WorldWideScience
1

Laparoscopic adjustable gastric band in an obese unrelated living donor prior to kidney transplantation: a case report  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Introduction Obese living donors who undergo donor nephrectomy have higher rates of intra-operative and post-operative complications. Many centres exclude obese donors from living donor transplant programs. Diet, exercise and medication are often ineffective weight loss interventions for donors, hence bariatric surgery should be considered. Case presentation We report the case of a 53-year-old Caucasian woman who underwent laparoscopically adjustable gastric banding. The procedure en...

Coombes Jeff S; Wilkinson Stephen; Koshy Anoop N; Fassett Robert G

2010-01-01

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Laparoscopic adjustable gastric band in an obese unrelated living donor prior to kidney transplantation: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Obese living donors who undergo donor nephrectomy have higher rates of intra-operative and post-operative complications. Many centres exclude obese donors from living donor transplant programs. Diet, exercise and medication are often ineffective weight loss interventions for donors, hence bariatric surgery should be considered. Case presentation We report the case of a 53-year-old Caucasian woman who underwent laparoscopically adjustable gastric banding. The procedure enabled her to lose sufficient weight to gain eligibility for kidney donation. After losing weight, she had an uncomplicated laparoscopic donor nephrectomy surgery, and the recipient underwent successful kidney transplantation. Conclusion Laparoscopically adjustable gastric banding should be considered for obese potential living kidney donors whenever transplantation units restrict access to donor nephrectomy based on the increased surgical risk for donors.

Coombes Jeff S

2010-04-01

3

Influence of steroid maintenance on the outcomes in deceased donor kidney transplant recipients experiencing delayed graft function  

OpenAIRE

Delayed graft function (DGF) is a risk factor for poor long-term graft and patient survival after kidney transplantation. The aim of our study was to explore the beneficial effect of steroid maintenance on outcomes in deceased donor kidney (DDK) transplant recipients with DGF. Using organ procurement and transplant network/United network of organ sharing (OPTN/UNOS) database, we identified adult patients who developed DGF following DDK transplantation performed between January 2000 and Decemb...

Tangirala, B.; Marcus, R. J.; Hussain, S. M.; Sureshkumar, K. K.

2013-01-01

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Influence of steroid maintenance on the outcomes in deceased donor kidney transplant recipients experiencing delayed graft function.  

Science.gov (United States)

Delayed graft function (DGF) is a risk factor for poor long-term graft and patient survival after kidney transplantation. The aim of our study was to explore the beneficial effect of steroid maintenance on outcomes in deceased donor kidney (DDK) transplant recipients with DGF. Using organ procurement and transplant network/United network of organ sharing (OPTN/UNOS) database, we identified adult patients who developed DGF following DDK transplantation performed between January 2000 and December 2008. They received induction with rabbit antithymocyte globulin (r-ATG), alemtuzumab or an interluekin-2 receptor blocker (IL-2B) and were discharged on a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)/mycophenolate (MMF) based immunosuppression with or without steroids. Adjusted graft and patient survivals were compared between steroid versus no steroid groups for each induction modality. Median follow-up was 29.6 months for the 10,058 patients who developed DGF. There were 5624 patients in r-ATG (steroid, n = 4569, no steroid, n = 1055), 819 in alemtuzumab (steroid, n = 301, no steroid, n = 518) and 3615 in IL-2B (steroid, n = 3380, no steroid, n = 235) groups. Adjusted graft survivals were similar for steroid versus no-steroid groups in patients who received r-ATG (HR: 0.98, 95% CI 0.85-1.13, P = 0.75), alemtuzumab (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.65-1.19, P = 0.41), and IL-2B (HR 1.01, 95%CI 0.78-1.30, P = 0.96) inductions. The adjusted patient survivals were also similar in r-ATG (HR: 1.19, 95% CI 0.96-1.46, P = 0.19), alemtuzumab (HR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.57-1.39, P = 0.96), and IL-2R (HR: 1.07, 95% CI: 0.77-1.49, P = 0.96) groups. Our study failed to show any significant graft or patient survival benefits associated with steroid addition to CNI/MMF regimen in DDK recipients with DGF. This may be related to the early immunogenic and non-immunogenic allograft damage from DGF with long-term consequences that are unaltered by steroids. PMID:24339515

Tangirala, B; Marcus, R J; Hussain, S M; Sureshkumar, K K

2013-11-01

5

Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories ...

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Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some of these conditions. And once we’ ... person. We generally try and avoid the very obese donor, particularly because they’re at long-term ...

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Single-Lobe Living Donor Liver Transplant in a Morbidly Obese Cirrhotic Patient Preceded by Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy  

OpenAIRE

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a stage of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and, in most patients, it is associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome with progression to end-stage liver disease in about 20% of patients (McCullough (2004); Matteoni et al. (1999); Liou and Kowdley (2006)). It has been estimated that between 20 and 30% of patients with end-stage cirrhosis referred for liver transplantation (LT) evaluation and 30 to 70% of LT recipients exhibit some degree of ob...

Sunil Taneja; Subash Gupta; Manav Wadhawan; Neerav Goyal

2013-01-01

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Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Of the various options for patients with end stage renal disease, kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for a suitable patient. The kidney for transplantation is retrieved from either a cadaver or a live donor. Living donor nephrectomy has been developed as a method to address the shortfall in cadaveric kidneys available for transplantation. Laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy (LLDN, by reducing postoperative pain, shortening convalescence, and improving the cosmetic outcome of the donor nephrectomy, has shown the potential to increase the number of living kidney donations further by removing some of the disincentives inherent to donation itself. The technique of LLDN has undergone evolution at different transplant centers and many modifications have been done to improve donor safety and recipient outcome. Virtually all donors eligible for an open surgical procedure may also undergo the laparoscopic operation. Various earlier contraindications to LDN, such as right donor kidney, multiple vessels, anomalous vasculature and obesity have been overcome with increasing experience. Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy can be done transperitoneally or retroperitoneally on either side. The approach is most commonly transperitoneal, which allows adequate working space and easy dissection. A review of literature and our experience with regards to standard approach and the modifications is presented including a cost saving model for the developing countries. An assessment has been made, of the impact of LDN on the outcome of donor and the recipient.

Gupta Nitin

2005-01-01

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Retroperitoneal less donor nephrectomy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Donor nephrectomy with laparo-endoscopic single site (LESS) surgery has been reported via the transperitoneal approach. We describe a novel technique of retroperitoneal donor nephrectomy using a single surgical incision in the groin, below the abdominal skin crease or "bikini line". The LESS groin i [...] ncision offers superior cosmesis, while the retroperitoneal approach has distinct advantages, such as the ability to identify the renal vessels early. The new procedure has been performed in two obese patients (body mass index 32 and 33 kg/m2, respectively). The operative times were 4 and 5 hours, warm ischemic times 135 and 315 seconds, blood loss 100 and 250 mL, and hospitalization 3 and 2 days, respectively. Retroperitoneal LESS donor nephrectomy through a single, inconspicuous groin incision is feasible and safe. Further evaluation of the technique in a larger patient cohort is indicated.

A., Van Der Merwe; A., Bachmann; C. F., Heyns.

2010-10-01

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Retroperitoneal less donor nephrectomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Donor nephrectomy with laparo-endoscopic single site (LESS surgery has been reported via the transperitoneal approach. We describe a novel technique of retroperitoneal donor nephrectomy using a single surgical incision in the groin, below the abdominal skin crease or "bikini line". The LESS groin incision offers superior cosmesis, while the retroperitoneal approach has distinct advantages, such as the ability to identify the renal vessels early. The new procedure has been performed in two obese patients (body mass index 32 and 33 kg/m2, respectively. The operative times were 4 and 5 hours, warm ischemic times 135 and 315 seconds, blood loss 100 and 250 mL, and hospitalization 3 and 2 days, respectively. Retroperitoneal LESS donor nephrectomy through a single, inconspicuous groin incision is feasible and safe. Further evaluation of the technique in a larger patient cohort is indicated.

A. Van Der Merwe

2010-10-01

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Combined Oral Contraception and Obesity Are Strong Predictors of Low-Grade Inflammation in Healthy Individuals : Results from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-established marker of inflammation. The level of CRP is affected by several lifestyle factors. A slightly increased CRP level, also known as low-grade inflammation (LGI), is associated with increased risk of several diseases, especially cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of increased CRP levels in healthy individuals. We therefore assessed CRP in a large cohort of blood donors.

SØrensen, Cecilie J; Pedersen, Ole B

2014-01-01

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Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... us can. Finally, after that is done, the patient sees Dr. Robey for a surgical clearance. There are some absolute disqualifiers for a potential donor; serious medical condition, such as HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity ...

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Recovery and safety profiles of marrow and PBSC donors: experience of the National Marrow Donor Program.  

Science.gov (United States)

The National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) has been facilitating hematopoietic cell transplants since 1987. Volunteer donors listed on the NMDP Registry may be asked to donate either bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC); however, since 2003, the majority of donors (72% in 2007) have been asked to donate PBSC. From the donor's perspective these stem cell sources carry different recovery and safety profiles. The majority of BM and PBSC donors experienced symptoms during the course of their donation experience. Pain is the number 1 symptom for both groups of donors. BM donors most often reported pain at the collection site (82% back or hip pain) and anesthesia-related pain sites (33% throat pain; 17% post-anesthesia headache), whereas PBSC donors most often reported bone pain (97%) at various sites during filgrastim administration. Fatigue was the second most reported symptom by both BM and PBSC donors (59% and 70%, respectively). PBSC donors reported a median time to recovery of 1 week compared to a median time to recovery of 3 weeks for BM donors. Both BM and PBSC donors experienced transient changes in their WBC, platelet, and hemoglobin counts during the donation process, with most counts returning to baseline values by 1 month post-donation and beyond. Serious adverse events are uncommon, but these events occurred more often in BM donors than PBSC donors (1.34% in BM donors, 0.6% in PBSC donors) and a few BM donors may have long-term complications. NMDP donors are currently participating in a randomized clinical trial that will formally compare the clinical and quality-of-life outcomes of BM and PBSC donors and their graft recipients. PMID:18721778

Miller, John P; Perry, Elizabeth H; Price, Thomas H; Bolan, Charles D; Karanes, Chatchada; Boyd, Theresa M; Chitphakdithai, Pintip; King, Roberta J

2008-09-01

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Donor Tag Game  

Science.gov (United States)

... Games > Donor Tag Game Printable Version Donor Tag Game This feature requires version 6 or later of ... Blood Donor Community Donor Stories Recipient Stories SleevesUp Games Facebook Fanbox Avatars and Badges Banners eCards Enter ...

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The influence of the donor-recipient relationship on related donor reactions to stem cell donation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research has begun to delineate the complicated reactions experienced by bone marrow and stem cell donors. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the donor-recipient relationship on the related donor's emotional reactions. Twenty-eight adult stem cell donors completed questionnaires before donation, 30 days post stem cell infusion, and 1 year after infusion. Questionnaires addressed the donor-recipient relationship, depression, mood, guilt and responsibility, self-esteem, ambivalence about donation and reactions to the donation itself. Results indicated that most donors reported little ambivalence about donation, and their reactions to the donation itself were generally positive. Closer and more positive donor-recipient relationships were associated with less anticipated guilt and responsibility if the transplant did not work. The relationships between the donor and the recipient did not change over time. Mood disturbance and depression were low overall, not related to the donor-recipient relationship, and did not significantly change over time. These results indicate that related stem cell donors are generally without significant emotional distress, and are comfortable with the donation process. Further, a more positive relationship with the recipient may help donors to avoid feeling guilty and responsible if the transplant does not work. PMID:24637897

Labott, S; Pfammatter, A

2014-06-01

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Substantial variation in the acceptance of medically complex live kidney donors across US renal transplant centers  

OpenAIRE

Concern exists about accepting live kidney donation from “medically complex donors” -those with risk factors for future kidney disease. This study’s aim was to examine variation in complex kidney donor use across United States (US) transplant centers. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of live kidney donors using Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network data. Donors with hypertension, obesity, or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)

Reese, Pp; Feldman, Hi; Mcbride, Ma; Anderson, K.; Asch, Da; Bloom, Rd

2008-01-01

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Obesity Epidemic  

Science.gov (United States)

A one page activity that takes students to several websites related to the obesity epidemic. First they can calculate BMI, then learn about national trends in the rate of obesity and finally use a tutorial on insulin and diabetes.

Scott Cooper

18

Obesity Epidemiology  

OpenAIRE

Obesity has progressed in a few decades from a public health footnote in developed countries to a top-priority international issue. Because obesity implies increased morbidity and mortality from chronic, debilitating disorders, it is a major burden on individuals and health systems in both developing and developed countries. Obesity is a complex disorder unequally affecting all age groups and socioeconomic classes. Of special concern is increasing childhood obesity. This review presents the e...

Haidar, Yarah M.; Cosman, Bard C.

2011-01-01

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Childhood Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

2012-01-01

20

Obesity management  

Science.gov (United States)

Rates of obesity in the United States have increased dramatically over the past 30 years. Approximately 35% of children and 66% of adults are currently considered overweight or obese. Although obesity is seen in all ethnicities and economic classes, ethnic minorities and those of lower socioeconomic...

21

Living-donor kidney transplantation: a review of the current practices for the live donor.  

Science.gov (United States)

The first successful living-donor kidney transplant was performed 50 yr ago. Since then, in a relatively brief period of medical history, living kidney transplantation has become the preferred treatment for those with ESRD. Organ replacement from either a live or a deceased donor is preferable to dialysis therapy because transplantation provides a better quality of life and improved survival. The advantages of live versus deceased donor transplantation now are readily apparent as it affords earlier transplantation and the best long-term survival. Live kidney donation has also been fostered by the technical advance of laparoscopic nephrectomy and immunologic maneuvers that can overcome biologic obstacles such as HLA disparity and ABO or cross-match incompatibility. Congressional legislation has provided an important model to remove financial disincentives to being a live donor. Federal employees now are afforded paid leave and coverage for travel expenses. Candidates for renal transplantation are aware of these developments, and they have become less hesitant to ask family members, spouses, or friends to become live kidney donors. Living donation as practiced for the past 50 yr has been safe with minimal immediate and long-term risk for the donor. However, the future experience may not be the same as our society is becoming increasingly obese and developing associated health problems. In this environment, predicting medical futures is less precise than in the past. Even so, isolated abnormalities such as obesity and in some instances hypertension are no longer considered absolute contraindications to donation. These and other medical risks bring additional responsibility in such circumstances to track the unknown consequences of a live-donor nephrectomy. PMID:15930096

Davis, Connie L; Delmonico, Francis L

2005-07-01

22

Childhood Obesity  

OpenAIRE

Obesity is increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world. Today it is estimated that there are more than 300 million obese people world-wide. Obesity is a condition of excess body fat often associated with a large number of debilitating and life-threatening disorders. It is still a matter of debate as to how to define obesity in young people. Overweight children have an increased risk of being overweight as adults. Genetics, behavior, and family environment play a role in childhood over...

Ahmad, Qazi Iqbal; Ahmad, Charoo Bashir; Ahmad, Sheikh Mushtaq

2010-01-01

23

Childhood Overweight and Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

... Overweight and Obesity Share Compartir Childhood Overweight and Obesity Obesity now affects 17% of all children and adolescents ... from just one generation ago. Basics About Childhood Obesity How is childhood obesity measured? What are the ...

24

Lung donor selection criteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

The criteria that define acceptable physiologic and social parameters for lung donation have remained constant since their empiric determination in the 1980s. These criteria include a donor age between 25-40, a arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/FiO2 ratio greater than 350, no smoking history, a clear chest X-ray, clean bronchoscopy, and a minimal ischemic time. Due to the paucity of organ donors, and the increasing number of patients requiring lung transplant, finding a donor that meets all of these criteria is quite rare. As such, many transplants have been performed where the donor does not meet these stringent criteria. Over the last decade, numerous reports have been published examining the effects of individual acceptance criteria on lung transplant survival and graft function. These studies suggest that there is little impact of the historical criteria on either short or long term outcomes. For age, donors should be within 18 to 64 years old. Gender may relay benefit to all female recipients especially in male to female transplants, although results are mixed in these studies. Race matched donor/recipients have improved outcomes and African American donors convey worse prognosis. Smoking donors may decrease recipient survival post transplant, but provide a life saving opportunity for recipients that may otherwise remain on the transplant waiting list. No specific gram stain or bronchoscopic findings are reflected in recipient outcomes. Chest radiographs are a poor indicator of lung donor function and should not adversely affect organ usage aside for concerns over malignancy. Ischemic time greater than six hours has no documented adverse effects on recipient mortality and should not limit donor retrieval distances. Brain dead donors and deceased donors have equivalent prognosis. Initial PaO2/FiO2 ratios less than 300 should not dissuade donor organ usage, although recruitment techniques should be implemented with intent to transplant. PMID:25132970

Chaney, John; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Cantu, Edward; van Berkel, Victor

2014-08-01

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Laparoscopic Live Donor Nephrectomy  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: To review a single-institution 6-year experience with laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy detailing the technical modifications, clinical results, as well as the trends in donor and recipient morbidity. Summary Background Data: Since 1995, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has had a significant impact on the field of renal transplantation, resulting in decreased donor morbidity, without jeopardizing procurement of a high-quality renal allograft. This technique has become the preferred method of allograft procurement for many transplantation centers worldwide but still remains technically challenging with a steep learning curve. Methods: Records from 381 consecutive laparoscopic donor nephrectomies were reviewed with evaluation of both donor and recipient outcomes. Trends in donor and recipient complications were assessed over time by comparing the outcomes between four equally divided groups. Results: All 381 kidneys were procured and transplanted successfully with only 8 (2.1%) open conversions. Mean operative time was 252.9 ± 55.7 minutes, estimated blood loss 344.2 ± 690.3 mL, warm ischemia time 4.9 ± 3.4 minutes, and donor length of stay was 3.3 ± 4.5 days. There was a significant decline in total donor complications, allograft loss, and rate of vascular thrombosis with experience. The rate of ureteral complications declined significantly when comparing our early (Group A) versus later (Groups B–D) experience. Conclusion: Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has remained a safe, less invasive, and effective technique for renal allograft procurement. Over our 6-year experience and with specific refinements in surgical technique, we have observed a decline in both donor and recipient morbidity following laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy. PMID:15273562

Su, Li-Ming; Ratner, Lloyd E.; Montgomery, Robert A.; Jarrett, Thomas W.; Trock, Bruce J.; Sinkov, Vladimir; Bluebond-Langner, Rachel; Kavoussi, Louis R.

2004-01-01

26

O-Glycosyl Donors  

Science.gov (United States)

O-Glycosyl donors, despite being one of the last successful donors to appear, have developed themselves into a burgeoning class of glycosyl donors. They can be classified in two main types: O-alkyl and O-aryl (or hetaryl) glycosyl donors. They share, however, many characteristics, they can be (1) synthesized from aldoses, either by modified Fisher glycosidation (O-alkyl) or by nucleophilic aromatic substitution (O-aryl or O-hetaryl), (2) stable to diverse chemical manipulations, (3) directly used for saccharide coupling, and (4) chemoselectively activated. Among these, n-pentenyl glycosides stand apart. They were the first O-alkyl glycosyl donors to be described and have paved the way to many conceptual developments in oligosaccharide synthesis. The development of the chemoselectivity-based "armed-disarmed" approach for saccharide coupling, including its stereoelectronic or torsional variants, now extended to other kinds of glycosyl donors, was first recognized in n-pentenyl glycosides. The chemical manipulation of the anomeric substituent in the glycosyl donor to induce reactivity differences between related species (sidetracking) was also introduced in n-pentenyl glycosides. An evolution of this concept, the "latent-active" strategy for glycosyl couplings, first described in thioglycosyl donors (vide infra), has been elegantly applied to O-glycosyl donors. Thus, allyl and vinyl glycosides, 2-(benzyloxycarbonyl)benzyl (BCB) glycosides and 2'-carboxybenzyl (CB) glycosides are useful "latent-active" glycosyl pairs. Finally, unprotected 3-methoxy-2-pyridyl (MOP) glycosides have been used in glycosylation processes with moderate success.

López, J. Cristóbal

27

Rich Donors, Poor Countries  

Science.gov (United States)

The shifting ideological winds of foreign aid donors have driven their policy towards governments in poor countries. Donors supported state-led development policies in poor countries from the 1940s to the 1970s; market and private-sector driven reforms during the 1980s and 1990s; and returned their attention to the state with an emphasis on…

Thomas, M. A.

2012-01-01

28

Finding a Donor  

Science.gov (United States)

... marrow or PBSC donation Myths and facts about bone marrow donation Cord blood and transplants Matching patients with donors How donors and patients ... marrow donation works, the steps of a patient transplant, steps of donation, and factors that can impact the likelihood of finding a ... Join the marrow registry Join now Before you ...

29

Psychosocial impact of pediatric living-donor kidney and liver transplantation on recipients, donors, and the family: a systematic review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Living-donor kidney and liver transplantation intend to improve pediatric recipients' psychosocial well-being, but psychosocial impact in recipients strongly depends upon the impact on the donor and the quality of family relations. We systematically reviewed quantitative and qualitative studies addressing the psychosocial impact of pediatric living-donor kidney and liver transplantation in recipients, donors, and the family. In accordance with the PRISMA guidelines, we systematically searched the databases Medline, Web of Knowledge, Cinahl, Embase, ERIC, and Google Scholar. We identified 23 studies that satisfied our inclusion criteria. Recipients had improved coping skills and satisfactory peer relationships, but also reported anxiety and depressive symptoms, worried about the future, and had a negative body image. Similarly, donors experienced increased self-esteem, empowerment, and community awareness, but also complained of postoperative pain and a lack of emotional support. With respect to family impact, transplantation generated a special bond between the donor and the recipient, characterized by gratitude and admiration, but also raised new expectations concerning the recipient's lifestyle. As psychological problems in recipients were sometimes induced by feelings of guilt and indebtedness toward the donor, we recommend more research on how gift exchange dynamics function within donor-recipient relationships, enrolling donors and recipients within the same study. PMID:25363518

Thys, Kristof; Schwering, Karl-Leo; Siebelink, Marion; Dobbels, Fabienne; Borry, Pascal; Schotsmans, Paul; Aujoulat, Isabelle

2015-03-01

30

Obesity Virus  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity has many causes, but there is growing evidence that common viruses may contribute to the condition in some people. Recently, Nikhil Dhurandhar and his colleagues at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center infected human stem cells with Ad-36, a common virus known to be associated with obesity in humans. They found that the cells they exposed to the virus accumulated a much higher amount of fat than uninfected cells.

Science Update (AAAS; )

2007-06-12

31

CHILDHOOD OBESITY  

OpenAIRE

Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

Lakshman, Rajalakshmi; Elks, Cathy E.; Ong, Ken K.

2012-01-01

32

Lung donor selection criteria  

OpenAIRE

The criteria that define acceptable physiologic and social parameters for lung donation have remained constant since their empiric determination in the 1980s. These criteria include a donor age between 25-40, a arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2)/FiO2 ratio greater than 350, no smoking history, a clear chest X-ray, clean bronchoscopy, and a minimal ischemic time. Due to the paucity of organ donors, and the increasing number of patients requiring lung transplant, finding a donor that me...

Chaney, John; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Cantu, Edward; Berkel, Victor

2014-01-01

33

Invited Commentary: Childhood and Adolescent Obesity--Psychological and Behavioral Issues in Weight Loss Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity has tripled in the past three decades. This increase has been accompanied by a dramatic rise in obesity-related health complications among American youth. Thus, many obese youth are now experiencing illnesses that will threaten their life expectancy in the absence of significant weight loss.…

Sarwer, David B.; Dilks, Rebecca J.

2012-01-01

34

Defining Overweight and Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

... Overweight and Obesity Share Compartir Defining Overweight and Obesity Overweight and obesity are both labels for ranges ... MRI). Assessing Health Risks Associated with Overweight and Obesity BMI is just one indicator of potential health ...

35

Hormones and Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

... Hormones and Obesity Share: Fact Sheet Hormones and Obesity March, 2010 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Caroline Apovian, MD Judith Korner, MD, PhD What is obesity? Obesity is a chronic (long-term) medical problem ...

36

Protocol for: Sheffield Obesity Trial (SHOT): A randomised controlled trial of exercise therapy and mental health outcomes in obese adolescents [ISRCNT83888112  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background While obesity is known to have many physiological consequences, the psychopathology of this condition has not featured prominently in the literature. Cross-sectional studies have indicated that obese children have increased odds of experiencing poor quality of life and mental health. However, very limited trial evidence has examined the efficacy of exercise therapy for enhancing mental health outcomes in obese children, and the Sheffield Obesity Trial (SHOT) will provide e...

Wright Neil P; Copeland Robert J; Daley Amanda J; Kh, Wales Jerry

2005-01-01

37

Decision making around living and deceased donor kidney transplantation: a qualitative study exploring the importance of expected relationship changes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited data exist on the impact of living kidney donation on the donor-recipient relationship. Purpose of this study was to explore motivations to donate or accept a (living donor kidney, whether expected relationship changes influence decision making and whether relationship changes are actually experienced. Methods We conducted 6 focus groups in 47 of 114 invited individuals (41%, asking retrospectively about motivations and decision making around transplantation. We used qualitative and quantitative methods to analyze the focus group transcripts. Results Most deceased donor kidney recipients had a potential living donor available which they refused or did not want. They mostly waited for a deceased donor because of concern for the donor’s health (75%. They more often expected negative relationship changes than living donor kidney recipients (75% vs. 27%, p?=?0.01 who also expected positive changes. Living donor kidney recipients mostly accepted the kidney to improve their own quality of life (47%. Donors mostly donated a kidney because transplantation would make the recipient less dependent (25%. After transplantation both positive and negative relationship changes are experienced. Conclusion Expected relationship changes and concerns about the donor’s health lead some kidney patients to wait for a deceased donor, despite having a potential living donor available. Further research is needed to assess whether this concerns a selected group.

de Groot Ingrid B

2012-09-01

38

Retroperitoneal less donor nephrectomy  

OpenAIRE

Donor nephrectomy with laparo-endoscopic single site (LESS) surgery has been reported via the transperitoneal approach. We describe a novel technique of retroperitoneal donor nephrectomy using a single surgical incision in the groin, below the abdominal skin crease or "bikini line". The LESS groin incision offers superior cosmesis, while the retroperitoneal approach has distinct advantages, such as the ability to identify the renal vessels early. The new procedure has been performed in two ob...

Merwe, A.; Bachmann, A.; Heyns, C. F.

2010-01-01

39

Experiencing sexuality after intestinal stoma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar as Representações Sociais (RS) da pessoa estomizada intestinal sobre vivência da sexualidade após confecção do estoma. MÉTODOS: Estudo exploratório, descritivo, qualitativo do ponto de vista do referencial da Representação Social. Participaram 15 estomizados, sendo 8 mulheres, [...] com idade média de 57,9 anos, entre agosto e setembro de 2005. Dados obtidos por entrevistas, transcritas, foram submetidos à análise de conteúdo, originando a unidade temática "Ressignificando a sexualidade" e subtemas. RESULTADOS: Demonstrou-se que o estoma intestinal interfere na dinâmica da vivência da sexualidade, desvelando que os significados a ela atribuídos estão ancorados nas histórias individuais de vida, na qualidade das relações pessoais/conjugais estabelecidas na prática e na percepção da sexualidade, apesar do estoma. CONCLUSÕES: Representações Sociais sobre vivência da sexualidade após estoma estão ancoradas nos significados atribuídos ao corpo, veiculadas no cotidiano e presentes no imaginário social. É influenciada por outros fatores, como alterações fisiológicas decorrentes do ato cirúrgico e da existência de parceiro. Cuidados adotados nas práticas sexuais propiciam maior segurança e conforto nos momentos de intimidade, tornando-as mais próximas daquilo que vivenciavam antes do estoma. A autoirrigação, associada ou não ao oclusor, constituiu estratégia facilitadora para melhor aceitação do estoma, sendo essencial para vida sexual mais prazerosa. A assistência à pessoa estomizada deve ser integral, não se limitando apenas à doença e ao cuidado técnico, que são importantes, mas não únicos. O trabalho interdisciplinar da equipe de saúde deve vislumbrar a pessoa em sua totalidade, buscando real encontro entre sujeitos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Identify the Social Representations (SR) of ostomized people in terms of sexuality after the stoma. METHODS: An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study using the Social Representation Theory with 15 ostomized people (8 females), mean age of 57.9 years, between August and September 200 [...] 5. Data obtained from transcribed interviews were submitted to content analysis, resulting in the thematic unit "Giving new meaning to sexuality" and subthemes. RESULTS: The study demonstrated that the intestinal stoma interferes in the sexuality experience, showing that the meanings attributed to this experience are based on individual life stories, quality of personal relationships established in practice and perception of sexuality, despite the stoma. CONCLUSIONS: The Social Representations, in terms of experiencing sexuality after the stoma, are based on meanings attributed to the body, associated with daily life and present in the social imaginary. It is influenced by other factors, such as physiological changes resulting from the surgery and the fact of having or not a partner. Care taken during sexual practices provide greater security and comfort in moments of intimacy, resembling the closest to what ostomized people experienced before the stoma. The self-irrigation technique associated or not with the use of artificial occluder, has been attested by its users as a positive element that makes a difference in sexual practice after the stoma. The support to ostomized people should be comprehensive, not limited to technical care and disease, which are important, but not sufficient. The interdisciplinary health team should consider all aspects of the person, seeking a real meeting between subjects.

Maria Angela Boccara de, Paula; Renata Ferreira, Takahashi; Pedro Roberto de, Paula.

2012-06-01

40

No Impairment in Host Defense against Streptococcus pneumoniae in Obese CPEfat/fat Mice  

OpenAIRE

In the US and globally, dramatic increases in the prevalence of adult and childhood obesity have been reported during the last 30 years. In addition to cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and liver disease, obesity has recently been recognized as an important risk factor for influenza pneumonia. During the influenza pandemic of 2009, obese individuals experienced a greater severity of illness from the H1N1 virus. In addition, obese mice have also been shown to exhibit increased lethalit...

Mancuso, Peter; O?brien, Edmund; Prano, Joseph; Goel, Deepti; Aronoff, David M.

2014-01-01

41

Expanding the donor pool.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in techniques and the development of new immunosuppressive drugs have made it possible to transplant a large number of patients throughout the world. However, the shortage of cadaveric organ donors remains the major obstacle for the full development of organ transplantation, imposing a severe limit to the number of patients who could benefit from this therapy. Although transplants save thousands of lives and transform the quality of life of thousands more, many people will die or remain on renal replacement therapy because the organ supply falls drastically short of actual demand. In the US, the number of organ donors has increased approximately 20% over the past 5 years, but this increase has been brought about largely by the use of older donors and other donors considered by some to be marginal. In the 6 years from 1988 to 1994, the waiting list for kidneys grew by 76% in the US. By the end of August 1996, there were 33,339 patients registered for kidneys on the national transplant waiting list. This report examines the issue of the elderly donor, the role of living-unrelated kidney transplantation, and proposes various strategies to enhance procurement of cadaver kidneys. PMID:9241721

First, M R

1997-07-01

42

Childhood Obesity  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive.  Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

2013-08-06

43

Psychosocial factors in obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obese people as a group have similar mental health as normal weight people, and there are no psychiatric features characteristic of obesity in general. However, small subgroups of obese individuals may have psychiatric abnormalities which are specific for obesity, such as body image disturbance or periodic compulsive overeating (bulimia). Obesity is strongly related to sociocultural factors. In western countries obesity is commoner in lower than in higher social classes. Thus, the development of obesity is influenced by social status. However, also the converse is true: recent observations suggest that obese people lose social status. This is probably due to prejudice and discrimination against obese persons in the modern western society. PMID:3477994

Mustajoki, P

1987-01-01

44

BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN  

CERN Multimedia

A blood donors campaign, organized by the Établissement de Transfusion de Rhône-Alpes will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2000 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

2000-01-01

45

BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN  

CERN Multimedia

Tuesday 19 March 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion sanguine of Geneva If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

2002-01-01

46

BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN  

CERN Multimedia

A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion d'Annemasse will be held at CERN on Tuesday 14 November 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

2001-01-01

47

BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN  

CERN Multimedia

A blood donors campaign, organized by the Centre de Transfusion Sanguine of Geneva will be held at CERN on Tuesday 13 March 2001 in restaurant nr 2, from 9.00 to 16.30 hrs If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

2001-01-01

48

BLOOD DONORS CAMPAIGN  

CERN Multimedia

Wednesday 13 November 2002 in restaurant nr 2, from 8.30 to 16.30 hrs will be held a blood donors campaign, organized by the Etablissement de Transfusion de Haute-Savoie If you already have a card giving your blood group, please bring this with you.

2002-01-01

49

Donor pancreata: evolving approaches to organ allocation for whole pancreas versus islet transplantation.  

OpenAIRE

As islet transplantation increasingly enters the clinical arena, its coexistence with vascularized pancreas transplantation makes it necessary to reassess the questions of donor selection and allocation. In answering these questions, one must put in the balance the short-term morbidity of pancreas transplantation with the long-term attrition of islet grafts. The preferential allocation of pancreases from obese and older donors for islet isolation has been based on their association with worse...

Berney, T.; Johnson, Pr

2010-01-01

50

Methyl Donor Supplementation Blocks the Adverse Effects of Maternal High Fat Diet on Offspring Physiology  

OpenAIRE

Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during pregnancy increases the offspring risk for obesity. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that maternal consumption of a high fat (60%) diet leads to global and gene specific decreases in DNA methylation in the brain of the offspring. The present experiments were designed to attempt to reverse this DNA hypomethylation through supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors, and to determine whether methyl donor supplementation cou...

Carlin, Jesselea; George, Robert; Reyes, Teresa M.

2013-01-01

51

Obesidad / Obesity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La prevalencia está aumentando de forma alarmante en todo el mundo y en todas las edades. Las complicaciones aparecen cada vez antes, son ya visibles en niños y adolescentes: problemas psicológicos, de adaptación social, ortopédicos, hiperlipidemia, hipertensión, apneas del sueño... La obesidad infa [...] ntil es el principal factor de riesgo para el desarrollo de obesidad en el adulto, que se asocia a un mayor número de factores de riesgo cardiovascular y a la disminución de la esperanza de vida. Aunque existen factores genéticos, el aumento de la obesidad está claramente unido al cambio del estilo de vida (mayor ingesta calórica y menor actividad física). El tratamiento es difícil, requiere de una estrategia multidisciplinaria actuando sobre el paciente y su entorno (familia). Por este motivo es clave la prevención primaria estimulando un estilo de vida saludable. Abstract in english Obesity prevalence is an increasing and alarming problem in the whole world and at all ages. Important consequences are coming earlier and they are visible in childhood and adolescence: Psychological problems, social acceptance, orthopaedic problems, high level of lipids, hypertension, sleep apnoeas [...] ... Children's obesity is the main risk factor for adult obesity, what is related to more cardiovascular risk factors and to a decrease in life expectancy. Although there are genetics factors, the rise of obesity is eventually in relation with life stile (more food calories intake and less practice of physical activity). Treatment is difficult. It is mandatory a multidisciplinary strategy effort toward patients and their families. Primary prevention is a key factor through encouraging a healthy life style.

M., Duelo Marcos; E., Escribano Ceruelo; F., Muñoz Velasco.

2009-10-01

52

Differences Between Experienced and Anticipatory Distress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined differences between distress ratings of anticipated and experienced life events in 168 college students. Found gender differences and significant differences between perceived and experienced aversion across events predicting symptoms of stress, depression, anxiety, and somatic discomfort in occupational, social and familial situations.…

Sowa, Claudia J.; Barsanti, Anne, N.

1986-01-01

53

Musculoskeletal pain in overweight and obese children.  

Science.gov (United States)

This review seeks to provide a current overview of musculoskeletal pain in overweight and obese children. Databases searched were Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Medline, Proquest Health and Medical Complete, Scopus, Google Scholar, SPORTDiscuss and Trove for studies published between 1 January 2000 and 30 December 2012. We used a broad definition of children within a 3- to 18-year age range. The search strategy included the following terms: obesity, morbid obesity, overweight, pain, musculoskeletal pain, child, adolescent, chronic pain, back pain, lower back pain, knee pain, hip pain, foot pain and pelvic pain. Two authors independently assessed each record, and any disagreement was resolved by the third author. Data were analysed using a narrative thematic approach owing to the heterogeneity of reported outcome measures. Ninety-seven records were initially identified using a variety of terms associated with children, obesity and musculoskeletal pain. Ten studies were included for thematic analysis when predetermined inclusion criteria were applied. Bone deformity and dysfunction, pain reporting and the impact of children being overweight or obese on physical activity, exercise and quality of life were the three themes identified from the literature. Chronic pain, obesity and a reduction in physical functioning and activity may contribute to a cycle of weight gain that affects a child's quality of life. Future studies are required to examine the sequela of overweight and obese children experiencing chronic musculoskeletal pain. PMID:24077005

Smith, S M; Sumar, B; Dixon, K A

2014-01-01

54

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... is their intended recipient donor is blood-type B, so they’re not compatible. But if there ... would donate to the A recipient and the B donor to the B recipient. And those are ...

55

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... than with an open incision. There is a screening process for potential donors. It’s important to emphasize ... and surgically an acceptable candidate. This shows our screening process, first the potential donor meets with a ...

56

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... would then be compatible. There are also other options in terms of identifying another donor perhaps for ... good questions about the incompatible donors and the options that are available for them, such as the ...

57

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... open incision. There is a screening process for potential donors. It’s important to emphasize that donating a ... every step possible to make sure that the potential donor is medically and surgically an acceptable candidate. ...

58

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... a kidney is safe. It has an excellent safety record both here and nationwide. To ensure that, ... ve had a lot of talk about the safety for the living donors. The donor for that ...

59

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... need dialysis after the operation?” One of the advantages of living donation is that these kidneys essentially ... were removed from the donor. One of the advantages of living donor is that time is from ...

60

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. We started the laparoscopic approach to donor nephrectomies in 1999. My partner, Dr. ... really actually have better visualization with the laparoscopic approach. When we do the kidney transplant, one of ...

61

Obesity and Hispanic Americans  

Science.gov (United States)

... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 78 ... ss6104.pdf [PDF | 3.5MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

62

Overweight and Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Overweight and Obesity? Español The terms "overweight" and "obesity" refer to ... disease risk. Rate This Content: Next >> Featured Video Obesity happens one pound at a time. So does ...

63

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is a condition in some obese people in which poor breathing leads to ... control over breathing and excess weight (due to obesity) against the chest wall. This makes it hard ...

64

Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome  

Science.gov (United States)

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome? Obesity hypoventilation (HI-po-ven-tih- ... NHLBI Research Featured in HBO Documentary Series on Obesity Hear people talk about their challenges and successes ...

65

Disability and Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

... CDC Employees and Reasonable Accommodations (RA) Disability and Obesity Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... and Disability at http://www.ncpad.org/ The Obesity Epidemic Obesity affects different people in different ways ...

66

Obesity and African Americans  

Science.gov (United States)

... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6104.pdf [PDF | 3.5MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

67

Obesity and Cancer Risk  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity and Cancer Risk Key Points During the past several decades, the percentage of overweight and obese adults and children has increased markedly. Obesity is associated with increased risks of cancers of ...

68

Sex Differences in Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Fact Sheet: Sex Differences in Obesity Part 1: Definitions and Epidemiology Part 2: Effects of Life Stages and Metabolic Hormones Part ... ethnic divide exists for overall obesity and for sex differences in obesity. Among black people, 54.3% ...

69

Live Donors in Liver Transplantation  

OpenAIRE

Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been controversial since its inception. Begun in response to deceased donor organ shortage and waiting list mortality, LDLT was initiated in 1989 in children, grew rapidly after its first general application in adults in the US in 1998, and has declined since 2001. There are significant risks to the living donor, including the risk of death and substantial morbidity, and two highly publicized donor deaths are thought to have contributed to decreas...

Brown, Robert S.

2008-01-01

70

The growing burden of obesity in Thailand: a review of current trends and policies.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, there has been a rise in obesity-related diseases in transitional countries. These countries, once plagued with problems related to infectious disease and poverty, now face a dual burden of both chronic and infectious diseases. Thailand has recently experienced significant economic growth, and as a result, the numbers related to obesity and obesity-related diseases have risen significantly. Thailand is an important region to examine the timely issue of obesity-related policy because Thailand has been a model for successful public health interventions and policies throughout Asia. Further, such policies have significant implications for other regions of the world experiencing similar health transitions. PMID:22132571

Pawloski, Lisa R; Ruchiwit, Manyat; Markham, Samantha M

2011-01-01

71

Childhood Obesity & Dental Disease: Common Causes, Common Solutions. Oral Health & Obesity Policy Brief  

Science.gov (United States)

Too many California children suffer from high rates of preventable chronic conditions associated with childhood obesity and dental disease. The state is experiencing a crisis in both areas. Fortunately, common factors that contribute to both conditions--including the rates of breastfeeding, access to healthy food and the consumption of…

Children Now, 2011

2011-01-01

72

Differences between experienced and anticipatory distress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Differences between distress ratings of anticipated and experienced life events were examined (N = 168). Results showed significant differences between perceived and experienced aversion across events predicting symptoms of stress, depression, anxiety, and somatic discomfort in occupational, social, and familial situations. Gender differences were also found. Women reported significantly greater ratings of distress than men. Results reinforce the use of experienced events in overall distress assessment for individual clients, bring to question the existence of anticipated or perceived stress, and suggest that gender differences should be accounted for in the interpretation of distress measures. PMID:3760199

Sowa, C J; Barsanti, A N

1986-09-01

73

Donor transplant programme  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The transplantation of organs and tissues from one human to another human has become an essential and well established form of therapy for many types of organ and tissue failure. In Malaysia, kidney, cornea and bone marrow transplantation are well established. Recently, liver, bone and heart transplanation have been performed. Unfortunately, because of the lack of cadaveric organ donation, only a limited number of solid organ transplantation have been performed. The cadaveric organ donor rate in Malaysia is low at less than one per million population. The first tissue transplanted in Malaysia was the cornea which was performed in the early 1970s. At that time and even now the majority of corneas came from Sri Lanka. The first kidney transplant was performed in 1975 from a live related donor. The majority of the 629 kidney transplants done at Hospital Kuala Lumpur to date have been from live related donors. Only 35 were from cadaver donors. Similarly, the liver transplantation programme which started in 1995 are from live related donors. A more concerted effort has been made recently to increase the awareness of the public and the health professionals on organ and tissue donation. This national effort to promote organ and tissue donation seems to have gathered momentum in 1997 with the first heart transplant successfully performed at the National Heart Institute. The rate of cadaveric donors has also increased from a previous average of I to 2 per year to 6 per year inverage of I to 2 per year to 6 per year in the last one year. These developments are most encouraging and may signal the coming of age of our transplantati on programme. The Ministry of Health in conjunction with various institutions, organizations and professional groups, have taken a number of proactive measures to facilitate the development of the cadaveric organ donation programme. Efforts to increase public awareness and to overcome the negative cultural attitude towards organ donation have been intensified. Equally important are efforts to promote the concept and understanding of organ donation among health professionals. A review of the Human Tissues Act 1974 which governs organ and tissue donation in this country is being undertaken. A number of seminars have been held to garner the support of religious groups in the promotion of organ donation. A major weakness had been the lack of a national organizational framework to facilitate and coordinate the development of organ donation and transplantation in this country. Therefore a National Transplantation Coordinating Committee and a Transplant Programme Working Committee have been formed to oversee the development and implementation of national policy guidelines and programmes. With these measures it is hoped that the donor transplant programme in Malaysia will be one of the success stories of the future

74

Experienced discrimination amongst European old citizens  

OpenAIRE

This study analyses the experienced age discrimination of old European citizens and the factors related to this discrimination. Differences in experienced discrimination between old citizens of different European countries are explored. Data from the 2008 ESS survey are used. Old age is defined as being 62 years or older. The survey data come from 28 European countries and 14,364 old-age citizens. Their average age is 72 years. Factor analysis is used to construct the core variable ‘exper...

