy in live renal donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April 2000 to August 2003, 50 left nephrectomies in live donor were performed by videolaparoscopy for transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were male (56% and 22 female (44%. Mean age was 37.2 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 27.1 kg/m². RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 179.5 minutes, and warm ischemia time of the graft was 3.79 minutes. The mean estimated bleeding was 141 mL. There was no need of blood transfusion or conversion to open surgery. In 42 cases (84%, the vascular portion of the graft was considered good by the recipient's surgical team and in all cases, the ureter was considered of proper size, though in one of them (2% its vascularization was considered improper. The transplanted kidneys produced urine still in the surgical room in 46 of the 50 transplantations considered. In only 2 cases opioid was required for analgesia. In average, 3.1 doses of dipyrone were used for each patient during hospital stay, and hospital discharge occurred, in average, after 3.2 days post-operatively. Two patients required re-operations and one of them evolved to death. CONCLUSIONS: The laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor for renal transplantation is an alternative to conventional open surgery. In relation to the graft, no alteration, either anatomic or functional, was detected. Though there is already a large documentation in the international literature regarding this procedure, in our setting a prospective randomized study with the usual surgical study is still necessary in order to prove the advantages and disadvantages of the method.
Merchant Anwar T; Akhtar-Danesh Noori; Dehghan Mahshid
Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising pre...
Rajitha Sunkara; Martha Verghese
Obesity is a global problem and numbers are rising at a fast pace in developing countries and it becomes a major public health concern. Economic costs associated with obesity are high and increasing as the rate of obesity. Obesity leads to its co-morbidities; namely diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, osteoarthritis, stroke and inflammatory diseases. Changes in life-style along with modifications to the diet are important in the management of ...
Because obesity is a risk factor for many serious illnesses such as diabetes, better understandings of obesity and eating disorders have been attracting attention in neurobiology, psychiatry, and neuroeconomics. This paper presents future study directions by unifying (i) economic theory of addiction and obesity (Becker and Murphy, 1988; Levy 2002; Dragone 2009), and (ii) recent empirical findings in neuroeconomics and neurobiology of obesity and addiction. It is suggested th...
Crocker, Melissa K.; Yanovski, Jack A
This paper reviews factors that contribute to excessive weight gain in children and outlines current knowledge regarding approaches for treating pediatric obesity. Virtually all of the known genetic causes of obesity primarily increase energy intake. Genes regulating the leptin signaling pathway are particularly important for human energy homeostasis. Obesity is a chronic disorder that requires long-term strategies for management. The foundation for all treatments for pediatric obesity remain...
Al Dabal Laila
Full Text Available Obesity is becoming a major medical concern in several parts of the world, with huge economic impacts on health- care systems, resulting mainly from increased cardiovascular risks. At the same time, obesity leads to a number of sleep-disordered breathing patterns like obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS, leading to increased morbidity and mortality with reduced quality of life. OHS is distinct from other sleep- related breathing disorders although overlap may exist. OHS patients may have obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea with hypercapnia and sleep hypoventilation, or an isolated sleep hypoventilation. Despite its major impact on health, this disorder is under-recognized and under-diagnosed. Available management options include aggressive weight reduction, oxygen therapy and using positive airway pressure techniques. In this review, we will go over the epidemiology, pathophysiology, presentation and diagnosis and management of OHS.
Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is a significant public health problem in the 21st century due to its scale, common existence and its cause-effect association with multiple diseases. Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in humans is regarded as a major risk factor for development of cardiovascular and skeletal diseases. However, data from recent years have revealed that obesity is also strongly associated with increased risk of the majority of cancers in humans, including those originating from the gastrointestinal tract. During the last few year this association has been thoroughly proven and supported by several epidemiological analyses. The authors present i the current state of knowledge regarding key (pathomechanisms that link metabolism of human adipose tissue to development/progression of neoplasms (especially in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as ii the results of selected clinical studies in which the influence of obesity on risk of gastrointestinal cancer development has been addressed.
Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality in rich countries and today it has the same meaning for health care as the epidemics of past centuries had for medicine in earlier times: 50% of the population in these countries die of cardiovascular disease. The amount of cardiovascular disease is also increasing in the developing countries together with economic growth. By 2015 one in three deaths will globally be due to cardiovascular diseases. Coronary heart disease is a chronic disease that starts in childhood, even if the symptoms first occur in the middle age. The risks for coronary heart disease are well-known: lipid disorders, especially high serum LDL-cholesterol concentration, high blood pressure, tobacco smoking, obesity, diabetes, male gender and physical inactivity. Obesity is both an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease but is also closely connected with several other risk factors. This review focuses on the connection between overweight or obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25387321
Describes the role caregivers play in helping young children dealing with obesity. Examines: (1) causes of childhood obesity; (2) caregiver's position; (3) learning nutrition concepts; (4) preparing and serving healthy foods; (5) encouraging physical activity; (6) working with parents; and (7) assisting an obese child. (SD)
Bratsis, Michael E.
U.S. health experts declared obesity an epidemic over a decade ago. Schools have tried to implement prevention programs for students, but as budgets shrink, educating students about obesity is increasingly falling to classroom instructors, including science teachers. The good news is that obesity-related classroom activities can be engaging, and…
Full Text Available Donor notification and post-donation counseling is an essential role of blood bank. If a donor is reactive for any marker, the blood bank counselor, informs the donor and advices him/her to report to the blood bank for further counseling and management. The counselor at our blood bank informed a young female voluntary donor to be reactive for HIV both with ELISA as well as NAT. When the donor reported to blood bank, the repeat testing was negative and no history of high risk behavior could be elicited. The hospital information system (HIS records were checked again immediately for clarification and showed consistency with her demographic profile. But when her manual records and donor questionnaire were retrieved, showed information displayed in the HIS system was wrongly interpreted by the counselor. In this era of information technology being highly advanced, the role of manual record keeping is still the gold standard.
Ganpule, Arvind P.; Mishra, Shashikant; Sabnis, Ravindra
A donor would prefer a minimally invasive procedure because of lesser morbidity, this may be the reason that laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) rates have exponentially increased. The rationale dictates that a virtually scarless surgery would be most beneficial to this patient subgroup. In this article, we review the approach, instrumentation, dissection and retrieval issues and the results of laparoendoscopic single-site donor nephrectomy (LESS-DN). The existing literature on LESS-DN was r...
High-resolution, variable temperature PL experiments were performed in the spectral region associated with recombination processes involving the ground and excited states of the neutral donor bound excitons. High-resolution infrared measurements in combination with high-sensitive SIMS unambiguously identified Si and O shallow donors and yield their ground state binding energies. These binding energies are in excellent agreement with values obtained by the analysis of the two-electron-satellite PL spectra considering the participation of ground and excited state donor bound excitons. This work clarifies conflicting aspects existing in donor identification and the binding energies of the impurities and excitons
Garnier, Jean; Thomson, Douglas W; Zhou, Shengze; Jolly, Phillip I; Berlouis, Leonard E A; Murphy, John A
Neutral organic electron donors, featuring pyridinylidene-imidazolylidene, pyridinylidene-benzimidazolylidene and imidazolylidene-benzimidazolylidene linkages are reported. The pyridinylidene-benzimidazolylidene and imidazolylidene-benzimidazolylidene hybrid systems were designed to be the first super electron donors to convert iodoarenes to aryl radicals at room temperature, and indeed both show evidence for significant aryl radical formation at room temperature. The stronger pyridinylidene-imidazolylidene donor converts iodoarenes to aryl anions efficiently under appropriate conditions (3 equiv of donor). The presence of excess sodium hydride base has a very important and selective effect on some of these electron-transfer reactions, and a rationale for this is proposed. PMID:23019427
Full Text Available Neutral organic electron donors, featuring pyridinylidene–imidazolylidene, pyridinylidene–benzimidazolylidene and imidazolylidene–benzimidazolylidene linkages are reported. The pyridinylidene–benzimidazolylidene and imidazolylidene–benzimidazolylidene hybrid systems were designed to be the first super electron donors to convert iodoarenes to aryl radicals at room temperature, and indeed both show evidence for significant aryl radical formation at room temperature. The stronger pyridinylidene–imidazolylidene donor converts iodoarenes to aryl anions efficiently under appropriate conditions (3 equiv of donor. The presence of excess sodium hydride base has a very important and selective effect on some of these electron-transfer reactions, and a rationale for this is proposed.
Liver transplants, originally obtained from deceased donors, can now be harvested from living donors as well. This technique, called living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), provides an effective alternative means of liver transplantation and is a method of expanding the donor pool in light of the demand and supply imbalance for organ transplants. Imaging plays an important role in LDLT programmes by providing robust evaluation of potential donors to ensure that only anatomically suitable donors with no significant co-existing pathology are selected and that crucial information that allows detailed preoperative planning is available. Imaging evaluation helps to improve the outcome of LDLT for both donors and recipients, by improving the chances of graft survival and reducing the postoperative complication rate. In this review, we describe the history of LDLT and discuss in detail the application of imaging in donor assessment with emphasis on use of modern computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques
Low, G. [Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Wiebe, E. [Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada); Walji, A.H. [Division of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta (Canada); Bigam, D.L. [Department of Surgery, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada)
Liver transplants, originally obtained from deceased donors, can now be harvested from living donors as well. This technique, called living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), provides an effective alternative means of liver transplantation and is a method of expanding the donor pool in light of the demand and supply imbalance for organ transplants. Imaging plays an important role in LDLT programmes by providing robust evaluation of potential donors to ensure that only anatomically suitable donors with no significant co-existing pathology are selected and that crucial information that allows detailed preoperative planning is available. Imaging evaluation helps to improve the outcome of LDLT for both donors and recipients, by improving the chances of graft survival and reducing the postoperative complication rate. In this review, we describe the history of LDLT and discuss in detail the application of imaging in donor assessment with emphasis on use of modern computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques.
Azevedo, R T; Macaluso, E; Viola, V; Sani, G; Aglioti, S M
Explicit negative attitudes and blameful beliefs (e.g. poor diet, laziness) towards obese individuals are well documented and are pervasive even among health professionals. Here we sought to determine whether obesity stigma is reflected in a fundamental feature of intersubjectivity namely the automatic neural resonance with others' affective experiences. During fMRI, normal-weight female participants observed short clips depicting normal-weight (NW) and obese (Ob) models experiencing pain. Importantly, participants believed that half of the Ob were overweight due to a hormonal disorder (HormOb) and ignored the cause of obesity of the remaining models (Unknown obese models; UnkOb). Analyses of hemodynamic responses showed reduced activity to the pain of Ob compared to that of NW in areas associated with pain processing and early visual processing. The comparison between the two Ob conditions revealed a further decrease of activity to HormOb's pain compared to UnkOb's (and NW) pain in the right inferior frontal gyrus, an area associated with emotional resonance. Our study demonstrates that stigma for obese individuals can be observed at implicit levels, and that it is modulated by knowledge concerning the etiology of obesity, with the seemingly surprising result that obesity due to disease may result in greater stigmatization. Moreover, the perceived similarity with the models and the ambivalent emotion of pity may index biased brain responses to obese individuals' pain. The study highlights a possibly important neural link between resonance with the pain of others and obesity stigma. PMID:24287441
Mission, John F; Marshall, Nicole E; Caughey, Aaron B
Obesity has increased dramatically in the United States over the last several decades, with approximately 40% of pregnant women now considered overweight or obese. Obesity has been shown to be associated with numerous poor pregnancy outcomes, including increased rates of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, fetal macrosomia, stillbirth, postterm pregnancy, and increased rates of cesarean delivery. Many of these complications have been found to increase even further with increasing body mass index in a dose-response fashion. In this review, the association of obesity with maternal, fetal, and pregnancy outcomes is discussed as are the recommendations for caring for the obese gravida. PMID:26002170
Full Text Available Pediatric obesity is a major health problem and has reached epidemiological proportions today. The present paper reviews major psychological issues in pediatric obesity from a developmental perspective. Research and literature has shown that a number of developmental, family, maternal and child factors are responsible in the genesis of pediatric obesity. Family food habits, early developmental lifestyle of the child, parenting, early family relationships and harmony all contribute towards the growth and development of a child. The present review focuses on the role of developmental psychological factors in the pathogenesis of pediatric obesity and highlights the developmental factors that must be kept in mind when evaluating a case of pediatric obesity.
Beitz, Janice M
Morbid obesity is a chronic disease affecting millions of Americans. The disorder is likely to increase in prevalence because currently one third of the American population is obese. Many factors are associated with morbid obesity, including psychological (eg, depression), physiological (eg, hypothyroidism) mechanisms, sleep disorders (eg, sleep apnea), drug therapy (antidepressants, antidiabetic agents, steroids), and genetics. Increasing numbers of morbidly obese patients are requiring critical care, presenting major challenges to professional staff across the disciplines. This manuscript presents a case study describing the experiences of a morbidly obese woman in the final years of her life from the perspective of her health professional relative. The patient typifies many of the major risk factors for morbid obesity; her story reveals many of the issues faced as she revolved in and out of the critical care and acute care system. Her substantive health problems affected multiple body systems and included hypothyroidism, congestive heart failure, hyperlipidemia, and subclinical Cushing's Syndrome, likely related to previous medical therapy (cortisone) for rheumatic fever in childhood. The case description addresses many integumentary system issues the patient experienced; skin injuries and infections that can pose serious life-threatening situations for the morbidly obese patient must be prevented or treated efficiently. Health professionals can learn a great deal and improve the care they provide by listening to morbidly obese patients. PMID:25581606
Bräuner, Elvira; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
Obesity prevalence has more than doubled globally within the last 30 years. Obesity affects quality of life as well as impacts the risks and prognosis for a number of serious diseases. Established causes include a high calorie diet combined with a sedentary lifestyle and possibly the widespread cessation of smoking, but these do not fully explain the epidemic. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals and evidence from animal experiments suggests an association with obesity development. Our knowledge of the effects of these compounds on weight gain in humans is limited. Our objective was to investigate the association between exposure to PCBs experienced by a general Danish population and development of obesity. We randomly selected 204 persons (113 obese and 91 overweight), aged ? 50 years, from a prospective Danish cohort of 57,053 persons and examined ten PCBs as potential determinants of abdominal obesity. Adipose tissue was collected upon enrolment and PCBs were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Median levels of the included PCBs were lower in women, except for PCB118 and all PCBs were positively associated with increased abdominal circumference, although this association was not significant. These data indicate a positive link between PCBs and obesity. More work is needed to fully elucidate the complex role of compounds such as PCBs in the present obesity epidemic.
Videogames can be used to help children change their obesity-related diet and physical activity behaviors. A review of the relevant literature in this special issue of the Games for Health Journal indicated that video games did influence children's adiposity, but only among children who were alread...
Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg
Full Text Available The fast global increased prevalence of obesity has been classifiedas an epidemics by the World Health Organization. The etiology ofobesity is very complex and involves genetic and environmentalfactors. One of the main factors that trigger obesity is sedentarylife, as well as the great availability of fat-rich foods that present ahigh energy density. According to the NHANES II, although thepopulation has decreased the ingestion of fat, the total consumptionof food has increased. The main factors that influence in choice offood are flavor, followed by cost, convenience and, finally, itsnutritional value. The dietary treatment of obesity should haverealistic goals concerning weight loss rate and amount. It issuggested to prescribe a balanced low-calorie diet, emphasizingmostly the quality of foods by using the food pyramid. Therefore,patients may learn the appropriate criteria to select food and makehealthy choices. The dietary treatment of obesity also includesthe use of behavioral techniques directed at dietary education,thus resulting in choice of healthy foods with adequate energyvalue.
Larsen, S H; Wagner, G
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on the relationship between obesity and sexual function. METHOD: A search in the medical literature from 1966 and onwards was carried out through Medline and Embase for publications on obesity, in combination with Medical Subject Heading words related to sexual function and dysfunction. COMMENTS: Four prospective and seven cross-sectional studies were found describing association between obesity and erectile dysfunction (ED). One cross-sectional study was found describing obesity and female sexual dysfunction (FSD). The prospective studies on ED all demonstrated a direct association and so did five of the seven cross-sectional studies. The single FSD study did not find any relationship. Eight intervention studies on weight loss and sexual difficulties were identified. All included few individuals and results were mixed even if most indicated an increase of sexual activity among both men and women after weight loss intervention. CONCLUSION: Support for the assumption thatobesity is associated with ED was found in both prospective and cross-sectional studies. FSD was not adequately described in the literature and prospective studies are needed here. Results from weight loss intervention studies are less conclusive, but also point toward improvement in sexual dysfunction with reduced weight.
Joo, Jong Kil; Lee, Kyu Sup
Obesity is an important risk factor for metabolic disease and various cancers. Treatments of obesity include lifestyle intervention, pharmacotherapy, and bariatric surgery. If weight loss with lifestyle intervention is only modest, pharmacotherapy might be needed. Pharmacotherapy agents can be grouped by treatment period as short term or long term use agent. Several sympathomimetic drugs such as benzphetamine, diethylpropion, phendimetrazine and phentermine, are approved for short term treatment due to their safety issues. For long term treatment, orlistat, lorcaserin, and combination of phentermine/topiramate are approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Orlistat partially blocks intestinal digestion of fat, therefore producing weight loss. Lorcaserin is a serotonin 2C receptor agonist. The combination of phentermine/topiramate produces a mean weight loss of 8-10 kg. Side effects of each drug are quite different. For obesity patient, side effects are important factor when choosing drugs. The goal of this article is to review currently available anti-obesity drugs. PMID:25580419
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Natalya Victorova Strueva
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of duration and individual characteristics of sleep and chronotype on body weight, eating behavior, anxiety, depression, life quality, metabolic and hormonal parameters of obese patients. Materials and methods: 200 patients with primary obesity were studied: 83 men and 117 women at age from 18 to 61 years old, median age 41,5 years [31,0; 50,0]; body weight 107 kg [94; 128,5], waist circumference 112 cm [102; 124]; neck circumference 41 cm [38; 46], body mass index (BMI 36,9 [32,8; 42,3]. Results: We found an association between sleep duration, chronotype and the emotional eating. Significant sleep reduction (to less than 6 hours was associated with high level of anxiety, depression, emotional eating and insomnia. Younger age, early onset and shorter duration of obesity and brisk weight gain during last is connected to the evening chronotype. The emotional eating associated with hypersomnolence in the absence of statistically significant increase of anxiety and depression in individuals with evening chronotype. Sleep duration and chronotype have no significant effect on the body weight, metabolic, hormonal parameters and the dynamics of body. weight after 7±1 months of treatment of obesity.
Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and…
... Related Topics CPAP Overweight and Obesity Sleep Apnea Sleep Studies Ventilator/Ventilator Support Send a link to NHLBI ... airway pressure (PAP) machines, which are used during sleep. PAP therapy uses mild ... trials are research studies that explore whether a medical strategy, treatment, or ...
Primary childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in industrialized countries particularly in North America. Twenty five percent of children and adolescents in the United States are overweight and 14% are obese. However, the prevalence of obesity is alarmingly rising in other less developed parts of the world, like Asia, the Middle East and some parts of Africa. Overweight and obesity in childhood extend to adulthood and the majority of obese children grew as obese adults. Obesity has sig...