Den Heuvel, Wim J. A.; Santvoort, Marc M.

2011-01-01

75

Obesity Prevalence Maps  

Science.gov (United States)

... About CDC.gov . Overweight and Obesity Share Compartir Obesity Prevalence Maps Obesity prevalence in 2013 varies across states and territories ... 9% in Puerto Rico. + Prevalence* of Self-Reported Obesity Among U.S. Adults by State and Territory, BRFSS, ...

76

Managing childhood obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of childhood obesity has steadily increased over the last decades, with approximately 35% of children aged 6-19 classified as overweight or obese. Recently, a plateau in the increasing rates of obesity has been observed. Despite this leveling off, overweight and obese children are hea...

77

Myths about childhood obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood obesity is a multifactorial and complex disease. Myths such as those that we have described may distract our patients from the underlying behaviors that contribute to the disease or may deflect the blame perceived by obese patients and their parents. Myths that suggest that the obese are inactive, eat differently, or eat more junk food suggest that obese individuals are socially deviant and justifies the intense discrimination directed against them. The myth that obesity represents an untreatable disease helps free health-care professionals from the responsibility to understand and care for obese children. Dispelling the myths about childhood obesity represents a critical step in prevention and treatment. PMID:1408407

Bandini, L G; Dietz, W H

1992-10-01

78

Screening and Behavioral Management: Obesity and Weight Management  

OpenAIRE

Individuals with migraine headaches who are obese or overweight may be at elevated risk for experiencing more frequent migraines and for developing chronic migraine. This makes it imperative that clinicians consider including weight management as part of a migraine treatment plan in situations where the patient is overweight or obese. Weight loss and weight maintenance therapy should employ a combination of behavioral strategies, in particular nutritional education, dietary intervention, and ...

Nicholson, Robert; Bigal, Marcelo

2008-01-01

79

Obesity in show dogs  

OpenAIRE

Obesity is an important disease with a growing incidence. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, and decreases life span, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain breeds is often suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of o...

Corbee, R. J.

2012-01-01

80

Obesity and cholangiocarcinoma  

OpenAIRE

It is estimated that about half of the population in developed countries are either overweight or obese. In some developing nations obesity rates have increased to surpass those seen in Western countries. This rate increase in obesity has many implications as obesity has been associated with numerous negative health effects including increased risks of hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, liver disease, apnea, and some cancer types. Obesity is now considered to be one of th...

Parsi, Mansour A.

2013-01-01

81

Soccer kick kinematic differences between experienced and non-experienced soccer players  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: to examine kinematic differences of instep soccer kick between experienced and non-experienced soccer players. Subjects: 17 men between 17 and 21 years old. Methodology: a 3D film system with 4 cameras was used. Maximum power instep kicks were executed. It was analyzed feet velocity in the impact, maximum hip extension, maximum knee flexion and kick phases duration. Results: were found significant differences in feet velocity with non-dominant leg in the impact moment (m/s (Experienced: 14.5±.52, Non-experienced: 12.5±.5; p<.001 and maximum hip extension (degrees (Experienced: 39.2 ± 1.3, Non-experienced: 34.28±3.2; p<.001. Also were significant differences in the second phase duration in both legs (p<.05. Conclusions: Maximum instep soccer kick show significant differences between groups of different level only in non-dominant leg.

Muñoz López, Alejandro

2012-01-01

82

CDC Vital Signs: Adult Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

... About CDC.gov . Vital Signs Share Compartir Adult Obesity Obesity Rises Among Adults August 2010 72M+ More than ... eating and active living. Issue Details Problem Adult Obesity Obesity is a national epidemic, causing higher medical ...

83

Experiencing Landscape: Orkney Hill Land and Farming  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is about how rural landscape is experienced according to combinations of practical engagements with land and the ways meaning is made in relation to it. It presents the case of the ambiguous position of the Orkney Islands within categorisations of Highland and Lowland landscapes in Scotland. Through a discussion of the physical and…

Lee, Jo

2007-01-01

84

Donor selection criteria and procurement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Donor selection is one of the most important aspects of tissue banking practice. Without a good donor selection criteria, the results of any effort of trying to preserve tissues will have disastrous outcome for the recipient of these tissues. While with a very good and strict donor selection the Tissue Bank can guarantee safe and effective tissue allografts. There are significant aspects in the history and physical examination of the donor that must be emphasized. A donor exclusion criteria has also been formulated together with a list of all the needed laboratory examinations to eliminate possible diseases that may be transferred from the donor. The methods of procurement of tissue allografts from living and cadaver donors will be described. The limitations and advantages of each will be taken.There are also special restrictions that are important in the practice of removing the tissues from the donors. All the necessary equipment should be ready and the potential risk on the personnel should be known to all doing Tissue Banking

85

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Healthcare is a not-for-profit integrated delivery system serving more that two-million residents in southeastern ... be, let’s say there’s a donor whose blood-type A is their intended recipient donor is blood- ...

86

Can right-sided hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic donor nephrectomy be advocated above standard laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: a randomized pilot study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endoscopic techniques have contributed to early recovery and increased quality of life (QOL) of live kidney donors. However, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) may have its limitations, and hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic donor nephrectomy (HARP) has been introduced, mainly as a potentially safer alternative. In a randomized fashion, we explored the feasibility and potential benefits of HARP for right-sided donor nephrectomy in a referral center with longstanding expertise on the standard laparoscopic approach. Forty donors were randomly assigned to either LDN or HARP. Primary outcome was operating time, and secondary outcomes included QOL, complications, pain, morphine requirement, blood loss, warm ischemia time, and hospital stay. Follow-up time was 1 year. Skin-to-skin time did not significantly differ between both groups (162 vs. 158 min, P = 0.98). As compared to LDN, HARP resulted in a shorter warm ischemia time (2.8 vs. 3.9 min, P benefits over standard right-sided LDN yet. Further studies should explore the value of HARP in difficult cases such as the obese donor and the value of HARP for transplantation centers starting a live kidney donation program (Dutch Trial Register number: NTR3096). Nevertheless, HARP is a valuable addition to the surgical armamentarium in live donor surgery. PMID:24268098

Klop, Karel W J; Kok, Niels F M; Dols, Leonienke F C; Dor, Frank J M F; Tran, Khe T C; Terkivatan, Türkan; Weimar, Willem; Ijzermans, Jan N M

2014-02-01

87

[Liver transplantation and living donors].  

Science.gov (United States)

LIVER SPLITTING: Classically, cadaver livers are split ex situ to provide two grafts for transplantation. This procedure could be performed in situ, limiting the duration of the operation and improving recovery of liver function. LIVING RELATED DONORS: Living donor liver transplantation is a well established technique in children. Donor mortality is nil and morbidity very acceptable. For adults, the results have been less satisfactory with increasing risk for the recipient, with biliary and venous problems due to the "small-for-size" implant. ORGAN HARVESTING: The left lobe, classically used for children, can also be grafted into adults, but under certain restrictive conditions. If the donor's residual liver volume is below 0.8% of the total body mass, the biological alterations remain limited and transient. EMERGENCY TRANSPLANTATIONS: Liver transplantations using a living donor can save critically ill patients with a life expectancy of less than 3 months. Remarkable survival rates have been achieved. PMID:11577581

Campan, P

2001-09-01

88

78 FR 66366 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Use of Donor Screening Tests To Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Donor Screening Tests To Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular...Donor Screening Tests to Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular...Donor Screening Tests to Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and...

2013-11-05

89

Myotubes from Severely Obese Type 2 Diabetic Subjects Accumulate Less Lipids and Show Higher Lipolytic Rate than Myotubes from Severely Obese Non-Diabetic Subjects  

Science.gov (United States)

About 80% of patients with type 2 diabetes are classified as overweight. However, only about 1/3 of severely obese subjects have type 2 diabetes. This indicates that several severely obese individuals may possess certain characteristics that protect them against type 2 diabetes. We therefore hypothesized that this apparent paradox could be related to fundamental differences in skeletal muscle lipid handling. Energy metabolism and metabolic flexibility were examined in human myotubes derived from severely obese subjects without (BMI 44±7 kg/m2) and with type 2 diabetes (BMI 43±6 kg/m2). Lower insulin sensitivity was observed in myotubes from severely obese subjects with type 2 diabetes. Lipolysis rate was higher, and oleic acid accumulation, triacylglycerol content, and fatty acid adaptability were lower in myotubes from severely obese subjects with type 2 diabetes compared to severely obese non-diabetic subjects. There were no differences in lipid distribution and mRNA and protein expression of the lipases HSL and ATGL, the lipase cofactor CGI-58, or the lipid droplet proteins PLIN2 and PLIN3. Glucose and oleic acid oxidation were also similar in cells from the two groups. In conclusion, myotubes established from severely obese donors with established type 2 diabetes had lower ability for lipid accumulation and higher lipolysis rate than myotubes from severely obese donors without diabetes. This indicates that a difference in intramyocellular lipid turnover might be fundamental in evolving type 2 diabetes. PMID:25790476

Bakke, Siril S.; Kase, Eili T.; Moro, Cedric; Stensrud, Camilla; Damlien, Lisbeth; Ludahl, Marianne O.; Sandbu, Rune; Solheim, Brita Marie; Rustan, Arild C.; Hjelmesæth, Jøran; Thoresen, G. Hege; Aas, Vigdis

2015-01-01

90

Obesity and health (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity increases a person's risk of illness and death due to diabetes, stroke, heart disease, hypertension, high cholesterol, and kidney and gallbladder disease. Obesity may increase the risk for some types of ...

91

Reducing Childhood Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

92

Obesity and Asian Americans  

Science.gov (United States)

... findings/nhqrdr/nhqrdr12/index.html HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ... nhqrdr12/index.html At a Glace – Risk Factors Obesity is a risk factor for several diseases. For ...

93

Obesity and Anesthesia  

Science.gov (United States)

... Apnea and Anesthesia Smoking and Anesthesia Outpatient Surgery Obesity and Anesthesia More than one-third of Americans ... Sleep Apnea, a chronic medical problem common with obesity, can present with serious breathing problems before, during, ...

94

Obesity: pathophysiology and intervention.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pathophysiological mechanisms such as impaired brain circuit regulation and neuroendocrine hormone dysfunction. Dieting and physical exercise offer the mainstays of obesity treatment, and anti-obesity drugs may be taken in conjunction to reduce appetite or fat absorption. Bariatric surgeries may be performed in overtly obese patients to lessen stomach volume and nutrient absorption, and induce faster satiety. This review provides a summary of literature on the pathophysiological studies of obesity and discusses relevant therapeutic strategies for managing obesity. PMID:25412152

Zhang, Yi; Liu, Ju; Yao, Jianliang; Ji, Gang; Qian, Long; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Guansheng; Tian, Jie; Nie, Yongzhan; Zhang, Yi Edi; Gold, Mark S; Liu, Yijun

2014-11-01

95

Obesity: Pathophysiology and Intervention  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pathophysiological mechanisms such as impaired brain circuit regulation and neuroendocrine hormone dysfunction. Dieting and physical exercise offer the mainstays of obesity treatment, and anti-obesity drugs may be taken in conjunction to reduce appetite or fat absorption. Bariatric surgeries may be performed in overtly obese patients to lessen stomach volume and nutrient absorption, and induce faster satiety. This review provides a summary of literature on the pathophysiological studies of obesity and discusses relevant therapeutic strategies for managing obesity.

Yi Zhang

2014-11-01

96

Personality Characteristics And Obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research question: Whether certain personality characteristics of obese women make them prone towards psychological problem? Objective: To assess certain personality characteristics of obese women. Study design: Cross-sectional community based study. Setting: Affluent localities of Varanasi city. Participants: Women above 15 years of age. Statistical Analysis: Mean, S.D and ‘t� test. Results: On 16 PF scale obese women were found more reserved, critical, depressed, worried and troubled than the non-obese women. Obese also manifested subsequently less felling of contentment, happiness satisfaction with life experiences, low sense of achievement on PGI Well-Being. Obese women showed more distress and apprehension over their negative evaluation and distressed with day to day Conclusion: Obese women evidenced significantly more neurotic than non- obese women.

Asthana Sunita

1999-01-01

97

Diets of obese and non-obese children  

OpenAIRE

Aim: To compare diets between obese and non-obese in children. Methods: Thirty-four obese and ten non-obese school children were recruited and their habitual factors of obesity were asked. Intakes of food in the obesity and non-obesity groups were checked using a model nutritional balance chart (MNBC). Results: Average intake ratio of food relative to ideal food intake was significantly higher in the non-obesity group than the obesity group. The relationship between obesity and exercise was s...

Atsuko Satoh; Seiko Fujita; Kazuko Menzawa; Sangun Lee; Masao Miyamoto; Hidatada Sasaki

2011-01-01

98

Obesity: The Last Bastion of Prejudice.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Most people do not realize how prejudicially damaging they behave, particularly towards the obese. Their discrimination has been deemed, unconsciously perhaps, as acceptable by society. METHODS: This paper describes a high school senior's exploration of prejudice and discrimination towards the obese. RESULTS: Through interviews with bariatric surgeons, bariatric patients, an obese victim of prejudice in her high school, attendance at support group meetings, statements from others experiencing similar bias in their workplace as well as a review of the relevant literature, the author developed a new understanding of the extent and depth of prejudice against the obese in North American society. She realized how this prejudice limits social opportunities and access of all sorts, interferes with employment opportunities, and even how deeply it penetrates the medical community. CONCLUSION: The intent of this paper is to educate those in society who continue to discriminate against the obese, and to open our eyes to our own behavior, as the author's have been opened. PMID:10729890

Flanagan

1996-10-01

99

Obesity and craniopharyngioma  

OpenAIRE

Abstract An epidemic of pediatric obesity has occurred across the world in recent years. There are subgroups within the population at high-risk of becoming obese and especially of having experience of precocious cardiovascular and metabolic co-morbidities of obesity. One of these subgroups comprises patients treated for childhood cancers and namely survivors of craniopharyngioma. The high incidence of obesity in this group makes these patients an important disease model to better understand t...

Bruzzi Patrizia; Iughetti Lorenzo

2011-01-01

100

Digging deeper into obesity  

OpenAIRE

The growing problem of obesity is associated with multiple morbidities, including increased risk of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, sleep apnea, and cancer. Obesity promotes disability, decreases productivity, and shortens life span. Although much attention has been focused on diet and exercise, these strategies alone are not effective in preventing obesity and maintaining weight loss. Moreover, the development of pharmacological approaches for obesity treatment has been dogged by poor...

Ahima, Rexford S.

2011-01-01

101

Taste and obesity  

OpenAIRE

Understanding the links between taste perception and obesity would help authorities cope with obesity, which diminishes the health of human populations. This has been highlighted by a study of the impact of programs intended to educate obese adolescents about healthy diets (Pasquet et al., 2007)1. We present and discuss the results of this study in this chapter. In order to analyze the relationships between taste perceptions and obesity, we will (I) present the main aspects of taste perceptio...

Hladik, Claude Marcel; Cohen, Emmanuel; Pasquet, Patrick

2014-01-01

102

Obesity and Eye Diseases  

OpenAIRE

The prevalence of obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many countries. While its impact on overall health is well documented, less is known about the ocular manifestations of obesity. Amongst different eye diseases, obesity has been linked with age-related cataract, glaucoma, age-related maculopathy, and diabetic retinopathy. Numerous population-based and prospective studies support an association between obesity and risk of age-related cataract. However, the nature and strength of the...

Cheung, Ning; Wong, Tien Y.

2007-01-01

103

Thinking Evolutionarily About Obesity  

OpenAIRE

Obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome are growing worldwide health concerns, yet their causes are not fully understood. Research into the etiology of the obesity epidemic is highly influenced by our understanding of the evolutionary roots of metabolic control. For half a century, the thrifty gene hypothesis, which argues that obesity is an evolutionary adaptation for surviving periods of famine, has dominated the thinking on this topic. Obesity researchers are often not aware that there i...

Genne?-bacon, Elizabeth A.

2014-01-01

104

Haematopoietic stem cell donor registries: World Marrow Donor Association recommendations for evaluation of donor health.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to identify unrelated haematopoietic stem cell donors in one country for recipients in another country requires cooperation and standardization in many areas. The donor assessment and testing are very important issues affecting quality and safety of donation. This special report details the World Marrow Donor Association's recommended procedures regarding the medical evaluation of donors, with the intent to protect the volunteer from the risk to damage his health and to offer the recipient the appropriate quality of stem cells. This document describes criteria for permanent or temporary deferral, guidelines for risk evaluation of infectious disease, examples of conditions requiring assessment and questionnaires designed to elicit relevant information about a donor's medical history and general health. PMID:18362904

Sacchi, N; Costeas, P; Hartwell, L; Hurley, C K; Raffoux, C; Rosenmayr, A; Greinix, H

2008-07-01

105

Experiencing and coping with psychological trauma  

OpenAIRE

The emphasis of this diploma thesis is on experiencing and coping with posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological trauma can do a lot of harm to a person and can have physiological, emotional, cognitive and behavioral effects. If traumatic event is too intense, it can lead to a posttraumatic stress disorder which can have negative impact on every aspect of person's life. Therefore it is crucial that they search for help and start a new life. The aim of this diploma thesis is to present...

Bizjak, Manca

2012-01-01

106

The Complexity of Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

With Americans fatter and more malnourished than ever--almost two-thirds of the population is considered overweight or obese compared with 56 percent in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and people of color and the poor are the most obese of all--federal and university researchers and outreach workers from various anti-obesity organizations aim to…

Gray, Katti

2010-01-01

107

Obesity and respiratory diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ producing systemic inflammation and effecting central respiratory control. Obesity plays a key role in the development of obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Asthma is more common and often harder to treat in the obese population, and in this study, we review the effects of obesity on airway inflammation and respiratory mechanics. We also discuss the compounding effects of obesity on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and the paradoxical interaction of body mass index and COPD severity. Many practical challenges exist in caring for obese patients, and we highlight the complications faced by patients undergoing surgical procedures, especially given the increased use of bariatric surgery. Ultimately, a greater understanding of the effects of obesity on the respiratory disease and the provision of adequate health care resources is vital in order to care for this increasingly important patient population.Keywords: obesity, lung function, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, anesthesia

Christopher Zammit

2010-10-01

108

Childhood Obesity: An Overview  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…

Reilly, John J.

2007-01-01

109

Obesity and kidney protection  

OpenAIRE

Context: Obesity, both directly and indirectly, increases the risk for a variety of disease conditions including diabetes, hypertension, liver disease, and certain cancers, which in turn, decreases the overall lifespan in both men and women. Though the cardiovascular risks of obesity are widely acknowledged, less often identified is the relationship between obesity and renal function.

Chandra, Aravind; Biersmith, Michael; Tolouian, Ramin

2014-01-01

110

Diets of obese and non-obese children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: To compare diets between obese and non-obese in children. Methods: Thirty-four obese and ten non-obese school children were recruited and their habitual factors of obesity were asked. Intakes of food in the obesity and non-obesity groups were checked using a model nutritional balance chart (MNBC. Results: Average intake ratio of food relative to ideal food intake was significantly higher in the non-obesity group than the obesity group. The relationship between obesity and exercise was significant but not significant for intake ratio of food, times watching TV and playing games. Conclusion: Food intake is not a primary factor of obesity but exercise is a key factor for obesity in school children. Since the effect of diet intervention in obese children was slight, exercise habit would be a more important strategy to reduce obesity than diet in school children.

Atsuko Satoh

2011-08-01

111

Evidence supporting the need for bariatric surgery to address the obesity epidemic in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite aims at prevention, obesity in the United States is now an epidemic. Along with the rise in obesity, the United States has experienced a concomitant rise in obesity-related comorbidities. Furthermore overweight and obesity present a major economic public health challenge. Physicians are likely to recommend weight loss to their overweight patients. Diet, exercise, and behavior modification are often effective during the course of treatment but are subject to recidivism and post-treatment weight gain. Obesity intervention mandates that providers consider the need for surgery in many cases. The three most commonly performed weight loss surgical procedures in the United States include gastric banding, gastric bypass, and sleeve gastrectomy. Patients undergoing surgery lose considerable amounts of excess weight and experience marked improvement in many other obesity-related comorbidities. Surgery is a proven therapy for patients who do not respond to less invasive measures and should be considered mainstream therapy in the treatment of the obesity epidemic. PMID:25757004

Bour, Eric S

2015-01-01

112

Burnout among Low and High Experienced Teachers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Burnout is a serious psychological syndrome that can affect not only an individual’s well-being, but also the functioning of whole organisations, such as schools. It is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and decreased personal accomplishment.The level of burnout among teachers in the field of education has a negative impact on student success. The present investigation examines the level of burn out among high and low experienced teachers. It focused on a group of English teachers from different nationalities: Iranian, and Malaysian at UPM to examine if there is any relation between burnout and experience level. The sample consisted of 30 English teachers. Two instruments namely, The Maslach Burnout Inventory and Demographic Questionnaire were used to collect data. Data analysis revealed that there is no significant difference in depersonalization and personal accomplishment scores between low and high experienced teachers. But the result of this study also revealed that there is a significant difference in Emotional Exhaustion scores between low and high experienced teachers. Further research is required to explore the roots and the causes of burnout.Keywords: teacher burnout, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment

Seyedehhava Mousavy

2012-09-01

113

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... medical condition, such as HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity ... long-term risks for health problems such as diabetes, which in turn can cause kidney disease, but ...

114

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... such as HIV positive status or diabetes or cancer or mental illness or severe obesity are some ... if they were, let’s say, to develop a cancer in one of their kidneys, and certainly that ...

115

Pediatric Obesity: Looking into Treatment  

OpenAIRE

Prevalence of pediatric obesity continues to rise worldwide. Increasing the number of health care practitioners as well as pediatricians with expertise in obesity treatment is necessary. Because many obese patients suffer obesity-associated cardiovascular, metabolic and other health complications that could increase the severity of obesity, it is fundamental not only to identify the child prone to obesity as early as possible, but to recognize, treat and monitor obesity-related diseases durin...

Marcella Malavolti; Paolo De Cristofaro; Angelo Pietrobelli; Simone Rugolotto

2009-01-01

116

Donor milk: current perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Francesca Giuliani,1 Ilaria Rovelli,1 Chiara Peila,1 Stefania Alfonsina Liguori,2 Enrico Bertino,1 Alessandra Coscia1 1SCDU Neonatologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Pediatriche e dell'Adolescenza, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy; 2SC Neonatologia, Ospedale Maria Vittoria, Torino, Italy Abstract: Mother's own milk is widely recognized as the optimal feeding for term infants, but increasing evidence exists of its benefits also for sick and preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units. However, the nutritional needs for appropriate growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of such a particular population of infants should be attentively evaluated, considering also the indication to an appropriate fortification of human milk. The target is to achieve growth potential for preterm newborns while ensuring good metabolic outcomes and normal neurological development. When mother's milk is unavailable or in short supply, donor human milk (DHM represents the second best choice and, although somewhat modified by the Holder pasteurization process, it preserves many benefits when compared to formula, as documented by more and more reports, randomized controlled trials, and meta-analyses published in the past few years. Evidence exists of the protection exerted by DHM from necrotizing enterocolitis, while further studies are required to look at possible beneficial effects regarding infections, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, long-term cardiovascular risk factors, feeding tolerance, neurological outcome, and allergy. Finally, the concern that the use of DHM might decrease preterm infant breastfeeding is being raised. Conversely, publications exist showing that the use of DHM in the neonatal unit increases breastfeeding rates at discharge for infants of very low birth weight. Keywords: human milk, preterm infant feeding, milk bank, breast milk, mother's own milk, pasteurized human milk, fortification

Giuliani F

2014-07-01

117

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... that pertains to having children. “What was your understanding about being able to have children after donating ... Deceased donor kidneys at about five years. We talk about five year survival and one year survival ...

118

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... in our kidneys. So having 70 percent, for example, of your kidney function is more than enough ... be another similar question about incompatible donors. An example of a paired donation would be, let’s say ...

119

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... of work for a little while and my child is grown and I don’t have to ... donor, Anna, a question that pertains to having children. “What was your understanding about being able to ...

120

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... speed things up, and because I’m so young they were pushing for it for us so. ... that would make the difference for us. Very young donors such as -- we would never take anyone ...

121

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... any side effects or any problems as a result of donating my kidney. I’m fine. I’ ... Transplant meetings they had a celebration of the event and that donor it was there to accept ...

122

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... allow us to retrieve the kidney at the end of the procedure and actually allows us to ... a donor?” No. The recipient, by definition, had end-stage kidney disease and certainly can’t ever ...

123

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... tolerate that better than a kidney from an older donor. But our routine is to try to ... A few programs in the country will transplant older recipients. We did have a historian out there ...

124

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... much like you guys had said, I was driving at that point and pretty mobile, didn’t ... of a transplanted kidney? That’s one of the key differences between deceased donor kidneys and a living ...

125

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery Sentara Norfolk General Hospital, Norfolk, Virginia March 25, 2009 Welcome to this “OR-Live” webcast presentation presented by Sentara Healthcare. Sentara Healthcare is a not-for- ...

126

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... our donor, Anna. “Anna, thinking back over the course after surgery, how long did it take until ... in their bloodstream are being cleared by this new kidney. Dr. Rust, here is a question for ...

127

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... northeastern North Carolina. Nationally recognized for quality and innovation, Sentara employs over 15,000 people and operates ... with an open incision. There is a screening process for potential donors. It’s important to emphasize that ...

128

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... northeastern North Carolina. Nationally recognized for quality and innovation, Sentara employs over 15,000 people and operates ... donor?” No. The recipient, by definition, had end-stage kidney disease and certainly can’t ever be ...

129

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... spread much at all, so it has little risk of damaging other tissues. But it does a ... donor, particularly because they’re at long-term risks for health problems such as diabetes, which in ...

130

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... ever be a donor?” No. The recipient, by definition, had end-stage kidney disease and certainly can’ ... that point and pretty mobile, didn’t really hurt, felt good. It took about another two weeks ...

131

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery Sentara Norfolk General Hospital, Norfolk, Virginia March 25, 2009 Welcome to this “ ... than 100 caregiving sites, including seven acute care hospitals, four advanced imaging centers, seven nursing homes, and ...

132

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... process, first the potential donor meets with a social worker and a psychologist, and there are also ... of a machine, have a better quality of life. It ended up not happening until 2001. It ...

133

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... from Nancy. The question is, “Is there a weight restriction on potential donors?” The answer to that is, “Yes.” We look closely not at the weight but the body mass index, which is a ...

134

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... northeastern North Carolina. Nationally recognized for quality and innovation, Sentara employs over 15,000 people and operates ... process, first the potential donor meets with a social worker and a psychologist, and there are also ...

135

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... urine tests are done. 1 And then after all that is done, the potential donor meets with ... and this makes Dr. Colonna’s work of hooking all this back up more tedious but still works ...

136

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and nationwide. To ensure that, we take every step possible to make sure that the potential donor ... that came in. They would come in three times a week, so basically you become their family. ...

137

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... process, first the potential donor meets with a social worker and a psychologist, and there are also ... unusual to have bleeding that is difficult to control laparoscopically. But we tell patients ahead of time ...

138

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... that port that we showed you being placed earlier and passed to Dr. Colonna. Hi. We have ... donate. We have another question on -- we talked earlier about the compatibility between the donor and recipient. ...

139

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the first patient then to the second and third and people get transplanted that way. So, yes, ... with the deceased donor, as much as a third of people may need a little time on ...

140

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

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Full Text Available ... a kidney from an older donor. But our routine is to try to get them in under ... years of transplant, that was part of the routine to remove their native kidneys, but it was ...

141

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

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Full Text Available ... a matter of experience as you -- in medical school and you do gross anatomy and you learn ... than an older donor, say, choosing between a parent over a sibling, or how would you choose ...

142

The psychosocial impact of haematopoietic SCT on sibling donors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The physical and psychosocial consequences for patients undergoing blood SCT for the treatment of cancer and their families have been extensively documented. There has, however, been far less investigation into the psychosocial consequences for sibling donors who are both family members and undergoing an invasive medical procedure. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the psychosocial impact of PBSC donation before, during and after donation, and to gain insight into donors' experiences of the preparation for, and procedures associated with, donation. Participants included 13 men and 9 women, with a mean age of 53.1 (SD=9.4) years, who underwent PBSC or BM donation between 2007 and 2010. Data were collected via face-to-face or telephone interviews and a questionnaire. Results revealed that a broad range of both positive and negative emotions were experienced at different time points during donation. The psychosocial impact of donation was also influenced by the interactions between factors such as pragmatic aspects of the donation process; family dynamics; perceived adequacy of preparation and emotional support; and uncertainty related to health outcomes for the recipient and donor. Routine provision of psychosocial support to donors as well as recipients is therefore important. PMID:22343670

Pillay, B; Lee, S J; Katona, L; De Bono, S; Warren, N; Fletcher, J; Burney, S

2012-10-01

143

Physics Climate as Experienced by LGBT+ Physicists  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2009, Elena Long created the LGBT+ Physicists website (http://lgbtphysicists.x10hosting.com) as a warehouse for resources useful for sexual and gender minorities working in physics. This resource has grown to include networking resources, lists of LGBT-friendly universities and localities, recommendations for enacting positive change in physics communities, and out-reach to other STEM-oriented LGBT organizations. This has been possible in large part by the dynamic community of LGBT+ physicists and allies looking to make physics more welcoming towards our community. In 2011, Elena used hir position as Member at Large on the executive committee of the Forum of Graduate Student Affairs (FGSA) to conduct a climate survey that included, among other things, the first serious look at LGBT+ demographics in physics. The survey focused particularly on issues of language heard and harassment experienced by physicists and was broken down into categories based on race, physical and mental ability, gender, and sexuality. Furthermore, it examined the outcomes of experienced harassment and the reasons for when harassment was not reported. Due to the nature of the study, overlapping demographics, especially ``multiple minorities,'' were also explored. This talk will give a brief history of the LGBT+ Physicists resource as well as an overview of the FGSA study.

Long, Elena

2012-02-01

144

Qualidade de vida do doador após transplante hepático intervivos Donor quality of life after living donor liver transplantation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available RACIONAL: A qualidade de vida do doador após transplante hepático intervivos ainda não foi avaliada em nosso meio. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade de vida do doador após transplante hepático intervivos. MÉTODOS: De um total de 300 transplantes hepáticos, 51 foram de doadores vivos. Doadores com seguimento menor do que 6 meses e os que não quiseram participar do estudo foram excluídos. Os doadores responderam a um questionário de 28 perguntas abordando os vários aspectos da doação, sendo também avaliados dados demográficos e clínicos dos mesmos. RESULTADOS: Trinta e sete doadores aceitaram participar do estudo. Destes, 32 eram parentes de primeiro ou de segundo grau do receptor. O esclarecimento sobre o caráter voluntário da doação foi adequado para todos pacientes. Apenas um (2% não doaria novamente. A dor pós-operatória foi pior do que o esperado para 22 doadores (59%. O retorno às atividades normais ocorreu em menos de 3 meses para 21 doadores (57%. Vinte e um doadores (57% tiveram perda financeira com a doação devido a gastos com medicamentos, exames, transporte ou perda de rendimentos. Trinta e três (89% não tiveram modificação ou limitação na sua vida após a doação. Os aspectos mais negativos da doação foram a dor pós-operatória e a presença de cicatriz cirúrgica. A maioria das complicações pós-operatória foi resolvida com o tratamento clínico, mas complicações graves ou potencialmente fatais ocorreram em dois pacientes. CONCLUSÕES: A maioria dos doadores apresentou boa recuperação e retornou completamente as suas atividades normais poucos meses após a doação. O aspecto mais negativo da doação foi a dor pós-operatória.BACKGROUND: Quality of life of the donor after living donor liver transplantation has not been evaluated in Brazil yet. AIM: To evaluate the quality of live of the donor after living donor liver transplantation. METHODS: Of a total of 300 liver transplantations, 51 were of living donors. All donors with less than 6 months of follow-up and those who did not want to participate were excluded from the study. The donors answered a questionnaire contained 28 questions about several aspects of donation. Demographic and clinical data from the donors were also evaluated. RESULTS: Thirty-seven donors were included in the study. Thirty-two were first or second degree relatives of the receptor. Only one donor would not donate again. Twenty-two donors (59% experienced more postoperative pain than they had previously anticipated. Return to regular activities occurred in less than 3 months for 21 donors (57%. Twenty-one donors (57% referred financial loss with the donation due to expenses with medications, exams, transportation or lost wages. Thirty-three (89% had no modification or limitation in their lives after donation. The most negative aspects of donation were postoperative pain and the presence of a surgical scar. Most postoperative complications resolved with clinical treatment, but severe or potentially fatal complications occurred in two patients. CONCLUSIONS: Most donors had good recovery and returned to regular activities few months after donation. The most negative aspect of donation was postoperative pain.

Júlio Cezar Uili Coelho

2005-06-01

145

Qualidade de vida do doador após transplante hepático intervivos / Donor quality of life after living donor liver transplantation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese RACIONAL: A qualidade de vida do doador após transplante hepático intervivos ainda não foi avaliada em nosso meio. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade de vida do doador após transplante hepático intervivos. MÉTODOS: De um total de 300 transplantes hepáticos, 51 foram de doadores vivos. Doadores com seguim [...] ento menor do que 6 meses e os que não quiseram participar do estudo foram excluídos. Os doadores responderam a um questionário de 28 perguntas abordando os vários aspectos da doação, sendo também avaliados dados demográficos e clínicos dos mesmos. RESULTADOS: Trinta e sete doadores aceitaram participar do estudo. Destes, 32 eram parentes de primeiro ou de segundo grau do receptor. O esclarecimento sobre o caráter voluntário da doação foi adequado para todos pacientes. Apenas um (2%) não doaria novamente. A dor pós-operatória foi pior do que o esperado para 22 doadores (59%). O retorno às atividades normais ocorreu em menos de 3 meses para 21 doadores (57%). Vinte e um doadores (57%) tiveram perda financeira com a doação devido a gastos com medicamentos, exames, transporte ou perda de rendimentos. Trinta e três (89%) não tiveram modificação ou limitação na sua vida após a doação. Os aspectos mais negativos da doação foram a dor pós-operatória e a presença de cicatriz cirúrgica. A maioria das complicações pós-operatória foi resolvida com o tratamento clínico, mas complicações graves ou potencialmente fatais ocorreram em dois pacientes. CONCLUSÕES: A maioria dos doadores apresentou boa recuperação e retornou completamente as suas atividades normais poucos meses após a doação. O aspecto mais negativo da doação foi a dor pós-operatória. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Quality of life of the donor after living donor liver transplantation has not been evaluated in Brazil yet. AIM: To evaluate the quality of live of the donor after living donor liver transplantation. METHODS: Of a total of 300 liver transplantations, 51 were of living donors. All donors [...] with less than 6 months of follow-up and those who did not want to participate were excluded from the study. The donors answered a questionnaire contained 28 questions about several aspects of donation. Demographic and clinical data from the donors were also evaluated. RESULTS: Thirty-seven donors were included in the study. Thirty-two were first or second degree relatives of the receptor. Only one donor would not donate again. Twenty-two donors (59%) experienced more postoperative pain than they had previously anticipated. Return to regular activities occurred in less than 3 months for 21 donors (57%). Twenty-one donors (57%) referred financial loss with the donation due to expenses with medications, exams, transportation or lost wages. Thirty-three (89%) had no modification or limitation in their lives after donation. The most negative aspects of donation were postoperative pain and the presence of a surgical scar. Most postoperative complications resolved with clinical treatment, but severe or potentially fatal complications occurred in two patients. CONCLUSIONS: Most donors had good recovery and returned to regular activities few months after donation. The most negative aspect of donation was postoperative pain.

Júlio Cezar Uili, Coelho; Mônica Beatriz, Parolin; Giorgio Alfredo Pedroso, Baretta; Silvania Klug, Pimentel; Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira de, Freitas; Daniel, Colman.

2005-06-01

146

Psychosocial aspects of obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obese patients have many physical limitations and much psychiatric burden to overcome. Several studies have shown that the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in the obese is similar to those with normal weight. However, in obese patients seeking treatment there is an increased prevalence (40-60%) of psychiatric morbidity, most commonly depression. It is difficult to separate the effects of depression on obesity and, on the contrary, the neuroendocrine changes associated with stress and depression may cause metabolic changes that predispose and perpetuate obesity. The stigma associated with obesity causes bullying in school as well as childhood psychiatric morbidity. Prejudice is not limited to the general public but exists among health professionals too. This chapter discusses the treatment of depression in obesity and the psychiatric evaluation of the pre-bariatric surgery patient. Education of society, starting with schools and including healthcare professionals will reduce bias and stigma as well as assist this vulnerable group of patients to seek help for their obesity and the many problems that come with it. Given that by the year 2025 obesity will be the world's number one health problem with the US leading the way, it is very important that we pursue preventive measures as well as encourage research for treatments of obesity. PMID:16418544

Vaidya, Varsha

2006-01-01

147

Prevalence and association between obesity and metabolic syndrome among Chinese elementary school children: a school-based survey  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background China has experienced an increase in the prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity over the last decades. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome among Chinese school children and determine if there is a significant association between childhood obesity and metabolic syndrome. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1844 children (938 males and 906 females) in six elementary schools at Guangzhou city from April...

Liu AiLing; Lin Rong; Liu WeiJia; Du Lin; Chen Qing

2010-01-01

148

Obesity in pregnancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of obesity has reached alarming proportions globally, and continues to rise in both developed and developing countries. Maternal obesity has become one of the most commonly occurring risk factors in obstetric practice. The 2003-2005 report of the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom highlighted obesity as a significant risk for maternal death [1]. More than half of all women who died from direct or indirect causes were either overweight or obese. For the mother, obesity increases the risk of obstetric complications during the antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal period, as well as contributing to technical difficulties with fetal assessment. The offspring of obese mothers also have a higher rate of perinatal morbidity and an increased risk of long-term health problems. PMID:25702971

Lim, Chu Chin; Mahmood, Tahir

2015-04-01

149

Obesity and pregnancy.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: As obesity is an increasing problem among fertile women, it is crucial that specialists involved in the treatment of these women be aware of the risks of complications and know how to deal with them. Complications associated with obesity in pregnancy are gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertensive disorders, and thromboembolic complications. Complications associated with obesity in labor are augmentation, early amniotomy, cephalopelvic disproportion, cesarean section, and perioperative morbidity. Complications associated with obesity in children are macrosomia, shoulder dystocia, small for gestational age, late fetal death, and congenital malformations, especially neural tube defects. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to review the potential complications associated with obesity and pregnancy. RESULTS: Obesity is associated with a higher risk of all reviewed complications except small for gestational age.

Andreasen, Kirsten Riis; Andersen, Malene Lundgren

2004-01-01

150

Employee susceptibility to experiencing job insecurity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Employees attach value to their job features/total job and when they perceive threats to these and experience feelings of powerlessness, their level of job insecurity increases. Since job insecurity is a subjective phenomenon, the study aims to assess who is more susceptible to experiencing job inse [...] curity by assessing biographical correlates. The research adopts a formal, hypothesis-testing approach where quantitative data were collected using a cross-sectional, survey method from a sample of 1620 employees. The results, generated using the ANOVA model, indicate that biographical influences do exist in terms of job insecurity. The implication is that change managers need to take cognisance of these influences and develop suitable strategies for each group to reduce the prevalence of job insecurity. Recommendations are made in this regard.

Leigh-Anne Paul, Dachapalli; Sanjana Brijball, Parumasur.

151

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome  

OpenAIRE

Obesity is becoming a major medical concern in several parts of the world, with huge economic impacts on health- care systems, resulting mainly from increased cardiovascular risks. At the same time, obesity leads to a number of sleep-disordered breathing patterns like obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS), leading to increased morbidity and mortality with reduced quality of life. OHS is distinct from other sleep- related breathing disorders although overlap may ex...

Al Dabal Laila; BaHammam Ahmed

2009-01-01

152

Genetic Factors of Obesity.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Budapest : Eötvös University Press, 2010 - (Bodzsár, E.; Susanne, C.), s. 119-140 ISBN 978-963-88941-0-6. - (Biennial Books of the EAA. 6) R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : aetiology of obesity * genetic factors * obesity genes * polymorphism * obesity -associated syndromes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

Mazura, Ivan; Ochoa-Rebato, E.

153

Obesity and asthma  

OpenAIRE

Asthma and obesity are prevalent disorders, each with a significant public health impact, and a large and growing body of literature suggests an association between the two. The systemic inflammatory milieu in obesity leads to metabolic and cardiovascular complications, but whether this environment alters asthma risk or phenotype is not yet known. Animal experiments have evaluated the effects of leptin and obesity on airway inflammation in response to both allergic and nonallergic exposures a...

Sutherland, E. Rand

2013-01-01

154

Obesity and respiratory diseases  

OpenAIRE

Christopher Zammit, Helen Liddicoat, Ian Moonsie, Himender MakkerSleep and Ventilation Unit, Department of Respiratory Medicine, North Middlesex University Hospital, London, UKAbstract: The obesity epidemic is a global problem, which is set to increase over time. However, the effects of obesity on the respiratory system are often underappreciated. In this review, we will discuss the mechanical effects of obesity on lung physiology and the function of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ produ...

Christopher Zammit; Helen Liddicoat; Ian Moonsie; et al.

2010-01-01

155

Epidemic Inflammation: Pondering Obesity  

OpenAIRE

Over the past two decades, inflammation has been recognized as a major driver in the pathogenesis of several common diseases, including atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, and asthma. Over the same period, there has been a steep rise in the incidence of obesity, a major risk factor for these disorders. Inflammation of adipose tissue is now recognized to accompany obesity and contribute to its sequelae. Thus, whereas obesity is primarily a disorder of energy balance, it may be helpful to consid...

Nathan, Carl

2008-01-01

156

Vitamin D and Obesity  

OpenAIRE

Obesity is a significant health problem world-wide, particularly in developed nations. Vitamin D deficiency is pandemic, and has been implicated in a wide variety of disease states. This paper seeks to examine the consistently reported relationship between obesity and low vitamin D concentrations, with reference to the possible underlying mechanisms. The possibility that vitamin D may assist in preventing or treating obesity is also examined, and recommendations for future research are made. ...

Simon Vanlint

2013-01-01

157

Genetics of Childhood Obesity  

OpenAIRE

Obesity is a major health problem and an immense economic burden on the health care systems both in the United States and the rest of the world. The prevalence of obesity in children and adults in the United States has increased dramatically over the past decade. Besides environmental factors, genetic factors are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed strongly associated genomic variants associated with most common ...

Grant, Struan F. A.; Jianhua Zhao

2011-01-01

158

Obesity in children & adolescents  

OpenAIRE

Worldwide, obesity trends are causing serious public health concern and in many countries threatening the viability of basic health care delivery. It is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and significantly increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. The last two decades have witnessed an increase in health care costs due to obesity and related issues among children and adolescents. Childhood obesity is a global phenomenon affecting all socio-economic groups, irrespectiv...

Raj, Manu; Kumar, R. Krishna

2010-01-01

159

Programming towards childhood obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is now considerable evidence that a constitutional susceptibility to fat gain is necessary for children to become obese under the pressure of an obesogenic environment; this is the programming towards obesity. The role of genetics in this programming is dominant. Besides the rare monogenic recessive forms of obesity secondary to mutations in genes involved in the hypothalamic appetite control pathways, obesity linked to mutations in melanocortin 3 and 4 receptors are more frequent due to their dominant mode of transmission. Predisposition to common obesity is polygenic and involves a network of genes; nevertheless, more research is required to elucidate their exact role. Fetal and perhaps early postnatal programming is also possible. Under- and overnutrition, diabetes, and maternal smoking during pregnancy were shown to promote later obesity and may affect the central body weight regulatory system during fetal development. The role of early postnatal factors such as formula-feeding rather than breastfeeding, excess in n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids or protein intakes, and excessive weight gain early in life is more questionable and needs further investigation. Taking into consideration that childhood obesity is a programmed disease should modify its clinical management. Childhood obesity should no longer be considered as the result of inappropriate eating habits and/or excessive inactivity in order to relieve the obese children's discrimination and their parents' guilt. Since treatment of obese children requires a substantial motivation to continuously fight against the programmed excessive drive to eat, it seems wiser to wait for children to be old enough, thus more motivated, to initiate energy restriction. Moreover, with the great majority of children being not predisposed to obesity, prevention strategies should not be addressed to the whole pediatric population but targeted to those children at risk. Improvement of knowledge on programming towards obesity is essential to develop more promising therapeutic and preventive approaches. PMID:21846979

Tounian, Patrick

2011-01-01

160

Obesity: A multifactorial disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity represents one of the most serious global health issues with approximately 310 million people presently affected. Main cause of it’s development is the increase of energy intake in regard to energy expenditure.Aim: The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the causes and treatment of obesity, as well as the anthropometrical measurements used for the assessment of obesity. The method ?f this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature, mainly in the “pub med data base” which referred to the causes and treatment of obesity, as well as the anthropometrical measurements used for the assessment of obesity. Results: The prevalence of obesity has increased markedly, throughout the world. Although the etiology of obesity has not been fully understood yet, however it seems to be a multifactorial disease for which are responsible a great deal of psychological, environmental, genetic and behavioral factors. The most common anthropometrical measurement that is used for assessment of obesity is Body Mass Index (BMI and is calculated by the following equation: ???=Weight/Height2. A value of ??? ? 30 kg/m2 equals obesity. Another simple test used to measure obesity is Waist to Hip Ratio, which measures abdominal adiposity. Values greater than 0,95 should be treated seriously as they normally indicate body fatness. The majority of studies show that life-style modification in conjunction with a well-balanced nutrition and regular physical exercise consist the cornerstone for the treatment and prevention of obesity.Conclusions: Obesity is a disease that can be preventable through modification of way of living. The development of proper strategy prevention capable to change attitudes, to promote nutrition and physical activity should be the primary goal of every community and government.

Marianna Ntokou

2010-04-01

161

Bariatric Surgery for Severe Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

... LABS. LABS researchers are experts in bariatric surgery, obesity research, internal medicine, behavioral science, and related fields. Their ... supports a broad range of basic and clinical obesity research. More information about obesity research is available at ...

162

[Obesity in Mexico].  

Science.gov (United States)

Excess body weight (overweight and obesity) is currently recognized as one of the most important challenges of public health in the world, given its size, speed of growth and the negative effect it has on the health of the population that suffers. Overweight and obesity significantly increases the risk of chronic no communicable diseases, premature mortality and the social cost of health. An estimated 90 % of cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus attributable to overweight and obesity. Today, Mexico is second global prevalence of obesity in the adult population, which is ten times higher than that of countries like Japan and Korea. With regard to children, Mexico ranks fourth worldwide obesity prevalence, behind Greece, USA and Italy. In our country, over 70 % of the adult population, between 30 and 60 years are overweight. The prevalence of overweight is higher in men than females, while the prevalence of obesity is higher in women than men. Until 2012, 26 million Mexican adults are overweight and 22 million obese, which represents a major challenge for the health sector in terms of promoting healthy lifestyles in the population and development of public policies to reverse this scenario epidemiology. Mexico needs to plan and implement strategies and action cost effective for the prevention and control of obesity of children, adolescents and adults. Global experience shows that proper care of obesity and overweight, required to formulate and coordinate multisectoral strategies and efficient for enhancing protective factors to health, particularly to modify individual behavior, family and community. PMID:25760754

Dávila-Torres, Javier; González-Izquierdo, José Jesús; Barrera-Cruz, Antonio

2015-01-01

163

Obesity and cholangiocarcinoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is estimated that about half of the population in developed countries are either overweight or obese. In some developing nations obesity rates have increased to surpass those seen in Western countries. This rate increase in obesity has many implications as obesity has been associated with numerous negative health effects including increased risks of hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, liver disease, apnea, and some cancer types. Obesity is now considered to be one of the major public health concerns facing the society. Cholangiocarcinomas (bile duct cancers) are malignant tumors arising from cholangiocytes inside or outside of the liver. Although cholangiocarcinomas are relatively rare, they are highly lethal. The low survival rate associated with cholangiocarcinoma is due to the advanced stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis. Prevention is therefore especially important in this cancer type. Some data suggest that the incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in the western world is on the rise. Increasing rate of obesity may be one of the factors responsible for this increase. Determining whether obesity is a risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma has significant clinical and societal implications as obesity is both prevalent and modifiable. This paper seeks to provide a summary of the current knowledge linking obesity and cholangiocarcinoma, and encourage further research on this topic. PMID:23382624

Parsi, Mansour A

2013-01-28

164

Behavioral treatment of obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Great population studies do not confirm the hypothesis that atypical personality of obese would exist. Obeses in the generalpopulation do not present more psychological disturbs thanthe ones that are not obeses. Obeses adolescents and adultsare discriminated in their academic and professional lifes. Thissocial, cultural, economic and affective impoverishment seemsto be directly related to the gravity of their obesity, what means,higher the ICM (Index of Corporal Mass, bigger are thepsychological problems. This abandonment contributes to thebig risk of unchain psychiatric pictures as depression, anxyetdisturbs, drugs and alcoholic excessive consumption andalimentary disturbs. Obeses of the general population do notpresent more psychological or psychiatric symptoms than theclinical population of obeses (obeses under treatment, presentmore clinical and psychiatric problems, mainly compulsoryalimentary standards. Some studies indicate that there is alinear relation between the ICM and the highest frequency ofalimentary compulsory behavior or bulimic episode. Thepsychiatric patients negative body perception added to theirother negative perceptions about their performance in searchingsocial interaction increase the trend to the isolation. Thepsychiatric picture presence in the bariatric surgery preoperatoryin a III degree overweight pacient has not to be facedas absolute surgery counter indication since such procedurecan be the difference between giving a better life quality orwaiting for a potentially lethal complication. We cannot forgetthat the obesity itself, due to the common associatedcomorbidyties, loads a great lethality potential. The surgerycounter-indication could be relative, it depending on how muchthe psychiatric disturbs interfere on the treatment andconditioned to the rigorous psychiatric control in the anteriorand post surgical period.

Táki Athanássios Cordas

2006-03-01

165

Obesity and cholangiocarcinoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is estimated that about half of the population in developed countries are either overweight or obese. In some developing nations obesity rates have increased to surpass those seen in Western countries. This rate increase in obesity has many implications as obesity has been associated with numerous negative health effects including increased risks of hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, liver disease, apnea, and some cancer types. Obesity is now considered to be one of the major public health concerns facing the society. Cholangiocarcinomas (bile duct cancers are malignant tumors arising from cholangiocytes inside or outside of the liver. Although cholangiocarcinomas are relatively rare, they are highly lethal. The low survival rate associated with cholangiocarcinoma is due to the advanced stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis. Prevention is therefore especially important in this cancer type. Some data suggest that the incidence of cholangiocarcinoma in the western world is on the rise. Increasing rate of obesity may be one of the factors responsible for this increase. Determining whether obesity is a risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma has significant clinical and societal implications as obesity is both prevalent and modifiable. This paper seeks to provide a summary of the current knowledge linking obesity and cholangiocarcinoma, and encourage further research on this topic.

Mansour A Parsi

2013-01-01

166

[Obesity and pancreatic diseases].  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is defined as BMI (calculated as weight in kg divided by height in m2) more than 30, and overweight is defined as BMI of 25-29.9. Obesity has been considered as a risk factor for pancreatic diseases, including pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. Severe acute pancreatitis is significantly more frequent in obese patients. Furthermore, obese patients develop systemic and local complications of acute pancreatitis more frequently. The underlying mechanisms are increased inflammation and necrosis from increased amount of intra- and peri-pancreatic fat. In addition, obesity is a poor prognostic factor in acute pancreatitis, and overweight before disease onset appears to be a risk factor for chronic pancreatitis. Overweight and/or obesity are associated with greater risk of pancreatic cancer and younger age of onset. Physical activity appears to decrease the risk of pancreatic cancer, especially among those who are overweight. Long-standing diabetes increases the risk of pancreatic cancer. The pathogenic mechanism is that obesity and physical inactivity increase insulin resistance. In a state of hypersinulinemia, increased circulating level of insulin-like growth factor-1 induces cellular proliferation of pancreatic cancer. Obesity is associated with negative prognostic factor and increased mortality in pancreatic cancer. However, there are controversies regarding the effects of obesity on long-term post-operative results in the patient with pancreatic cancer. PMID:22289952

Kim, Ho Gak; Han, Jimin

2012-01-01

167

Race and ethnicity influences collection of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cells from unrelated donors, a Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little information exists on the effect of race and ethnicity on collection of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) for allogeneic transplantation. We studied 10,776 donors from the National Marrow Donor Program who underwent PBSC collection from 2006 to 2012. Self-reported donor race/ethnic information included Caucasian, Hispanic, Black/African American (AA), Asian/Pacific Islander (API), and Native American (NA). All donors were mobilized with subcutaneous filgrastim at an approximate dose of 10 ?g/kg/day for 5 days. Overall, AA donors had the highest median yields of mononuclear cells per liter and CD34(+) cells per liter of blood processed (3.1 × 10(9) and 44 × 10(6), respectively), whereas Caucasians had the lowest median yields at 2.8 × 10(9) and 33.7 × 10(6), respectively. Multivariate analysis of CD34(+) per liter mobilization yields using Caucasians as the comparator and controlling for age, gender, body mass index, and year of apheresis revealed increased yields in overweight and obese AA and API donors. In Hispanic donors, only male obese donors had higher CD34(+) per liter mobilization yields compared with Caucasian donors. No differences in CD34(+) per liter yields were seen between Caucasian and NA donors. Characterization of these differences may allow optimization of mobilization regimens to allow enhancement of mobilization yields without compromising donor safety. PMID:25316111

Hsu, Jack W; Wingard, John R; Logan, Brent R; Chitphakdithai, Pintip; Akpek, Gorgun; Anderlini, Paolo; Artz, Andrew S; Bredeson, Chris; Goldstein, Steven; Hale, Gregory; Hematti, Peiman; Joshi, Sarita; Kamble, Rammurti T; Lazarus, Hillard M; O'Donnell, Paul V; Pulsipher, Michael A; Savani, Bipin N; Schears, Raquel M; Shaw, Bronwen E; Confer, Dennis L

2015-01-01

168

Laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience of videolaparoscopic nephrectomy in live renal donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April 2000 to August 2003, 50 left nephrectomies in live donor were performed by videolaparoscopy for transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were male (56%) and 22 female (44%). Mean age was 37.2 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.1 kg/m². RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 179.5 minutes, and warm ischemia time of the graft was 3.79 minutes. ...

Mitre, Anuar I.; De?nes, Francisco T.; Piovesan, Affonso C.; Simo?es, Fabiano A.; Castilho, Li?sias N.; Sami Arap

2004-01-01

169

Amphiphilic NO-Donor Antioxidants  

OpenAIRE

Models of amphiphilic NO-donor antioxidants 24-26 were designed and synthesized. The products were obtained by linking a lipophilic tail (C6, C8, C10) with a polar head constituted by the 2,6-dimethoxyphenol antioxidant joined to the NO-donor 3-furoxancarboxamide substructure through a bridge containing a quaternary ammonium group. Compound 23, containing the shortest C2-alkyl chain, was also studied as a reference. The antioxidant properties (TBARS and LDL oxidation assays) and the vasodilat...

Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto; Di Stilo, Antonella; Lazzarato, Loretta; Bertinaria, Massimo; Rolando, Barbara; Marini, Elisabetta; Chegaev, Konstantin

2007-01-01

170

Hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic versus standard laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: HARP-trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Transplantation is the only treatment offering long-term benefit to patients with chronic kidney failure. Live donor nephrectomy is performed on healthy individuals who do not receive direct therapeutic benefit of the procedure themselves. In order to guarantee the donor's safety, it is important to optimise the surgical approach. Recently we demonstrated the benefit of laparoscopic nephrectomy experienced by the donor. However, this method is characterised by higher in hospital costs, longer operating times and it requires a well-trained surgeon. The hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic technique may be an alternative to a complete laparoscopic, transperitoneal approach. The peritoneum remains intact and the risk of visceral injuries is reduced. Hand-assistance results in a faster procedure and a significantly reduced operating time. The feasibility of this method has been demonstrated recently, but as to date there are no data available advocating the use of one technique above the other. Methods/design The HARP-trial is a multi-centre randomised controlled, single-blind trial. The study compares the hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic approach with standard laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. The objective is to determine the best approach for live donor nephrectomy to optimise donor's safety and comfort while reducing donation related costs. Discussion This study will contribute to the evidence on any benefits of hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic versus standard laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. Trial Registration Dutch Trial Register NTR1433

Alwayn Ian PJ

2010-03-01

171

Live Donor Partial Hepatectomy for Liver Transplantation: Is There a Learning Curve?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Donor safety is the first priority in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT.Objective: To determine the characteristics and outcome of live liver donors who underwent donor hepatectomyfrom January, 1997 to May, 2007 at Massachusetts General Hospital.Methods: 30 patients underwent LDLT between January, 1997 and May, 2007 at our institution.Results: The type of graft was the right lobe (segments 5-8 in 14, left lobe (segments 2-4 in 4, and left lateralsector (segments 2 and 3 in 12 patients. The mean donor age was 36 (range: 26-57 years. The mean follow-up was 48 (range: 18-120 months. No deaths occurred. Overall, 8 (26.6% patients experienced a total of 14 post-operative complications. Donor complications based on graft type were as follows: left lateralsector (16.7%, left lobe (25%, and right lobe (35.7%. The experience was divided into two periods 1997-2001 (n=15 and 2002-2007 (n=15. Overall complications during 2 periods were 40% and 13.3%, respectively (p<0.001. The incidence of grade III complication also significantly decreased; 66.7% vs 33.3% (p<0.01.Conclusion: Partial hepatectomy in living donors has a learning curve which appears to be approximately 15 cases. This learning curve is not restricted to the surgeons performing the procedure but involves all aspects of patient care.

R. F. Saidi

2010-07-01

172

Obesity: A Bibliographic Review  

Science.gov (United States)

The study of obesity is a relatively new interdisciplinary academic field. The community college library shelves should contain two types of resources. First, several kinds of reference materials, and second, a host of broader materials that place the discussion of obesity within a cultural framework. This overview is divided into two major…

McGowan, Beth

2012-01-01

173

The Obesity Epidemic  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

Learn about obesity and the community initiatives taking place to prevent and reduce this epidemic.  Created: 7/18/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity and Obesity.   Date Released: 7/18/2011.

2011-07-18

174

Childhood Obesity PSA (:60)  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This 60 second public service announcement is based on the August 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. The rate of obesity among low-income preschoolers has declined, but one in eight is still obese. This program briefly discusses what can be done.  Created: 8/6/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/6/2013.

2013-08-06

175

Obesity and Women  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This women's health podcast focuses on obesity in women and girls. It discusses obesity-related health risks and includes tips to help achieve and maintain a healthy weight.  Created: 5/11/2009 by Office of Womenâ??s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/11/2009.

2009-05-11

176

GENETICS OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is a complex disease influenced by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Because of its complexity, obesity does not conform to simple Mendelian patterns of inheritance, but displays variable expression. Classical genetic studies on twins, siblings and nuclear families clearly have est...

177

Lifestyle management of obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is one of the most significant health concerns in the United States and other countries worldwide. In the United States, 68% of adults and 34% of children are overweight or obese. Prevalence rates continue to rise along with corresponding increases in health consequences. Type 2 diabetes, hy...

178

Childhood Obesity Facts  

Science.gov (United States)

... BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. Journal of the American Medical Association 2014;311(8): ... High School Participation Map - Middle School Fact Sheets Obesity, Dietary Behavior, & Physical ... Articles FAQs Communication Resources NYPANS Summary of Key ...

179

How Bad Is Obesity?  

Science.gov (United States)

A University of California at Los Angeles study in the Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law suggests that the proportion of obese Americans has risen 20% since 1980, but the so-called obesity epidemic is at best a metaphor and not a very effective one at that. However, recent research finds no appreciable difference in mortality rates among…

Schroeder, Ken

2006-01-01

180

Childhood Obesity. ERIC Digest.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this discussion of childhood obesity, the medical and psychological problems associated with the condition are noted. Childhood obesity most likely results from an interaction of nutritional, psychological, familial, and physiological factors. Three factors--the family, low-energy expenditure, and heredity--are briefly examined. Early…

Summerfield, Liane M.

181

Donor height in combination with islet donor score improves pancreas donor selection for pancreatic islet isolation and transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

To maximize the islet isolation yield for successful islet transplantation, the key task has been to identify an ideal pancreas donor. Since implementation of the islet donor score in donor selection, we have consistently obtained higher islet yields and transplantation rates. In this study, we tested whether assessing donor height as an independent variable in combination with the donor score could improve the pancreas donor selection. Donor and islet isolation information (n = 22) were collected and studied between 2011 and 2012. Pearson correlation analysis was used in statistical analysis. Donor height as an independent variable was significantly correlated to the weight of the pancreas, pre-Islet Equivalents (pre-IEQ), post-IEQ, and IDS (P  80, the clinical islet transplantation rate reached 80%. PMID:25131085

Wang, L J; Cochet, O; Wang, X J; Krzystyniak, A; Misawa, R; Golab, K; Tibudan, M; Grose, R; Savari, O; Millis, J M; Witkowski, P

2014-01-01

182

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... an adult kidney to a child?” Certainly. Our team here works with children’s hospital the King’s Daughters with their ... members of the team. We have a great team here at Norfolk General, particularly Amy who works so hard with the living donors, but really ...

183

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Robey for a surgical clearance. There are some absolute disqualifiers for a potential donor; serious medical condition, ... you know. I don’t have any side effects, I don’t have any other things. There’s ...

184

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... have several questions that we wanted to address. One is from Nancy. The question is, “Is there a weight restriction on potential donors?” The answer to that is, “Yes.” We look closely not at the weight but the body mass index, which is a formula derived from the weight and height of the ...

185

Mass Transfer from Giant Donors  

CERN Document Server

The stability of mass transfer in binaries with convective giant donors remains an open question in modern astrophysics. There is a significant discrepancy between what the existing methods predict for a response to mass loss of the giant itself, as well as for the mass transfer rate during the Roche lobe overflow. Here we show that the recombination energy in the superadiabatic layer plays an important and hitherto unaccounted-for role in he donor's response to mass loss, in particular on its luminosity and effective temperature. Our improved optically thick nozzle method to calculate the mass transfer rate via $L_1$ allows us to evolve binary systems for a substantial Roche lobe overflow. We propose a new, strengthened criterion for the mass transfer instability, basing it on whether the donor experiences overflow through its outer Lagrangian point. We find that with the new criterion, if the donor has a well-developed outer convective envelope, the critical initial mass ratio for which a binary would evolv...

Pavlovskii, K

2014-01-01

186

Living Donor Kidney Transplant Surgery  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... I’ll answer. “Does the living donor experience weight loss?” Just from being in the hospital and not eating for a couple of days, maybe some weight loss from that. The kidney doesn’t weigh enough ...

187

Obesity and stillbirth.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent years have witnessed a rise in maternal obesity, which is independently associated with an increased risk of stillbirth. The pathophysiology is unclear, but it is likely related to abnormal placental function, and inflammatory, metabolic and hormonal imbalances in the mother. Obesity is associated with conditions such as diabetes, which can also cause stillbirth. In order to reduce the risk of obesity-associated stillbirth, women of reproductive age should be actively encouraged to optimise their pre-pregnancy weight as the safety of weight loss interventions during pregnancy is unproven. Obese and extremely obese women should be treated as high-risk obstetric patients, with increased antenatal surveillance and specialist input. The postnatal period may be a useful time to provide weight management advice to women to prevent interpregnancy weight gain and reduce the risk of stillbirth in subsequent pregnancies. PMID:25457855

Woolner, Andrea M F; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

2015-04-01

188

[Psychosocial aspects of obesity].  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a strong psychosocial prejudice and discrimination against obese persons. Despite this pressure, they show no greater psychological disturbance than normal-weight persons do. Patients with bulimia, distortion of body image and - to a lesser degree - with extreme obesity are an exception to the rule and often require psychiatric help. There is no evidence for an obesity-specific disturbance of personality or of eating behavior. Behavior modification - with or without anorectic agents is still a matter of debate - has been the most successful form of therapy. As dieting carries the danger of psychosocial stress and morbidity its indication has to be carefully considered. With the high attrition rate, low compliance of obese persons and the poor outlook for a permanent therapeutic effect supportive care and guidance of obese patients is the most important and difficult task for the physician. PMID:2741130

Radvila, A

1989-05-01

189

[Psychosomatic aspects of living donor liver transplantation].  

Science.gov (United States)

Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) offers the option to reduce organ scarcity and thereby waiting list mortality. The crucial ethical problem of LDLT is the fact that the well being of a donor is being jeopardized for the improvement of quality of life of the recipient. To preserve mental health of the donors, psychosomatic evaluation should be conducted including examination of the coping capacity, the mental stability of the donor and the voluntary nature of the donation. Thus a comprehensive disclosure of information to donors is necessary. Realistic outcome expectations, family relationships without extreme conflicts, sufficient autonomy of the donor-recipient relationship and social and familiar support are predictors facilitating a favorable psychosocial outcome for the donor. Before and after LDLT the health-related quality of life of the donors is similar or increased in comparison to the general population. Psychiatric complications following LDLT can occur in 13% of the donors. Female donors, donors who have surgical complications themselves and donors with unrealistic outcome expectations should be given psychotherapeutic support before they are admitted to living liver donation. Urgent indications in the case of acute liver failure and the donation by adult children for their parents are particular stress factors. For the safety of the donor, these combinations should be avoided whenever possible. PMID:20730409

Erim, Y; Beckmann, M; Gerken, G; Paul, A; Senf, W; Beckebaum, S

2010-09-01

190

Health-related quality of life in kidney donors from the last five decades: results from the RELIVE study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Live donation benefits recipients, but the long-term consequences for donors remain uncertain. Renal and Lung Living Donors Evaluation Study surveyed kidney donors (N?=?2455; 61% women; mean age 58, aged 24-94; mean time from donation 17 years, range 5-48 years) using the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36). The 95% confidence intervals for White and African-American donors included or exceeded SF-36 norms. Over 80% of donors reported average or above average health for their age and sex (p?after donation (p?=?0.0027); there was no decline in mental component summary (MCS) scores. White donors' PCS scores were three points higher (p?=?0.0004) than non-Whites'; this difference remained constant over time. Nine percent of donors had impaired health (PCS or MCS score >1 SD below norm). Obesity, history of psychiatric difficulties and non-White race were risk factors for impaired physical health; history of psychiatric difficulties was a risk factor for impaired mental health. Education, older donation age and a first-degree relation to the recipient were protective factors. One percent reported that donation affected their health very negatively. Enhanced predonation evaluation and counseling may be warranted, along with ongoing monitoring for overweight donors. PMID:24011252

Gross, C R; Messersmith, E E; Hong, B A; Jowsey, S G; Jacobs, C; Gillespie, B W; Taler, S J; Matas, A J; Leichtman, A; Merion, R M; Ibrahim, H N

2013-11-01

191

The safety of hand-assisted laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy: The Ohio State University experience with 1500 cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hand-assisted laparoscopic donor (HALD) nephrectomy has been performed at our institution since December 1999. Through May 2014, a total of 1500 HALD procedures have been performed. We have evaluated the outcomes of HALD. The HALD procedure consists of a hand-port incision as well as two 12-mm ports. Mean donor age was 40.8 ± 10.8 yr, BMI was 27.9 ± 5.0, there were 541 males, 1271 Caucasians, and the left kidney was removed in 1236 patients. All procedures were successfully completed. Four donors (0.27%) were converted to an open technique due to bleeding. Four donors required blood transfusions. 53 donors (3.5%) were readmitted in the first month post-donation; almost half were due to gastrointestinal complaints. Six donors required reoperation; three for SBO and three for wound dehiscence. 27 patients (1.8%) developed incisional hernias. Seven donors (0.47%) developed bowel obstruction. All donors recovered well with a mean hospital stay after donation of 2.1 ± 0.3 d. All except one kidney were successfully implanted. Twenty-one recipients (1.4%) experienced DGF. Ureter complications occurred in 17 (1.1%) recipients. Early graft loss occurred in 13 patients (0.9%). In conclusion, HALD is a safe procedure for the donor with good recipient outcomes. PMID:25529029

Rajab, Amer; Pelletier, Ronald P

2015-03-01

192

Unpleasant subjective emotional experiencing of pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

The field of pain medicine that once began as a supportive and compassionate care, adding value to the management of acute and chronic ailments, has now transformed into a vital and essential specialty with structured training programs and service units with professionals dedicating their careers to it. The expansion of understanding of the direct relationship of pain relief to the quality of life, uncovering of neuronal pathways, and technological advances in imaging as well as in interventional techniques have all contributed to this phenomenal growth. However, there is a growing concern whether the training programs and the specialized practitioners are gradually limiting their skilled inputs primarily within the sensory realm of the pain experience with sophisticated interventional techniques and relegating its subjective and emotional dimensions to perfunctory realms within the schema of service provision. While the specialty is still young, if we can understand the inherent aspect of these dimensions within the pain experience and acknowledge the gaps in service provision, it may be possible to champion development of truly comprehensive pain relief programs that responds effectively and ethically to a patient's felt needs. This article attempts to position the subjectivity of pain experience in context and surface the need to design complete systems of pain relief services inclusive of this dimension. It presents authors' review of literature on perspectives of 'unpleasant subjective emotional experiencing of the pain" to elucidate possible clinical implications based on the evidences presented on neuro-biology and neuro-psychology of the pain experience; the aim being to inspire systems of care where this dimension is sufficiently evaluated and managed. PMID:23766590

Vallath, Nandini; Salins, Naveen; Kumar, Manoj

2013-01-01

193

Malaria and obesity: obese mice are resistant to cerebral malaria  

OpenAIRE

Summary Background The relationship between malaria and obesity are largely unknown. This is partly due to the fact that malaria occurs mainly in tropical areas where, until recently, obesity was not prevalent. It now appears, however, that obesity is emerging as a problem in developing countries. To investigate the possible role of obesity on the host-parasite response to malarial infection, this study applied a murine model, which uses the existence of genetically well characterized obese m...

Lombard Marie-Noëlle; Thouvenot Catherine; Depoix Delphine; Bourgouin Catherine; Robert Vincent; Grellier Philippe

2008-01-01

194

Obesity in Children and Adolescents  

OpenAIRE

Context: Although the prevalence rates of childhood obesity have seemingly been stable over the past few years, far too many children and adolescents are still obese. Childhood obesity, and its associated metabolic complications, is rapidly emerging as one of the greatest global challenges of the 21st century. About 110 million children are now classified as overweight or obese.

Cali, Anna M. G.; Caprio, Sonia

2008-01-01

195

Obesity as a Health Issue  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing prevalence of obesity has focused attention related on health issues. Obesity is associated with multiple health problems, with increased rates of mortality, and diminished quality of life. This chapter reviews definitions of obesity, how obesity promotes morbidity, differences in t...

196

Mini-Incision Living Donors Nephrectomy Using Anterior Muscle-Splitting Approach with Hybrid Technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Significant morbidity is associated with standard open flank living donor nephrectomy. Laparoscopicdonor nephrectomy is criticized for a steep learning curve and a tendency to avoid the right kidney. The anterior muscle-splitting technique uses principles or advantages of an open extraperitoneal approach with minimal morbidity and the advantageous muscle-splitting (instead of cutting procedure.Objective: To compare mini-incision laparoscopic instrument-assisted (MILIA live donor nephrectomy using a muscle-splitting technique to the standard open-flank donor nephrectomy (ODN approach for efficacy and safety.Methods: MILIA living donor nephrectomies were performed in 119 donors and compared to a cohort of open-flank nephrectomy donors (n=38 from the same center. Both donor groups were matched for body mass index as well as other personal characteristics.Results: The mean donor age was 35 (range: 18–60 years. The right kidney was procured in 28% of cases. The majority of donors were female (58% and Caucasian (60%. No differences were observed between MILIA and ODN donors for the age, gender and ethnicity. However, MILIA donors experienced a longer mean±SD operative time (234±47 vs. 197±33 min, p<0.0001 but a shorter hospital stay (4±1 vs. 6±3 days for the ODN group, p<0.0001 and less intraoperative blood loss (215±180 vs. 331±397 mL, p<0.02. No difference was found in the number of units of blood transfused (0.13±0.6 vs. 0.34±1.0 units, p=0.13. Right-sided kidneys were almost equally harvested in both groups (29% of MILIA donors vs. 26% of ODN donors. Post-operatively, MILIA donors had a significantly lower mean pain scores at one week and one month after surgery (p<0.001. They showed significant better post-operative recovery—earlier stopping of pain medications and restoration of other preoperative activities. Moreover, they were better satisfied with their scar appearance. Scores on the short form-36 quality of life questionnaire were comparable for both groups.Conclusion: MILIA is a viable option as an alternative for pure laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. MILIA appearsto be as safe as open donor nephrectomy and may provide advantages over ODN, such as smaller incision, shorter hospital stay, and less incisional pain. Patient recovery and satisfaction after MILIA are excellent.This technique avoids the possibility of adhesive intestinal obstruction and also improves handling of major complications (e.g., bleeding of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. Utilization of this hybrid techniqueis particularly feasible on smaller (BMI<24 kg/m2 and medium-sized (BMI<28 kg/m2 donors. We believe that this technique should be adopted by centers that have limited advanced laparoscopic surgical experience and also it could be used selectively for the right donor nephrectomies, even in centers performinghand assisted donor nephrectomies by including a small patch of inferior vena cava for a better quality of right donor kidney during transplantation.

N Nazakatgoo

2010-01-01

197

Influence of donor-donor transport on excitation energy transfer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy migration and transfer from acriflavine to rhodamine B and malachite green in poly (methylmethacrylate) have been investigated using the decay function analysis. It is found that the influence of energy migration in energy transfer can be described quite convincingly by making use of the theories of Loring, Andersen and Fayer (LAF) and Huber. At high acceptor concentration direct donor-acceptor transfer occurs through Forster mechanism. (author). 17 refs., 5 figs

198

Transperitoneal laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy: Current status  

OpenAIRE

Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for a suitable patient with end stage renal disease. Unfortunately, the supply of donor organs is greatly exceeded by demand. In many countries the use of kidneys from living donors has been widely adopted as a partial solution. Traditionally donor nephrectomy has been performed via a open flank incision however with some morbidity like pain and a loin scar. Currently, the donor nephrectomy is increasingly being performed laparoscopically with ...

Srivastava, A.; Gupta, N.; Kumar, Anant; Kapoor, Rakesh; Dubey, Deepak

2007-01-01

199

Donor Research in Australia: Challenges and Promise  

OpenAIRE

Donors are the key to the core business of Blood Collection Agencies (BCAs). However, historically, they have not been a focus of research undertaken by these organizations. This model is now changing, with significant donor research groups established in a number of countries, including Australia. Donor research in the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (Blood Service) is concentrated in the Donor and Community Research (DCR) team. Cognizant of the complex and ever-changing landscape with re...

Masser, Barbara; Smith, Geoff; Williams, Lisa A.

2014-01-01

200

Living Kidney Donation: The Outcomes for Donors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the past decade, the number of transplantation from living kidney donors has substantially increased worldwide. The rate of increase varies from one country to another. The risk of unilateral nephrectomy to the donor includes perioperative mortality and morbidity plus the long-term risk of living with a single kidney. The rate of perioperative mortality and morbidity is about 0.03% and 10%, respectively. More attentionis required to prevent serious complications of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. A grading system in recording perioperative complications is necessary for making it available to each potential donor. The number of studies on long-term outcome of living donors is very limited. The overall evidence suggests that the risk of end-stage kidney disease is not increased in donors, however, mild renal failure, hypertension and proteinuria are not uncommon in living donors. There is also concern that the incidence of cardiovasculardisease may be higher in kidney donors. Establishing living donor registry and follow-up is extremely important. Only through these registries the long-term risk of kidney donation will become more apparent. Because of severe shortage of transplantable kidneys, some transplant centers are now using donors with comorbidities and few centers are involved in transplant tourism with inadequate donor screening and follow-up. Prevention of these unacceptable practices in living kidney donors was emphasized in AmsterdamForum in 2004 and Istanbul Summit in 2008.

Ahad Jafari Ghods

2010-04-01

201

Obesity and Pregnancy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity; a state of being 20% over one?s normal weight due to excessive fat; that is, it is defined as the accumulation of too much fat in the body. The rate of obesity in the world has elevated. In the last two decades, it is considered that there have been increases in the rates of the obesity with changes in the socio-economic state and nutritional habits in Turkey as well as in modern western countries. The increase of the obesity is a matter of concern but the aspect which is much more matter of concern is in the increase of obesity in women at the reproductive age or gradually increasing rate of being overweight. If the pregnant woman is obese, most of the physiological changes occurring during pregnancy may be various. During their childbearing years, obese women are at an increased risk for pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes, labour induction, caesareans births, and failed vaginal birth following to caesarean. Nurses should have the knowledge to adapt the care they provide according to this knowledge and encourage the pregnant women to acquire behaviours which will improve their health. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(4.000: 345-350

Serap Ejder Apay

2009-08-01

202

[Asthma, obesity and diet].  

Science.gov (United States)

Asthma and obesity have a considerable impact on public health and their prevalence has increased in recent years. Numerous studies have linked both disorders. Most prospective studies show that obesity is a risk factor for asthma and have found a positive correlation between baseline body mass index (BMI) and the subsequent development of asthma, although these results are not conclusive when studying the association between airway hyperresponsiveness with BMI. Furthermore, several studies suggest that whereas weight gain increases the risk of asthma, weight loss improves the course of the illness. Different factors could explain this association. Obesity is capable of reducing pulmonary compliance, lung volumes and the diameter of peripheral respiratory airways as well as affecting the volume of blood in the lungs and the ventilation-perfusion relationship. Furthermore, the increase in the normal functioning of adipose tissue in obese subjects leads to a systemic proinflammatory state, which produces a rise in the serum concentrations of several cytokines, the soluble fractions of their receptors and chemokines. Many of these mediators are synthesized and secreted by cells from adipose tissue and receive the generic name of adipokines, including IL-6, IL-10, eotaxin, TNF-?, TGF- 1, PCR, leptin y adiponectin. Finally, specific regions of the human genome which are related to both asthma and obesity have been identified. Most studies point out that obesity is capable of increasing the prevalence and incidence of asthma, although this effect appears to be modest. The treatment of obese asthmatics must include a weight control program. PMID:22566313

Barranco, P; Delgado, J; Gallego, L T; Bobolea, I; Pedrosa, Ma; García de Lorenzo, A; Quirce, S

2012-01-01

203

Prevalence of Obesity among Undergraduate Students of Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijagun, Ijebu-Ode  

OpenAIRE

In recent years, developing countries like Nigeria have been experiencing a nutritional transition in food choices from the typical starchy (mainly carbohydrate diets) to the fast food pattern and as a result of this, the dietary habits of young adults like university students have been affected. Thus, overweight and obesity are increasingly being observed among the young adults. This study assesses the prevalence of obesity on a sample of students from Tai Solarin University of Education in ...

Omotayo, O. A.; Olusanya, J. O.

2011-01-01

204

Monetary Compensation and Blood Donor Return: Results of a Donor Survey in Southwest Germany  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary Background/Aims The aim of this study was to compare donor return patterns of non-compensated and compensated German first-time donors to assess the effect of monetary reward on donor return. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of a donor survey of 3,077 non-compensated and 738 compensated German first-time donors. Survey data were pooled and linked with blood donor return rates within the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd year. Logistic regression models were used to estimate differences in the probability of donor return between non-compensated and compensated donors. Results In the first 2 years following the initial donation, compensated donors were more likely to return with the odds of giving at least one further donation 1.86 (1st year) and 1.32 (2nd year) times higher for compensated donors than for non-compensated donors. In the 3rd year, there were no significant differences in donor return. Conclusion This report, which was based on two non-randomized donor samples, suggests that monetary compensation may increase the likelihood of donors returning in the first months after the initial donation. Monetary reward may therefore be used as a short-term strategy to recruit new donors. The long-term commitment, however, seems not to be affected by monetary reward, and complementary donor retention strategies are needed. PMID:25254021

Weidmann, Christian; Schneider, Sven; Weck, Eberhard; Menzel, Dagmar; Klüter, Harald; Müller-Steinhardt, Michael

2014-01-01

205

A comparative study of reduced dose alemtuzumab in matched unrelated donor and related donor reduced intensity transplants.  

Science.gov (United States)

In vivo T cell depletion with 100 mg alemtuzumab prevents graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in reduced intensity conditioned transplants but is associated with delayed immune reconstitution, a higher risk of infection and relapse. De-escalation studies have shown that a reduced dose of 30 mg is as effective as 100 mg in preventing GVHD in matched related donor (MRD) transplants. Dose reduction in matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplants is feasible but the comparative efficacy of alemtuzumab in this setting is not known and opinions vary widely concerning the optimal level of GVHD prophylaxis that should be achieved. Through retrospective analysis we made an objective comparison of MUD transplants receiving an empirically reduced dose of 60 mg, with MRD transplants receiving a 30 mg dose. We observed proportionate levels of alemtuzumab according to dose but an inverse relationship with body surface area particularly in MRD transplants. MUD transplants experienced more acute and chronic GVHD, higher T cell chimerism, more sustained use of ciclosporin and less need for donor lymphocyte infusion than MRD transplants. Thus, doubling the dose of alemtuzumab to 60 mg did not provide equivalent prevention of GVHD after MUD transplant although there was no difference in non-relapse mortality or survival compared with MRD transplants. PMID:25640315

Jardine, Laura; Publicover, Amy; Bigley, Venetia; Hale, Geoff; Pearce, Kim; Dickinson, Anne; Jackson, Graham; Collin, Matthew

2015-03-01

206

Childhood Obesity and Medical Neglect  

OpenAIRE

The incidence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically, including severe childhood obesity and obesity-related comorbid conditions. Cases of severe childhood obesity have prompted the following question: does childhood obesity ever constitute medical neglect? In our opinion, removal of a child from the home is justified when all 3 of the following conditions are present: (1) a high likelihood that serious imminent harm will occur; (2) a reasonable likelihood that coercive state interve...