Hand, M S; Armstrong, P J; Allen, T A
Obesity is the most common nutritionally related disease of dogs and cats. Several of the important health problems that are inherent with obesity are resolved when the patient's body weight is returned to normal. Proper dietary management is central to successful treatment and prevention. Low-fat, high-fiber diets provide fewer available calories but induce a greater degree of satiety than simple restriction of the obese patient's regular food. Care must be taken to assure that overweight cats are not fasted, because preliminary reports indicate an alarming association between severe caloric restriction and hepatic lipidosis in obese cats. Obesity prevention should ideally be proactive, owing to the predictability of obesity in certain groups of pets. The large number of reduced-energy maintenance type diets that are available for obesity prevention facilitate this goal. PMID:2658285
Full Text Available Background: We retrospectively analyzed the results of totally 6 patients who received a renal graft from >80 years aged donors in Eurotransplant senior program. Patients and methods: Between May 1999 and March 2007 a total of 70 kidney transplants from donors aged over 65 years were given to recipients over 65 at our center. Six out of them, mean age 66,0 (65-68 years, received organs from donors, mean age 81,3 years, who had no history of hypertension, diabetes, smoking or obesity, and a latest mean serum creatinine of 0,7 (0,7-0,9 mg/dL. Baseline biopsy of four grafts showed in two of them a 20% / 8% glomerulosclerosis and mild tubular atrophy but otherwise normal histology. The mean cold storage time was 11:35 (7:19 – 16:02 hours. The initial immunosuppression was CNI-free in five patients consisting of an IL-II receptor antibody + MMF + Steroids. Cyclosporine A was started at day 8,2 (7-10, when graft function had stabilized. In one patient each Belatacept or CyA were given from the beginning, according to a study protocol. Results: The ATN-rate was 2/6. Altogether 2 biopsy-proven acute rejection episodes were reversed by pulsed steroids. Apart from one Polyomavirus infection which led to graft loss at month 9, all other infectious complications, mostly urinary tract infections, were treated successfully. Other postoperative complications were caused by preexisting comorbidities and could be managed. One patient died from an intracerebral B-cell Lymphoma at month 27 with a functioning graft. The 2-years patient / graft survival was 100 / 83,3%. The actual mean serum creatinine of the survivors was 1,6 (0,7-2,4 mg/dL. Conclusion: We conclude that good results can be achieved with kidneys from donors over 80 years without cardiac risk factors and good renal function and if nephrotoxic drugs are used with caution.
Full Text Available Maternal perinatal nutrition may program offspring metabolic features. Epigenetic regulation is one of the candidate mechanisms that may be affected by maternal dietary methyl donors intake as potential controllers of plasma homocysteine levels. Thirty-two Wistar pregnant rats were randomly assigned into four dietary groups during lactation: control, control supplemented with methyl donors, high-fat-sucrose and high-fat-sucrose supplemented with methyl donors. Physiological outcomes in the offspring were measured, including hepatic mRNA expression and global DNA methylation after weaning. The newborns whose mothers were fed the obesogenic diet were heavier longer and with a higher adiposity and intrahepatic fat content. Interestingly, increased levels of plasma homocysteine induced by the maternal high-fat-sucrose dietary intake were prevented in both sexes by maternal methyl donors supplementation. Total hepatic DNA methylation decreased in females due to maternal methyl donors administration, while Dnmt3a hepatic mRNA levels decreased accompanying the high-fat-sucrose consumption. Furthermore, a negative association between Dnmt3a liver mRNA levels and plasma homocysteine concentrations was found. Maternal high-fat-sucrose diet during lactation could program offspring obesity features, while methyl donors supplementation prevented the onset of high hyperhomocysteinemia. Maternal dietary intake also affected hepatic DNA methylation metabolism, which could be linked with the regulation of the methionine-homocysteine cycle.
Yang, Xiaoli; Gong, Junhua; Gong, JianPing
Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is a very successful procedure that develops liver resources in case of worldwide shortages. As the technology has developed so much in the past 2 decades, LDLT has the same good prognosis as DDLT. However, LDLT still has lots of ethical & technical problems. It causes great psychiatric, physical and psychosocial harm to donors. Also, it has some negative effects on society by providing a platform for organ trade. Therefore, there is much controversy about the social value of LDLT. After review of recent papers, we find much progress can be made in inspiring the public to become organ donors and creating donation model new to improve the consent rate for solid organ donation from deceased donors. That is the key strategy for increasing the liver supply. With this serious shortage of organs, liver donor transplantation still has its advantages, but we should not place all our hopes on LDLT to increase the liver supply. We all need to try our best to increase donor awareness and promote organ donor registration--when cadaver organs could meet the needs for liver transplantation, living donor liver transplants would not be necessary. PMID:23274332
Garnier, Jean; Thomson, Douglas W; Zhou, Shengze; Jolly, Phillip I; Berlouis, Leonard E A; Murphy, John A.
Neutral organic electron donors, featuring pyridinylidene–imidazolylidene, pyridinylidene–benzimidazolylidene and imidazolylidene–benzimidazolylidene linkages are reported. The pyridinylidene–benzimidazolylidene and imidazolylidene–benzimidazolylidene hybrid systems were designed to be the first super electron donors to convert iodoarenes to aryl radicals at room temperature, and indeed both show evidence for significant aryl radical formation at room temperature. The stronger pyridinylidene–...
Jean Garnier; Thomson, Douglas W; Shengze Zhou; Jolly, Phillip I; Berlouis, Leonard E A; Murphy, John A.
Neutral organic electron donors, featuring pyridinylidene–imidazolylidene, pyridinylidene–benzimidazolylidene and imidazolylidene–benzimidazolylidene linkages are reported. The pyridinylidene–benzimidazolylidene and imidazolylidene–benzimidazolylidene hybrid systems were designed to be the first super electron donors to convert iodoarenes to aryl radicals at room temperature, and indeed both show evidence for significant aryl radical formation at room temperature...
Akpan, E E; C. E Ekpenyong
The growing trend of obesity worldwide and in sub-Saharan Africa can be linked to theurbanization drift experienced in recent years both in developed and developing countrieslike Nigeria, at four pivotal points namely: physical activity level, socio-economic status(SES), nutritional and psychosocial factors. Literature search was done usingMedline/PubMed and Google Scholar for published studies on the urbanization rate, andthe prevalence of overweight and obesity in Nigeria. The socio-demogra...
Lemke, U.; Taupitz, M.; Hamm, B.; Kroencke, T.J. [Inst. fuer Radiologie, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany); Kluener, C. [Inst. fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Evangelisches Krankenhaus Oldenburg (Germany); Giessing, M.; Schoenberger, B. [Urologische Klinik und Poliklinik, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany)
Purpose: to evaluate contrast-enhanced 3D magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in comparison with the intraoperative findings in living kidney donors. Materials and methods: a total of 156 kidneys in 78 potential kidney donors were prospectively examined using CE-MRA (0.2 mmol Gd/kg, voxel size 1.3 x 0.8 x 2.0) and DSA. Two experienced radiologists assessed the images in consensus regarding the renal vascular anatomy and variants. The results for the 67 candidates accepted for donation were compared to the intraoperative findings. In the other kidneys not accepted for donor nephrectomy, MRA and DSA were compared with each other. Results: nineteen arterial variants were identified intraoperatively, of which 11 (58%) were also detected by preoperative CE-MRA and 10 (53%) by preoperative DSA. Of the 10 venous variants found intraoperatively, CE-MRA detected 8 (80%) and DSA 3 (30%). The agreement (kappa test) between MRI and DSA for all 156 evaluated kidneys was 0.7 for arterial variants (McNemar p = 0.12) and 0.3 for venous variants (McNemar p = 0.01). The preoperative choice of kidney (right or left) made on the basis of the renal vascular anatomy seen on CE-MRA and DSA differed in 22% of the 78 potential donors (McNemar P = 0.3). (orig.)
Grothaus, Tim; Lorelle, Sonya; Anderson, Kie; Knight, Jasmine
After a review of the literature elucidating the status quo for students experiencing homelessness, this article shares the results of a mixed methods study. With a phenomenological qualitative emphasis, the mixed methods study explored the perceptions of parents and children experiencing homelessness regarding their academic needs and the…
Sarros, James C.; Sarros, Anne M.
Experienced leaders face challenges that demand different leadership approaches to those of inexperienced leaders. The purposes of this article are to: (1) explore the leadership initiatives prominent for experienced leaders compared with inexperienced leaders; (2) examine the relationship between transformational leadership and these initiatives;…
Burke, Peter J.; Kray, Robert
This document reports on a study to determine differential attitudes of experienced and inexperienced teachers toward supervision and evaluation. The basic hypothesis was that experienced teachers would have significantly different attitudes toward the concepts of supervision and evaluation than would inexperienced interns. A sample of 100…
M. L. Arefjev
Full Text Available There is well known fact that kidney transplants from Extended Criteria Donors may increase risk of De- layed Graft Function and Primary Non-Function of transplants. We have collected and tested 65 «zero» kidney biopsies from cadaver donors aged from 19 to 71 years old. In the pool of elderly donors who died from cerebrovascular accident the frequency of nephrosclerosis presentation was higher than in donors of yonger age who died from craniocephalic trauma. Nevertheless in the general donor pool the number of sclerosed glomeruli was no more than 12%. We did not meet at all in the whole volume of material any bi- opsy with the severe degree of arteriosclerosis. The «zero» biopsies of cadaver kidneys is quite usable and unexpensive tool to measure the degree of nephrosclerosis in order to exclude kidneys which are not fitable for transplantation.
As increasing demand for organs is a challenge for transplant services worldwide it is essential to audit the process of organ donation. To address this, a national audit of potential organ donors was undertaken across hospitals with Intensive Care Units (N = 36). Questionnaires were returned on all patients (n = 2073) who died in these units from 1\\/9\\/07-31\\/8\\/08; 200 (10%) of these patients were considered for Brain Stem Testing (BST), 158 patients (79%) were diagnosed Brain Stem Dead (BSD) and 138 patients (87%) became potential donors. Consent for donation was given by 92 (69%) next of kin and 90 potential donors (65%) became organ donors. There was no evidence of a large number of potential organ donors being missed. Recommendations included completion of BSTs on all appropriate patients, development of support on BST, referral of all BSD patients to the Organ Procurement Service; enhanced co-ordination within hospitals and sustained information\\/education campaigns.
Full Text Available When transplantation started all organs were retrieved from patients immediately after cardio-respiratory arrest, i.e. from nonheart-beating donors. After the recognition that death resulted from irreversible damage to the brainstem, organ retrieval rapidly switched to patients certified dead after [...] brainstem testing. These heart-beating-donors have become the principal source of organs for transplantation for the last 30 years. The number of heart-beating-donors are declining and this is likely to continue, therefore cadaveric organs from non-heart-beating donor offers a large potential of resources for organ transplantation. The aim of this study is to examine clinical outcomes of non-heart-beating donors in the past 10 years in the UK as an way of decreasing pressure in the huge waiting list for organs transplantation.
Full Text Available Until recently, it has not been put much emphasis on obesity in children and the view of “obese child is healthy” is widely accepted by families. However, understanding that a close relation exists between obesity prevalence and childhood obesity, which increased in recent years both across the world and in our country, and many diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases changed the opinion of both of health care professionals and the society about childhood obesity in Turkey, like it changed the opinion in all around the world. Although there are no studies in our country, which have been conducted to investigate obesity prevalence and affecting factors in children nationwide, it is reported in studies carried out in various cities that rate of overweight children in preschool children is between 4-13%, whereas rate of obese children is between 9-27%. In the literature, a positive correlation was found between the frequency of taking the children to fast-food restaurants, compelling children to eat foods on their dishes, one or two of the parents being obese and obesity of children in Turkey. In this review will focus on the risk factors of childhood obesity in Turkey. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2013; 11: 27-30
Full Text Available Introduction. Blood groups are inherited biological characteristics that do not change throughout life in healthy people. Blood groups represent antigens found on the surface of red blood cells. Kell blood group system consists of 31 antigens. Kell antigen (K is present in 0.2% of the population (the rare blood group. Cellano antigen is present in more than 99% (the high-frequency antigen. These antigens have a distinct ability to cause an immune response in the people after blood transfusion or pregnancy who, otherwise, did not have them before. Case Report. This paper presents a blood donor with a rare blood group, who was found to have an irregular antibody against red blood cells by indirect antiglobulin test. Further testing determined the specificity of antibody to be anti-Cellano. The detected antibody was found in high titers (1024 with erythrocyte phenotype Kell-Cellano+. The blood donor was found to have a rare blood group KellKell. This donor was excluded from further blood donation. It is difficult to find compatible blood for a person who has developed an antibody to the high-frequency antigen. The donor’s family members were tested and Cellano antigen was detected in her husband and child. A potential blood donor was not found among the family members. There was only one blood donor in the Register of blood donors who was compatible in the ABO and Kell blood group system. Conclusion. For the successful management of blood transfusion it is necessary to establish a unified national register of donors of rare blood groups and cooperate with the International Blood Group Reference Laboratory in Bristol with the database that registers donors of rare blood groups from around the world.
Ismail, M N; Chee, S S; Nawawi, H; Yusoff, K; Lim, T O; James, W P T
This study was undertaken to assess the recent data on Malaysian adult body weights and associations of ethnic differences in overweight and obesity with comorbid risk factors, and to examine measures of energy intake, energy expenditure, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and physical activity changes in urban and rural populations of normal weight. Three studies were included (1) a summary of a national health morbidity survey conducted in 1996 on nearly 29 000 adults > or =20 years of age; (2) a study comparing energy intake, BMR and physical activity levels (PALs) in 409 ethnically diverse, healthy adults drawn from a population of 1165 rural and urban subjects 18-60 years of age; and (3) an examination of the prevalence of obesity and comorbid risk factors that predict coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes in 609 rural Malaysians aged 30-65 years. Overweight and obesity were calculated using body mass index (BMI) measures and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Energy intake was assessed using 3-d food records, BMR and PALs were assessed with Douglas bags and activity diaries, while hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and glucose intolerance were specified using standard criteria. The National Health Morbidity Survey data revealed that in adults, 20.7% were overweight and 5.8% obese (0.3% of whom had BMI values of >40.0 kg m(-2)); the prevalence of obesity was clearly greater in women than in men. In women, obesity rates were higher in Indian and Malay women than in Chinese women, while in men the Chinese recorded the highest obesity prevalences followed by the Malay and Indians. Studies on normal healthy subjects indicated that the energy intake of Indians was significantly lower than that of other ethnic groups. In women, Malays recorded a significantly higher energy intake than the other groups. Urban male subjects consumed significantly more energy than their rural counterparts, but this was not the case in women. In both men and women, fat intakes (%) were significantly higher in Chinese and urban subjects. Men were moderately active with the exception of the Dayaks. Chinese women were considerably less active than Chinese men. Chinese and Dayak women were less active than Malay and Indian women. In both men and women, Indians recorded the highest PALs. Hence, current nutrition and health surveys reveal that Malaysians are already affected by western health problems. The escalation of obesity, once thought to be an urban phenomenon, has now spread to the rural population at an alarming rate. As Malaysia proceeds rapidly towards a developed economy status, the health of its population will probably continue to deteriorate. Therefore, a national strategy needs to be developed to tackle both dietary and activity contributors to the excess weight gain of the Malaysian population. PMID:12164473
Aguilar-Valles, Argel; Inoue, Wataru; Rummel, Christoph; Luheshi, Giamal N
Global levels of obesity are reaching epidemic proportions, leading to a dramatic increase in incidence of secondary diseases and the significant economic burden associated with their treatment. These comorbidities include diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some psychopathologies, which have been linked to a low-grade inflammatory state. Obese individuals exhibit an increase in circulating inflammatory mediators implicated as the underlying cause of these comorbidities. A number of these molecules are also manufactured and released by white adipose tissue (WAT), in direct proportion to tissue mass and are collectively known as adipokines. In the current review we focused on the role of two of the better-studied members of this family namely, leptin and adiponectin, with particular emphasis on their role in neuro-immune interactions, neuroinflammation and subsequent brain diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Neuroimmunology and Synaptic Function'. PMID:25582291
Carr, Katelyn A; Daniel, Tinuke Oluyomi; Lin, Henry; Epstein, Leonard H.
Obesity is, in part, a result of positive energy balance or energy intake exceeding physiological needs. Excess energy intake is determined by a series of food choices over time. These choices involve both motivational and executive function processes. Problems arise when there is excessive motivation to eat and low impulse control, a situation we have termed reinforcement pathology. Motivational and executive function processes have also been implicated in the development of drug dependence ...
Lee, Hansongyi; Lee, In Seok; Choue, Ryowon
Obesity is a state in which there is an over-accumulation of subcutaneous and/or abdominal adipose tissue. This adipose tissue is no longer considered inert and mainly devoted to storing energy; it is emerging as an active tissue in the regulation of physiological and pathological processes, including immunity and inflammation. Adipose tissue produces and releases a variety of adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin), as well as pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necr...
The high prevalence of obesity and diabetes will lead to higher rates of morbidity and mortality. The search for drugs to treat these metabolic disorders has, therefore, intensified. The stomach-derived peptide ghrelin regulates food intake and body weight. Recent work suggests that ghrelin also controls glucose metabolism. In addition, current evidence suggests that most of the actions of ghrelin could contribute to the metabolic syndrome. The ghrelin signaling system is, therefore, a promis...
Liu, Junli; Lee, Jaemin; Salazar Hernandez, Mario Andres; Mazitschek, Ralph; Ozcan, Umut
Despite all modern advances in medicine, an effective drug treatment of obesity has not been found yet. Discovery of leptin two decades ago created hopes for treatment of obesity. However, development of leptin resistance has been a big obstacle, mitigating a leptin-centric treatment of obesity. Here, by using in silico drug-screening methods, we discovered that Celastrol, a pentacyclic triterpene extracted from the roots of Tripterygium Wilfordi (thunder god vine) plant, is a powerful anti-obesity agent. Celastrol suppresses food intake, blocks reduction of energy expenditure, and leads to up to 45% weight loss in hyperleptinemic diet-induced obese (DIO) mice by increasing leptin sensitivity, but it is ineffective in leptin-deficient (ob/ob) and leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mouse models. These results indicate that Celastrol is a leptin sensitizer and a promising agent for the pharmacological treatment of obesity. PMID:26000480
Lucas, Molly V; Anderson, Laura C; Bolling, Danielle Z; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Kaiser, Martha D
This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study examined experiencing and imagining gentle arm and palm touch to determine whether these processes activate overlapping or distinct brain regions. Although past research shows brain responses to experiencing and viewing touch, this study investigates neural processing of touch absent of visual stimulation. C-tactile (CT) nerves, present in hairy skin, respond specifically to caress-like touch. CT-targeted touch activates "social brain" regions including insula, right posterior superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, temporal poles, and orbitofrontal cortex ( McGlone et al. 2012). We addressed whether activations reflect sensory input-driven mechanisms, cognitive-based mechanisms, or both. We identified a functional dissociation between insula regions. Posterior insula responded during experienced touch. Anterior insula responded during both experienced and imagined touch. To isolate stimulus-independent mechanisms recruited during physical experience of CT-targeted touch, we identified regions active to experiencing and imagining such touch. These included amygdala and temporal pole. We posit that the dissociation of insula function suggests posterior and anterior insula involvement in distinct yet interacting processes: coding physical stimulation and affective interpretation of touch. Regions active during experiencing and imagining CT-targeted touch are associated with social processes indicating that imagining touch conjures affective aspects of experiencing such touch. PMID:24700583
Full Text Available Deceased organ donors in an intensive care unit (ICU are the richest source of organs for transplantation. Careful donor maintenance plays a vital role in the successful functioning of the organ in the recipient. Aims : Early identification of brain stem death (BSD in the ICU, problems and management in donor maintenance till retrieval are the main objectives. Materials and Methods : BSD was identified in a level I trauma center over a period of eight years (1996-2004 using UK code. After screening for fitness, they were maintained to achieve normothermia, systolic BP > 90 mm Hg, CVP 8-10 cm water, urine output > 80 ml/hour and normal acid base balance. Results: 168 cases of BSD were maintained, 30 with identity unknown. Common transient complications noted were hypotension (68%, hypokalemia (62%, hypothermia (12%, diabetes insipidus (70%. Brain stem death was identified early and resuscitated to maintain normal tissue perfusion. 17 (12.3% consent for organ donation was obtained. Organs (24 kidneys and one liver were retrieved from 12 donors. Four donors sustained cardiac arrest before retrieval. Conclusion: Early recognition of brain stem death and prompty correction of hemodyanamic instability is the key to deceased donor maintenance. Optimal care of potential donor translates to care of multiple recipients.