Varness, Todd; Allen, David B.; Carrel, Aaron L.; Fost, Norman

2009-01-01

207

Combating Child Obesity in America  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines the child obesity epidemic that is gripping our nation, and explores various causes and treatments that may help to defeat child obesity. First there is a description of the obesity epidemic, its causal factors, and its consequences. Additionally there is a summary and critique of the FDA’s obesity report and recommendations. There is a description of drug treatments that are available for obese children and why more research is necessary to ensure the s...

Canavan, Erin

2006-01-01

208

Obesity in Libya: a review  

OpenAIRE

Obesity is a global epidemic resulting in major morbidity and premature death. About 64% of Libyan adults are either overweight or obese, obesity progressively increasing with age, and two times more common among Libyan women than men. Cases of obesity and overweight are increasing in Libya as well as all over the world, with genetic and environmental factors playing a contributory role. With its known significant morbidity and mortality, obesity should draw the attention of the healthcare co...

Elmehdawi, Rafik R.; Albarsha, Abdulwahab M.

2012-01-01

209

Obesity and burns.  

Science.gov (United States)

The population of overweight patients presenting to burn facilities is expected to increase significantly over the next decades due to the global epidemic of obesity. Excess adiposity mediates alterations to key physiological responses and poses challenges to the optimal management of burns. The purpose of this study is to document the general epidemiological aspects of thermal injuries in the obese population, outline relevant physiological aspects associated with obesity, and draw attention to topics relating to the management, rehabilitation, and prognosis of burns in this emerging subpopulation of patients. PMID:22274633

Goutos, Ioannis; Sadideen, Hazim; Pandya, Atisha A; Ghosh, Sudip J

2012-01-01

210

Hyperbilirubinemia in normal healthy donors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was carried out in B.A.R.C. Hospital Blood Bank over a span of five years, and includes 2734 donors. All the bags were screened for HIV, HBsAg, HCV and VDRL and the plasma in the pilot tubes of the blood bags was observed to detect any abnormality in color. In 27 cases plasma was found to be icteric and liver function tests were carried out on these samples. Two donors showed higher SGPT level, and were excluded. No significant increases in liver enzymes were recorded in the others. Causes of icteric plasma in these apparently healthy donors are discussed. Differential diagnosis includes Gilbert?s disease, hemolytic anemia, drug-induced anemia and other hepatic causes of hyperbilirubinemia, of which Gilbert?s disease is most probable cause with a prevalence of 0.91% in our population. As there are no studies to document the safety of the recipients receiving such abnormal colored plasma as well as to document the hazards in its transfusion, the question arises whether to transfuse such units or not. This study highlights this dilemma. A reassessment of existing policies and regulations is merited.

Arora Veena

2009-01-01

211

Health risks of obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

... or sleepiness, poor attention, and problems at work. Gallstones and liver problems. Three things can be used ... Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 227. Screening for and Management of Obesity in Adults. Rockville, MD. US Preventive ...

212

Obesity and menstrual disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obese women often present with oligomenorrhoea, amenorrhoea or irregular periods. The association between obesity and heavy menstrual bleeding is not well documented and data on its prevalence are limited. While the investigation protocols should be the same as for women of normal weight, particular focus is required to rule out endometrial hyperplasia in obese women. The treatment modalities of menstrual disorders for obese women will be, in principle, similar to those of normal weight. However, therapeutic outcomes in terms of effectiveness and adverse outcomes need special consideration when dealing with women with a high body mass index (BMI). Here, different treatment strategies are reviewed paying particular attention to the effect of weight on their efficacy and the challenges of providing each treatment option. This chapter aims to review the current literature and address areas where further evidence is needed, which will subsequently influence clinical practice. PMID:25467426

Seif, Mourad W; Diamond, Kathryn; Nickkho-Amiry, Mahshid

2014-11-01

213

Energy Balance and Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies of energy balance and obesity as they relate to cancer. Aspects include the effects of body mass index (BMI), body composition (waist circumference, etc) dietary intake, and physical activity.

214

The ethnoepidemiology of obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of overweight and obesity varies significantly across ethnic groups and among aboriginal people in Canada and appears to be increasing overall in children and youth, which will have significant health consequences in the future. Individual health behaviours, genetic predisposition, and community-level factors all contribute to the high burden of overweight and obesity across communities in Canada. Preliminary studies indicate that individuals who live in neighbourhoods in Canada with increased walkability, fewer fast food outlets, and higher socioeconomic status have lower rates of overweight/obesity when compared with other neighbourhoods. However, more research is required to understand the impact of community level factors on overweight/obesity trends in Canadian ethnic groups, including children and youth, and aboriginal people. PMID:25661548

Valera, Beatriz; Sohani, Zahra; Rana, Ayesha; Poirier, Paul; Anand, Sonia S

2015-02-01

215

The challenge of improving donor heart preservation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heart transplantation has in recent years become the treatment of choice for end stage heart failure. However while the waiting list for transplantation is growing steadily, the donor pool is not increasing. Therefore, in order to meet demand, transplant programs are using older, "marginal donors" and accepting longer ischaemic times for their donor hearts. As donor organs are injured as a consequence of brain death, during the period of donor management, at organ harvest, preservation, implantation and reperfusion, expansion of acceptance criteria places a great burden on achieving optimal long-term outcomes. However, at each step in the process of transplantation strategies can be employed to reduce the injury suffered by the donor organs. In this review, we set out what steps can be taken to improve the quality of donor organs. PMID:16352173

McCrystal, Graham D; Pepe, Salvatore; Esmore, Donald S; Rosenfeldt, Franklin L

2004-03-01

216

Increased Obesity in Children Living in Rural Communities of Louisiana  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective Rates of obesity among children have been rising in recent years. Information on the prevalence of obesity in children living in rural communities is needed. We report the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children enrolled in grades 4 to 6 who live in rural areas of Louisiana, U.S. Methods and Procedures These data were collected as baseline assessment for the Louisiana (LA) Health project. Height, weight, and estimates of body fat (using body impedance analysis) were collected on 2709 children. Average age was 10.5 years and the sample composition was 57.3% girls, 61.7% African-American, 36.0% Caucasian, and 2.3% other minority. A majority of children (77%) met the criterion for poverty status. Results The distribution of body mass index (BMI) percentile was highly skewed toward obesity. The most frequent BMI percentile scores were 98th and 99th percentile. Using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) norms, the overall prevalence of obesity was 27.4% and for overweight was 45.1% of which 17.7% were between the 85th and 95th percentile. The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity were much higher than the national norm and this increased prevalence was observed in both genders and in Caucasian and African American children. Discussion The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity was found to be much higher in rural and primarily poor (77%) children living in Louisiana when compared to national norms. This observation suggests that rural children from Louisiana may be experiencing an epidemic of obesity that exceeds national prevalence estimates. PMID:19089707

Williamson, Donald A.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Han, Hongmei; Harsha, David; Martin, Corby K.; Newton, Robert L.; Ryan, Donna H.; Sothern, Melinda S.; Stewart, Tiffany M.; Webber, Larry S.

2009-01-01

217

Peripheral polyneuropathy after bariatric surgery for morbid obesity  

OpenAIRE

A patient with peripheral polyneuropathy after bariatric surgery for morbid obesity is reported. She suffered from frequent episodes of vomiting and abdominal pain after surgery. Muscle weakness in her lower limbs developed 5 months later and she experienced difficulty in walking and standing. Wrist drop, foot drop, and marked distal limb muscle atrophy were found bilaterally. Electromyography showed the presence of sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy. Nutritional deficiencies may play an impo...

Lin, I-ching; Lin, Ying-li

2011-01-01

218

Eating behaviour and stress: a pathway to obesity  

OpenAIRE

Stress causes or contributes to a huge variety of diseases and disorders. Recent evidence suggests obesity and other eating-related disorders may be among these. Immediately after a stressful event is experienced, there is a corticotropin-releasing-hormone (CRH)-mediated suppression of food intake. This diverts the body’s resources away from the less pressing need to find and consume food, prioritizing fight, flight, or withdrawal behaviours so the stressful event can be dealt with. In the ...

SarahJSpencer

2014-01-01

219

Obesity: The Science Inside  

Science.gov (United States)

This booklet, part of The Science Inside series, discusses the importance of good health habits such as eating right and exercising. The Science Inside series presents science information in an easy-to-read format. This particular resource describes how the body takes in energy and what it does with excess energy. This booklet also covers the health problems caused by obesity, as well as how to prevent and treat obesity. Additional resources include a bibliography, and a glossary.

Science NetLinks (; )

2008-04-30

220

Obscurity on Obesity  

OpenAIRE

Much research is underway on the links between diet and obesity. So too are long-running disputes among nutritionists on core questions about the relationship. This editorial reviews the state-of-play on four issues: what makes people fat, how to lose weight, how much do we eat, and what policies to adopt towards obesity. The practical consequence is that, at present, frontline health professionals will not find in nutrition science agreed, actionable solutions to assist overweight patients. ...

Winkler, Jack

2014-01-01

221

OBESITY AND VASCULAR DYSFUNCTION  

OpenAIRE

One of the most profound challenges facing public health and public health policy in Western society is the increased incidence and prevalence of both overweight and obesity. While this condition can have significant consequences for patient mortality and quality of life, it can be further exacerbated as overweight/obesity can be a powerful stimulus for the development of additional risk factors for a negative cardiovascular outcome, including increased insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hy...

Stapleton, Phoebe A.; James, Milinda E.; Goodwill, Adam G.; Frisbee, Jefferson C.

2008-01-01

222

Obesity and periodontal disease  

OpenAIRE

Obesity is characterized by the abnormal or excessive deposition of fat in the adipose tissue. Its consequences go far beyond adverse metabolic effects on health, causing an increase in oxidative stress, which leads not only to endothelial dysfunction but also to negative effects in relation to periodontitis, because of the increase in proinflammatory cytokines. Thus obesity appears to participate in the multifactorial phenomenon of causality of periodontitis through the increased production ...

Jagannathachary Sunitha; Kamaraj Dinesh

2010-01-01

223

Dietary treatment of obesity  

OpenAIRE

The fast global increased prevalence of obesity has been classifiedas an epidemics by the World Health Organization. The etiology ofobesity is very complex and involves genetic and environmentalfactors. One of the main factors that trigger obesity is sedentarylife, as well as the great availability of fat-rich foods that present ahigh energy density. According to the NHANES II, although thepopulation has decreased the ingestion of fat, the total consumptionof food has increased. The main fact...

Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg

2006-01-01

224

Medical Complications of Obesity  

OpenAIRE

Obesity leads to several complications that affect many body systems. This paper focuses mainly on the cardiovascular complications, which include coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and stroke, and congestive heart failure; the last may be secondary not only to advanced coronary atherosclerosis, but also to other pathogenetic factors. The increased frequency of coronary heart disease in the obese is largely attributable to the commonly associated hypertension, diabetes mellitus a...

Angel, A.; Roncari, D. A.

1981-01-01

225

[Perspective of obesity pharmacotherapy].  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is a very common disease with very difficult treatment. Most patients are not able to change their behaviour. Most hopeful for the future is a safe pharmacotherapy which could be widely used. In this review, old and potentially new drugs decreasing weight are mentioned (centrally acting anorectics, orlistat, incretine analogues and gliphlozines). Review of newly in U.S.A used antiobesitics is also mentioned. Finally potentially new principles of obesity pharmacotherapy are enumerated. PMID:24968289

Sva?ina, St?pán; Sucharda, Petr; Stránská, Zuzana; Matoulek, Martin

2014-01-01

226

Dietary Polyphenols and Obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prevalence of overweight and obesity and their associated metabolic disorders are considered a major threat to the public’s health. While several diet and exercise programs are available for weight loss and prevention of weight regain, progress is often slow and disappointing. Recently, natural bioactive phytochemicals present in foods have been discovered for their potential health benefit effects on the prevention of chronic disorders such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory and metabolic diseases including obesity.Polyphenols are a class of naturally-occurring phytochemicals, of which some such as catechins, anthocynines, resveratrol and curcumin have been shown to modulate physiological and molecular pathways that are involved in energy metabolism, adiposity, and obesity. The potential in vivo, beneficial effects of these polyphenols on adiposity and obesity as complementary agents in the up-regulation of energy expenditure have emerged by investigating these compounds in cell cultures, animal models of obesity and in some human clinical and epidemiological studies. In this brief review, the efficacy of the above-named polyphenols and their potential efficacy to modulate obesity and some associated disorders are discussed.

Mohsen Meydani

2010-07-01

227

[Skin diseases and obesity].  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is a public health problem worldwide. It predominates in industrialized countries; however, it is prevalent in all nations. It is defined as a condition of excess adipose tissue and is the result of changes in lifestyle, excessive consumption of energy-dense foods with poor nutritional value, physical inactivity and the reduction of open space where one can practice a sport. Although obesity is associated with multiple diseases, it is important to stress that the metabolic changes caused by it affect skin physiology and play a predisposing factor for the development of skin diseases. Very little has been studied on the impact of obesity on the skin. The purpose of this article is to review the most frequently skin diseases in obesity. Some skin pathologies in obesity are caused by changes in skin physiology, others are related to insulin resistance or constitute an exacerbating factor for dermatitis. This article covers the clinical features of obesity related skin disease and its management. PMID:25760747

Guerra-Segovia, Carolina; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge

2015-01-01

228

Prebiotics in obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity was probably rare in ancient times, with the current increase starting in the Industrial Revolution of the eighteenth century, and becoming much more widespread from about 1950, so concurrent with the increased consumption of carbohydrates from cereals in the Green Revolution. However, dietary components such as oligosaccharides from plants including cereals may improve health following fermentation to short-chain carboxylic acids in the intestine by bacteria which constitute of the microbiome. Such non-digestible and fermentable components of diet, called prebiotics, have been part of the human diet since at least Palaeolithic times, and include components of the cereals domesticated in the Neolithic Revolution. If consumption of these cereals has now increased, why is obesity increasing? One reason could be lowered prebiotic intake combined with increased intake of simple sugars, thus changing the bacteria in the microbiome. Processing of food has played an important role in this change of diet composition. Since obesity is a low-grade inflammation, changing the microbiome by increased consumption of simple carbohydrates and saturated fats may lead to obesity via increased systemic inflammation. Conversely, there is now reasonable evidence that increased dietary prebiotic intake decreases inflammation, improves glucose metabolism and decreases obesity. Would widespread increases in prebiotics in the modern diet, so mimicking Palaeolithic or Neolithic nutrition, decrease the incidence and morbidity of obesity in our communities? PMID:24844456

Carnahan, S; Balzer, A; Panchal, S K; Brown, L

2014-06-01

229

Early prevention of obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating energy intake and expenditure and body size mainly occurs in the first 1,000 days of life. Therefore, factors affecting the foetal exposition to maternal metabolic environment and early postnatal nutrition are crucial in modulating the definition of the metabolic programming processes in the brain. Maternal diseases, mainly malnutrition for defect or excess, obesity and diabetes, placental disorders and dysfunctions, maternal use of alcohol and drugs, smoking, affect long term metabolic programming of the foetus with lifelong consequences. Similarly, early nutrition contributes to complete the long-term metabolic regulating framework initiated in the uterus. Breastfeeding, adequate weaning, attention to portion size and diet composition are potential tools for reducing the obesity risk later in childhood. Longitudinal randomized controlled studies are needed for exploring the efficacy of obesity prevention strategies initiated after conception.Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

Claudio Maffeis

2014-06-01

230

No Impairment in host defense against Streptococcus pneumoniae in obese CPEfat/fat mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the US and globally, dramatic increases in the prevalence of adult and childhood obesity have been reported during the last 30 years. In addition to cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and liver disease, obesity has recently been recognized as an important risk factor for influenza pneumonia. During the influenza pandemic of 2009, obese individuals experienced a greater severity of illness from the H1N1 virus. In addition, obese mice have also been shown to exhibit increased lethality and aberrant pulmonary inflammatory responses following influenza infection. In contrast to influenza, the impact of obesity on bacterial pneumonia in human patients is controversial. In this report, we compared the responses of lean WT and obese CPE(fat/fat) mice following an intratracheal infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae, the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia. At 16 weeks of age, CPE(fat/fat) mice develop severe obesity, hyperglycemia, elevated serum triglycerides and leptin, and increased blood neutrophil counts. There were no differences between lean WT and obese CPE(fat/fat) mice in survival or lung and spleen bacterial burdens following intratracheal infection with S. pneumoniae. Besides a modest increase in TNF-? levels and increased peripheral blood neutrophil counts in CPE(fat/fat) mice, there were not differences in lung or serum cytokines after infection. These results suggest that obesity, accompanied by hyperglycemia and modestly elevated triglycerides, at least in the case of CPE(fat/fat) mice, does not impair innate immunity against pneumococcal pneumonia. PMID:25203099

Mancuso, Peter; O Brien, Edmund; Prano, Joseph; Goel, Deepti; Aronoff, David M

2014-01-01

231

The Impacts of Obesity and Metabolic Abnormality on Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children from an Inland Chinese City  

OpenAIRE

The Chinese inland, where low child obesity and overweight rates were reported in earlier studies, has recently experienced rapid economy changes. This may impact children’s health. In the present study, we investigated the obesity rate, metabolic health status, and their impacts on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among children from Yueyang, an inland city of China. We found that the obesity rate was about 5% for both 7- and 11-year olds. ...

Xiao-Yue Wang; Xiang-Hua Zhang; Chao Hua Yao; Hong-Hui Zhu; Liang Zhang

2014-01-01

232

Overweight and Obesity: Causes and Consequences  

Science.gov (United States)

... economic cost of obesity in the United States. Obesity Research .1998;6(2):97–106. Wolf, A. What is the economic case for treating obesity? Obesity Research . 1998;6(suppl)2S?S Finkelstein, EA, Trogdon, JG, ...

233

Neurologic complications in adult living donor liver transplant patients: an underestimated factor?  

OpenAIRE

Liver transplantation is the only curative treatment in patients with end-stage liver disease. Neurological complications (NC) are increasingly reported to occur in patients after cadaveric liver transplantation. This retrospective cohort study aims to evaluate the incidence and causes of NC in living donor liver transplant (LDLT) patients in our transplant center. Between August 1998 and December 2005, 121 adult LDLT patients were recruited into our study. 17% of patients experienced NC, and...

Saner, Fuat Hakan; Gensicke, Julia; Olde Damink, Steven W. M.; Pavlakovic?, Goran; Treckmann, Juergen; Dammann, Marc; Kaiser, Gernot M.; Sotiropoulos, Georgios C.; Radtke, Arnold; Koeppen, Susanne; Beckebaum, Susanne; Cicinnati, Vito; Nadalin, Silvio; Malago?, Massimo; Paul, Andreas

2010-01-01

234

Innovative strategies in living donor kidney transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an effort to increase living donor transplantation while minimizing risk and morbidity, recent advances have been made in surgical technique, kidney paired donation, desensitization, identification of living donors and research into living donor outcomes. Single-port nephrectomy and vaginal extraction have reduced donor nephrectomy incision size. Transport of live donor kidneys has reduced geographic barriers to kidney paired donation, and participation of compatible pairs and nondirected donors has increased match opportunities for incompatible pairs participating in this modality. ABO-incompatible transplantation can now be successfully performed without high-intensity immunomodulation, and HLA-incompatible transplantation has been shown in a large single-center study to provide profound survival benefit compared with waiting for a compatible donor. Complement inhibition is an exciting, emerging approach that may facilitate incompatible transplantation and treat antibody-mediated rejection. Educational and communications interventions are proving valuable in helping patients find living donors, and large studies continue to provide reassurance to carefully screened living donors that risks are very low. As living donors are critical to addressing the profound organ shortage, efforts to increase living donation remain important. PMID:22549232

Segev, Dorry L

2012-06-01

235

Screening and assessment of the donor heart  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Why screening?Thirty years ago most donors suffered from head trauma (“Morbus Kawasaki” and a donor older than 35 years was beyond the pale, i.e. donors were young and healthy, and since these early days of transplantation donor hearts have been regarded as healthy “per definitionem” (1. However, due to the general organ shortage the criteria for the acceptance of donor hearts have been widely liberalized. According to the current quarterly data report of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT nearly two thirds of donors in Europe (64.3% were older than 35 years, more than a quarter (26.0% were even older than 50 years and less than 10% of organ donors suffered from head trauma (2. Meanwhile the average (European donor is 45 years old and is suffering from intracranial bleeding, i.e. the so-called “donor pool” represents a subpopulation with significantly elevated risk for cardiac diseases such as coronary atherosclerosis and hypertension-related myocardial hypertrophy (Fig. 1. Unfortunately, daily experience shows that donor heart screening has not been adapted to this development (3. Therefore, the question “Why screening?” is not as trivial as it may look: Donor coronary angiography is still an exception (performed in 5-10% of donors despite the fact that [1] the prevalence of significant atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD in the donor pool is about 20%, [2] the risk of CAD transmission without angiography is about 5% to 10% despite organ inspection by the harvesting surgeon and [3] the risk for early graft failure with transmitted significant CAD is three times as high (4,5.

O. Grauhan

2011-12-01

236

Laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience of videolaparoscopic nephrectomy in live renal donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April 2000 to August 2003, 50 left nephrectomies in live donor were performed by videolaparoscopy for transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were male (56%) an [...] d 22 female (44%). Mean age was 37.2 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 27.1 kg/m². RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 179.5 minutes, and warm ischemia time of the graft was 3.79 minutes. The mean estimated bleeding was 141 mL. There was no need of blood transfusion or conversion to open surgery. In 42 cases (84%), the vascular portion of the graft was considered good by the recipient's surgical team and in all cases, the ureter was considered of proper size, though in one of them (2%) its vascularization was considered improper. The transplanted kidneys produced urine still in the surgical room in 46 of the 50 transplantations considered. In only 2 cases opioid was required for analgesia. In average, 3.1 doses of dipyrone were used for each patient during hospital stay, and hospital discharge occurred, in average, after 3.2 days post-operatively. Two patients required re-operations and one of them evolved to death. CONCLUSIONS: The laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor for renal transplantation is an alternative to conventional open surgery. In relation to the graft, no alteration, either anatomic or functional, was detected. Though there is already a large documentation in the international literature regarding this procedure, in our setting a prospective randomized study with the usual surgical study is still necessary in order to prove the advantages and disadvantages of the method.

Anuar I., Mitre; Francisco T., Dénes; Affonso C., Piovesan; Fabiano A., Simões; Lísias N., Castilho; Sami, Arap.

2004-02-01

237

Laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience of videolaparoscopic nephrectomy in live renal donor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period from April 2000 to August 2003, 50 left nephrectomies in live donor were performed by videolaparoscopy for transplantation. Twenty-eight patients were male (56% and 22 female (44%. Mean age was 37.2 years, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 27.1 kg/m². RESULTS: Mean surgical time was 179.5 minutes, and warm ischemia time of the graft was 3.79 minutes. The mean estimated bleeding was 141 mL. There was no need of blood transfusion or conversion to open surgery. In 42 cases (84%, the vascular portion of the graft was considered good by the recipient's surgical team and in all cases, the ureter was considered of proper size, though in one of them (2% its vascularization was considered improper. The transplanted kidneys produced urine still in the surgical room in 46 of the 50 transplantations considered. In only 2 cases opioid was required for analgesia. In average, 3.1 doses of dipyrone were used for each patient during hospital stay, and hospital discharge occurred, in average, after 3.2 days post-operatively. Two patients required re-operations and one of them evolved to death. CONCLUSIONS: The laparoscopic nephrectomy in live donor for renal transplantation is an alternative to conventional open surgery. In relation to the graft, no alteration, either anatomic or functional, was detected. Though there is already a large documentation in the international literature regarding this procedure, in our setting a prospective randomized study with the usual surgical study is still necessary in order to prove the advantages and disadvantages of the method.

Mitre Anuar I.

2004-01-01

238

Control of charge transfer by conformational and electronic effects: Donor-donor and donor-acceptor phenyl pyrroles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Derivatives of N-pyrrolobenzene with a para-donor and a para-acceptor substituent on the benzene ring are compared. It is shown that by a suitable increase of the donor strength of the pyrrolo group, CT fluorescence can be achieved even for donor-donor-substituted benzenes. The ICT emission for sterically hindered compounds is more forbidden than that of unhindered phenyl pyrroles. This suggests conformational effects which induce a narrower twist angle distribution around a perpendicular minimum in the excited state.

239

Biology of Obesity: Lessons from Animal Models of Obesity  

OpenAIRE

Obesity is an epidemic problem in the world and is associated with several health problems, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, respiratory failure, muscle weakness, and cancer. The precise molecular mechanisms by which obesity induces these health problems are not yet clear. To better understand the pathomechanisms of human disease, good animal models are essential. In this paper, we will analyze animal models of obesity and their use in the research of obesity-associated human he...

Keizo Kanasaki; Daisuke Koya

2011-01-01

240

Emotions Experienced by Students Taking Online and Classroom Quizzes  

Science.gov (United States)

Emotions experienced during online academic examinations may differ from emotions experienced in the traditional classroom testing situation. Students in a "Psychology of Learning" course (n = 61) completed assessments of emotions before and after a quiz in each of the following settings: online at their own choice of time and location; online in…

Stowell, Jeffrey R.; Allan, Wesley D.; Teoro, Samantha M.

2012-01-01

241

Obesity and periodontal disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity is characterized by the abnormal or excessive deposition of fat in the adipose tissue. Its consequences go far beyond adverse metabolic effects on health, causing an increase in oxidative stress, which leads not only to endothelial dysfunction but also to negative effects in relation to periodontitis, because of the increase in proinflammatory cytokines. Thus obesity appears to participate in the multifactorial phenomenon of causality of periodontitis through the increased production of reactive oxygen species. The possible causal relationship between obesity and periodontitis and potential underlying biological mechanisms remain to be established; however, the adipose tissue actively secretes a variety of cytokines and hormones that are involved in inflammatory processes, pointing toward similar pathways involved in the pathophysiology of obesity, periodontitis and related inflammatory diseases. So the aim of this article is to get an overview of the association between obesity and periodontitis and to review adipose-tissue - derived hormones and cytokines that are involved in inflammatory processes and their relationship to periodontitis.

Jagannathachary Sunitha

2010-01-01

242

Mood, food, and obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Food is a potent natural reward and food intake is a complex process. Reward and gratification associated with food consumption leads to dopamine (DA production, which in turn activates reward and pleasure centers in the brain. An individual will repeatedly eat a particular food to experience this positive feeling of gratification. This type of repetitive behavior of food intake leads to the activation of brain reward pathways that eventually overrides other signals of satiety and hunger. Thus, a gratification habit through a favorable food leads to overeating and morbid obesity. Overeating and obesity stems from many biological factors engaging both central and peripheral systems in a bi-directional manner involving mood and emotions. Emotional eating and altered mood can also lead to altered food choice and intake leading to overeating and obesity. Research findings from human and animal studies support a two-way link between three concepts, mood, food, and obesity. The focus of this article is to provide an overview of complex nature of food intake where various biological factors link mood, food intake, and brain signaling that engages both peripheral and central nervous system signaling pathways in a bi-directional manner in obesity.

MinatiSingh

2014-09-01

243

What Causes Overweight and Obesity?  

Science.gov (United States)

... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Overweight and Obesity? Lack of Energy Balance A lack of energy ... Deficiency article. Rate This Content: Next >> Featured Video Obesity happens one pound at a time. So does ...

244

Obesity and Your Digestive Health  

Science.gov (United States)

... American College of Gastroenterology www.acg.gi.org/obesity Great tools including a food tracker, portion size ... http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/heart/obesity/ lose_wt/patmats.htm Weight loss information from ...

245

Sugary Drinks and Childhood Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

ADVICE FOR PATIENTS Sugary Drinks and Childhood Obesity T his month’s Archives focuses on new research about childhood obesity. Being overweight is now the most common medical condition of childhood. Nearly ...

246

If I Had - Morbid Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

... of Testing for Concussion If I Had - Morbid Obesity - Dr. Michael Tarnoff, MD, FACS, Tufts University School ... Back to Home Page If I Had - Morbid Obesity - Dr. Michael Tarnoff, MD, FACS, Tufts University School ...

247

If I Had - Morbid Obesity  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... of Testing for Concussion If I Had - Morbid Obesity - Dr. Michael Tarnoff, MD, FACS, Tufts University School ... Back to Home Page If I Had - Morbid Obesity - Dr. Michael Tarnoff, MD, FACS, Tufts University School ...

248

Obesity's Impact on Teen Health  

Science.gov (United States)

... Obesity's Impact on Teen Health Health Issues Listen Obesity's Impact on Teen Health Article Body At least ... insulin secretion (hyperinsulinism) insulin resistance, diabetes obstructive sleep apnea, a blockage of the upper airway that disrupts ...

249

If I Had - Morbid Obesity  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... everything related. How is morbid obesity managed? The management of morbid obesity generally includes two broad options. ... gastric banding. What is involved with these surgical methods? Laparoscopic gastric banding entails placment of a silicon ...

250

If I Had - Morbid Obesity  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... specifically issues related to informed consent about the risks, benefits and alternatives of weight loss surgery, and everything related. How is morbid obesity managed? The management of morbid obesity generally includes two broad options. ...

251

Defining overweight and obesity - children  

Science.gov (United States)

... your child has. Measuring body fat and diagnosing obesity in children is different than measuring these things in adults. ... 44. US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for obesity in ... adolescents: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation ...

252

If I Had - Morbid Obesity  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... everything related. How is morbid obesity managed? The management of morbid obesity generally includes two broad options. ... my health status; I would be concerned about quality of life, and I would be concerned about ...

253

Evaluation of homocysteine in blood bank donors  

OpenAIRE

Objective: To investigate the use of plasma homocysteine levelsin blood bank donors as a risk marker for the development ofcardiovascular diseases in healthy individuals. Methods: Thirtynineblood donors were evaluated and a correlation was establishedbetween the plasma homocysteine levels and the different ageand gender groups. Results: The values of homocysteine levelswere found to be within the normal range, as expected for a healthypopulation. Only three male donors, aged between 40 and 60...

Luiz Antonio Rosa

2005-01-01

254

Non heart-beating donors in England  

OpenAIRE

When transplantation started all organs were retrieved from patients immediately after cardio-respiratory arrest, i.e. from non-heart-beating donors. After the recognition that death resulted from irreversible damage to the brainstem, organ retrieval rapidly switched to patients certified dead after brainstem testing. These heart-beating-donors have become the principal source of organs for transplantation for the last 30 years. The number of heart-beating-donors are declining and this is lik...

Eleazar Chaib

2008-01-01

255

Toward molecular neuroeconomics of obesity  

OpenAIRE

Because obesity is a risk factor for many serious illnesses such as diabetes, better understandings of obesity and eating disorders have been attracting attention in neurobiology, psychiatry, and neuroeconomics. This paper presents future study directions by unifying (i) economic theory of addiction and obesity (Becker and Murphy, 1988; Levy 2002; Dragone 2009), and (ii) recent empirical findings in neuroeconomics and neurobiology of obesity and addiction. It is suggested th...

Takahashi, Taiki

2011-01-01

256

Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising pre...

Merchant Anwar T; Akhtar-Danesh Noori; Dehghan Mahshid

2005-01-01

257

Childhood Obesity for Pediatric Gastroenterologists  

OpenAIRE

Obesity in childhood is one of the major health issues in pediatric health care today. As expected, the prevalence of obesity-related comorbidities has risen in parallel with that of obesity. Consultation regarding these concomitant diseases and subsequent management by subspecialists, including pediatric gastroenterologists, is now common and has resulted in obesity being recognized as a chronic disease requiring coordination of care. Although medications and even surgery may provide effecti...

Huang, Jeannie S.; Barlow, Sarah E.; Quiros-tejeira, Ruben E.; Scheimann, Ann; Skelton, Joseph; Suskind, David; Tsai, Patrika; Uko, Victor; Warolin, Joshua P.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.

2013-01-01

258

Functional Foods for Obesity Management  

OpenAIRE

Obesity is a global problem and numbers are rising at a fast pace in developing countries and it becomes a major public health concern. Economic costs associated with obesity are high and increasing as the rate of obesity. Obesity leads to its co-morbidities; namely diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, osteoarthritis, stroke and inflammatory diseases. Changes in life-style along with modifications to the diet are important in the management of ...

Rajitha Sunkara; Martha Verghese

2014-01-01

259

Obesity: modern man's fertility nemesis  

OpenAIRE

The obesity pandemic has grown to concerning proportions in recent years, not only in the Western World, but in developing countries as well. The corresponding decrease in male fertility and fecundity may be explained in parallel to obesity, and obesity should be considered as an etiology of male fertility. Studies show that obesity contributes to infertility by reducing semen quality, changing sperm proteomes, contributing to erectile dysfunction, and inducing other physical problems related...

Cabler, Stephanie; Agarwal, Ashok; Flint, Margot; Du Plessis, Stefan S.

2010-01-01

260

Obesity and cardiovascular disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of mortality in rich countries and today it has the same meaning for health care as the epidemics of past centuries had for medicine in earlier times: 50% of the population in these countries die of cardiovascular disease. The amount of cardiovascular disease is also increasing in the developing countries together with economic growth. By 2015 one in three deaths will globally be due to cardiovascular diseases. Coronary heart disease is a chronic disease that starts in childhood, even if the symptoms first occur in the middle age. The risks for coronary heart disease are well-known: lipid disorders, especially high serum LDL-cholesterol concentration, high blood pressure, tobacco smoking, obesity, diabetes, male gender and physical inactivity. Obesity is both an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease but is also closely connected with several other risk factors. This review focuses on the connection between overweight or obesity and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25387321

Jokinen, E

2015-03-01

261

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity is becoming a major medical concern in several parts of the world, with huge economic impacts on health- care systems, resulting mainly from increased cardiovascular risks. At the same time, obesity leads to a number of sleep-disordered breathing patterns like obstructive sleep apnea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS, leading to increased morbidity and mortality with reduced quality of life. OHS is distinct from other sleep- related breathing disorders although overlap may exist. OHS patients may have obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea with hypercapnia and sleep hypoventilation, or an isolated sleep hypoventilation. Despite its major impact on health, this disorder is under-recognized and under-diagnosed. Available management options include aggressive weight reduction, oxygen therapy and using positive airway pressure techniques. In this review, we will go over the epidemiology, pathophysiology, presentation and diagnosis and management of OHS.

Al Dabal Laila

2009-01-01

262

Sleep debt and obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Short sleep duration has been shown to be associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) in many epidemiological studies. Several pathways could link sleep deprivation to weight gain and obesity, including increased food intake, decreased energy expenditure, and changes in levels of appetite-regulating hormones, such as leptin and ghrelin. A relatively new factor that is contributing to sleep deprivation is the use of multimedia (e.g. television viewing, computer, and internet), which may aggravate sedentary behavior and increase caloric intake. In addition, shift-work, long working hours, and increased time commuting to and from work have also been hypothesized to favor weight gain and obesity-related metabolic disorders, because of their strong link to shorter sleep times. This article reviews the epidemiological, biological, and behavioral evidence linking sleep debt and obesity. PMID:25012962

Bayon, Virginie; Leger, Damien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Vecchierini, Marie-Françoise; Chennaoui, Mounir

2014-08-01

263

Bias, discrimination, and obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews information on discriminatory attitudes and behaviors against obese individuals, integrates this to show whether systematic discrimination occurs and why, and discusses needed work in the field. Clear and consistent stigmatization, and in some cases discrimination, can be documented in three important areas of living: employment, education, and health care. Among the findings are that 28% of teachers in one study said that becoming obese is the worst thing that can happen to a person; 24% of nurses said that they are "repulsed" by obese persons; and, controlling for income and grades, parents provide less college support for their overweight than for their thin children. There are also suggestions but not yet documentation of discrimination occurring in adoption proceedings, jury selection, housing, and other areas. Given the vast numbers of people potentially affected, it is important to consider the research-related, educational, and social policy implications of these findings. PMID:11743063

Puhl, R; Brownell, K D

2001-12-01

264

Imaging evaluation of potential donors in living-donor liver transplantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liver transplants, originally obtained from deceased donors, can now be harvested from living donors as well. This technique, called living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), provides an effective alternative means of liver transplantation and is a method of expanding the donor pool in light of the demand and supply imbalance for organ transplants. Imaging plays an important role in LDLT programmes by providing robust evaluation of potential donors to ensure that only anatomically suitable donors with no significant co-existing pathology are selected and that crucial information that allows detailed preoperative planning is available. Imaging evaluation helps to improve the outcome of LDLT for both donors and recipients, by improving the chances of graft survival and reducing the postoperative complication rate. In this review, we describe the history of LDLT and discuss in detail the application of imaging in donor assessment with emphasis on use of modern computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques

265

Imaging evaluation of potential donors in living-donor liver transplantation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liver transplants, originally obtained from deceased donors, can now be harvested from living donors as well. This technique, called living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT), provides an effective alternative means of liver transplantation and is a method of expanding the donor pool in light of the demand and supply imbalance for organ transplants. Imaging plays an important role in LDLT programmes by providing robust evaluation of potential donors to ensure that only anatomically suitable donors with no significant co-existing pathology are selected and that crucial information that allows detailed preoperative planning is available. Imaging evaluation helps to improve the outcome of LDLT for both donors and recipients, by improving the chances of graft survival and reducing the postoperative complication rate. In this review, we describe the history of LDLT and discuss in detail the application of imaging in donor assessment with emphasis on use of modern computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques.

Low, G. [Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada)], E-mail: timgy@yahoo.com; Wiebe, E. [Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada); Walji, A.H. [Division of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta (Canada); Bigam, D.L. [Department of Surgery, University of Alberta Hospital (Canada)

2008-02-15

266

Gestational Weight Gain in Obese Patients and Adverse Pregnancy Events  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: To examine pre-pregnancy obesity and gestational weight gain as predictors for adverse pregnancy outcomes in a predominantly non-white obstetric resident clinic population. Methods: Prenatal charts for patients with pre-pregnancy obesity cared for at our resident clinic from January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2010 were reviewed. Adverse maternal outcomes were grouped into a “Composite Morbidity Index” (CMI-M and included gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, superimposed preeclampsia, dystocia, operative delivery, Cesarean section for arrest disorders, wound infection and disruption, and thromboembolic events. Fetal events, similarly categorized into a composite adverse fetal index (CMI-F, included macrosomia, Apgar at 5 minutes (?3, NICU admission, congenital anomalies and intrauterine fetal demise. Results: 627 women with a singleton pregnancy and a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI of 30 and greater were included in the analysis. As measured by the composite morbidity index, women with Class III obesity at their first prenatal visit were more likely to have at least one or more maternal and fetal complications compared to women with Class II or Class I obesity. For adverse maternal outcomes (CMI-M, 40.2%, 33.8%, and 27.4% of women within each respective obesity class experienced an adverse event (p = 0.027. Applying the CMI-F, fetal complications were observed in 28.2%, 18%, and 13.9% of Class III, II, and I obesity (p = 0.003. Total gestational weight gain per week was significantly greater for patients with one or more maternal complications (p = 0.045. Conclusion: Among an obese, resident clinic population comprised primarily of women of ethnic minorities, pre-pregnancy body mass index was the strongest indicator for adverse maternal and fetal outcomes.

Shelly H. Tien

2014-06-01

267

Fight Obesity in the Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

U.S. health experts declared obesity an epidemic over a decade ago. Schools have tried to implement prevention programs for students, but as budgets shrink, educating students about obesity is increasingly falling to classroom instructors, including science teachers. The good news is that obesity-related classroom activities can be engaging, and…

Bratsis, Michael E.

2012-01-01

268

Impact of reversible cardiac arrest in the brain-dead organ donor on the outcome of adult liver transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several donor and graft characteristics are associated with higher failure rates for deceased donor liver transplantation (LT). The influence of reversible cardiac arrest in the donor on these failure rates is unclear because of scarce and inconsistent data. The aim of this study was to determine whether reversible cardiac arrest in the donor could affect the early postoperative outcome of LT. From January 2008 to February 2010, 165 patients underwent LT, and they were retrospectively divided into 2 groups: a cardiac arrest group (34 patients who received grafts from donors who had experienced reversible cardiac arrest before organ procurement) and a control group (131 patients who received grafts from donors without a history of reversible cardiac arrest). The postoperative complications and the graft and recipient outcomes were prospectively recorded for all the patients. Graft failure was defined as death or the need for retransplantation within 90 days of LT. Donors in the cardiac arrest group displayed higher serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels than donors in the control group [AST: 104 (19-756) versus 42 IU/L (10-225 IU/L), P < 0.001; ALT: 73 (13-869) versus 29 IU/L (6-549 IU/L), P < 0.001]. However, no difference in the graft failure rates was found between the 2 groups (11.8% versus 8.4%, P = 0.51). The biological parameters 5 and 7 days after LT and the peak AST/ALT levels were similar for the 2 groups. Furthermore, the 2 groups had similar graft and patient survival rates at the 6-month mark (87% and 88%, respectively). In conclusion, our study shows that brief and reversible cardiac arrest in organ donors does not affect post-LT allograft survival and function, even though liver function test values are higher for these donors. However, the risk of using these grafts needs to be balanced against the potential benefits for the recipients. PMID:21744468

Levesque, Eric; Hoti, Emir; Khalfallah, Meriem; Salloum, Chady; Ricca, Luana; Vibert, Eric; Azoulay, Daniel

2011-10-01

269

Weighing the stigma of weight: An fMRI study of neural reactivity to the pain of obese individuals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explicit negative attitudes and blameful beliefs (e.g. poor diet, laziness) towards obese individuals are well documented and are pervasive even among health professionals. Here we sought to determine whether obesity stigma is reflected in a fundamental feature of intersubjectivity namely the automatic neural resonance with others' affective experiences. During fMRI, normal-weight female participants observed short clips depicting normal-weight (NW) and obese (Ob) models experiencing pain. Importantly, participants believed that half of the Ob were overweight due to a hormonal disorder (HormOb) and ignored the cause of obesity of the remaining models (Unknown obese models; UnkOb). Analyses of hemodynamic responses showed reduced activity to the pain of Ob compared to that of NW in areas associated with pain processing and early visual processing. The comparison between the two Ob conditions revealed a further decrease of activity to HormOb's pain compared to UnkOb's (and NW) pain in the right inferior frontal gyrus, an area associated with emotional resonance. Our study demonstrates that stigma for obese individuals can be observed at implicit levels, and that it is modulated by knowledge concerning the etiology of obesity, with the seemingly surprising result that obesity due to disease may result in greater stigmatization. Moreover, the perceived similarity with the models and the ambivalent emotion of pity may index biased brain responses to obese individuals' pain. The study highlights a possibly important neural link between resonance with the pain of others and obesity stigma. PMID:24287441

Azevedo, R T; Macaluso, E; Viola, V; Sani, G; Aglioti, S M

2014-05-01

270

Clinician challenges in providing health care for a morbidly obese family member: a bariatric case study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Morbid obesity is a chronic disease affecting millions of Americans. The disorder is likely to increase in prevalence because currently one third of the American population is obese. Many factors are associated with morbid obesity, including psychological (eg, depression), physiological (eg, hypothyroidism) mechanisms, sleep disorders (eg, sleep apnea), drug therapy (antidepressants, antidiabetic agents, steroids), and genetics. Increasing numbers of morbidly obese patients are requiring critical care, presenting major challenges to professional staff across the disciplines. This manuscript presents a case study describing the experiences of a morbidly obese woman in the final years of her life from the perspective of her health professional relative. The patient typifies many of the major risk factors for morbid obesity; her story reveals many of the issues faced as she revolved in and out of the critical care and acute care system. Her substantive health problems affected multiple body systems and included hypothyroidism, congestive heart failure, hyperlipidemia, and subclinical Cushing's Syndrome, likely related to previous medical therapy (cortisone) for rheumatic fever in childhood. The case description addresses many integumentary system issues the patient experienced; skin injuries and infections that can pose serious life-threatening situations for the morbidly obese patient must be prevented or treated efficiently. Health professionals can learn a great deal and improve the care they provide by listening to morbidly obese patients. PMID:25581606

Beitz, Janice M

2015-01-01

271

Good Results in Transplantation of >80 Years Aged Donor Kidneys  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: We retrospectively analyzed the results of totally 6 patients who received a renal graft from >80 years aged donors in Eurotransplant senior program. Patients and methods: Between May 1999 and March 2007 a total of 70 kidney transplants from donors aged over 65 years were given to recipients over 65 at our center. Six out of them, mean age 66,0 (65-68 years, received organs from donors, mean age 81,3 years, who had no history of hypertension, diabetes, smoking or obesity, and a latest mean serum creatinine of 0,7 (0,7-0,9 mg/dL. Baseline biopsy of four grafts showed in two of them a 20% / 8% glomerulosclerosis and mild tubular atrophy but otherwise normal histology. The mean cold storage time was 11:35 (7:19 – 16:02 hours. The initial immunosuppression was CNI-free in five patients consisting of an IL-II receptor antibody + MMF + Steroids. Cyclosporine A was started at day 8,2 (7-10, when graft function had stabilized. In one patient each Belatacept or CyA were given from the beginning, according to a study protocol. Results: The ATN-rate was 2/6. Altogether 2 biopsy-proven acute rejection episodes were reversed by pulsed steroids. Apart from one Polyomavirus infection which led to graft loss at month 9, all other infectious complications, mostly urinary tract infections, were treated successfully. Other postoperative complications were caused by preexisting comorbidities and could be managed. One patient died from an intracerebral B-cell Lymphoma at month 27 with a functioning graft. The 2-years patient / graft survival was 100 / 83,3%. The actual mean serum creatinine of the survivors was 1,6 (0,7-2,4 mg/dL. Conclusion: We conclude that good results can be achieved with kidneys from donors over 80 years without cardiac risk factors and good renal function and if nephrotoxic drugs are used with caution.

R. Margreiter

2007-12-01

272

Sepsis in obese pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Animal, epidemiological and limited human studies have reported that obesity increases susceptibility to both bacterial and viral infections. Obesity has now reached worldwide epidemic proportions with a recent study estimating that there are currently 2.1 billion obese adults in the world. The rates of sepsis in both the non-pregnant and pregnant population are also increasing. Obesity is an independent risk factor for both infection and sepsis in pregnancy. This review article addresses the epidemiology, immunological factors, infection sites, investigation, management, specific intrapartum care and postnatal care of the obese pregnant woman with infection. PMID:25467427

Orr, Katrine; Chien, Patrick

2015-04-01

273

Hybrid super electron donors – preparation and reactivity  

OpenAIRE

Neutral organic electron donors, featuring pyridinylidene–imidazolylidene, pyridinylidene–benzimidazolylidene and imidazolylidene–benzimidazolylidene linkages are reported. The pyridinylidene–benzimidazolylidene and imidazolylidene–benzimidazolylidene hybrid systems were designed to be the first super electron donors to convert iodoarenes to aryl radicals at room temperature, and indeed both show evidence for significant aryl radical formation at room temperature...

Jean Garnier; Thomson, Douglas W.; Shengze Zhou; Jolly, Phillip I.; Berlouis, Leonard E. A.; Murphy, John A.

2012-01-01

274

Challenges in living donor liver transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Living donor liver transplantation is a procedure that has waned in its application over the past decade but remains a beneficial procedure for properly selected candidates. This review discusses some of the newer, relevant studies in the field, focusing on outcomes with hepatocellular carcinoma, ABO-incompatible transplant, and issues in donor complications and safety. PMID:25017081

Trotter, James F

2014-08-01

275

30 CFR 48.26 - Experienced miner training.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Experienced miner training. 48.26 Section 48.26 Mineral Resources...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING AND RETRAINING OF MINERS Training and...

2010-07-01

276

30 CFR 46.6 - Newly hired experienced miner training.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Newly hired experienced miner training. 46.6 Section 46.6 Mineral Resources ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING AND RETRAINING OF MINERS ENGAGED IN SHELL...

2010-07-01

277

30 CFR 48.6 - Experienced miner training.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Experienced miner training. 48.6 Section 48.6 Mineral Resources ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR EDUCATION AND TRAINING TRAINING AND RETRAINING OF MINERS Training and...

2010-07-01

278

Commensality and Obesity Epidemics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Three examples of the appropriateness of including the investigation of commensality to curb obesity epidemics, and a methodological note on the application of the concept of Foodscape as a fruitful holistic analytical perspective on the interplay between food, people, meals, and the physical conditions under which we eat.

Andersen, Boris

2014-01-01

279

Current obesity drug treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pharmacological treatment of obesity is an area of sudden changes,development of new drugs and treatment propositions. This articlepresents information on physiological agents that are currentlybeing used as well as drugs that were widely used but are nomore available.

Marcio C. Mancini

2006-03-01

280

Games and childhood obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Videogames can be used to help children change their obesity-related diet and physical activity behaviors. A review of the relevant literature in this special issue of the Games for Health Journal indicated that video games did influence children's adiposity, but only among children who were alread...

281

[Skin diseases and obesity].  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is a chronic multifactorial disease representing a major health problem. Among its consequences, diverse facets of the cutaneous physiology are altered. Some dermatoses are also more prevalent. The most typical ones are acanthosis nigricans, skin tags, signs of hyperandrogeny, striae distensae, stasis acroangiodermatitis, leg ulcers, lymphoedema and intertrigo. PMID:12693306

Martalo, O; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Scheen, A; Piérard, G E

2003-02-01

282

Financial hardship and obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a substantial correlation between household debt and health. Individuals with less healthy lifestyles are more likely to hold debt, yet there is little evidence as to whether this is merely a correlation or if financial hardship actually causes obesity. In this paper, we use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health to test whether financial hardship affects body weight. We divide our sample into two groups: men and women, explore two different types of financial hardship: holding credit card debt and having trouble paying bills, and three outcomes: overweight, obese and body mass index (BMI). We use a variety of econometric techniques: Ordinary Least Squares, Propensity Score Matching, Sibling Fixed Effects, and Instrumental Variables to investigate the relationship that exists between financial hardship and body weight. In addition, we conduct several robustness checks. Although our OLS and PSM results indicate a correlation between financial hardship and body weight these results appear to be largely driven by unobservables. Our IV results suggest that there is no causal relationship between credit card debt and overweight or obesity for either men or women. However, we find suggestive evidence that having trouble paying bills may be a cause of obesity for women. PMID:24411309

Averett, Susan L; Smith, Julie K

2014-12-01

283

Victimization of Obese Adolescents  

Science.gov (United States)

Peer victimization of obese adolescents has been associated with low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, social isolation, marginalization, poor psychosocial adjustment, depression, eating disorders, and suicidal ideation and attempts, not to mention poor academic performance. Weight-based peer victimization is defined as unsolicited bullying and…

Robinson, Sabrina

2006-01-01

284

Dietary treatment of obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The fast global increased prevalence of obesity has been classifiedas an epidemics by the World Health Organization. The etiology ofobesity is very complex and involves genetic and environmentalfactors. One of the main factors that trigger obesity is sedentarylife, as well as the great availability of fat-rich foods that present ahigh energy density. According to the NHANES II, although thepopulation has decreased the ingestion of fat, the total consumptionof food has increased. The main factors that influence in choice offood are flavor, followed by cost, convenience and, finally, itsnutritional value. The dietary treatment of obesity should haverealistic goals concerning weight loss rate and amount. It issuggested to prescribe a balanced low-calorie diet, emphasizingmostly the quality of foods by using the food pyramid. Therefore,patients may learn the appropriate criteria to select food and makehealthy choices. The dietary treatment of obesity also includesthe use of behavioral techniques directed at dietary education,thus resulting in choice of healthy foods with adequate energyvalue.

Ana Maria Pita Lottenberg

2006-03-01

285

Anticipated and experienced emotions in environmental risk perception  

OpenAIRE

Affective forecasting with respect to two environmental risks (ozone depletion, air pollution) was investigated by studying tourists who travelled to either Australia or Bangkok and were thus confronted with one of these risks. We measured anticipated outcome and anticipated emotions before the journey, actually experienced outcome and actually experienced emotions during the journey, and anticipated outcome and emotions concerning a future encounter with the same risk after the journey. Resu...

Gisela Bohm; Hans-Rudiger Pfister

2008-01-01

286

Non heart-beating donors in England  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english When transplantation started all organs were retrieved from patients immediately after cardio-respiratory arrest, i.e. from nonheart-beating donors. After the recognition that death resulted from irreversible damage to the brainstem, organ retrieval rapidly switched to patients certified dead after [...] brainstem testing. These heart-beating-donors have become the principal source of organs for transplantation for the last 30 years. The number of heart-beating-donors are declining and this is likely to continue, therefore cadaveric organs from non-heart-beating donor offers a large potential of resources for organ transplantation. The aim of this study is to examine clinical outcomes of non-heart-beating donors in the past 10 years in the UK as an way of decreasing pressure in the huge waiting list for organs transplantation.

Eleazar, Chaib.

287

Non heart-beating donors in England  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When transplantation started all organs were retrieved from patients immediately after cardio-respiratory arrest, i.e. from nonheart-beating donors. After the recognition that death resulted from irreversible damage to the brainstem, organ retrieval rapidly switched to patients certified dead after brainstem testing. These heart-beating-donors have become the principal source of organs for transplantation for the last 30 years. The number of heart-beating-donors are declining and this is likely to continue, therefore cadaveric organs from non-heart-beating donor offers a large potential of resources for organ transplantation. The aim of this study is to examine clinical outcomes of non-heart-beating donors in the past 10 years in the UK as an way of decreasing pressure in the huge waiting list for organs transplantation.

Eleazar Chaib

2008-01-01

288

Potential organ donor audit in Ireland.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

As increasing demand for organs is a challenge for transplant services worldwide it is essential to audit the process of organ donation. To address this, a national audit of potential organ donors was undertaken across hospitals with Intensive Care Units (N = 36). Questionnaires were returned on all patients (n = 2073) who died in these units from 1\\/9\\/07-31\\/8\\/08; 200 (10%) of these patients were considered for Brain Stem Testing (BST), 158 patients (79%) were diagnosed Brain Stem Dead (BSD) and 138 patients (87%) became potential donors. Consent for donation was given by 92 (69%) next of kin and 90 potential donors (65%) became organ donors. There was no evidence of a large number of potential organ donors being missed. Recommendations included completion of BSTs on all appropriate patients, development of support on BST, referral of all BSD patients to the Organ Procurement Service; enhanced co-ordination within hospitals and sustained information\\/education campaigns.

Hegarty, M

2010-11-01

289

Urbanization Drift and Obesity Epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of the Situation in Nigeria.  

OpenAIRE

The growing trend of obesity worldwide and in sub-Saharan Africa can be linked to theurbanization drift experienced in recent years both in developed and developing countrieslike Nigeria, at four pivotal points namely: physical activity level, socio-economic status(SES), nutritional and psychosocial factors. Literature search was done usingMedline/PubMed and Google Scholar for published studies on the urbanization rate, andthe prevalence of overweight and obesity in Nigeria. The socio-demogra...

Akpan, E. E.; Ekpenyong, C. E.

2013-01-01

290

Obesity in adults with epilepsy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sixty-eight percent of the US adult population is overweight, and 35% is obese. The rate of obesity in patients with epilepsy is unknown. Its determination was the goal of the present study. Weight and height were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated in all newly evaluated patients with epilepsy at a single epilepsy center between 2003 and 2009. Five hundred fifty-four patients aged ?16-87years were included (62.7% were women, 12.6% with primary generalized epilepsy, and 86.4% with localization-related epilepsy). Three hundred six (55.2%) patients were overweight or obese (BMI>25kg/m(2)) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 51.1%-59.3%), 173 (31.2%) were obese (BMI>30kg/m(2)) (95% CI: 27.5%-35.2%), and 24 (4.3%) were morbidly obese (BMI>40kg/m(2)). Overweight/obesity combined was more common in men (65.4% [95% CI: 58.8%-71.5%]) than in women (49% women [95% CI: 43.3%-54.3%]) (p?0.001). The rate of overweight/obesity combined trended to be greater in blacks (67.9%) than in whites (51.9%). Obesity alone was more common in blacks (46.4%) than in whites (29.4%), with too few Hispanics and Asians to allow a comparison. Overweight/obesity and obesity rates were higher in patients with refractory than nonrefractory epilepsy (60.4% vs. 49.2% overweight, 36.9% vs.24.6% obesity). Obesity was more common in patients treated with polytherapy than those treated with monotherapy (37.7% vs. 25%). There were no associations between obesity and other disease characteristics such as epilepsy type, duration, or etiology. Obesity is common in patients with epilepsy, similar to the general population. PMID:23860473

Janousek, Jaromir; Barber, Arkady; Goldman, Lenka; Klein, Pavel

2013-09-01

291

Oocyte cryopreservation for donor egg banking.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oocyte donation is an efficient alternative to using own oocytes in IVF treatment for different indications. Unfortunately, 'traditional' (fresh) egg donations are challenged with inefficiency, difficulties of synchronization, very long waiting periods and lack of quarantine measures. Given the recent improvements in the efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation, it is reasonable to examine if egg donation through oocyte cryopreservation has merits. The objective of the current manuscript is to review existing literature on this topic and to report on the most recent outcomes from two established donor cryobank centres. Reports on egg donation using slow freezing are scarce and though results are encouraging, outcomes are not yet comparable to a fresh egg donation treatment. Vitrification on the other hand appears to provide high survival rates (90%) of donor oocytes and comparable fertilization, embryo development, implantation and pregnancy rates to traditional (fresh) egg donation. Besides the excellent outcomes, the ease of use for both donors and recipients, higher efficiency, lower cost and avoiding the problem of synchronization are all features associated with the benefit of a donor egg cryobank and makes it likely that this approach becomes the future standard of care. Oocyte donation is one of the last resorts in IVF treatment for couples challenged with infertility problems. However, traditional (fresh) egg donation, as it is performed today, is not very efficient, as typically all eggs from one donor are given to only one recipient, it is arduous as it requires an excellent synchronization between the donor and recipient and there are months or years of waiting time. Because of the development of an efficient oocyte cryopreservation technique, it is now possible to cryo-store donor (as well as non-donor) eggs, maintaining their viability and allowing their use whenever there is demand. Therefore, creating a donor oocyte cryobank would carry many advantages. In the present manuscript, the current experience with oocyte donation using cryopreservation technology is reviewed. The outcomes of two recently established donor egg cryobanks at Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad in Spain and Reproductive Biology Associates in the USA (involving a large number of cases) demonstrate that egg cryo-survival is high and that fertilization, embryo development, implantation and pregnancy rates are similar to those reported after fresh egg donation. It also provides additional advantages of being more efficient, more economical, easier for both donors and recipients and potentially also safer, because eggs can now be quarantined for 6 months (or longer) to retest for infectious diseases in the donors. It is the opinion of the authors, based on several advantages associated with the use of donor egg cryobanking, that in the future there will be fewer traditional egg donations and increasingly more cryo-egg donations. PMID:21767989

Cobo, Ana; Remohí, José; Chang, Ching-Chien; Nagy, Zsolt Peter

2011-09-01

292

Harmful Effect of Anti-Class II Antibodies in Kidney Transplant Patients who Experienced an Acute Rejection Episode  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The presence of anti-lymphocytes antibodies is associated with the occurrence of acute rejection after kidney transplantation but few is known on their role after the rejection episode. We conducted a retrospective study in kidney transplant recipients who experienced a biopsy proven acute rejection episode to analyse the influence of anti-lymphocytes antibodies on clinical outcome. Anti-lymphocytes antibodies were detected before and after transplantation and characterized for isotype, class I and class II targets and donor specificity. 76 kidney recipients were included and analysed for steroid resistance of acute rejection, serum creatinine and 1-year actual graft survival. The presence of anti-lymphocytes antibodies was noticed in 80% of patients. Anti-lymphocytes antibodies were associated with more frequent steroid resistant rejection episodes, higher creatinine at discharge and throughout the first year post transplantation and with a worse graft survival, at the condition they were of the IgG isotype, donor-specific, and they recognized class II targets. We conclude that donor-specific anti-class II IgG antibodies are deleterious in the subgroup of kidney transplant recipients who develope an acute rejection.

F. Berthou

2006-09-01

293

Soluble transferrin receptor levels in obese and non obese adolescents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background Iron deficiency in children and adolescents maybe due to an inadequate supply of iron as well as increased iron requirements for growth and developmental processes. The increasing prevalence of obesity puts children at risk of iron deficiency. Studies on the effects of obesity on iron deficiency have focused on low grade systemic inflammation as well as examining soluble transferrin receptor levels (sTfR as an indicator of iron deficiency. Objective To compare sTfR levels in obese and non-obese adolescents, assess for correlations between BMI, sTfRr and obesity, and determine the risk of iron deficiency in obese adolescents. Method This cross sectional study was conducted on 20 obese and 20 non-obese adolescents aged 15-17 in East Aceh District, from September to December 2011. Subject were chosen through cluster sampling. The obese subjects had BMI >95th percentile and the non-obese subjects had BMI ?85th percentile based on the 2000 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS. Exclusion criteria were blood disorders, chronic diseases, and a history of bleeding. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test and T-test with a significance level of P 2.5 ?g/mL was more common in obese than in non-obese adolescents [(55% vs. 15%, respectively, (P = 0.019]. Analysis of the relationship between obesity according to BMI and sTfR revealed an OR of 6.93; 95% CI 1.53 to 31.38. The relationship between the BMI and sTfRr levels indicated a positive, moderate strength of association (r = 0.392. Conclusion The mean sTfRr levels in obese adolescents is significantly higher than in non-obese individuals. Obese adolescents have a 6.93 times higher risk of iron deficiency than non-obese adolescents. Body mass index has a positive and moderate association with sTfR.

Zul Febrianti

2014-03-01

294

General Overview on Childhood Obesity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Until recently, it has not been put much emphasis on obesity in children and the view of “obese child is healthy” is widely accepted by families. However, understanding that a close relation exists between obesity prevalence and childhood obesity, which increased in recent years both across the world and in our country, and many diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases changed the opinion of both of health care professionals and the society about childhood obesity in Turkey, like it changed the opinion in all around the world. Although there are no studies in our country, which have been conducted to investigate obesity prevalence and affecting factors in children nationwide, it is reported in studies carried out in various cities that rate of overweight children in preschool children is between 4-13%, whereas rate of obese children is between 9-27%. In the literature, a positive correlation was found between the frequency of taking the children to fast-food restaurants, compelling children to eat foods on their dishes, one or two of the parents being obese and obesity of children in Turkey. In this review will focus on the risk factors of childhood obesity in Turkey. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2013; 11: 27-30

Sevil ?nal

2013-04-01

295

Pediatric Obesity: Looking into Treatment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Prevalence of pediatric obesity continues to rise worldwide. Increasing the number of health care practitioners as well as pediatricians with expertise in obesity treatment is necessary. Because many obese patients suffer obesity-associated cardiovascular, metabolic and other health complications that could increase the severity of obesity, it is fundamental not only to identify the child prone to obesity as early as possible, but to recognize, treat and monitor obesity-related diseases during adolescence. This short review outlines the treatment of pediatric obesity that may have applications in the primary care setting. It examines current information on eating behavior, sedentary behavior, and details studies of multidisciplinary, behavior-based, obesity treatment programs. We also report the less common and more aggressive forms of treatment, such as medication and bariatric surgery. We emphasize that health care providers have the potential to improve outcomes by performing early identification, helping families create the best possible home environment, and by providing structured guidance to obese children and their families.

Marcella Malavolti

2009-11-01

296

Analysis of TV, advertising and other behavioral determinants of overweight and obesity in childhood.  

Science.gov (United States)

Worldwide obesity has reached the proportion of an epidemic. A well-established fact is that nowadays many low-and middle-income countries are facing a "double burden" of disease, dealing with under-nutrition on one side, and on the other experiencing a rapid rise in non-communicable disease risk factors such as obesity and overweight, particularly in urban settings. Behavioral components are strongly influencing obesity spread and development, especially when considering TV and advertising. There is, therefore, the need of multi-cultural and cross-cultural research, in order to gain a full understanding of the association between obesity and different risk factors, in different scenarios, providing the best evidence to decision makers, grounding prevention on evidence-based strategies rather than focusing on single factors without the recognition of their mutual influence. PMID:25629249

Dibildox, Javier

2014-01-01

297

Donor research in australia: challenges and promise.  

Science.gov (United States)

Donors are the key to the core business of Blood Collection Agencies (BCAs). However, historically, they have not been a focus of research undertaken by these organizations. This model is now changing, with significant donor research groups established in a number of countries, including Australia. Donor research in the Australian Red Cross Blood Service (Blood Service) is concentrated in the Donor and Community Research (DCR) team. Cognizant of the complex and ever-changing landscape with regard to optimal donor management, the DCR team collaborates with academics located at universities around Australia to coordinate a broad program of research that addresses both short- and-long term challenges to the blood supply. This type of collaboration is not, however, without challenges. Two major collaborative programs of the Blood Service's research, focusing on i) the recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors and ii) the role of the emotion pride in donor motivation and return, are showcased to elucidate how the challenges of conducting collaborative BCA research can be met. In so doing, these and the other research programs described herein demonstrate how the Blood Service supports and contributes to research that not only revises operational procedures but also contributes to advances in basic science. PMID:25254025

Masser, Barbara; Smith, Geoff; Williams, Lisa A

2014-07-01

298

Our experience with deceased organ donor maintenance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Deceased organ donors in an intensive care unit (ICU are the richest source of organs for transplantation. Careful donor maintenance plays a vital role in the successful functioning of the organ in the recipient. Aims : Early identification of brain stem death (BSD in the ICU, problems and management in donor maintenance till retrieval are the main objectives. Materials and Methods : BSD was identified in a level I trauma center over a period of eight years (1996-2004 using UK code. After screening for fitness, they were maintained to achieve normothermia, systolic BP > 90 mm Hg, CVP 8-10 cm water, urine output > 80 ml/hour and normal acid base balance. Results: 168 cases of BSD were maintained, 30 with identity unknown. Common transient complications noted were hypotension (68%, hypokalemia (62%, hypothermia (12%, diabetes insipidus (70%. Brain stem death was identified early and resuscitated to maintain normal tissue perfusion. 17 (12.3% consent for organ donation was obtained. Organs (24 kidneys and one liver were retrieved from 12 donors. Four donors sustained cardiac arrest before retrieval. Conclusion: Early recognition of brain stem death and prompty correction of hemodyanamic instability is the key to deceased donor maintenance. Optimal care of potential donor translates to care of multiple recipients.

Kumar Meena

2007-01-01

299

Donor deactivation in silicon nanostructures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The operation of electronic devices relies on the density of free charge carriers available in the semiconductor; in most semiconductor devices this density is controlled by the addition of doping atoms. As dimensions are scaled down to achieve economic and performance benefits, the presence of interfaces and materials adjacent to the semiconductor will become more important and will eventually completely determine the electronic properties of the device. To sustain further improvements in performance, novel field-effect transistor architectures, such as FinFETs and nanowire field-effect transistors, have been proposed as replacements for the planar devices used today, and also for applications in biosensing and power generation. The successful operation of such devices will depend on our ability to precisely control the location and number of active impurity atoms in the host semiconductor during the fabrication process. Here, we demonstrate that the free carrier density in semiconductor nanowires is dependent on the size of the nanowires. By measuring the electrical conduction of doped silicon nanowires as a function of nanowire radius, temperature and dielectric surrounding, we show that the donor ionization energy increases with decreasing nanowire radius, and that it profoundly modifies the attainable free carrier density at values of the radius much larger than those at which quantum and dopant surface segregation effects set in. At a nanowire radius of 15 nm the carrier density is already 50% lower than in bulk silicon due to the dielectric mismatch between the conducting channel and its surroundings. PMID:19197312

Björk, Mikael T; Schmid, Heinz; Knoch, Joachim; Riel, Heike; Riess, Walter

2009-02-01

300

Prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity in the Lausanne population  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Obesity can be defined using body mass index (BMI) or waist (abdominal obesity). Little information exists regarding its prevalence and determinants in Switzerland. Hence, we assessed the levels of obesity as defined by BMI or waist circumference in a Swiss population-based sample. Methods Cross-sectional, population-based non-stratified random sample of 3,249 women and 2,937 men aged 35–75 years living in Lausanne, Switzerland. Overall participation rate was 41%. Result...

Paccaud Fred; Mooser Vincent; Bochud Murielle; Marques-Vidal Pedro; Waeber Gérard; Vollenweider Peter

2008-01-01

301

Blood pressure and arterial stiffness in obese children and adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity, elevated blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. A strong relationship exists between obesity and elevated BP in both children and adults. Obesity and elevated BP in childhood track into adult life increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Ambulatory BP is the most precise measure to evaluate the BP burden, whereas carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) is regarded as the gold standard for evaluating arterial (i.e. aortic) stiffness. These measures might contribute to a better understanding of obesity's adverse impact on the cardiovascular system, and ultimately a better prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. The overall aim of the present PhD thesis is to investigate arterial stiffness and 24-hour BP in obese children and adolescents, and evaluate whether these measures are influenced by weight reduction. The present PhD thesis is based on four scientific papers.  In a cross-sectional design, 104 severe obese children and adolescents with an age of 10-18 years were recruited when newly referred to the Children's Obesity Clinic, Holbæk University Hospital, and compared to 50 normal weighted age and gender matched control individuals. Ambulatory BP was measured, and cfPWV was investigated in two ways in respect to the distance measure of aorta; the previously recommended length - the so called subtracted distance, and the currently recommended length - the direct distance. In a longitudinal design, the obese patients were re-investigated after one-year of lifestyle intervention at the Children's Obesity Clinic in purpose of reducing the degree of obesity. In the cross-sectional design, the obese group had higher measures of obesity, while matched for age, gender and height, when compared to the control group. In the longitudinal design, 74% of the 72 followed up obese patients experienced a significant weight reduction. CfPWV was dependent on the method used to measure the length of the aorta. The subtracted distance was not consistent in its relation to height in the obese and the control group. Opposite, the direct distance was consistent in its relation to height in the two groups. Therefore, cfPWV using the direct distance (cfPWV-direct) was regarded as the appropriate measure of arterial stiffness. CfPWV-direct was reduced in the obese group after adjustment for known confounders. In the longitudinal design, weight reduction across one year did not have an impact on cfPWV-direct in the obese patients. In fact, cfPWV-direct was higher at follow-up, which was explained by the increased age and partly by changes in BP and heart rate. The obese group had a relatively higher night- than day-time BP when compared to the control group. The obesity-related elevated night-time BP was independent of arterial stiffness and insulin resistance. Although night-time systolic BP was related to arterial stiffness and tended to be related to insulin resistance, insulin resistance and arterial stiffness were not related. In the longitudinal design, changes in anthropometric obesity measures across one year were associated with changes in 24-hour, day- and night-time BP, and consistent when evaluated in standardised values that accounted for growth. No association was found between changes in anthropometric obesity measures and changes in clinic BP. In conclusion, the results suggest that obesity in children is not "yet" associated with structural changes in aorta when evaluated with the appropriate new method of cfPWV. In this respect, weight reduction did not have an impact on arterial stiffness. The ambulatory BP, namely the night-time BP, was elevated in the obese patients, whereas changes in anthropometric obesity measures were related to changes in ambulatory BP but not to changes in clinic BP. In perspective, it is reassuring that weight changes are accompanied with a change in 24-hour BP as ambulatory BP is the most precise measure to evaluate the BP burden, and it emphasises the use of 24-hour ambulatory BP measurements in childr

Hvidt, Kristian Nebelin

2015-03-01

302

Donor policy rules and aid effectiveness  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present paper examines the macroeconomic impact of aid, by introducing endogenous aid allocations into a neoclassical growth framework. On this basis it is shown that donor policies can have important implications for the trajectory of recipients' GDP per capita. Depending on specific donor policy choices, aid disbursements may lead to faster transitional growth, stagnation or cyclical growth. Moreover, the analysis also suggests that donor policies may be part of the reason why foreign aid is not found to be uniformly effective in raising long-run productivity across recipients

Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

2008-01-01

303

Evidencing Donor Heterogeneity in Aid for Trade  

OpenAIRE

This paper is the culmination of a multi-country, multi-method investigation into the export effects of Aid for Trade (AfT). Building on previous single-donor statistical studies of AfT, this paper conducts a statistical study of 19 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) AfT donors and then examines the delivery and implementation of AfT in four recipient countries - Indonesia, the Philippines, Timor-Leste and Vietnam - from four donor countries -...

Brazys, Samuel

2013-01-01

304

Current research on organ donor management.  

Science.gov (United States)

A shortage of organs is available for transplantation, with 116,000 patients on the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network/United Network for Organ Sharing wait list. Because the demand for organs outweighs the supply, considerable care must be taken to maximize the number of organs transplanted per donor and optimize the quality of recovered organs. Studies designed to determine optimal donor management therapies are limited, and this research has many challenges. Although evidenced-based guidelines for managing potential organ donors do not exist, research in this area is increasing. This article reviews the existing literature and highlights recent trials that can guide management. PMID:24287350

Sally, Mitchell; Malinoski, Darren

2013-12-01

305

Pulmonary function in obese vs non-obese cats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is a risk factor in the development of several respiratory diseases. Lung volumes tend to be decreased, especially expiratory reserve volume, increasing expiratory flow limitation during tidal breathing. Barometric whole-body plethysmography is a non-invasive pulmonary function test that allows a dynamic study of breathing patterns. The objective of this study was to compare pulmonary function variables between obese and non-obese cats through the use of barometric whole-body plethysmography. Nine normal-weight and six obese cats were placed in the plethysmograph chamber, and different respiratory variables were measured. There was a significant decrease in tidal volume per kilogram (P?=?0.003), minute volume per kilogram (P?=?0.001) and peak inspiratory and expiratory flows per kilogram (P?=?0.001) in obese cats compared with non-obese cats. Obesity failed to demonstrate a significant increase in bronchoconstriction index variable enhanced pause (Penh) as previously reported in humans and dogs. The results show that feline obesity impairs pulmonary function in cats, although a significant increase in bronchoconstriction indexes was not observed. Non-invasive barometric whole-body plethysmography can help characterise mechanical dysfunction of the airways in obese cats. PMID:25209968

García-Guasch, Laín; Caro-Vadillo, Alicia; Manubens-Grau, Jordi; Carretón, Elena; Camacho, Aparecido A; Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto

2014-09-10

306

[Relationship between obesity and asthma].  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalences of both obesity and asthma have clearly increased in recent decades, giving rise to speculation that they may be related. Studies have found that obesity precedes and predicts the onset of asthma (time effect), that increased obesity leads to more severe asthma (dose-response effect), that weight reduction (by diet or gastric bypass) improves asthmatic symptoms, and that obesity co-occurs with intermediate asthma phenotypes (obese young girls undergoing early menarche). In the light of that evidence, we can finally suggest a causal relationship between obesity and asthma. Various biological mechanisms (immunologic and inflammatory, hormonal, genetic, nutritional, mechanical, and others related to physical activity) have been put forth to explain the relationship. However, this relation is complex, involving not only the interaction of genetic and environmental factors in triggering both diseases but also the likely participation of several mechanisms at once. PMID:17386195

Castro-Rodríguez, José A

2007-03-01

307

Environmental Estrogens and Obesity  

OpenAIRE

Many chemicals in the environment, in particular those with estrogenic activity, can disrupt the programming of endocrine signaling pathways that are established during development and result in adverse consequences that may not be apparent until much later in life. Most recently, obesity and diabetes join the growing list of adverse consequences that have been associated with developmental exposure to environmental estrogens during critical stages of differentiation. These diseases are quick...

Newbold, Retha R.; Padilla-banks, Elizabeth; Jefferson, Wendy N.

2009-01-01

308

Dyslipidemia and Pediatric Obesity  

OpenAIRE

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States despite a steady reduction in mortality over the last 4 decades. Much of this success is attributed to public health efforts to reduce cardiovascular risk factors, such as national dietary changes and reductions of smoking, as well as more aggressive treatment of clinical disease, including recognition and treatment of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. The rising rates of obesity and diabetes, especially among adol...

Cook, Stephen; Kavey, Rae Ellen W.

2011-01-01

309

Environmental Estrogens and Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Many chemicals in the environment, in particular those with estrogenic activity, can disrupt the programming of endocrine signaling pathways that are established during development and result in adverse consequences that may not be apparent until much later in life. Most recently, obesity and diabetes join the growing list of adverse consequences that have been associated with developmental exposure to environmental estrogens during critical stages of differentiation. These diseases are quickly becoming significant public health issues and are fast reaching epidemic proportions worldwide. In this review, we summarize the literature from experimental animal studies documenting an association of environmental estrogens and the development of obesity, and further describe an animal model of exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) that has proven useful in studying mechanisms involved in abnormal programming of various differentiating estrogen- target tissues. Other examples of environmental estrogens including the phytoestrogen genistein and the environmental contaminant Bisphenol A are also discussed. Together, these data suggest new targets (i.e., adipocyte differentiation and molecular mechanisms involved in weight homeostasis) for abnormal programming by estrogenic chemicals, and provide evidence that support the scientific hypothesis termed “the developmental origins of adult disease”. The proposal of an association of environmental estrogens with obesity and diabetes expands the focus on the diseases from intervention/treatment to include prevention/avoidance of chemical modifiers especially during critical windows of development. PMID:19433252

Newbold, Retha R.; Padilla-Banks, Elizabeth; Jefferson, Wendy N.

2009-01-01

310

Treatment of obese diabetics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fat accumulation is a typical phenomenon in the pathogenesis of Type 2 diabetes. Also Type 1 diabetics are getting obese these days living in an environment with typical caloric overfeeding and low physical activity. Weight reduction is an important part of therapy in all obese diabetic patients. Orlistat is the only accessible antiobesity drug today. Weight neutral antidiabetics like metformin and DPP-4 inhibitors can be also used. Incretin analogues (exenatide and liraglutide) are also very important drugs inducing weight loss in diabetic and also in nondiabetic patients. Insulin therapy causes mostly weight gain. Long acting insulin analogues are able to induce small weight loss in Type 1 diabetes or only a small weight increase or weight loss in Type 2 diabetic patients. Procedures of bariatric surgery are very important in the treatment being able to induce remission of Type 2 diabetes. Weight reduction can be supported also using the new class of antiadiabetic drugs- SGLT inhibitors which are blocking glucose absorption in kidneys. The use of new incretine analogues injected at the interval of one to two weeks is the most important strategy for the treatment of obese Type 2 diabetic patients and perhaps also of Type 1 diabetic patients even in combination with insulin. PMID:23393696

Svacina, Stepán

2012-01-01

311

Marketing actions can modulate neural representations of experienced pleasantness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the importance and pervasiveness of marketing, almost nothing is known about the neural mechanisms through which it affects decisions made by individuals. We propose that marketing actions, such as changes in the price of a product, can affect neural representations of experienced pleasantness. We tested this hypothesis by scanning human subjects using functional MRI while they tasted wines that, contrary to reality, they believed to be different and sold at different prices. Our results show that increasing the price of a wine increases subjective reports of flavor pleasantness as well as blood-oxygen-level-dependent activity in medial orbitofrontal cortex, an area that is widely thought to encode for experienced pleasantness during experiential tasks. The paper provides evidence for the ability of marketing actions to modulate neural correlates of experienced pleasantness and for the mechanisms through which the effect operates. PMID:18195362

Plassmann, Hilke; O'Doherty, John; Shiv, Baba; Rangel, Antonio

2008-01-22

312

Splanchnic lipolysis in human obesity  

OpenAIRE

Elevated FFA concentrations have been shown to reproduce some of the metabolic abnormalities of obesity. It has been hypothesized that visceral adipose tissue lipolysis releases excess FFAs into the portal vein, exposing the liver to higher FFA concentrations. We used isotope dilution/hepatic vein catheterization techniques to examine whether intra-abdominal fat contributes a greater portion of hepatic FFA delivery in visceral obesity. Obese women (n = 24) and men (n = 20) with a range of obe...

Nielsen, Soren; Guo, Zengkui; Johnson, C. Michael; Hensrud, Donald D.; Jensen, Michael D.

2004-01-01

313

Adolescent Obesity and Social Networks  

OpenAIRE

The prevalence of overweight among children worldwide is growing at an alarming rate. Social relationships may contribute to the development of obesity through the interaction of biological, behavioral, and environmental factors. Although there is evidence that early environment influences the expression of obesity, very little research elucidates the social context of obesity among children or adolescents. Social network approaches can contribute to research on the role of social environment...

Koehly, Laura M.; Loscalzo, Aunchalee

2009-01-01

314

Obesity and type 2 diabetes  

OpenAIRE

Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are public health problems, with health consequences and economic costs that have raised concern worldwide. The increase in the prevalence of diabetes parallels that of obesity. Some experts call this dual epidemic ‘diabesity’ Elevated body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were significantly associated T2DM. One consequence of obesity is an increased risk of developing T2DM. There is evidence that the prenatal, early child...

Subhashini Yaturu

2011-01-01

315

Obesity management: Update on orlistat  

OpenAIRE

Over the past 20 years obesity has become a worldwide concern of frightening proportion. The World Health Organization estimates that there are over 400 million obese and over 1.6 billion overweight adults, a figure which is projected to almost double by 2015. This is not a disease restricted to adults – at least 20 million children under the age of 5 years were overweight in 2005 (WHO 2006). Overweight and obesity lead to serious health consequences including coronary artery disease, strok...

Drew, Belinda S.; Dixon, Andrew F.; Dixon, John B.

2007-01-01

316

Psychological issues in pediatric obesity  

OpenAIRE

Pediatric obesity is a major health problem and has reached epidemiological proportions today. The present paper reviews major psychological issues in pediatric obesity from a developmental perspective. Research and literature has shown that a number of developmental, family, maternal and child factors are responsible in the genesis of pediatric obesity. Family food habits, early developmental lifestyle of the child, parenting, early family relationships and harmony all contribute towards the...

Kalra, Gurvinder; Sousa, Avinash; Sonavane, Sushma; Shah, Nilesh

2012-01-01

317

CDC Vital Signs: Progress on Childhood Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

... gov . Vital Signs Share Compartir Progress on Childhood Obesity Many States Show Declines August 2013 1 in ... 8 preschoolers is obese in the US. 19 Obesity among low-income preschoolers declined, from 2008 through ...

318

American Board of Obesity Medicine (ABOM)  

Science.gov (United States)

... NBME) to administer the annual credentialing exam. Obesity Medicine Physician An obesity medicine physician is a physician with expertise in the sub-specialty of obesity medicine. This sub-specialty requires competency in and a ...

319

Utilization of expanded criteria donors in liver transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Improvements in surgical techniques, immunosuppression, and post-transplantation patient care have led to the optimization of liver transplantation outcomes. However, the waiting list for liver transplantation is increasing at a greater pace. The large gap between the growing pool of patients waiting for liver transplantation and the scarcity of donor organs has fueled efforts to maximize existing donors and identify new sources. This article will be focused on the current state of liver transplantation using grafts from extended criteria donors (elderly donors, steatotic donors, donors with malignancies, donors with viral hepatitis) and from donation after cardiac death (DCD), as well as the use of partial grafts (split grafts and living-donor liver transplantation) and other suboptimal donors (donors with hypernatremia, infections, hypotension and inotropic support). Overall, broadened criteria for acceptable donor livers appear to lessen graft survival rates somewhat compared with rates for standard criteria organs. PMID:25013654

Saidi, Reza F

2013-01-01

320

Utilization of Expanded Criteria Donors in Liver Transplantation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Improvements in surgical techniques, immunosuppression, and post-transplantation patientcare have led to the optimization of liver transplantation outcomes. However, the waiting listfor liver transplantation is increasing at a greater pace. The large gap between the growing poolof patients waiting for liver transplantation and the scarcity of donor organs has fueled effortsto maximize existing donors and identify new sources.This article will be focused on the current state of liver transplantation using grafts from extendedcriteria donors (elderly donors, steatotic donors, donors with malignancies, donors withviral hepatitis and from donation after cardiac death (DCD, as well as the use of partial grafts(split grafts and living-donor liver transplantation and other suboptimal donors (donors withhypernatremia, infections, hypotension and inotropic support. Overall, broadened criteria foracceptable donor livers appear to lessen graft survival rates somewhat compared with rates forstandard criteria organs.