Kalra, Gurvinder; De Sousa, Avinash; Sonavane, Sushma; Shah, Nilesh
Pediatric obesity is a major health problem and has reached epidemiological proportions today. The present paper reviews major psychological issues in pediatric obesity from a developmental perspective. Research and literature has shown that a number of developmental, family, maternal and child factors are responsible in the genesis of pediatric obesity. Family food habits, early developmental lifestyle of the child, parenting, early family relationships and harmony all contribute towards the...
Lee, Edward B
Obesity has various deleterious effects on health largely associated with metabolic abnormalities including abnormal glucose and lipid homeostasis that are associated with vascular injury and known cardiac, renal, and cerebrovascular complications. Advanced age is also associated with increased adiposity, decreased lean mass, and increased risk for obesity-related diseases. Although many of these obesity- and age-related disease processes have long been subsumed to be secondary to metabolic o...
Salazar, Maria L.; Eiland, Lea S
Childhood obesity is increasing in prevalence in the United States. Comorbid diseases once thought of as adult issues such as hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, are now being encountered in the pediatric population as a result of obesity. Primary prevention is still the most cost-effective approach to this growing problem. In terms of management, the treatment of obesity in children is not identical to that in adults. Thus far, the only accepted weight loss therapy for children are die...
Sutin, Angelina R.; Terracciano, Antonio
Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index?30; BMI) by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk ...
Koehly, Laura M; Loscalzo, Aunchalee
The prevalence of overweight among children worldwide is growing at an alarming rate. Social relationships may contribute to the development of obesity through the interaction of biological, behavioral, and environmental factors. Although there is evidence that early environment influences the expression of obesity, very little research elucidates the social context of obesity among children or adolescents. Social network approaches can contribute to research on the role of social environment...
... NBME) to administer the annual credentialing exam. Obesity Medicine Physician An obesity medicine physician is a physician with expertise in the sub-specialty of obesity medicine. This sub-specialty requires competency in and a ...
... six studies on the effects of exercise for obese children and teenagers. On average, the studies found no ... Brisbane. Past studies, he said, have shown that obese children often become obese adults, when they'll face ...
... Read the MMWR Science Clips Progress on Childhood Obesity Many States Show Declines Language: English Español (Spanish) ... 8 preschoolers is obese in the US. 19 Obesity among low-income preschoolers declined, from 2008 through ...
Full Text Available ... medlineplus/videos/news/Severe_Obesity_100215.html Health Effects of Severe Obesity in Childhood HealthDay News Video - ... as effective at higher levels of obesity. They stress there is a need for early identification of ...
Gurevich-Panigrahi, Tatiana; Panigrahi, Soumya; Wiechec, Emilia; Los, Marek
Obesity is an increasingly serious socioeconomic and clinical problem. Between (1/4)-(1/3) of population in the developed countries can be classified as obese. Four major etiological factors for development of obesity are genetic determinants, environmental factors, food intake and exercise. Obesity increases the risk of the development of various pathologic conditions including: insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, endocrine problems, and certain forms of cancer. Thus, obesity is a negative determinant for longevity. In this review we provide broad overview of pathophysiology of obesity. We also discuss various available, and experimental therapeutic methods. We highlight functions of adipocytes including fat storing capacity and secretory activity resulting in numerous endocrine effects like leptin, IL-6, adiponectin, and resistin. The anti-obesity drugs are classified according to their primary action on energy balance. Major classes of these drugs are: appetite suppressants, inhibitors of fat absorption (i.e. orlistat), stimulators of thermogenesis and stimulators of fat mobilization. The appetite suppressants are further divided into noradrenergic agents, (i.e. phentermine, phendimetrazine, benzphetamine, diethylpropion), serotoninergic agents (i.e. dexfenfluramine), and mixed noradrenergic-serotoninergic agents (i.e. sibutramine). Thus, we highlight recent advances in the understanding of the central neural control of energy balance, current treatment strategies for obesity and the most promising targets for the development of novel anti-obesity drugs. PMID:19199918
Ellekilde, Merete; Selfjord, Ellika
Transferring gut microbiota from one individual to another may enable researchers to "humanize'' the gut of animal models and transfer phenotypes between species. To date, most studies of gut microbiota transfer are performed in germ-free mice. In the studies presented, it was tested whether an antibiotic treatment approach could be used instead. C57BL/6 mice were treated with ampicillin prior to inoculation at weaning or eight weeks of age with gut microbiota from lean or obese donors. The gut microbiota and clinical parameters of the recipients was characterized one and six weeks after inoculation. The results demonstrate, that the donor gut microbiota was introduced, established, and changed the gut microbiota of the recipients. Six weeks after inoculation, the differences persisted, however alteration of the gut microbiota occurred with time within the groups. The clinical parameters of the donor phenotype were partly transmissible from obese to lean mice, in particularly beta cell hyperactivity in the obese recipients. Thus, a successful inoculation of gut microbiota was not age dependent in order for the microbes to colonize, and transferring different microbial compositions to conventional antibiotic-treated mice was possible at least for a time period during which the microbiota may permanently modulate important host functions.
Indra Narang; Mathew, Joseph L
The global epidemic of childhood and adolescent obesity and its immediate as well as long-term consequences for obese individuals and society as a whole cannot be overemphasized. Obesity in childhood and adolescence is associated with an increased risk of adult obesity and clinically significant consequences affecting the cardiovascular and metabolic systems. Importantly, obesity is additionally complicated by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), occurring in up to 60% of obese children. OSA, which...
Full Text Available The presence of anti-lymphocytes antibodies is associated with the occurrence of acute rejection after kidney transplantation but few is known on their role after the rejection episode. We conducted a retrospective study in kidney transplant recipients who experienced a biopsy proven acute rejection episode to analyse the influence of anti-lymphocytes antibodies on clinical outcome. Anti-lymphocytes antibodies were detected before and after transplantation and characterized for isotype, class I and class II targets and donor specificity. 76 kidney recipients were included and analysed for steroid resistance of acute rejection, serum creatinine and 1-year actual graft survival. The presence of anti-lymphocytes antibodies was noticed in 80% of patients. Anti-lymphocytes antibodies were associated with more frequent steroid resistant rejection episodes, higher creatinine at discharge and throughout the first year post transplantation and with a worse graft survival, at the condition they were of the IgG isotype, donor-specific, and they recognized class II targets. We conclude that donor-specific anti-class II IgG antibodies are deleterious in the subgroup of kidney transplant recipients who develope an acute rejection.
Full Text Available Aim of this research was to describe the nature, direction and severity of anticipated and experienced discrimination reported by people with schizophrenia. We applied interview to 50 patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia in two psychiatric hospitals in Belgrade. Discrimination was measured with discrimination and stigma scale (DISC which produce 3 subscores, positive experienced discrimination, negative experienced discrimination and anticipated discrimination. The same scale was used in cross-cultural research in 27 european countries. Results have shown that participants from Serbia do not recognize discrimination in all areas of life equally. The discrimination recognized is more frequentlly negative then positive and is associated with existentially important realms of life. Due to anticipated discrimination participants in our study prevent themselves from looking for a close relationship. Anticipated discrimination could not be predicted on the grounds of experienced, positive or negative discrimination.
Zach Ferraro; Adamo, Kristi B.
Global increases in obesity have led public health experts to declare this disease a pandemic. Although prevalent in all ages, the dire consequences associated with maternal obesity have a pronounced impact on the long-term health of their children as a result of the intergenerational effects of developmental programming. Previously, fetal under-nutrition has been linked to the predisposition to pediatric obesity explained by the adiposity rebound and ‘catch-up’ growth that occurs when a chil...
Nobel, Yael R; Forde, Kimberly A; Wood, Linda; Cartiera, Katarzyna; Munoz-Abraham, Armando S; Yoo, Peter S; Abt, Peter L; Goldberg, David S
Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is a comparable alternative to deceased donor liver transplantation and can mitigate the risk of dying while waiting for transplant. Although evidence exists of decreased utilization of living donor kidney transplants among racial minorities, little is known about access to LDLT among racial/ethnic minorities. We used Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network/United Network for Organ Sharing data from February 27, 2002 to June 4, 2014 from all adult liver transplant recipients at LDLT-capable transplant centers to evaluate differential utilization of LDLTs based on race/ethnicity. We then used data from 2 major urban transplant centers to analyze donor inquiries and donor rule-outs based on racial/ethnic determination. Nationally, of 35,401 total liver transplant recipients performed at a LDLT-performing transplant center, 2171 (6.1%) received a LDLT. In multivariate generalized estimating equation models, racial/ethnic minorities were significantly less likely to receive LDLTs when compared to white patients. For cholestatic liver disease, the odds ratios of receiving LDLT based on racial/ethnic group for African American, Hispanic, and Asian patients compared to white patients were 0.35 (95% CI, 0.20-0.60), 0.58 (95% CI, 0.34-0.99), and 0.11 (95% CI, 0.02-0.55), respectively. For noncholestatic liver disease, the odds ratios by racial/ethnic group were 0.53 (95% CI, 0.40-0.71), 0.78 (95% CI, 0.64-0.94), and 0.45 (95% CI, 0.33-0.60) respectively. Transplant center-specific data demonstrated that African American patients received fewer per-patient donation inquiries than white patients, whereas fewer African American potential donors were ruled out for obesity. In conclusion, racial/ethnic minorities receive a disproportionately low percentage of LDLTs, due in part to fewer initial inquiries by potential donors. This represents a major inequality in access to a vital health care resource and demands outreach to both patients and potential donors. Liver Transpl 21:904-913, 2015. © 2015 AASLD. PMID:25865817
Dorn, Lisa; Stannard, Jenny
In order to combat the problem of novice bus driver risk, a bus simulator was developed to improve decision-making at hazards that are most often associated with bus crashes. If the simulator is capable of discriminating between novice and experienced bus drivers then it can be argued that it is a valid tool for bus driver training to improve road safety. The purpose of this study then is to investigate whether there are significant differences between experienced and novice bus d...
Gisela Bohm; Hans-Rudiger Pfister
Affective forecasting with respect to two environmental risks (ozone depletion, air pollution) was investigated by studying tourists who travelled to either Australia or Bangkok and were thus confronted with one of these risks. We measured anticipated outcome and anticipated emotions before the journey, actually experienced outcome and actually experienced emotions during the journey, and anticipated outcome and emotions concerning a future encounter with the same risk after the journey. Resu...
Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood was collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff want to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.
Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood were collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff wish to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.
Groves, A. R.; Lawrence, J.C.
An alginate fibre dressing has been used to reduce blood loss from skin graft donor sites. Significant haemostasis has been achieved in the immediate post surgery phase and no adverse reactions observed.
Full Text Available Background: Our blood bank is a regional blood transfusion centre, which accepts blood only from voluntary donors. Aim: The aim is to study iron status of regular voluntary donors who donated their blood at least twice in a year. Materials and Methods: Prior to blood donation, blood samples of 220 male and 30 female voluntary donors were collected. Control included 100 each male and female healthy individuals in the 18- to 60-year age group, who never donated blood and did not have any chronic infection. In the study and control groups, about 10% subjects consumed non-vegetarian diet. After investigation, 85 males and 56 females having haemoglobin (Hb levels above 12.5 g/dl were selected as controls. Donors were divided into ?10, 11-20, 21-50 and> 50 blood donation categories. Majority of the donors in> 50 donation category donated blood four times in a year, whereas the remaining donors donated two to three times per year. Haematological parameters were measured on fully automatic haematology analyzer, serum iron and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC by biochemical methods, ferritin using ELISA kits and transferrin using immunoturbidometry kits. Iron/TIBC ratio x 100 gave percentage of transferrin saturation value. Statistical Analysis: Statistical evaluation was done by mean, standard deviation, pair t -test, ?2 and anova ( F -test. Results: Preliminary analysis revealed that there was no significant difference in the iron profile of vegetarian and non-vegetarian subjects or controls and the donors donating < 20 times. Significant increase or decrease was observed in mean values of various haematological and iron parameters in donors who donated blood for> 20 times ( P < 0.001, compared to controls. Anaemia, iron deficiency and depletion of iron stores were more prevalent in female donors ( P < 0.05 compared to males and especially in those male donors who donated their blood for more than 20 times. Conclusion: Regular voluntary blood donors should receive iron supplementation to prevent iron deficiency and depletion in iron stores.
Vohra, Sandeep; Goyal, Neerav; Gupta, Subash
Living donor liver transplantation is an effective, life sustaining surgical treatment in patients with end-stage liver disease and a successful liver transplant requires a close working relationship between the radiologist and the transplant surgeon. There is extreme variability in hepatic vascular anatomy; therefore, preoperative imaging of potential liver donors is crucial not only in donor selection but also helps the surgeons in planning their surgical approach. In this article, we elabo...
This manuscript is a survey of the halachic attitudes toward organ transplant procedures from a living donor which can be defined as life-saving procedures for the recipient or at least life-prolonging procedures. Three fundamental problems concerning the halachic aspects of such transplantation are discussed in detail: the danger to the donor, donation under coercion, and the sale of organs and tissues. The terms “halacha” and “Jewish law” are defined in the introduction.
When several altruistic donors provide aid to alleviate poverty in another country, they face a common good problem. Solving this problem calls for cooperation and policy integration. But before we conclude in favour of cooperation, we should be aware that mutual aid might have negative effects on domestic policy in the receiving country. The more united and responsible donors act towards the poor in the receiving country, the less responsible does the receiving government act. I study these ...
Kathryn T. Chen; Anthony Olszanski; Jeffrey M. Farma
Donor transmission of melanoma is one of the more common and lethal of recipient malignancies, often presenting with systemic disease. Although some patients may receive durable remission of melanoma following explantation of the allograft and withdrawal of immunosuppression, donor transmission of melanoma is fatal in most patients. Here we present a case of a 44-year-old male who developed metastatic melanoma following renal transplant.
Full Text Available Living donor liver transplantation is an effective, life sustaining surgical treatment in patients with end-stage liver disease and a successful liver transplant requires a close working relationship between the radiologist and the transplant surgeon. There is extreme variability in hepatic vascular anatomy; therefore, preoperative imaging of potential liver donors is crucial not only in donor selection but also helps the surgeons in planning their surgical approach. In this article, we elaborate important aspects in evaluation of potential liver donors on multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT and the utility of MDCT in presurgical assessment of the hepatic parenchyma, relevant hepatic vascular anatomy and segmental liver volumes.
Nadalin, S; Capobianco, I; Königsrainer, I; Harder, B; Königsrainer, A
Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) nowadays represents an important and safe alternative to conventional deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT). A major concern related to the LDLT procedure is still represented by donor safety because a serious operation not without risks must be carried out on a healthy individual. In the present review of the indications for LDLT the technical concepts of donor surgery, criteria for donor selection and evaluation and morbidity and mortality results related to the procedure are presented. In general, the indications for LDLT are almost the same as for DDLT. The donor hepatectomy (right, left or left lateral) is presented in five main phases. The reported morbidity rates vary between 10 % and 60?% and are strongly related to the experience of the transplant center. The currently reported postoperative mortality rates for left and right hepatectomy are 0.1 % and 0.5?%, respectively. The results of LDLT are similar if not even better than those for DDLT depending on the specific indications. PMID:26016710
Splendiani, G; Cipriani, S; Valeri, M; Torlone, N; Vega, A; Tullio, T; Condò, S; Dominijanni, S; Casciani, C U
The availability of cadaveric donor organs is insufficient for actual needs. The organ demand increases by 20% per year. Living donor transplant (LDT) may be a valid therapeutical alternative provided one uses proper criteria. LDT provides many advantages, like improved patient and organ survival, short waiting time, and the possibility to carefully plan the procedure. Potential risks include perioperative mortality and renal dysfunction in the kidney donor. At present, kidney LDTs in Italy represent 8% of the total, with an organ survival rate of 97% after 1 year (vs 93% for cadaveric transplants) and donors mortality rate of almost null. Most LDTs are performed from kinsmen. Presently, law no. 458, 26 June 1967, is in force in Italy for kidney LDT and law no. 453, 16 December 1999, for liver LDT. The foundations of LDT are, of course, the recipient's condition, the donor's motivation, and the altruism of the donation. It is desirable that in the future an increasing number of LDT be performed, supported by a careful, widespread health education regarding organ donation from living subjects and by the possibility to obtain insurance for the donor, which has been considered but never provided by actual laws. PMID:15110560
The present study was carried out on a total number of 116 obese and 23 non-obese control females. Obesity was assessed mainly by body mass index (BMI). Other skinfold thickness e.g. triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, as parameters of obesity assessment were determined in some obese patients. The degree of obesity was assessed by BMI and categorized as follows: i- Mild obesity, BMI=25-30 Kg/m2. ii-Moderate obesity, BMI=31-35 kg/m2. iii-severe obesity, BMI= above 35 kg/m2. Type of fat distribution was assessed by waist/hip circumference ratio (w/H) as :- i-gynoid (lower body segment obesity). (? 0.81) i i- android (upper body segment obesity). (?0.82)
According to data from the National Center for Health Statistics, childhood obesity rates are highest among ethnic minorities. It is very helpful to consider the role of culture when attempting to analyze and explain obesity rates in ethnic minority populations. Culture influences the attitudes and beliefs toward exercise, food and nutrition, and…
... To determine if a child is overweight or obese, experts compare BMI levels of children at the same age to each other. They ... than 95% (95 out of 100) of other children their age and sex, they are considered overweight or obese.
James B. Hunt Jr. Institute for Educational Leadership and Policy, 2008
Childhood obesity is on the rise across the country and in North Carolina, with four times as many children exhibiting signs of obesity now as they did 20 years ago. The costs in terms of medical expenses are staggering, with one estimate putting the cost to North Carolina at $16 million a year. Some North Carolina legislators have expressed…
This podcast is based on the August 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. The rate of obesity among low-income preschoolers has declined, but one in eight is still obese. This program briefly discusses what can be done. Created: 8/6/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 8/6/2013.
Full Text Available ... to informed consent about the risks, benefits and alternatives of weight loss surgery, and everything related. How is morbid obesity managed? The management of morbid obesity generally includes two broad options. Clearly medical therapy is an option for just about every patient, ...
Iantorno, M; Campia, U; Di Daniele, N; Nistico, S; Forleo, G B; Cardillo, C; Tesauro, M
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in obese individuals. Obesity dramatically increases the risk of development of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. This risk appears to originate from disruption in adipose tissue function leading to a chronic inflammatory state and to dysregulation of the endocrine and paracrine actions of adipocyte-derived factors. These, in turn, impair vascular homeostasis and lead to endothelial dysfunction. An altered endothelial cell phenotype and endothelial dysfunction are common among all obesity-related complications. A crucial aspect of endothelial dysfunction is reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. A systemic pro-inflammatory state in combination with hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, oxidative stress and activation of the renin angiotensin system are systemic disturbances in obese individuals that contribute independently and synergistically to decreasing NO bioavailability. On the other hand, pro-inflammatory cytokines are locally produced by perivascular fat and act through a paracrine mechanism to independently contribute to endothelial dysfunction and smooth muscle cell dysfunction and to the pathogenesis of vascular disease in obese individuals. The promising discovery that obesity-induced vascular dysfunction is, at least in part, reversible, with weight loss strategies and drugs that promote vascular health, has not been sufficiently proved to prevent the cardiovascular complication of obesity on a large scale. In this review we discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying inflammation and vascular damage in obese patients. PMID:25001649
Carmen Elena, Contreras; Marcos de, Donato; María Ana, Rivas; Hectorina, Rodulfo; Robert, Mora; María Eulalia, Batista; Norka, Marcano.
Full Text Available In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic are [...] as of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species) and malaria antigen (Plasmodium falciparum only) in samples from Venezuelan blood donors (n = 762). All samples were further studied by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The antibody results showed that P. falciparum-infected patients had a lower sample/cut-off ratio than Plasmodium vivax-infected patients. Conversely, a higher ratio for antigen was observed among all P. falciparum-infected individuals. Sensitivity and specificity were higher for malarial antigens (100 and 99.8%) than for antibodies (82.2 and 97.4%). Antibody-positive donors were observed in Caracas, Ciudad Bolívar, Puerto Ayacucho and Cumaná, with prevalences of 1.02, 1.60, 3.23 and 3.63%, respectively. No PCR-positive samples were observed among the donors. However, our results show significant levels of seropositivity in blood donors, suggesting that more effective measures are required to ensure that transfusion transmission does not occur.
Carmen Elena Contreras
Full Text Available In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species and malaria antigen (Plasmodium falciparum only in samples from Venezuelan blood donors (n = 762. All samples were further studied by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The antibody results showed that P. falciparum-infected patients had a lower sample/cut-off ratio than Plasmodium vivax-infected patients. Conversely, a higher ratio for antigen was observed among all P. falciparum-infected individuals. Sensitivity and specificity were higher for malarial antigens (100 and 99.8% than for antibodies (82.2 and 97.4%. Antibody-positive donors were observed in Caracas, Ciudad Bolívar, Puerto Ayacucho and Cumaná, with prevalences of 1.02, 1.60, 3.23 and 3.63%, respectively. No PCR-positive samples were observed among the donors. However, our results show significant levels of seropositivity in blood donors, suggesting that more effective measures are required to ensure that transfusion transmission does not occur.
Elias, David-Neto; Patricia Soares, Souza; Nicolas, Panajotopoulos; Helcio, Rodrigues; Carlucci Gualberto, Ventura; Daisa Silva Ribeiro, David; Francine Brambate Carvalhinho, Lemos; Fabiana, Agena; William Carlos, Nahas; Jorge Elias, Kalil; Maria Cristina Ribeiro, Castro.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The significance of pretransplant, donor-specific antibodies on long-term patient outcomes is a subject of debate. This study evaluated the impact and the presence or absence of donor-specific antibodies after kidney transplantation on short- and long-term graft outcomes. METHODS: We anal [...] yzed the frequency and dynamics of pretransplant donor-specific antibodies following renal transplantation from a randomized trial that was conducted from 2002 to 2004 and correlated these findings with patient outcomes through 2009. Transplants were performed against a complement-dependent T- and B-negative crossmatch. Pre- and posttransplant sera were available from 94 of the 118 patients (80%). Antibodies were detected using a solid-phase (LuminexH), single-bead assay, and all tests were performed simultaneously. RESULTS: Sixteen patients exhibited pretransplant donor-specific antibodies, but only 3 of these patients (19%) developed antibody-mediated rejection and 2 of them experienced early graft losses. Excluding these 2 losses, 6 of 14 patients exhibited donor-specific antibodies at the final follow-up exam, whereas 8 of these patients (57%) exhibited complete clearance of the donor-specific antibodies. Five other patients developed ''de novo'' posttransplant donor-specific antibodies. Death-censored graft survival was similar in patients with pretransplant donor-specific and non-donor-specific antibodies after a mean follow-up period of 70 months. CONCLUSION: Pretransplant donor-specific antibodies with a negative complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch are associated with a risk for the development of antibody-mediated rejection, although survival rates are similar when patients transpose the first months after receiving the graft. Our data also suggest that early posttransplant donor-specific antibody monitoring should increase knowledge of antibody dynamics and their impact on long-term graft outcome.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The significance of pretransplant, donor-specific antibodies on long-term patient outcomes is a subject of debate. This study evaluated the impact and the presence or absence of donor-specific antibodies after kidney transplantation on short- and long-term graft outcomes. METHODS: We analyzed the frequency and dynamics of pretransplant donor-specific antibodies following renal transplantation from a randomized trial that was conducted from 2002 to 2004 and correlated these findings with patient outcomes through 2009. Transplants were performed against a complement-dependent T- and B-negative crossmatch. Pre- and posttransplant sera were available from 94 of the 118 patients (80%. Antibodies were detected using a solid-phase (LuminexH, single-bead assay, and all tests were performed simultaneously. RESULTS: Sixteen patients exhibited pretransplant donor-specific antibodies, but only 3 of these patients (19% developed antibody-mediated rejection and 2 of them experienced early graft losses. Excluding these 2 losses, 6 of 14 patients exhibited donor-specific antibodies at the final follow-up exam, whereas 8 of these patients (57% exhibited complete clearance of the donor-specific antibodies. Five other patients developed ''de novo'' posttransplant donor-specific antibodies. Death-censored graft survival was similar in patients with pretransplant donor-specific and non-donor-specific antibodies after a mean follow-up period of 70 months. CONCLUSION: Pretransplant donor-specific antibodies with a negative complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch are associated with a risk for the development of antibody-mediated rejection, although survival rates are similar when patients transpose the first months after receiving the graft. Our data also suggest that early posttransplant donor-specific antibody monitoring should increase knowledge of antibody dynamics and their impact on long-term graft outcome.
Munnelly, Patricia; Feehan, S
The high incidence of obesity in Ireland is of growing concern. The Irish Universities Nutrition Alliance North/South Food Consumption Survey found that 18 % of the population are obese and 39% overweight. Obesity and overweight increase the risk of developing CHD, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and some forms of cancer. It is well accepted that the best treatment for obesity is a combination of energy intake reduction and regular exercise. Previously, dietary compliance has been shown to improve when monitored on a regular basis. The lengthy delay between clinic visits to the dietitian has been reported by those who failed to lose weight to be the main reason for poor compliance. A weight monitoring clinic was designed to offer those requiring regular support and encouragement the opportunity to monitor their weights on a more regular basis, while waiting for their return visit to the dietitian in the Outpatient Departments. As resources were limited, an efficient use of time was essential. The clinic design was: 1 h/week; eight to fourteen appointments per clinic; weekly or fortnightly visit; return patients only. The clinic was started on a trial basis in June 1999, and was evaluated in December 2000. Referrals were only taken from other dietitians, and each participant was informed in advance of the necessity of having a return Outpatient Department appointment for full dietary review. Forty-eight participants attended more than three times up to and including December 2000 (seven males, forty-one females). The number of clinic visits ranged from three to twenty-eight. Mean weight at start of clinic was 92.94 kg. Of the group attending, 67 % (thirty-two) successfully lost weight and maintained this weight loss. This ranged from 0.1 kg to 23.5 kg. While in total 31% (fifteen) of attendees had gained weight at December 2000, all attendees, including this fifteen, had lost weight at some point during the clinic. Self-reported reasons given for weight regain included: (1) non-attendance at weight clinic (40%); (2) Christmas or holidays (13%); (3) stress related to family, work (13%); (4) ill-health or medication (13%). The remaining 20% reported no reason. Other findings included better compliance with diet and improved overall balance. There was an overall improvement in other dietary-related problems, e.g. reduced cholesterol, improved glycaemic control, reduced blood pressure. The participants attending the clinic reported decreased clothes size and improved self-image and confidence. They were more enthusiastic about dietary compliance, and all attendees expressed their satisfaction with the clinic and the service. PMID:12002800
Morris, Stephen; Gravelle, Hugh
We investigate the relationship between area general practitioner (GP) supply and individual body mass index (BMI) in England. Individual level BMI is regressed against area whole time equivalent GPs per 1000 population plus a large number of individual and area level covariates. We use instrumental variables (area house prices and age weighted capitation) to allow for the endogeneity of GP supply. We find that that a 10% increase in GP supply is associated with a mean reduction in BMI of around 1kg/m(2) (around 4% of mean BMI). The results suggest that reduced list sizes per GP can improve the management of obesity. PMID:18420294
Merchant Anwar T
Full Text Available Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Consequently, both over-consumption of calories and reduced physical activity are involved in childhood obesity. Almost all researchers agree that prevention could be the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic of obesity. Prevention may include primary prevention of overweight or obesity, secondary prevention or prevention of weight regains following weight loss, and avoidance of more weight increase in obese persons unable to lose weight. Until now, most approaches have focused on changing the behaviour of individuals in diet and exercise. It seems, however, that these strategies have had little impact on the growing increase of the obesity epidemic. While about 50% of the adults are overweight and obese in many countries, it is difficult to reduce excessive weight once it becomes established. Children should therefore be considered the priority population for intervention strategies. Prevention may be achieved through a variety of interventions targeting built environment, physical activity, and diet. Some of these potential strategies for intervention in children can be implemented by targeting preschool institutions, schools or after-school care services as natural setting for influencing the diet and physical activity. All in all, there is an urgent need to initiate prevention and treatment of obesity in children.
Wyverkens, Elia; Van Parys, Hanna; Buysse, Ann
In this qualitative evidence synthesis, we explore how family relationships are experienced by parents who used gamete donation to conceive. We systematically searched four databases (PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and ProQuest) for literature related to this topic and retrieved 25 studies. Through the analysis of the qualitative studies, a comprehensive synthesis and framework was constructed. Following the meta-ethnography approach of Noblit and Hare, four main themes were identified: (a) balancing the importance of genetic and social ties, (b) normalizing and legitimizing the family, (c) building strong family ties, and (d) minimizing the role of the donor. Underlying these four main themes, a sense of being "different" and "similar" at the same time was apparent. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for studying and counseling donor-conceived families. PMID:25316692
Wright Neil P
Full Text Available Abstract Background While obesity is known to have many physiological consequences, the psychopathology of this condition has not featured prominently in the literature. Cross-sectional studies have indicated that obese children have increased odds of experiencing poor quality of life and mental health. However, very limited trial evidence has examined the efficacy of exercise therapy for enhancing mental health outcomes in obese children, and the Sheffield Obesity Trial (SHOT will provide evidence of the efficacy of supervised exercise therapy in obese young people aged 11–16 years versus usual care and an attention-control intervention. Method/design SHOT is a randomised controlled trial where obese young people are randomised to receive; (1 exercise therapy, (2 attention-control intervention (involving body-conditioning exercises and games that do not involve aerobic activity, or (3 usual care. The exercise therapy and attention-control sessions will take place three times per week for eight weeks and a six-week home programme will follow this. Ninety adolescents aged between 11–16 years referred from a children's hospital for evaluation of obesity or via community advertisements will need to complete the study. Participants will be recruited according to the following criteria: (1 clinically obese and aged 11–16 years (Body Mass Index Centile > 98th UK standard (2 no medical condition that would restrict ability to be active three times per week for eight weeks and (3 not diagnosed with insulin dependent diabetes or receiving oral steroids. Assessments of outcomes will take place at baseline, as well as four (intervention midpoint and eight weeks (end of intervention from baseline. Participants will be reassessed on outcome measures five and seven months from baseline. The primary endpoint is physical self-perceptions. Secondary outcomes include physical activity, self-perceptions, depression, affect, aerobic fitness and BMI.
Records, Kathie; Keller, Colleen; Coonrod, Dean; Ainsworth, Barbara; Todd, Michael; Belyea, Michael; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Permana, Paska; Vega Lopez, Sonia
Depression symptoms and overweight/obesity are common concerns during childbearing. Both conditions are associated with poor outcomes at birth and can have long-lasting consequences. Predictors of depressive symptoms among overweight and obese low-income and ethnically diverse women are not known. Data are from the Madres para la Salud trial with 139 postpartum Latinas. Depressive symptoms during a prior pregnancy were positively related, while social support and moderate intensity physical activity (PA) were negatively related to depressive symptoms after birth. Social support and PA may be effective interventions, particularly for women who have experienced depressive symptoms in a prior pregnancy. PMID:25383619
Seong-Ik Baek; Wi-Young So
Background: The pregnancy was a risk factor for excessive weight gain for women. However, there is no information about the prevalence of obesity and its relationship with a history of pregnancy in girls. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate differences in the prevalence of obesity in adolescent females with a history of pregnancy and factors associated with it, in Korea.Methods: In 2009, 69 of 34,247 female students revealed that they had experienced pregnancy in response...
Meade, Christina S.; Wang, Jianping; Lin, Xiuyun; Wu, Hao; Poppen, Paul J.
Throughout the 1990s, many villagers in rural China were infected with HIV through commercial plasma/blood donation. These former plasma/blood donors (FPDs) experienced many HIV-related stressors. This study tested a cognitive appraisal model of stress and coping in a sample of HIV-positive adult FPDs. Participants (N = 207) from multiple villages completed a battery of questionnaires assessing HIV-related stress, HIV symptoms, cognitive appraisal, coping behaviors, and psychological distress...
Full Text Available The seroreactivity pattern amongst blood donors in rural population was studied at S.R.T. Rural Medical College and Hospital, Ambajogai (M. S.. The study period was from January 1996 to December 2001. A total number of 12,240 blood donors were screened. The voluntary donation was 36.98% and replacement donors were 63.02%. No professional donor is bled in our blood bank. The HIV seroreactivity among voluntary donors was 1.56% and 2.11% in replacement donors. The HBsAg seroreactivity was 2.78% in voluntary donors and 4.84% in replacement donors. VDRL seroreactivity is 1.12% in replacement donors. No malarial parasite and HCV seroreactive donor was found in our study period. We have found the magnitude of hepatitis to be far more than that of HIV. Hence testing for HCV routinely is mandatory, besides HBsAg.
Erik E. J. G. Aller
Full Text Available The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages.
Aller, Erik E. J. G.; Abete, Itziar; Astrup, Arne; Martinez, J. Alfredo; van Baak, Marleen A.
The rising prevalence of obesity, not only in adults but also in children and adolescents, is one of the most important public health problems in developed and developing countries. As one possible way to tackle obesity, a great interest has been stimulated in understanding the relationship between different types of dietary carbohydrate and appetite regulation, body weight and body composition. The present article reviews the conclusions from recent reviews and meta-analyses on the effects of different starches and sugars on body weight management and metabolic disturbances, and provides an update of the most recent studies on this topic. From the literature reviewed in this paper, potential beneficial effects of intake of starchy foods, especially those containing slowly-digestible and resistant starches, and potential detrimental effects of high intakes of fructose become apparent. This supports the intake of whole grains, legumes and vegetables, which contain more appropriate sources of carbohydrates associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases, rather than foods rich in sugars, especially in the form of sugar-sweetened beverages. PMID:22254101
Traditional and cyberbullying victimization as correlates of psychosocial distress and barriers to a healthy lifestyle among severely obese adolescents – a matched case–control study on prevalence and results from a cross-sectional study
Background Obese youth are at increased risk for peer victimization, which may heighten their risk of psychosocial problems and physical activity avoidance, and lower the effectiveness of professional and lifestyle weight-loss initiatives. Little is known about obese adolescents’ risk for victimization from cyber-bullying and how this relates to psychosocial functioning and healthy lifestyle barriers. The purpose of the study was to assess traditional and cyber-victimization among adolescents with severe obesity and its relation to psychosocial distress and barriers to healthy lifestyles. Methods A sample of 102 obese adolescents (mean age?=?15.32 ±1.71) in residential treatment was matched with 102 normal-weight youngsters from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study (mean age?=?15.30 ±1.73). Results Adolescents with obesity were significantly more often cyber-victimized than normal-weight peers. Obese youth victimized by traditional bullying experienced lower quality of life, lower motivation for physical activity and higher avoidance and emotional coping towards healthy lifestyles than those non-victimized. Obese cyber-victims experienced significantly higher suicidal ideation. Conclusions Traditional and cyber-victimization may hinder treatment effectiveness and healthy lifestyle change in adolescents with obesity. Health professionals should pro-actively address peer victimization and psychosocial functioning during multidisciplinary obesity treatment. Schools could contribute to a better physical and psychosocial health of obese youth by implementing multi-behavioral health-promotion programs. PMID:24593118
Valapour, M; Kahn, JP; Bailey, R.; Matas, AJ
Living organ donors – 50% of solid organ donors in the United States – represent a unique population who accept medical risk for the benefit of another. One of the main justifications for this practice has been respect for donor autonomy, as realized through informed consent. In this retrospective study of living donors, we investigate 2 key criteria of informed consent: (1) depth of understanding and (2) degree of voluntariness. In our survey of 262 living kidney donors 2 to 40 months post d...
Full Text Available Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to life expectancy and increased health problems. In keeping with the general international trend of rising prevalence of obesity, maternal obesity prevalence is rising. According to WHO, the prevalence of obesity in pregnancy ranges from 1.8 to 25.3%. Maternal obesity has been identified to be a risk factor for maternal and perinatal mortality. The aim of this article was reviewed in research about maternal obesity in Pubmed, which published between 2009 and 2010. 7 reviews and 13 studies was examined and they presented under this headings: impacts of maternal obesity in pregnancy, obstetric outcomes of maternal obesity, postpartum outcomes of maternal obesity, impact of maternal obesity on breastfeeding, impact of maternal obesity on procedure of anomaly scan and risk determination, maternal obesity and fetal complications, impact of maternal obesity on Apgar scores, obesity and infertility, pregnancy following bariatric surgery, long term effects of obesity, management of maternal obesity. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(3.000: 353-364
With American children on course to grow into the most obese generation of adults in history, Sonia Caprio argues that it is critical to develop more effective strategies for preventing childhood obesity and treating serious obesity-related health complications. She notes that although pediatricians are concerned about the obesity problem, most…
Dahl-Petersen, Inger Katrine; Bjerregaard, Peter
Indigenous populations throughout the Arctic are experiencing a rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes. The role of physical activity in relation to glucose metabolism in Arctic populations is not well studied. We examined the association between objectively measured physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and glucose metabolism in a population-based study of adult Inuit in Greenland.
M. B. Avinash
Full Text Available Amino acid interlinked pyrene and naphthalenediimide (NDI based novel donor–acceptor–donor (D-A-D triads are designed to exploit their topological symmetry and complementary ?-character for facile charge-transfer complexation. Consequently, free-floating high-aspect-ratio supercoiled nanofibres and hierarchical helical bundles of triads are realized by modulating the chemical functionality of interlinking amino acids.
Olthoff, Kim M; Emond, Jean C; Shearon, Tempie H; Everson, Greg; Baker, Talia B; Fisher, Robert A; Freise, Chris E; Gillespie, Brenda W; Everhart, James E
Adult-to-adult living donors and recipients were studied to characterize patterns of liver growth and identify associated factors in a multicenter study. Three hundred and fifty donors and 353 recipients in the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study (A2ALL) receiving transplants between March 2003 and February 2010 were included. Potential predictors of 3-month liver volume included total and standard liver volumes (TLV and SLV), Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score (in recipients), the remnant and graft size, remnant-to-donor and graft-to-recipient weight ratios (RDWR and GRWR), remnant/TLV, and graft/SLV. Among donors, 3-month absolute growth was 676?±?251 g (mean?±?SD), and percentage reconstitution was 80%?±?13%. Among recipients, GRWR was 1.3%?±?0.4% (8??0.90 for each). Both donors and recipients had rapid yet incomplete restoration of tissue mass in the first 3 months, and this confirmed previous reports. Recipients achieved a greater percentage of expected total volume. Patient size and recipient graft volume significantly influenced 3-month volumes. Importantly, donor liver volume is a critical predictor of the rate of regeneration, and donor remnant fraction affects postresection function. Liver Transpl 21:79-88, 2015. © 2014 AASLD. PMID:25065488
Carlos, Arroyo; Fernando, Gabilondo; Bernardo, Gabilondo.