R. F. Saidi

2013-04-01

321

Moral distress experienced by nurses: A quantitative literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nurses are frequently confronted with ethical dilemmas in their nursing practice. As a consequence, nurses report experiencing moral distress. The aim of this review was to synthesize the available quantitative evidence in the literature on moral distress experienced by nurses. We appraised 19 articles published between January 1984 and December 2011. This review revealed that many nurses experience moral distress associated with difficult care situations and feel burnout, which can have an impact on their professional position. Further research is required to examine worksite strategies to support nurses in these situations and to develop coping strategies for dealing with moral distress. PMID:24091351

Oh, Younjae; Gastmans, Chris

2015-02-01

322

Socioeconomic status and ethnicity of deceased donor kidney recipients compared to their donors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Public perception and misperceptions of socioeconomic disparities affect the willingness to donate organs. To improve our understanding of the flow of deceased donor kidneys, we analyzed socioeconomic status (SES) and racial/ethnic gradients between donors and recipients. In a retrospective cohort study, traditional demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as an SES index, were compared in 56,697 deceased kidney donor and recipient pairs transplanted between 2007 and 2012. Kidneys were more likely to be transplanted in recipients of the same racial/ethnic group as the donor (p?Kidneys tended to go to recipients of lower SES index (50.5% of the time, p?kidneys do not appear to be transplanted from donors of lower SES to recipients of higher SES; this information may be useful in counseling potential donors and their families regarding the distribution of their organ gifts. PMID:25758952

Adler, J T; Hyder, J A; Elias, N; Nguyen, L L; Markmann, J F; Delmonico, F L; Yeh, H

2015-04-01

323

Day-of-surgery rejection of donors in living donor liver transplantation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To study diagnostic laparoscopy as a tool for excluding donors on the day of surgery in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT. METHODS: This study analyzed prospectively collected data from all potential donors for LDLT. All of the donors were subjected to a three-step donor evaluation protocol at our institution. Step one consisted of a clinical and social evaluation, including a liver profile, hepatitis markers, a renal profile, a complete blood count, and an abdominal ultrasound with Doppler. Step two involved tests to exclude liver diseases and to evaluate the donor’s serological status. This step also included a radiological evaluation of the biliary anatomy and liver vascular anatomy using magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and a computed tomography (CT angiogram, respectively. A CT volumetric study was used to calculate the volume of the liver parenchyma. Step three included an ultrasound-guided liver biopsy. Between November 2002 and May 2009, sixty-nine potential living donors were assessed by open exploration prior to harvesting the planned part of the liver. Between the end of May 2009 and October 2010, 30 potential living donors were assessed laparoscopically to determine whether to proceed with the abdominal incision to harvest part of the liver for donation. RESULTS: Ninety-nine living donor liver transplants were attempted at our center between November 2002 and October 2010. Twelve of these procedures were aborted on the day of surgery (12.1% due to donor findings, and eighty-seven were completed (87.9%. These 87 liver transplants were divided into the following groups: Group A, which included 65 transplants that were performed between November 2002 and May 2009, and Group B, which included 22 transplants that were performed between the end of May 2009 and October 2010. The demographic data for the two groups of donors were found to match; moreover, no significant difference was observed between the two groups of donors with respect to hospital stay, narcotic and non-narcotic analgesia requirements or the incidence of complications. Regarding the recipients, our study clearly revealed that there was no significant difference in either the incidence of different complications or the incidence of retransplantation between the two groups. Day-of-surgery donor assessment for LDLT procedures at our center has passed through two eras, open and laparoscopic. In the first era, sixty-nine LDLT procedures were attempted between November 2002 and May 2009. Upon open exploration of the donors on the day of surgery, sixty-five donors were found to have livers with a grossly normal appearance. Four donors out of 69 (5.7% were rejected on the day of surgery because their livers were grossly fatty and pale. In the laparoscopic era, thirty LDLT procedures were attempted between the end of May 2009 and October 2010. After the laparoscopic assessment on the day of surgery, twenty-two transplantation procedures were completed (73.4%, and eight were aborted (26.6%. Our data showed that the levels of steatosis in the rejected donors were in the acceptable range. Moreover, the results of the liver biopsies of rejected donors were comparable between the group A and group B donors. The laparoscopic assessment of donors presents many advantages relative to the assessment of donors through open exploration; in particular, the laparoscopic assessment causes less pain, requires a shorter hospital stay and leads to far superior cosmetic results. CONCLUSION: The laparoscopic assessment of donors in LDLT is a safe and acceptable procedure that avoids unnecessary large abdominal incisions and increases the chance of achieving donor safety.

Hamad Al Bahili

2012-01-01

324

SURGICAL TECHNIQUE FOR LIVER DONOR PROCUREMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Transplantation of the liver is one of the most traumatic operations yet deviced and there is a tendency for it to be offered as a possible life-saving therapy to some of the sickest patients that are submitted to surgery. The concept of vascularized liver graft resulted from the pioneering work of Moore (1959 and Starzl (1960. In the last twenty years, the concept of multiorgan donor has been accepted in most European countries and USA, and, where possible, all organs that can be used are transplanted from a given donor, provided permission is forthcoming. Procurement of the whole liver graft from a heart-beating, but brain-dead, donor remains the standard method of liver procurement and is usually carried out as part af a multiple organ retrieval that also includes the kidneys, pancreas and thoracic organs, and occasionally intestinal grafts are being recovered. The author describes the standard approach for donor hepatectomy.

C. Lupa?cu

2009-05-01

325

RESULTS OF THE SPECIAL BLOOD DONOR DAY  

CERN Multimedia

Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood was collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff want to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.

SC Unit

2008-01-01

326

RESULTS OF THE SPECIAL BLOOD DONOR DAY  

CERN Multimedia

Responding to the HUG (Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève) hospitals’ urgent appeal for blood donations during this summer season, the CERN medical staff organised a day of blood donations for the Swiss bloodbank CTS on 30 July. They were supported by NOVAE (Restaurant No. 1), who provided donors with a free snack. This specially arranged campaign was a success, as the 135 volunteers included 66 first-time donors, and a total of 99 standard bags of blood were collected. (Swiss hospitals need 1300 bags every day!) The CTS and CERN’s medical staff wish to thank the donors and all others who helped make the event a success. Upcoming blood donor days at CERN: 12 November 2008 and 10 March 2009.

SC Unit

2008-01-01

327

Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor  

Science.gov (United States)

... Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 325 Subscription preferences Loading... Loading... Working... Add to Want to watch ... Follow this true story of a former NCI employee, Serena Marshall, as she takes you through her ...

328

The dead donor rule: a defense.  

Science.gov (United States)

Miller, Truog, and Brock have recently argued that the "dead donor rule," the requirement that donors be determined to be dead before vital organs are procured for transplantation, cannot withstand ethical scrutiny. In their view, the dead donor rule is inconsistent with existing life-saving practices of organ transplantation, lacks a cogent ethical rationale, and is not necessary for maintenance of public trust in organ transplantation. In this paper, the second of these claims will be evaluated. (The first and third are not addressed.) The claim that the dead donor rule lacks a cogent ethical rationale will be shown to be an expression of the contemporary rejection of the moral significance of the traditional distinction between killing and allowing to die. The moral significance of this traditional distinction, and the associated norm that doctors should not kill their patients, will be defended, and this critique of it shown to be unsuccessful. PMID:23856480

Birch, Samuel C M

2013-08-01

329

Donor Hearts Going to Waste, Researchers Report  

Science.gov (United States)

... enable JavaScript. Donor Hearts Going to Waste, Researchers Report Uniform guidelines needed that specify which hearts are ... available to more patients," she said. The new report was published online Feb. 10 in the American ...

330

The Prognostic Relevance of the Donor IL-6 Serum Level with Respect to the Postoperative Course of Cadaveric Kidney Grafts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a retrospective study the postoperative courses of 100 consecutive kidney graft recipients (women 36, men 64 aged between 17 and 69 years were analyzed according to the beginning of graft function, frequency of rejections, occurrence of serious infections, duration of postoperative stay on the ward as well as serum creatinine level at discharge and were related to the serum IL-6 level of organ donors. Neither the creating of two large groups (donor IL-6: 31.6 ±19.6 versus 797 ±1709 pg/ml nor of five smaller groups (donor IL-6: 0-50, 50.1-100, 100.1-200, 200.1-500, >500 pg/ml reveals statistic significant differences of the postoperative courses. An additional analysis of data of so-called kidney pairs, that means the transplantation of both kidneys of one donor into two recipients in the same centre, showed without any doubt that the majority of kidney pairs (17 out of 23 experienced different postoperative courses with respect to the above mentioned parameters and did not depend on the height of donor IL-6 serum level differing between 8 pg/ml and 1071.2 pg/ml. Thus, the donor IL-6 level did not have any prognostic relevance with respect to the postoperative kidney graft fate.

C. Wesslau

2006-09-01

331

Childhood Obesity and Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

OpenAIRE

The global epidemic of childhood and adolescent obesity and its immediate as well as long-term consequences for obese individuals and society as a whole cannot be overemphasized. Obesity in childhood and adolescence is associated with an increased risk of adult obesity and clinically significant consequences affecting the cardiovascular and metabolic systems. Importantly, obesity is additionally complicated by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), occurring in up to 60% of obese children. OSA, which...

Indra Narang; Mathew, Joseph L.

2012-01-01

332

Selecting suitable solid organ transplant donors: Reducing the risk of donor-transmitted infections  

OpenAIRE

Selection of the appropriate donor is essential to a successful allograft recipient outcome for solid organ transplantation. Multiple infectious diseases have been transmitted from the donor to the recipient via transplantation. Donor-transmitted infections cause increased morbidity and mortality to the recipient. In recent years, a series of high-profile transmissions of infections have occurred in organ recipients prompting increased attention on the process of improving the selection of an...

Jr, Christopher S. Kovacs; Koval, Christine E.; Duin, David; Morais, Amanda Guedes; Gonzalez, Blanca E.; Avery, Robin K.; Mawhorter, Steven D.; Brizendine, Kyle D.; Cober, Eric D.; Miranda, Cyndee; Shrestha, Rabin K.; Teixeira, Lucileia; Mossad, Sherif B.

2014-01-01

333

Living Donor Kidney Transplantation: Chance for the Recipient – Financial Risk for the Donor?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The persisting lack of cadaveric organs for transplantation has led to a rising number of transplantations after living donation. In addition to the medical risk the financial risk for the donor is essential especially in case of complications which potentially can lead to disability and loss of work. We report the experiences of those who have donated a kidney in our transplant centre. Methods: Using a questionnaire we asked 80 donors who donated a kidney at least 6 months prior to our evaluation. 58 (72% answered the 33 questions (21 (36% male, 37 (64% female donors; mean age: 54 ± 10 (33 - 75 years. The mean time since donation was 28 ± 18 months. 40 (69% donated for a relative, 18 (31% donated for husband or wife. Results: 91 % (53 of the donors reported to have no financial expenses due to donation. 5 (9 % of the donors had expenses, but only few of them clarified the exact amount and circumstances. 1 donor had to lend money to cover the lack of money when he was not able to do his job. Another claimed the disparity between normal salary and payment from the insurance company while he was ill as a financial expense. The days for evaluation prior to donation were organised very variously: Some of the donors were on holiday while evaluated, some officially were ill, others had to take some days off without payment. None of the donors lost his job due to donation. Conclusion: The financial risk of living donation is – theoretically – well covered by different insurances. However some of the donors had to cover some expenses by themselves. Fortunately so far in our centre a major complication did not occur and any of the donors went home in good health after donation. If any costs are covered if a healthy donor looses his ability to work due to donation remains unclear until the first donor will experience it.

N. Senninger

2003-06-01

334

Transfer of gut microbiota from lean and obese mice to antibiotic-treated mice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Transferring gut microbiota from one individual to another may enable researchers to "humanize'' the gut of animal models and transfer phenotypes between species. To date, most studies of gut microbiota transfer are performed in germ-free mice. In the studies presented, it was tested whether an antibiotic treatment approach could be used instead. C57BL/6 mice were treated with ampicillin prior to inoculation at weaning or eight weeks of age with gut microbiota from lean or obese donors. The gut microbiota and clinical parameters of the recipients was characterized one and six weeks after inoculation. The results demonstrate, that the donor gut microbiota was introduced, established, and changed the gut microbiota of the recipients. Six weeks after inoculation, the differences persisted, however alteration of the gut microbiota occurred with time within the groups. The clinical parameters of the donor phenotype were partly transmissible from obese to lean mice, in particularly beta cell hyperactivity in the obese recipients. Thus, a successful inoculation of gut microbiota was not age dependent in order for the microbes to colonize, and transferring different microbial compositions to conventional antibiotic-treated mice was possible at least for a time period during which the microbiota may permanently modulate important host functions.

Ellekilde, Merete; Selfjord, Ellika

2014-01-01

335

"It Wasn't 'Let's Get Pregnant and Go Do It':" Decision Making in Lesbian Couples Planning Motherhood via Donor Insemination  

Science.gov (United States)

The process that lesbian couples experienced in using donor insemination (DI) to become parents was examined in this study through interviews of 10 lesbians. Using a decision-making framework embedded in feminist theory, results identified the major decisions involved that conceptualized the transition to parenthood and describe how these…

Chabot, Jennifer M.; Ames, Barbara D.

2004-01-01

336

Neuropeptide Y Is Produced by Adipose Tissue Macrophages and Regulates Obesity-Induced Inflammation  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is induced in peripheral tissues such as adipose tissue with obesity. The mechanism and function of NPY induction in fat are unclear. Given the evidence that NPY can modulate inflammation, we examined the hypothesis that NPY regulates the function of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in response to dietary obesity in mice. NPY was induced by dietary obesity in the stromal vascular cells of visceral fat depots from mice. Surprisingly, the induction of Npy was limited to purified ATMs from obese mice. Significant basal production of NPY was observed in cultured bone marrow derived macrophage and dendritic cells (DCs) and was increased with LPS stimulation. In vitro, addition of NPY to myeloid cells had minimal effects on their activation profiles. NPY receptor inhibition promoted DC maturation and the production of IL-6 and TNF? suggesting an anti-inflammatory function for NPY signaling in DCs. Consistent with this, NPY injection into lean mice decreased the quantity of M1-like CD11c+ ATMs and suppressed Ly6chi monocytes. BM chimeras generated from Npy?/? donors demonstrated that hematopoietic NPY contributes to the obesity-induced induction of Npy in fat. In addition, loss of Npy expression from hematopoietic cells led to an increase in CD11c+ ATMs in visceral fat with high fat diet feeding. Overall, our studies suggest that NPY is produced by a range of myeloid cells and that obesity activates the production of NPY in adipose tissue macrophages with autocrine and paracrine effects. PMID:23472120

Singer, Kanakadurga; Morris, David L.; Oatmen, Kelsie E.; Wang, Tianyi; DelProposto, Jennifer; Mergian, Taleen; Cho, Kae Won; Lumeng, Carey N.

2013-01-01

337

Pediatric Obesity: It’s Time for Prevention Before Conception Can Maternal Obesity Program Pediatric Obesity?  

OpenAIRE

Global increases in obesity have led public health experts to declare this disease a pandemic. Although prevalent in all ages, the dire consequences associated with maternal obesity have a pronounced impact on the long-term health of their children as a result of the intergenerational effects of developmental programming. Previously, fetal under-nutrition has been linked to the predisposition to pediatric obesity explained by the adiposity rebound and ‘catch-up’ growth that occurs when a ...

Zach Ferraro; Adamo, Kristi B.

2008-01-01

338

Malaria seroprevalence in blood bank donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species) and malaria antigen (Plasmodium falciparum only) in samples from Venezuelan blood donors (n = 762). All samples were further studied by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The antibody results showed that P. falciparum-infected patients had a lower sample/cut-off ratio than Plasmodium vivax-infected patients. Conversely, a higher ratio for antigen was observed among all P. falciparum-infected individuals. Sensitivity and specificity were higher for malarial antigens (100 and 99.8%) than for antibodies (82.2 and 97.4%). Antibody-positive donors were observed in Caracas, Ciudad Bolívar, Puerto Ayacucho and Cumaná, with prevalences of 1.02, 1.60, 3.23 and 3.63%, respectively. No PCR-positive samples were observed among the donors. However, our results show significant levels of seropositivity in blood donors, suggesting that more effective measures are required to ensure that transfusion transmission does not occur. PMID:21537669

Contreras, Carmen Elena; Donato, Marcos de; Rivas, María Ana; Rodulfo, Hectorina; Mora, Robert; Batista, María Eulalia; Marcano, Norka

2011-03-01

339

Malaria seroprevalence in blood bank donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic are [...] as of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species) and malaria antigen (Plasmodium falciparum only) in samples from Venezuelan blood donors (n = 762). All samples were further studied by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The antibody results showed that P. falciparum-infected patients had a lower sample/cut-off ratio than Plasmodium vivax-infected patients. Conversely, a higher ratio for antigen was observed among all P. falciparum-infected individuals. Sensitivity and specificity were higher for malarial antigens (100 and 99.8%) than for antibodies (82.2 and 97.4%). Antibody-positive donors were observed in Caracas, Ciudad Bolívar, Puerto Ayacucho and Cumaná, with prevalences of 1.02, 1.60, 3.23 and 3.63%, respectively. No PCR-positive samples were observed among the donors. However, our results show significant levels of seropositivity in blood donors, suggesting that more effective measures are required to ensure that transfusion transmission does not occur.

Carmen Elena, Contreras; Marcos de, Donato; María Ana, Rivas; Hectorina, Rodulfo; Robert, Mora; María Eulalia, Batista; Norka, Marcano.

2011-03-01

340

Malaria seroprevalence in blood bank donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In Venezuela, a total of 363,466 malaria cases were reported between 1999-2009. Several states are experiencing malaria epidemics, increasing the risk of vector and possibly transfusion transmission. We investigated the risk of transfusion transmission in blood banks from endemic and non-endemic areas of Venezuela by examining blood donations for evidence of malaria infection. For this, commercial kits were used to detect both malaria-specific antibodies (all species and malaria antigen (Plasmodium falciparum only in samples from Venezuelan blood donors (n = 762. All samples were further studied by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The antibody results showed that P. falciparum-infected patients had a lower sample/cut-off ratio than Plasmodium vivax-infected patients. Conversely, a higher ratio for antigen was observed among all P. falciparum-infected individuals. Sensitivity and specificity were higher for malarial antigens (100 and 99.8% than for antibodies (82.2 and 97.4%. Antibody-positive donors were observed in Caracas, Ciudad Bolívar, Puerto Ayacucho and Cumaná, with prevalences of 1.02, 1.60, 3.23 and 3.63%, respectively. No PCR-positive samples were observed among the donors. However, our results show significant levels of seropositivity in blood donors, suggesting that more effective measures are required to ensure that transfusion transmission does not occur.

Carmen Elena Contreras

2011-03-01

341

'It seemed churlish not to': How living non-directed kidney donors construct their altruism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our objective was to explore how prospective altruistic kidney donors construct their decision to donate. Using a qualitative design and biographical-narrative semi-structured interviews, we aimed to produce text for analysis on two levels: the social implications for subjectivity and practice and a tentative psychodynamic explanation of the participants' psychological investment in the discourses they used. A total of six prospective altruistic kidney donors were interviewed. A psychosocial approach to the analysis was taken. In-depth discourse analysis integrated Foucauldian with psycho-discursive approaches and psychodynamic theory was applied to sections of text in which participants seemed to have particular emotional investment. Analysis generated three major discursive themes: other-oriented, rational and self-oriented discourses. The desire to donate was experienced as compelling by participants. Participants used discourses to position themselves as concerned with the needs of the recipient, to resist questioning and criticism, and to manage difficult feelings around mortality. Participants tended to reject personal motivations for altruistic donation, positioning relatives' disapproval as selfish and illogical. These results suggest that the term 'altruistic' for living non-directed organ donation constrains available discourses, severely limiting what can be said, felt, thought and done by donors, clinicians and the public. A more useful approach would acknowledge potential psychological motives and gains for the donor. PMID:24026358

Challenor, Julianna; Watts, Jay

2013-09-11

342

Motivation, Professional Development, and the Experienced Music Teacher  

Science.gov (United States)

Drawing from inquiry on human motivation can serve to inform seasoned educators in questing for a more individualized form of professional development. Experienced music teachers who have moved beyond the formative stages benefit from crafting self-defined experiences that satisfy needs-based states. Research in self-determination theory reveals…

Angeline, Vincent R.

2014-01-01

343

The Organization of Wariness of Heights in Experienced Crawlers  

Science.gov (United States)

Most infants with more than 6 weeks of crawling experience completely avoid the deep side of a visual cliff (Campos, Bertenthal, & Kermoian, 1992; Gibson & Walk, 1960). However, some experienced crawlers do move onto the transparent surface suspended several feet above the ground. An important question is whether these "nonavoiders" lack wariness…

Ueno, Mika; Uchiyama, Ichiro; Campos, Joseph J.; Dahl, Audun; Anderson, David I.

2012-01-01

344

Student Teachers' Ways of Experiencing the Teaching of Health Education  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this phenomenographic study was to identify student teachers' ways of experiencing the teaching of health education, and to determine the aspects that are educationally critical in gaining a deeper understanding of the teaching. Qualitative data (written essays, semi-structured interviews) were gathered twice during health education…

Paakkari, Leena; Tynjala, Paivi; Kannas, Lasse

2010-01-01

345

Service-Learning: Mentoring Leadership Skills in the Experienced Teacher  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth in the field of early childhood education has placed emphasis on improving quality through leadership and teacher education. With the advancement of the early childhood field, teacher education programs are called upon to develop leaders, challenge experienced teachers and meet professional standards through advanced degree programs.…

Couse, Leslie J.; Russo, H. Lindsey

2006-01-01

346

Numerical Processing Efficiency Improved in Experienced Mental Abacus Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Experienced mental abacus (MA) users are able to perform mental arithmetic calculations with unusual speed and accuracy. However, it remains unclear whether their extraordinary gains in mental arithmetic ability are accompanied by an improvement in numerical processing efficiency. To address this question, the present study, using a numerical…

Wang, Yunqi; Geng, Fengji; Hu, Yuzheng; Du, Fenglei; Chen, Feiyan

2013-01-01

347

Team Cognition in Experienced Command-and-Control Teams  

Science.gov (United States)

Team cognition in experienced command-and-control teams is examined in an UAV (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle) simulation. Five 3-person teams with experience working together in a command-and-control setting were compared to 10 inexperienced teams. Each team participated in five 40-min missions of a simulation in which interdependent team members…

Cooke, Nancy J.; Gorman, Jamie C.; Duran, Jasmine L.; Taylor, Amanda R.

2007-01-01

348

The impact of pretransplant donor-specific antibodies on graft outcome in renal transplantation: a six-year follow-up study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The significance of pretransplant, donor-specific antibodies on long-term patient outcomes is a subject of debate. This study evaluated the impact and the presence or absence of donor-specific antibodies after kidney transplantation on short- and long-term graft outcomes. METHODS: We analyzed the frequency and dynamics of pretransplant donor-specific antibodies following renal transplantation from a randomized trial that was conducted from 2002 to 2004 and correlated these findings with patient outcomes through 2009. Transplants were performed against a complement-dependent T- and B-negative crossmatch. Pre- and posttransplant sera were available from 94 of the 118 patients (80%. Antibodies were detected using a solid-phase (LuminexH, single-bead assay, and all tests were performed simultaneously. RESULTS: Sixteen patients exhibited pretransplant donor-specific antibodies, but only 3 of these patients (19% developed antibody-mediated rejection and 2 of them experienced early graft losses. Excluding these 2 losses, 6 of 14 patients exhibited donor-specific antibodies at the final follow-up exam, whereas 8 of these patients (57% exhibited complete clearance of the donor-specific antibodies. Five other patients developed ''de novo'' posttransplant donor-specific antibodies. Death-censored graft survival was similar in patients with pretransplant donor-specific and non-donor-specific antibodies after a mean follow-up period of 70 months. CONCLUSION: Pretransplant donor-specific antibodies with a negative complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch are associated with a risk for the development of antibody-mediated rejection, although survival rates are similar when patients transpose the first months after receiving the graft. Our data also suggest that early posttransplant donor-specific antibody monitoring should increase knowledge of antibody dynamics and their impact on long-term graft outcome.

Elias David-Neto

2012-01-01

349

The impact of pretransplant donor-specific antibodies on graft outcome in renal transplantation: a six-year follow-up study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: The significance of pretransplant, donor-specific antibodies on long-term patient outcomes is a subject of debate. This study evaluated the impact and the presence or absence of donor-specific antibodies after kidney transplantation on short- and long-term graft outcomes. METHODS: We anal [...] yzed the frequency and dynamics of pretransplant donor-specific antibodies following renal transplantation from a randomized trial that was conducted from 2002 to 2004 and correlated these findings with patient outcomes through 2009. Transplants were performed against a complement-dependent T- and B-negative crossmatch. Pre- and posttransplant sera were available from 94 of the 118 patients (80%). Antibodies were detected using a solid-phase (LuminexH), single-bead assay, and all tests were performed simultaneously. RESULTS: Sixteen patients exhibited pretransplant donor-specific antibodies, but only 3 of these patients (19%) developed antibody-mediated rejection and 2 of them experienced early graft losses. Excluding these 2 losses, 6 of 14 patients exhibited donor-specific antibodies at the final follow-up exam, whereas 8 of these patients (57%) exhibited complete clearance of the donor-specific antibodies. Five other patients developed ''de novo'' posttransplant donor-specific antibodies. Death-censored graft survival was similar in patients with pretransplant donor-specific and non-donor-specific antibodies after a mean follow-up period of 70 months. CONCLUSION: Pretransplant donor-specific antibodies with a negative complement-dependent cytotoxicity crossmatch are associated with a risk for the development of antibody-mediated rejection, although survival rates are similar when patients transpose the first months after receiving the graft. Our data also suggest that early posttransplant donor-specific antibody monitoring should increase knowledge of antibody dynamics and their impact on long-term graft outcome.

Elias, David-Neto; Patricia Soares, Souza; Nicolas, Panajotopoulos; Helcio, Rodrigues; Carlucci Gualberto, Ventura; Daisa Silva Ribeiro, David; Francine Brambate Carvalhinho, Lemos; Fabiana, Agena; William Carlos, Nahas; Jorge Elias, Kalil; Maria Cristina Ribeiro, Castro.

350

Experiencing the changing climate on the shores of Lake Superior  

Science.gov (United States)

The Great Lakes of the United States - the largest freshwater system in the world - have been termed "the canary in the coal mine" of environmental change. To assess if and how residents of Alger County, Michigan are experiencing changes in climate on the shores of Lake Superior, during the summer of 2010 we conducted a representative household mail survey in collaboration with a national lakeshore and watershed partnership. A total of 765 adult residents (18 years or older) responded to the survey; a 57% survey completion rate. We content analyzed respondents' open-ended characterizations of how they have personally experienced global warming, and compared the results with land surface and storm data for the same geographic region to see whether public perceptions of local changes match trends in National Climatic Data Center data. Just over a quarter of residents (27%) indicated that they had personally experienced global warming. Those who had were most likely to say that they had experienced global warming locally (as opposed to in other locations of the country or globally), and most frequently cited changes in seasons, weather, lake levels, and animals or plant species. However, some local public perceptions appeared to conflict with weather records. For example, residents were more likely to say that they had been experiencing less snow in the winters, while NCDC data suggests the reverse is true. As climate changes differentially in regions across the United States, the public will in turn experience its physical impacts in distinct ways that are unique to each landscape. This may be counter-intuitive to a public that increasingly experiences the world, and issues such as climate change, through sources of information such as national news media that operate at much larger geographic scales. Understanding where these forms of cognitive dissonance may arise may assist researchers, educators, and communicators in furthering discourses with the public about the local impacts of climate change.

Akerlof, K.; Maibach, E.

2011-12-01

351

Experiencing aggression in clubs: social group and individual level predictors.  

Science.gov (United States)

To examine the social drinking group's influence on the individual's experiences of physical or sexual aggression at clubs, data were collected from 368 groups (N?=?986 individuals). Both group and individual level indicators were examined for impact on self-reports of physical and sexual aggression experiences while at the club. Recent aggressive experiences and perpetration, concerns for group safety, one's own plans and assessment of other group members' plans to drink to the point of intoxication, and personal characteristics were examined, using both individual and group indicators. At exit, participants reported experiencing physical aggression (12.3 %) and sexual aggression (12.6 %) at the club. Using generalized linear mixed modeling to account for nested data (club, event, and group), group level indicators predicted both the individual's physical and sexual aggression experiences. Especially for experiences of physical aggression, group effects are notable. Being in a group whose members recently experienced physical aggression increased the risk for the individual. Interestingly, groups that had higher levels of planned intoxication decreased risks of experiencing aggression, while a discrepancy in these intentions among group members increased the risks. Group effects were also noted for experiencing sexual aggression. High levels of prior experiences for sexual aggression in the group increased the risks for the individual during the event. Also, being in a group that is identified as having at least one member who is frequently drunk increases the risk for experiencing sexual aggression. These findings inform prevention strategies for young adults engaged in high-risk behaviors by targeting social drinking groups who frequent clubs. PMID:24838821

Miller, Brenda A; Bourdeau, Beth; Johnson, Mark; Voas, Robert

2015-05-01

352

Nonmyeloablative unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation to treat patients with poor-risk, relapsed, or refractory multiple myeloma  

OpenAIRE

The purpose of this study was to determine long-term outcome of unrelated donor nonmyeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in patients with poor-risk multiple myeloma. A total of 24 patients were enrolled; 17 patients (71%) had chemotherapy-refractory disease, and 14 (58%) experienced disease relapse or progression after previous autologous transplantation. Thirteen patients underwent planned autologous transplantation followed 43-135 days later with unrelated transplantation, ...

Bruno, Benedetto

2007-01-01

353

Donor safety and remnant liver volume in living donor liver transplantation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the relationship between donor safety and remnant liver volume in right lobe living donor liver transplantation (LDLT. METHODS: From July 2001 to January 2009, our liver transplant centers carried out 197 LDLTs. The clinical data from 151 cases of adult right lobe living donors (not including the middle hepatic vein were analyzed. The conditions of the three groups of donors were well matched in terms of the studied parameters. The donors’ preoperative data, intraoperative and postoperative data were calculated for the three groups: Group 1 remnant liver volume (RLV < 35%, group 2 RLV 36%-40%, and group 3 RLV > 40%. Comparisons included the different remnant liver volumes on postoperative liver function recovery and the impact of systemic conditions. Correlations between remnant liver volume and post-operative complications were also analyzed. RESULTS: The donors’ anthroposomatology data, operation time, and preoperative donor blood test indicators were calculated for the three groups. No significant differences were observed between the donors’ gender, age, height, weight, and operation time. According to the Chengdu standard liver volume formula, the total liver volume of group 1 was 1072.88 ± 131.06 mL, group 2 was 1043.84 ± 97.11 mL, and group 3 was 1065.33 ± 136.02 mL. The three groups showed no statistically significant differences. When the volume of the remnant liver was less than 35% of the total liver volume, the volume of the remnant had a significant effect on the recovery of liver function and intensive care unit time. In addition, the occurrence of complications was closely related to the remnant liver volume. When the volume of the remnant liver was more than 35% of the total liver volume, the remnant volume change had no significant effect on donor recovery. CONCLUSION: To ensure donor safety, the remnant liver volume should be greater than the standard liver volume (35% in right lobe living donor liver transplantation.

Zheng-Rong Shi

2012-01-01

354

biochemical and hormonal studies in obese cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study was carried out on a total number of 116 obese and 23 non-obese control females. Obesity was assessed mainly by body mass index (BMI). Other skinfold thickness e.g. triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, as parameters of obesity assessment were determined in some obese patients. The degree of obesity was assessed by BMI and categorized as follows: i- Mild obesity, BMI=25-30 Kg/m2. ii-Moderate obesity, BMI=31-35 kg/m2. iii-severe obesity, BMI= above 35 kg/m2. Type of fat distribution was assessed by waist/hip circumference ratio (w/H) as :- i-gynoid (lower body segment obesity). (? 0.81) i i- android (upper body segment obesity). (?0.82)

355

Childhood Obesity and Academic Outcomes  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood obesity is on the rise across the country and in North Carolina, with four times as many children exhibiting signs of obesity now as they did 20 years ago. The costs in terms of medical expenses are staggering, with one estimate putting the cost to North Carolina at $16 million a year. Some North Carolina legislators have expressed…

James B. Hunt Jr. Institute for Educational Leadership and Policy, 2008

2008-01-01

356

Vital Signs â?? Childhood Obesity  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast is based on the August 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. The rate of obesity among low-income preschoolers has declined, but one in eight is still obese. This program briefly discusses what can be done.  Created: 8/6/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/6/2013.

2013-08-06

357

Sociological Factors Affecting Childhood Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

According to data from the National Center for Health Statistics, childhood obesity rates are highest among ethnic minorities. It is very helpful to consider the role of culture when attempting to analyze and explain obesity rates in ethnic minority populations. Culture influences the attitudes and beliefs toward exercise, food and nutrition, and…

Forster-Scott, Latisha

2007-01-01

358

Overweight and Obesity (For Parents)  

Science.gov (United States)

... toward being overweight. Studies have shown that a child's risk of obesity greatly increases if one or more parent is ... Under Control Body Mass Index (BMI) Charts Your Child's Weight Healthy ... Kid About Overweight and Obesity 5 Ways to Reach a Healthy Weight Healthy ...

359

Irrational Beliefs of the Obese.  

Science.gov (United States)

The incidence and extent of irrational beliefs in the obese were investigated as well as subsequent changes in such beliefs as a result of participation in a self-monitored weight control program. Subjects were 53 females who were a minimum of 10 pounds and an average of 32 pounds overweight. The obese sample was administered the Irrational…

Riggs, Ronald C.; And Others

360

College Women's Attitudes Toward Obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between college women's attitudes toward obesity and their own body weight. Subjects were placed in three categories: (1) acceptable level of body fat, (2) overweight, and (3) obese. Correlational techniques were used to determine the relationship between the subjects percent of body fat and…

Chambless, Jim R.; Anderson, Eugene R.

361

Overweight and Obesity. Research Brief  

Science.gov (United States)

In this world of receiving immediate gratification, being over scheduled, and having access to a myriad of technology, poor nutrition and lack of daily physical activity are two of the results. "Obesity is a silent epidemic," former U.S. Surgeon General David Satcher stated in 2002 (Healthy schools summit weighs in on obesity). Due to the demands…

Walker, Karen

2005-01-01

362

Obesity Gene Atlas in Mammals  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity in humans has increased at an alarming rate over the past two decades and has become one of the leading public health problems worldwide. Studies have revealed a large number of genes/markers that are associated with obesity and/or obesity-related phenotypes, indicating an urgent need to develop a central database for helping the community understand the genetic complexity of obesity. In the present study, we collected a total of 1,736 obesity associated loci and created a freely available obesity database, including 1,515 protein-coding genes and 221 microRNAs (miRNAs) collected from four mammalian species: human, cattle, rat, and mouse. These loci were integrated as orthologs on comparative genomic views in human, cattle, and mouse. The database and genomic views are freely available online at: http://www.integratomics-time.com/fat_deposition. Bioinformatics analyses of the collected data revealed some potential novel obesity related molecular markers which represent focal points for testing more targeted hypotheses and designing experiments for further studies. We believe that this centralized database on obesity and adipogenesis will facilitate development of comparative systems biology approaches to address this important health issue in human and their potential applications in animals. PMID:25031655

Kunej, Tanja; Jevsinek Skok, Dasa; Zorc, Minja; Ogrinc, Ana; Michal, Jennifer J.; Kovac, Milena; Jiang, Zhihua

2013-01-01

363

Experiences of obesity among Saudi Arabian women contemplating bariatric surgery: an interpretative phenomenological analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored experiences of obesity, its perceived causes and motives for surgery, as described by seven Saudi women contemplating bariatric surgery. The women experienced cultural restrictions on their physical and social activities. Obesity embodied these restrictions, attracting stigma and moral failure. Traditional clothing, foods, hospitality norms and limited outdoor female activities were regarded as barriers to weight loss. Bariatric surgery was chosen to protect health and to access normative female roles. Some were encouraged by relatives who had undergone surgery. Opting for surgery reflected both participants' sense of powerlessness to self-manage weight and the social acceptability, within their family context, of this biomedical approach. PMID:23479306

Alqout, Ohud; Reynolds, Frances

2014-05-01

364

Prevalence of Obesity in Adolescents with History of Pregnancy and Associated Factors in Korea  

OpenAIRE

Background: The pregnancy was a risk factor for excessive weight gain for women. However, there is no information about the prevalence of obesity and its relationship with a history of pregnancy in girls. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate differences in the prevalence of obesity in adolescent females with a history of pregnancy and fac­tors associated with it, in Korea.Methods: In 2009, 69 of 34,247 female students revealed that they had experienced pregnancy in respons...

Seong-Ik Baek; Wi-Young So

2011-01-01

365

Protocol for: Sheffield Obesity Trial (SHOT: A randomised controlled trial of exercise therapy and mental health outcomes in obese adolescents [ISRCNT83888112  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background While obesity is known to have many physiological consequences, the psychopathology of this condition has not featured prominently in the literature. Cross-sectional studies have indicated that obese children have increased odds of experiencing poor quality of life and mental health. However, very limited trial evidence has examined the efficacy of exercise therapy for enhancing mental health outcomes in obese children, and the Sheffield Obesity Trial (SHOT will provide evidence of the efficacy of supervised exercise therapy in obese young people aged 11–16 years versus usual care and an attention-control intervention. Method/design SHOT is a randomised controlled trial where obese young people are randomised to receive; (1 exercise therapy, (2 attention-control intervention (involving body-conditioning exercises and games that do not involve aerobic activity, or (3 usual care. The exercise therapy and attention-control sessions will take place three times per week for eight weeks and a six-week home programme will follow this. Ninety adolescents aged between 11–16 years referred from a children's hospital for evaluation of obesity or via community advertisements will need to complete the study. Participants will be recruited according to the following criteria: (1 clinically obese and aged 11–16 years (Body Mass Index Centile > 98th UK standard (2 no medical condition that would restrict ability to be active three times per week for eight weeks and (3 not diagnosed with insulin dependent diabetes or receiving oral steroids. Assessments of outcomes will take place at baseline, as well as four (intervention midpoint and eight weeks (end of intervention from baseline. Participants will be reassessed on outcome measures five and seven months from baseline. The primary endpoint is physical self-perceptions. Secondary outcomes include physical activity, self-perceptions, depression, affect, aerobic fitness and BMI.

Wright Neil P

2005-10-01

366

Phthalate exposure and childhood obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers and vehicles for cosmetic ingredients. Phthalate metabolites have documented biochemical activity including activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and antiandrogenic effects, which may contribute to the development of obesity. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that phthalates have significant effects on the development of obesity, especially after prenatal exposure at low doses. Although few studies have examined the effects of phthalate on obesity development in humans, some work has shown that phthalates affect humans and animals similarly. In this paper, we review the possible mechanisms of phthalate-induced obesity, and discuss evidence supporting the role of phthalates in the development of obesity in humans. PMID:25077088

Kim, Shin Hye

2014-01-01

367

Obesity and type 2 diabetes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM are public health problems, with health consequences and economic costs that have raised concern worldwide. The increase in the prevalence of diabetes parallels that of obesity. Some experts call this dual epidemic ‘diabesity’ Elevated body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC were significantly associated T2DM. One consequence of obesity is an increased risk of developing T2DM. There is evidence that the prenatal, early childhood, and adolescent periods are critical in the development of obesity. Most obese individuals have elevated plasma levels of free fatty acids (FFA, which are known to cause peripheral (muscle insulin resistance. Weight loss either with lifestyle modification, pharmacotherapy or bariatric surgery improves glycemic control and metabolic parameters that are related to cardiovascular disease. Pharmacotherapy for glycemic control with metformin or GLP-1 agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors help in weight reduction.

Subhashini Yaturu

2011-11-01

368

Traditional and cyberbullying victimization as correlates of psychosocial distress and barriers to a healthy lifestyle among severely obese adolescents – a matched case–control study on prevalence and results from a cross-sectional study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Obese youth are at increased risk for peer victimization, which may heighten their risk of psychosocial problems and physical activity avoidance, and lower the effectiveness of professional and lifestyle weight-loss initiatives. Little is known about obese adolescents’ risk for victimization from cyber-bullying and how this relates to psychosocial functioning and healthy lifestyle barriers. The purpose of the study was to assess traditional and cyber-victimization among adolescents with severe obesity and its relation to psychosocial distress and barriers to healthy lifestyles. Methods A sample of 102 obese adolescents (mean age?=?15.32 ±1.71) in residential treatment was matched with 102 normal-weight youngsters from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study (mean age?=?15.30 ±1.73). Results Adolescents with obesity were significantly more often cyber-victimized than normal-weight peers. Obese youth victimized by traditional bullying experienced lower quality of life, lower motivation for physical activity and higher avoidance and emotional coping towards healthy lifestyles than those non-victimized. Obese cyber-victims experienced significantly higher suicidal ideation. Conclusions Traditional and cyber-victimization may hinder treatment effectiveness and healthy lifestyle change in adolescents with obesity. Health professionals should pro-actively address peer victimization and psychosocial functioning during multidisciplinary obesity treatment. Schools could contribute to a better physical and psychosocial health of obese youth by implementing multi-behavioral health-promotion programs. PMID:24593118

2014-01-01

369

Shallow Donors in Diamond: Chalcogens, Pnictogens, and their Hydrogen Complexes  

Science.gov (United States)

The utility of diamond as an electronic material is compromised by the lack of a suitable shallow donor. Here, ab initio theory is used to investigate the donor levels of substitutional pnictogen (N, P, As, and Sb) and chalcogen (S, Se, and Te) impurities and chalcogen-hydrogen defects in diamond. Substitutional S is found to be a deep donor, while As and Sb possess donor levels significantly shallower than P, which so far is the most effective shallow donor found by experiment.