Full Text Available Actualmente, por la falta de órganos para trasplante renal provenientes de cadáveres, y debido al largo tiempo de espera por un riñón, existe una tendencia a realizar trasplantes renales utilizando riñones procedentes de donadores vivos. La mayoría de los donadores son familiares del receptor. La do [...] nación de órganos debe considerarse como un regalo con un valor extraordinario y debe facilitarse a los candidatos a donación. En todo el mundo se ha observado un aumento en el número de personas en la lista de espera para un trasplante renal. El trasplante renal de donador vivo se considera actualmente como el mejor método de tratamiento en pacientes con insuficiencia renal terminal, debido a que ofrece la mayor supervivencia a corto y largo plazos. En vista de que existen diferencias significativas en los criterios de selección y evaluación de donadores renales, en especial en un grupo selecto de pacientes añosos o con enfermedades asociadas, es indispensable establecer criterios mínimos de selección. Todos los donadores deberán contar con una historia clínica completa y exámenes de laboratorio y gabinete que permitan su evaluación integral. Estos estudios se describen con detalle en este artículo. También se discuten los criterios para donadores renales con ciertas comorbilidades (obesos, hipertensos, hiperglucémicos, con litiasis y neoplasias) que previamente se descartaban como candidatos para donación. Abstract in english Currently, due to the deficit of cadaveric tissues available for transplantation and due to the long waiting list for a kidney transplant, there is a clear tendency towards living donor kidney transplantations. Most donors are genetically related. Living donation should be considered a gift of extra [...] ordinary value, and should be made easy whenever a suitable donor is available. Worldwide, the number of patients on the waiting lists for a kidney transplantation has increased, in the last decades. Renal transplantation with living donor kidneys, is currently considered the best treatment for patients with end stage renal failure, due to the improved short and long term survival benefits over dialysis treatment. Since considerable difference exist between countries in the evaluation and selection criteria for kidney donors, especially in selected patients such as older donors and those with associated comorbid conditions, it is necessary to discuss and establish minimal selection criteria for this cases. A common trend includes a complete clinical record, laboratory and radiologic evaluation which are described in detail in this paper. We also discuss the increasing acceptance of older kidney donors as well as the acceptance of individuals with comorbidities (such as obesity, hipertensión, hyperglucemia, lithiasis and cancer) that were previously considered as not eligible for kidney donation.
Mitchell, Nia S; Catenacci, Victoria A; Wyatt, Holly R; Hill, James O
The obesity epidemic in the United States has proven difficult to reverse. We have not been successful in helping people sustain the eating and physical activity patterns that are needed to maintain a healthy body weight. There is growing recognition that we will not be able to sustain healthy lifestyles until we are able to address the environment and culture that currently support unhealthy lifestyles. Addressing obesity requires an understanding of energy balance. From an energy balance approach it should be easier to prevent obesity than to reverse it. Further, from an energy balance point of view, it may not be possible to solve the problem by focusing on food alone. Currently, energy requirements of much of the population may be below the level of energy intake than can reasonably be maintained over time. Many initiatives are underway to revise how we build our communities, the ways we produce and market our foods, and the ways we inadvertently promote sedentary behavior. Efforts are underway to prevent obesity in schools, worksites, and communities. It is probably too early to evaluate these efforts, but there have been no large-scale successes in preventing obesity to date. There is reason to be optimistic about dealing with obesity. We have successfully addressed many previous threats to public health. It was probably inconceivable in the 1950s to think that major public health initiatives could have such a dramatic effect on reducing the prevalence of smoking in the United States. Yet, this serious problem was addressed via a combination of strategies involving public health, economics, political advocacy, behavioral change, and environmental change. Similarly, Americans have been persuaded to use seat belts and recycle, addressing two other challenges to public health. But, there is also reason to be pessimistic. Certainly, we can learn from our previous efforts for social change, but we must realize that our challenge with obesity may be greater. In the other examples cited, we had clear goals in mind. Our goals were to stop smoking, increase the use of seatbelts, and increase recycling. The difficulty of achieving these goals should not be minimized, but they were clear and simple goals. In the case of obesity, there is no clear agreement about goals. Moreover, experts do not agree on which strategies should be implemented on a widespread basis to achieve the behavioral changes in the population needed to reverse the high prevalence rates of obesity. We need a successful model that will help us understand what to do to address obesity. A good example is the recent HEALTHY study. This comprehensive intervention was implemented in several schools and aimed to reduce obesity by concentrating on behavior and environment. This intervention delivered most of the strategies we believe to be effective in schools. Although the program produced a reduction in obesity, this reduction was not greater than the reduction seen in the control schools that did not receive the intervention. This does not mean we should not be intervening in schools, but rather that it may require concerted efforts across behavioral settings to reduce obesity. Although we need successful models, there is a great deal of urgency in responding to the obesity epidemic. An excellent example is the effort to get menu labeling in restaurants, which is moving rapidly toward being national policy. The evaluation of this strategy is still ongoing, and it is not clear what impact it will have on obesity rates. We should be encouraging efforts like this, but we must evaluate them rigorously. Once we become serious about addressing obesity, it will likely take decades to reverse obesity rates to levels seen 30 years ago. Meanwhile, the prevalence of overweight and obesity remains high and quite likely will continue to increase. PMID:22098799
Abdelmaboud, M O
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity among an Irish obstetric population over a 10-year period, and to evaluate the obstetric features of such pregnancies. Of 31,869 women delivered during the years 2000-2009, there were 306 women in the study group, including 173 in the moderate or Class 2 obese category (BMI 35-39.9) and 133 in the extreme or Class 3 obese category (BMI > or = 40).The prevalence of obese women with BMI > or = 35 was 9.6 per 1000 (0.96%), with an upward trend observed from 2.1 per 1000 in the year 2000, to 11.8 per 1000 in the year 2009 (P = 0.001). There was an increase in emergency caesarean section (EMCS) risk for primigravida versus multigravid women, within both obese categories (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in EMCS rates observed between Class 2 and Class 3 obese women, when matched for parity. The prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity reported in this population is high, and appears to be increasing. The increased rates of abdominal delivery, and the levels of associated morbidity observed, have serious implications for such women embarking on pregnancy.
McCrindle, Brian W
Childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity is an important and increasingly prevalent public health problem in Canada and worldwide. High adiposity in youth is indicated in clinical practice by plotting body mass index on appropriate percentile charts normed for age and sex, although waist measures might be a further tool. High adiposity can lead to adiposopathy in youth, with associated increases in inflammation and oxidative stress, changes in adipokines, and endocrinopathy. This is manifest as cardiometabolic risk factors in similar patterns to those in noted in obese adults. Obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors have been shown to be associated with vascular changes indicative of early atherosclerosis, and ventricular hypertrophy, dilation, and dysfunction. These cardiovascular consequences are evident in youth, but childhood obesity is also predictive of similar consequences in adulthood. Childhood obesity and risk factors have been shown to track into adulthood and worsen in most individuals. The result is an exponential acceleration of atherosclerosis, which can be predicted to translate into an epidemic of premature cardiovascular disease and events. A change in paradigm is needed toward preventing and curing atherosclerosis and not just preventing cardiovascular disease. This would necessarily create an imperative for preventing and treating childhood obesity. Urgent attention, policy, and action are needed to avoid the enormous future social and health care costs associated with the cardiovascular consequences of obesity in youth. PMID:25661547
We carefully consider observational and theoretical constraints on the global properties of secondary stars in cataclysmic variable stars (CVs). We then use these constraints to construct and test a complete, semi-empirical donor sequence for CVs with orbital periods Porb account for the later-than-MS spectral types of CV donors. There is remarkably little intrinsic scatter in both the mass-radius and SpT-Porb relations, which confirms that most CVs follow a unique evolution track. The donor sequence exhibits a fairly sharp drop in temperature, luminosity and optical/infrared flux well before the minimum period. This may help to explain why the detection of brown dwarf secondaries in CVs has proven to be extremely difficult. We finally apply the donor sequence to the problem of distance estimation. Based on a sample of 22 CVs with trigonometric parallaxes and reliable 2MASS data, we show that the donor sequence correctly traces the upper envelope of the observed MJHK-Porb distribution. Thus robust lower limits on distances can be obtained from single-epoch infrared observations. However, for our sample, these limits are typically about a factor of 2 below the true distances.
Mullins, Mindy McCallum
With the prevalence of obesity escalating globally, an increasing number of patients who are obese are seeking elective or requiring emergency surgery. Certified registered nurse anesthetists are challenged to provide vigilant, safe care. The ability to provide supportive therapy and make anesthetic adjustments is often hindered with obesity. Although technological advancements may enhance patient care delivery, health care providers must question why and how specific tasks are performed. Health care providers should challenge themselves to acquire and evaluate current evidence that enables communication with colleagues, dissemination of findings to health care providers worldwide, and implementation of evidence-based practice. PMID:25999068
Koyuncuo?lu Güngör, Neslihan
Obesity among children, adolescents and adults has emerged as one of the most serious public health concerns in the 21st century. The worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased remarkably over the past 3 decades. The growing prevalence of childhood obesity has also led to appearance of obesity-related comorbid disease entities at an early age. Childhood obesity can adversely affect nearly every organ system and often causes serious consequences, including hypertension, dyslipidem...
The prevalence of obesity (severe overweight) has been increasing in western societies during the last decades. Epidemiological studies to the public health impact of obesity are therefore warranted. This thesis aimed at describing the long-term and recent time trends of obesity in the Netherlands, and to explore the relations between obesity, mortality, morbidity, and disability.The prevalence of obesity, body mass index (BMI)?30.0 kg/m 2, increased steadily in Dutch adults between 1974 and ...
Bruce-Keller, Annadora J.; Jeffrey N. Keller; Morrison, Christopher D.
The incidence of obesity is increasing worldwide, and is especially pronounced in developed western countries. While the consequences of obesity on metabolic and cardiovascular physiology are well established, epidemiological and experimental data are beginning to establish that the central nervous system (CNS) may also be detrimentally affected by obesity and obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction. In particular, data show that obesity in human populations is associated with cognitive decline...
Objective: To study the clinical significance and the relations of leptin and insulin on obesity group. Methods: Leptin and insulin were tested with radioimmunoassay (RIA) in pre-obesity group and obesity group respectively. Results: Serum leptin and insulin levels were significantly elevated in obesity group compare with the controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: Changing with insulin, the elevation of leptin in obesity group has been identified as an important agent of diabetes mellitus (DM)
Lin Hung-Yen; Huang Chih-Kun; Tai Chi-Ming; Lin Hung-Yu; Kao Yu-Hsi; Tsai Ching-Chung; Hsuan Chin-Feng; Lee Su-Long; Chi Shu-Ching; Yen Yung-Chieh
Abstract Background Obese and overweight people have a higher risk of both chronic physical illness and mental illness. Obesity is reported to be positively associated with psychiatric disorders, especially in people who seek obesity treatment. At the same time, obesity treatment may be influenced by psychological factors or personality characteristics. This study aimed to understand the prevalence of mental disorders among ethnic Chinese who sought obesity treatment. Methods Subjects were re...
Childhood obesity is a major public health crisis nationally and internationally. The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased over few years. It is caused by imbalance between calorie intake and calories utilized. One or more factors (genetic, behavioral, and environmental) cause obesity in children. Physical, psychological, and social health problems are caused due to childhood obesity. Hence, effective intervention strategies are being used to prevent and control obesity in children. ...
Goldstein, Zachary H; Yi, Paul H; Haughom, Bryan D; Hellman, Michael D; Levine, Brett R
Disruption of the extensor mechanism as a result of patellar tendon or quadriceps tendon rupture is an uncommon but devastating complication after total knee arthroplasty. Treating a disrupted extensor mechanism can be challenging, particularly in patients who are morbidly obese, due to an increased risk of postoperative complications. Therefore, despite the debilitating nature of extensor mechanism disruption, many community surgeons do not feel comfortable pursuing more complex cases like revision total knee arthroplasty with extensor mechanism allograft on morbidly obese patients, and consequently many of these patients are referred to tertiary-care centers for reconstruction secondary to the complexity of this patient cohort. The authors report 2 cases of bilateral extensor mechanism disruption after total knee arthroplasty in patients who are morbidly obese. One patient experienced trauma leading to her initial rupture; however, her contralateral atraumatic disruption was subsequently diagnosed at a later date. The second patient did not experience trauma leading to either of her extensor mechanism disruptions. Despite substantial medical comorbidities and morbid obesity, revision total knee arthroplasties with extensor mechanism allografts were recommended in both cases in a staged bilateral fashion. The surgical technique is described and the unique challenges afforded by the marked obesity are detailed. The current literature on this subject is reviewed. Despite early complications related to recumbency, this report serves as an example of successful repairs of extensor mechanism disruptions in patients who are morbidly obese, suggesting that extensor mechanism allograft is viable even in patients with high risk of complications. PMID:25970375
Bräuner, Elvira; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
Obesity prevalence has more than doubled globally within the last 30 years and obesity affects quality of life as well as impacts the risks and prognosis for a number of serious diseases. Established causes include a high calorie diet combined with a sedentary lifestyle, but these do not fully explain the epidemic. Evidence from animal experiments suggests that exposure to endocrine disruptors such as PCBs is associated with the development of obesity but our knowledge of the effects of these compounds on weight gain in humans is limited. Our objective was to investigate the association between exposure to PCBs experienced by a general Danish population and abdominal obesity. Adipose tissue was collected upon enrolment of 245 randomly selected persons from a prospective cohort of 57,053 persons enrolled between 1993 and 1997. Abdominal obesity was quantified using self-reported waist circumference 5 years after enrolment. We examined ten polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) as potential determinants. All PCBs included were positively associated with increased abdominal circumference, although this association was not significant. These data do not support the hypotheses of a link between PCBs and waist circumference as suggested by laboratory evidence. More work is needed to fully elucidate the role of compounds such as PCBs in the present obesity epidemic.
Giel Katrin E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight-related stigmatization is a public health problem. It impairs the psychological well-being of obese individuals and hinders them from adopting weight-loss behaviors. We conducted an experimental study to investigate weight stigmatization in work settings using a sample of experienced human resource (HR professionals from a real-life employment setting. Methods In a cross-sectional, computer-based experimental study, a volunteer sample of 127 HR professionals (age: 41.1?±?10.9 yrs., 56% female, who regularly make career decisions about other people, evaluated individuals shown in standardized photographs regarding work-related prestige and achievements. The photographed individuals differed with respect to gender, ethnicity, and Body Mass Index (BMI. Results Participants underestimated the occupational prestige of obese individuals and overestimated it for normal-weight individuals. Obese people were more often disqualified from being hired and less often nominated for a supervisory position, while non-ethnic normal-weight individuals were favored. Stigmatization was most pronounced in obese females. Conclusions The data suggest that HR professionals are prone to pronounced weight stigmatization, especially in women. This highlights the need for interventions targeting this stigmatization as well as stigma-management strategies for obese individuals. Weight stigmatization and its consequences needs to be a topic that is more strongly addressed in clinical obesity care.
Bray, G A
Drugs to treat obesity can be divided into three groups: those which reduce food intake, those which alter metabolism and those which increase thermogenesis. Monoamines acting on noradrenergic receptors, serotonin receptors, dopamine receptors and histamine receptors can reduce food intake. A number of peptides also affect food intake. The noradrenergic drugs phentermine, diethylpropion, mazindol benzphetamine and phendimetrazine are approved only for short-term use. Sibutramine, a norepinephrine-serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, is approved for long-term use. Orlistat inhibits pancreatic lipase and can block 30% of triglyceride hydrolysis in subjects eating a 30% fat diet. The only thermogenic drug combination that has been tested is ephedrine and caffeine, but this treatment has not been approved by regulating agencies. Leptin is currently in clinical trials and other drugs that may modulate peptide-feeding systems are being developed. PMID:10932681
Heiman, Mark L; Witcher, Derrick R
Ghrelin was discovered for its ability to bind the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR1a) and stimulate growth hormone release. However, much research conducted with this novel stomach hormone is focused on proposed roles for it to participate in regulating energy balance. Exogenous administration of ghrelin stimulates food consumption in experimental animals and humans, presenting the hormone as the first to stimulate appetite after peripheral administration and implicates it for an etiology of obesity. The hormone also presents other exceptional characteristics that solicit need for future study. The peptide is modified by acylation with a mediumchain fatty acid on its third residue, and it is that ghrelin peptide that binds GHS-R1a. Enzymes or transfer proteins responsible for such acylation and de-acylation remain unknown. Specific assays for both acyl- and des-acyl ghrelin are not available nor are methods to prevent de-acylation in blood samples. Such knowledge is important because des-acyl ghrelin is reported to bestow biology distinct from that of ghrelin and that signal may actually oppose those prescribed for its acylated parent. This review of ghrelin data relating to obesity recognizes the complexity of ghrelin endocrinology and attempts to be cautious when discussing studies that measured ghrelin during different physiological states. Although much more exploration is needed, we placed more emphasis on reviewing studies during different physiological states when conclusions are less dependent on measurement of ghrelin. Despite these shortcomings, we conclude that there is ample evidence indicating ghrelin participates in regulating energy balance. PMID:18370769
Luis F., García; Jairo H., Marín; Ilia D., Mikhailov.
Full Text Available The ground state energies of off-axis negatively charged donors in axially symmetrical quantum dots, with different shapes but in all cases with a small height-to-base radius aspect ratio are calculated in adiabatic approximation by using the Hylleraas-type trial function. The dependencies of the ne [...] utral and negative donor binding energies and their ratios on the base radius in the pyramid, lens and disk are calculated and compared with previously obtained results for the spherical quantum dot. We also present the contour plots of the binding energies of the neutral and negative donors with different positions along a vertical cross section in the middle of the quantum dots.
Couse, Leslie J.; Russo, H. Lindsey
Growth in the field of early childhood education has placed emphasis on improving quality through leadership and teacher education. With the advancement of the early childhood field, teacher education programs are called upon to develop leaders, challenge experienced teachers and meet professional standards through advanced degree programs.…
Ueno, Mika; Uchiyama, Ichiro; Campos, Joseph J.; Dahl, Audun; Anderson, David I.
Most infants with more than 6 weeks of crawling experience completely avoid the deep side of a visual cliff (Campos, Bertenthal, & Kermoian, 1992; Gibson & Walk, 1960). However, some experienced crawlers do move onto the transparent surface suspended several feet above the ground. An important question is whether these "nonavoiders" lack wariness…
Guarino, Kathleen; Bassuk, Ellen
The prevalence of traumatic stress in the lives of families who are homeless is extraordinarily high. Often these families are headed by single mothers who have experienced ongoing trauma in the form of childhood abuse and neglect, domestic violence, and community violence, as well as the trauma associated with poverty and the loss of home,…
This article draws on the concept of experiencing to highlight a positive connection between resistance and agency, and its potential for teachers' professional development and educational change. The article examines teachers' discourse during a Change Laboratory intervention aimed at developing teaching practices. The intervention was initiated…
Davis, Keith M.
The creative and expressive use of music can be a powerful therapeutic intervention with children and adolescents who have experienced trauma. In this article, a model for increasing self-awareness and self-understanding including materials, facilitation, and processing of musical activities in group format is presented. Creative activities such…
Vitor G.L., Dantas; Lupe, Furtado-Alle; Ricardo L.R., Souza; Eleidi A., Chautard-Freire-Maia.
Full Text Available Ghrelin coded by the GHRL gene is related to weight-gain, its deactivation possibly depending on its hydrolyzation by butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) encoded by the BCHE gene, an enzyme already associated with the body mass index (BMI). The aim was to search for relationships between SNPs of the GHRL a [...] nd BCHE genes with BChE activity, BMI and obesity in 144 obese and 153 nonobese Euro-Brazilian male blood donors. In the obese individuals, a significant association with higher BChE activity, in the 72LM+72MM; -116GG genotype class (GHRL and BCHE genes, respectively) was noted. No significant differences were found otherwise, through comparisons between obese and control individuals, of genotype and allele frequencies in SNPs of the GHRL gene (Arg51Gln and Leu72Met), or mean BMI between 72LL and 72LM+72MM genotypes. Although there appears to be no direct relationship between the examined GHRL SNPs and BMI, the association of the 72M SNP with higher BChE activity in obese subjects probably points to a regulatory mechanism, thereby implying the influence of the GHRL gene on BChE expression, and a consequential metabolic role in the complex process of fat utilization.
Wells, Winfield J; Barr, Mark L
A constant awareness of the risk to the living donors must be maintained with any living donor organ transplantation program, and comprehensive short- and long-term follow-up should be strongly encouraged to maintain the viability of these potentially life-saving procedures. There has been no perioperative or long-term mortality following lobectomy for living lobar lung transplantation, and perioperative risks associated with donor lobectomy seem to be similar to those seen with standard lung resections. These risks might increase, however, if the procedure is offered on an occasional basis and not within a well-established program. The long-term outcomes and functional effects of lobar donation raise important questions that are unanswered. This has proved difficult to follow closely, because of the fact that many donors live far from the transplant medical center and are reluctant to return for routine follow-up evaluation. The death of a recipient can further exacerbate this situation, because there is reluctance to insist on further routine examinations for a grieving donor. Prospective donors must be informed of the morbidity associated with lobectomy and the potential for mortality, and for potential negative recipient outcomes in regard to life expectancy and quality of life after transplantation. Although cadaveric transplantation must be considered because of the risk to the donors, living lobar lung transplantation should continue to be used under properly selected circumstances. The results reported by the authors' group and others are important if this procedure is to be considered as an option at more pulmonary transplant centers in view of the institutional, regional, and international differences in the philosophic and ethical acceptance of the use of living organ donors for transplantation. The integration of ethical discussion into topics that are relevant and of interest to thoracic surgeons, such as living lung donation, is a recent and welcome event. Many of the clinical situations that thoracic surgeons deal with on a daily basis have important and complex ethical implications, and there has been little training to deal effectively with these issues. This is changing as invited discussions on ethically compelling topics are finding their way into journals and the programs of national meetings. What may be of more importance, however, is the development of an ethics curriculum for those training in the specialty. The core curriculum recommended by the Thoracic Surgical Directors Association (which represents the leadership of the 89 approved residency training programs in the United States) has one lecture pertaining to ethics out of the several hundred offerings in its requisite curriculum. It is hoped that this will change in the near future. PMID:16276816
Full Text Available Biliary atresia is the most common cause of chroniccholestasis in infants and children. The incidence is estimatedat 3.7:10,000 among Taiwanese infants. Kasai hepatoportoenterostomyhelps children survive beyond infancy. Liver transplantationis indicated when the Kasai procedure fails to workor when patients develop progressive deterioration of liverfunction despite an initially successful Kasai operation. Livingdonor liver transplantation was developed to alleviate organshortage from deceased donors. It has decreased the waitingtime for transplantation and, therefore, improves patient survival.One hundred living donor liver transplantations havebeen performed for biliary atresia at Chang Gung MemorialHospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center with both 98% 1-year and5-year actual recipient survival.
... a good youth candidate for surgery? Experts in childhood obesity and bariatric surgery suggest that families consider surgery ... from the abdominal wall’s connective tissue and may cause a blockage in the bowel. An internal hernia ...
Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) was defined as two or more miscarriages. Antiphospholipid syndrome, uterine anomalies, and parental chromosomal abnormalities, particularly translocation and abnormal embryonic karyotype, are identifiable causes of RPL. Obesity may increase the risk of sporadic miscarriage in pregnancies conceived spontaneously. Obesity with body mass index (BMI)>30 kg/m2 is an independent risk factor for further miscarriage with odds ratio 1.7-3.5 in patients with early RPL. Obesity is associated with euploid miscarriage. Unexplained RPL with euploid embryo might be a common disease caused by both polymorphisms of multiple susceptibility genes and lifestyle factors such as women's age, obesity, and smoking. Patients with a history of RPL were found to have a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, celiac disease, gastric ulcer, gastritis, and atopic dermatitis. No study has examined the effect of weight loss on the prevention of further miscarriage in patients with RPL. PMID:25589398
... Eater Portion Size Versus Serving Size Get Non-Athletes to be Physically Active See More » Activities for ... guidelines released by the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology and The Obesity Society in November ...
Full Text Available ... to Fight Cancer, Pneumonia May Lead to ACS, Physical Activity Improves Mental Function In the Elderly ... of morbid obesity generally includes two broad options. Clearly medical therapy is an option for just about every patient, ...
Full Text Available ... to a small reservoir that’s implanted under the skin, under the breast bone which can then be ... morbid obesity or any of the associated comorbid health conditions, most specifically diabetes, I would overwhelmingly be ...
Full Text Available ... of these patients will have, these would include high blood pressure, sleep apnea, asthma, heartburn, type 2 diabetes, and ... with internal medicine physicians who specialize in obesity treatment, and ultimately it entails meeting with a surgeon ...
Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna
Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26123250
Full Text Available ... death. What diagnostic tests are available? Patients considering weight loss surgery should be part of an integrated multidisciplinary ... consent about the risks, benefits and alternatives of weight loss surgery, and everything related. How is morbid obesity ...
Full Text Available ... Obesity - Dr. Michael Tarnoff, MD, FACS, Tufts University School of Medicine In the Spotlight - Dr. Julian Wu, MD, FACS, Tufts University School of Medicine, Discusses the Treatment of Brain Tumors ...
De Domingo Bartolomé, M; López Guzmán, José
People who are overweight are at increased risk of certain chronic diseases and premature death. However, the physiological consequences are not limited to health symptoms and signs but transcend the social field. In fact, the stigma and discrimination faced by obese people has been proven in multiple areas (work, family, education, etc...). This can contribute to reduce the quality of patients life. From a gender perspective, in the literature there seems to be evidence that the undesirable social effects of obesity affect women more than men. To minimize the obesity impact people adopt proactive methods to lose weight. However the solution to this problem is not on medication but changes in lifestyle and in the proposal of inclusive aesthetic models. Also it is necessary to clear that the complex etiology of obesity can help to reduce the weight stigma and the negative consequences of this condition. PMID:25329415
Full Text Available ... In 60 In Depth In the Spotlight If I Had... Universities and Hospitals By Disease or Symptom ... Discusses Current Methods of Testing for Concussion If I Had - Morbid Obesity - Dr. Michael Tarnoff, MD, FACS, ...
Obesity is a chronic and multifactor disease characterized by presence of excess body fat harmful for health. Several studies have been conducted to assess the possible risk character of different factors for colorectal cancer including the following modifying factors: a diet rich in saturated fats, a diet low in vegetables, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption and obesity. A case-control study was conducted to include 276 adult patients (93 cases and 184 controls) consecutively seen from May, 2008 to May, 2009 in the Institute of Gastroenterology determining a possible association between obesity as risk factor and colorectal cancer. Variables measures included: sex, age, skin color, body mass index, hip-waist circumference and endoscopic location of cancer. We conclude that the colorectal cancer with predominance in female sex and in white people in both groups. Obesity according to a great relation hip-waist had an strong relation with colorectal cancer, which had predominance towards distal colon in both sexes
Full Text Available ... What diagnostic tests are available? Patients considering weight loss surgery should be part of an integrated multidisciplinary ... about the risks, benefits and alternatives of weight loss surgery, and everything related. How is morbid obesity ...
Cabral, J F; Braga, I; Fraga, A; Castro-Henriques, A; Príncipe, P; Silva-Ramos, M
In 1995, Ratner et al reported the first laparoscopic living-donor nephrectomy, and since then this approach is gradually replacing traditional open surgery. The learning curve of the procedure is still unclear and lessons taken from initial experience series are of utmost importance. We retrospectively analyzed our initial 50 living-donor laparoscopic nephrectomies, of which 90% were performed on the left side. Renal vascular variation occurred in 28% of donors. The median age and body mass index of the donors were 50 years (IQR 39-55) and 24.65 kg/m(2) (IQR 22.5-27.3), respectively. The median operative time and warm ischemia time were 160 minutes (IQR 141-178) and 240 seconds (IQR 210-280), respectively. Estimated blood loss was 60 mL (IQR 60-127.5). The serum creatinine of the receptors was 97.6 ?mol/L (IQR 87.5-139.6) 1 month after transplant. Overall, there were 5 complications, including 2 (4%) open conversions, 1 (2%) incisional hernia, 1 (2%) graft loss, and 1 (2%) reintervention. The body mass index and the multiple arteries did not influence the operative time and warm ischemia time or the recipient's serum creatinine level. Along the series, there was a significant reduction in the operative time (Spearman ? = -5.2; P .05). Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is a safe procedure in centers experienced in laparoscopic surgery; however, the learning curve plateau was not reached after the initial 50 cases. PMID:26036482
M. V. Dodson; P. S. Mir; Hausman, G.J.; Guan, L. L.; Min Du; Jiang, Z.; Fernyhough, M. E.; Bergen, W G
Obesity and metabolic syndromes are examples whereby excess energy consumption and energy flux disruptions are causative agents of increased fatness. Because other, as yet elucidated, cellular factors may be involved and because potential treatments of these metabolic problems involve systemic agents that are not adipose depot-specific in their actions, should we be thinking of adipose depot-specific (cellular) treatments for these problems? For sure, whether treating obesity or metabolic syn...
Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Many of these children have risk factors for later disease, including cardiovascular disease. For optimal cardiovascular health, health care professionals must be able to identify children and youth at risk and provide appropriate support as needed. The present article reviews the current medical literature on obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the paediatric population, the long-term cardiovascular consequences of childhood ...
La Merrill, Michele; Birnbaum, Linda S
Childhood and adolescent rates of obesity and overweight are continuing to increase in much of the world. Risk factors such as diet composition, excess caloric intake, decreased exercise, genetics, and the built environment are active areas of etiologic research. The obesogen hypothesis, which postulates that pre- and peri- natal chemical exposure can contribute to risk of childhood and adolescent obesity, remains relatively under-examined. This review surveys numerous classes of chemicals fo...
Sundeep Salvi; Bill Brashier
Obesity induces some pertinent physiological changes which are conducive to either development of asthma or cause of poorly controlled asthma state. Obesity related mechanical stress forces induced by abdominal and thoracic fat generate stiffening of the lungs and diaphragmatic movements to result in reduction of resting lung volumes such as functional residual capacity (FRC). Reduced FRC is primarily an outcome of decreased expiratory reserve volume, which pushes the tidal breathing more tow...
Childhood obesity is a serious health problem and prevalence increases dramatically around the world, including Sweden. The aim of the current thesis was to examine parents’ and children’s stress in relation to childhood obesity. Parenting stress, social support, parental worries, and serious life events, as well as children’s temperament, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, saliva cortisol, weight and height were measured to estimate stress and the relation between stress and childhood obesit...
Ullum, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus
BACKGROUND: Studies have repeatedly demonstrated that blood donors experience lower mortality than the general population. While this may suggest a beneficial effect of blood donation, it may also reflect the selection of healthy persons into the donor population. To overcome this bias, we investigated the relation between blood donation frequency and mortality within a large cohort of blood donors. In addition, our analyses also took into consideration the effects of presumed health differences linked to donation behavior. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Using the Scandinavian Donation and Transfusion database (SCANDAT), we assessed the association between annual number of donations in 5-year windows and donor mortality by means of Poisson regression analysis. The analyses included adjustment for demographic characteristics and for an internal healthy donor effect, estimated among elderly donors exempted from continued donation because of age criteria. RESULTS: Statistical analyses included 1,182,495 donors of whom 15,401 died during 9,526,627 person-years of follow-up. Analyses adjusted only for demographic characteristics showed a 18.6% reduction in mortality per additional annual donation (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.8%-20.4%). After additional adjustment for the internal healthy donor effect, each additional annual donation was associated with a 7.5% decreased mortality risk 7.5% (95% CI, 5.7%-9.4%). CONCLUSION: We observed an inverse relationship between donation frequency and mortality. The magnitude of the association was reduced after adjustment for an estimate of self-selection in the donor population. Our observations indicate that repeated blood donation is not associated with premature death, but cannot be interpreted as conclusive evidence of a beneficial health effect.
Gabay, Odile; Hall, David J.; Berenbaum, Francis; Henrotin, Yves; Sanchez, Christelle
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease. Different risk factors have been identified such as aging and obesity and different models have been used to study the impact of obesity and overweight in this pathology. The field the more studied is in vitro cartilage submitted to mechanical stresses. Four different stresses can be applied on this tissue: shear stress, loading, tensile stress (stretching) and hydrostatic pressure. The signal transduction to the chondrocyte and to the nucleus of the cell is a large field of investigation named mechano-transduction. The response of cartilage depends on quality of subchondral bone as well. So, more and more teams are studying the impact of mechanical stresses on bone, mainly by stretching osteoblasts or by submitting them to a fluid shear stress. Recently, a new model of bone compression has been set up, with osteoblasts in their own extracellular matrix. Finally the third field studied is the role of adipokines, mediators playing a key role in obesity, on the aetiology of OA. Adipokines like leptin, resistin, adiponectin and visfatin, seems to play a pro-inflammatory role in arthritis. Studying the role of obesity in OA could be more complex than expected. The link between OA and obesity may not simply be due to high mechanical stresses applied on the tissues, but soluble mediators may play an important role in the onset of OA in obese patients. PMID:19022697
Codogno Jamile S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazil is currently experiencing a nutrition transition: the displacement of traditional diets with foods high in saturated fat, sodium, and cholesterol and an increase in sedentary lifestyles. Despite these trends, our understanding of child obesity in Brazil is limited. Thus, the aims of this study were (1 to investigate the current prevalence of overweight and obesity in a large sample of children and adolescents living in São Paulo, Brazil, and (2 to identify the lifestyle behaviors associated with an increased risk of obesity in young Brazilians. Methods A total of 3,397 children and adolescents (1,596 male aged 7-18 years were randomly selected from 22 schools in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were classified as normal weight, overweight, or obese based on international age- and sex-specific body mass index thresholds. Selected sociodemographic, physical activity, and nutrition behaviors were assessed via questionnaire. Results Overall, 19.4% of boys and 16.1% of girls were overweight while 8.9% and 4.3% were obese. Two-way analysis of variance revealed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was significantly higher in boys and in younger children when compared to girls and older children, respectively (P Conclusions Our results show that obesity in São Paulo children and adolescents has reached a level equivalent to that seen in many developed countries. We have also identified three key modifiable factors related to obesity that may be appropriate targets for future intervention in Brazilian youth: transport mode to school, computer usage, and breakfast consumption.
Alberta, Hillary B; Berry, Roberta M; Levine, Aaron D
IVF using donated oocytes offers benefits to many infertile patients, yet the technique also raises a number of ethical concerns, including worries about potential physical and psychological risks to oocyte donors. In the USA, oversight of oocyte donation consists of a combination of federal and state regulations and self-regulatory guidelines promulgated by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. This study assesses compliance with one of these self-regulatory guidelines - specifically, ASRM's preferred minimum age for donors of 21. To assess compliance, 539 oocyte donor recruitment advertisements from two recruitment channels (Craigslist and college newspapers) were collected and evaluated. Of these, 61% in the Craigslist dataset and 43% in the college newspaper dataset listed minimum ages between 18 and 20, which is inconsistent with ASRM's preferred minimum age recommendation of 21. Advertisements placed by oocyte donor recruitment agencies were more likely than advertisements placed by clinics to specify minimum ages between 18 and 20. These results indicate that ASRM should evaluate and consider revising its donor age guidelines. IVF using donated human eggs can help many patients who have difficulty having children. However, the technique also raises ethical concerns, including concerns about potential physical and psychological harms to egg donors. In the USA, oversight of egg donation relies on a combination of federal and state regulation and professional self-regulation. Governmental regulations address only limited aspects of egg donation, such as the potential spread of infectious diseases and the reporting of success rates, leaving voluntary guidelines developed by an association of medical professionals to address most issues, including ethical concerns raised by the practice. One of these voluntary guidelines recommends that egg donors should be at least 21 years of age. In this article, we analysed 539 egg donor recruitment advertisements published on Craigslist and in college newspapers to see whether fertility clinics and egg donor recruitment agencies follow this recommendation. We found that 61% of advertisements in the Craigslist dataset and 43% of advertisements in the college newspaper dataset listed minimum ages between 18 and 20 and, thus, did not follow the recommendation that egg donors be at least 21 years of age. Advertisements placed by egg donor recruitment agencies were more likely than advertisements placed by fertility clinics to list minimum ages between 18 and 20. These results indicate that the American Society for Reproductive Medicine should evaluate and consider revising its donor age guidelines. PMID:23337419
Kimura, Koichi; Ikegami, Toru; Bekki, Yuki; Ninomiya, Mizuki; Yamashita, Yo-Ichi; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Yoshiya, Shohei; Soejima, Yuji; Harada, Noboru; Shirabe, Ken; Maehara, Yoshihiko
The clinical presentations of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) occurring after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) have not been fully described. We performed a retrospective analysis of 297 LDLT cases. Nineteen patients (6.4%) experienced GIB after LDLT. The etiology of GIB included bleeding at the jejunojejunostomy following hepaticojejunostomy (n = 13), peptic ulcer disease (n = 2), portal hypertensive gastropathy (n = 2), and other causes (n = 2). Hemostasis was achieved in 13 patients (68.4%) by endoscopic (n = 3), surgical (n = 1), or supportive treatments (n = 15), but not in the other six patients. Graft dysfunction (P portal vein pressure at the end of surgery >20 mmHg (P = 0.002), and operative blood loss >10 L (P = 0.004) were risk factors. One-year graft survival rate was significantly lower in patients with GIB than in patients without GIB (P < 0.001). The inhospital mortality rate was 52.6% for patients with GIB, 75.0% for patients with graft dysfunction, and 14.3% for patients without graft dysfunction (P = 0.028). Despite its infrequency after LDLT, GIB has strong correlation with graft dysfunction and inhospital mortality. PMID:24673842
Al-Shwaiyat Naseem M; Fahmy Alaa-Eldin A; Al-Rethaiaa Abdallah S
Abstract Background During the last few decades, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) experienced rapid socio-cultural changes caused by the accelerating economy in the Arabian Gulf region. That was associated with major changes in the food choices and eating habits which, progressively, became more and more "Westernized". Such "a nutritional transition" has been claimed for the rising rates of overweight and obesity which were recently observed among Saudi population. Therefore, the objectives ...
Monolayer thyroid cultures of Obese strain chickens, displaying spontaneous thyroiditis, incorporate the same quantity of 131I as those of normal Reaseheath Line R birds. The incorporation was significantly higher than in the case of HeLa cells. The ages of donors and of cultures have no significant effect on the rate of iodine incorporation. Thymic epithelial cultures obtained from the same birds incorporated a similar amount of 131I as thyroid cultures. (author)
Wilson, Jr., Edward L. (Baytown, TX); Mitchell, Willard N. (Baytown, TX)
Improved liquid yields are obtained during the hydrogen-donor solvent liquefaction of coal and similar carbonaceous solids by maintaining a higher concentration of material having hydrogenation catalytic activity in the downstream section of the liquefaction reactor system than in the upstream section of the system.
Organ transplants save thousands of lives each year, but put many live donors at risk due to an unregulated organ trade that exploits the vulnerable in developing countries and complicates legitimate organ donation efforts. Countries face a dilemma: how they can increase the supply of organs in a manner that is ethical and humane.
Rennie, KL; Jebb, SA
Since 1980 the prevalence of obesity in Great Britain in adults has almost trebled. Latest figures show that 23% of men and 25% of women were obese in 2002. In children, obesity prevalence is lower but the increase in the prevalence of overweight is similar to the rise in obesity in adults. Data from national surveys also show that there are marked differences in the prevalence of obesity that underpin health inequalities. Obesity is higher in low social classes, some ethnic minority groups p...
Full Text Available Obesity results from alterations in the body's regulation of energy intake, expenditure, and storage. Animal and human data demonstrate that phylogenic changes occur in the microbiota composition in obese individuals. Furthermore, evidence from animal models suggest that the alterations of the gut microbiota with obesity results in increased energy extraction and lipid deposition, altered release of entero-hormones, increased intestinal permeability and metabolic endotoxemia. Treatment with pre- and probiotics may reverse many of metabolic effects linked with the altered microbiota in obese patients. The gut microbiota is, therefore, a potential nutritional and pharmacological target for the management of obesity and obesity-related disorders.
Carmen, Pérez Rodrigo.