Sque, S. J.; Jones, R.; Goss, J. P.; Briddon, P. R.

2004-01-01

370

Sibling stem cell donor experiences at a single institution†  

OpenAIRE

Allogeneic bone marrow (BM) and cytokine mobilized peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation can be curative for patients with malignant and nonmalignant hematologic diseases. Siblings are most often selected as a donor match; however, research on sibling donors is limited and has focused primarily on conventional BM donors. This exploratory study describes the experiences of PBSC sibling donors at a single institution. Through retrospective interviews, 14 sibling donors shared their ...

Wiener, Lori S.; Steffen-smith, Emilie; Battles, Haven B.; Wayne, Alan; Love, Cynthia P.; Fry, Terry

2008-01-01

371

Semiconducting donor-acceptor-donor bithienyl derivatives of 1,3,4-thiadiazole.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Wroclaw : Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, 2014 - (Sobolewska, A.; Janus, K.). s. 22 [International Conference Electronic and Related Properties of Organic Solids /13./ - ERPOS 2014. 06.07.2014-10.07.2014, ?wieradów Zdrój] Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : donor-acceptor-donor * synthesis Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

Zagorska, M.; Kurach, E.; Kotwica, K.; Zapala, J.; Knor, M.; Nowakowski, M.; Djurado, D.; Toman, Petr; Pfleger, Ji?í; Grykien, R.; Luszczynska, B.; Glowacki, I.; Ulanski, J.; Pron, A.

372

Acceptor-donor pairs in germanium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The formation of acceptor-donor pairs in germanium was studied by perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy. At the single acceptor In the donors P and As were trapped, resulting in In-P and In-As pairs as well as in In-P2 complexes. At the double acceptor Cd three P and two As correlated configurations were formed, i.e. Cd-P and Cd-As pairs, Cd-P2, Cd-As2 and Cd-P3 complexes. In Ge:Sb and Ge:Se the pairing of Cd acceptors with Sb or Se donors was detected. As predicted by calculations of the Coulomb binding energy the stability of the complexes decreases with increasing number of involved donor atoms, and a configuration formed at the double acceptor Cd reveals a higher stability than the analogous one at the single acceptor In. The weak temperature dependence of the corresponding field gradients indicates either electrical inactivity of Cd-donor complexes or the generation of shallow levels. (orig.)

373

Donor acceptor complexes of noble gases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Donor-acceptor (DA) complexes of noble gases (Ng) of the general type A noble gas, a lone pair of the donor molecule and a vacant orbital of the acceptor molecule. Detailed bonding analysis of the model compounds F(3)Al-Ng-NH(3) reveals that Ng-ammonia interaction is repulsive due to Pauli repulsion. Bonding interaction between Ng and N is mostly electrostatic. In contrast, strong orbital interactions are responsible for the attractive interactions between Ng and AlF(3). Due to the repulsive interactions with the donor molecule and a sizable reorganization energy of the acceptor molecule, optimization attempts of the A complex and eventual formation of free Ng. To overcome this obstacle, the concept of a rigid C(3v) symmetric cryptand-type ligand, which features spacially separated pyramidalized donor and acceptor fragments, is introduced. Such "push-pull" ligands are predicted to exothermically form complexes with noble gases. These are the first examples of the thermodynamically stable Ar and Kr compounds. Application of the push-pull cryptand ligands featuring multiple (two and three) donor-acceptor induced chemical bonds is expected to yield stable complexes with virtually any electron-rich element in the periodic table. PMID:19243179

Mück, Leonie Anna; Timoshkin, Alexey Y; von Hopffgarten, Moritz; Frenking, Gernot

2009-03-25

374

Spin-Lattice Relaxation Times of Single Donors and Donor Clusters in Silicon  

Science.gov (United States)

An atomistic method of calculating the spin-lattice relaxation times (T1 ) is presented for donors in silicon nanostructures comprising of millions of atoms. The method takes into account the full band structure of silicon including the spin-orbit interaction. The electron-phonon Hamiltonian, and hence, the deformation potential, is directly evaluated from the strain-dependent tight-binding Hamiltonian. The technique is applied to single donors and donor clusters in silicon, and explains the variation of T1 with the number of donors and electrons, as well as donor locations. Without any adjustable parameters, the relaxation rates in a magnetic field for both systems are found to vary as B5 , in excellent quantitative agreement with experimental measurements. The results also show that by engineering electronic wave functions in nanostructures, T1 times can be varied by orders of magnitude.

Hsueh, Yu-Ling; Büch, Holger; Tan, Yaohua; Wang, Yu; Hollenberg, Lloyd C. L.; Klimeck, Gerhard; Simmons, Michelle Y.; Rahman, Rajib

2014-12-01

375

[Android-type obesity and gynecoid-type obesity].  

Science.gov (United States)

There are several types of obesity, and the metabolic conditions associated with these phenotypes are also heterogeneous. Obesity of the male (android) type shows a dominant visceral and upper thoracic distribution of adipose tissue, whereas in the feminine (gynecoid) type adipose tissue is found predominantly in the lower part of the body (hips and thighs). Android obesity is clearly a cardiovascular risk factor, more so than gynecoid obesity. Hereditary factors contribute significantly to the occurrence of this pathology in families, although environmental factors play a role in its development. Android obesity is associated with metabolic anomalies which also characterize the syndrome X: resistance to insulin, arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia. The predisposition of individuals with android obesity to become diabetic rests in part on genetic and in part on environmental factors. Hyperinsulinemia and a high flux of free fatty acids act at the level of liver and endocrine pancreas to increase resistance to insulin and to decrease insulin secretion, two determining factors for type II diabetes. Other functional anomalies have been involved to explain android obesity such as dysregulation of adrenocortical and sexual steroids or a global derangement of stress mechanisms. No significant proof, however, seems to support either one of these hypotheses. PMID:8992575

Janjic, D

1996-12-01

376

El estudio del donador vivo para trasplante renal / Evaluation of the living kidney donor  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Actualmente, por la falta de órganos para trasplante renal provenientes de cadáveres, y debido al largo tiempo de espera por un riñón, existe una tendencia a realizar trasplantes renales utilizando riñones procedentes de donadores vivos. La mayoría de los donadores son familiares del receptor. La do [...] nación de órganos debe considerarse como un regalo con un valor extraordinario y debe facilitarse a los candidatos a donación. En todo el mundo se ha observado un aumento en el número de personas en la lista de espera para un trasplante renal. El trasplante renal de donador vivo se considera actualmente como el mejor método de tratamiento en pacientes con insuficiencia renal terminal, debido a que ofrece la mayor supervivencia a corto y largo plazos. En vista de que existen diferencias significativas en los criterios de selección y evaluación de donadores renales, en especial en un grupo selecto de pacientes añosos o con enfermedades asociadas, es indispensable establecer criterios mínimos de selección. Todos los donadores deberán contar con una historia clínica completa y exámenes de laboratorio y gabinete que permitan su evaluación integral. Estos estudios se describen con detalle en este artículo. También se discuten los criterios para donadores renales con ciertas comorbilidades (obesos, hipertensos, hiperglucémicos, con litiasis y neoplasias) que previamente se descartaban como candidatos para donación. Abstract in english Currently, due to the deficit of cadaveric tissues available for transplantation and due to the long waiting list for a kidney transplant, there is a clear tendency towards living donor kidney transplantations. Most donors are genetically related. Living donation should be considered a gift of extra [...] ordinary value, and should be made easy whenever a suitable donor is available. Worldwide, the number of patients on the waiting lists for a kidney transplantation has increased, in the last decades. Renal transplantation with living donor kidneys, is currently considered the best treatment for patients with end stage renal failure, due to the improved short and long term survival benefits over dialysis treatment. Since considerable difference exist between countries in the evaluation and selection criteria for kidney donors, especially in selected patients such as older donors and those with associated comorbid conditions, it is necessary to discuss and establish minimal selection criteria for this cases. A common trend includes a complete clinical record, laboratory and radiologic evaluation which are described in detail in this paper. We also discuss the increasing acceptance of older kidney donors as well as the acceptance of individuals with comorbidities (such as obesity, hipertensión, hyperglucemia, lithiasis and cancer) that were previously considered as not eligible for kidney donation.

Carlos, Arroyo; Fernando, Gabilondo; Bernardo, Gabilondo.

2005-04-01

377

Endocrine abnormalities of obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies have shown that patients with central obesity have increased cortisol secretion, probably because they have increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. A high waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is associated with low production of sex steroids, such as testosterone in men, and a low rate of secretion of growth hormone. High levels of cortisol and insulin combined with low levels of growth hormone and sex steroid can cause lipid accumulation. These hormonal changes probably produce more deposition of visceral than subcutaneous fat. Patients who are deficient in either testosterone or growth hormone show a reduction in visceral adiposity when their hormone levels are normalized. Stress has been shown to activate the HPA axis and may cause the hormonal changes associated with obesity. Individuals with elevated WHR have indications of high levels of stress and anxiety. Monkeys that were stressed by social disruption were found to have increased cortisol levels and low sex steroid levels. Many of these animals had insulin resistance and visceral adiposity. Stimulants, such as alcohol and smoking, also increase the activity of the HPA axis. PMID:7674912

Björntorp, P

1995-09-01

378

Anticipated and experienced emotions in environmental risk perception  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Affective forecasting with respect to two environmental risks (ozone depletion, air pollution was investigated by studying tourists who travelled to either Australia or Bangkok and were thus confronted with one of these risks. We measured anticipated outcome and anticipated emotions before the journey, actually experienced outcome and actually experienced emotions during the journey, and anticipated outcome and emotions concerning a future encounter with the same risk after the journey. Results indicate that tourists underestimate (air pollution or correctly predict (ozone depletion both the seriousness of the outcome and their emotional reactions. The relationship between actual outcome and actual emotions is stronger than that between anticipated outcome and anticipated emotions. Furthermore, tourists learn from their travel experience and adjust their anticipations concerning future encounters with the environmental risk. Findings suggest that the domain of environmental risks differs from personal outcomes with respect to the process of affective forecasting.

Gisela Bohm

2008-01-01

379

Anaesthesia care of older patients as experienced by nurse anaesthetists.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article analyses problem situations in the context of anaesthesia care. It considers what it means for nurse anaesthetists to be in problematic situations in the anaesthesia care of older patients. Benner's interpretive phenomenological approach proved useful for this purpose. Paradigm cases are used to aid the analysis of individual nurses' experiences. Thirty narrated problematic anaesthesia care situations derived from seven interviews were studied. These show that experienced nurse anaesthetists perceive anaesthesia care as problematic and highly demanding when involving older patients. To be in problematic anaesthesia care situations means becoming morally distressed, which arises from the experience or from being prevented from acting according to one's legal and moral duty of care. An important issue that emerged from this study was the need for an ethical forum to discuss and articulate moral issues, so that moral stress of the kind experienced by these nurse anaesthetists can be dealt with and hopefully reduced. PMID:15921343

Mauleon, Annika Larsson; Palo-Bengtsson, Liisa; Ekman, Sirkka-Liisa

2005-05-01

380

Favorable Clinical Course of Patients Experiencing Bevacizumab-Induced Proteinuria  

OpenAIRE

Nephrotic-range proteinuria, which denotes structural damage to the glomerular filtration barrier, occurs in 1–2% of bevacizumab-treated patients. The glomerular injury and subsequent proteinuria is probably due to a direct targeting of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We report a case series of six patients who developed a syndrome characterized by proteinuria and hypertension after starting therapy with bevacizumab and who experienced prolonged progression-free survival. Given t...

Saloustros, Emmanouil; Androulakis, Nikolaos; Vamvakas, Lambros; Mavroudis, Dimitris; Georgoulias, Vassilis

2010-01-01

381

Children’s actions when experiencing domestic violence  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this article is, by analysing childrens discourses, to investigate their actions or absence of actions during a domestic violence episode. The empirical data are recorded group therapy sessions and individual interviews with children who have grown up experiencing their fathers violence against their mothers. The analysis shows that the childrens stories contain two aspects of actions: one related to the actions during the ongoing episode, and one the child perceives as possible/de...

O?verlien, Carolina; Hyde?n, Margareta

2009-01-01

382

Marketing actions can modulate neural representations of experienced pleasantness  

OpenAIRE

Despite the importance and pervasiveness of marketing, almost nothing is known about the neural mechanisms through which it affects decisions made by individuals. We propose that marketing actions, such as changes in the price of a product, can affect neural representations of experienced pleasantness. We tested this hypothesis by scanning human subjects using functional MRI while they tasted wines that, contrary to reality, they believed to be different and sold at different prices. Our resu...

Plassmann, Hilke; O Doherty, John; Shiv, Baba; Rangel, Antonio

2008-01-01

383

Treating Child Obesity and Associated Medical Conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

With American children on course to grow into the most obese generation of adults in history, Sonia Caprio argues that it is critical to develop more effective strategies for preventing childhood obesity and treating serious obesity-related health complications. She notes that although pediatricians are concerned about the obesity problem, most…

Caprio, Sonia

2006-01-01

384

Experienced Qualities of Vegetated Space in a Scandinavian Context  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Studies have shown that vegetation near to or integrated in buildings can increase the quality of life by e.g. visual appeal, stress reduction, climatic comfort, and protection from pollution and noise. Vegetation can furthermore provide solutions to make our buildings and cities more environmentally sustainable for example as a passive technology of energy reduction, or as a way to avoid overheat of cities. This paper studies the experienced qualities of a vegetated space – a one-family Stockholmian house completely covered by trellis. The house is 180 sq., two-story, built in 2008, and drawn by Swedish architects Tham & Videgård. There is a close contact between interior space and façade plants as a large part of the façade behind the trellis is glass. The paper addresses potentially fruitful approaches to studying experienced qualities of vegetated space, such as visual ethnography, and interviews with residents about their experiences of comfort and discomfort of dwelling. The larger perspective of this study is to investigate the performance of vegetated space in a temperate Scandinavian climate within an agenda of environmental architecture and to identify the perspectives in new low energy buildings or renovations that combine insulation and vegetation, thus offering new experienced qualities in urban environments and within houses.

Olesen, Hans Bruun

2014-01-01

385

When donor families and organ recipients meet.  

Science.gov (United States)

Medical decisions about organ donation and transplantation are considered by a growing number of individuals. The complex issue of whether and to what extent organ recipients and donor families should interact or communicate has gained increasing public awareness, thereby creating an area of major ethical and legal concern for the transplant community. Communication issues have traditionally been decided by transplant coordinators and guided by personal beliefs, agency guidelines, and organizational policies. Organizations are often inconsistent in their practices, and this in turn causes frustration and confusion for both donor families and transplant recipients. This study explored how the experience of meeting the recipient(s) of a loved one's organ affected the grieving process of donor families and altered their lives. The information from this study might be useful to transplant professionals to develop guidelines and policies that lessen the confusion and frustration felt by those involved with the transplant process. PMID:10703387

Clayville, L

1999-06-01

386

Negatively charged donors in flat quantum dots  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The ground state energies of off-axis negatively charged donors in axially symmetrical quantum dots, with different shapes but in all cases with a small height-to-base radius aspect ratio are calculated in adiabatic approximation by using the Hylleraas-type trial function. The dependencies of the ne [...] utral and negative donor binding energies and their ratios on the base radius in the pyramid, lens and disk are calculated and compared with previously obtained results for the spherical quantum dot. We also present the contour plots of the binding energies of the neutral and negative donors with different positions along a vertical cross section in the middle of the quantum dots.

Luis F., García; Jairo H., Marín; Ilia D., Mikhailov.

2006-09-01

387

Obesity: overview of an epidemic.  

Science.gov (United States)

The obesity epidemic in the United States has proven difficult to reverse. We have not been successful in helping people sustain the eating and physical activity patterns that are needed to maintain a healthy body weight. There is growing recognition that we will not be able to sustain healthy lifestyles until we are able to address the environment and culture that currently support unhealthy lifestyles. Addressing obesity requires an understanding of energy balance. From an energy balance approach it should be easier to prevent obesity than to reverse it. Further, from an energy balance point of view, it may not be possible to solve the problem by focusing on food alone. Currently, energy requirements of much of the population may be below the level of energy intake than can reasonably be maintained over time. Many initiatives are underway to revise how we build our communities, the ways we produce and market our foods, and the ways we inadvertently promote sedentary behavior. Efforts are underway to prevent obesity in schools, worksites, and communities. It is probably too early to evaluate these efforts, but there have been no large-scale successes in preventing obesity to date. There is reason to be optimistic about dealing with obesity. We have successfully addressed many previous threats to public health. It was probably inconceivable in the 1950s to think that major public health initiatives could have such a dramatic effect on reducing the prevalence of smoking in the United States. Yet, this serious problem was addressed via a combination of strategies involving public health, economics, political advocacy, behavioral change, and environmental change. Similarly, Americans have been persuaded to use seat belts and recycle, addressing two other challenges to public health. But, there is also reason to be pessimistic. Certainly, we can learn from our previous efforts for social change, but we must realize that our challenge with obesity may be greater. In the other examples cited, we had clear goals in mind. Our goals were to stop smoking, increase the use of seatbelts, and increase recycling. The difficulty of achieving these goals should not be minimized, but they were clear and simple goals. In the case of obesity, there is no clear agreement about goals. Moreover, experts do not agree on which strategies should be implemented on a widespread basis to achieve the behavioral changes in the population needed to reverse the high prevalence rates of obesity. We need a successful model that will help us understand what to do to address obesity. A good example is the recent HEALTHY study. This comprehensive intervention was implemented in several schools and aimed to reduce obesity by concentrating on behavior and environment. This intervention delivered most of the strategies we believe to be effective in schools. Although the program produced a reduction in obesity, this reduction was not greater than the reduction seen in the control schools that did not receive the intervention. This does not mean we should not be intervening in schools, but rather that it may require concerted efforts across behavioral settings to reduce obesity. Although we need successful models, there is a great deal of urgency in responding to the obesity epidemic. An excellent example is the effort to get menu labeling in restaurants, which is moving rapidly toward being national policy. The evaluation of this strategy is still ongoing, and it is not clear what impact it will have on obesity rates. We should be encouraging efforts like this, but we must evaluate them rigorously. Once we become serious about addressing obesity, it will likely take decades to reverse obesity rates to levels seen 30 years ago. Meanwhile, the prevalence of overweight and obesity remains high and quite likely will continue to increase. PMID:22098799

Mitchell, Nia S; Catenacci, Victoria A; Wyatt, Holly R; Hill, James O

2011-12-01

388

Cardiovascular consequences of childhood obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Childhood and adolescent overweight and obesity is an important and increasingly prevalent public health problem in Canada and worldwide. High adiposity in youth is indicated in clinical practice by plotting body mass index on appropriate percentile charts normed for age and sex, although waist measures might be a further tool. High adiposity can lead to adiposopathy in youth, with associated increases in inflammation and oxidative stress, changes in adipokines, and endocrinopathy. This is manifest as cardiometabolic risk factors in similar patterns to those in noted in obese adults. Obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors have been shown to be associated with vascular changes indicative of early atherosclerosis, and ventricular hypertrophy, dilation, and dysfunction. These cardiovascular consequences are evident in youth, but childhood obesity is also predictive of similar consequences in adulthood. Childhood obesity and risk factors have been shown to track into adulthood and worsen in most individuals. The result is an exponential acceleration of atherosclerosis, which can be predicted to translate into an epidemic of premature cardiovascular disease and events. A change in paradigm is needed toward preventing and curing atherosclerosis and not just preventing cardiovascular disease. This would necessarily create an imperative for preventing and treating childhood obesity. Urgent attention, policy, and action are needed to avoid the enormous future social and health care costs associated with the cardiovascular consequences of obesity in youth. PMID:25661547

McCrindle, Brian W

2015-02-01

389

Subclinical hypothyroidism in obese children  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Thyroid functions in obese children and adolescentswere evaluated in order to determine subclinicaland clinical hypothyroidism.Materials and methods: In this study, 85 obese (Bodymass index >97th percentile children, aged 2-14 years, aswell as 47 healthy controls were enrolled. Levels of serumfree triiodothyronine (fT3, free thyroxine (fT4 and thyroidstimulatinghormone (TSH of the two groups were compared.Obese children with TSH level above 5.4 IU/mlwere also analyzed for thyroid autoantibodies and thyroidultrasounds were performed.Results: Obese children showed higher serum concentrationsof TSH and fT3 than the controls but no significantdifference in serum fT4 levels was found between the twogroups (P=0.001. One child had high auto antibodiesand 32 had high TSH levels. Of 28 children with TSH >5,4IU/ml, 25 children had normal thyroid ultrasound findingsand three had nodules or thyroiditis but no enlargementof the thyroid gland.Conclusion: TSH and fT3 levels were found to be higherin obese children compared with non-obese children withno difference of fT4 levels between two groups.Key words: Body mass index, obesity, thyroid functions

Emel Torun

2013-01-01

390

Moderate and extreme maternal obesity.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity among an Irish obstetric population over a 10-year period, and to evaluate the obstetric features of such pregnancies. Of 31,869 women delivered during the years 2000-2009, there were 306 women in the study group, including 173 in the moderate or Class 2 obese category (BMI 35-39.9) and 133 in the extreme or Class 3 obese category (BMI > or = 40).The prevalence of obese women with BMI > or = 35 was 9.6 per 1000 (0.96%), with an upward trend observed from 2.1 per 1000 in the year 2000, to 11.8 per 1000 in the year 2009 (P = 0.001). There was an increase in emergency caesarean section (EMCS) risk for primigravida versus multigravid women, within both obese categories (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in EMCS rates observed between Class 2 and Class 3 obese women, when matched for parity. The prevalence of moderate and extreme obesity reported in this population is high, and appears to be increasing. The increased rates of abdominal delivery, and the levels of associated morbidity observed, have serious implications for such women embarking on pregnancy.

Abdelmaboud, M O

2012-05-01

391

Aid and Trade - A Donor's Perspective  

OpenAIRE

One reason donors provide foreign aid is to support their exports to aid-recipient countries. Time series data for Germany suggests an average return of between US$ 1.04 to US$ 1.50 for each US dollar of aid spent by Germany. Although this is well below previous estimates, the value is robust to different specifications and econometric approaches. Interestingly, we find strong evidence of crowding out between bilateral donors in the sense that bilateral aid from other EU members significantly...

Nowak-lehmann D, Felicitas Nowak-lehmann; Marti?nez Zarzoso, Inmaculada; Klasen, Stephan; Herzer, Dierk

2009-01-01

392

Phosphorus donors in highly strained silicon  

CERN Document Server

The hyperfine interaction of phosphorus donors in fully strained Si thin films grown on virtual Si$_{1-x}$Ge$_x$ substrates with $x\\leq 0.3$ is determined via electrically detected magnetic resonance. For highly strained epilayers, hyperfine interactions as low as 0.8 mT are observed, significantly below the limit predicted by valley repopulation. Within a Green's function approach, density functional theory (DFT) shows that the additional reduction is caused by the volume increase of the unit cell and a local relaxation of the Si ligands of the P donor.

Huebl, H; Stutzmann, M; Brandt, M S; Vogg, G; Bensch, F; Rauls, E; Gerstmann, U; Huebl, Hans; Stegner, Andre R.; Stutzmann, Martin; Brandt, Martin S.; Vogg, Guenther; Bensch, Frank; Rauls, Eva; Gerstmann, Uwe

2006-01-01

393

Radioimmunological determination of neopterin in blood donors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 518 sera from blood donors below 30 years of age neopterin was determined by radioimmunoassay. 21 of these patients (4.05%) showed elevated serum levels for neopterin. By clinical investigation of these cases viral infections of the upper airways were found. Furthermore after elimination of elevated values significant differences in normal neopterin serum levels could be demonstrated for female and male blood donors (p < 0.01). Because elevated neopterin serum levels indicate immune responses to several antigens, determination of neopterin from serum may be useful for detection of infectious blood samples.

Haas, R.; Gerstner, L.

1985-01-01

394

Radioimmunological determination of neopterin in blood donors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 518 sera from blood donors below 30 years of age neopterin was determined by radioimmunoassay. 21 of these patients (4.05%) showed elevated serum levels for neopterin. By clinical investigation of these cases viral infections of the upper airways were found. Furthermore after elimination of elevated values significant differences in normal neopterin serum levels could be demonstrated for female and male blood donors (p < 0.01). Because elevated neopterin serum levels indicate immune responses to several antigens, determination of neopterin from serum may be useful for detection of infectious blood samples. (author)

395

Effect of social support and donation-related concerns on ambivalence of living liver donor candidates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ambivalence in the decision-making process for living liver donors has the potential to result in their experiencing a negative mental status. To promote donor candidates' well-being, it is important to study the factors related to ambivalence. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the ambivalence of living liver donor candidates and to investigate the effect of social support and donation-related concerns on their ambivalence. A cross-sectional design was used. In total, 100 living liver donor candidates who underwent a preoperative evaluation between April and October 2009 were recruited for the study. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire that contained items related to ambivalence, donation-related concerns, and social support. The mean score for ambivalence was 3.14 (standard deviation = 1.8), and the median was 3. Only 7% of the study sample reported no ambivalence during the assessment stage. Ambivalence was positively correlated with donation-related concerns (physical concerns, r = 0.39; psychosocial concerns, r = 0.43; financial concerns, r = 0.29) and negatively correlated with social support (r = -0.16 to -0.33). Those with psychosocial concerns had significantly worse ambivalence (? = 0.29, P = 0.03), but social support mitigated ambivalence (? = -0.34, P = 0.01). When intimacy and social support were included in the model, the effect of psychosocial concerns on ambivalence became nonsignificant (? = 0.24, P = 0.08). Ambivalence is common among living liver donor candidates, but instrumental social support can mediate the negative effect of donation-related concerns. Recommendations include providing appropriate social support to minimize donation-related concerns and, thus, to reduce the ambivalence of living liver candidates. PMID:25044400

Lai, Yun-Chieh; Lee, Wei-Chen; Juang, Yeong-Yuh; Yen, Lee-Lan; Weng, Li-Chueh; Chou, Hsueh Fen

2014-11-01

396

The public health impact of obesity  

OpenAIRE

The prevalence of obesity (severe overweight) has been increasing in western societies during the last decades. Epidemiological studies to the public health impact of obesity are therefore warranted. This thesis aimed at describing the long-term and recent time trends of obesity in the Netherlands, and to explore the relations between obesity, mortality, morbidity, and disability.The prevalence of obesity, body mass index (BMI)?30.0 kg/m 2, increased steadily in Dutch adults between 1974 an...

Visscher, T. L. S.

2001-01-01

397

Factors associated with obesity in children  

OpenAIRE

Childhood obesity is a major public health crisis nationally and internationally. The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased over few years. It is caused by imbalance between calorie intake and calories utilized. One or more factors (genetic, behavioral, and environmental) cause obesity in children. Physical, psychological, and social health problems are caused due to childhood obesity. Hence, effective intervention strategies are being used to prevent and control obesity in children. ...

Ashwin Kumar

2012-01-01

398

Serum leptin and insulin tests in obesity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To study the clinical significance and the relations of leptin and insulin on obesity group. Methods: Leptin and insulin were tested with radioimmunoassay (RIA) in pre-obesity group and obesity group respectively. Results: Serum leptin and insulin levels were significantly elevated in obesity group compare with the controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: Changing with insulin, the elevation of leptin in obesity group has been identified as an important agent of diabetes mellitus (DM)

399

Pharmacotherapies for Overeating and Obesity  

OpenAIRE

Obesity has become pandemic, and the annual cost in related illnesses and loss of productivity is already over $100 billion and rising. Research has shown that obesity can and does cause changes in behavior and in the brain itself that are very similar to changes caused by drugs of abuse. While food addiction is not the causal agent of all obesity, it is clear that many people no longer eat to survive, but instead survive to eat. This review considers the importance of the brain’s reward sy...

Yarnell, S.; Oscar-berman, M.; Avena, Nm; Blum, K.; Gold, Ms

2013-01-01

400

Soluble transferrin receptor levels in obese and non obese adolescents  

OpenAIRE

Background Iron deficiency in children and adolescents maybe due to an inadequate supply of iron as well as increased iron requirements for growth and developmental processes. The increasing prevalence of obesity puts children at risk of iron deficiency. Studies on the effects of obesity on iron deficiency have focused on low grade systemic inflammation as well as examining soluble transferrin receptor levels (sTfR) as an indicator of iron deficiency. Objective To compare sTfR levels in o...

Zul Febrianti; Fadil Oenzil; Firman Arbi, Gustina Lubis

2014-01-01

401

The inheritance of obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Syndromic adiposity appears to have a predisposition to run in families suggesting a hereditary element in its transmission. Purely genetic defects and DNA sequence variants have been directly associated with the development of adiposity; however, these account for a very small proportion of cases. A stronger association has been made between the intrauterine and early childhood nutritional environment of the foetus and young child and the predisposition of childhood and subsequent adulthood obesity. The nutritional environments include both a situation of nutritional deprivation or excess working through the interplay of epigenetic changes, and pancreatic and hypothalamic development. This is further compounded by the nutritional and lifestyle attitudes of the particular at-risk family. Adiposity prevention measures must include reenforced intervention strategies stating with lifestyle education schemes during pregnancy followed through until infancy and early childhood especially in those families/individuals identified as being at a risk of developing significant adiposity. PMID:25457854

Savona-Ventura, Charles; Savona-Ventura, Stephanie

2015-04-01

402

Does obesity’s beliefs matters? Analysis of general practitioners’ speech  

OpenAIRE

Background: The health physicians’ beliefs about obesity have been considered one of the reasons compromising the success of obese people’s treatment. Quantitative research has been criticized for not being able to clarify how health physicians’ practices in the management of obesity are affected by the way they perceived obesity and obese people. Method: Semi-structured interviews about beliefs, attitudes and practices about obesity have been done to Portuguese general practitioner...

Teixeira, Filipa Valente; Ribeiro, Jose? Luis Pais; Maia, A?ngela

2011-01-01

403

Obesity and variants of the GHRL (ghrelin) and BCHE (butyrylcholinesterase) genes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Ghrelin coded by the GHRL gene is related to weight-gain, its deactivation possibly depending on its hydrolyzation by butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) encoded by the BCHE gene, an enzyme already associated with the body mass index (BMI). The aim was to search for relationships between SNPs of the GHRL a [...] nd BCHE genes with BChE activity, BMI and obesity in 144 obese and 153 nonobese Euro-Brazilian male blood donors. In the obese individuals, a significant association with higher BChE activity, in the 72LM+72MM; -116GG genotype class (GHRL and BCHE genes, respectively) was noted. No significant differences were found otherwise, through comparisons between obese and control individuals, of genotype and allele frequencies in SNPs of the GHRL gene (Arg51Gln and Leu72Met), or mean BMI between 72LL and 72LM+72MM genotypes. Although there appears to be no direct relationship between the examined GHRL SNPs and BMI, the association of the 72M SNP with higher BChE activity in obese subjects probably points to a regulatory mechanism, thereby implying the influence of the GHRL gene on BChE expression, and a consequential metabolic role in the complex process of fat utilization.

Vitor G.L., Dantas; Lupe, Furtado-Alle; Ricardo L.R., Souza; Eleidi A., Chautard-Freire-Maia.

404

Evaluation of homocysteine in blood bank donors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the use of plasma homocysteine levelsin blood bank donors as a risk marker for the development ofcardiovascular diseases in healthy individuals. Methods: Thirtynineblood donors were evaluated and a correlation was establishedbetween the plasma homocysteine levels and the different ageand gender groups. Results: The values of homocysteine levelswere found to be within the normal range, as expected for a healthypopulation. Only three male donors, aged between 40 and 60years, presented hyperhomocysteinemia within the risk rangefor developing cardiovascular disease. Comparing females andmales with regard to homocysteine levels, the values presentedstatistically significant differences, however of little relevance.Variance analysis did not show significant differences betweenthe considered age groups, regardless of gender, but there was aclear increase in homocysteine concentration in males betweenthe 5th and 6th decades of life. Conclusions: It was not possible tosuggest the use of plasma homocysteine levels as an early markerfor the development of cardiovascular diseases in healthy bloodbank donors, but one can speculate about a critical homocysteinelevel to be defined as a cutoff point, above which there wouldbe an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

Luiz Antonio Rosa

2005-03-01

405

If I Had - Morbid Obesity  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Insidermedicine In 60 In Depth In the Spotlight If I Had... Universities and Hospitals By Disease or ... University, Discusses Current Methods of Testing for Concussion If I Had - Morbid Obesity - Dr. Michael Tarnoff, MD, ...

406

Bariatric Surgery for Severe Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

... the full list of resources ??. Alternate Language URL Bariatric Surgery for Severe Obesity Page Content Bariatric Surgery for ... surgery with healthy eating patterns and regular exercise. Bariatric Surgery for Adults Currently, bariatric surgery may be an ...

407

If I Had - Morbid Obesity  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Medicine. Dr. Tarnoff specializes in minimally invasive and bariatric surgery at Tufts Medical Center. What is morbid obesity? ... death. What diagnostic tests are available? Patients considering weight loss surgery should be part of an integrated multidisciplinary program, ...

408

If I Had - Morbid Obesity  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... I Had - Morbid Obesity - Dr. Michael Tarnoff, MD, FACS, Tufts University School of Medicine In the Spotlight - Dr. Julian Wu, MD, FACS, Tufts University School of Medicine, Discusses the Treatment ...

409

If I Had - Morbid Obesity  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... death. What diagnostic tests are available? Patients considering weight loss surgery should be part of an integrated multidisciplinary ... consent about the risks, benefits and alternatives of weight loss surgery, and everything related. How is morbid obesity ...

410

If I Had - Morbid Obesity  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... to Fight Cancer, Pneumonia May Lead to ACS, Physical Activity Improves Mental Function In the Elderly ... of morbid obesity generally includes two broad options. Clearly medical therapy is an option for just about every patient, ...

411

Obesity and colorectal cancer risk  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Obesity is a chronic and multifactor disease characterized by presence of excess body fat harmful for health. Several studies have been conducted to assess the possible risk character of different factors for colorectal cancer including the following modifying factors: a diet rich in saturated fats, a diet low in vegetables, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption and obesity. A case-control study was conducted to include 276 adult patients (93 cases and 184 controls) consecutively seen from May, 2008 to May, 2009 in the Institute of Gastroenterology determining a possible association between obesity as risk factor and colorectal cancer. Variables measures included: sex, age, skin color, body mass index, hip-waist circumference and endoscopic location of cancer. We conclude that the colorectal cancer with predominance in female sex and in white people in both groups. Obesity according to a great relation hip-waist had an strong relation with colorectal cancer, which had predominance towards distal colon in both sexes

412

If I Had - Morbid Obesity  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... of these patients will have, these would include high blood pressure, sleep apnea, asthma, heartburn, type 2 diabetes, and ... obesity generally includes two broad options. Clearly medical therapy is an option for just about every patient, ...

413

If I Had - Morbid Obesity  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... In 60 In Depth In the Spotlight If I Had... Universities and Hospitals By Disease or Symptom ... Discusses Current Methods of Testing for Concussion If I Had - Morbid Obesity - Dr. Michael Tarnoff, MD, FACS, ...

414

Anxiety experienced by individuals with cancer in remission.  

Science.gov (United States)

For this qualitative research study, we interviewed 25 individuals who survived cancer regarding the sentiments they experienced in adjusting to having their condition in remission. Among other findings that we reported elsewhere, two themes emerged from the in-depth interviews relating to apprehensive percepts. One was that participants spoke of their tendency to battle worrisome thoughts. Although they used a variety of words in describing the construct, anxiety repeatedly appeared as a cogent emotion when facing cancer. Second, anniversaries were said to have continued cogence for the participants as they triggered memories and tended to generate degrees of anxiety. PMID:23651349

Firmin, Michael W; Pathammavong, Megan Bailey; Johnson, Courtney B; Trudel, Janna Foster

2014-01-01

415

Altered respiratory physiology in obesity  

OpenAIRE

The major respiratory complications of obesity include a heightened demand for ventilation, elevated work of breathing, respiratory muscle inefficiency and diminished respiratory compliance. The decreased functional residual capacity and expiratory reserve volume, with a high closing volume to functional residual capacity ratio of obesity, are associated with the closure of peripheral lung units, ventilation to perfusion ratio abnormalities and hypoxemia, especially in the supine position. Co...

Parameswaran, Krishnan; Todd, David C.; Soth, Mark

2006-01-01

416

Phthalate exposure and childhood obesity  

OpenAIRE

Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers and vehicles for cosmetic ingredients. Phthalate metabolites have documented biochemical activity including activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and antiandrogenic effects, which may contribute to the development of obesity. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that phthalates have significant effects on the development of obesity, especially after prenatal exposure at low doses. Although few studies have examined the effects of ph...

Kim, Shin Hye; Park, Mi Jung

2014-01-01

417

Food reward, hyperphagia, and obesity  

OpenAIRE

Given the unabated obesity problem, there is increasing appreciation of expressions like “my eyes are bigger than my stomach,” and recent studies in rodents and humans suggest that dysregulated brain reward pathways may be contributing not only to drug addiction but also to increased intake of palatable foods and ultimately obesity. After describing recent progress in revealing the neural pathways and mechanisms underlying food reward and the attribution of incentive salience by internal ...

Berthoud, Hans-rudolf; Lenard, Natalie R.; Shin, Andrew C.

2011-01-01

418

Pancreatic dysfunction in severe obesity  

OpenAIRE

AIMS—To investigate pancreatic function in children attending an obesity clinic.?METHODS—Thirty six children (of which 34 were white) with severe obesity of prepubertal onset (body mass index more than +2 SDS) were reviewed clinically and dysmorphologically, with assessment of pancreatic function.?RESULTS—Eight had dysmorphic features and 13 had learning difficulties. Four of 17 prepubertal children had hyperinsulinaemia and seven had hyperproinsulinaemia. All 1...

Drake, A.; Greenhalgh, L.; Newbury-ecob, R.; Crowne, E.; Shield, J.

2001-01-01

419

CHILDHOOD OBESITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMCALS  

OpenAIRE

Childhood and adolescent rates of obesity and overweight are continuing to increase in much of the world. Risk factors such as diet composition, excess caloric intake, decreased exercise, genetics, and the built environment are active areas of etiologic research. The obesogen hypothesis, which postulates that pre- and peri- natal chemical exposure can contribute to risk of childhood and adolescent obesity, remains relatively under-examined. This review surveys numerous classes of chemicals fo...

La Merrill, Michele; Birnbaum, Linda S.

2011-01-01

420

Leptin and Hypertension in Obesity  

OpenAIRE

Leptin, a peptide discovered more than 10 years ago, decreases food intake and increases sympathetic nerve activity to both thermogenic and nonthermogenic tissue. Leptin was initially believed to be an anti-obesity hormone, owing to its metabolic effects. However, obese individuals, for unknown reasons, become resistant to the satiety and weight-reducing effect of the hormone, but preserve leptin-mediated sympathetic activation to nonthermogenic tissue such as kidney, heart, and adrenal gland...

Bravo, Paco E.; Morse, Stephen; Borne, David M.; Aguilar, Erwin A.; Reisin, Efrain

2006-01-01

421

Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease  

OpenAIRE

Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Many of these children have risk factors for later disease, including cardiovascular disease. For optimal cardiovascular health, health care professionals must be able to identify children and youth at risk and provide appropriate support as needed. The present article reviews the current medical literature on obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the paediatric population, the long-term cardiovascular consequences of childhood ...

Bridger, Tracey

2009-01-01

422

Donor safety: the role of the WMDA in ensuring the safety of volunteer unrelated donors: clinical and ethical considerations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the beginning of hematopoietic stem cell harvesting from volunteer unrelated donors, ensuring donor safety has been a necessary goal of all parties involved in the process. As donation of BM or PBSCs is not in the interest of the donor's own physical health, donor registries and transplantation centers must take into account both medical and ethical aspects involved in the donation procedure. One of the principal goals leading to the formation of the World Marrow Donor Association (WMDA) was to establish internationally acceptable standards for all aspects of unrelated donor care. PMID:20173787

Shaw, B E; Ball, L; Beksac, M; Bengtsson, M; Confer, D; Diler, S; Fechter, M; Greinix, H; Koh, M; Lee, S; Nicoloso-De-Faveri, G; Philippe, J; Pollichieni, S; Pulsipher, M; Schmidt, A; Yang, E; van Walraven, A-M

2010-05-01

423

Drug Therapy in Obese Adolescents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The behavior and dietary treatments are not so successful for extremely obese adolescents. Therefore, using drugs to treat extremely obese children and adolescents are among the modern approaches. This research aims to study the pharmaceutical interventions performed for treatment of obese children. Materials and Methods: The strategy of research was using of key words ‘obesity’, ‘adolescence’, ‘treatment’ and ‘anti-obesity drugs’ were searched in websites of PubMed, Iranian Medical Digital Library, SID, Iran Medex, Magiran. This study reviewed all the available published papers in English and Farsi languages during 2000-2010. The Criteria for exclusion was The papers that had been published on interventions and treatment of eating disorders, type II diabetes or the obesity caused by the secondary syndromes. Results: Twelve papers were found as short-term clinical trials and/or long-term follow-ups. In these studies, the positive effects of ‘sibutramine’ in some studies are shown; although some other side effects are reported as well. A significant weight-loss had been reported on ‘orlistat’ medicine, but digestive complications had been observed as well. None of the studies had followed up patients for more than one year. Apparently, ‘Metformin’ requires further studies.Conclusion: The FDA has only approved ‘sibutramine’ and ‘orlistat’ drugs. But side effects of long-term these drugs have already been unknown. However, it seems that ‘orlistat’ is applied for ?12-year-old children and ‘sibutramine’ for ? 16-year-old children.