Full Text Available La obesidad es un importante factor de riesgo para las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, como la diabetes, las enfermedades cardiovasculares y el cáncer. La prevalencia mundial de obesidad se ha duplicado entre 1980 y 2008. En algunas regiones, como Europa, el Mediterráneo Oriental y América, [...] más del 50% de las mujeres tienen sobrepeso. Tonga, Nauru y las Islas Cook muestran la mayor prevalencia de obesidad en todo el mundo, por encima del 60% tanto en los hombres como en las mujeres. China y Estados Unidos son los países que experimentaron el mayor aumento absoluto en el número de personas con sobrepeso y obesidad entre 1980 y 2008, seguido de Brasil y México. Las regiones con el mayor incremento en la prevalencia de obesidad femenina fueron Centro América, Oceanía y el sur de América Latina. Datos actualizados sugieren que la progresión de la epidemia se ha reducido durante los últimos diez años en varios países. En los países de renta baja la obesidad suele ser más frecuente entre los niveles socioeconómicos más favorecidos, mientras que los grupos desfavorecidos están cada vez más afectados en los países en desarrollo. Muchos estudios han demostrado un gradiente socioeconómico global de la obesidad en las sociedades industrializadas modernas. Las tasas tienden a disminuir progresivamente a medida que aumenta el nivel socio-económico. La prevalencia de obesidad en España se encuentra entre las más altas de la OCDE. Uno de cada 3 niños de 13 a 14 años tiene sobrepeso. El sobrepeso en los lactantes y niños de corta edad se observa en los países de ingresos mediosaltos. Sin embargo, el mayor crecimiento se produce en el grupo de países de ingresos medianos bajos. Hay un creciente cuerpo de evidencia de una asociación inversa entre la obesidad SES-infantil en los países desarrollados. La prevalencia del sobrepeso y la obesidad es alta en todos los grupos de edad en muchos países, pero especialmente preocupante en los niños y adolescentes en los países desarrollados y las economías en transición. Abstract in english Obesity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. The worldwide prevalence of obesity has almost doubled between 1980 and 2008. In some regions, such as Europe, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Americas, more than 50% of wom [...] en are overweight. Tonga, Nauru and the Cook Islands show the highest prevalence of obesity worldwide, above 60% in men and in women. China and the United States are the countries that experienced the largest absolute increase in the number of overweight and obese people between 1980 and 2008, followed by Brazil and Mexico. The regions with the largest increase in the prevalence of female obesity were Central Latin America, Oceania and Southern Latin America. Updated data provide evidence that the progression of the epidemic has effectively slowed for the past ten years in several countries. In low-income countries obesity is generally more prevalent among the better-off, while disadvantaged groups are increasingly affected as countries grow. Many studies have shown an overall socio-economic gradient in obesity in modern industrialized societies. Rates tend to decrease progressively with increasing socio-economic status. Children obesity rates in Spain are amongst the highest in the OECD. One in 3 children aged 13 to 14 are overweight. Overweight in infants and young children is observed in the upper middle-income countries. However, the fastest growth occurs in the group of lower middle-income countries. There is a growing body of evidence for an inverse association between SES and child obesity in developed countries. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is high in all age groups in many countries, but especially worrying in children and adolescents in developed countries and economies in transition.
Full Text Available Affective forecasting with respect to two environmental risks (ozone depletion, air pollution was investigated by studying tourists who travelled to either Australia or Bangkok and were thus confronted with one of these risks. We measured anticipated outcome and anticipated emotions before the journey, actually experienced outcome and actually experienced emotions during the journey, and anticipated outcome and emotions concerning a future encounter with the same risk after the journey. Results indicate that tourists underestimate (air pollution or correctly predict (ozone depletion both the seriousness of the outcome and their emotional reactions. The relationship between actual outcome and actual emotions is stronger than that between anticipated outcome and anticipated emotions. Furthermore, tourists learn from their travel experience and adjust their anticipations concerning future encounters with the environmental risk. Findings suggest that the domain of environmental risks differs from personal outcomes with respect to the process of affective forecasting.
Ryan, R. S.
The use of high performance systems, which is the trend of future space systems, naturally leads to lower margins and a higher sensitivity to parameter variations and, therefore, more problems of dynamical physical systems. To circumvent dynamic problems of these systems, appropriate design, verification analysis, and tests must be planned and conducted. The basic design goal is to define the problem before it occurs. The primary approach for meeting this goal is a good understanding and reviewing of the problems experienced in the past in terms of the system under design. This paper reviews many of the dynamic problems experienced in space systems design and operation, categorizes them as to causes, and envisions future program implications, developing recommendations for analysis and test approaches.
...Donors AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration...SUMMARY: The Health Resources and Services Administration...and suggestions from researchers and interested parties...DATES: Written or electronic comments must be received...Systems Bureau, Health Resources and Services...
Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
Background and PurposeThe aim of this paper was to describe and analyse the impact of formal education and professional experience on physiotherapy students' ways of experiencing interaction within a patient encounter.MethodTwo groups of physiotherapy students were interviewed on two occasions; during the second and last term of their formal education programme, and during the last term and after 18 months' professional experience. Data were subjected to a qualitative analysis. Changes in con...
Överlien, Carolina; Hydén, Margareta
The aim of this article is, by analysing childrens discourses, to investigate their actions or absence of actions during a domestic violence episode. The empirical data are recorded group therapy sessions and individual interviews with children who have grown up experiencing their fathers violence against their mothers. The analysis shows that the childrens stories contain two aspects of actions: one related to the actions during the ongoing episode, and one the child perceives as possible/de...
Background and aim: Physicians play an essential role in the sickness absence process, and many of them experience related tasks as problematic. The overall aim of this thesis was to improve the understanding of sickness certification experienced as problematic by physicians in general practice and occupational health services, and to gain more knowledge about the frequency and severity of those problems. Materials and methods: Four studies were conducted, two of which were based on writte...
This paper is about apprehending atmosphere through multi-sensous experiences. Auto-ethnographic field studies undertaken in an operation ward will demonstrate how I experienced the ambiance with the help of my nose, as a foundational atmosphere against which smell-epiphanies threw me back and forth through time and space. These experiential leaps had an intrinsically multi-sensory character, and I argue that smell cannot be disentangled from a broader sensuous experience. I propose a cross-r...
Cabello, Charlotte C; Smolowitz, Janice
The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the meaning of being a live liver donor. Six people between ages 27 and 53 years participated. A qualitative, in-depth, semistructured interview format was used to explore donors' thoughts and feelings about being an organ donor. Five themes were identified: (1) no turning back--how do I live without you? (2) roller coaster marathon, (3) donor network, (4) the scar, and (5) reflections--time to think. At the center of the experience was the donor's commitment to the recipient. Once donors began the process, they were determined to see it through. The process was complex, and donors received various levels of support from family, friends, health care professionals, and others. After donation, as donors recovered and were able to resume their usual daily responsibilities, they reflected on the impact of the experience and how it changed their view of life. PMID:18831484
Bay, BjØrn; Larsen, Peter B
To study the motivation and attitudes toward donor anonymity, economic compensation, and insemination of lesbian and single women among Danish sperm donors in 2012 compared with the two preceding decades.
Meyer, Nathalie; Haslebacher, Yvonne; Teuscher-Sick, Patricia; Fischer, Beatrice
Information on weight management and a healthy eating is accessible to anyone. However, recommendations are inconsistent. This often leads to confusion rather than to real changes in eating behavior. The principle of a long-term weight reduction is based on the idea of achieving negative energy balance with a healthy, balanced and slightly hypocaloric diet. The regimen is neither supposed to be rigid nor should it ban any food products or food products. Changes in eating patterns come about step by step and the counseling approach should be based on the patient's habits and capabilities. The basic requirement to successfully treat obese patients is their own motivation Therefore, the timing of launching the therapy needs to be well chosen. Apart from goals directly concerning weight loss, goals related to well-being, general health and exercise should be set and pursued. However, the main focus should be on changes of dietary behavior. Dietary counseling is preferably embedded in a multidisciplinary treatment concept. PMID:23385189
Johnson, Fiona; Wardle, Jane
Among the key characteristics of the Western obesogenic food environment is a highly palatable and varied food supply. Laboratory investigations of eating behavior in both humans and animals established key roles for palatability and variety in stimulating appetite, delaying satiety, and promoting excessive energy intake. There is a robust effect of food palatability and variety on short-term food intake, and increased variety and palatability also cause weight gain in animal models. However, laboratory paradigms do not replicate the complexities of eating in a natural setting, and there is a shortage of evidence to estimate the magnitude of effects on weight in humans. There are substantial individual differences in susceptibility to the palatability effect and this may be a key determinant in individual vulnerability to weight gain. The understanding of pathways through which palatability and variety can affect eating is advancing, and epidemiologic and intervention studies are needed to translate laboratory findings into applications in public health or clinical domains, and to establish whether there is a role for greater regulation of the food environment in tackling increases in obesity. PMID:25398751
Locke, Jayme E; Warren, Daniel S.; Dominici, Francesca; Cameron, Andrew M.; Leffell, M. Sue; McRann, Deborah A.; Melancon, J. Keith; Segev, Dorry L.; Simpkins, Christopher E.; Singer, Andrew L.; Zachary, Andrea A; Montgomery, Robert A
Although the majority of deceased-donor kidneys are donated after brain death, increased recovery of kidneys donated after cardiac death could reduce the organ shortage and is now a national priority. Racial disparities in donations after brain death have been well described for renal transplantation, but it is unknown whether similar disparities occur in donations after cardiac death. In this study, outcomes of adult deceased-donor renal transplant recipients included in the United Network f...
Plata-Munoz, JJ; Vazquez-Montes, M; Friend, PJ; Fuggle, SV
SUMMARY: A clinical score to identify kidneys from donors after cardiac death (DCD) with a high risk of dysfunction following transplantation could be a useful tool to guide the introduction of new algorithms for the preservation of these organs and improve their outcome after transplantation. We investigated whether the deceased donor score (DDS) system could identify DCD kidneys with higher risk of early post-transplant dysfunction. The DDS was validated in a cohort of 168 kidney transplant...
Mertens zur Borg, I.R.
A successful renal transplant for patients with kidney failure reduces mortality rate when compared to patients who continue dialysis. Organ donation from living donors has significant better results over organ donation from deceased donors. Traditionally the surgical approach for living donor nephrectomy was performed through a subcostal lateral incision. Now, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has become the method of choice to procure kidneys from living dono...
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past year Lebanon has been experiencing a nutritional transition in food choices from the typical Mediterranean diet to the fast food pattern. As a consequence, the dietary habits of young adults have been affected; thus, overweight and obesity are increasingly being observed among the young. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity on a sample of students from the Lebanese American University (in Beirut and to examine their eating habits. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 220 students (43.6% male and 56.4% female, aged 20 ± 1.9 years, were chosen randomly from the Lebanese American University (LAU campus during the fall 2006 semester. Students were asked to fill out a self-reported questionnaire that included questions on their eating, drinking and smoking habits. Also, their weight, height, percentage body fat and body mass index were measured. Body mass index (BMI was used to assess students' weight status. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (version 13.0 to determine overweight and obesity among students and to categorize eating habits. Results This study showed that the majority of the students (64.7% were of normal weight (49% male students compared to 76.8% female students. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was more common among male students compared to females (37.5% and 12.5% vs. 13.6% and 3.2%, respectively. In contrast, 6.4% female students were underweight as compared to 1% males. Eating habits of the students showed that the majority (61.4% reported taking meals regularly. Female students showed healthier eating habits compared to male students in terms of daily breakfast intake and meal frequency. 53.3% of female students reported eating breakfast daily or three to four times per week compared to 52.1% of male students. There was a significant gender difference in the frequency of meal intake (P = 0.001. Intake of colored vegetables and fruits was common among students. A total of 30.5% reported daily intake of colored vegetables with no gender differences (31.5% females vs. 29.2% males. Alcohol intake and smoking were not common among students. Conclusion In spite of the overall low prevalence of overweight and obesity in the studied sample, results indicate that university students would possibly benefit from a nutrition and health promotion program to reduce the tendency of overweight and obesity, especially among male students, and to improve students' eating habits.
Puhl, R.M.; Masheb, R. M.; White, M.A.; Grilo, C.M.
No research has compared expressions of weight bias across different subgroups of obese individuals. This study compared attitudes toward and beliefs about obesity in women with and without binge eating disorder (BED) and examined whether these attitudes are related to psychological factors. Fifty obese women with BED were compared with an age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched group of 50 obese women without BED on a battery of established measures of anti-fat attitudes and beliefs about wei...
Ibrahim, Salleh; Chen, Chao-Long; Wang, Chih-Chi; Wang, Shih-Ho; Lin, Chih-Che; Liu, Yeuh-Wei; Yang, Chin-Hsiang; Yong, Chee-Chien; Concejero, Allan; Cheng, Yu-Fan
Liver regeneration after donor hepactectomy offers a unique insight into the process of liver regeneration in normal livers. As the liver restores itself, concurrent splenic enlargement occurs. There are many theories about why this phenomenon takes place: some investigators have proposed a relative portal hypertension that leads to splenic congestion or, perhaps, the presence of a common growth factor that induces both the liver and spleen to enlarge. Between the months of June 2001 and May 2004, 112 live donor liver transplants (LDLTs) were performed in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. The total number of donor hepatectomies performed during this period was 113, however, because one of the cases required dual donors. Of our 113 donors, we eventually analyzed the data of 109; 4 patients were lost to follow-up 6 months later and were excluded from our study. The average age of our donor population was 32.32 +/- 8.48 years. The mean liver volume at donation was noted to be 1207.72 +/- 219.95 cm3, and 6 months later, it was 1027.18 +/- 202.41 cm3. Expressed as a percentage of the original volume, the mean liver volume 6 months after hepatectomy was 90.70% +/- 12.47% in this series. For right graft donors, mean liver volume after 6 months was 89.68% +/- 12.37% of the original liver volume, whereas that for left graft donors was 91.99% +/- 12.6%. Only 26 of the 109 (23.85%) donors were able to achieve full regeneration 6 months post-donation. Notably, liver function profiles of all donors were normal when measured 6 months after operation. The average splenic volume at donation as measured by computed tomography (CT) volumetry was 159 +/- 58 cm3, and the splenic volume 6 months post-donation was 213 +/- 85 cm3. There was a mean increment in splenic volume of 35% +/- 28% 6 months after donation. The blood profiles of the donors were monitored; particular attention was given to platelet levels and liver function tests, and these were found to be within normal limits 6 months after operation. Of note, splenic enlargement was significantly greater among right-sided donors than their left-sided counterparts. Greater splenic enlargement was also observed in those donors who achieved full liver regeneration at their evaluation 6 months postoperatively than in those who did not. Although original liver volume was not re-established in most patients 6 months after liver donation, there seemed to have been no untoward effects to the donor. The factors that affect liver regeneration are complex and myriad. Although there is splenic enlargement at 6 months post-donation in donors of LDLT, there are no untoward effects of this enlargement. PMID:16311869
Purcell, Aaron D
Donors and Archives: A Guidebook for Successful Programs highlights the importance of development and fundraising for archives, while focusing on the donor and potential donor. Their interest, their support, their enthusiasm, and their stuff are vital to the success of archival programs.
...counseling programs or referrals to provide these services. Related blood donor records means any...Service and related blood donor records. The authorized...Establish and maintain a system for standardizing records...the addresses of blood donors, dates of the...
G. M. Taylor; Dearden, S. P.; Will, A. M.; Evans, D. I.; Stevens, R. F.; Simon, S; SUPER, M; Morrell, G; Fergusson, W. D.; Brown, I. H.
The successful correction of infantile osteopetrosis in an Asian child by bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from an HLA-A,B matched cousin donor is reported. Retrospective HLA molecular analysis revealed that patient and donor were incompatible for HLA-DPB1. Donor type cells detected in the patient after transplantation indicate successful engraftment. The patient is currently alive and well.
Hendricks, Ed J; Rothman, Richard B; Greenway, Frank L
Specialist physicians may have prescribing habits that are different from nonspecialist physicians. Little is known about the prescribing habits of physicians specializing in the treatment of obesity. An anonymous survey was given to the physician members of the American Society of Bariatric Physicians (ASBP). There was a 35% response rate (266 physicians) to the questionnaire that was represented nationally. Almost all prescribed medications and all of them recommended phentermine. The average maximal dose of phentermine was above that approved in the package insert, and these physicians disagreed with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Obesity Treatment Guidelines. Phendimetrazine, metformin, and phentermine plus L-5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) with carbidopa were all used more frequently than either orlistat or sibutramine. The combination of sibutramine and orlistat as well as 5-HTP/carbidopa were prescribed by 14 and 20%, respectively. As 5-HTP-carbidopa was a combination not previously reported for the treatment of obesity, a retrospective chart review was performed in a single obesity practice, which may not be representative. Twenty-two subjects had a 16% weight loss with phentermine over 6 months and an additional 1% weight loss with the addition of 5-HTP/carbidopa for an additional 6 months. One subject who started on 5-HTP/carbidopa alone lost 24.4% of initial body weight over 6 months. This questionnaire revealed that 20% of the obesity specialists responding to the survey used phentermine plus of 5-HTP/carbidopa, an unreported combination. A controlled, randomized, clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of this combination in treating obesity should be considered. PMID:19300434
Klaczynski, Paul A.
Theories of the development of obesity stereotypes cannot easily explain the stigma associated with being obese. Evidence that important similarities exist between the symptoms of obesity and contagious illnesses, young children have "theories" of illnesses, and obesity stereotypes are among the earliest that children develop led to the hypothesis…
Barry, Colleen L.; Brescoll, Victoria L.; Brownell, Kelly D; Schlesinger, Mark
Context: Relatively little is known about the factors shaping public attitudes toward obesity as a policy concern. This study examines whether individuals' beliefs about the causes of obesity affect their support for policies aimed at stemming obesity rates. This article identifies a unique role of metaphor-based beliefs, as distinct from conventional political attitudes, in explaining support for obesity policies.
Full Text Available ... keyboard shortcuts Transcript Nearly 13 million children and adolescents in the United States are obese, according to ... as effective at higher levels of obesity. They stress there is a need for early identification of ...
... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Obesity and Overweight Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... 20 years and over who are overweight, including obesity: 69.0% (2011-2012) Source: Health, United States, ...
Obesity and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska Native women are 30% more likely than non- ... findings/nhqrdr/nhqrdr12/index.html HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...
Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were almost four times more likely to ... data available at this time. HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...
... 152481.html They Overcame Childhood Cancer, But Now Obesity? Certain treatments linked to later weight gain, study ... may increase a childhood cancer survivor's risk of obesity later in life, a new study says. "The ...
Ta?ç?lar, Mehmet Emre; YOKU?O?LU, Mehmet; Boyraz, Mehmet; Baysan, Oben; Köz, Cem; Dündaröz, Ru?en
Objective: The autonomic nervous system is assumed to have a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. In this study, we evaluated the autonomic system by measuring heart rate variability (HRV) in obese children.
Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the health related quality of life (HRQoL and psychological outcome of donors after living donor liver transplantation. METHODS: Participants were 92 consecutive liver transplant donors who underwent hepatectomy without middle hepatic vein at West China Hospital of Sichuan University between January 2007 and September 2010. HRQoL was measured using the Chinese version of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36, and psychological symptoms were measured using the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R. Data collected from donors were compared to previously published data from the general population. Clinical and demographic data were collected from medical records and questionnaires. RESULTS: The general health score of the SF-36 was significantly lower in females (59.78 ± 12.25 than in males (75.83 ± 22.09. Donors more than 40 years old scored higher in social functioning (85.71 ± 14.59 and mental health (82.61 ± 20.00 than those younger than 40 (75.00 ± 12.13, 68.89 ± 12.98; social functioning and mental health, respectively. Donors who had surgery more than two years prior to the study scored highest in physical functioning (P = 0.001 and bodily pain (P = 0.042 while those less than one year from surgery scored lowest. The health of the liver recipient significantly influenced the general health (P = 0.042, social functioning (P = 0.010, and role-emotional (P = 0.028 of donors. Donors with full-time employment scored highest in role-physical (P = 0.005, vitality (P = 0.001, social functioning (P = 0.016, mental health (P < 0.001, the physical component summary scale (P < 0.001, and the mental component summary scale (MCS (P < 0.001. Psychological measures indicated that donors were healthier than the general population in obsessive-compulsive behavior, interpersonal sensitivity, phobic anxiety, and paranoid ideation. The MCS of the SF-36 was significantly correlated with most symptom scores of the SCL-90-R. CONCLUSION: HRQoL and psychological outcome were favorable in living liver transplant donors after donation. Specifically, gender, age, time since operation, recipient health condition, and employment after donation, influenced postoperative quality of life.