Zinat Salem

2013-03-01

424

Osteoarthritis and obesity: Experimental models  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial disease. Different risk factors have been identified such as aging and obesity and different models have been used to study the impact of obesity and overweight in this pathology. The field the more studied is in vitro cartilage submitted to mechanical stresses. Four different stresses can be applied on this tissue: shear stress, loading, tensile stress (stretching) and hydrostatic pressure. The signal transduction to the chondrocyte and to the nucleus of the cell is a large field of investigation named mechano-transduction. The response of cartilage depends on quality of subchondral bone as well. So, more and more teams are studying the impact of mechanical stresses on bone, mainly by stretching osteoblasts or by submitting them to a fluid shear stress. Recently, a new model of bone compression has been set up, with osteoblasts in their own extracellular matrix. Finally the third field studied is the role of adipokines, mediators playing a key role in obesity, on the aetiology of OA. Adipokines like leptin, resistin, adiponectin and visfatin, seems to play a pro-inflammatory role in arthritis. Studying the role of obesity in OA could be more complex than expected. The link between OA and obesity may not simply be due to high mechanical stresses applied on the tissues, but soluble mediators may play an important role in the onset of OA in obese patients. PMID:19022697

Gabay, Odile; Hall, David J.; Berenbaum, Francis; Henrotin, Yves; Sanchez, Christelle

2009-01-01

425

Obesity and asthma: physiological perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity induces some pertinent physiological changes which are conducive to either development of asthma or cause of poorly controlled asthma state. Obesity related mechanical stress forces induced by abdominal and thoracic fat generate stiffening of the lungs and diaphragmatic movements to result in reduction of resting lung volumes such as functional residual capacity (FRC). Reduced FRC is primarily an outcome of decreased expiratory reserve volume, which pushes the tidal breathing more towards smaller high resistance airways, and consequentially results in expiratory flow limitation during normal breathing in obesity. Reduced FRC also induces plastic alteration in the small collapsible airways, which may generate smooth muscle contraction resulting in increased small airway resistance, which, however, is not picked up by spirometric lung volumes. There is also a possibility that chronically reduced FRC may generate permanent adaptation in the very small airways; therefore, the airway calibres may not change despite weight reduction. Obesity may also induce bronchodilator reversibility and diurnal lung functional variability. Obesity is also associated with airway hyperresponsiveness; however, the mechanism of this is not clear. Thus, obesity has effects on lung function that can generate respiratory distress similar to asthma and may also exaggerate the effects of preexisting asthma. PMID:23970905

Brashier, Bill; Salvi, Sundeep

2013-01-01

426

75 FR 58400 - Donor Management Research: Improvements in Clinical Management of Deceased Organ Donors  

Science.gov (United States)

...Donors AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration...SUMMARY: The Health Resources and Services Administration...DATES: Written or electronic comments must be received...Systems Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration...meetings and in the literature, HRSA believes...

2010-09-24

427

Obesity and respiratory diseases in childhood.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prevalence of childhood obesity has more than tripled over the past five decades. Obesity results in low lung volumes, likely through increased loading of the chest wall and abdomen. The prevalence of asthma in children has paralleled the rise in obesity; obesity may increase the severity of asthma, but a direct link has been difficult to establish. Obesity is a risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children as well as adults. Obese children may be at increased risk for persistent OSA following adenotonsillectomy treatment for OSA. Severe obesity and OSA may lead to the obesity-hypoventilation syndrome, with hypoxia, hypercapnia, and reduced ventilatory drive. Obesity can increase a child's risk for complications of anesthesia and recovery from surgery. PMID:19700055

Fiorino, Elizabeth K; Brooks, Lee J

2009-09-01

428

A community-based exercise intervention transitions metabolically abnormal obese adults to a metabolically healthy obese phenotype  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lance C Dalleck,1,3 Gary P Van Guilder,2,3 Tara B Richardson,1 Donald L Bredle,3 Jeffrey M Janot31Recreation, Exercise, and Sport Science Department, Western State Colorado University, Gunnison, CO, USA; 2Department of Health and Nutritional Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, USA; 3Department of Kinesiology, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, Eau Claire, WI, USABackground: Lower habitual physical activity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness are common features of the metabolically abnormal obese (MAO phenotype that contribute to increased cardiovascular disease risk. The aims of the present study were to determine 1 whether community-based exercise training transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy, and 2 whether the odds of transition to metabolically healthy were larger for obese individuals who performed higher volumes of exercise and/or experienced greater increases in fitness.Methods and results: Metabolic syndrome components were measured in 332 adults (190 women, 142 men before and after a supervised 14-week community-based exercise program designed to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors. Obese (body mass index ?30 kg · m2 adults with two to four metabolic syndrome components were classified as MAO, whereas those with no or one component were classified as metabolically healthy but obese (MHO. After community exercise, 27/68 (40% MAO individuals (P<0.05 transitioned to metabolically healthy, increasing the total number of MHO persons by 73% (from 37 to 64. Compared with the lowest quartiles of relative energy expenditure and change in fitness, participants in the highest quartiles were 11.6 (95% confidence interval: 2.1–65.4; P<0.05 and 7.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.5–37.5; P<0.05 times more likely to transition from MAO to MHO, respectively.Conclusion: Community-based exercise transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy. MAO adults who engaged in higher volumes of exercise and experienced the greatest increase in fitness were significantly more likely to become metabolically healthy. Community exercise may be an effective model for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.Keywords: exercise, obesity, prevention, risk factors

Dalleck LC

2014-08-01

429

Suicide risk and protective factors among youth experiencing school difficulties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Youth who experience difficulty in school are at risk for suicide, yet there is little published information specific to risk and protective factors among this group. The purpose of this study was to conduct an in-depth examination of risk and protective factors associated with suicidal behaviour among youth who were experiencing problems in school and to compare these factors between suicide risk and non-suicide risk subgroups. Participants were 730 high school students in the Northwest and Southwest regions of the United States, aged 14-21 years. All participants were known to be experiencing difficulty with grades and/or attendance. Students completed a paper-and-pencil questionnaire and a one-on-one interview, which assessed suicidal behaviours as well as risk factors (e.g. drug involvement, emotional distress, stress), and protective factors (e.g. self-esteem, coping, support). Analysis of covariance tests, controlling for age and sex, were conducted to examine differences between the suicide risk and non-suicide risk groups on each risk and protective factor. The suicide risk subgroup reported higher levels of all risk factors, except alcohol and marijuana use, and lower levels of protective factors. While the groups did not differ on frequency of alcohol or marijuana use, they did differ on other illicit drug use and consequences of alcohol and other illicit drug use. Recommendations for nurses practising in school settings are discussed. PMID:17845554

Walsh, Elaine; Eggert, Leona L

2007-10-01

430

21 CFR 640.51 - Suitability of donors.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.51 Section 640.51 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Cryoprecipitate § 640.51 Suitability of donors. (a) Whole blood...

2010-04-01

431

21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a) Whole blood...

2010-04-01

432

21 CFR 640.21 - Suitability of donors.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.21 Section 640.21 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION...STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Platelets § 640.21 Suitability of donors. (a) Whole blood...

2010-04-01

433

Danish sperm donors across three decades : motivations and attitudes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To study the motivation and attitudes toward donor anonymity, economic compensation, and insemination of lesbian and single women among Danish sperm donors in 2012 compared with the two preceding decades.

Bay, BjØrn; Larsen, Peter B

2013-01-01

434

Thermal donor removal by rapid thermal annealing: Infrared absorption  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rapid thermal annealing of thermal donors in Si with 10 sec anneal times at temperatures between 600 and 10000C has been investigated by infrared absorption at 80 K. Thermal donors A through D, which are identified by excited state absorption, are present in as-grown Czochralski Si; whereas excited states for donors A through F as well as photoionization of thermal donors are observed after extended heating at 4500C. The temperature required for rapid thermal annealing is lower when only donors A through D are present. Removal of thermal donors A through F by rapid thermal annealing at temperatures > 8000C restores 7 to 8 oxygen atoms to interstitial sites per electrically measured donor removed. This ratio supports oxygen cluster models for thermal donors but does not support previous suggestions that such clusters are embryonic forms of high temperature oxygen precipitates

435

Kidney paired donation in the presence of donor-specific antibodies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Incompatible donor/recipient pairs with broadly sensitized recipients have difficulty finding a crossmatch-compatible match, despite a large kidney paired donation pool. One approach to this problem is to combine kidney paired donation with lower-risk crossmatch-incompatible transplantation with intravenous immunoglobulin. Whether this strategy is non-inferior compared with transplantation of sensitized patients without donor-specific antibody (DSA) is unknown. Here we used a protocol including a virtual crossmatch to identify acceptable crossmatch-incompatible donors and the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin to transplant 12 HLA-sensitized patients (median calculated panel reactive antibody 98%) with allografts from our kidney paired donation program. This group constituted the DSA(+) kidney paired donation group. We compared rates of rejection and survival between the DSA(+) kidney paired donation group with a similar group of 10 highly sensitized patients (median calculated panel reactive antibody 85%) that underwent DSA(-) kidney paired donation transplantation without intravenous immunoglobulin. At median follow-up of 22 months, the DSA(+) kidney paired donation group had patient and graft survival of 100%. Three patients in the DSA(+) kidney paired donation group experienced antibody-mediated rejection. Patient and graft survival in the DSA(-) kidney paired donation recipients was 100% at median follow-up of 18 months. No rejection occurred in the DSA(-) kidney paired donation group. Thus, our study provides a clinical framework through which kidney paired donation can be performed with acceptable outcomes across a crossmatch-incompatible transplant. PMID:23715120

Blumberg, Jeremy M; Gritsch, Hans A; Reed, Elaine F; Cecka, J M; Lipshutz, Gerald S; Danovitch, Gabriel M; McGuire, Suzanne; Gjertson, David W; Veale, Jeffrey L

2013-11-01

436

131I - uptake by obese strain and reaseheath line R chicken thyroid and thymic epithelium cultured in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monolayer thyroid cultures of Obese strain chickens, displaying spontaneous thyroiditis, incorporate the same quantity of 131I as those of normal Reaseheath Line R birds. The incorporation was significantly higher than in the case of HeLa cells. The ages of donors and of cultures have no significant effect on the rate of iodine incorporation. Thymic epithelial cultures obtained from the same birds incorporated a similar amount of 131I as thyroid cultures. (author)

437

Current mapping of obesity / Mapping de la obesidad actual  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La obesidad es un importante factor de riesgo para las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, como la diabetes, las enfermedades cardiovasculares y el cáncer. La prevalencia mundial de obesidad se ha duplicado entre 1980 y 2008. En algunas regiones, como Europa, el Mediterráneo Oriental y América, [...] más del 50% de las mujeres tienen sobrepeso. Tonga, Nauru y las Islas Cook muestran la mayor prevalencia de obesidad en todo el mundo, por encima del 60% tanto en los hombres como en las mujeres. China y Estados Unidos son los países que experimentaron el mayor aumento absoluto en el número de personas con sobrepeso y obesidad entre 1980 y 2008, seguido de Brasil y México. Las regiones con el mayor incremento en la prevalencia de obesidad femenina fueron Centro América, Oceanía y el sur de América Latina. Datos actualizados sugieren que la progresión de la epidemia se ha reducido durante los últimos diez años en varios países. En los países de renta baja la obesidad suele ser más frecuente entre los niveles socioeconómicos más favorecidos, mientras que los grupos desfavorecidos están cada vez más afectados en los países en desarrollo. Muchos estudios han demostrado un gradiente socioeconómico global de la obesidad en las sociedades industrializadas modernas. Las tasas tienden a disminuir progresivamente a medida que aumenta el nivel socio-económico. La prevalencia de obesidad en España se encuentra entre las más altas de la OCDE. Uno de cada 3 niños de 13 a 14 años tiene sobrepeso. El sobrepeso en los lactantes y niños de corta edad se observa en los países de ingresos mediosaltos. Sin embargo, el mayor crecimiento se produce en el grupo de países de ingresos medianos bajos. Hay un creciente cuerpo de evidencia de una asociación inversa entre la obesidad SES-infantil en los países desarrollados. La prevalencia del sobrepeso y la obesidad es alta en todos los grupos de edad en muchos países, pero especialmente preocupante en los niños y adolescentes en los países desarrollados y las economías en transición. Abstract in english Obesity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancers. The worldwide prevalence of obesity has almost doubled between 1980 and 2008. In some regions, such as Europe, the Eastern Mediterranean and the Americas, more than 50% of wom [...] en are overweight. Tonga, Nauru and the Cook Islands show the highest prevalence of obesity worldwide, above 60% in men and in women. China and the United States are the countries that experienced the largest absolute increase in the number of overweight and obese people between 1980 and 2008, followed by Brazil and Mexico. The regions with the largest increase in the prevalence of female obesity were Central Latin America, Oceania and Southern Latin America. Updated data provide evidence that the progression of the epidemic has effectively slowed for the past ten years in several countries. In low-income countries obesity is generally more prevalent among the better-off, while disadvantaged groups are increasingly affected as countries grow. Many studies have shown an overall socio-economic gradient in obesity in modern industrialized societies. Rates tend to decrease progressively with increasing socio-economic status. Children obesity rates in Spain are amongst the highest in the OECD. One in 3 children aged 13 to 14 are overweight. Overweight in infants and young children is observed in the upper middle-income countries. However, the fastest growth occurs in the group of lower middle-income countries. There is a growing body of evidence for an inverse association between SES and child obesity in developed countries. The prevalence of overweight and obesity is high in all age groups in many countries, but especially worrying in children and adolescents in developed countries and economies in transition.

Carmen, Pérez Rodrigo.

2013-09-01

438

Obesity Stigma as a Determinant of Poor Birth Outcomes in Women with High BMI: A Conceptual Framework.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity stigma has been linked to poor health outcomes on an individual and population basis. However, little research has been conducted on the role of chronic or recent obesity stigma in the health disparities experienced by pregnant women with high body mass index. The purpose of this article is to discuss poor birth outcomes in this population from an integrated perinatal health framework perspective, incorporating obesity stigma as a social determinant. In studies of non-pregnant populations, obesity stigma has been associated with stress, unhealthy coping strategies, psychological disorders, and exacerbations of physical illness. This article examines the mechanisms by which obesity stigma influences health outcomes and suggests how they might apply to selected complications of pregnancy, including macrosomia, preterm birth and cesarean delivery. Given the rates of obesity and associated pregnancy complications in the United States, it is critical to examine the determinants of those problems from a life course and multiple determinants perspective. This paper offers a conceptual framework to guide exploratory research in this area, incorporating the construct of obesity stigma. PMID:25047786

DeJoy, Sharon Bernecki; Bittner, Krystle

2015-04-01

439

Evaluation of the Medically Complex Living Kidney Donor  

OpenAIRE

Due to organ shortage and difficulties for availability of cadaveric donors, living donor transplantation is an important choice for having allograft. Live donor surgery is elective and easier to organize prior to starting dialysis thereby permitting preemptive transplantation as compared to cadaveric transplantation. Because of superior results with living kidney transplantation, efforts including the usage of “Medically complex living donors” are made to increase the availability of org...

Caliskan, Yasar; Yildiz, Alaattin

2012-01-01

440

Profile of living related kidney donors: A single center experience  

OpenAIRE

The living related donor still represents the unique source for renal transplantation in Morocco. Since 1986, 127 living related potential donors have been evaluated and 100 patients have been transplanted at the Ibn Rochd UHC in Casablanca. We retrospectively studied the potential donors and determined their profile and the exclusion criteria. The mean age at the time of donation was 37 +/- 11 years (range 18-66 years) and 60% of donors were women. The predominant sources of do...

Hajji S; Cheddadi K; Medkouri G; Zamd M; Hachim K; Benghanem G; Ramdani B

2010-01-01

441

Kidneys from Dead Older Donors May Help Seniors, Study Finds  

Science.gov (United States)

... donor right away, rather than waiting for an organ from a younger donor. The study was published online March 26 in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology . "Older patients derive a survival benefit from rapid transplantation with an older donor kidney, while younger patients ...

442

[Comparison of donor defects of fibula and iliac crest grafts].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to study the donor-site morbidity following osteocutaneous fibula and iliac-crest flaps, 17 patients were asked to answer a questionnaire and to present for a follow-up examination. The donor defect after fibula graft was preferred to the iliac crest donor defect with respect to esthetic appearance and complication rate. PMID:7729750

Fromberg, G; Schmidt, A; Ishida, A

1995-03-01

443

Eating habits and obesity among Lebanese university students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past year Lebanon has been experiencing a nutritional transition in food choices from the typical Mediterranean diet to the fast food pattern. As a consequence, the dietary habits of young adults have been affected; thus, overweight and obesity are increasingly being observed among the young. The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity on a sample of students from the Lebanese American University (in Beirut and to examine their eating habits. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 220 students (43.6% male and 56.4% female, aged 20 ± 1.9 years, were chosen randomly from the Lebanese American University (LAU campus during the fall 2006 semester. Students were asked to fill out a self-reported questionnaire that included questions on their eating, drinking and smoking habits. Also, their weight, height, percentage body fat and body mass index were measured. Body mass index (BMI was used to assess students' weight status. Statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (version 13.0 to determine overweight and obesity among students and to categorize eating habits. Results This study showed that the majority of the students (64.7% were of normal weight (49% male students compared to 76.8% female students. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was more common among male students compared to females (37.5% and 12.5% vs. 13.6% and 3.2%, respectively. In contrast, 6.4% female students were underweight as compared to 1% males. Eating habits of the students showed that the majority (61.4% reported taking meals regularly. Female students showed healthier eating habits compared to male students in terms of daily breakfast intake and meal frequency. 53.3% of female students reported eating breakfast daily or three to four times per week compared to 52.1% of male students. There was a significant gender difference in the frequency of meal intake (P = 0.001. Intake of colored vegetables and fruits was common among students. A total of 30.5% reported daily intake of colored vegetables with no gender differences (31.5% females vs. 29.2% males. Alcohol intake and smoking were not common among students. Conclusion In spite of the overall low prevalence of overweight and obesity in the studied sample, results indicate that university students would possibly benefit from a nutrition and health promotion program to reduce the tendency of overweight and obesity, especially among male students, and to improve students' eating habits.

Abdallah Abbass

2008-10-01

444

Predicting Lifetime of Dynamical Networks Experiencing Persistent Random Attacks  

CERN Document Server

Empirical estimation of critical points at which complex systems abruptly flip from one state to another is among the remaining challenges in network science. However, due to the stochastic nature of critical transitions it is widely believed that critical points are difficult to estimate, and it is even more difficult, if not impossible, to predict the time such transitions occur [1-4]. We analyze a class of decaying dynamical networks experiencing persistent attacks in which the magnitude of the attack is quantified by the probability of an internal failure, and there is some chance that an internal failure will be permanent. When the fraction of active neighbors declines to a critical threshold, cascading failures trigger a network breakdown. For this class of network we find both numerically and analytically that the time to the network breakdown, equivalent to the network lifetime, is inversely dependent upon the magnitude of the attack and logarithmically dependent on the threshold. We analyze how perma...

Podobnik, B; Horvatic, D; Majdandzic, A; Bishop, S; Stanley, H E

2014-01-01

445

The resilient nurse leader: reinvention after experiencing job loss.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nurse executive has been especially vulnerable to unexpected job loss as a result of financial and other pressures in the health care environment. The nurse leader is often the one who holds the standards of quality and safety above those of cost. While there may be many reasons or factors that affect a sudden removal of a nurse leader, the problem is that the unexpected job loss is often a devastating and traumatic event to the individual affected. Twelve nurse executives who experienced unexpected job loss were interviewed in depth for this study. Stories collected illustrated deep personal and professional loss of identity and self-esteem as well as colleagues and friends. Their resilience and ability to get past this adversity aided the nurse leaders in their healing, recovery, and reinvention of their professional selves. Finally, following reflection, the participants offer strategies for averting unexpected job loss as well as preparing for transition. PMID:25714949

O?Connor, Mary; Batcheller, Joyce

2015-01-01

446

Cytogenetic variability in pinus sylvestris L. populations experiencing anthropogenic influence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Techno-genic pollution has become one of the most significant ecological factors determining biosphere existence and development. An analysis of genetic consequences of the radiation accidents in the South Urals and Chernobyl has shown that mutation and recombination processes are considerably accelerated in plant and animal's populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This implies that there are complicated adaptation processes leading to changes in genetic structure of populations and increasing genetic load. Pinus sylvestris L. populations growing at the territory of the 'radon' Leningrad regional radioactive waste reprocessing enterprise and Sosnovy Bor town were monitored 6 years (1997-2002) by a set of cyto-genetical and morphological tests. Cytogenetic damage levels within intercalary meristem of needle as well as in root meristem of seedlings were found to significantly exceed corresponding controls. A higher radioresistance of the Scots pine seeds analyzed was demonstrated with an acute {gamma}-radiation that also revealed a selection process directed at an enhancement of repair efficiency and resulting in a shift of mean values of radioresistance in populations towards higher values. An enlargement of variance of studied cytogenetic parameters was found in the populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This indicates, with an account of phenomenon of the enhanced radioresistance, that there are processes of cyto-genetical adaptation in the investigated regions. An analysis of the structure of ecological-genetical variability was carried out with the purpose of separating two components in the inter-population variability - the first is engaged to the genetically determined variability of biological characteristics intrinsic for this species, and the second is responsible for the variability originating from anthropogenic contamination of the natural habitat. Changes of these two types of variability were studied in dependence on time and techno-genic impact. (author)

Oudalova, A.; Geras' kin, S.; Vasiliev, D.; Dikarev, V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

2004-07-01

447

Cytogenetic variability in pinus sylvestris L. populations experiencing anthropogenic influence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Techno-genic pollution has become one of the most significant ecological factors determining biosphere existence and development. An analysis of genetic consequences of the radiation accidents in the South Urals and Chernobyl has shown that mutation and recombination processes are considerably accelerated in plant and animal's populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This implies that there are complicated adaptation processes leading to changes in genetic structure of populations and increasing genetic load. Pinus sylvestris L. populations growing at the territory of the 'radon' Leningrad regional radioactive waste reprocessing enterprise and Sosnovy Bor town were monitored 6 years (1997-2002) by a set of cyto-genetical and morphological tests. Cytogenetic damage levels within intercalary meristem of needle as well as in root meristem of seedlings were found to significantly exceed corresponding controls. A higher radioresistance of the Scots pine seeds analyzed was demonstrated with an acute ?-radiation that also revealed a selection process directed at an enhancement of repair efficiency and resulting in a shift of mean values of radioresistance in populations towards higher values. An enlargement of variance of studied cytogenetic parameters was found in the populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This indicates, with an account of phenomenon of the enhanced radioresistance, that there are processes of cyto-genetical adaptation in the investigated regions. An analysis of the structure of ecological-genetical variability was carried out with the purpose of separating two components in the inter-population variability - the first is engaged to the genetically determined variability of biological characteristics intrinsic for this species, and the second is responsible for the variability originating from anthropogenic contamination of the natural habitat. Changes of these two types of variability were studied in dependence on time and techno-genic impact. (author)

448

Strategies of the donor search for children with second CR ALL lacking a matched sibling donor.  

Science.gov (United States)

During the last 10 years, the number of alternative Haematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCTs) performed on children in Europe has increased significantly and has reached 61% of the allografts. In this paper, we provide practical guidelines to help define an algorithm for the treatment of children relapsing during or after first-line chemotherapy for ALL and lacking a matched sibling donor. A simultaneous search for an unrelated donor and for a cord blood unit should be started. This study focuses mainly on the effects of some factors on survival in an effort to highlight the influence that these factors have on our choices. Matching the patient for HLA-A, -B, -C and -DRB1 alleles remains the top priority: a single HLA class I or II allele mismatch has no influence on survival, while multiple mismatching for more than one class I allele and simultaneous disparities in class I and II alleles increase mortality. The impact of additional mismatches for HLA-DQ and -DP loci on survival is still controversial. Young donor age is the most important factor that has a significant effect on better survival from among several other factors, including CMV sero-status, gender and ABO. An 18- to 30-year-old, 8/8 allele-matched donor (excluding allele matching at DQB1) or for many teams 10/10 allele-matched donor; or a 4 out of 6 (considering Ag HLA-A, -B and allelic typing of DRB1) CB unit containing more than 3.0 x 10(7) nuclear cells is considered by most institutions. The choice should be made on the basis of urgency. If a donor or a CB unit is not found within an appropriate time frame, generally less than 3 months after obtention of remission, haploidentical HSCT should be offered. Some institutions consider haploidentical HSCT the second therapeutic option when a matched donor is not available. PMID:18545249

Lanino, E; Sacchi, N; Peters, C; Giardino, S; Rocha, V; Dini, G

2008-06-01

449

Nevus anemicus. Donor-dominant defect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Histologic, pharmacologic, and exchange transplant studies were performed on a patient with nevus anemicus. Histologic examination disclosed no abnormalities. The only pharmacologic stimulus that produced erythema within the nevus was the alpha-blocking agent, phentolamine mesylate. Results of the transplant studies demonstrated donor dominance. This suggests that the defect in the nevus anemicus is attributable to increased sensitivity of the blood vessels to catecholamines rather than to increased alpha-adrenergic stimulation. PMID:318817

Daniel, R H; Hubler, W R; Wolf, J E; Holder, W R

1977-01-01

450

ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Blood Donor?s Status of HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis in this Region of Marathwada, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims & Objectives: Blood transfusion can cause the transmission of infections to recipients. This is an important mode of infection. The aim of study was to assess the prevalence of such type of infections among blood donors and to compare the seroprevalence of transfusion transmitted diseases in voluntary donors and replacement donors. Retrospective study of five years from Jan. 2007 to Dec. 2011 was done. This study was conducted at Blood bank, MIMSR Medical College Latur, Govt. Medical College, Latur and Bhalchandra Blood bank, Latur. Material & Methods: Total 10, 4925 donors were tested. Donors were screened for seroprevalence of HIV, HBC, HCV and Syphilis. Screening of HIV, HBV & HCV was done by ELISA method & Syphilis was screened by RPR type. Results: The comparison of seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV & Syphilis in voluntary donors and replacement donors showed significant difference only for HIV in the years 2007, 2010, and 2011. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of transfusion transmitted diseases in the study is very low or negligible in voluntary donors as compared to replacement donors. There was a declining trend of seroprevalence for all the disease screened. But in our study the difference is not significant, which indicates that the selection of donors is of low quality. The selection of high quality voluntary donors should be achieved by creation of awareness by education of the prospective donor populations.

Rangrao H. Deshpande

2012-07-01

451

There's Something about Obesity: Culture, Contagion, Rationality, and Children's Responses to Drinks "Created" by Obese Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Theories of the development of obesity stereotypes cannot easily explain the stigma associated with being obese. Evidence that important similarities exist between the symptoms of obesity and contagious illnesses, young children have "theories" of illnesses, and obesity stereotypes are among the earliest that children develop led to the hypothesis…

Klaczynski, Paul A.

2008-01-01

452

Diet-related determinants of childhood obesity in urban settings: a comparison between Shanghai and New York.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past three decades, both Shanghai and New York City (NYC), have experienced dramatic rises in childhood obesity rates. Given the role that obesity plays in the aetiology of chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease, the elevated rates are a major concern. Despite differences in governance systems and cultures, Shanghai and NYC have experienced rapid industrialization, a growing population and a rise in income inequality. The prevalence of childhood obesity in Shanghai and NYC is greater than their respective national rate. However, the trajectory and development of this epidemic has differed between the cities. The distribution of obesity by race and ethnicity, socio-economic status, sex, and age differs markedly between the two cities. To reduce prevalence and inequities within this complex epidemic requires an understanding of the dynamic changes in living conditions among social groups in each city and the behaviours that are influenced by such changes. By comparing changes in the influences on dietary behaviours, such as food distribution, pricing, gender values, and media and marketing, this highlights opportunities for Shanghai, NYC, and other world cities with high or rising rates of childhood obesity to inform future program and policy initiatives. It reiterates the importance of a comprehensive and multilevel approach that includes action at the individual, family, community, municipal, national, and global levels. PMID:25841629

Leung, M M; Fu, H; Agaronov, A; Freudenberg, N

2015-04-01

453

Barriers to Living Donor Kidney Transplantation among Black or Older Transplant Candidates  

OpenAIRE

Background and objectives: Lower rates of living donor kidney transplant (LDKT) among transplant candidates who are black or older may stem from lower likelihoods of (1) recruiting potential living donors or (2) potential donors actually donating (donor “conversion”).

Weng, Francis L.; Reese, Peter P.; Mulgaonkar, Shamkant; Patel, Anup M.

2010-01-01

454

Treatment of obesity in 2015.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is a major health priority in the United States, as well as globally. It is associated with multiple comorbidities and reduced life expectancy. Effective management of obesity involves producing an intervention plan tailored to the individual patient. Potential contributory factors to weight gain, including dietary habits, physical inactivity, associated medical conditions, and medications, should be identified and addressed. Lifestyle interventions comprising diet modification, physical activity, and behavior therapy are foundational to the management of obesity. Caloric restriction is the most important component in achieving weight loss through negative energy balance, whereas sustained physical activity is important in maintaining the weight loss. Adjunctive therapies in the form of pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery are required in patients who do not achieve targeted weight loss and health goals with lifestyle interventions. Currently there are 3 drugs approved for long-term management of obesity, orlistat, phentermine/topiramate extended release, and lorcaserin, and there are 2 on the horizon, bupropion/naltrexone and liraglutide. Bariatric surgery is an effective strategy recognized to produce durable weight loss with amelioration of obesity-related comorbidities and should be considered a treatment option in eligible patients. PMID:25714749

Shukla, Alpana P; Buniak, William I; Aronne, Louis J

2015-01-01

455

An integrative view of obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is the result of the accumulation of excess body fat and not simply excess weight that can be muscle or fat. Adipocytes function in the adaptation to starvation, in exercise energetics, and in the immune defense against pathogens. Sustained positive energy balance results in excessive accumulation of adipocytes, which, in the abdomen, leads to chronic inflammation. Although informative studies have been performed with cultured adipocytes, an integrative approach to the regulation of abdominal adipose tissue involves feedback from autocrine and paracrine effectors secreted by adipocytes, the immune system, and blood flow through adipose tissue. Numerous adipokines, chemokines, and cytokines feed back to other bodily systems to regulate both energy balance and immune function. Studies of the interactions of the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system, as well as psychophysiological considerations of reward circuitry in the central nervous system, have shown a general adaptation to starvation that is opposed to those strategies being proposed for the prevention and treatment of obesity, ie, food restriction and increased physical activity. The obesogenic environment of highly palatable foods with hidden fats and sugars can promote metabolic syndrome and obesity, whereas fruit and vegetables with antiinflammatory phytochemicals can counteract metabolic syndrome. Therefore, a plant-based diet and the seamless integration of increased physical activity and social support to alter modern diets and lifestyles hold out the greatest hope for the solution of the obesity epidemic. Both public health and medical nutrition approaches can benefit from this integrative view of obesity. PMID:19923373

Heber, David

2010-01-01

456

Airway management and morbid obesity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Morbidly obese patients present with excess fatty tissue externally on the breast, neck, thoracic wall and abdomen and internally in the mouth, pharynx and abdomen. This excess tissue tends to make access (intubation, tracheostomy) to and patency (during sedation or mask ventilation) of the upper airway and the function of the lungs (decreased residual capacity and aggravated ventilation perfusion mismatch) worse than in lean patients. Proper planning and preparation of airway management is essential, including elevation of the patient's upper body, head and neck. Preoxygenation is mandatory in morbidly obese patients and should be followed by actions to counteract atelectasis formation. The decision as to weather to use a rapid sequence induction, an awake intubation or a standard induction with hypnotics should depend on the thorough airway examination and comorbidity and should not be based solely on whether morbid obesity is present or not. It is important to ensure sufficient depth of anaesthesia before initiating manipulation of the airway because inadequate anaesthesia depth predisposes to aspiration if airway management becomes difficult. The intubating laryngeal mask airway is more efficient in the morbidly obese patients than in lean patients and serves as a rescue device for both failed ventilation and failed intubation. In the 24 h following anaesthesia, morbidly obese patients experience frequent oxygen desaturation periods that can be counteracted by continuous positive airway pressure, noninvasive ventilation and physiotherapy.

Kristensen, Michael S

2010-01-01

457

Donor transmitted and de novo cancer after liver transplantation  

OpenAIRE

Cancers in solid organ recipients may be classified as donor transmitted, donor derived, de novo or recurrent. The risk of donor-transmitted cancer is very low and can be reduced by careful screening of the donor but cannot be abolished and, in the United Kingdom series is less than 0.03%. For donors with a known history of cancer, the risks will depend on the nature of the cancer, the interventions given and the interval between diagnosis and organ donation. The risks of cancer transmission ...

Desai, Rajeev; Neuberger, James

2014-01-01

458

Study Debunks Notion of 'Healthy Obesity'  

Science.gov (United States)

... please enable JavaScript. Study Debunks Notion of 'Healthy Obesity' Very heavy people slip into poor health over ... 2015) Monday, January 5, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Page Obesity MONDAY, Jan. 5, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- The notion ...

459

Obesity and American Indians/Alaska Natives  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity and American Indians/Alaska Natives American Indian/Alaska Native women are 30% more likely than non- ... findings/nhqrdr/nhqrdr12/index.html HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

460

Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were almost four times more likely to ... data available at this time. HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

461

Smoking, Obesity: Weighing the Financial Toll  

Science.gov (United States)

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Smoking, Obesity: Weighing the Financial Toll Costly not only to ... 2015) Friday, January 16, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Obesity Smoking FRIDAY, Jan. 16, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking ...

462

Cardiac Autonomic Functions in Obese Children  

OpenAIRE

Objective: The autonomic nervous system is assumed to have a role in the pathophysiology of obesity. In this study, we evaluated the autonomic system by measuring heart rate variability (HRV) in obese children.

Tas?c??lar, Mehmet Emre; Yokus?og?lu, Mehmet; Boyraz, Mehmet; Baysan, Oben; Ko?z, Cem; Du?ndaro?z, Rus?en

2011-01-01

463

Could Obesity Help Protect Against Dementia?  

Science.gov (United States)

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Could Obesity Help Protect Against Dementia? Large study suggests that ... Friday, April 10, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Dementia Obesity Weight Control THURSDAY, April 9, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- ...

464

Social and psychological consequences of obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The strong prejudice in this country against obese persons is evident in children as young as 6 years of age. There is discrimination against obese persons in both academic and work settings. Despite this discrimination, overweight persons in the general population show no greater psychological disturbance than do non-obese persons. Similarly, obese patients seen for medical or surgical procedures generally show no more psychopathology than do non-obese patients. Serious psychiatric disturbances associated with obesity include disparagement of body image and negative emotional reactions to dieting. Dieting may also be responsible for the increased incidence of bulimia observed in this country in recent years. Women, adolescent girls, and the morbidly obese appear to suffer the most deleterious consequences of society's contempt for the obese. PMID:4062126

Wadden, T A; Stunkard, A J

1985-12-01

465

Association between overweight/obesity and academic performance in South Korean adolescents.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between academic performance and obesity/overweight among South Korean adolescents. Our data set included 72,399 adolescents in grades 7-12 who had participated in the 5th Korea Youth Risk Behaviour Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) in 2009. We assessed the association between academic performance and body mass index (BMI), using multivariate logistic regression analysis after adjusting for covariates such as age, parents' education level, economic status, mental stress experienced, sleep duration, frequency of muscle-strengthening exercises, smoking and drinking behaviour, and vigorous and moderate physical activity (PA). For boys, being overweight (compared with being of normal weight) had a significantly greater odds of poor academic performance (OR=1.182, 95% Cl 1.052-1.329, p=0.005). Obese boys had 1.182 (1.048-1.332, p=0.006), 1.461 (1.294-1.648, pperformance, respectively. In the analysis for girls, overweight girls had 1.314 (1.124-1.536, pacademic performance, respectively. Finally, obese girls had 1.374 (1.098-1.718, p=0.005), 1.672 (1.339-2.089, pacademic performance, respectively. Thus, overweight/obesity was negatively associated with academic performance in both boys and girls. The results of this study indicate that adolescents would benefit from weight management to prevent obesity and, possibly, improve academic performance. PMID:24592720

Kim, Jong-Hyuck; So, Wi-Young

2013-12-01

466

Embodied experiences associated with obesity and the management of bodyweight : Gender and social differences  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In many affluent Western societies the less educated are at higher risk of developing obesity. Within a conceptual framework of sociology of embodiment, this study analyzed the embodied experiences associated with obesity and the management of body weight among women and men with different social backgrounds. Qualitative in depth interviews were conducted with 20 Danish middle-aged men and women who were categorized as clinically obese in a national dietary survey. The study found a devastating impact of obesity in the lives of highly educated women related to motherhood, career and wifehood which interrelated with persistent efforts to lose weight and repeated involvement in a great variety of weight-loss activities. In contrast, body weight among the less educated interviewees was a concern only in specific situations of everyday life, and it was a health-related concern especially for those men who had experienced weight-related disease, which interrelated with less commitment to, and variation in, weight-loss activities. These findings may help to explain why obesity is least prevalent among highly educated women in Danish society as well as other western societies. A marked difference between men and women was that only few men followed dietary regimes which involved a focus on cooking or changing eating habits on their own initiative. In addition they did not participate in commercial weight-loss programs. We discuss how the social and gendered differences found relate to wider societal contexts and how the findings may both challenge and inform public health promotion.

Smith, Louise; Holm, Lotte

2012-01-01

467

Computer applications in the search for unrelated stem cell donors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The majority of patients which are eligible for a blood stem cell transplantation from an allogeneic donor do not have a suitable related donor so that an efficient unrelated donor search is a prerequisite for this treatment. Currently, there are over 7 million volunteer donors in the files of 50 registries in the world and in most countries the majority of transplants are performed from a foreign donor. Evidently, computer and communication technology must play a crucial role in the complex donor search process on the national and international level. This article describes the structural elements of the donor search process and discusses major systematic and technical issues to be addressed in the development and evolution of the supporting telematic systems. The theoretical considerations are complemented by a concise overview over the current state of the art which is given by describing the scope, relevance, interconnection and technical background of three major national and international computer appliances: The German Marrow Donor Information System (GERMIS) and the European Marrow Donor Information System (EMDIS) are interoperable business-to-business e-commerce systems and Bone Marrow Donors World Wide (BMDW) is the basic international donor information desk on the web. PMID:12216954

Müller, Carlheinz R

2002-08-01

468

Obesity and Genomics: A Public Health Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Office of Genetics and Disease Prevention and Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, this Web siteis a collection of information on the relationship between obesity and genetics. It offers links to a variety of sources of information, including Web resources and journal articles on the problem of obesity, the relationship between genetics and obesity, and preventing obesity.

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Childhood obesity: are genetic differences involved?1234  

OpenAIRE

This brief review focuses on the genetic contribution to childhood obesity. Evidence for a genetic component to excess body weight during growth is presented from the perspective of genetic epidemiology studies. Parental obesity is a predictor of childhood excess weight. The familial risk ratio for childhood obesity when a parent is obese reaches >2.5. Birth weight is characterized by a genetic heritability component on the order of 30%, with significant maternal and paternal effects in addit...

Bouchard, Claude

2009-01-01

470

Intervention for Childhood Obesity in Beijing, China  

OpenAIRE

Childhood obesity appears to be increasing throughout the world. China has joined the global epidemic. Childhood obesity is not only a chronic disease which is associated with lifestyle, but also a public health problem in children. Obesity intervention should become a public health priority in China. This thesis reports on intervention to treat and prevent childhood obesity. The field work was implemented in Beijing, China. This thesis is based on four papers: Paper I evaluated the feasibil...

Jingxiong, Jiang

2006-01-01

471

Multifactorial Relationship of Obesity and Periodontal Disease  

OpenAIRE

Obesity is a chronic disease of mutifactorial origin, where there is increase in body fat. Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of tooth supporting tissues resulting in destruction of periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Periodontitis and obesity are both chronic health problems and the literature supports this association. A hyperinflammatory state observed in obesity is proposed as a mechanism to explain this association. This low grade inflammation in obese subjects triggers the wor...

Suresh, Snophia; Mahendra, Jaideep

2014-01-01

472

Obesity and student performance at school.  

Science.gov (United States)

To review the state of research on the association between obesity among school-aged children and academic outcomes, the authors reviewed published studies investigating obesity, school performance, and rates of student absenteeism. A table with brief descriptions of each study's research methodology and outcomes is included. Research demonstrates that overweight and obesity are associated with poorer levels of academic achievement. Data on the association of child overweight or obesity with levels of attendance are too sparse to draw conclusions. PMID:16179079

Taras, Howard; Potts-Datema, William

2005-10-01

473

The impact of obesity on egg quality  

OpenAIRE

Obesity in women is a concern in many countries. This causes numerous health issues; however, this review focuses on the impact of obesity on women’s reproduction, and in particular the oocyte. Data from infertility clinics and experimental animal models that address the effects of obesity are presented. Bidirectional communication and metabolic support from the surrounding cumulus cells are critical for oocyte development, and the impact of obesity on these cells is also addressed. Both oo...

Purcell, Scott H.; Moley, Kelle H.

2011-01-01

474

Pathophysiological mechanisms linking obesity and esophageal adenocarcinoma  

OpenAIRE

In recent decades there has been a dramatic rise in the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in the developed world. Over approximately the same period there has also been an increase in the prevalence of obesity. Obesity, especially visceral obesity, is an important independent risk factor for the development of gastro-esophageal reflux disease, Barrett’s esophagus and EAC. Although the simplest explanation is that this mediated by the mechanical effects of abdominal obesity promot...

Alexandre, Leo; Long, Elizabeth; Beales, Ian Lp

2014-01-01

475

Metabolic disturbances connecting obesity and depression  

OpenAIRE

Obesity markedly increases the odds of developing depression. Depressed mood not only impairs motivation, quality of life and overall functioning but also increases the risks of obesity complications. Abdominal obesity is a better predictor of depression and anxiety risk than overall adipose mass. A growing amount of research suggests that metabolic abnormalities stemming from central obesity that lead to metabolic disease may also be responsible for the increased incidence of depression in o...

StephanieE.Fulton

2013-01-01

476

Genetics of Obesity: What have we Learned?  

OpenAIRE

Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies have led to the discovery of nine loci involved in Mendelian forms of obesity and 58 loci contributing to polygenic obesity. These loci explain a small fraction of the heritability for obesity and many genes remain to be discovered. However, efforts in obesity gene identification greatly modified our understanding of this disorder. In this review, we propose an overlook of major lessons learned from 15 years of research in the field of geneti...

Choquet, He?le?ne; Meyre, David