Livingstone, M Barbara E; Pourshahidi, L Kirsty
Portion size is a key environmental driver of energy intake, and larger-than-appropriate portion sizes could increase the risk of weight gain. Multiple acute, well-controlled laboratory studies, supported by data from free-living settings, demonstrated that portion size has a powerful and proportionate effect on the amount of food consumed. Of particular importance is that bouts of overeating associated with large portions are sustained and not followed by a compensatory reduction in energy intake. The positive effect of portion size on energy intake was demonstrated for different types of foods and beverages, and is particularly pronounced with energy-dense foods. The predisposition to overeat in response to large portions is pervasive and occurs regardless of demographic characteristics, such as socioeconomic status, age, body mass index, and sex. Secular trends toward greater availability of large portions, coupled with value-size pricing, effectively distorted consumption norms and perceptions of what is an appropriate amount to eat. Nevertheless, although a direct causal link between portion size and obesity remains to be established, advice to moderate portion sizes, especially of energy-dense foods, is presently the cornerstone of most weight management advice. Although many strategies have been proposed to counteract the deleterious effects of portion size, there are few data indicating which are likely to be acceptable in the medium- to long term. Further research is urgently needed to establish what types of interventions targeted at portion size are likely to be effective, in what settings, and among which target groups. PMID:25398749
Sousa, Filomena; Antão, Celeste; Anes, Eugénia; Fernandes, Adília; Mata, Maria Augusta; Sousa, Marta
Although a large collection of results that can identify the causes of obesity is available, it is not an easy task to characterize its etiology. Outstanding among the factors related to overweight and obesity the changes in eating patterns and physical activity, occurred in several societies. About 95% of obesity cases in childhood and adolescence involve exogenous obesity, that is, dependent on environmental factors. Objectives: To analyze lifestyles and eating factors in school adolescents...
Guerrero-Romero, Fernando; Rodríguez-Moran, Martha
Non-obese children with elevated serum insulin levels and metabolic disorders such as, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and/or hypertriglyceridemia are a subset of children in high risk of developing cardiovascular disease later in life. Since usually the health policies for the prevention of the obesity associated disorders in children are based on the screening focused on the obese, frequently the metabolically obese normal-weight (MONW) children are not identified in primary care setting. Give...
Frederick, Carl B.; Snellman, Kaisa; Putnam, Robert D.
Childhood and youth obesity represent significant US public health challenges. Recent findings that the childhood obesity ‘‘epidemic’’ may have slightly abated have been met with relief from health professionals and popular media. However, we document that the overall trend in youth obesity rates masks a significant and growing class gap between youth from upper and lower socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. Until 2002, obesity rates increased at similar rates for all adolescents, but sinc...
Washington, Reginald L.
Although the effects of obesity on children's physical health are well documented, the social consequences of obesity are less well described and may not be addressed in intervention programs. Weight bias may take several forms. It may result in teasing and discrimination and may affect employment and educational opportunities. Health care providers may limit care of overweight or obese children. The media promote weight bias in multiple ways. Some parents are biased against their obese child...
Wioletta ?ukiewicz-Sobczak; Paula Wróblewska; Jacek Zwoli?ski; Jolanta Chmielewska-Badora; Piotr Adamczuk; Ewelina Krasowska; Jerzy Zagórski; Anna Oniszczuk; Jacek Pi?tek; Wojciech Silny
Obesity is a civilization disease and the proportion of people suffering from it continues to grow, especially in the developed countries. Number of obese people in Europe has increased threefold over the last 20 years. The paradox of obesity and poverty relationship is observed especially in the developed and developing countries. In developing countries, along with economic development and income growth, the number of people with overweight and obesity is increasing. This paradox has a rela...
Pradeepan, Shyamala; Garrison, Garth; Dixon, Anne E.
There is mounting evidence that obesity is associated with asthma, both of which are seeing a dramatic increase in prevalence. Not only is obesity a risk factor for the development of asthma, it is also associated with poor asthma control. Asthma phenotypes associated with obesity include early-onset allergic asthma and late-onset non-allergic asthma. The pathogenesis of the linkage is complex; obesity causes a variety of mechanical, metabolic, and immunological changes that can affect the ai...
Women with obesity or/and diabetes form an increasing part of the peri- and post-menopausal women cared for by general practicioners and gynaecologists. Menopausal obese/diabetic women have a different hormonal milieu than lean women, with increased exposure to androgens and oestrogens. In spite of this, obese women experience more menopause-related symptoms, particularly vasomotor symptoms and urinary incontinence. Obese and diabetic women also have a higher risk of breast and endometrial ca...
García-Goñi, Manuel; Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina
Considered the epidemic of the 21st century, obesity is a worldwide problem, affecting 260 million adults and 12 million children in the European Union (EU) alone. In Spain, adult and child obesity rates are increasing, in particular for women. Income-related inequalities in adult obesity in Spain also have increased over time, especially for women aged over 45. Although some regulatory initiatives have been approved to tackle child obesity, an evaluation of the effective...
This brief review focuses on the genetic contribution to childhood obesity. Evidence for a genetic component to excess body weight during growth is presented from the perspective of genetic epidemiology studies. Parental obesity is a predictor of childhood excess weight. The familial risk ratio for childhood obesity when a parent is obese reaches >2.5. Birth weight is characterized by a genetic heritability component on the order of 30%, with significant maternal and paternal effects in addit...
Qi, Lu; Cho, Young Ae
The epidemic of obesity has become a major public health problem. Common-form obesity is underpinned by both environmental and genetic factors. Epidemiological studies have documented that increased intakes of energy and reduced consumption of high-fiber foods, as well as sedentary lifestyle, were among the major driving forces for the epidemic of obesity. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified several genes convincingly related to obesity risk, including the fat mass and obes...
Eleftheriou, Konstantinos; Athanasiou, George
This paper attempts to investigate the relation among wages, unemployment and obesity and to identify public policies to address the problem of over-weightness. To this purpose, a simple search and matching model of labour market is developed. Our framework tries to capture the relationship between obesity and employment/unemployment by assuming that the fraction of obese workers is a function of the ratio of vacant jobs to unemployment (labour market tightness). We argue that if obesity is p...
Lang, Jason E.
Obesity rates have increased dramatically among children in many parts of the world, especially in North America and several other English-speaking countries. The impact of obesity on pediatric health has become a major prevention initiative by the Obama administration and several public health organizations. Children with obesity are at increased risk for developing asthma, which is already one of the most common chronic diseases among children. The cause underlying obesity's impact on asthm...
Childhood obesity appears to be increasing throughout the world. China has joined the global epidemic. Childhood obesity is not only a chronic disease which is associated with lifestyle, but also a public health problem in children. Obesity intervention should become a public health priority in China. This thesis reports on intervention to treat and prevent childhood obesity. The field work was implemented in Beijing, China. This thesis is based on four papers: Paper I evaluated the feasibil...
DENIS, Gerald V.; Obin, Martin S
When humans eat more and exercise less, they tend to become obese and unhealthy. The molecular pathways that link obesity to serious diseases like Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease have become a subject of intensive scientific investigation because the exploding prevalence of obesity worldwide represents a grave new threat to the health of hundreds of millions of people. However, obesity is not always destiny. Two important clinical populations have been valuable to understand the me...
Choquet, Hélène; Meyre, David
Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies have led to the discovery of nine loci involved in Mendelian forms of obesity and 58 loci contributing to polygenic obesity. These loci explain a small fraction of the heritability for obesity and many genes remain to be discovered. However, efforts in obesity gene identification greatly modified our understanding of this disorder. In this review, we propose an overlook of major lessons learned from 15 years of research in the field of geneti...
Antonio Iannelli, Raffaella Dainese, Thierry Piche, Enrico Facchiano, Jean Gugenheim
The incidence of obesity is steadily rising, and it has been estimated that 40% of the US population will be obese by the year 2025 if the current trend continues. In recent years there has been renewed interest in the surgical treatment of morbid obesity in concomitance with the epidemic of obesity. Bariatric surgery proved effective in providing weight loss of large magnitude, correction of comorbidities and excellent short-term and long-term outcomes, decreasing overall mortality and provi...
Abhyuday Verma; Muthukrishnan Jayaraman; Hari K. V. S. Kumar; Modi, Kirtikumar D
OBJECTIVES To establish relationship between obesity and hypothyroidism and to analyze the frequency the frequency of primary hypothyroidism in obese patients and frequency of obesity in primary hypothyroidism patients. METHODS We conducted this retrospective, observational study in the Department of Endocrinology and Obesity Clinic, Medwin Hospital, Hyderabad, India in Mar 2008. In the last 18 months (between September 2006 to February 2008), data on 625 consecutive primary hypothyr...
Birmingham, C L; Muller, J L; PALEPU, A.; Spinelli, J J; Anis, A H
BACKGROUND: Almost one-third of adult Canadians are at increased risk of disability, disease and premature death because of being obese. In order to allocate limited health care resources rationally, it is necessary to elucidate the economic burden of obesity. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the direct costs related to the treatment of and research into obesity in Canada in 1997. METHODS: The prevalence of obesity (body mass index of 27 or greater) in Canada was determined using data from the National...
From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Office of Genetics and Disease Prevention and Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, this Web siteis a collection of information on the relationship between obesity and genetics. It offers links to a variety of sources of information, including Web resources and journal articles on the problem of obesity, the relationship between genetics and obesity, and preventing obesity.
Na, Ha-Na; Kim, Hun; Nam, Jae-Hwan
Chronic diseases such as obesity and diabetes are major causes of death and disability throughout the world. Many causes are known to trigger these chronic diseases, and infectious agents such as viruses are also pathological factors. In particular, it is considered that adenovirus 36 infections may be associated with obesity. If this is the case, a vaccine against adenovirus 36 may be a form of prophylaxis to combat obesity. Other types of therapeutic vaccines to combat obesity are also bein...
Leung, M M; Fu, H; Agaronov, A; Freudenberg, N
Over the past three decades, both Shanghai and New York City (NYC), have experienced dramatic rises in childhood obesity rates. Given the role that obesity plays in the aetiology of chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease, the elevated rates are a major concern. Despite differences in governance systems and cultures, Shanghai and NYC have experienced rapid industrialization, a growing population and a rise in income inequality. The prevalence of childhood obesity in Shanghai and NYC is greater than their respective national rate. However, the trajectory and development of this epidemic has differed between the cities. The distribution of obesity by race and ethnicity, socio-economic status, sex, and age differs markedly between the two cities. To reduce prevalence and inequities within this complex epidemic requires an understanding of the dynamic changes in living conditions among social groups in each city and the behaviours that are influenced by such changes. By comparing changes in the influences on dietary behaviours, such as food distribution, pricing, gender values, and media and marketing, this highlights opportunities for Shanghai, NYC, and other world cities with high or rising rates of childhood obesity to inform future program and policy initiatives. It reiterates the importance of a comprehensive and multilevel approach that includes action at the individual, family, community, municipal, national, and global levels. PMID:25841629
Weng, Francis L; Reese, Peter P; Mulgaonkar, Shamkant; Patel, Anup M.
Background and objectives: Lower rates of living donor kidney transplant (LDKT) among transplant candidates who are black or older may stem from lower likelihoods of (1) recruiting potential living donors or (2) potential donors actually donating (donor “conversion”).
Suh, Suk-Won; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Lee, Jeong-Moo; Choi, YoungRok; Yi, Nam-Joon; Suh, Kyung-Suk
With the decrease in the average donor age and the increase in the proportion of female donors, both donor safety and cosmetic appearance are major concerns for some living donors in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) because a large abdominal incision is needed that may influence the donor's quality of life. In all, 429 donors who underwent donor hepatectomy for LDLT from April 2010 to February 2013 were included in the study. Donors were divided into 3 groups based on the type of incision: conventional inverted L incision (n?=?268; the C group), upper midline incision (n?=?147; the M group), and transverse incision with laparoscopy (n?=?14; the T group). Demographics, perioperative outcomes, postoperative complications for donors and recipients, and questionnaire-derived donor satisfaction with cosmetic appearance were compared. The mean age was lower (P?sex, graft, height, weight, and BMI, a more satisfactory cosmetic result and more self-confidence were noted in the M and T groups versus the C group. In conclusion, the use of a minimal incision is technically feasible for some donor hepatectomy cases with a favorable safety profile. The patient satisfaction levels were greater with improved cosmetic outcomes in cases of minimal incision versus cases of conventional incision. PMID:25348280
Rangrao H. Deshpande
Full Text Available Aims & Objectives: Blood transfusion can cause the transmission of infections to recipients. This is an important mode of infection. The aim of study was to assess the prevalence of such type of infections among blood donors and to compare the seroprevalence of transfusion transmitted diseases in voluntary donors and replacement donors. Retrospective study of five years from Jan. 2007 to Dec. 2011 was done. This study was conducted at Blood bank, MIMSR Medical College Latur, Govt. Medical College, Latur and Bhalchandra Blood bank, Latur. Material & Methods: Total 10, 4925 donors were tested. Donors were screened for seroprevalence of HIV, HBC, HCV and Syphilis. Screening of HIV, HBV & HCV was done by ELISA method & Syphilis was screened by RPR type. Results: The comparison of seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV & Syphilis in voluntary donors and replacement donors showed significant difference only for HIV in the years 2007, 2010, and 2011. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of transfusion transmitted diseases in the study is very low or negligible in voluntary donors as compared to replacement donors. There was a declining trend of seroprevalence for all the disease screened. But in our study the difference is not significant, which indicates that the selection of donors is of low quality. The selection of high quality voluntary donors should be achieved by creation of awareness by education of the prospective donor populations.
Hull, Kimmelin; Montgomery, Kristen S; Vireday, Pamela; Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen
This column features excerpts from a recent series of articles from the Lamaze International research blog, Science & Sensibility. The eight-part series examined the issue of maternal obesity from various perspectives, incorporating writings from Kimmelin Hull, a physician assistant, a Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator, and the community manager of Science & Sensibility; Kristen Montgomery, a nursing professor at the University of North Carolina-Charlotte; Pamela Vireday, a childbirth educator and blogger; and Kathleen Kendall-Tackett, a health psychologist, lactation consultant, and writer/speaker. The authors of the blog series, titled "Maternal Obesity from All Sides," reviewed current research about risks associated with maternal obesity as well as the humanistic issues and lived experiences of pregnant women of size. PMID:22942626
Smith, Louise; Holm, Lotte
In many affluent Western societies the less educated are at higher risk of developing obesity. Within a conceptual framework of sociology of embodiment, this study analyzed the embodied experiences associated with obesity and the management of body weight among women and men with different social backgrounds. Qualitative in depth interviews were conducted with 20 Danish middle-aged men and women who were categorized as clinically obese in a national dietary survey. The study found a devastating impact of obesity in the lives of highly educated women related to motherhood, career and wifehood which interrelated with persistent efforts to lose weight and repeated involvement in a great variety of weight-loss activities. In contrast, body weight among the less educated interviewees was a concern only in specific situations of everyday life, and it was a health-related concern especially for those men who had experienced weight-related disease, which interrelated with less commitment to, and variation in, weight-loss activities. These findings may help to explain why obesity is least prevalent among highly educated women in Danish society as well as other western societies. A marked difference between men and women was that only few men followed dietary regimes which involved a focus on cooking or changing eating habits on their own initiative. In addition they did not participate in commercial weight-loss programs. We discuss how the social and gendered differences found relate to wider societal contexts and how the findings may both challenge and inform public health promotion.
Hirko, Kelly A; Kantor, Elizabeth D; Cohen, Sarah S; Blot, William J; Stampfer, Meir J; Signorello, Lisa B
Although much research has been conducted on the role adult body mass index (BMI) plays in mortality, there have been fewer studies that evaluated the associations of BMI in young adulthood and adult weight trajectory with mortality, and it remains uncertain whether associations differ by race or sex. We prospectively examined the relationships of BMI in young adulthood (21 years of age) and adult obesity trajectory with later-life mortality rates among 75,881 men and women in the Southern Community Cohort Study. Study participants were enrolled between 2002 and 2009 at ages 40-79 years and were followed through December, 2011. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. There were 7,301 deaths in the 474,970 person-years of follow-up. Participants who reported being overweight or obese as young adults had mortality rates that were 19% (95% confidence interval: 12, 27) and 64% (95% confidence interval: 52, 78) higher, respectively, than those of their normal weight counterparts. The results did not significantly differ by race or sex. Participants who reported being obese in young adulthood only or in both young and middle adulthood experienced mortality rates that were 40%-90% higher than those of participants who were nonobese at either time. These results suggest that obesity in young adulthood is associated with higher mortality risk regardless of race, sex, and obesity status in later life. PMID:25977515
Full Text Available The role of body mass index (BMI in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery has been a focus of past studies. However, the effects of postoperative weight loss in patients after CABG is yet to be known. We performed a retrospective study of 899 patients who underwent CABG at our institution. Perioperative patient information was collected from an onsite electronic record system. Patients were grouped into four BMI categories: normal controls, overweight, obese and morbidly obese. Based on the postoperative BMI changes, patients were then grouped into three categories: gainers, no change and losers. Statistical analyses were performed using analysis of variance and linear regression to establish an association among the data. Hazard ratios (HR and cumulative survival were obtained by the Cox-Mantel and Kaplan-Meier analyses, respectively. The normal controls exhibited a markedly higher mortality postoperatively, at 27.9%, especially when compared with the obese individuals (16.1%. Patients who lost weight faced a significantly increased risk of mortality than those who experienced no changes or gained weight after surgery. This trend was especially salient among the obese patients, who more than tripled their mortality risk (HR = 3.24 versus individuals who gained weight, and more than doubled their risk (HR = 2.87 versus those who had no changes. We conclude that obesity confers a survival advantage in the setting of the CABG surgery. Weight loss among all BMI categories of patients studied results in an adverse effect on postoperative survival.
Full Text Available ... Severe_Obesity_100215.html Health Effects of Severe Obesity in Childhood HealthDay News Video - October 5, 2015 To use ... MedlinePlus Health Topics Cholesterol High Blood Pressure Hyperglycemia Obesity in Children About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...
... Severe_Obesity_100215.html Health Effects of Severe Obesity in Childhood HealthDay News Video - October 5, 2015 To use ... MedlinePlus Health Topics Cholesterol High Blood Pressure Hyperglycemia Obesity in Children About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...
Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore
This paper assesses whether school lunches contribute to childhood obesity. I employ two methods to isolate the causal impact of school lunches on obesity. First, using panel data, I ?nd that children who consume school lunches are more likely to be obese than those who brown bag their lunches even though they enter kindergarten with the same…
Obesity is the most prevalent health problem among children in the United States and globally, leading to diverse health problems and staggering costs. Most child obesity prevention interventions are not working well, or not at all. Part of the problem is that the causes of child obesity are not cle...
Merry, Michael S.
Obesity describes an abnormally high fat accumulation that impairs health. It is crudely measured by a body mass index (BMI) of greater than 30 kg/sq meters. Obesity now ranks among the highest of concerns by the World Health Organization (WHO) and not only in countries of affluence; the figures of obesity worldwide have doubled since 1980 and the…
Holm, Lotte; Nielsen, Peter BØrker
Obesity is one of the main health problems in the world with high societal and individual costs. To tackle the obesity epidemic, we need to collaborate across scientific boarders to fundamentally broaden the perspectives on the obesity epidemic as a complex phenomenon.